These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Study on LiCl waste salt treatment process by layer melt crystallization  

SciTech Connect

Layer melt crystallization operated in a static mode has been applied to separate Group I and II chlorides from surrogate LiCl waste salt. The effects of operating conditions such as crystal growing rate(or flux) and initial impurity concentration on separation (or concentration) of cesium, strontium and barium involved in a LiCl melts were analyzed. In a layer crystallization process, separation was impaired by occlusion of impurities and by residual melt adhering to LiCl crystal after at the end of the process. The crystal growth rate strongly affects the crystal structure, therefore the separation efficiency, while the effect of the initial Cs and Sr concentration in LiCl molten salt was nearly negligible. (authors)

Cho, Yung-Zun; Lee, Tae-Kyo; Choi, Jung-Hoon; Eun, Hee-Chul; Park, Hwan-Seo; Kim, In-Tae; Park, Geun-Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01

2

Preparation of BiâTiâOââ powders in the presence of molten salt containing LiCl  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction between BiâOâ and TiOâ in molten LiCl-KCl was examined with special emphasis on the reaction mechanism and the size of BiâTiâOââ particles. The oxides reacted with LiCl to form an intermediate compound, which changed into BiâTiâOââ on extended heating. Potassium chloride retarded the reaction between the oxides and LiCl and promoted the change from the intermediate compound to

TOSHIO KIMURA; TAKANOBU KANAZAWA; TAKASHI YAMAGUCHI

1983-01-01

3

Management of Salt Waste from Electrochemical Processing of Used Nuclear Fuel  

SciTech Connect

Electrochemical processing of used nuclear fuel involves operation of one or more cells containing molten salt electrolyte. Processing of the fuel results in contamination of the salt via accumulation of fission products and transuranic (TRU) actinides. Upon reaching contamination limits, the salt must be removed and either disposed or treated to remove the contaminants and recycled back to the process. During development of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II spent fuel treatment process, waste salt from the electrorefiner was to be stabilized in a ceramic waste form and disposed of in a high-level waste repository. With the cancellation of the Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository, other options are now being considered. One approach that involves direct disposal of the salt in a geologic salt formation has been evaluated. While waste forms such as the ceramic provide near-term resistance to corrosion, they may not be necessary to ensure adequate performance of the repository. To improve the feasibility of direct disposal, recycling a substantial fraction of the useful salt back to the process equipment could minimize the volume of the waste. Experiments have been run in which a cold finger is used for this purpose to crystallize LiCl from LiCl/CsCl. If it is found to be unsuitable for transportation, the salt waste could also be immobilized in zeolite without conversion to the ceramic waste form.

Michael F. Simpson; Michael N. Patterson; Joon Lee; Yifeng Wang; Joshua Versey; Ammon Williams; Supathorn Phongikaroon; James Allensworth; Man-Sung Yim

2013-10-01

4

Management of salt waste from electrochemical processing of used nuclear fuel  

SciTech Connect

Electrochemical processing of used nuclear fuel involves operation of one or more cells containing molten salt electrolyte. Processing of the fuel results in contamination of the salt via accumulation of fission products and transuranic (TRU) actinides. Upon reaching contamination limits, the salt must be removed and either disposed or treated to remove the contaminants and recycled back to the process. During development of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II spent fuel treatment process, waste salt from the electro-refiner was to be stabilized in a ceramic waste form and disposed of in a high-level waste repository. With the cancellation of the Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository, other options are now being considered. One approach that involves direct disposal of the salt in a geologic salt formation has been evaluated. While waste forms such as the ceramic provide near-term resistance to corrosion, they may not be necessary to ensure adequate performance of the repository. To improve the feasibility of direct disposal, recycling a substantial fraction of the useful salt back to the process equipment could minimize the volume of the waste. Experiments have been run in which a cold finger is used for this purpose to crystallize LiCl from LiCl/CsCl. If it is found to be unsuitable for transportation, the salt waste could also be immobilized in zeolite without conversion to the ceramic waste form. (authors)

Simpson, M.F.; Patterson, M.N. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 (United States); Lee, J.; Wang, Y. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Versey, J.; Phongikaroon, S. [University of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

2013-07-01

5

Inclusion property of Cs, Sr, and Ba impurities in LiCl crystal formed by layer-melt crystallization  

SciTech Connect

Pyroprocessing is one of the promising technologies enabling the recycling of spent nuclear fuels from a commercial light water reactor (LWR). In general, pyroprocessing uses dry molten salts as electrolytes. In particular, LiCl waste salt after pyroprocessing contains highly radioactive I/II group fission products mainly composed of Cs, Sr, and Ba impurities. Therefore, it is beneficial to reuse LiCl salt in the pyroprocessing as an electrolyte for economic and environmental issues. Herein, to understand the inclusion property of impurities within LiCl crystal, the physical properties such as lattice parameter change, bulk modulus, and substitution enthalpy of a LiCl crystal having 0-6 at% Cs{sup +} or Ba{sup 2+} impurities under existence of 1 at% Sr{sup 2+} impurity were calculated via the first-principles density functional theory. The substitution enthalpy of LiCl crystals having 1 at% Sr{sup 2+} showed slightly decreased value than those without Sr{sup 2+} impurity. Therefore, through the substitution enthalpy calculation, it is expected that impurities will be incorporated within LiCl crystal as co-existed form rather than as a single component form. (authors)

Choi, Jung-Hoon; Cho, Yung-Zun; Lee, Tae-Kyo; Eun, Hee-Chul; Kim, Jun-Hong; Park, Hwan-Seo; Kim, In-Tae; Park, Geun-Il [Nuclear Fuel Cycle Waste Treatment Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01

6

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container  

E-print Network

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan Prepared of Energy (DOE) and Nuclear Waste Partnership LLC (NWP), collectively referred to as the Permittees. The Order, at paragraph 22, requires the Permittees to submit a WIPP Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container

Napp, Nils

7

Characteristics of solidified products containing radioactive molten salt waste  

SciTech Connect

For a treatment of molten salt wastes generated from a pyro-processing of oxide spent fuel, we had suggested a stable chemical route, named GRSS (Gel-Route Stabilization and Solidification), and a subsequent consolidation method. By using this method, a series of monolithic wasteforms with different conditions were fabricated, and then their physicochemical properties were investigated. A simulated salt containing 90 wt% LiCl, 6.8 wt% CsCl, and 3.2 wt% SrCl{sub 2} was treated with a gel-forming material system, Si/Al/P=0.4/0.4/0.2 and 0.35/0.35/0.3, and the gel-products were treated at 1100 deg. C after mixing with borosilicate glass powder, where the salt loadings were about 16-20 wt%. The solidified products had a density of 2.3-2.35 g/cm{sup 3}, a micro-hardness of 4.69-4.72 GPa, a glass transition temperature of 528-537 deg. C, and a thermal expansion coefficient of 1.65 X 10{sup -7}-3.38 X 10{sup -5} deg. C. Leaching results by the PCT-A method revealed leached rates, 10{sup -3}-10{sup -2} g/m{sup 2} day and 10{sup -4}-10{sup -3} g/m{sup 2} day for Cs and Sr, respectively. From the long-term ISO leaching test, the 900 day-leached fraction of Cs and Sr predicted by a semi-empirical model were 0.89% and 0.39%. The leaching behaviors indicated that Cs would be immobilized into a Si-rich phase while Sr would be in a P-rich phase. The experimental results revealed that the GRSS method could be an alternative method for a solidification of radioactive molten salt wastes. (authors)

In-Tae Kim; Hwan-Seo Park; Yong-Zun Cho; Kwang-Wook Kim; Seong-Won Park; Eung-Ho Kim [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2007-07-01

8

Molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A molten salt destruction process is used to treat and destroy energetic waste materials such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels. The energetic material is pre-blended with a solid or fluid diluent in safe proportions to form a fluid fuel mixture. The fuel mixture is rapidly introduced into a high temperature molten salt bath. A stream of molten salt

William A. Brummond; Ravindra S. Upadhye; Cesar O. Pruneda

1995-01-01

9

Organic waste processing using molten salt oxidation  

SciTech Connect

Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal means of oxidizing (destroying) the organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials while retaining inorganic and radioactive constituents in the salt. For this reason, MSO is considered a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. The U. S. Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (DOE/EM) is currently funding research that will identify alternatives to incineration for the treatment of organic-based mixed wastes. (Mixed wastes are defined as waste streams which have both hazardous and radioactive properties.) One such project is Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Expedited Technology Demonstration of Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO). The goal of this project is to conduct an integrated demonstration of MSO, including off-gas and spent salt treatment, and the preparation of robust solid final forms. Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has constructed an integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system in which tests and demonstrations are presently being performed under carefully controlled (experimental) conditions. The system consists of a MSO process vessel with dedicated off-gas treatment, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and equipment for preparing ceramic final waste forms. In this paper we describe the integrated system and discuss its capabilities as well as preliminary process demonstration data. A primary purpose of these demonstrations is to identify the most suitable waste streams and waste types for MSO treatment.

Adamson, M. G., LLNL

1998-03-01

10

Alternative Waste Forms for Electro-Chemical Salt Waste  

SciTech Connect

This study was undertaken to examine alternate crystalline (ceramic/mineral) and glass waste forms for immobilizing spent salt from the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) electrochemical separations process. The AFCI is a program sponsored by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and demonstrate a process for recycling spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The electrochemical process is a molten salt process for the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel in an electrorefiner and generates spent salt that is contaminated with alkali, alkaline earths, and lanthanide fission products (FP) that must either be cleaned of fission products or eventually replaced with new salt to maintain separations efficiency. Currently, these spent salts are mixed with zeolite to form sodalite in a glass-bonded waste form. The focus of this study was to investigate alternate waste forms to immobilize spent salt. On a mole basis, the spent salt is dominated by alkali and Cl with minor amounts of alkaline earth and lanthanides. In the study reported here, we made an effort to explore glass systems that are more compatible with Cl and have not been previously considered for use as waste forms. In addition, alternate methods were explored with the hope of finding a way to produce a sodalite that is more accepting of as many FP present in the spent salt as possible. This study was done to investigate two different options: (1) alternate glass families that incorporate increased concentrations of Cl; and (2) alternate methods to produce a mineral waste form.

Crum, Jarrod V.; Sundaram, S. K.; Riley, Brian J.; Matyas, Josef; Arreguin, Shelly A.; Vienna, John D.

2009-10-28

11

Disposal of Savannah River Plant waste salt  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 26-million gallons of soluble low-level waste salts will be produced during solidification of 6-million gallons of high-level defense waste in the proposed Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Soluble wastes (primarily NaNO/sub 3/, NaNO/sub 2/, and NaOH) stored in the waste tanks will be decontaminated by ion exchange and solidified in concrete. The resulting salt-concrete mixture, saltcrete, will be placed in a landfill on the plantsite such that all applicable federal and state disposal criteria are met. Proposed NRC guidelines for the disposal of waste with the radionuclide content of SRP salt would permit shallow land burial. Federal and state rules require that potentially hazardous chemical wastes (mainly nitrate-nitrate salts in the saltcrete) be contained to the degree necessary to meet drinking water standards in the ground water beneath the landfill boundary. This paper describes the proposed saltcrete landfill and tests under way to ensure that the landfill will meet these criteria. The work includes laboratory and field tests of the saltcrete itself, a field test of a one-tenth linear scale model of the entire landfill system, and a numerical model of the system.

Dukes, M D

1982-01-01

12

Cementitious Stabilization of Mixed Wastes with High Salt Loadings  

SciTech Connect

Salt loadings approaching 50 wt % were tolerated in cementitious waste forms that still met leach and strength criteria, addressing a Technology Deficiency of low salt loadings previously identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area. A statistical design quantified the effect of different stabilizing ingredients and salt loading on performance at lower loadings, allowing selection of the more effective ingredients for studying the higher salt loadings. In general, the final waste form needed to consist of 25 wt % of the dry stabilizing ingredients to meet the criteria used and 25 wt % water to form a workable paste, leaving 50 wt % for waste solids. The salt loading depends on the salt content of the waste solids but could be as high as 50 wt % if all the waste solids are salt.

Spence, R.D.; Burgess, M.W.; Fedorov, V.V.; Downing, D.J.

1999-04-01

13

Modeling Solute Thermokinetics in LiCI-KCI Molten Salt for Nuclear Waste Separation  

SciTech Connect

Recovery of actinides is an integral part of a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Pyrometallurgical nuclear fuel recycling processes have been developed in the past for recovering actinides from spent metallic and nitride fuels. The process is essentially to dissolve the spent fuel in a molten salt and then extract just the actinides for reuse in a reactor. Extraction is typically done through electrorefining, which involves electrochemical reduction of the dissolved actinides and plating onto a cathode. Knowledge of a number of basic thermokinetic properties of salts and salt-fuel mixtures is necessary for optimizing present and developing new approaches for pyrometallurgical waste processing. The properties of salt-fuel mixtures are presently being studied, but there are so many solutes and varying concentrations that direct experimental investigation is prohibitively time consuming and expensive (particularly for radioactive elements like Pu). Therefore, there is a need to reduce the number of required experiments through modeling of salt and salt-fuel mixture properties. This project will develop first-principles-based molecular modeling and simulation approaches to predict fundamental thermokinetic properties of dissolved actinides and fission products in molten salts. The focus of the proposed work is on property changes with higher concentrations (up to 5 mol%) of dissolved fuel components, where there is still very limited experimental data. The properties predicted with the modeling will be density, which is used to assess the amount of dissolved material in the salt; diffusion coefficients, which can control rates of material transport during separation; and solute activity, which determines total solubility and reduction potentials used during electrorefining. The work will focus on La, Sr, and U, which are chosen to include the important distinct categories of lanthanides, alkali earths, and actinides, respectively. Studies will be performed using LiCl-KCl salt at the eutectic composition (58 mol% LiCl, 42 mol% KCl), which is used for treating spent EBR-II fuel. The same process being used for EBRII fuel is currently being studied for widespread international implementation. The methods will focus on first-principles and first- principles derived interatomic potential based simulations, primarily using molecular dynamics. Results will be validated against existing literature and parallel ongoing experimental efforts. The simulation results will be of value for interpreting experimental results, validating analytical models, and for optimizing waste separation by potentially developing new salt configurations and operating conditions.

Morgan, Dane; Eapen, Jacob

2013-10-01

14

Delivery system for molten salt oxidation of solid waste  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a delivery system for safety injecting solid waste particles, including mixed wastes, into a molten salt bath for destruction by the process of molten salt oxidation. The delivery system includes a feeder system and an injector that allow the solid waste stream to be accurately metered, evenly dispersed in the oxidant gas, and maintained at a temperature below incineration temperature while entering the molten salt reactor.

Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Squire, Dwight V. (Livermore, CA); Robinson, Jeffrey A. (Manteca, CA); House, Palmer A. (Walnut Creek, CA)

2002-01-01

15

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Salt Decontamination Testing  

SciTech Connect

On February 14, 2014, americium and plutonium contamination was released in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) salt caverns. At the request of WIPP’s operations contractor, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) personnel developed several methods of decontaminating WIPP salt, using surrogate contaminants and also americium (241Am). The effectiveness of the methods is evaluated qualitatively, and to the extent possible, quantitatively. One of the requirements of this effort was delivering initial results and recommendations within a few weeks. That requirement, in combination with the limited scope of the project, made in-depth analysis impractical in some instances. Of the methods tested (dry brushing, vacuum cleaning, water washing, strippable coatings, and mechanical grinding), the most practical seems to be water washing. Effectiveness is very high, and it is very easy and rapid to deploy. The amount of wastewater produced (2 L/m2) would be substantial and may not be easy to manage, but the method is the clear winner from a usability perspective. Removable surface contamination levels (smear results) from the strippable coating and water washing coupons found no residual removable contamination. Thus, whatever is left is likely adhered to (or trapped within) the salt. The other option that shows promise is the use of a fixative barrier. Bartlett Nuclear, Inc.’s Polymeric Barrier System (PBS) proved the most durable of the coatings tested. The coatings were not tested for contaminant entrapment, only for coating integrity and durability.

Rick Demmer; Stephen Reese

2014-09-01

16

Injector nozzle for molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

An injector nozzle has been designed for safely injecting energetic waste materials, such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels, into a molten salt reactor in a molten salt destruction process without premature detonation or back burn in the injection system. The energetic waste material is typically diluted to form a fluid fuel mixture that is injected rapidly into the

William A. Brummond; Ravindra S. Upadhye

1996-01-01

17

Mixed Waste Salt Encapsulation Using Polysiloxane - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

A proof-of-concept experimental study was performed to investigate the use of Orbit Technologies polysiloxane grouting material for encapsulation of U.S. Department of Energy mixed waste salts leading to a final waste form for disposal. Evaporator pond salt residues and other salt-like material contaminated with both radioactive isotopes and hazardous components are ubiquitous in the DOE complex and may exceed 250,000,000 kg of material. Current treatment involves mixing low waste percentages (less than 10% by mass salt) with cement or costly thermal treatment followed by cementation to the ash residue. The proposed technology involves simple mixing of the granular salt material (with relatively high waste loadings-greater than 50%) in a polysiloxane-based system that polymerizes to form a silicon-based polymer material. This study involved a mixing study to determine optimum waste loadings and compressive strengths of the resultant monoliths. Following the mixing study, durability testing was performed on promising waste forms. Leaching studies including the accelerated leach test and the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure were also performed on a high nitrate salt waste form. In addition to this testing, the waste form was examined by scanning electron microscope. Preliminary cost estimates for applying this technology to the DOE complex mixed waste salt problem is also given.

Miller, C.M.; Loomis, G.G.; Prewett, S.W.

1997-11-01

18

Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from United States repository development, such as seal system design, coupled process simulation, and application of performance assessment methodology, helps define a clear strategy for a heat-generating nuclear waste repository in salt.

Leigh, Christi D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Hansen, Francis D.

2011-01-01

19

Effects of Heat Generation on Nuclear Waste Disposal in Salt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disposal of nuclear waste in salt is an established technology, as evidenced by the successful operations of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) since 1999. The WIPP is located in bedded salt in southeastern New Mexico and is a deep underground facility for transuranic (TRU) nuclear waste disposal. There are many advantages for placing radioactive wastes in a geologic bedded-salt environment. One desirable mechanical characteristic of salt is that it flows plastically with time ("creeps"). The rate of salt creep is a strong function of temperature and stress differences. Higher temperatures and deviatoric stresses increase the creep rate. As the salt creeps, induced fractures may be closed and eventually healed, which then effectively seals the waste in place. With a backfill of crushed salt emplaced around the waste, the salt creep can cause the crushed salt to reconsolidate and heal to a state similar to intact salt, serving as an efficient seal. Experiments in the WIPP were conducted to investigate the effects of heat generation on the important phenomena and processes in and around the repository (Munson et al. 1987; 1990; 1992a; 1992b). Brine migration towards the heaters was induced from the thermal gradient, while salt creep rates showed an exponential dependence on temperature. The project "Backfill and Material Behavior in Underground Salt Repositories, Phase II" (BAMBUS II) studied the crushed salt backfill and material behavior with heat generation at the Asse mine located near Remlingen, Germany (Bechthold et al. 2004). Increased salt creep rates and significant reconsolidation of the crushed salt were observed at the termination of the experiment. Using the data provided from both projects, exploratory modeling of the thermal-mechanical response of salt has been conducted with varying thermal loading and waste spacing. Increased thermal loading and decreased waste spacing drive the system to higher temperatures, while both factors are desired to reduce costs, as well as decrease the overall footprint of the repository. Higher temperatures increase the rate of salt creep which then effectively seals the waste quicker. Data of the thermal-mechanical response of salt at these higher temperatures is needed to further validate the exploratory modeling and provide meaningful constraints on the repository design. Sandia is a multi program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04- 94AL85000.

Clayton, D. J.

2008-12-01

20

Hyponatremia—What Is Cerebral Salt Wasting?  

PubMed Central

Background: Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte imbalance in hospitalized patients. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, especially if the underlying cause is incorrectly diagnosed and not treated appropriately. Often, the hospitalist is faced with a clinical dilemma when a patient presents with hyponatremia of an unclear etiology and with uncertain volume status. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is frequently diagnosed in this clinical setting, but cerebral salt wasting (CSW) is an important diagnosis to consider. Objective: We wanted to describe the diagnosis, treatment, and history of CSW to provide clinicians with a better understanding of the differential diagnosis for hyponatremia. Conclusion: CSW is a process of extracellular volume depletion due to a tubular defect in sodium transport. Two postulated mechanisms for CSW are the excess secretion of natriuretic peptides and the loss of sympathetic stimulation to the kidney. Making the distinction between CSW and SIADH is important because the treatment for the two conditions is very different. PMID:20740122

Momi, Jasminder; Tang, Christopher M; Abcar, Antoine C; Kujubu, Dean A; Sim, John J

2010-01-01

21

Vitrification of IFR and MSBR halide salt reprocessing wastes  

SciTech Connect

Both of the genuinely sustainable (breeder) nuclear fuel cycles (IFR - Integral Fast Reactor - and MSBR - Molten Salt Breeder Reactor -) studied by the USA's national laboratories would generate high level reprocessing waste (HLRW) streams consisting of a relatively small amount ( about 4 mole %) of fission product halide (chloride or fluoride) salts in a matrix comprised primarily (about 95 mole %) of non radioactive alkali metal halide salts. Because leach resistant glasses cannot accommodate much of any of the halides, most of the treatment scenarios previously envisioned for such HLRW have assumed a monolithic waste form comprised of a synthetic analog of an insoluble crystalline halide mineral. In practice, this translates to making a 'substituted' sodalite ('Ceramic Waste Form') of the IFR's chloride salt-based wastes and fluoroapatite of the MSBR's fluoride salt-based wastes. This paper discusses my experimental studies of an alternative waste management scenario for both fuel cycles that would separate/recycle the waste's halide and immobilize everything else in iron phosphate (Fe-P) glass. It will describe both how the work was done and what its results indicate about how a treatment process for both of those wastes should be implemented (fluoride and chloride behave differently). In either case, this scenario's primary advantages include much higher waste loadings, much lower overall cost, and the generation of a product (glass) that is more consistent with current waste management practices. (author)

Siemer, D.D. [Idaho National Laboratory, 12N 3167E, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)

2013-07-01

22

Modeling of Sulfate Double-salts in Nuclear Wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to limited tank space at Hanford and Savannah River, the liquid nuclear wastes or supernatants have been concentrated in evaporators to remove excess water prior to the hot solutions being transferred to underground storage tanks. As the waste solutions cooled, the salts in the waste exceeded the associated solubility limits and precipitated in the form of saltcakes. The initial

B. Toghiani; J. S. Lindner; C. F. Weber; R. D. Hunt

2000-01-01

23

Expected brine movement at potential nuclear waste repository salt sites  

SciTech Connect

The BRINEMIG brine migration code predicts rates and quantities of brine migration to a waste package emplaced in a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The BRINEMIG code is an explicit time-marching finite-difference code that solves a mass balance equation and uses the Jenks equation to predict velocities of brine migration. Predictions were made for the seven potentially acceptable salt sites under consideration as locations for the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Predicted total quantities of accumulated brine were on the order of 1 m/sup 3/ brine per waste package or less. Less brine accumulation is expected at domal salt sites because of the lower initial moisture contents relative to bedded salt sites. Less total accumulation of brine is predicted for spent fuel than for commercial high-level waste because of the lower temperatures generated by spent fuel. 11 refs., 36 figs., 29 tabs.

McCauley, V.S.; Raines, G.E.

1987-08-01

24

Method for immobilizing mixed waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and other hazardous wastes  

DOEpatents

The invention is a method for the encapsulation of soluble radioactive waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as strontium, cesium and hazardous wastes such as barium so that they may be permanently stored without future threat to the environment. The process consists of contacting the salts containing the radionuclides and hazardous wastes with certain zeolites which have been found to ion exchange with the radionuclides and to occlude the chloride salts so that the resulting product is leach resistant.

Lewis, Michele A. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Terry R. (Wheaton, IL)

1993-01-01

25

Method for immobilizing mixed waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and other hazardous wastes  

DOEpatents

The invention is a method for the encapsulation of soluble radioactive waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as strontium, cesium and hazardous wastes such as barium so that they may be permanently stored without future threat to the environment. The process consists of contacting the salts containing the radionuclides and hazardous wastes with certain zeolites which have been found to ion exchange with the radionuclides and to occlude the chloride salts so that the resulting product is leach resistant.

Lewis, Michele A.; Johnson, Terry R.

1993-09-07

26

Molten salt treatment to minimize and optimize waste  

SciTech Connect

A combination molten salt oxidizer (MSO) and molten salt reactor (MSR) is described for treatment of waste. The MSO is proposed for contained oxidization of organic hazardous waste, for reduction of mass and volume of dilute waste by evaporation of the water. The NTSO residue is to be treated to optimize the waste in terms of its composition, chemical form, mixture, concentration, encapsulation, shape, size, and configuration. Accumulations and storage are minimized, shipments are sized for low risk. Actinides, fissile material, and long-lived isotopes are separated and completely burned or transmuted in an MSR. The MSR requires no fuel element fabrication, accepts the materials as salts in arbitrarily small quantities enhancing safety, security, and overall acceptability.

Gat, U.; Crosley, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Gay, R.L. [Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States)

1993-07-01

27

Disposition of salt-waste from pyrochemical nuclear fuel processing  

SciTech Connect

Waste salts from pyrochemical processing of nuclear fuel can be immobilised in sodalite if consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at {approx}750 deg. C/100 MPa in thick stainless steel 316 cans. Other canning materials for this purpose also look possible. Spodiosite-based waste forms do not look promising in terms of leach resistance and their incorporation of alkali ions and compatibility with other phases which could potentially accommodate fission products, such as NaZr{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} or alumino-phosphate glass. Chloro- or fluor-apatite-based waste forms however have been reported to successfully accommodate fission products and alkalis which would be derived from either chloride- or fluoride-based waste pyro-processing salts. The presence of 10 or 20 wt% of additional Whitlockite, Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}, should allow chemical flexibility to maintain the same qualitative phase assemblage when there are variations in the waste feed and in the waste/precursor ratios. Experimental verification of incorporation of the full complement of waste salts and fission products is not yet complete however. Apatite-rich samples could likely be HIPed in Inconel 600 cans. Other candidate HIP canning materials such as Alloy 22 or Inconel 625 are under study by encapsulating them in the candidate waste form and studying their interaction or otherwise with the waste form. (author)

Vance, E.R. [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)

2007-07-01

28

Molten salt processing of mixed wastes with offgas condensation  

SciTech Connect

We are developing an advanced process for treatment of mixed wastes in molten salt media at temperatures of 700--1000{degrees}C. Waste destruction has been demonstrated in a single stage oxidation process, with destruction efficiencies above 99.9999% for many waste categories. The molten salt provides a heat transfer medium, prevents thermal surges, and functions as an in situ scrubber to transform the acid-gas forming components of the waste into neutral salts and immobilizes potentially fugitive materials by a combination of particle wetting, encapsulation and chemical dissolution and solvation. Because the offgas is collected and assayed before release, and wastes containing toxic and radioactive materials are treated while immobilized in a condensed phase, the process avoids the problems sometimes associated with incineration processes. We are studying a potentially improved modification of this process, which treats oxidizable wastes in two stages: pyrolysis followed by catalyzed molten salt oxidation of the pyrolysis gases at ca. 700{degrees}C. 15 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Cooper, J.F.; Brummond, W.; Celeste, J.; Farmer, J.; Hoenig, C.; Krikorian, O.H.; Upadhye, R. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Gay, R.L.; Stewart, A.; Yosim, S. (Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (USA). Energy Systems Group)

1991-05-13

29

Integrated demonstration of molten salt oxidation with salt recycle for mixed waste treatment  

SciTech Connect

Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal, nonflame process that has the inherent capability of completely destroying organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials while retaining inorganic and radioactive constituents in the salt. For this reason, MSO is considered a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has prepared a facility and constructed an integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system in which tests and demonstrations are performed under carefully controlled (experimental) conditions. The system consists of a MSO processor with dedicated off-gas treatment, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and equipment for preparing ceramic final waste forms. This integrated system was designed and engineered based on laboratory experience with a smaller engineering-scale reactor unit and extensive laboratory development on salt recycle and final forms preparation. In this paper we present design and engineering details of the system and discuss its capabilities as well as preliminary process demonstration data. A primary purpose of these demonstrations is identification of the most suitable waste streams and waste types for MSO treatment.

Hsu, P.C.

1997-11-01

30

Oil field waste disposal in salt caverns: An information website  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory has completed the construction of a Website for the US Department of Energy (DOE) that provides detailed information on salt caverns and their use for disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Specific topics in the Website include the following: descriptions of salt deposits and salt caverns within the US, salt cavern construction methods, potential types of wastes, waste emplacement, regulatory issues, costs, carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic human health risks associated with postulated cavern release scenarios, new information on cavern disposal (e.g., upcoming meetings, regulatory issues, etc.), other studies supported by the National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) (e.g., considerations of site location, cavern stability, development issues, and bedded salt characterization in the Midland Basin), and links to other associated Web sites. In addition, the Website allows downloadable access to reports prepared on the topic that were funded by DOE. Because of the large quantities of NOW and NORM wastes generated annually by the oil industry, information presented on this Website is particularly interesting and valuable to project managers, regulators, and concerned citizens.

Tomasko, D.; Veil, J. A.

1999-12-10

31

Hydrological methods preferentially recover cesium from nuclear waste salt cake  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site is treating high level radioactive waste in the form of insoluble solids (sludge), crystallized salt (salt cake), and salt solutions. High costs and operational concerns have prompted DOE to look for ways to improve the salt cake treatment process. A numerical model was developed to evaluate the feasibility of pump and treat technology for extracting cesium from salt cake. A modified version of the VAM3DCG code was used to first establish a steady-state flow field, then to simulate 30 days of operation. Simulation results suggest that efficient cesium extraction can be obtained with low displacement volumes. The actual extraction process will probably be less impressive because of nonuniform properties. 2 refs., 2 figs.

Brooke, J.N.; Hamm, L.L.

1997-05-01

32

MIXING MODELING ANALYSIS FOR SRS SALT WASTE DISPOSITION  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear waste at Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks consists of three different types of waste forms. They are the lighter salt solutions referred to as supernate, the precipitated salts as salt cake, and heavier fine solids as sludge. The sludge is settled on the tank floor. About half of the residual waste radioactivity is contained in the sludge, which is only about 8 percentage of the total waste volume. Mixing study to be evaluated here for the Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) project focuses on supernate preparations in waste tanks prior to transfer to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) feed tank. The methods to mix and blend the contents of the SRS blend tanks were evalutaed to ensure that the contents are properly blended before they are transferred from the blend tank such as Tank 50H to the SWPF feed tank. The work consists of two principal objectives to investigate two different pumps. One objective is to identify a suitable pumping arrangement that will adequately blend/mix two miscible liquids to obtain a uniform composition in the tank with a minimum level of sludge solid particulate in suspension. The other is to estimate the elevation in the tank at which the transfer pump inlet should be located where the solid concentration of the entrained fluid remains below the acceptance criterion (0.09 wt% or 1200 mg/liter) during transfer operation to the SWPF. Tank 50H is a Waste Tank that will be used to prepare batches of salt feed for SWPF. The salt feed must be a homogeneous solution satisfying the acceptance criterion of the solids entrainment during transfer operation. The work described here consists of two modeling areas. They are the mixing modeling analysis during miscible liquid blending operation, and the flow pattern analysis during transfer operation of the blended liquid. The modeling results will provide quantitative design and operation information during the mixing/blending process and the transfer operation of the blended liquid in the Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) facility. The results will also help validate the anticipated performance of the pump vendor's design.

Lee, S.

2011-01-18

33

Treatment of Difficult Wastes with Molten Salt Oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is a good alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes such as explosives, low-level mixed waste streams, PCB contaminated oils, spent resins and carbon. Since mid-1990s, the U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center (DAC) and the Department of Energy (DOE) have jointly invested in MSO development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

P C Hsu; S Kwak

2003-01-01

34

Injector nozzle for molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials  

DOEpatents

An injector nozzle has been designed for safely injecting energetic waste materials, such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels, into a molten salt reactor in a molten salt destruction process without premature detonation or back burn in the injection system. The energetic waste material is typically diluted to form a fluid fuel mixture that is injected rapidly into the reactor. A carrier gas used in the nozzle serves as a carrier for the fuel mixture, and further dilutes the energetic material and increases its injection velocity into the reactor. The injector nozzle is cooled to keep the fuel mixture below the decomposition temperature to prevent spontaneous detonation of the explosive materials before contact with the high-temperature molten salt bath. 2 figs.

Brummond, W.A.; Upadhye, R.S.

1996-02-13

35

Injector nozzle for molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials  

DOEpatents

An injector nozzle has been designed for safely injecting energetic waste materials, such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels, into a molten salt reactor in a molten salt destruction process without premature detonation or back burn in the injection system. The energetic waste material is typically diluted to form a fluid fuel mixture that is injected rapidly into the reactor. A carrier gas used in the nozzle serves as a carrier for the fuel mixture, and further dilutes the energetic material and increases its injection velocity into the reactor. The injector nozzle is cooled to keep the fuel mixture below the decomposition temperature to prevent spontaneous detonation of the explosive materials before contact with the high-temperature molten salt bath.

Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA)

1996-01-01

36

Salt-occluded zeolite waste forms: Crystal structures and transformability  

SciTech Connect

Neutron diffraction studies of salt-occluded zeolite and zeolite/glass composite samples, simulating nuclear waste forms loaded with fission products, have revealed complex structures, with cations assuming the dual roles of charge compensation and occlusion (cluster formation). These clusters roughly fill the 6--8 {angstrom} diameter pores of the zeolites. Samples are prepared by equilibrating zeolite-A with complex molten Li, K, Cs, Sr, Ba, Y chloride salts, with compositions representative of anticipated waste systems. Samples prepared using zeolite 4A (which contains exclusively sodium cations) as starting material are observed to transform to sodalite, a denser aluminosilicate framework structure, while those prepared using zeolite 5A (sodium and calcium ions) more readily retain the zeolite-A structure. Because the sodalite framework pores are much smaller than those of zeolite-A, clusters are smaller and more rigorously confined, with a correspondingly lower capacity for waste containment. Details of the sodalite structures resulting from transformation of zeolite-A depend upon the precise composition of the original mixture. The enhanced resistance of salt-occluded zeolites prepared from zeolite 5A to sodalite transformation is thought to be related to differences in the complex chloride clusters present in these zeolite mixtures. Data relating processing conditions to resulting zeolite composition and structure can be used in the selection of processing parameters which lead to optimal waste forms.

Richardson, J.W. Jr. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Intense Pulsed Neutron Source Div.

1996-12-31

37

BLENDING ANALYSIS FOR RADIOACTIVE SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated methods to mix and blend the contents of the blend tanks to ensure the contents are properly blended before they are transferred from the blend tank such as Tank 21 and Tank 24 to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) feed tank. The tank contents consist of three forms: dissolved salt solution, other waste salt solutions, and sludge containing settled solids. This paper focuses on developing the computational model and estimating the operation time of submersible slurry pump when the tank contents are adequately blended prior to their transfer to the SWPF facility. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics approach was taken by using the full scale configuration of SRS Type-IV tank, Tank 21H. Major solid obstructions such as the tank wall boundary, the transfer pump column, and three slurry pump housings including one active and two inactive pumps were included in the mixing performance model. Basic flow pattern results predicted by the computational model were benchmarked against the SRNL test results and literature data. Tank 21 is a waste tank that is used to prepare batches of salt feed for SWPF. The salt feed must be a homogeneous solution satisfying the acceptance criterion of the solids entrainment during transfer operation. The work scope described here consists of two modeling areas. They are the steady state flow pattern calculations before the addition of acid solution for tank blending operation and the transient mixing analysis during miscible liquid blending operation. The transient blending calculations were performed by using the 95% homogeneity criterion for the entire liquid domain of the tank. The initial conditions for the entire modeling domain were based on the steady-state flow pattern results with zero second phase concentration. The performance model was also benchmarked against the SRNL test results and literature data.

Lee, S.

2012-05-10

38

Saltstone: cement-based waste form for disposal of Savannah River Plant low-level radioactive salt waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defense waste processing at the Savannah River Plant will include decontamination and disposal of approximately 400 million liters of waste containing NaNOâ, NaOH, NaâSOâ, and NaNOâ. After decontamination, the salt solution is classified as low-level waste. A cement-based waste form, saltstone, has been designed for disposal of Savannah River Plant low-level radioactive salt waste. Bulk properties of this material have

Langton

1984-01-01

39

Disposal of soluble salt waste from coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses pollutants in the form of soluble salts and resource recovery in the form of water and land. A design for disposal of soluble salts has been produced. The interactions of its parameters have been shown by a process design study. The design will enable harmonious compliance with United States Public Laws 92-500 and 94-580, relating to water pollution and resource recovery. In the disposal of waste salt solutions, natural water resources need not be contaminated, because an encapsulation technique is available which will immobilize the salts. At the same time it will make useful landforms available, and water as a resource can be recovered. There is a cost minimum when electrodialysis and evaporation are combined, which is not realizable with evaporation alone, unless very low-cost thermal energy is available or unless very high-cost pretreatment for electrodialysis is required. All the processes making up the proposed disposal process are commercially available, although they are nowhere operating commercially as one process. Because of the commercial availability of the processes, the proposed process may be a candidate 'best commercially available treatment' for soluble salt disposal.

McKnight, C.E.

1980-06-01

40

Cement-based waste forms for disposal of Savannah River Plant low-level radioactive salt waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defense waste processing at the Savannah River Plant will include decontamination and disposal of approximately 100 million liters of soluble salts containing primarily NaNOâ, NaOH, NaNOâ, NaAl(OH)â, and NaâSOâ. A cement-based waste form, saltstone, has been designed for disposal of Savannah River Plant low-level radioactive salt waste. Bulk properties of this material have been tailored with respect to salt leach

C. A. Langton; M. D. Dukes; R. V. Simmons

1983-01-01

41

Pyrolytic conversion of plastic and rubber waste to hydrocarbons with basic salt catalysts  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to a process for improving the pyrolytic conversion of waste selected from rubber and plastic to low molecular weight olefinic materials by employing basis salt catalysts in the waste mixture. The salts comprise alkali or alkaline earth compounds, particularly sodium carbonate, in an amount of greater than about 1 weight percent based on the waste feed.

Wingfield, Jr., Robert C. (Southfield, MI); Braslaw, Jacob (Southfield, MI); Gealer, Roy L. (West Bloomfield, MI)

1985-01-01

42

Ceramic waste form for residues from molten salt oxidation of mixed wastes  

SciTech Connect

A ceramic waste form based on Synroc-D is under development for the incorporation of the mineral residues from molten salt oxidation treatment of mixed low-level wastes. Samples containing as many as 32 chemical elements have been fabricated, characterized, and leach-tested. Universal Treatment Standards have been satisfied for all regulated elements except and two (lead and vanadium). Efforts are underway to further improve chemical durability.

Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Hopper, R.W.; Rard, J.A. [and others

1995-11-01

43

Deep geologic disposal of mixed waste in bedded salt: The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

Mixed waste (i.e., waste that contains both chemically hazardous and radioactive components) poses a moral, political, and technical challenge to present and future generations. But an international consensus is emerging that harmful byproducts and residues can be permanently isolated from the biosphere in a safe and environmentally responsible manner by deep geologic disposal. To investigate and demonstrate such disposal for transuranic mixed waste, derived from defense-related activities, the US Department of Energy has prepared the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. This research and development facility was excavated approximately at the center of a 600 m thick sequence of salt (halite) beds, 655 m below the surface. Proof of the long-term tectonic and hydrological stability of the region is supplied by the fact that these salt beds have remained essentially undisturbed since they were deposited during the Late Permian age, approximately 225 million years ago. Plutonium-239, the main radioactive component of transuranic mixed waste, has a half-life of 24,500 years. Even ten half-lives of this isotope - amounting to about a quarter million years, the time during which its activity will decline to background level represent only 0.11 percent of the history of the repository medium. Therefore, deep geologic disposal of transuranic mixed waste in Permian bedded salt appears eminently feasible.

Rempe, N.T.

1993-12-01

44

Deep geologic disposal of mixed waste in bedded salt: The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

Mixed waste (i.e., waste that contains both chemically hazardous and radioactive components) poses a moral, political, and technical challenge to present and future generations. But an international consensus is emerging that harmful byproducts and residues can be permanently isolated from the biosphere in a safe and environmentally responsible manner by deep geologic disposal. To investigate and demonstrate such disposal for transuranic mixed waste, derived from defense-related activities, the US Department of Energy has prepared the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. This research and development facility was excavated approximately at the center of a 600-m-thick sequence of salt (halite) beds, 655 m below the surface. Proof of the long-term tectonic and hydrological stability of the region is supplied by the fact that these salt beds have remained essentially undisturbed since they were deposited during the Late Permian age, approximately 225 million years ago. Plutonium-239, the main radioactive component of transuranic mixed waste, has a half-life of 24,500 years. Even ten half-lives of this isotope--amounting to about a quarter million years, the time during which its activity will decline to background level--represent only 0.11% of the history of the repository medium. Therefore, deep geologic disposal of transuranic mixed waste in Permian bedded salt appears eminently feasible.

Rempe, N.T. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.

1993-12-31

45

Treatment of Difficult Wastes with Molten Salt Oxidation  

SciTech Connect

Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is a good alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes such as explosives, low-level mixed waste streams, PCB contaminated oils, spent resins and carbon. Since mid-1990s, the U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center (DAC) and the Department of Energy (DOE) have jointly invested in MSO development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). LLNL first demonstrated the MSO process for the effective destruction of explosives, explosives-contaminated materials, and other wastes on a 1.5-kg/hr bench-scale unit, and then in an integrated MSO facility capable of treating 8 kg/hr of low-level radioactive mixed wastes. Several MSO systems have been built with sizes up to 10 ft in height and 16 inches in diameter. LLNL in 2001 completed a MSO plant for DAC for the destruction of explosives-contaminated sludge and explosives-contaminated carbon. We will present in this paper our latest demonstration data and our operational experience with MSO.

Hsu, P C; Kwak, S

2003-02-21

46

Fludrocortisone treatment in a child with severe cerebral salt wasting.  

PubMed

Hyponatremia is a common complication of intracranial disease or surgery. An evaluation should be undertaken to determine whether cerebral salt wasting (CSW) or inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone is present as a cause. Since the treatment principles are completely different in the two pathological states, differential diagnosis is very important. CSW is defined as the renal loss of sodium leading to hyponatremia and decreased extracellular fluid volume. In the literature, it has been noted that mineralocorticoid administration can be useful in CSW cases. We herein present an 11-year-old boy who developed hyponatremic seizures after intracranial tumor resection. He was diagnosed with CSW on the basis of high urinary sodium excretion and increased urine output, together with signs and symptoms of dehydration. Despite intensive fluid and salt therapy, we were unable to decrease the urinary output. Therefore, fludrocortisone therapy was administered and his urinary output and sodium excretion were decreased and his serum sodium level was normalized. In conclusion, in addition to fluid and salt replacement, mineralocorticoid supplementation also seems to be a safe and effective treatment for CSW. PMID:11694800

Kinik, S T; Kandemir, N; Baykan, A; Akalan, N; Yordam, N

2001-10-01

47

Identifying suitable "piercement" salt domes for nuclear waste storage sites  

SciTech Connect

Piercement salt domes of the northern interior salt basins of the Gulf of Mexico are being considered as permanent storage sites for both nuclear and chemically toxic wastes. The suitable domes are stable and inactive, having reached their final evolutionary configuration at least 30 million years ago. They are buried to depths far below the level to which erosion will penetrate during the prescribed storage period and are not subject to possible future reactivation. The salt cores of these domes are themselves impermeable, permitting neither the entry nor exit of ground water or other unwanted materials. In part, a stable dome may be recognized by its present geometric configuration, but conclusive proof depends on establishing its evolutionary state. The evolutionary state of a dome is obtained by reconstructing the growth history of the dome as revealed by the configuration of sedimentary strata in a large area (commonly 3,000 square miles or more) surrounding the dome. A high quality, multifold CDP reflection seismic profile across a candidate dome will provide much of the necessary information when integrated with available subsurface control. Additional seismic profiles may be required to confirm an apparent configuration of the surrounding strata and an interpreted evolutionary history. High frequency seismic data collected in the near vicinity of a dome are also needed as a supplement to the CDP data to permit accurate depiction of the configuration of shallow strata. Such data must be tied to shallow drill hole control to confirm the geologic age at which dome growth ceased. If it is determined that a dome reached a terminal configuration many millions of years ago, such a dome is incapable of reactivation and thus constitutes a stable storage site for nuclear wastes.

Kehle, R.

1980-08-01

48

Method to synthesize dense crystallized sodalite pellet for immobilizing halide salt radioactive waste  

DOEpatents

A method is described for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as cesium and strontium and hazardous materials such as barium. A sodalite intermediate is prepared by mixing appropriate amounts of silica, alumina and sodium hydroxide with respect to sodalite and heating the mixture to form the sodalite intermediate and water. Heating is continued to drive off the water to form a water-free intermediate. The water-free intermediate is mixed with either waste salt or waste salt which has been contacted with zeolite to concentrate the radionuclides and hazardous material. The waste salt-intermediate mixture is then compacted and heated under conditions of heat and pressure to form sodalite with the waste salt, radionuclides and hazardous material trapped within the sodalite cage structure. This provides a final product having excellent leach resistant capabilities.

Koyama, Tadafumi.

1994-08-23

49

Method to synthesize dense crystallized sodalite pellet for immobilizing halide salt radioactive waste  

DOEpatents

A method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as cesium and strontium and hazardous materials such as barium. A sodalite intermediate is prepared by mixing appropriate amounts of silica, alumina and sodium hydroxide with respect to sodalite and heating the mixture to form the sodalite intermediate and water. Heating is continued to drive off the water to form a water-free intermediate. The water-free intermediate is mixed with either waste salt or waste salt which has been contacted with zeolite to concentrate the radionuclides and hazardous material. The waste salt-intermediate mixture is then compacted and heated under conditions of heat and pressure to form sodalite with the waste salt, radionuclides and hazardous material trapped within the sodalite cage structure. This provides a final product having excellent leach resistant capabilities.

Koyama, Tadafumi (Tokyo, JP)

1994-01-01

50

Method to synthesize dense crystallized sodalite pellet for immobilizing halide salt radioactive waste  

DOEpatents

This report describes a method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as cesium and strontium and hazardous materials such as barium. A sodalite intermediate is prepared by mixing appropriate amounts of silica, alumina and sodium hydroxide with respect to sodalite and heating the mixture to form the sodalite intermediate and water. Heating is continued to drive off the water to form a water-free intermediate. The water-free intermediate is mixed with either waste salt or waste salt which has been contacted with zeolite to concentrate the radionuclides and hazardous material. The waste salt-intermediate mixture is then compacted and heated under conditions of heat and pressure to form sodalite with the waste salt, radionuclides and hazardous material trapped within the sodalite cage structure. This provides a final product having excellent leach resistant capabilities.

Koyama, T.

1992-01-01

51

Direct Grout Stabilization of High Cesium Salt Waste: Cesium Leaching Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

'The direct grout alternative is a viable option for treatment\\/stabilization and disposal of salt waste containing Cs-137 concentrations of 1-3 Ci\\/gal. The significant difference between these waste solutions is that the high cesium salt solution will contain between 1 and 3 Curies of Cs-137 per gallon compared to a negligible amount in the current salt solution. This difference will require

Langton

1999-01-01

52

Test plan for immobilization of salt-containing surrogate mixed wastes using polyester resins  

SciTech Connect

Past operations at many Department of Energy (DOE) sites have resulted in the generation of several waste streams with high salt content. These wastes contain listed and characteristic hazardous constituents and are radioactive. The salts contained in the wastes are primarily chloride, sulfate, nitrate, metal oxides, and hydroxides. DOE has placed these types of wastes under the purview of the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). The MWFA has been tasked with developing and facilitating the implementation of technologies to treat these wastes in support of customer needs and requirements. The MWFA has developed a Technology Development Requirements Document (TDRD), which specifies performance requirements for technology owners and developers to use as a framework in developing effective waste treatment solutions. This project will demonstrate the use of polyester resins in encapsulating and solidifying DOE`s mixed wastes containing salts, as an alternative to conventional and other emerging immobilization technologies.

Biyani, R.K.; Douglas, J.C.; Hendrickson, D.W.

1997-07-07

53

Electrodialysis-based separation process for salt recovery and recycling from waste water  

DOEpatents

A method for recovering salt from a process stream containing organic contaminants is provided, comprising directing the waste stream to a desalting electrodialysis unit so as to create a concentrated and purified salt permeate and an organic contaminants-containing stream, and contacting said concentrated salt permeate to a water-splitting electrodialysis unit so as to convert the salt to its corresponding base and acid. 6 figs.

Tsai, S.P.

1997-07-08

54

Electrodialysis-based separation process for salt recovery and recycling from waste water  

DOEpatents

A method for recovering salt from a process stream containing organic contaminants is provided, comprising directing the waste stream to a desalting electrodialysis unit so as to create a concentrated and purified salt permeate and an organic contaminants containing stream, and contacting said concentrated salt permeate to a water-splitting electrodialysis unit so as to convert the salt to its corresponding base and acid.

Tsai, Shih-Perng (Naperville, IL)

1997-01-01

55

Container materials for isolation of radioactive waste in salt  

SciTech Connect

The workshop reviewed the extensive data on the corrosion resistance of low-carbon steel in simulated salt repository environments, determined whether these data were sufficient to recommend low-carbon steel for fabrication of the container, and assessed the suitability of other materials under consideration in the SRP. The panelists determined the need for testing and research programs, recommended experimental approaches, and recommended materials based on existing technology. On the first day of the workshop, presentations were made on waste package requirements; the expected corrosion environment; degradation processes, including a review of data from corrosion tests on carbon steel; and rationales for container design and materials, modeling studies, and planned future work. The second day was devoted to a panel caucus, presentation of workshop findings, and open discussion. 76 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Streicher, M.A.; Andrews, A. (eds.)

1987-10-01

56

Preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste into salt caverns  

SciTech Connect

Caverns can be readily formed in salt formations through solution mining. The caverns may be formed incidentally, as a result of salt recovery, or intentionally to create an underground chamber that can be used for storing hydrocarbon products or compressed air or disposing of wastes. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the feasibility, suitability, and legality of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration, development, and production wastes (hereafter referred to as oil field wastes, unless otherwise noted) in salt caverns. Chapter 2 provides background information on: types and locations of US subsurface salt deposits; basic solution mining techniques used to create caverns; and ways in which salt caverns are used. Later chapters provide discussion of: federal and state regulatory requirements concerning disposal of oil field waste, including which wastes are considered eligible for cavern disposal; waste streams that are considered to be oil field waste; and an evaluation of technical issues concerning the suitability of using salt caverns for disposing of oil field waste. Separate chapters present: types of oil field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location; disposal operations; and closure and remediation. This report does not suggest specific numerical limits for such factors or variables as distance to neighboring activities, depths for casings, pressure testing, or size and shape of cavern. The intent is to raise issues and general approaches that will contribute to the growing body of information on this subject.

Veil, J.; Elcock, D.; Raivel, M.; Caudle, D.; Ayers, R.C. Jr.; Grunewald, B.

1996-06-01

57

Expedited demonstration of molten salt mixed waste treatment technology. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This final report discusses the molten salt mixed waste project in terms of the various subtasks established. Subtask 1: Carbon monoxide emissions; Establish a salt recycle schedule and/or a strategy for off-gas control for MWMF that keeps carbon monoxide emission below 100 ppm on an hourly averaged basis. Subtask 2: Salt melt viscosity; Experiments are conducted to determine salt viscosity as a function of ash composition, ash concentration, temperature, and time. Subtask 3: Determine that the amount of sodium carbonate entrained in the off-gas is minimal, and that any deposited salt can easily be removed form the piping using a soot blower or other means. Subtask 4: The provision of at least one final waste form that meets the waste acceptance criteria of a landfill that will take the waste. This report discusses the progress made in each of these areas.

NONE

1995-02-02

58

Cement-based waste forms for disposal of Savannah River Plant low-level radioactive salt waste  

SciTech Connect

Defense waste processing at the Savannah River Plant will include decontamination and disposal of approximately 100 million liters of soluble salts containing primarily NaNO/sub 3/, NaOH, NaNO/sub 2/, NaAl(OH)/sub 4/, and Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. A cement-based waste form, saltstone, has been designed for disposal of Savannah River Plant low-level radioactive salt waste. Bulk properties of this material have been tailored with respect to salt leach rate, permeability, and compressive strength. Microstructure and mineralogy of leached and unleached specimens were characterized by SEM and x-ray diffraction analyses, respectively. It has been concluded that the salt leach rate can be limited so that amounts of salt and radionuclides in the groundwater at the perimeter of the 100-acre disposal site will not exceed EPA drinking water standards. 7 references, 4 figures, 6 tables.

Langton, C A; Dukes, M D; Simmons, R V

1983-01-01

59

Polyethylene encapsulatin of nitrate salt wastes: Waste form stability, process scale-up, and economics  

SciTech Connect

A polyethylene encapsulation system for treatment of low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Polyethylene has several advantages compared with conventional solidification/stabilization materials such as hydraulic cements. Waste can be encapsulated with greater efficiency and with better waste form performance than is possible with hydraulic cement. The properties of polyethylene relevant to its long-term durability in storage and disposal environments are reviewed. Response to specific potential failure mechanisms including biodegradation, radiation, chemical attack, flammability, environmental stress cracking, and photodegradation are examined. These data are supported by results from extensive waste form performance testing including compressive yield strength, water immersion, thermal cycling, leachability of radioactive and hazardous species, irradiation, biodegradation, and flammability. The bench-scale process has been successfully tested for application with a number of specific problem'' waste streams. Quality assurance and performance testing of the resulting waste form confirmed scale-up feasibility. Use of this system at Rocky Flats Plant can result in over 70% fewer drums processed and shipped for disposal, compared with optimal cement formulations. Based on the current Rocky Flats production of nitrate salt per year, polyethylene encapsulation can yield an estimated annual savings between $1.5 million and $2.7 million, compared with conventional hydraulic cement systems. 72 refs., 23 figs., 16 tabs.

Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

1991-07-01

60

Application of molten salt oxidation for the minimization and recovery of plutonium-238 contaminated wastes  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the technical and economic feasibility of molten salt oxidation technology as a volume reduction and recovery process for {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste. Combustible low-level waste material contaminated with {sup 238}Pu residue is destroyed by oxidation in a 900 C molten salt reaction vessel. The combustible waste is destroyed creating carbon dioxide and steam and a small amount of ash and insoluble {sup 2328}Pu in the spent salt. The valuable {sup 238}Pu is recycled using aqueous recovery techniques. Experimental test results for this technology indicate a plutonium recovery efficiency of 99%. Molten salt oxidation stabilizes the waste converting it to a non-combustible waste. Thus installation and use of molten salt oxidation technology will substantially reduce the volume of {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste. Cost-effectiveness evaluations of molten salt oxidation indicate a significant cost savings when compared to the present plans to package, or re-package, certify and transport these wastes to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for permanent disposal. Clear and distinct cost advantages exist for MSO when the monetary value of the recovered {sup 238}Pu is considered.

Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.

1998-12-31

61

Criticality considerations for salt-cake disolution in DOE waste tanks  

SciTech Connect

A large amount of high-level waste is being stored in the form of salt cake at the Savannah River site (SRS) in large (1.3 x 106 gal) underground tanks awaiting startup of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This salt cake will be dissolved with water, and the solution will be fed to DWPF for immobilization in borosilicate glass. Some of the waste that was transferred to the tanks contained enriched uranium and plutonium from chemical reprocessing streams. As water is added to these tanks to dissolve the salt cake, the insoluble portion of this fissile material will be left behind in the tank as the salt solution is pumped out. Because the salt acts as a diluent to the fissile material, the process of repeated water addition, salt dissolution, and salt solution removal will act as a concentrating mechanism for the undissolved fissile material that will remain in the tank. It is estimated that tank 41 H at SRS contains 20 to 120 kg of enriched uranium, varying from 10 to 70% {sup 235}U, distributed nonuniformly throughout the tank. This paper discusses the criticality concerns associated with the dissolution of salt cake in this tank. These concerns are also applicable to other salt cake waste tanks that contain significant quantities of enriched uranium and/or plutonium.

Trumble, E.F.; Niemer, K.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)

1995-12-31

62

Alternative Electrochemical Salt Waste Forms, Summary of FY2010 Results  

SciTech Connect

In FY2009, PNNL performed scoping studies to qualify two waste form candidates, tellurite (TeO2-based) glasses and halide minerals, for the electrochemical waste stream for further investigation. Both candidates showed promise with acceptable PCT release rates and effective incorporation of the 10% fission product waste stream. Both candidates received reprisal for FY2010 and were further investigated. At the beginning of FY2010, an in-depth literature review kicked off the tellurite glasses study. The review was aimed at ascertaining the state-of-the-art for chemical durability testing and mixed chloride incorporation for tellurite glasses. The literature review led the authors to 4 unique binary and 1 unique ternary systems for further investigation which include TeO2 plus the following: PbO, Al2O3-B2O3, WO3, P2O5, and ZnO. Each system was studied with and without a mixed chloride simulated electrochemical waste stream and the literature review provided the starting points for the baseline compositions as well as starting points for melting temperature, compatible crucible types, etc. The most promising glasses in each system were scaled up in production and were analyzed with the Product Consistency Test, a chemical durability test. Baseline and PCT glasses were analyzed to determine their state, i.e., amorphous, crystalline, phase separated, had undissolved material within the bulk, etc. Conclusions were made as well as the proposed direction for FY2011 plans. Sodalite was successfully synthesized by the sol-gel method. The vast majority of the dried sol-gel consisted of sodalite with small amounts of alumino-silicates and unreacted salt. Upon firing the powders made by sol-gel, the primary phase observed was sodalite with the addition of varying amounts of nepheline, carnegieite, lithium silicate, and lanthanide oxide. The amount of sodalite, nepheline, and carnegieite as well as the bulk density of the fired pellets varied with firing temperature, sol-gel process chemistry, and the amount of glass sintering aid added to the batch. As the firing temperature was increased from 850 C to 950 C, chloride volatility increased, the fraction of sodalite decreased, and the fractions nepheline and carnegieite increased. This indicates that the sodalite structure is not stable and begins to convert to nepheline and carnegieite under these conditions at 950 C. Density has opposite relationship with relation to firing temperature. The addition of a NBS-1, a glass sintering aid, had a positive effect on bulk density and increased the stability of the sodalite structure in a minimal way.

Riley, Brian J.; Rieck, Bennett T.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Matyas, Josef; McCloy, John S.; Sundaram, S. K.; Vienna, John D.

2010-08-01

63

Saltstone: cement-based waste form for disposal of Savannah River Plant low-level radioactive salt waste  

SciTech Connect

Defense waste processing at the Savannah River Plant will include decontamination and disposal of approximately 400 million liters of waste containing NaNO/sub 3/, NaOH, Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, and NaNO/sub 2/. After decontamination, the salt solution is classified as low-level waste. A cement-based waste form, saltstone, has been designed for disposal of Savannah River Plant low-level radioactive salt waste. Bulk properties of this material have been tailored with respect to salt leach rate, permeability, and compressive strength. Microstructure and mineralogy of leached and unleached specimens were characterized by SEM and x-ray diffraction analyses. The disposal system for the DWPF salt waste includes reconstitution of the crystallized salt as a solution containing 32 wt % solids. This solution will be decontaminated to remove /sup 137/Cs and /sup 90/Sr and then stabilized in a cement-based waste form. Laboratory and field tests indicate that this stabilization process greatly reduces the mobility of all of the waste constitutents in the surface and near-surface environment. Engineered trenches for subsurface burial of the saltstone have been designed to ensure compatibility between the waste form and the environment. The total disposal sytem, saltstone-trench-surrounding soil, has been designed to contain radionuclides, Cr, and Hg by both physical encapsulation and chemical fixation mechanisms. Physical encapsulation of the salts is the mechanism employed for controlling N and OH releases. In this way, final disposal of the SRP low-level waste can be achieved and the quality of the groundwater at the perimeter of the disposal site meets EPA drinking water standards.

Langton, C.A.

1984-01-01

64

Salt splitting of sodium-dominated radioactive waste using ceramic membranes  

SciTech Connect

The potential for salt splitting of sodium dominated radioactive wastes by use of a ceramic membrane is reviewed. The technical basis for considering this processing technology is derived from the technology developed for battery and chlor-alkali chemical industry. Specific comparisons are made with the commercial organic membranes which are the standard in nonradioactive salt splitting. Two features of ceramic membranes are expected to be especially attractive: high tolerance to gamma irradiation and high selectivity between sodium and other ions. The objective of the salt splitting process is to separate nonradioactive sodium from contaminated sodium salts prior to other pretreatment processes in order to: (1) concentrate the waste in order to reduce the volume of subsequent additives and capacity of equipment, (2) decrease the pH of the waste in preparation for further processing, and (3) provide sodium with very low radioactivity levels for caustic washing of sludge or low level and mixed waste vitrification.

Hollenberg, G.W.; Carlson, C.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Virkar, A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Joshi, A. [Ceramatec, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1994-08-01

65

Destruction of high explosives and wastes containing high explosives using the Molten Salt Destruction Process  

SciTech Connect

The current method of disposal of large quantities of high explosives (HE), or other energetic materials, by open-pit burning, or detonation is becoming an environmentally unacceptable form of bulk destruction of these materials because of the products of incomplete combustion of HE. The Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process has been demonstrated for the destruction of HE and HE-containing wastes. MSD converts the organic constituents (including the HE) of the waste into non-hazardous substances such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water. In the case of HE-containing mixed wastes, any actinides in the waste are retained in the molten salt, thus converting the mixed wastes into low-level wastes. The destruction of HE is accomplished by introducing it, together with oxidant gases, into a crucible containing a molten salt, such as sodium carbonate, or a suitable mixture of the carbonates of sodium, potassium, lithium and calcium. The temperature of the molten salt can be between 400 to 900[degree]C. The combustible organic components of the waste react with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, nitrogen and steam. The inorganic components, in the form of ash,'' are captured in the molten salt bed as a result of wetting and dissolution of the ash. Halogenated hydrocarbons in the waste generate acid gases such as hydrogen chloride during the pyrolysis and combustion processes occurring in the melt. These are scrubbed by the alkaline carbonates, producing steam and the from the process are sent through standard off-gas clean-up processing before being, released to the atmosphere. At the end of the process runs, the salt is separated into carbonates, non-carbonate salts, and ash. The carbonates are recycled to the process, the stable salts are disposal of appropriately.

Upadhye, R.S.; Brummond, W.A.; Pruneda, C.O.

1992-05-01

66

Application of molten salt oxidation for the minimization and recovery of plutonium-238 contaminated wastes  

SciTech Connect

Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is proposed as a {sup 238}Pu waste treatment technology that should be developed for volume reduction and recovery of {sup 238}Pu and as an alternative to the transport and permanent disposal of {sup 238}Pu waste to the WIPP repository. In MSO technology, molten sodium carbonate salt at 800--900 C in a reaction vessel acts as a reaction media for wastes. The waste material is destroyed when injected into the molten salt, creating harmless carbon dioxide and steam and a small amount of ash in the spent salt. The spent salt can be treated using aqueous separation methods to reuse the salt and to recover 99.9% of the precious {sup 238}Pu that was in the waste. Tests of MSO technology have shown that the volume of combustible TRU waste can be reduced by a factor of at least twenty. Using this factor the present inventory of 574 TRU drums of {sup 238}Pu contaminated wastes is reduced to 30 drums. Further {sup 238}Pu waste costs of $22 million are avoided from not having to repackage 312 of the 574 drums to a drum total of more than 4,600 drums. MSO combined with aqueous processing of salts will recover approximately 1.7 kilograms of precious {sup 238}Pu valued at 4 million dollars (at $2,500/gram). Thus, installation and use of MSO technology at LANL will result in significant cost savings compared to present plans to transport and dispose {sup 238}Pu TRU waste to the WIPP site. Using a total net present value cost for the MSO project as $4.09 million over a five-year lifetime, the project can pay for itself after either recovery of 1.6 kg of Pu or through volume reduction of 818 drums or a combination of the two. These savings show a positive return on investment.

Wishau, R.

1998-05-01

67

Molten salt oxidation: a versatile and promising technology for the destruction of organic-containing wastes.  

PubMed

Molten salt oxidation (MSO), a robust thermal but non-flame process, has the inherent capability of destroying organic constituents in wastes, while retaining inorganic and radioactive materials in situ. It has been considered as an alternative to incineration and may be a solution to many waste disposal problems. The present review first describes the history and development of MSO, as well as design and engineering details, and then focuses on reaction mechanisms and its potential applications in various wastes, including hazardous wastes, medical wastes, mixed wastes, and energetic materials. Finally, the current status of and prospects for the MSO process and directions for future research are considered. PMID:21726891

Yao, Zhitong; Li, Jinhui; Zhao, Xiangyang

2011-08-01

68

Modified phosphate ceramics for stabilization and solidification of salt mixed wastes.  

SciTech Connect

Novel chemically bonded phosphate ceramics have been investigated for stabilization and solidification of chloride and nitrate salt wastes. Using low-temperature processing, we stabilized and solidified chloride and nitrate surrogate salts (with hazardous metals) in magnesium potassium phosphate ceramics up to waste loadings of 70-80 wt.%. A variety of characterizations, including strength, microstructure, and leaching, were then conducted on the waste forms. Leaching tests show that all heavy metals in the leachant are well below the EPAs universal treatment standard limits. Long-term leaching tests, per ANS 16. 1 procedure, yields leachability index for nitrate ions > 12. Chloride ions are expected to have an even higher (i.e., better) leachability index. Structural performance of these final waste forms, as indicated by compression strength and durability in aqueous environments, satisfies the regulatory criteria. Thus, based on the results of this study, it seems that phosphate ceramics are viable option for containment of salt wastes.

Singh, D.

1998-06-26

69

Expected near-field radionuclide transport for nuclear waste repositories at potential salt sites  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide transport analyses were made for seven potentially acceptable salt sites for nuclear waste repositories for commercial high-level waste (CHLW) and spent fuel from pressurized-water reactors (SFPWR). These transport analyses used thermally induced brine volumes at each salt site and curie inventories specific to CHLW and SFPWR waste. The analyses conservatively assumed that the radionuclides would immediately dissolve in available brine even though the expected lifetime of the package exceeds 10,000 years. The average CHLW or average SFPWR waste package is not expected to fail for over 10,000 years. These radionuclide transport analyses predict that any of the seven potentially acceptable salt sites would provide excellent isolation of nuclear waste for radionuclide transport based on the diffusion of brine.

McNulty, E.G.; Bloom, S.G.; Raines, G.E.

1987-11-01

70

Study on a regeneration process of LiCl-KCl eutectic based waste salt generated from the pyrochemical process  

SciTech Connect

A regeneration process of LiCl-KCl eutectic waste salt generated from the pyrochemical process of spent nuclear fuel has been studied. This regeneration process is composed of a chemical conversion process and a vacuum distillation process. Through the regeneration process, a high efficiency of renewable salt recovery can be obtained from the waste salt and rare earth nuclides in the waste salt can be separated as oxide or phosphate forms. Thus, the regeneration process can contribute greatly to a reduction of the waste volume and a creation of durable final waste forms. (authors)

Eun, H.C.; Cho, Y.Z.; Choi, J.H.; Kim, J.H.; Lee, T.K.; Park, H.S.; Kim, I.T.; Park, G.I. [Nuclear Fuel Cycle Waste Treatment Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-Daero, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 3054-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01

71

Brine migration in salt and its implications in the geologic disposal of nuclear waste  

SciTech Connect

This report respresents a comprehensive review and analysis of available information relating to brine migration in salt surrounding radioactive waste in a salt repository. The topics covered relate to (1) the characteristics of salt formations and waste packages pertinent to considerations of rates, amounts, and effects of brine migration, (2) experimental and theoretical information on brine migration, and (3) means of designing to minimize any adverse effects of brine migration. Flooding, brine pockets, and other topics were not considered, since these features will presumably be eliminated by appropriate site selection and repository design. 115 references.

Jenks, G.H.; Claiborne, H.C.

1981-12-01

72

Salt Disposal Investigations to Study Thermally Hot Radioactive Waste In A Deep Geologic Repository in Bedded Rock Salt - 12488  

SciTech Connect

A research program is proposed to investigate the behavior of salt when subjected to thermal loads like those that would be present in a high-level waste repository. This research would build upon results of decades of previous salt repository program efforts in the US and Germany and the successful licensing and operation of a repository in salt for disposal of defense transuranic waste. The proposal includes a combination of laboratory-scale investigations, numerical simulations conducted to develop validated models that could be used for future repository design and safety case development, and a thermal field test in an underground salt formation with a configuration that replicates a small portion of a conceptual repository design. Laboratory tests are proposed to measure salt and brine properties across and beyond the range of possible repository conditions. Coupled numerical models will seek to describe phenomenology (thermal, mechanical, and hydrological) observed in the laboratory tests. Finally, the field test will investigate many phenomena that have been variously cited as potential issues for disposal of thermally hot waste in salt, including buoyancy effects and migration of pre-existing trapped brine up the thermal gradient (including vapor phase migration). These studies are proposed to be coordinated and managed by the Carlsbad Field Office of DOE, which is also responsible for the operation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) within the Office of Environmental Management. The field test portion of the proposed research would be conducted in experimental areas of the WIPP underground, far from disposal operations. It is believed that such tests may be accomplished using the existing infrastructure of the WIPP repository at a lower cost than if such research were conducted at a commercial salt mine at another location. The phased field test is proposed to be performed over almost a decade, including instrumentation development, several years of measurements during heating and then subsequent cooling periods, and the eventual forensic mining back of the test bed to determine the multi-year behavior of the simulated waste/rock environment. Funding possibilities are described, and prospects for near term start-up are discussed. Mining of the access drifts required to create the test area in the WIPP underground began in November 2011. Because this mining uses existing WIPP infrastructure and labor, it is estimated to take about two years to complete the access drifts. WIPP disposal operations and facility maintenance activities will take priority over the SDI field test area mining. Funding of the SDI proposal was still being considered by DOE's Offices of Environmental Management and Nuclear Energy at the time this paper was written, so no specific estimates of the progress in 2012 have been included. (authors)

Nelson, Roger A. [DOE, Carlsbad Field Office, Carlsbad NM (United States); Buschman, Nancy [DOE, Office of Environmental Management, Washington DC (United States)

2012-07-01

73

Study of lithium borosilicotitanate glasses with LiCl  

SciTech Connect

The effect of LiCl addition on the properties of Li{sub 2}O: B{sub 2}O{sub 3}: SiO{sub 2}: TiO{sub 2} glasses has been studied. It has been observed that the ionic conductivity increases by about half an order with LiCl addition. The decrease in glass transition temperature T{sub g} and increase in the molar volume with LiCl addition have good correlation with conductivity results. The observed increase in density of glasses has been explained on the basis of heavier Cl{sup -} ion which is accommodated in the interstices in the glass network.

Deshpande, A. V.; Paighan, N. S. [Department of Applied Physics Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur, 440010 (India)

2012-06-05

74

Developing and testing electrochemical methods for treating metal salts, cyanides and organic compounds in waste streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical methods to process radioactive and hazardous (mixed) wastes were studied at a bench scale. Cadmium, copper, mercury, and chromium salts, cyanides, and simple organic compounds were used in the tests. Effective conditions were found to process these waste components by electrolysis. The equipment used in the tests included flow-through cells, a membrane cell, and a graphite packed bed cell.

J. Dziewinski; S. Marczak; E. Nuttall; G. Purdy; W. Smith; J. Taylor; C. Zhou

1998-01-01

75

Alternative Electrochemical Salt Waste Forms, Summary of FY/CY2011 Results  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the 2011 fiscal+calendar year efforts for developing waste forms for a spent salt generated in reprocessing nuclear fuel with an electrochemical separations process. The two waste forms are tellurite (TeO2-based) glasses and sol-gel-derived high-halide mineral analogs to stable minerals found in nature.

Riley, Brian J.; McCloy, John S.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Windisch, Charles F.; Lepry, William C.; Matyas, Josef; Westman, Matthew P.; Rieck, Bennett T.; Lang, Jesse B.; Pierce, David A.

2011-12-01

76

Using Aspen simulation package to determine solubility of mixed salts in TRU waste evaporator bottoms  

SciTech Connect

Nitric acid from plutonium process waste is a candidate for waste minimization by recycling. Process simulation software packages, such as Aspen, are valuable tools to estimate how effective recovery processes can be, however, constants in equations of state for many ionic components are not in their data libraries. One option is to combine single salt solubility`s in the Aspen model for mixed salt system. Single salt solubilities were regressed in Aspen within 0.82 weight percent of literature values. These were combined into a single Aspen model and used in the mixed salt studies. A simulated nitric acid waste containing mixed aluminum, calcium, iron, magnesium and sodium nitrate was tested to determine points of solubility between 25 and 100 C. Only four of the modeled experimental conditions, at 50 C and 75 C, produced a saturated solution. While experimental results indicate that sodium nitrate is the first salt to crystallize out, the Aspen computer model shows that the most insoluble salt, magnesium nitrate, the first salt to crystallize. Possible double salt formation is actually taking place under experimental conditions, which is not captured by the Aspen model.

Hatchell, J.L.

1998-03-01

77

Test procedures for polyester immobilized salt-containing surrogate mixed wastes  

SciTech Connect

These test procedures are written to meet the procedural needs of the Test Plan for immobilization of salt containing surrogate mixed waste using polymer resins, HNF-SD-RE-TP-026 and to ensure adequacy of conduct and collection of samples and data. This testing will demonstrate the use of four different polyester vinyl ester resins in the solidification of surrogate liquid and dry wastes, similar to some mixed wastes generated by DOE operations.

Biyani, R.K.; Hendrickson, D.W.

1997-07-18

78

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's report on Functional Design Criteria for a Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes Argonne's review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's (ONWI's) draft report entitled Functional Design Criteria for High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository in Salt, dated January 23, 1984. Recommendations are given for improving the ONWI draft report.

Hambley, D.F.; Russell, J.E.; Busch, J.S.; Harrison, W.; Edgar, D.E.; Tisue, M.W.

1984-08-01

79

Conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements for disposal of borosilicate glass defense high-level waste forms in salt geologic repositories  

SciTech Connect

The conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements presented are applicable specifically to the normal borosilicate glass product of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). They provide preliminary numerical values for the defense high-level waste form parameters and properties identified in the waste form performance specification for geologic isolation in salt repositories. Subject areas treated include containment and isolation, operational period safety, criticality control, waste form/production canister identification, and waste package performance testing requirements. This document was generated for use in the development of conceptual waste package designs in salt. It will be revised as additional data, analyses, and regulatory requirements become available.

Not Available

1983-06-01

80

Potential vertical movement of large heat-generating waste packages in salt.  

SciTech Connect

With renewed interest in disposal of heat-generating waste in bedded or domal salt formations, scoping analyses were conducted to estimate rates of waste package vertical movement. Vertical movement is found to result from thermal expansion, from upward creep or heave of the near-field salt, and from downward buoyant forces on the waste package. A two-pronged analysis approach was used, with thermal-mechanical creep modeling, and coupled thermal-viscous flow modeling. The thermal-mechanical approach used well-studied salt constitutive models, while the thermal-viscous approach represented the salt as a highly viscous fluid. The Sierra suite of coupled simulation codes was used for both approaches. The waste package in all simulations was a right-circular cylinder with the density of steel, in horizontal orientation. A time-decaying heat generation function was used to represent commercial spent fuel with typical burnup and 50-year age. Results from the thermal-mechanical base case showed approximately 27 cm initial uplift of the package, followed by gradual relaxation closely following the calculated temperature history. A similar displacement history was obtained with the package density set equal to that of salt. The slight difference in these runs is attributable to buoyant displacement (sinking) and is on the order of 1 mm in 2,000 years. Without heat generation the displacement stabilizes at a fraction of millimeter after a few hundred years. Results from thermal-viscous model were similar, except that the rate of sinking was constant after cooldown, at approximately 0.15 mm per 1,000 yr. In summary, all calculations showed vertical movement on the order of 1 mm or less in 2,000 yr, including calculations using well-established constitutive models for temperature-dependent salt deformation. Based on this finding, displacement of waste packages in a salt repository is not a significant repository performance issue.

Clayton, Daniel James; Martinez, Mario J.; Hardin, Ernest L.

2013-05-01

81

Glovebox design requirements for molten salt oxidation processing of transuranic waste  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an overview of potential technologies for stabilization of {sup 238}Pu-contaminated combustible waste. Molten salt oxidation (MSO) provides a method for removing greater than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible waste. Implementation of MSO processing at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Plutonium Facility will eliminate the combustible matrix from {sup 238}Pu-contaminated waste and consequently reduce the cost of TRU waste disposal operations at LANL. The glovebox design requirements for unit operations including size reduction and MSO processing will be presented.

Ramsey, K.B.; Acosta, S.V. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Wernly, K.D. [Molten Salt Oxidation Corp., Bensalem, PA (United States)

1998-12-31

82

Reduction of salt cake waste by removing low value oxide fines  

SciTech Connect

With the ongoing pressure on the secondary aluminum business to limit the amount of waste generated from processing aluminum dross, it becomes very advantageous to preprocess the dross to reduce waste. The advantage of preprocessing is that it significantly reduces the oxides and salt cake generated when melted. Various products can be produced from the oxides for the steel industry. The paper will demonstrate that removal of oxide fines before melting will result in large volumes of material not being landfilled. The authors will show that the end result of this technology is to significantly reduce the amount of salt cake sent to a landfill while maximizing the recyclability of the aluminum dross.

Skoch, J.T.; Collins, R.L. [Rock Creek Aluminum, Inc., Elyria, OH (United States)

1995-12-31

83

Concurrence of Meningomyelocele and Salt-Wasting Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency.  

PubMed

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of inherited defects of cortisol biosynthesis. A case of classical CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) with early onset of salt waste and concurrence of meningomyelocele (MMC) was presented here. The management of salt-wasting crisis which is complicated by a postrenal dysfunction due to neurogenic bladder was described. Possible reasons of growth retardation in the one-year follow-up period were discussed. A significant regression of the phallus with proper medical treatment was also mentioned. PMID:25685584

K?rm?z?bekmez, Heves; Yesiltepe Mutlu, Rahime Gül; Moral?o?lu, Serdar; Tellio?lu, Ahmet; Cerrah Celayir, Ay?enur

2015-01-01

84

Concurrence of Meningomyelocele and Salt-Wasting Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of inherited defects of cortisol biosynthesis. A case of classical CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) with early onset of salt waste and concurrence of meningomyelocele (MMC) was presented here. The management of salt-wasting crisis which is complicated by a postrenal dysfunction due to neurogenic bladder was described. Possible reasons of growth retardation in the one-year follow-up period were discussed. A significant regression of the phallus with proper medical treatment was also mentioned. PMID:25685584

K?rm?z?bekmez, Heves; Yesiltepe Mutlu, Rahime Gül; Moral?o?lu, Serdar; Tellio?lu, Ahmet; Cerrah Celayir, Ay?enur

2015-01-01

85

Alternative Electrochemical Salt Waste Forms, Summary of FY11-FY12 Results  

SciTech Connect

The Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, is currently investigating alternative waste forms for wastes generated from nuclear fuel processing. One such waste results from an electrochemical separations process, called the “Echem” process. The Echem process utilizes a molten KCl-LiCl salt to dissolve the fuel. This process results in a spent salt containing alkali, alkaline earth, lanthanide halides and small quantities of actinide halides, where the primary halide is chloride with a minor iodide fraction. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is concurrently investigating two candidate waste forms for the Echem spent-salt: high-halide minerals (i.e., sodalite and cancrinite) and tellurite (TeO2)-based glasses. Both of these candidates showed promise in fiscal year (FY) 2009 and FY2010 with a simplified nonradioactive simulant of the Echem waste. Further testing was performed on these waste forms in FY2011 and FY2012 to assess the possibility of their use in a sustainable fuel cycle. This report summarizes the combined results from FY2011 and FY2012 efforts.

Riley, Brian J.; Mccloy, John S.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Lepry, William C.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Windisch, Charles F.; Matyas, Josef; Westman, Matthew P.; Rieck, Bennett T.; Lang, Jesse B.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Pierce, David A.

2014-03-26

86

Developing and testing electrochemical methods for treating metal salts, cyanides and organic compounds in waste streams  

SciTech Connect

Electrochemical methods to process radioactive and hazardous (mixed) wastes were studied at a bench scale. Cadmium, copper, mercury, and chromium salts, cyanides, and simple organic compounds were used in the tests. Effective conditions were found to process these waste components by electrolysis. The equipment used in the tests included flow-through cells, a membrane cell, and a graphite packed bed cell. The tested methods included an open cell electrolysis, use of pulsating current, and mediated electro-oxidation. The experiments demonstrated the feasibility of applying electrochemical systems to treat the studied waste components. The great advantage of electrochemical systems is that the treatment of various wastes, or streams containing selected waste components, can be accomplished in a single treatment unit. Additional advantages of electrochemical systems are their safety, ability to recycle, and the fact that they are inclined to receive a positive public perception. The tested systems are presently used at Los Alamos National Laboratory to process mixed wastes.

Dziewinski, J.; Marczak, S.; Purdy, G.; Smith, W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Nuttall, E. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Taylor, J.; Zhou, C. [Faraday Technologies Inc., Dayton, OH (United States)] [Faraday Technologies Inc., Dayton, OH (United States)

1998-12-31

87

Caustic Recycle from Hanford Tank Waste Using NaSICON Ceramic Membrane Salt Splitting Process  

SciTech Connect

A family of inorganic ceramic materials, called sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON), has been studied at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to investigate their ability to separate sodium from radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions for treating U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tank wastes. Ceramatec Inc. developed and fabricated a membrane containing a proprietary NAS-GY material formulation that was electrochemically tested in a bench-scale apparatus with both a simulant and a radioactive tank-waste solution to determine the membrane performance when removing sodium from DOE tank wastes. Implementing this sodium separation process can result in significant cost savings by reducing the disposal volume of low-activity wastes and by producing a NaOH feedstock product for recycle into waste treatment processes such as sludge leaching, regenerating ion exchange resins, inhibiting corrosion in carbon-steel tanks, or retrieving tank wastes.

Fountain, Matthew S.; Kurath, Dean E.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Pendleton, J.; Balagopal, S.; Quist, M.; Clay, D.

2009-02-20

88

Molten salt destruction as an alternative to open burning of energetic material wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

LLNL has built a small-scale (about 1 kg\\/hr throughput unit to test the destruction of energetic materials using the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) process. We have modified the unit described in the earlier references to inject energetic waste material continuously into the unit. In addition to the HMX, other explosives we have destroyed include RDX, PETN, ammonium picrate, TNT, nitroguanadine,

R. S. Upadhye; B. E. Watkins; C. O. Pruneda; W. A. Brummond

1994-01-01

89

Destruction of high explosives and wastes containing high explosives using the Molten Salt Destruction Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current method of disposal of large quantities of high explosives (HE), or other energetic materials, by open-pit burning, or detonation is becoming an environmentally unacceptable form of bulk destruction of these materials because of the products of incomplete combustion of HE. The Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process has been demonstrated for the destruction of HE and HE-containing wastes. MSD

R. S. Upadhye; W. A. Brummond; C. O. Pruneda

1992-01-01

90

Preliminary Technical and Legal Evaluation of Disposing of Nonhazardous Oil Field Waste into Salt Caverns  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an initial evaluation of the suitability, feasibility, and legality of using salt caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes. Given the preliminary and general nature of this report, we recognize that some of our findings and conclusions maybe speculative and subject to change upon further research on this topic.

Ayers, Robert C.; Caudle, Dan; Elcock, Deborah; Raivel, Mary; Veil, John; and Grunewald, Ben

1999-01-21

91

Fluid Transport Driven by Heat-Generating Nuclear Waste in Bedded Salt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The question of where to safely dispose high-level nuclear waste (HLW) provides ample motivation for scientific research on deep geologic disposal options. The goal of this study is to model the dominant heat and mass transport processes that would be driven by heat generating nuclear waste buried in bedded salt. The interaction between liquid brine flow towards the heat source, establishment of a heat pipe in the mine-run salt backfill, boiling, and vapor condensation leads to changes in porosity, permeability, saturation, thermal conductivity, and rheology of the salt surrounding potential waste canisters. The Finite Element Heat and Mass transfer code (FEHM) was used to simulate these highly coupled thermal, hydrological, and chemical processes. The numerical model has been tested against recent and historical experimental data to develop and improve the salt material model. We used the validated numerical model to make predictions of temperature gradients, porosity changes, and tracer behavior that will be testable in a future 2-year field-scale heater experiment to be carried out in an experimental test bed at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site near Carlsbad, NM.

Jordan, A.; Harp, D. R.; Stauffer, P. H.; Ten Cate, J. A.; Labyed, Y.; Boukhalfa, H.; Lu, Z.; Person, M. A.; Robinson, B. A.

2013-12-01

92

Disposal of NORM-Contaminated Oil Field Wastes in Salt Caverns  

SciTech Connect

In 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) into salt caverns. That study concluded that disposal of NOW into salt caverns is feasible and legal. If caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they can be a suitable means of disposing of NOW (Veil et al. 1996). Considering these findings and the increased U.S. interest in using salt caverns for NOW disposal, the Office of Fossil Energy asked Argonne to conduct further research on the cost of cavern disposal compared with the cost of more traditional NOW disposal methods and on preliminary identification and investigation of the risks associated with such disposal. The cost study (Veil 1997) found that disposal costs at the four permitted disposal caverns in the United States were comparable to or lower than the costs of other disposal facilities in the same geographic area. The risk study (Tomasko et al. 1997) estimated that both cancer and noncancer human health risks from drinking water that had been contaminated by releases of cavern contents were significantly lower than the accepted risk thresholds. Since 1992, DOE has funded Argonne to conduct a series of studies evaluating issues related to management and disposal of oil field wastes contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Included among these studies were radiological dose assessments of several different NORM disposal options (Smith et al. 1996). In 1997, DOE asked Argonne to conduct additional analyses on waste disposal in salt caverns, except that this time the wastes to be evaluated would be those types of oil field wastes that are contaminated by NORM. This report describes these analyses. Throughout the remainder of this report, the term ''NORM waste'' is used to mean ''oil field waste contaminated by NORM''.

Blunt, D.L.; Elcock, D.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Viel, J.A.; and Williams, G.P.

1999-01-21

93

Engineering study of the potential uses of salts from selective crystallization of Hanford tank wastes  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Salt Process (CSP) is the fractional crystallization of nitrate salts from tank waste stored on the Hanford Site. This study reviews disposition options for a CSP product made from Hanford Site tank waste. These options range from public release to onsite low-level waste disposal to no action. Process, production, safety, environment, cost, schedule, and the amount of CSP material which may be used are factors considered in each option. The preferred alternative is offsite release of clean salt. Savings all be generated by excluding the material from low-level waste stabilization. Income would be received from sales of salt products. Savings and income from this alternative amount to $1,027 million, excluding the cost of CSP operations. Unless public sale of CSP products is approved, the material should be calcined. The carbonate form of the CSP could then be used as ballast in tank closure and stabilization efforts. Not including the cost of CSP operations, savings of $632 million would be realized. These savings would result from excluding the material from low-level waste stabilization and reducing purchases of chemicals for caustic recycle and stabilization and closure. Dose considerations for either alternative are favorable. No other cost-effective alternatives that were considered had the capacity to handle significant quantities of the CSP products. If CSP occurs, full-scale tank-waste stabilization could be done without building additional treatment facilities after Phase 1 (DOE 1996). Savings in capital and operating cost from this reduction in waste stabilization would be in addition to the other gains described.

Hendrickson, D.W.

1996-04-30

94

Direct Grout Stabilization of High Cesium Salt Waste: Cesium Leaching Studies  

SciTech Connect

'The direct grout alternative is a viable option for treatment/stabilization and disposal of salt waste containing Cs-137 concentrations of 1-3 Ci/gal. The significant difference between these waste solutions is that the high cesium salt solution will contain between 1 and 3 Curies of Cs-137 per gallon compared to a negligible amount in the current salt solution. This difference will require special engineering and shielding for a direct grout processing facility and disposal units to achieve acceptable radiation exposure conditions. The higher cesium concentrations in the direct grout also require that the cesium leaching be evaluated as a function of curing temperature. ANS 16.1 leaching results and distribution ratios (approximations of distribution coefficients) as a function of temperature are presented in this report.'

Langton, C.A.

1999-09-19

95

Effect of dissolved LiCl on the ionic liquid-Au(111) interface: an in situ STM study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of the electrolyte/electrode interface plays a significant role in electrochemical processes. To date, most studies are focusing on understanding the interfacial structure in pure ionic liquids. In this paper in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) has been employed to elucidate the structure of the charged Au(111)-ionic liquid (1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate, [Py1,4]FAP) interface in the presence of 0.1 M LiCl. The addition of the Li salt to the ionic liquid has a strong influence on the interfacial structure. In the first STM scan in situ measurements reveal that Au(111) undergoes the (22 \\times \\surd 3) ‘herringbone’ reconstruction in a certain potential regime, and there is strong evidence that the gold surface dissolves at negative electrode potentials in [Py1,4]FAP containing LiCl. Bulk deposition of Li is obtained at -2.9 V in the second STM scan.

Borisenko, Natalia; Atkin, Rob; Lahiri, Abhishek; Zein El Abedin, Sherif; Endres, Frank

2014-07-01

96

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: geochemistry of brine in rock salt in temperature gradients and gamma-radiation fields - a selective annotated bibliography  

SciTech Connect

Evaluation of the extensive research concerning brine geochemistry and transport is critically important to successful exploitation of a salt formation for isolating high-level radioactive waste. This annotated bibliography has been compiled from documents considered to provide classic background material on the interactions between brine and rock salt, as well as the most important results from more recent research. Each summary elucidates the information or data most pertinent to situations encountered in siting, constructing, and operating a mined repository in salt for high-level radioactive waste. The research topics covered include the basic geology, depositional environment, mineralogy, and structure of evaporite and domal salts, as well as fluid inclusions, brine chemistry, thermal and gamma-radiation effects, radionuclide migration, and thermodynamic properties of salts and brines. 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Hull, A.B.; Williams, L.B.

1985-07-01

97

The advantages of a salt/bentonite backfill for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal rooms  

SciTech Connect

A 70/30 wt% salt/bentonite mixture is shown to be preferable to pure crushed salt as backfill for disposal rooms in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report discusses several selection criteria used to arrive at this conclusion: the need for low permeability and porosity after closure, chemical stability with the surroundings, adequate strength to avoid shear erosion from human intrusion, ease of emplacement, and sorption potential for brine and radionuclides. Both salt and salt/bentonite are expected to consolidate to a final state of impermeability (i.e., {le} 10{sup {minus}18}m{sup 2}) adequate for satisfying federal nuclear regulations. Any advantage of the salt/bentonite mixture is dependent upon bentonite's potential for sorbing brine and radionuclides. Estimates suggest that bentonite's sorption potential for water in brine is much less than for pure water. While no credit is presently taken for brine sorption in salt/bentonite backfill, the possibility that some amount of inflowing brine would be chemically bound is considered likely. Bentonite may also sorb much of the plutonium, americium, and neptunium within the disposal room inventory. Sorption would be effective only if a major portion of the backfill is in contact with radioactive brine. Brine flow from the waste out through highly localized channels in the backfill would negate sorption effectiveness. Although the sorption potentials of bentonite for both brine and radionuclides are not ideal, they are distinctly beneficial. Furthermore, no detrimental aspects of adding bentonite to the salt as a backfill have been identified. These two observations are the major reasons for selecting salt/bentonite as a backfill within the WIPP. 39 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

Butcher, B.M.; Novak, C.F. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Jercinovic, M. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1991-04-01

98

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of low-activity waste immobilization. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudohydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Studies at PNNL are directed toward new solvent formulation for the practical sodium pseudohydroxide extraction systems.

Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

2006-06-01

99

Molten salt destruction of energetic material wastes as an alternative to open burning. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

As a result of the end of the Cold War and the shift in emphasis to a smaller stockpile, many munitions, both conventional and nuclear, are scheduled for retirement and rapid dismantlement and demilitarization. Major components of these munitions are the explosives and propellants, or energetic materials. The Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process has been demonstrated for the destruction of HE and HE-containing wastes. MSD converts the organic constituents of the waste into non-hazardous substances such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water. Any inorganic constituents of the waste, such as binders and metallic particles, are retained in the molten salt. LLNL has built a small-scale (about 1 kg/hr throughput) unit to test the destruction of HE using the MSD process. The authors have demonstrated that HE`s and liquid propellants can be safely and fully destroyed using the molten salt destruction process. The authors are currently working on a number of improvements to the process. They are modifying the design of unit to obtain more throughput without any increase in salt entrainment. They are implementing an advanced nozzle design for injection of larger particles. They are defining operating envelopes for a number of high explosives and formulations. They are developing models to study the temperature profile of a top-feed nozzle for feeding larger particles into the unit.

Upadhye, R.S.; Brummond, W.A.; Pruneda, C.O.; Watkins, B.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Energetic Materials Center

1994-11-02

100

Characteristics of wasteform composing of phosphate and silicate to immobilize radioactive waste salts.  

PubMed

In the radioactive waste management, metal chloride wastes from a pyrochemical process is one of problematic wastes not directly applicable to a conventional solidification process. Different from a use of minerals or a specific phosphate glass for immobilizing radioactive waste salts, our research group applied an inorganic composite, SAP (SiO(2)-Al(2)O(3)-P(2)O(5)), to stabilize them by dechlorination. From this method, a unique wasteform composing of phosphate and silicate could be fabricated. This study described the characteristic of the wasteform on the morphology, chemical durability, and some physical properties. The wasteform has a unique "domain-matrix" structure which would be attributed to the incompatibility between silicate and phosphate glass. At higher amounts of chemical binder, "P-rich phase encapsulated by Si-rich phase" was a dominant morphology, but it was changed to be Si-rich phase encapsulated by P-rich phase at a lower amount of binder. The domain and subdomain size in the wasteform was about 0.5-2 ?m and hundreds of nm, respectively. The chemical durability of wasteform was confirmed by various leaching test methods (PCT-A, ISO dynamic leaching test, and MCC-1). From the leaching tests, it was found that the P-rich phase had ten times lower leach-resistance than the Si-rich phase. The leach rates of Cs and Sr in the wasteform were about 10(-3)g/m(2)· day, and the leached fractions of them were about 0.04% and 0.06% at 357 days, respectively. Using this method, we could stabilize and solidify the waste salt to form a monolithic wasteform with good leach-resistance. Also, the decrease of waste volume by the dechlorination approach would be beneficial in the final disposal cost, compared with the present immobilization methods for waste salt. PMID:21288037

Park, Hwan-Seo; Cho, In-Hak; Eun, Hee Chul; Kim, In-Tae; Cho, Yong Zun; Lee, Han-Soo

2011-03-01

101

Non-Radiological Air Quality Modeling for the High-Level Waste Salt Disposition  

SciTech Connect

Dispersion modeling of non-radiological airborne emissions associated with the construction and operation of three alternatives for high-level waste salt disposition at the Savannah River Site has been completed. The results will be used by Department of Energy-Savannah River in the preparation of the salt disposition supplemental environmental impact statement. Estimated maximum ground-level concentrations of applicable regulated air pollutants of the site boundary and at the distance to a hypothetical, co-located onsite worker are summarized in tables. In all cases, model estimated ambient concentrations are less than regulatory standards.

Hunter, C.H.

1999-11-29

102

Equipment evaluation for low density polyethylene encapsulated nitrate salt waste at the Rocky Flats Plant  

SciTech Connect

Mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) are subject to regulation by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Polymer solidification is being developed as a final treatment technology for several of these mixed wastes, including nitrate salts. Encapsulation nitrate salts with low density polyethylene (LDPE) has been the preliminary focus of the RFP polymer solidification effort. Literature reviews, industry surveys, and lab-scale and pilot-scale tests have been conducted to evaluate several options for encapsulating nitrate salts with LDPE. Most of the effort has focused on identifying compatible drying and extrusion technologies. Other processing options, specifically meltration and non-heated compounding machines, were also investigated. The best approach appears to be pretreatment of the nitrate salt waste brine in either a vertical or horizontal thin film evaporator followed by compounding of the dried waste with LDPE in an intermeshing, co-rotating, twin-screw extruder. Additional pilot-scale tests planned for the fall of 1993 should further support this recommendation. Preliminary evaluation work indicates that meltration is not possible at atmospheric pressure with the LDPE (Chevron PE-1409) provided by RFP. However, meltration should be possible at atmospheric pressure using another LDPE formulation with altered physical and rheological properties: Lower molecular weight and lower viscosity (Epoline C-15). Contract modifications are now in process to allow a follow-on pilot scale demonstration. Questions regarding changed safety and physical properties of the resultant LDPE waste form due to use of the Epoline C-15 will be addressed. No additional work with non-heated mixer compounder machines is planned at this time.

Yamada, W.I.; Faucette, A.M.; Jantzen, R.C.; Logsdon, B.W.; Oldham, J.H.; Saiki, D.M.; Yudnich, R.J.

1993-08-30

103

Prenatal programming of renal salt wasting resets postnatal salt appetite, which drives food intake in the rat.  

PubMed

Sodium retention has been proposed as the cause of hypertension in the LP rat (offspring exposed to a maternal low-protein diet in utero) model of developmental programming because of increased renal NKCC2 (Na+/K+/2Cl- co-transporter 2) expression. However, we have shown that LP rats excrete more rather than less sodium than controls, leading us to hypothesize that LP rats ingest more salt in order to maintain sodium balance. Rats were fed on either a 9% (low) or 18% (control) protein diet during pregnancy; male and female offspring were studied at 4 weeks of age. LP rats of both sexes held in metabolism cages excreted more sodium and urine than controls. When given water to drink, LP rats drank more and ate more food than controls, hence sodium intake matched excretion. However, when given a choice between saline and water to drink, the total volume of fluid ingested by LP rats fell to control levels, but the volume of saline taken was significantly larger [3.8±0.1 compared with 8.8±1.3 ml/24 h per 100 g of body weight in control and LP rats respectively; P<0.001]. Interestingly food intake also fell to control levels. Total body sodium content and ECF (extracellular fluid) volumes were greater in LP rats. These results show that prenatal programming of renal sodium wasting leads to a compensatory increase in salt appetite in LP rats. We speculate that the need to maintain salt homoeostasis following malnutrition in utero stimulates greater food intake, leading to accelerated growth and raised BP (blood pressure). PMID:21966935

Alwasel, Saleh H; Barker, David J P; Ashton, Nick

2012-03-01

104

Caustic Recycle from Hanford Tank Waste Using NaSICON Ceramic Membrane Salt Splitting Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A family of inorganic ceramic materials, called sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON), has been studied at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to investigate their ability to separate sodium from radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions for treating U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tank wastes. Ceramatec Inc. developed and fabricated a membrane containing a proprietary NAS-GY material formulation that was electrochemically

Matthew S. Fountain; Dean E. Kurath; Gary J. Sevigny; Adam P. Poloski; J. Pendleton; S. Balagopal; M. Quist; D. Clay

2009-01-01

105

A Mouse Model for the Renal Salt-Wasting Syndrome Pseudohypoaldosteronism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aldosterone-dependent epithelial sodium transport in the distal nephron is mediated by the absorption of sodium through the highly selective, amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) made of three homologous subunits (alpha , beta , and gamma ). In human, autosomal recessive mutations of alpha , beta , or gamma ENaC subunits cause pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA-1), a renal salt-wasting syndrome characterized

Edith Hummler; Pierre Barker; Colleen Talbot; Qing Wang; Chantal Verdumo; Barbara Grubb; John Gatzy; Michel Burnier; Jean-Daniel Horisberger; Friedrich Beermann; Richard Boucher; Bernard C. Rossier

1997-01-01

106

Materials for high-level waste canister\\/overpacks in salt formations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on the corrosion and mechanical behavior of TiCode-12 and other titanium alloys to be used as candidate canister or overpack barriers in a high-level waste (HLW) repository or test facility in salt have been in progress at Sandia National Laboratories since 1976. Titanium alloys were selected as the primary materials for detailed testing based on candidate screening analyses (general

M. A. Molecke; R. B. Diegle; J. A. Ruppen

1983-01-01

107

Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.  

SciTech Connect

In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. Argonne determined that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, Argonne subsequently conducted a preliminary evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in domal salt caverns. Steps used in this evaluation included the following: identifying potential contaminants of concern, determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing contaminant toxicities, estimating contaminant intakes, and calculating human cancer and noncancer risk estimates. Five postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (referring to noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results led to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes.

Elcock, D.

1998-03-05

108

Salt Wasting and Deafness Resulting from Mutations in Two Chloride Channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, we describe a child with renal salt wasting and deafness who had no mutation in the BSND gene. Given the known role of the barttin protein, we tested the hypothesis that the child's disease resulted from combined impairment of the chlo- ride-channel functions of ClC-Ka and ClC-Kb and that the impairment was caused by a digenic defect

Karl P. Schlingmann; Martin Konrad; Nikola Jeck; Petra Waldegger; Stephan C. Reinalter; Martin Holder; Hannsjörg W. Seyberth; Siegfried Waldegger

2004-01-01

109

Aspects of the thermal and transport properties of crystalline salt in designing radioactive waste storages in halogen formations  

SciTech Connect

Some of the properties of natural rock salt are described. This rock is of great practical interest, because, along with its conventional applications in the chemical and food industries, it is promising for use in engineering underground radioactive waste storages and natural gas reservoirs. The results of structural and texture studies of rock salt by neutron diffraction are discussed. The nature of the salt permeability under temperature and stress gradients is theoretically estimated.

Nikitin, A. N., E-mail: nikitin@nf.jinr.ru; Pocheptsova, O. A.; Matthies, S. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Frank Laboratory of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

2010-05-15

110

Risk analyses for disposing nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns  

SciTech Connect

Salt caverns have been used for several decades to store various hydrocarbon products. In the past few years, four facilities in the US have been permitted to dispose nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns. Several other disposal caverns have been permitted in Canada and Europe. This report evaluates the possibility that adverse human health effects could result from exposure to contaminants released from the caverns in domal salt formations used for nonhazardous oil field waste disposal. The evaluation assumes normal operations but considers the possibility of leaks in cavern seals and cavern walls during the post-closure phase of operation. In this assessment, several steps were followed to identify possible human health risks. At the broadest level, these steps include identifying a reasonable set of contaminants of possible concern, identifying how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing the toxicities of these contaminants, estimating their intakes, and characterizing their associated human health risks. The contaminants of concern for the assessment are benzene, cadmium, arsenic, and chromium. These were selected as being components of oil field waste and having a likelihood to remain in solution for a long enough time to reach a human receptor.

Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.; Caudle, D.

1997-12-01

111

ICP-MS nebulizer performance for analysis of SRS high salt simulated radioactive waste tank solutions ({number_sign}3053)  

SciTech Connect

High Level Radioactive Waste Tanks at the Savannah River Site are high in salt content. The cross-flow nebulizer provided the most stable signal for all salt matrices with the smallest signal loss/suppression due to this matrix. The DIN exhibited a serious lack of tolerance for TDS; possibly due to physical de-tuning of the nebulizer efficiency.

Jones, V.D.

1997-11-01

112

Crystallization of rhenium salts in a simulated low-activity waste borosilicate glass  

SciTech Connect

This study presents a new method for looking at the solubility of volatile species in simulated low-activity waste glass. The present study looking at rhenium salts is also applicable to real applications involving radioactive technetium salts. In this synthesis method, oxide glass powder is mixed with the volatiles species, vacuum-sealed in a fused quartz ampoule, and then heat-treated under vacuum in a furnace. This technique restricts the volatile species to the headspace above the melt but still within the sealed ampoule, thus maximizing the volatile concentration in contact with the glass. Various techniques were used to measure the solubility of rhenium in glass and include energy dispersive spectroscopy, wavelength dispersive spectroscopy, laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectroscopy, and inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The Re-solubility in this glass was determined to be ~3004 parts per million Re atoms. Above this concentration, the salts separated out of the melt as inclusions and as a low viscosity molten salt phase on top of the melt observed during and after cooling. This salt phase was analyzed with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy as well as some of the other aforementioned techniques and identified to be composed of alkali perrhenate and alkali sulfate.

Riley, Brian J.; McCloy, John S.; Goel, Ashutosh; Liezers, Martin; Schweiger, Michael J.; Liu, Juan; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Kim, Dong-Sang

2013-04-01

113

Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), Modular CSSX Unit (CSSX), and Waste Transfer Line System of Salt Processing Program (U)  

SciTech Connect

All of the waste streams from ARP, MCU, and SWPF processes will be sent to DWPF for vitrification. The impact these new waste streams will have on DWPF's ability to meet its canister production goal and its ability to support the Salt Processing Program (ARP, MCU, and SWPF) throughput needed to be evaluated. DWPF Engineering and Operations requested OBU Systems Engineering to evaluate DWPF operations and determine how the process could be optimized. The ultimate goal will be to evaluate all of the Liquid Radioactive Waste (LRW) System by developing process modules to cover all facilities/projects which are relevant to the LRW Program and to link the modules together to: (1) study the interfaces issues, (2) identify bottlenecks, and (3) determine the most cost effective way to eliminate them. The results from the evaluation can be used to assist DWPF in identifying improvement opportunities, to assist CBU in LRW strategic planning/tank space management, and to determine the project completion date for the Salt Processing Program.

CHANG, ROBERT

2006-02-02

114

Electrochemistry and Spectroelectrochemistry of Europium(III) chloride in 3 LiCl – 2KCl from 643 to 1123 K  

SciTech Connect

The electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical behavior of Europium(III) chloride in a molten salt eutectic, 3 LiCl – 2 KCl, over a temperature range of 643 – 1123 K using differential pulse voltammetry, cyclic voltammetry, potential step chronoabsorptometry, and thin-layer spectroelectrochemistry is reported. The electrochemical reaction was determined to be the one electron reduction of Eu3+ to Eu2+ at all temperatures. The redox potential of Eu3+/2+ shifts to more positive potentials and the diffusion coefficient for Eu3+ increases as temperature increases. The results for the number of electrons transferred, redox potential and diffusion coefficient are in good agreement between the electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical techniques.

Schroll, Cynthia A.; Chatterjee, Sayandev; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Heineman, William R.; Bryan, Samuel A.

2013-09-09

115

RESULTS OF THE EXTRACTION-SCRUB-STRIP TESTING USING AN IMPROVED SOLVENT FORMULATION AND SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY SIMULATED WASTE  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent - also known as the next generation solvent (NGS) - for deployment at the Savannah River Site to remove cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is a collaborative effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). As part of the program, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has performed a number of Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests. These batch contact tests serve as first indicators of the cesium mass transfer solvent performance with actual or simulated waste. The test detailed in this report used simulated Tank 49H material, with the addition of extra potassium. The potassium was added at 1677 mg/L, the maximum projected (i.e., a worst case feed scenario) value for the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The results of the test gave favorable results given that the potassium concentration was elevated (1677 mg/L compared to the current 513 mg/L). The cesium distribution value, DCs, for extraction was 57.1. As a comparison, a typical D{sub Cs} in an ESS test, using the baseline solvent formulation and the typical waste feed, is {approx}15. The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) uses the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process to remove cesium (Cs) from alkaline waste. This process involves the use of an organic extractant, BoBCalixC6, in an organic matrix to selectively remove cesium from the caustic waste. The organic solvent mixture flows counter-current to the caustic aqueous waste stream within centrifugal contactors. After extracting the cesium, the loaded solvent is stripped of cesium by contact with dilute nitric acid and the cesium concentrate is transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), while the organic solvent is cleaned and recycled for further use. The Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), under construction, will use the same process chemistry. The Office of Waste Processing (EM-31) expressed an interest in investigating the further optimization of the organic solvent by replacing the BoBCalixC6 extractant with a more efficient extractant. This replacement should yield dividends in improving cesium removal from the caustic waste stream, and in the rate at which the caustic waste can be processed. To that end, EM-31 provided funding for both the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). SRNL wrote a Task Technical Quality and Assurance Plan for this work. As part of the envisioned testing regime, it was decided to perform an ESS test using a simulated waste that simulated a typical envisioned SWPF feed, but with added potassium to make the waste more challenging. Potassium interferes in the cesium removal, and its concentration is limited in the feed to <1950 mg/L. The feed to MCU has typically contained <500 mg/L of potassium.

Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Fink, S.

2012-01-09

116

Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste with High Salt Content by Colloidal Adsorbents - 13274  

SciTech Connect

Treatment processes have been fully developed for most of the liquid radioactive wastes generated during the operation of nuclear power plants. However, a process for radioactive liquid waste with high salt content, such as waste seawater generated from the unexpected accident at nuclear power station, has not been studied extensively. In this study, the adsorption efficiencies of cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) in radioactive liquid waste with high salt content were investigated using several types of zeolite with different particle sizes. Synthesized and commercial zeolites were used for the treatment of simulated seawater containing Cs and Sr, and the reaction kinetics and adsorption capacities of colloidal zeolites were compared with those of bulk zeolites. The experimental results demonstrated that the colloidal adsorbents showed fast adsorption kinetic and high binding capacity for Cs and Sr. Also, the colloidal zeolites could be successfully applied to the static adsorption condition, therefore, an economical benefit might be expected in an actual processes where stirring is not achievable. (authors)

Lee, Keun-Young; Chung, Dong-Yong; Kim, Kwang-Wook; Lee, Eil-Hee; Moon, Jei-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute - KAERI, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)] [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute - KAERI, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01

117

UK-Nuclear decommissioning authority and US Salt-stone waste management issues  

SciTech Connect

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: We update two case studies of stakeholder issues in the UK and US. Earlier versions were reported at Waste Management 2006 and 2007 and at ICEM 2005. UK: The UK nuclear industry has begun to consult stakeholders more widely in recent years. Historically, methods of engagement within the industry have varied, however, recent discussions have generally been carried out with the explicit understanding that engagement with stakeholders will be 'dialogue based' and will 'inform' the final decision made by the decision maker. Engagement is currently being carried out at several levels within the industry; at the national level (via the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority's (NDA) National Stakeholder Group (NSG)); at a local site level (via Site Stakeholder Groups) and at a project level (usually via the Best Practicable Environmental Option process (BPEO)). This paper updates earlier results by the co-author with findings from a second questionnaire issued to the NSG in Phase 2 of the engagement process. An assessment is made regarding the development of stakeholder perceptions since Phase 1 towards the NDA process. US: The US case study reviews the resolution of issues on salt-stone by Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) Citizens Advisory Board (CAB), in Aiken, SC. Recently, SRS-CAB encouraged DOE and South Carolina's regulatory Department of Health and Environmental Control (SC-DHEC) to resolve a conflict preventing SC-DHEC from releasing a draft permit to allow SRS to restart salt-stone operations. It arose with a letter sent from DOE blaming the Governor of South Carolina for delay in restarting salt processing. In reply, the Governor blamed DOE for failing to assure that Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) would be built. SWPF is designed to remove most of the radioactivity from HLW prior to vitrification, the remaining fraction destined for salt-stone. (authors)

Lawless, William [Paine College, 1235 Fifteenth Street, Augusta, GA 30901 (United States); Whitton, John [Nexia Solutions Ltd, The British Technology Centre, Sellafield, Seascale, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom)

2007-07-01

118

NRC Monitoring of Salt Waste Disposal at the Savannah River Site - 13147  

SciTech Connect

As part of monitoring required under Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 (NDAA), the NRC staff reviewed an updated DOE performance assessment (PA) for salt waste disposal at the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The NRC staff concluded that it has reasonable assurance that waste disposal at the SDF meets the 10 CFR 61 performance objectives for protection of individuals against intrusion (chap.61.42), protection of individuals during operations (chap.61.43), and site stability (chap.61.44). However, based on its evaluation of DOE's results and independent sensitivity analyses conducted with DOE's models, the NRC staff concluded that it did not have reasonable assurance that DOE's disposal activities at the SDF meet the performance objective for protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity (chap.61.41) evaluated at a dose limit of 0.25 mSv/yr (25 mrem/yr) total effective dose equivalent (TEDE). NRC staff also concluded that the potential dose to a member of the public is expected to be limited (i.e., is expected to be similar to or less than the public dose limit in chap.20.1301 of 1 mSv/yr [100 mrem/yr] TEDE) and is expected to occur many years after site closure. The NRC staff used risk insights gained from review of the SDF PA, its experience monitoring DOE disposal actions at the SDF over the last 5 years, as well as independent analysis and modeling to identify factors that are important to assessing whether DOE's disposal actions meet the performance objectives. Many of these factors are similar to factors identified in the NRC staff's 2005 review of salt waste disposal at the SDF. Key areas of interest continue to be waste form and disposal unit degradation, the effectiveness of infiltration and erosion controls, and estimation of the radiological inventory. Based on these factors, NRC is revising its plan for monitoring salt waste disposal at the SDF in coordination with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). DOE has completed or begun additional work related to salt waste disposal to address these factors. NRC staff continues to evaluate information related to the performance of the SDF and has been working with DOE and SCDHEC to resolve NRC staff's technical concerns. (authors)

Pinkston, Karen E.; Ridge, A. Christianne; Alexander, George W.; Barr, Cynthia S.; Devaser, Nishka J.; Felsher, Harry D. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (United States)] [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (United States)

2013-07-01

119

Harvesting capacitive carbon by carbonization of waste biomass in molten salts.  

PubMed

Conversion of waste biomass to value-added carbon is an environmentally benign utilization of waste biomass to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution caused by open burning. In this study, various waste biomasses are converted to capacitive carbon by a single-step molten salt carbonization (MSC) process. The as-prepared carbon materials are amorphous with oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface. For the same type of waste biomass, the carbon materials obtained in Na2CO3-K2CO3 melt have the highest Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and specific capacitance. The carbon yield decreases with increasing reaction temperature, while the surface area increases with increasing carbonization temperature. A working temperature above 700 °C is required for producing capacitive carbon. The good dissolving ability of alkaline carbonate molten decreases the yield of carbon from waste biomasses, but helps to produce high surface area carbon. The specific capacitance data confirm that Na2CO3-K2CO3 melt is the best for producing capacitive carbon. The specific capacitance of carbon derived from peanut shell is as high as 160 F g(-1) and 40 ?F cm(-2), and retains 95% after 10,000 cycles at a rate of 1 A g(-1). MSC offers a simple and environmentally sound way for transforming waste biomass to highly capacitive carbon as well as an effective carbon sequestration method. PMID:24983414

Yin, Huayi; Lu, Beihu; Xu, Yin; Tang, Diyong; Mao, Xuhui; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Dihua; Alshawabkeh, Akram N

2014-07-15

120

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of low-activity waste immobilization. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudohydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Synthesis efforts are being directed toward enhanced sodium binding by crown ethers, both neutral and proton-ionizable. Studies with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent compositions that have promising properties.

Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

2005-06-01

121

Mineralocorticoid-resistant renal hyperkalemia without salt wasting (type II pseudohypoaldosteronism): Role of increased renal chloride reabsorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineralocorticoid-resistant renal hyperkalemia without salt wasting (type II pseudohypoaldosteronism): Role of increased renal chloride reabsorption. A rare syndrome has been described in which mineralocorticoid-resistant hyperkalemia of renal origin occurs in the absence of glomerular insufficiency and renal sodium wasting and in which hyperchloremic acidosis, hypertension, and hyporeninemia coexist. The primary abnormality has been postulated to be a defect of the

Morris Schambelan; Anthony Sebastian; Floyd C Rector

1981-01-01

122

THERMAL DESTRUCTION OF HIGHLY CHLORINATED MIXED WASTES WITHOUT GENERATING CORROSIVE OFF-GASES USING MOLTEN SALT OXIDATION (1,2)  

SciTech Connect

A pilot-scale MSO (Molten Salt Oxidation) system was used to process 45-gallons of a halogenated mixed waste that is difficult to treat with other thermal systems. The mixed waste was a halogenated solvent that consisted mostly of methylchloroform. The 80 weight percent of waste consisting of highly corrosive chlorine was captured in the first process vessel as sodium chloride. The sodium chloride leached chrome from that process vessel and the solidified salt exhibited the toxicity characteristic for chrome as measured by TCLP (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure) testing. The operating ranges for parameters such as salt bed temperature, off-gas temperature, and feed rate that enable sustained operation were identified. At feed rates below the sustainable limit, both processing capacity and maintenance requirements increased with feed rate. Design and operational modifications to increase the sustainable feed rate limit and reduce maintenance requirements reduced both salt carryover and volumetric gas flows.

Smith, W.; Feizollahi, F.

2002-02-25

123

LiCl inhibits PRRSV infection by enhancing Wnt/?-catenin pathway and suppressing inflammatory responses.  

PubMed

Lithium chloride (LiCl) has been used as a mood stabilizer in the manic depressive disorders treatment. Recent studies show that LiCl is also a potent inhibitor for some DNA and RNA viruses. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an important viral pathogen in modern pig industry. In this study, we assessed the inhibitory effect of LiCl on PRRSV infection using plaque-formation assay, Q-PCR and Western blot analysis. Our results showed that LiCl could inhibit PRRSV infection in MARC-145 and PAM-CD163 cells. Previous reports have shown that LiCl could induce the Wnt pathway in the absence of Wnt ligands. In our studies, we demonstrated that LiCl activates the Wnt pathway in PRRSV infected cells. Additionally, the knockdown of ?-catenin or the Wnt/?-catenin pathway inhibitor PNU74654 was able to reverse the antiviral effect of LiCl, which suggested that the inhibitory effect of LiCl against PRRSV replication might be associated with the activation of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway. We also found that lower viral replication after LiCl treatment was associated with the reduced mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory IL-8, IL-6, IL-1 ?, tumor necrosis factor ? and decreased NF-?B nuclear translocation. Collectively, our data demonstrated that LiCl inhibited PRRSV infection by enhancing Wnt/?-catenin pathway and suppressing pro-inflammatory responses. PMID:25746333

Hao, Hong-Ping; Wen, Li-Bin; Li, Jia-Rong; Wang, Yue; Ni, Bo; Wang, Rui; Wang, Xin; Sun, Ming-Xia; Fan, Hong-Jie; Mao, Xiang

2015-05-01

124

Suitability of Palestine salt dome, Anderson Co. , Texas for disposal of high-level radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect

The suitability of Palestine salt dome, in Anderson County, Texas, is in serious doubt for a repository to isolate high-level nuclear waste because of abandoned salt brining operations. The random geographic and spatial occurrence of 15 collapse sinks over the dome may prevent safe construction of the necessary surface installations for a repository. The dissolution of salt between the caprock and dome, from at least 15 brine wells up to 500 feet deep, may permit increased rates of salt dissolution long into future geologic time. The subsurface dissolution is occurring at a rate difficult, if not impossible, to assess or to calculate. It cannot be shown that this dissolution rate is insignificant to the integrity of a future repository or to ancillary features. The most recent significant collapse was 36 feet in diameter and took place in 1972. The other collapses ranged from 27 to 105 feet in diameter and from 1.5 to more than 15 feet in depth. ONWI recommends that this dome be removed from consideration as a candidate site.

Patchick, P.F.

1980-01-01

125

A Preliminary Performance Assessment for Salt Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste - 12173  

SciTech Connect

A salt repository is one of the four geologic media currently under study by the U.S. DOE Office of Nuclear Energy to support the development of a long-term strategy for geologic disposal of commercial used nuclear fuel (UNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The immediate goal of the generic salt repository study is to develop the necessary modeling tools to evaluate and improve the understanding of the repository system response and processes relevant to long-term disposal of UNF and HLW in a salt formation. The current phase of this study considers representative geologic settings and features adopted from previous studies for salt repository sites. For the reference scenario, the brine flow rates in the repository and underlying interbeds are very low, and transport of radionuclides in the transport pathways is dominated by diffusion and greatly retarded by sorption on the interbed filling materials. I-129 is the dominant annual dose contributor at the hypothetical accessible environment, but the calculated mean annual dose is negligibly small. For the human intrusion (or disturbed) scenario, the mean mass release rate and mean annual dose histories are very different from those for the reference scenario. Actinides including Pu-239, Pu-242 and Np-237 are major annual dose contributors, and the calculated peak mean annual dose is acceptably low. A performance assessment model for a generic salt repository has been developed incorporating, where applicable, representative geologic settings and features adopted from literature data for salt repository sites. The conceptual model and scenario for radionuclide release and transport from a salt repository were developed utilizing literature data. The salt GDS model was developed in a probabilistic analysis framework. The preliminary performance analysis for demonstration of model capability is for an isothermal condition at the ambient temperature for the near field. The capability demonstration emphasizes key attributes of a salt repository that are potentially important to the long-term safe disposal of UNF and HLW. The analysis presents and discusses the results showing repository responses to different radionuclide release scenarios (undisturbed and human intrusion). For the reference (or nominal or undisturbed) scenario, the brine flow rates in the repository and underlying interbeds are very low, and transport of radionuclides in the transport pathways is dominated by diffusion and greatly retarded by sorption on the interbed filling materials. I-129 (non-sorbing and unlimited solubility with a very long half-life) is the dominant annual dose contributor at the hypothetical accessible environment, but the calculated mean annual dose is negligibly small that there is no meaningful consequence for the repository performance. For the human intrusion (or disturbed) scenario analysis, the mean mass release rate and mean annual dose histories are very different from those for the reference scenario analysis. Compared to the reference scenario, the relative annual dose contributions by soluble, non-sorbing fission products, particularly I-129, are much lower than by actinides including Pu-239, Pu-242 and Np-237. The lower relative mean annual dose contributions by the fission product radionuclides are due to their lower total inventory available for release (i.e., up to five affected waste packages), and the higher mean annual doses by the actinides are the outcome of the direct release of the radionuclides into the overlying aquifer having high water flow rates, thereby resulting in an early arrival of higher concentrations of the radionuclides at the biosphere drinking water well prior to their significant decay. The salt GDS model analysis has also identified the following future recommendations and/or knowledge gaps to improve and enhance the confidence of the future repository performance analysis. - Repository thermal loading by UNF and HLW, and the effect on the engineered barrier and near-field performance. - Closure and consolidation of salt rocks by creep d

Lee, Joon H.; Clayton, Daniel; Jove-Colon, Carlos; Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

2012-07-01

126

Membranous nephropathy with renal salt wasting: role of neurohumoral factors in sodium retention.  

PubMed

The role of neurohumoral factors in the sodium retention of nephrotic syndrome is controversial. We report a case with abrupt onset of severe nephrotic-range proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia due to membranous glomerulonephritis that was associated with renal salt wasting and hypovolemia without edema. Further evaluation showed hypoaldosteronism, hyporeninemia, and primary autonomic failure principally affecting the sympathetic nervous system, determined by the Valsalva maneuver. Administration of exogenous mineralocorticoid and oral salt caused edema and accelerated hypertension. The severe hypoaldosteronism likely was due to use of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril, and it improved after this drug treatment was discontinued. The nephrotic proteinuria resolved after treatment with cyclosporine and prednisone, but the primary autonomic failure with hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism persisted. The case shows that intratubular factors activated by nephrotic proteinuria are not sufficient to produce sodium retention in the absence of aldosterone and an intact sympathetic nervous system. PMID:22516683

Hommos, Musab; Sinkey, Christine; Haynes, William G; Dixon, Bradley S

2012-09-01

127

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of vitrification. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudo hydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Synthesis efforts are being directed toward enhanced sodium binding by crown ethers, both neutral and proton-ionizable. Studies with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent compositions that have promising properties.

Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Custelcean, Radu; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Engle, Nancy L.; Kang, Hyun-Ah; Keever, Tamara J.; Marchand, Alan P.; Gadthula, Srinivas; Gore, Vinayak K.; Huang, Zilin; Sivappa, Rasapalli; Tirunahari, Pavan K.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

2005-09-26

128

Salt Processing at the Savannah River Site: Results of Technology Down-Selection and Research and Development to Support New Salt Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste (HLW) program is responsible for storage, treatment, and immobilization of HLW for disposal. The Salt Processing Project (SPP) is the salt waste (water-soluble) treatment portion of this effort. The overall SPP encompasses the selection, design, construction, and operation of technologies to prepare the salt-waste feed material for immobilization at the site's Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) and vitrification facility (Defense Waste Processing Facility [DWPF]). Major constituents that must be removed from the salt waste and sent as feed to DWPF include cesium (Cs), strontium (Sr), and actinides. In April 2000, the DOE Deputy Secretary for Project Completion (EM-40) established the SRS Salt Processing Project Technical Working Group (TWG) to manage technology development of treatment alternatives for SRS high-level salt wastes. The separation alternatives investigated included three candidate Cs-removal processes selected, as well as actinide and Sr removal that are also required as a part of each process. The candidate Cs-removal processes are: crystalline Silicotitanate Non-Elutable Ion Exchange (CST); caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX); and small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP). The Tanks Focus Area was asked to assist DOE by managing the SPP research and development (R&D), revising roadmaps, and developing down-selection criteria. The down-selection decision process focused its analysis on three levels: (a) identification of goals that the selected technology should achieve, (b) selection criteria that are a measure of performance of the goal, and (c) criteria scoring and weighting for each technology alternative. After identifying the goals and criteria, the TWG analyzed R&D results and engineering data and scored the technology alternatives versus the criteria. Based their analysis and scoring, the TWG recommended CSSX as the preferred alternative. This recommendation was formalized in July 2001 when DOE published the Savannah River Site Salt Processing Alternatives Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) and was finalized in the DOE Record of Decision issued in October 2001.

Lang, K.; Gerdes, K.; Picha, K.; Spader, W.; McCullough, J.; Reynolds, J.; Morin, J. P.; Harmon, H. D.

2002-02-26

129

DEGRADED TBP SOLVENT REGENERATION TECHNOLOGY USING BUTYLAMINE AS A SOLVENT WASHING TO REDUCE SOLID SALT WASTE  

SciTech Connect

Normal butylamine compounds are studied as salt-free wash reagents for degraded solvent used in PUREX process in spent fuel reprocessing. The solvent wash tests were carried out with two types of butylamine compounds, n-butylamine oxalate and n-butylamine bicarbonate, by counter-current mode using a small size mixer-settler composed of two 4-stage wash steps. Di-n-butyl phosphoric acid (HDBP), the main degradation product from TBP, was removed from real degraded solvent with decontamination factor of 2.5 {approx} 7.9. The study on electrolytic decomposition of butylamine compounds was also conducted for waste treatment.

Asakura, T.; Itoh, Y.; Hotoku, S.; Morita, Y.; Uchiyama, G.

2003-02-27

130

The source term and waste optimization of molten salt reactors with processing  

SciTech Connect

The source term of a molten salt reactor (MSR) with fuel processing is reduced by the ratio of processing time to refueling time as compared to solid fuel reactors. The reduction, which can be one to two orders of magnitude, is due to removal of the long-lived fission products. The waste from MSRs can be optimized with respect to its chemical composition, concentration, mixture, shape, and size. The actinides and long-lived isotopes can be separated out and returned to the reactor for transmutation. These features make MSRs more acceptable and simpler in operation and handling.

Gat, U. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dodds, H.L. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

1993-07-01

131

Review of geochemical measurement techniques for a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt  

SciTech Connect

A broad, general review is presented of geochemical measurement techniques that can provide data necessary for site selection and repository effectiveness assessment for a radioactive waste repository in bedded salt. The available measurement techniques are organized according to the parameter measured. The list of geochemical parameters include all those measurable geochemical properties of a sample whole values determine the geochemical characteristics or behavior of the system. For each technique, remarks are made pertaining to the operating principles of the measurement instrument and the purpose for which the technique is used. Attention is drawn to areas where further research and development are needed.

Knauss, K.G.; Steinborn, T.L.

1980-05-22

132

Independent Assessment of the Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Salt Disposition Alternatives Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the Independent Project Evaluation (IPE) Team assessment of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company High-Level Waste Salt Disposition Systems Engineering (SE) Team's deliberations, evaluations, and selections. The Westinghouse Savannah River Company concluded in early 1998 that production goals and safety requirements for processing SRS HLW salt to remove Cs-137 could not be met in the existing In-Tank Precipitation Facility as currently configured for precipitation of cesium tetraphenylborate. The SE Team was chartered to evaluate and recommend an alternative(s) for processing the existing HLW salt to remove Cs-137. To replace the In-Tank Precipitation process, the Savannah River Site HLW Salt Disposition SE Team downselected (October 1998) 140 candidate separation technologies to two alternatives: Small-Tank Tetraphenylborate (TPB) Precipitation (primary alternative) and Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Nonelutable Ion Exchange (backup alternative). The IPE Team, commissioned by the Department of Energy, concurs that both alternatives are technically feasible and should meet all salt disposition requirements. But the IPE Team judges that the SE Team's qualitative criteria and judgments used in their downselection to a primary and a backup alternative do not clearly discriminate between the two alternatives. To properly choose between Small-Tank TPB and CST Ion Exchange for the primary alternative, the IPE Team suggests the following path forward: Complete all essential R and D activities for both alternatives and formulate an appropriate set of quantitative decision criteria that will be rigorously applied at the end of the R and D activities. Concurrent conceptual design activities should be limited to common elements of the alternatives.

J. T. Case (DOE-ID); M. L. Renfro (INEEL)

1998-12-01

133

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts  

SciTech Connect

In this project, now completing its third year of its second renewal period, a collaborative project involving Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the University of North Texas has been addressing outstanding questions regarding the separation of the bulk sodium constituents of alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit of this research is a major reduction in the volume of radioactive tank waste, obviating the building of expensive new tanks and reducing the costs of vitrification. As a general approach, principles of ion recognition are being explored toward discovery and basic understanding of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium salts from waste-like matrices. Questions being addressed pertain to applicable extraction equilibria and how extraction properties relate to extractant structure. Progress has included the elucidation of the promising concept of pseudo hydroxide extraction (PHE), demonstration of crown-ether synergized PHE, demonstration of combined sodium hydroxide/sodium nitrate separation, and synthesis of novel ditopic receptors for ditopic PHE. In future efforts (pending renewal), a thermochemical study of PHE relating extractant acidity to extraction strength is proposed, and this study will be extended to systems containing crown ethers, including proton-ionizable ones. A series of crown ethers will be synthesized for this purpose and to investigate the extraction of bulk sodium salts (e.g., nitrate, nitrite, and sulfate), possibly in combination with sodium hydroxide. Simple proof-of-principle tests with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent designs that have desirable properties. In view of the upcoming milestone of completion of the second renewal period, this report will, in addition to providing a summary of the past year's progress, summarize all of the work completed since the start of this project.

Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

2004-06-30

134

Preliminary review of retrieval issues for a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt: Technical report  

SciTech Connect

This document highlights topics related to the retrieval of nuclear waste from a mined geologic repository in salt. Retrieval is an event that, although it is not expected, must be planned for. Major programmatic documents and Federal regulations require that the waste should be retrievable. It is therefore an important design consideration that the option exists to retrieve waste in the unlikely event retrieval is needed. There are several broad issues involved in a repository in salt that have significant implications to retrieval systems. Among these are high temperatures that can affect mining equipment operation and personnel safety; the viscoplastic behavior of salt that results in room closure and increased potential for unstable openings; and nuclear issues such as radiation and contamination, criticality, and acountability and safeguards. 26 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Smith, L.A.

1987-11-01

135

Recycle Waste Salt as Reagent: A One-Pot Substitution/Krapcho Reaction Sequence to ?-Fluorinated Esters and Sulfones.  

PubMed

A "one-pot" tandem substitution/Krapcho reaction is reported for the facile synthesis of ?-fluorinated esters and sulfones, which utilizes the byproduct salt formed in the substitution step as an indispensible reagent to facilitate the Krapcho reaction step. This represents the first sustainable tandem reaction that internally recycles the waste salt formed in the upstream step as the reagent for the downstream step. PMID:25654189

Zhu, Feng; Xu, Peng-Wei; Zhou, Feng; Wang, Cui-Hong; Zhou, Jian

2015-02-20

136

A Retrospective Analysis of the Growth Pattern in Patients with Salt-wasting 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate the growth pattern of children with the salt-wasting form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD). We reviewed the medical records of 13 patients in whom salt-wasting 21-OHD was diagnosed during the first 2 mo of life at our hospital from 1980 through 2008. Six reached adult height. Growth patterns, bone age, biochemical data, and the hydrocortisone dose at each growth stage were analyzed retrospectively. The mean adult height was 155.1 ± 6.5 cm (mean ± SD) in females and 158.1 ± 7.1 cm in males. Although length at birth was normal or longer than the national mean in almost all patients, the mean height SD score of both boys and girls decreased to below 0 SD during infancy. Subsequently, both boys and girls transiently showed growth acceleration and reached their peak growth velocity at 3–10 yr of age. In conclusion, in addition to suppression of growth during infancy, there was inappropriate growth acceleration during childhood. Especially from 3 mo to 3 yr of age, decreasing the hydrocortisone dose in patients who exhibit slower growth may lead to satisfactory height outcomes. Also, strict adjustment of the hydrocortisone dose to avoid accelerated growth from childhood to adolescence might improve adult height outcomes of patients with 21-OHD. PMID:24790384

Kawano, Atsuko; Kohno, Hitoshi; Miyako, Kenichi

2014-01-01

137

Summary strategy for compliance with postclosure requirements for the waste package for the Salt Repository Project: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This document presents a summary of the strategy of the Salt Repository Project (SRP) to show compliance with the requirements for the waste package after permanent closure of the repository at the site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The postclosure requirements that govern the performance of the waste package are those in 10 CFR 60.113 for substantially complete containment of the waste and for gradual release of radionuclides after the containment period, and for the postclosure design requirements in 10 CFR 60.135. Also, the waste package plays a role in showing compliance with the total system release requirement in 40 CFR 191.13. 12 refs.

Not Available

1988-03-01

138

Expected environments in high-level nuclear waste and spent fuel repositories in salt  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to describe the expected environments associated with high-level waste (HLW) and spent fuel (SF) repositories in salt formations. These environments include the thermal, fluid, pressure, brine chemistry, and radiation fields predicted for the repository conceptual designs. In this study, it is assumed that the repository will be a room and pillar mine in a rock-salt formation, with the disposal horizon located approx. 2000 ft (610 m) below the surface of the earth. Canistered waste packages containing HLW in a solid matrix or SF elements are emplaced in vertical holes in the floor of the rooms. The emplacement holes are backfilled with crushed salt or other material and sealed at some later time. Sensitivity studies are presented to show the effect of changing the areal heat load, the canister heat load, the barrier material and thickness, ventilation of the storage room, and adding a second row to the emplacement configuration. The calculated thermal environment is used as input for brine migration calculations. The vapor and gas pressure will gradually attain the lithostatic pressure in a sealed repository. In the unlikely event that an emplacement hole will become sealed in relatively early years, the vapor space pressure was calculated for three scenarios (i.e., no hole closure - no backfill, no hole closure - backfill, and hole closure - no backfill). It was assumed that the gas in the system consisted of air and water vapor in equilibrium with brine. A computer code (REPRESS) was developed assuming that these changes occur slowly (equilibrium conditions). The brine chemical environment is outlined in terms of brine chemistry, corrosion, and compositions. The nuclear radiation environment emphasized in this report is the stored energy that can be released as a result of radiation damage or crystal dislocations within crystal lattices.

Claiborne, H.C.; Rickertsen, L.D., Graham, R.F.

1980-08-01

139

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: Peer review of the Golder Associates draft test plan for in situ testing in an exploratory shaft in salt  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the peer review conducted by Argonne National Laboratory of a document entitled ''Draft Test Plan for In Situ Testing in an Exploratory Shaft in Salt,'' prepared for Battelle Memorial Institute's Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation by Golder Associates, Inc. In general, the peer review panelists found the test plan to be technically sound, although some deficiencies were identified. Recommendations for improving the test plan are presented in this review report. A microfiche copy of the following unpublished report is attached to the inside back cover of this report: ''Draft Test Plan for In Situ Testing in an Exploratory Shaft in Salt,'' prepared by Golder Associates, Inc., for Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation, Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, Ohio (March 1985).

Hambley, D.F.; Mraz, D.Z.; Unterberter, R.R.; Stormont, J.C.; Neuman, S.P.; Russell, J.E.; Jacoby, C.H.; Hull, A.B.; Brady, B.H.G.; Ditmars, J.D.

1987-01-01

140

76 FR 47613 - Board Meeting: September 13-14, 2011-Salt Lake City, UT; the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...September 13-14, 2011--Salt Lake City, UT; the U.S. Nuclear Waste...Board will hold a public meeting in Salt Lake City, Utah, on Tuesday, September...Hotel; 500 South Main Street; Salt Lake City, Utah 84101; [[Page...

2011-08-05

141

Nuclear waste repositories in salt mines: a new approach to safety assessment.  

PubMed

The long-term safety of radioactive waste repositories in rock-salt mines in the deep underground benefits significantly from the barrier effect of overlying rocks. The concentrations of radioactive substances released from the repository and migrating in the aquifer up to the biosphere are greatly reduced during passage through these rocks. In former safety analyses of waste repositories this transport has generally been modelled as a combination of the involved phenomena, e.g. convection, dispersion, adsorption, etc. The data required for a numerical evaluation of the overall effect are obtained either as (conservative) estimates based on experience or are empirical, based mainly on laboratory experiments. The approach presented here is much simpler and entirely empirical, and therefore more transparent. It makes use of the fact that the groundwater in the overlying rocks always contains dissolved salt from the salt formation and carries it continuously into the receiving channels or the drainage system. The relation between the total amount of dissolved solids present in a certain subsurface catchment area and their steady-state concentration in the receiving channels is assumed to be equivalent to the relation between the given amount of radionuclides released from the repository and their concentration in the receiving channels, the latter leading to a certain radiation exposure of the population. Two versions of this approach are discussed: version (a) assumes a continuous stream of radionuclides released from the repository, and version (b) assumes a pulse release of radionuclides from the repository. A simple calculation using data from the Gorleben exploration leads to the inequality [equation: see text] where Cmax is the maximum radionuclide concentration (with respect to time) in the receiving channels and W (Bq) is the amount of radionuclides released from the respository in a very short time. Cmax obtained from (1), is supposed to be an upper limit of the radionuclide concentration in the receiving channel and, therefore, a conservative estimate. In some catchment areas the salt concentration in a small region near the surface is higher by a factor of < 2 to 3 than the concentration in the receiving channel. In order to be conservative, this empirical factor may be used to calculate the concentration of radioactive substances. Surprisingly, the values of radiation exposure resulting from both versions of the new approach are far below those calculated by applying elaborated models of the transport processes. The respective factors are 10-100 in case (a) and as much as 1000 in case (b). The reasons for these significant differences are discussed. PMID:8880965

Memmert, G

1996-08-01

142

Splicing mutation in CYP21 associated with delayed presentation of salt-wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia  

SciTech Connect

Patients with salt-wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia (SW-CAH) most commonly carry an A-G transition at nucleotide 656 (nt 656 A{r_arrow}G), causing abnormal splicing of exons 2 and 3 in CYP21, the gene encoding active steroid 21-hydroxylase. Affected infants are severely deficient in cortisol and aldosterone, and usually come to medical attention during the neonatal period. We report on 2 affected boys, homozygous for the nt 656 mutation, who thrived in early infancy, but suffered salt-wasting crises unusually late in infancy, at 3.5 and 5.5 months, respectively. Laboratory studies at presentation showed hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, dehydration, and acidosis; serum aldosterone was low in spite of markedly elevated plasma renin activity. Basal 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels were only moderately elevated, yet the stimulated levels were more typical of severe, classic CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Genomic DNA from the patients was analyzed. Southern blot showed no major deletions or rearrangements. CYP21-specific amplification by polymerase chain reaction, coupled with allele-specific hybridization using wild-type and mutant probes at each of 9 sites for recognized disease-causing mutations, revealed a single, homozygous mutation in each patient: nt 656 A{r_arrow}G. These results were confirmed by sequence analysis. We conclude that the common nt 656 A{r_arrow}G mutation is sometimes associated with delayed phenotypic expression of SW-CAH. We speculate that variable splicing of the mutant CYP21 may modify the clinical manifestation of this disease. 22 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Kohn, B.; Patel, S.V.; Pelczar, J.V. [North Shore Univ. Hospital, Manhasset, NY (United States)] [and others

1995-07-03

143

Molten salt destruction as an alternative to open burning of energetic material wastes  

SciTech Connect

LLNL has built a small-scale (about 1 kg/hr throughput unit to test the destruction of energetic materials using the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) process. We have modified the unit described in the earlier references to inject energetic waste material continuously into the unit. In addition to the HMX, other explosives we have destroyed include RDX, PETN, ammonium picrate, TNT, nitroguanadine, and TATB. We have also destroyed a liquid gun propellant comprising hydroxyl ammonium nitrate, triethanolammonium nitrate and water. In addition to these pure components, we have destroyed a number of commonly used formulations, such as LX-10 (HMX/Viton), LX-16 (PETN/FPC461, LX-17 (TATB/Kel F), and PBX-9404 (HMX)/CEF/Nitro cellulose). Our experiments have demonstrated that energetic materials can be safely and effectively treated by MSD.We have also investigated the issue of steam explosions in molten salt units, both experimentally and theoretically, and concluded that steam explosions can be avoided under proper design and operating conditions. We are currently building a larger unit (nominal capacity 5 kg/hr,) to investigate the relationship between residence time, temperature, feed concentration and throughputs, avoidance of back-burn, a;nd determination of the products of combustion under different operating conditions.

Upadhye, R.S.; Watkins, B.E.; Pruneda, C.O.; Brummond, W.A.

1994-07-05

144

Radioactive Waste Isolation in Salt: Peer review of documents dealing with geophysical investigations  

SciTech Connect

The Salt Repository Project, a US Department of Energy program to develop a mined repository in salt for high-level radioactive waste, is governed by a complex and sometimes inconsistent array of laws, administrative regulations, guidelines, and position papers. In conducting multidisciplinary peer reviews of contractor documents in support of this project, Argonne National Laboratory has needed to inform its expert reviewers of these governmental mandates, with particular emphasis on the relationship between issues and the technical work undertaken. This report acquaints peer review panelists with the regulatory framework as it affects their reviews of site characterization plans and related documents, including surface-based and underground test plans. Panelists will be asked to consider repository performance objectives and issues as they judge the adequacy of proposed geophysical testing. All site-specific discussions relate to the Deaf Smith County site in Texas, which was approved for site characterization by the President in May 1986. Natural processes active at the Deaf Smith County site and the status of geophysical testing near the site are reviewed briefly. 25 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

McGinnis, L.D.; Bowen, R.H.

1987-03-01

145

Creep tests on clean and argillaceous salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

Fifteen triaxial compression creep tests were performed on clean and argillaceous salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The temperatures in the tests were either 25{degrees}C or 100{degrees}C while the stress difference ranged from 3.5 MPa to 21.0 MPa. In all tests, the confining pressure was 15 MPa. Test duration ranged from 23 to 613 days with an average duration of 300 days. The results of the creep tests supplemented earlier testing and were used to estimate two parameters in the Modified Munson-Dawson constitutive law for the creep behavior of salt. The two parameters determined from each test were the steady-state strain rate and the transient strain limit. These estimates were combined with parameter estimates determined from previous testing to study the dependence of both transient and steady-state creep deformation on stress difference. The exponents on stress difference determined in this study were found to be consistent with revised estimates of the exponents reported by other investigators.

Mellegard, K.D.; Pfeifle, T.W. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (US)

1993-05-01

146

Evaluation of Sludge Batch 5 Qualification with ISDP Salt Batch 1 Compliance to DWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to document the acceptability of Sludge Batch 5 with the initial macrobatch operation of the Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) waste to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This report was prepared to comply with the requirements listed in the Waste Acceptance Criteria for Sludge, Actinide Removal Process (ARP), and Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Process Transfers to 512-S and DWPF. The requirements for transfers to 512-S were evaluated during ISDP Salt Batch 1 qualification. The calculations of sludge concentrations are based entirely on the Tank 51 sample processed at SRNL. This is conservative because Tank 51 is blended with the dilute feed in the DWPF Feed Tank (Tank 40). This report documents the acceptability of sludge only as well as Sludge Batch 5 sludge slurry combined with ARP/MCU products for feed to DWPF. All criteria were met for unblended Tank 51 material.

Shafer, A.

2010-05-05

147

Conceptual design of retrieval systems for emplaced transuranic waste containers in a salt bed depository. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission have jurisdiction over the nuclear waste management program. Design studies were previously made of proposed repository site configurations for the receiving, processing, and storage of nuclear wastes. However, these studies did not provide operational designs that were suitable for highly reliable TRU retrieval in the deep geologic salt environment for the required 60-year period. The purpose of this report is to develop a conceptual design of a baseline retrieval system for emplaced transuranic waste containers in a salt bed depository. The conceptual design is to serve as a working model for the analysis of the performance available from the current state-of-the-art equipment and systems. Suggested regulations would be based upon the results of the performance analyses.

Fogleman, S.F.

1980-04-01

148

SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INCIPIENT SLUDGE MIXING IN RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE STORAGE TANKS DURING SALT SOLUTION BLENDING  

SciTech Connect

This paper is the second in a series of four publications to document ongoing pilot scale testing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of mixing processes in 85 foot diameter, 1.3 million gallon, radioactive liquid waste, storage tanks at Savannah River Site (SRS). Homogeneous blending of salt solutions is required in waste tanks. Settled solids (i.e., sludge) are required to remain undisturbed on the bottom of waste tanks during blending. Suspension of sludge during blending may potentially release radiolytically generated hydrogen trapped in the sludge, which is a safety concern. The first paper (Leishear, et. al. [1]) presented pilot scale blending experiments of miscible fluids to provide initial design requirements for a full scale blending pump. Scaling techniques for an 8 foot diameter pilot scale tank were also justified in that work. This second paper describes the overall reasons to perform tests, and documents pilot scale experiments performed to investigate disturbance of sludge, using non-radioactive sludge simulants. A third paper will document pilot scale CFD modeling for comparison to experimental pilot scale test results for both blending tests and sludge disturbance tests. That paper will also describe full scale CFD results. The final paper will document additional blending test results for stratified layers in salt solutions, scale up techniques, final full scale pump design recommendations, and operational recommendations. Specifically, this paper documents a series of pilot scale tests, where sludge simulant disturbance due to a blending pump or transfer pump are investigated. A principle design requirement for a blending pump is UoD, where Uo is the pump discharge nozzle velocity, and D is the nozzle diameter. Pilot scale test results showed that sludge was undisturbed below UoD = 0.47 ft{sup 2}/s, and that below UoD = 0.58 ft{sup 2}/s minimal sludge disturbance was observed. If sludge is minimally disturbed, hydrogen will not be released. Installation requirements were also determined for a transfer pump which will remove tank contents, and which is also required to not disturb sludge. Testing techniques and test results for both types of pumps are presented.

Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Lee, S.; Steeper, T.; Fowley, M.; Parkinson, K.

2011-01-12

149

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: special advisory report on the status of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's plans for repository performance assessment  

SciTech Connect

Repository performance assessment is analysis that identifies events and processes that might affect a repository system for isolation of radioactive waste, examines their effects on barriers to waste migration, and estimates the probabilities of their occurrence and their consequences. In 1983 Battelle Memorial Institute's Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) prepared two plans - one for performance assessment for a waste repository in salt and one for verification and validation of performance assessment technology. At the request of the US Department of Energy's Salt Repository Project Office (SRPO), Argonne National Laboratory reviewed those plans and prepared this report to advise SRPO of specific areas where ONWI's plans for performance assessment might be improved. This report presents a framework for repository performance assessment that clearly identifies the relationships among the disposal problems, the processes underlying the problems, the tools for assessment (computer codes), and the data. In particular, the relationships among important processes and 26 model codes available to ONWI are indicated. A common suggestion for computer code verification and validation is the need for specific and unambiguous documentation of the results of performance assessment activities. A major portion of this report consists of status summaries of 27 model codes indicated as potentially useful by ONWI. The code summaries focus on three main areas: (1) the code's purpose, capabilities, and limitations; (2) status of the elements of documentation and review essential for code verification and validation; and (3) proposed application of the code for performance assessment of salt repository systems. 15 references, 6 figures, 4 tables.

Ditmars, J.D.; Walbridge, E.W.; Rote, D.M.; Harrison, W.; Herzenberg, C.L.

1983-10-01

150

Costs for off-site disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes: Salt caverns versus other disposal methods  

SciTech Connect

According to an American Petroleum Institute production waste survey reported on by P.G. Wakim in 1987 and 1988, the exploration and production segment of the US oil and gas industry generated more than 360 million barrels (bbl) of drilling wastes, more than 20 billion bbl of produced water, and nearly 12 million bbl of associated wastes in 1985. Current exploration and production activities are believed to be generating comparable quantities of these oil field wastes. Wakim estimates that 28% of drilling wastes, less than 2% of produced water, and 52% of associated wastes are disposed of in off-site commercial facilities. In recent years, interest in disposing of oil field wastes in solution-mined salt caverns has been growing. This report provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in oil-and gas-producing states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and the amounts they charge. It also compares cavern disposal costs with the costs of other forms of waste disposal.

Veil, J.A.

1997-09-01

151

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of Westinghouse Electric Corporation's report on reference conceptual designs for a repository waste package  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the findings of the peer panel constituted by Argonne National Laboratory to review Region A of Westinghouse Electric Corporation's report entitled Waste Package Reference Conceptual Designs for a Repository in Salt. The panel determined that the reviewed report does not provide reasonable assurance that US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements for waste packages will be met by the proposed design. It also found that it is premature to call the design a ''reference design,'' or even a ''reference conceptual design.'' This review report provides guidance for the preparation of a more acceptable design document.

Rote, D.M.; Hull, A.B.; Was, G.S.; Macdonald, D.D.; Wilde, B.E.; Russell, J.E.; Kruger, J.; Harrison, W.; Hambley, D.F.

1985-10-01

152

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: Peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's draft report on an issues hierarchy and data needs for site characterization  

SciTech Connect

At the request of the Salt Repository Project (SRPO), Argonne National Laboratory conducted an independent peer review of a report by the Battelle Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation entitled ''Salt Repository Project Issues Hierarchy and Data Needs for Site Characterization (Draft).'' This report provided a logical structure for evaluating the outstanding questions (issues) related to selection and licensing of a site as a high-level waste repository. It also provided a first estimate of the information and data necessary to answer or resolve those questions. As such, this report is the first step in developing a strategy for site characterization. Microfiche copies of ''Draft Issues Hierarchy, Resolution Strategy, and Information Needs for Site Characterization and Environmental/Socioeconomic Evaluation - July, 1986'' and ''Issues Hierarchy and Data Needs for Site Characterization - February, 1985'' are included in the back pocket of this report.

Harrison, W.; Fenster, D.F.; Ditmars, J.D.; Paddock, R.A.; Rote, D.M.; Hambley, D.F.; Seitz, M.G.; Hull, A.B.

1986-12-01

153

Resistance of Coatings for Boiler Components of Waste-to-Energy Plants to Salt Melts Containing Copper Compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accelerating effect of heavy metal compounds on the corrosive attack of boiler components like superheaters poses a severe problem in modern waste-to-energy plants (WTPs). Coatings are a possible solution to protect cheap, low alloyed steel substrates from heavy metal chloride and sulfate salts, which have a relatively low melting point. These salts dissolve many alloys, and therefore often are the limiting factor as far as the lifetime of superheater tubes is concerned. In this work the corrosion performance under artificial salt deposits of different coatings, manufactured by overlay welding, thermal spraying of self-fluxing as well as conventional systems was investigated. The results of our studies clearly demonstrate the importance of alloying elements such as molybdenum or silicon. Additionally, the coatings have to be dense and of a certain thickness in order to resist the corrosive attack under these severe conditions.

Galetz, Mathias Christian; Bauer, Johannes Thomas; Schütze, Michael; Noguchi, Manabu; Cho, Hiromitsu

2013-06-01

154

An optimal method for phosphorylation of rare earth chlorides in LiCl-KCl eutectic based waste salt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study on an optimal method for the phosphorylation of rare earth chlorides in LiCl-KCl eutectic waste salt generated the pyrochemical process of spent nuclear fuel was performed. A reactor with a pitched four blade impeller was designed to create a homogeneous mixing zone in LiCl-KCl eutectic salt. A phosphorylation test of NdCl3 in the salt was carried out by changing the operation conditions (operation temperature, stirring rate, agent injection amount). Based on the results of the test, a proper operation condition (450 °C, 300 rpm, 1 eq. of phosphorylation agent) for over a 0.99 conversion ratio of NdCl3 to NdPO4 was determined. Under this condition, multi-component rare earth (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Y) chlorides were effectively converted into phosphate forms. It was confirmed that the existing regeneration process of LiCl-KCl eutectic waste salt can be greatly improved and simplified through these phosphorylation test results.

Eun, H. C.; Kim, J. H.; Cho, Y. Z.; Choi, J. H.; Lee, T. K.; Park, H. S.; Park, G. I.

2013-11-01

155

Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion and Cerebral/Renal Salt Wasting Syndrome: Similarities and Differences  

PubMed Central

Hyponatremia (sodium levels of <135?mEq/L) is one of the most common electrolyte imbalances in clinical practice, especially in patients with neurologic diseases. Hyponatremia can cause cerebral edema and brain herniation; therefore, prompt diagnosis and proper treatment is important in preventing morbidity and mortality. Among various causes of hyponatremia, diagnosing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) and cerebral/renal salt wasting syndrome (C/RSW) is difficult due to many similarities. SIADH is caused by excess of renal water reabsorption through inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, and fluid restriction is the treatment of choice. On the other hand, C/RSW is caused by natriuresis, which is followed by volume depletion and negative sodium balance and replacement of water and sodium is the mainstay of treatment. Determinating volume status in hyponatremic patients is the key point in differential between SIADH and C/RSW. However, in most situations, differential diagnosis of these two diseases is difficult because they overlap in many clinical and laboratory aspects, especially to assess differences in volume status of these patients. Although distinction between the SIADH and C/RSW is difficult, improvement of hypouricemia and an increased fractional excretion of uric acid after the correction of hyponatremia in SIADH, not in C/RSW, may be one of the helpful points in discriminating the two diseases. In this review, we compare these two diseases regarding the pathophysiologic mechanisms, diagnosis, and therapeutic point of view. PMID:25657991

Oh, Ji Young; Shin, Jae Il

2015-01-01

156

Composite backfill materials for radioactive waste isolation by deep burial in salt  

SciTech Connect

Bentonite and hectorite were found to sorb Pu(IV) and Am(III) from concentrated brines with distribution coefficients K/sub d/ > 3000 ml/g. The permeability of bentonite to brine was less than 1 microdarcy at a confining pressure of 18 MPa, the expected lithostatic pressure at the 800 m level in a salt repository. Getters for sorption of TcO/sub 4//sup -/ (K/sub d/ approx. 300 ml/g), I/sup -/ (K/sub d/ greater than or equal to 30 ml/g), Cs (K/sub d/ greater than or equal to 30 ml/g) and Sr (K/sub d/ greater than or equal to approx. 100 ml/g) from brines were identified. Their sorption properties are presented. Thermal conductivity results (>0.5 W/mK) and evidence for bentonite stability in brines at hydrothermal conditions are also given. It is shown by calculated estimates that a 3-ft-thick mixture of bentonite with other getter materials could retain Pu, Am, and TcO/sub 4//sup -/ for >10/sup 4/ years and I/sup -/ for > 10/sup 3/ years. Another tailored mixture could retain Cs for approx. 600 years, Sr for approx. 700 years, TcO/sub 4/ for approx. 4000 years and I/sup -/ for approx. 400 years. The backfill can offer a significant contribution to the isolation capability of a waste package system.

Nowak, E.J.

1980-01-01

157

Highlights of the Salt Extraction Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents the salient features of a new process for the recovery of metal values from secondary sources and waste materials such as slag and flue dusts. It is also feasible in extracting metals such as nickel and cobalt from ores that normally are difficult to enrich and process metallurgically. The salt extraction process is based on extraction of the metals from the raw materials by a molten salt bath consisting of NaCl, LiCl, and KCl corresponding to the eutectic composition with AlCl3 as the chlorinating agent. The process is operated in the temperature range 973 K (700°C) to 1173 K (900°C). The process was shown to be successful in extracting Cr and Fe from electric arc furnace (EAF) slag. Electrolytic copper could be produced from copper concentrate based on chalcopyrite in a single step. Conducting the process in oxygen-free atmosphere, sulfur could be captured in the elemental form. The method proved to be successful in extracting lead from spent cathode ray tubes. In order to prevent the loss of AlCl3 in the vapor form and also chlorine gas emission at the cathode during the electrolysis, liquid aluminum was used. The process was shown to be successful in extracting Nd and Dy from magnetic scrap. The method is a highly promising process route for the recovery of strategic metals. It also has the added advantage of being environmentally friendly.

Abbasalizadeh, Aida; Seetharaman, Seshadri; Teng, Lidong; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Grinder, Olle; Izumi, Yukari; Barati, Mansoor

2013-11-01

158

Autosomal Dominant Pseudohypoaldosteronism Type 1 in an Infant with Salt Wasting Crisis Associated with Urinary Tract Infection and Obstructive Uropathy  

PubMed Central

Type 1 pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA1) is a salt wasting syndrome caused by renal resistance to aldosterone. Primary renal PHA1 or autosomal dominant PHA1 is caused by mutations in mineralocorticoids receptor gene (NR3C2), while secondary PHA1 is frequently associated with urinary tract infection (UTI) and/or urinary tract malformations (UTM). We report a 14-day-old male infant presenting with severe hyperkalemia, hyponatremic dehydration, metabolic acidosis, and markedly elevated serum aldosterone level, initially thought to have secondary PHA1 due to the associated UTI and posterior urethral valves. His serum aldosterone remained elevated at 5 months of age, despite resolution of salt wasting symptoms. Chromosomal microarray analysis revealed a deletion of exons 3–5 in NR3C2 in the patient and his asymptomatic mother who also had elevated serum aldosterone level, confirming that he had primary or autosomal dominant PHA1. Our case raises the possibility that some patients with secondary PHA1 attributed to UTI and/or UTM may instead have primary autosomal dominant PHA1, for which genetic testing should be considered to identify the cause, determine future recurrence risk, and possibly prevent the life-threatening salt wasting in a subsequent family member. Future clinical research is needed to investigate the potential overlapping between secondary PHA1 and primary autosomal dominant PHA1. PMID:24455331

Bowden, Sasigarn A.; Cozzi, Corin; Hickey, Scott E.; Thrush, Devon Lamb; Astbury, Caroline; Nuthakki, Sushma

2013-01-01

159

Alternative methods to manage waste salt from repository excavation in the Deaf Smith County and Swisher County locations, Texas: A scoping study: Technical report. [Salt and salt-laden material  

SciTech Connect

This report describes and qualitatively evaluates eight options for managing the large volumes of salt and salt-laden rock that would result from the excavation of a high-level radioactive waste repository in Deaf Smith County or Swisher County, Texas. The options are: distribution for commercial use; ocean disposal; deep-well injection; disposal in multilevel mines on the site; disposal in abandoned salt mines off the site; disposal off the site in abandoned mines developed for minerals other than salt; disposal in excavated landfills; and surface disposal on alkali flats. The main features of each option are described, as well as the associated environmental and economic impacts, and regulatory constraints. The options are evaluated in terms of 11 factors that jointly constitute a test of relative suitability. The results of the evaluation and implications for further study are indicated. This document does not consider or include the actual numbers, findings, or conclusions contained in the final Deaf Smith County Environmental Assessment (DOE, 1986). 43 refs., 8 tabs.

Not Available

1987-01-01

160

Waste Stream Generated and Waste Disposal Plans for Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) site is located in Tennessee, on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), south of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) main plant across Haw Ridge in Melton Valley. The MSRE was run by ORNL to demonstrate the desirable features of the molten-salt concept in a practical reactor that could be operated safely and reliably. It introduced the idea of a homogeneous reactor using fuel salt media and graphite moderation for power and breeder reactors. The MSRE reactor and associated components are located in cells beneath the floor in the high-bay area of Building 7503 (Figure 1). The reactor was operated from June 1965 to December 1969. When the reactor was shut down, fuel salt was drained from the reactor circuit to two drain tanks. A ''clean'' salt was then circulated through the reactor as a decontamination measure and drained to a third drain tank. When operations ceased, the fuel and flush salts were allowed t o cool and solidify in the drain tanks. At shutdown, the MSRE facility complex was placed in a surveillance and maintenance program. As a result of the S&M program, it was discovered in 1994 that gaseous uranium (233U/232U) hexafluoride (UF6) had moved throughout the MSRE process systems. The UF6 was generated when radiolysis of the fluorine salts caused the individual constituents to dissociate to their component atoms, including free fluorine.Some of the free fluorine combined with uranium fluorides (UF4) in the salt to form UF6. UF6 is gaseous at slightly above ambient temperatures; thus, periodic heating of the fuel salts (which was intended to remedy the radiolysis problems) and simple diffusion had allowed the UF6 to move out of the salt and into the process systems of MSRE.

Haghighi, M. H.; Szozda, R. M.; Jugan, M. R.

2002-02-26

161

Combined Utilization of Cation Exchanger and Neutral Receptor to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts  

SciTech Connect

In this report, novel approaches to the selective liquid-liquid extraction separation of sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from high-level alkaline tank waste will be discussed. Sodium hydroxide can be successfully separated from alkaline tank-waste supernatants by weakly acidic lipophilic hydroxy compounds via a cation-exchange mechanism referred to as pseudo hydroxide extraction. In a multi-cycle process, as sodium hydroxide in the aqueous phase becomes depleted, it is helpful to have a neutral sodium receptor in the extraction system to exploit the high nitrate concentration in the waste solution to promote sodium removal by an ion-pair extraction process. Simultaneous utilization of an ionizable organic hydroxy compound and a neutral extractant (crown ether) in an organic phase results in the synergistic enhancement of ion exchange and improved separation selectivity due to the receptor's strong and selective sodium binding. Moreover, combination of the hydroxy compound and the crown ether provides for mutually increased solubility, even in a non-polar organic solvent. Accordingly, application of Isopar{reg_sign} L, a kerosene-like alkane solvent, becomes feasible. This investigation involves examination of such dual-mechanism extraction phases for sodium extraction from simulated and actual salt cake waste solutions. Sodium salts can be regenerated upon the contact of the loaded extraction phases with water. Finally, conditions of potential extraction/strip cycling will be discussed.

Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Moyer, Bruce A.

2004-03-29

162

An analysis of salt and moisture deposition on the air sampling probes in the exhaust shaft of the waste isolation pilot plant  

E-print Network

A study was performed to determine the source of moist salt formations on air sampling , probes at the top of the exhaust shaft used in ventilating the waste repository at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). An earlier study by Texas A&M Univ...

Weaver, Gregg Shelton

1996-01-01

163

Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters  

DOEpatents

A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed. The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts. For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates. 54 figs.

Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

1994-11-22

164

Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters  

DOEpatents

A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed, The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts, For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates.

Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY)

1994-11-22

165

Emissions from energetic material waste during the Molten Salt Destruction process  

SciTech Connect

The Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) process is an alternative to open burn/open detonation for destroying energetic materials; MSD has inherently low gaseous emissions, and the salt bath can scrub both acidic gases and particulates. It was demonstrated that high explosives and a liquid propellant can be safely and completely destroyed using MSD. Gaseous emissions of NOx and CO are very low. Nitrate builds up in the salt bath when nitrate-rich materials are destroyed, but addition fuel reduces the nitrate to NO. A program has been begun to add catalytic materials to the bed to further reduce emissions; a small molten salt bath has been constructed for chemical kinetic studies.

Watkins, B.E.; Upadhye, R.S.; Pruneda, C.O.; Brummond, W.A.

1994-07-05

166

Results of screening activities in salt states prior to the enactment of the Nationall Waste Policy Act  

SciTech Connect

The identification of potential sites for a nuclear waste repository through screening procedures in the salt states is a well-established, deliberate process. This screening process has made it possible to carry out detailed studies of many of the most promising potential sites, and general studies of all the sites, in anticipation of the siting guidelines specified in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. The screening work completed prior to the passage of the Act allowed the Secretary of Energy to identify seven salt sites as potentially acceptable under the provisions of Section 116(a) of the Act. These sites were formally identified by letters from Secretary Hodel to the states of Texas, Utah, Mississippi, and Louisiana on February 2, 1983. The potentially acceptable salt sites were in Deaf Smith and Swisher Counties in Texas; Davis and Lavender Canyons in the Gibson Dome location in Utah; Richton and Cypress Creek Domes in Mississippi; and Vacherie Dome in Louisiana. Further screening will include comparison of each potentially acceptable site against disqualification factors and selection of a preferred site in each of the three geohydrologic settings from those remaining, in accordance with the siting guidelines. These steps will be documented in statutory Environmental Assessments prepared for each site to be nominated for detailed characterization. 9 references.

Carbiener, W.A.

1983-01-01

167

Recovery of soluble chloride salts from the wastewater generated during the washing process of municipal solid wastes incineration fly ash.  

PubMed

Water washing is widely used as the pretreatment method to treat municipal solid waste incineration fly ash, which facilitates the further solidification/stabilization treatment or resource recovery of the fly ash. The wastewater generated during the washing process is a kind of hydrosaline solution, usually containing high concentrations of alkali chlorides and sulphates, which cause serious pollution to environment. However, these salts can be recycled as resources instead of discharge. This paper explored an effective and practical recovery method to separate sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and calcium chloride salts individually from the hydrosaline water. In laboratory experiments, a simulating hydrosaline solution was prepared according to composition of the waste washing water. First, in the three-step evaporation-crystallization process, pure sodium chloride and solid mixture of sodium and potassium chlorides were obtained separately, and the remaining solution contained potassium and calcium chlorides (solution A). And then, the solid mixture was fully dissolved into water (solution B obtained). Finally, ethanol was added into solutions A and B to change the solubility of sodium, potassium, and calcium chlorides within the mixed solvent of water and ethanol. During the ethanol-adding precipitation process, each salt was separated individually, and the purity of the raw production in laboratory experiments reached about 90%. The ethanol can be recycled by distillation and reused as the solvent. Therefore, this technology may bring both environmental and economic benefits. PMID:25176491

Tang, Hailong; Erzat, Aris; Liu, Yangsheng

2014-01-01

168

Preservation of artifacts in salt mines as a natural analog for the storage of transuranic wastes at the WIPP repository  

SciTech Connect

Use of nature`s laboratory for scientific analysis of complex systems is a largely untapped resource for understanding long-term disposal of hazardous materials. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the US is a facility designed and approved for storage of transuranic waste in a salt medium. Isolation from the biosphere must be ensured for 10,000 years. Natural analogs provide a means to interpret the evolution of the underground disposal setting. Investigations of ancient sites where manmade materials have experienced mechanical and chemical processes over millennia provide scientific information unattainable by conventional laboratory methods. This paper presents examples of these pertinent natural analogs, provides examples of features relating to the WIPP application, and identifies potential avenues of future investigations. This paper cites examples of analogical information pertaining to the Hallstatt salt mine in Austria and Wieliczka salt mine in Poland. This paper intends to develop an appreciation for the applicability of natural analogs to the science and engineering of a long-term disposal facility in geomedia.

Martell, M.A.; Hansen, F.; Weiner, R.

1998-10-01

169

Use of zinc and copper (I) salts to reduce sulfur and nitrogen impurities during the pyrolysis of plastic and rubber waste to hydrocarbons  

DOEpatents

An improvement in a process for the pyrolytic conversion of rubber and plastic waste to hydrocarbon products which results in reduced levels of nitrogen and sulfur impurities in these products. The improvement comprises pyrolyzing the waste in the presence of at least about 1 weight percent of salts, based on the weight of the waste, preferably chloride or carbonate salts, of zinc or copper (I). This invention was made under contract with or subcontract thereunder of the Department of Energy Contract #DE-AC02-78-ER10049.

Wingfield, Jr., Robert C. (Southfield, MI); Braslaw, Jacob (Southfield, MI); Gealer, Roy L. (West Bloomfield, MI)

1984-01-01

170

Mechanical properties and consolidation of potential DHLW (Defense High-Level Wastes) backfill materials: Crushed salt and 70\\/30 bentonite\\/sand. [Crushed salt: bentonite = 70:30 by weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermomechanical properties of intact rock salt and the waste package materials have appeared in the literature. Only limited data is available, however, for the two backfill materials of interest in the analyses, crushed salt and 70\\/30 (by weight) bentonite\\/sand. A unique property of bentonite-based materials is the propensity for clay particles to swell as a result of water sorption. If

Pfeifle

1987-01-01

171

Influence of salts on the rejection of polyethyleneglycol by an NF organic membrane: Pore swelling and salting-out effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rejection rate measurements were carried out with a single polyethyleneglycol (PEG) solution and mixed PEG\\/inorganic salt solutions for a nanofiltration polyamide membrane. It was observed that PEG rejection is significantly lower in mixed-solute solutions, i.e. when a salt is present (KCl, LiCl, MgCl2 and K2SO4), and that rejection rate drop increases with salt concentration. Similar nanofiltration experiments were conducted with

Aurélie Escoda; Patrick Fievet; Sophie Lakard; Anthony Szymczyk; Sébastien Déon

2010-01-01

172

Emissions from energetic material waste during the Molten Salt Destruction process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) process is an alternative to open burn\\/open detonation for destroying energetic materials; MSD has inherently low gaseous emissions, and the salt bath can scrub both acidic gases and particulates. It was demonstrated that high explosives and a liquid propellant can be safely and completely destroyed using MSD. Gaseous emissions of NOx and CO are very

B. E. Watkins; R. S. Upadhye; C. O. Pruneda; W. A. Brummond

1994-01-01

173

Rock salt — the mechanical properties of the host rock material for a radioactive waste repository  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the long-term prediction of deformation, stress and permeability of a repository in a salt formation, one needs a reliable extrapolation of the mechanical behaviour of rock salt. This is only possible by means of material laws with a physical basis. A detailed description of the so-called composite model for transient and steady state creep is given, which is based

Udo Hunsche; Andreas Hampel

1999-01-01

174

Zr electrorefining process for the treatment of cladding hull waste in LiCl-KCl molten salts  

SciTech Connect

Zr electrorefining for the treatment of Zircaloy-4 cladding hull waste is demonstrated in LiCl-KCl-ZrCl{sub 4} molten salts. Although a Zr oxide layer thicker than 5 ?m strongly inhibits the Zr dissolution process, pre-treatment processes increases the dissolution kinetics. For 10 g-scale experiments, the purities of the recovered Zr were 99.54 wt.% and 99.74 wt.% for fresh and oxidized cladding tubes, respectively, with no electrical contact issue. The optimal condition for Zr electrorefining has been found to improve the morphological feature of the recovered Zr, which reduces the salt incorporation by examining the effect of the process parameters such as the ZrCl{sub 4} concentration and the applied potential.

Lee, Chang Hwa; Lee, You Lee; Jeon, Min Ku; Kang, Kweon Ho; Choi, Yong Taek; Park, Geun Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute - KAERI, 989-111 Daeduk-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01

175

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: Peer review of the Fluor Technology, Inc. , report and position paper concerning waste emplacement mode and its effect on repository conceptual design  

SciTech Connect

Recommendations for revising the Fluor Technology, Inc., draft position paper entitled Evaluation of Waste Emplacement Mode and the final report entitled Waste Package/Repository Impact Study include: reevaluate the relative rankings for the various emplacement modes; delete the following want objectives: maximize ability to locate the package horizon because sufficient flexibility exists to locate rooms in the relatively clean San Andres Unit 4 Salt and maximize far-field geologic integrity during retrieval because by definition the far field will be unaffected by thermal and stress perturbations caused by remining; give greater emphasis to want objectives regarding cost and use of present technology; delete the following statements from pages 1-1 and 1-2 of the draft position paper: ''No thought or study was given to the impacts of this configuration (vertical emplacement) on repository construction or short and long-term performance of the site'' and ''Subsequent salt repository designs adopted the vertical emplacement configuration as the accepted method without further evaluation.''; delete App. E and lines 8-17 of page 1-4 of the draft position paper because they are inappropriate; adopt a formal decision-analysis procedure for the 17 identified emplacement modes; revise App. F of the impact study to more accurately reflect current technology; consider designing the underground layout to take advantage of stress-relief techniques; consider eliminating reference to fuel assemblies <10 yr ''out-of-reactor''; model the temperature distribution, assuming that the repository is constructed in an infinitely large salt body; state that the results of creep analyses must be considered tentative until they can be validated by in situ measurements; and reevaluate the peak radial stresses on the waste package so that the calculated stress conditions more closely approximate expected in situ conditions.

Hambley, D.F.; Russell, J.E.; Whitfield, R.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Harrison, W.; Jacoby, C.H.; Bump, T.R.; Mraz, D.Z.; Busch, J.S.; Fischer, L.E.

1987-02-01

176

Radiation damage studies on natural rock salt from various geological localities of interest to the radioactive waste disposal program  

SciTech Connect

As part of a program to investigate radiation damage in geological materials of interest to the radioactive waste disposal program, radiation damage, particularly radiation induced sodium metal colloid formation, has been studied in 14 natural rock salt samples. All measurements were made with equipment for making optical absorption and other measurements on samples, in a temperature controlled irradiation chamber, during and after 0.5 to 3.0 MeV electron irradiation. Samples were chosen for practical and scientific purposes, from localities that are potential repository sites and from different horizons at certain localities.

Levy, P.W.

1981-01-01

177

Effet de sel sur l'équilibre liquide-liquide des systèmes eau-phénol-sel (KCl, NaCl, LiCl, CaCl2 et MgCl2)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phase diagrams of the Water-Phenol-Salt systems (KCl, NaCl, LiCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2) have been studied. The influence of the cation concentration and ionic radius on the binodal curves and the maxima critical point coordinates bas been shown. Les diagrammes de phases de l'équilibre liquide-liquide des systèmes Eau-Phénol-Sel (KCl, NaCl, LiCl, CaCl2 et MgCl2) ont été étudiés. Nous avons mis en évidence l'influence de la concentration et du rayon ionique du cation du sel ajouté sur l'allure des courbes binodales et les coordonnées des points critiques maxima de miscibilité.

Belhachemi, B.; Gotouk, A. A.

1999-07-01

178

Comparison of the interoceptive sensory consequences of CCK, LiCl, and satiety in rats.  

PubMed

In three experiments we assessed the degree to which ad lib feeding, injection of cholecystokinin (CCK), and injection of lithium chloride (LiCl) produce states with similar sensory consequences. In each experiment, two groups of rats were trained to use cues arising from food deprivation and satiation as discriminative signals for shock. One group was shocked when deprived but not when nondeprived. The other group received the reversed discrimination. Testing began when incidence of freezing was greater under the shocked deprivation than under the nonshocked deprivation condition. In Experiment 1, the rats were tested under 24-hr food deprivation after injections of CCK, LiCl, and saline (in counterbalanced order). We reasoned that if either CCK or LiCl induce satiety-like states, they should promote patterns of responding different from those produced by saline but similar to those produced by ad lib feeding. The effects of CCK on freezing did not differ from those of saline, whereas both CCK and LiCl had effects that were different from ad lib feeding. This pattern of results was also obtained when deprivation level during training and testing was reduced to 8 hr (Experiment 1A) and also when rats received small amounts of food in conjunction with CCK (Experiment 2). The intubation of a high-calorie stomach load (Experiment 1A) produced a response profile like that observed after free feeding. Freezing after LiCl treatment differed from that observed after free feeding and from that found after injection of CCK. The results indicate that rats can differentiate between the sensory consequences of the states produced by CCK, by LiCl, and by ad lib feeding. PMID:2833289

Davidson, T L; Flynn, F W; Grill, H J

1988-02-01

179

Regulatory Framework for Salt Waste Disposal and Tank Closure at the Savannah River Site - 13663  

SciTech Connect

The end of the Cold War has left a legacy of approximately 37 million gallons of radioactive waste in the aging waste tanks at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). A robust program is in place to remove waste from these tanks, treat the waste to separate into a relatively small volume of high-level waste and a large volume of low-level waste, and to actively dispose of the low-level waste on-site and close the waste tanks and associated ancillary structures. To support performance-based, risk-informed decision making and to ensure compliance with all regulatory requirements, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its current and past contractors have worked closely with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop and implement a framework for on-site low-level waste disposal and closure of the SRS waste tanks. The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, provides DOE the authority to manage defense-related radioactive waste. DOE Order 435.1 and its associated manual and guidance documents detail this radioactive waste management process. The DOE also has a requirement to consult with the NRC in determining that waste that formerly was classified as high-level waste can be safely managed as either low-level waste or transuranic waste. Once DOE makes a determination, NRC then has a responsibility to monitor DOE's actions in coordination with SCDHEC to ensure compliance with the Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 61 (10CFR61), Subpart C performance objectives. The management of hazardous waste substances or components at SRS is regulated by SCDHEC and the EPA. The foundation for the interactions between DOE, SCDHEC and EPA is the SRS Federal Facility Agreement (FFA). Managing this array of requirements and successfully interacting with regulators, consultants and stakeholders is a challenging task but ensures thorough and thoughtful processes for disposing of the SRS low-level waste and the closure of the tank farm facilities. (authors)

Thomas, Steve; Dickert, Ginger [Savannah River Remediation LLC, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River Remediation LLC, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01

180

Geohydrology of the northern Louisiana salt-dome basin pertinent to the storage of radioactive wastes; a progress report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Salt domes in northern Louisiana are being considered as possible storage sites for nuclear wastes. The domes are in an area that received regional sedimentation through early Tertiary (Eocene) time with lesser amounts of Quaternary deposits. The Cretaceous-Tertiary accumulation is a few thousand feet thick; the major sands are regional aquifers that extend far beyond the boundaries of the salt-dome basin. Because of multiple aquifers, structural deformation, and variations in the hydraulic characteristics of cap rock, the ground-water hydrology around a salt dome may be highly complex. The Sparta Sand is the most productive and heavily used regional aquifer. It is either penetrated by or overlies most of the domes. A fluid entering the Sparta flow system would move toward one of the pumping centers, all at or near municipalities that pump from the Sparta. Movement could be toward surface drainage where local geologic and hydrologic conditions permit leakage to the surface or to a surficial aquifer. (Woodard-USGS)

Hosman, R.L.

1978-01-01

181

Salton Sea Geothermal Field, California, as a near-field natural analog of a radioactive waste repository in salt  

SciTech Connect

Since high concentrations of radionuclides and high temperatures are not normally encountered in salt domes or beds, finding an exact geologic analog of expected near-field conditions in a mined nuclear waste repository in salt will be difficult. The Salton Sea Geothermal Field, however, provides an opportunity to investigate the migration and retardation of naturally occurring U, Th, Ra, Cs, Sr and other elements in hot brines which have been moving through clay-rich sedimentary rocks for up to 100,000 years. The more than thirty deep wells drilled in this field to produce steam for electrical generation penetrate sedimentary rocks containing concentrated brines where temperatures reach 365/sup 0/C at only 2 km depth. The brines are primarily Na, K, Ca chlorides with up to 25% of total dissolved solids; they also contain high concentrations of metals such as Fe, Mn, Li, Zn, and Pb. This report describes the geology, geophysics and geochemistry of this system as a prelude to a study of the mobility of naturally occurring radionuclides and radionuclide analogs within it. The aim of this study is to provide data to assist in validating quantitative models of repository behavior and to use in designing and evaluating waste packages and engineered barriers. 128 references, 33 figures, 13 tables.

Elders, W.A.; Cohen, L.H.

1983-11-01

182

Thermal Properties of LiCl-KCl Molten Salt for Nuclear Waste Separation  

SciTech Connect

This project addresses both practical and fundamental scientific issues of direct relevance to operational challenges of the molten LiCl-KCl salt pyrochemical process, while providing avenues for improvements in the process. In order to understand the effects of the continually changing composition of the molten salt bath during the process, the project team will systematically vary the concentrations of rare earth surrogate elements, lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, and neodymium, which will be added to the molten LiCl-KCl salt. They will also perform a limited number of focused experiments by the dissolution of depleted uranium. All experiments will be performed at 500 deg C. The project consists of the following tasks. Researchers will measure density of the molten salts using an instrument specifically designed for this purpose, and will determine the melting points with a differential scanning calorimeter. Knowledge of these properties is essential for salt mass accounting and taking the necessary steps to prevent melt freezing. The team will use cyclic voltammetry studies to determine redox potentials of the rare earth cations, as well as their diffusion coefficients and activities in the molten LiCl-KCl salt. In addition, the team will perform anodic stripping voltammetry to determine the concentration of the rare earth elements and their solubilities, and to develop the scientific basis for an on-line diagnostic system for in situ monitoring of the cation species concentration (rare earths in this case). Solubility and activity of the cation species are critically important for the prediction of the salt's useful lifetime and disposal.

Sridharan, Kumar [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Allen, Todd [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Anderson, Mark [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Simpson, Mike [Idaho National Lab., (United States)

2012-11-30

183

Molten Salt Oxidation: A Thermal Technology for Waste Treatment and Demilitarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

MSO is a good alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes including obsolete explosives, low-level mixed waste streams, PCB contaminated oils, spent resins and carbon. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has demonstrated the MSO process for the effective destruction of explosives, explosives-contaminated materials, and other wastes on a 1.5 kg\\/hr bench-scale unit and in

P C Hsu; B Watkins; C Pruneda; S Kwak

2001-01-01

184

Vitrification of an incinerator blowdown waste containing both chloride salts and carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low?level, mixed?waste simulant, derived from incinerator blowdown residue, has been vitrified in a series of crucible tests. Major components of this waste simulant included carbon, sodium chloride, silica, and alumina. Hazardous and surrogate radioactive metal complexes were also included. Two different formulations of additives were combined with the waste to facilitate glass formation. These glass formulations included NaNO3 to

James L. Resce; R. Giles Ragsdale; Thomas J. Overcamp

1996-01-01

185

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's reports on preferred repository sites within the Palo Duro Basin, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Documents are being submitted to the Salt Repository Project Office (SRPO) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) by Battelle Memorial Institute's Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) to satisfy milestones of the Salt Repository Project of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. Some of these documents are being reviewed by multidisciplinary groups of peers to ensure DOE of their adequacy and credibility. Adequacy of documents refers to their ability to meet the standards of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, as enunciated in 10 CFR 60, and the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Credibility of documents refers to the validity of the assumptions, methods, and conclusions, as well as to the completeness of coverage. This report summarizes Argonne's review of ONWI's two-volume draft report entitled Identification of Preferred Sites within the Palo Duro Basin: Vol. 1 - Palo Duro Location A, and Vol. 2 - Palo Duro Location B, dated January 1984. Argonne was requested by DOE to review these documents on January 17 and 24, 1984 (see App. A). The review procedure involved obtaining written comments on the reports from three members of Argonne's core peer review staff and three extramural experts in related research areas. The peer review panel met at Argonne on February 6, 1984, and reviewer comments were integrated into this report by the review session chairman, with the assistance of Argonne's core peer review staff. All of the peer review panelists concurred in the way in which their comments were represented in this report (see App. B). A letter report and a draft of this report were sent to SRPO on February 10, 1984, and April 17, 1984, respectively. 5 references.

Fenster, D.; Edgar, D.; Gonzales, S.; Domenico, P.; Harrison, W.; Engelder, T.; Tisue, M.

1984-04-01

186

Separation of CsCl from a Ternary CsCl-LiCl-KCl Salt via a Melt Crystallization Technique for Pyroprocessing Waste Minimization  

SciTech Connect

A parametric study has been conducted to identify the effects of several parameters on the separation of CsCl from molten LiCl-KCl salt via a melt crystallization process. A reverse vertical Bridgman technique was used to grow the salt crystals. The investigated parameters were: (1) the advancement rate, (2) the crucible lid configuration, (3) the amount of salt mixture, (4) the initial composition of CsCl, and (5) the temperature difference between the high and low furnace zones. From each grown crystal, samples were taken axially and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results show that CsCl concentrations at the top of the crystals were low and increased to a maximum at the bottom of the salt. Salt (LiCl-KCl) recycle percentages for the experiments ranged from 50% to 75% and the CsCl composition in the waste salt was low. To increase the recycle percentage and the concentration of CsCl in the waste form, the possibility of using multiple crystallization stages was explored to further optimize the process. Results show that multiple crystallization stages are practical and the optimal experimental conditions should be operated at 5.0 mm/hr rate with a lid configuration and temperature difference of 200 °C for a total of five crystallization stages. Under these conditions, up to 88% of the salt can be recycled.

Ammon Williams; Supathorn Phongikaroon; Michael Simpson

2013-02-01

187

Improvement of the treatment of salted liquid waste by integrated electrodialysis upstream biological treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

As far as the reduction of the environmental impact of production processes is concerned, the management of liquid wastes of high salinity remains a key point. In this paper, the possibility to use electrodialysis for the improvement of the management of such problematic liquid wastes is investigated. The ED experiments are carried out to investigate the influence of the operating

Elodie Singlande; Hélène Roux-de Balmann; Xavier Lefevbre; Mathieu Sperandio

2006-01-01

188

Molten salt destruction of energetic material wastes as an alternative to open burning. Revision 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of the end of the Cold War and the shift in emphasis to a smaller stockpile, many munitions, both conventional and nuclear, are scheduled for retirement and rapid dismantlement and demilitarization. Major components of these munitions are the explosives and propellants, or energetic materials. The Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process has been demonstrated for the destruction of

R. S. Upadhye; W. A. Brummond; C. O. Pruneda; B. E. Watkins

1994-01-01

189

Technetium in alkaline, high-salt, radioactive tank waste supernate: Preliminary characterization and removal  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the initial work conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to study technetium (Tc) removal from Hanford tank waste supernates and Tc oxidation state in the supernates. Filtered supernate samples from four tanks were studied: a composite double shell slurry feed (DSSF) consisting of 70% from Tank AW-101, 20% from AP-106, and 10% from AP-102; and three complexant concentrate (CC) wastes (Tanks AN-107, SY-101, ANS SY-103) that are distinguished by having a high concentration of organic complexants. The work included batch contacts of these waste samples with Reillex{trademark}-HPQ (anion exchanger from Reilly Industries) and ABEC 5000 (a sorbent from Eichrom Industries), materials designed to effectively remove Tc as pertechnetate from tank wastes. A short study of Tc analysis methods was completed. A preliminary identification of the oxidation state of non-pertechnetate species in the supernates was made by analyzing the technetium x-ray absorption spectra of four CC waste samples. Molybdenum (Mo) and rhenium (Re) spiked test solutions and simulants were tested with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry to evaluate the feasibility of the technique for identifying Tc species in waste samples.

Blanchard, D.L. Jr.; Brown, G.N.; Conradson, S.D. [and others

1997-01-01

190

Review of information on the radiation chemistry of materials around waste canisters in salt and assessment of the need for additional experimental information  

SciTech Connect

The brines, vapors, and salts precipitated from the brines will be exposed to gamma rays and to elevated temperatures in the regions close to a waste package in the salt. Accordingly, they will be subject to changes in composition brought about by reactions induced by the radiations and heat. This report reviews the status of information on the radiation chemistry of brines, gases, and solids which might be present around a waste package in salt and to assess the need for additional laboratory investigations on the radiation chemistry of these materials. The basic aspects of the radiation chemistry of water and aqueous solutions, including concentrated salt solutions, were reviewed briefly and found to be substantially unchanged from those presented in Jenks's 1972 review of radiolysis and hydrolysis in salt-mine brines. Some additional information pertaining to the radiolytic yields and reactions in brine solutions has become available since the previous review, and this information will be useful in the eventual, complete elucidation of the radiation chemistry of the salt-mine brines. 53 references.

Jenks, G.H.; Baes, C.F. Jr.

1980-03-01

191

Measurement of unsaturated hydraulic properties of salt cake simulant relevant to hanford and SRS high-level waste tanks using a pilot-scale setup  

SciTech Connect

Closure of the remaining tanks and final disposition of the radioactive waste is a high priority task at both Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford. The radioactive waste in the tanks are generally found in layers: supernate (on top) containing soluble fission products, and salt-cake and sludge (on the bottom of the tank) containing insoluble actinides. One strategy for minimizing the waste volume is to segregate the low curie salt waste from the high curie salt supernate by draining the supernate and interstitial salt solution from the salt-cake. The retrieval of the interstitial fluid will require knowledge of relevant properties of salt-cake waste including drainage parameters, more specifically, its hydraulic properties. The hydraulic parameters of the salt-cake have significance with respect to: 1) Kinetics of the retrieval process; and 2) Equilibrium conditions of the drainage. While the saturated hydraulic properties of the salt waste (hydraulic conductivity in the vertical and horizontal direction) can be used to determine the kinetics of the flow through the salt waste, the unsaturated properties are needed in order to assess not only the time frame of tank drainage but also the equilibrium conditions. How much and how fast fluid can be drained at given initial and boundary conditions (atmospheric pressure and temperature) can be analyzed. A series of dissolution and drainage experiments was conducted using S-112, S-109 and Tank 41 simulants in a pilot-scale column (1' diameter, 10' high). The major goal of these experiments was to determine the hydraulic parameters of flow through the column and the dissolution patterns upon addition of fresh water. The hydraulic experiments were conducted using interstitial fluid as well as fresh water. A series of one-step outflow experiments were used to evaluate the drainage patterns for salt-bed heights ranging from 1' to 8'. Measured data include bulk densities and saturated hydraulic conductivities as a function of temperature, and water retention characteristics for ambient temperature. Experiments in the range of 22-43 deg. C confirmed that the hydraulic conductivity in the vertical direction is strongly dependent on the temperature with variations most likely caused by physical-chemical changes in the salt-cake structure and the viscosity of the interstitial fluid. Evidence for the changes in salt-cake structure include: increased effluent specific gravity to 1.47, appearance of voids in the column, and a 10% reduction of the column height. A two-orders-of-magnitude difference in viscosity was observed when the temperature increased from 22 deg. C to 43 deg. C. The liquid retention parameters were determined using static retention points (derived from the multi-step outflow time series). Inverse analyses of the outflow data yielded additional unsaturated hydraulic conductivity parameters. The inverse analysis was performed by fixing saturated and residual water contents and the pore connectivity factor. Numerical simulations showed that the amount of drained fluid is directly related to van Genuchten's shape parameters n and {alpha} . On the other hand, the rate of drainage was directly related to saturated hydraulic conductivity. The recommended values for {alpha} and n with uncertainties in the parenthesis are respectively: 3.2(0.32) 1/m and 2.6(0.4). The recommended value for saturated hydraulic conductivity of salt-cake is 6.0E-06(3E-06). This work provides critical data about unsaturated hydraulic properties which can be used in numerical models to better predict removal of interstitial liquid from tanks that directly impact tank and site cleanup schedule and costs. (authors)

Tachiev, G.; Yaari, G.; Long, S.; Srivastava, R.; Roelant, D. [Florida International Univ., Miami (United States)

2007-07-01

192

Production of gypsum hemihydrate with waste heat, aqueous H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and sulfuric acid salts  

SciTech Connect

Alpha gypsum hemihydrate is obtained by calcining calcium sulfate dihydrate, generated with flue-gas desulfurization of power plants or by chemical process, e.g. in the production of phosphoric acid. The calcining process comprises producing initially a dispersion from calcium sulfate dihydrate and diluted, sulfuric acid solution and heating same at a predetermined rate to about 373 K with industrial dust-free waste heat, whereupon the solid components are separated from the aqueous sulfuric acid and are dried. An alpha gypsum hemihydrate practically free from anhydrite II is obtained from a solution of sulfuric salts in the diluted sulfuric acid. An addition of magnesium oxide yields a hemihydrate with a high degree of fineness and avoids blooming effects.

Quante, H.

1984-02-21

193

Permeability and hydraulic diffusivity of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository salt inferred from small-scale brine inflow experiments  

SciTech Connect

Brine seepage to 17 boreholes in salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility horizon has been monitored for several years. A simple model for one-dimensional, radial, darcy flow due to relaxation of ambient pore-water pressure is applied to analyze the field data. Fits of the model response to the data yield estimates of two parameters that characterize the magnitude of the flow and the time scale over which it evolves. With further assumptions, these parameters are related to the permeability and the hydraulic diffusivity of the salt. For those data that are consistent with the model prediction, estimated permeabilities are typically 10{sup {minus}22} to 10{sup {minus}21} m{sup 2}. The relatively small range of inferred permeabilities reflects the observation that the measured seepage fluxes are fairly consistent from hole to hole, of the order of 10{sup {minus}10} m/s. Estimated diffusivities are typically 10{sup {minus}10} to 10{sup {minus}8} m{sup 2}/s. The greater scatter in inferred hydraulic diffusivities is due to the difficulty of matching the idealized model history to the observed evolution of the flows. The data obtained from several of the monitored holes are not consistent with the simple model adopted here; material properties could not be inferred in these cases.

McTigue, D.F.

1993-06-01

194

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: rationale and methodology for Argonne-conducted reviews of site characterization programs  

SciTech Connect

Both regulatory and technical concerns must be addressed in Argonne-conducted peer reviews of site characterization programs for individual sites for a high-level radioactive waste repository in salt. This report describes the regulatory framework within which reviews must be conducted and presents background information on the structure and purpose of site characterization programs as found in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 4.17 and Title 10, Part 60, of the Code of Federal Regulations. It also presents a methodology to assist reviewers in addressing technical concerns relating to their respective areas of expertise. The methodology concentrates on elements of prime importance to the US Department of Energy's advocacy of a given salt repository system during the NRC licensing process. Instructions are given for reviewing 12 site characterization program elements, starting with performance objectives, performance issues, and levels of performance of repository subsystem components; progressing through performance assessment; and ending with plans for data acquisition and evaluation. The success of a site characterization program in resolving repository performance issues will be determined by judging the likelihood that the proposed data acquisition activities will reduce uncertainties in the performance predictions. 8 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

Harrison, W.; Ditmars, J.D.; Tisue, M.W.; Hambley, D.F.; Fenster, D.F.; Rote, D.M.

1985-07-01

195

Molten Salt Oxidation: A Thermal Technology for Waste Treatment and Demilitarization  

SciTech Connect

MSO is a good alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes including obsolete explosives, low-level mixed waste streams, PCB contaminated oils, spent resins and carbon. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has demonstrated the MSO process for the effective destruction of explosives, explosives-contaminated materials, and other wastes on a 1.5 kg/hr bench-scale unit and in an integrated MSO facility capable of treating 8 kg/hr of low-level radioactive mixed wastes. LLNL, under the direction and support of the Joint Demilitarization Technology (JDT) program, is currently building an integrated MSO plant for destroying explosives, explosives-contaminated sludge and explosives-contaminated activated charcoal. In a parallel effort, LLNL also provides technical support to DOE for the implementation of the MSO technology at industrial scale at Richland, Washington. Over 30 waste streams have been demonstrated with LLNL-built MSO systems. In this paper we will present our latest experimental data, our operational experience with MSO and also discuss its process capabilities.

Hsu, P C; Watkins, B; Pruneda, C; Kwak, S

2001-08-23

196

Impurities in rock-salt: consequences for the temperature increases at the disposal of high-level nuclear waste. [Kainite, Kieserite  

SciTech Connect

In part A the thermal properties of halite and the other materials occurring in rock-salt (the 'impurities') are collected. Except for sylvite (the specific heat of this salt is about 70% of the value for halite) all specific heats are larger than the specific heat of halite. The consequences for the temperature increases at the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in rock-salt are discussed for impurity concentrations of 1, 5, 10 and 15%. If the presence and distribution of the impurities are not taken into account, then - under the most unfavorable conditions - extra temperature increases of about 3% per cent impurity may occur. If, however, the geological composition and its geometry for the disposal region are known, the temperature increases can be calculated more accurately: they may or may not differ from those for pure halite. In part B the measurement of the thermal conductivity for four salts (kainite, kieserite, carnallite, and polyhalite) is described.

van den Broek, W.M.G.T.

1982-06-01

197

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's reports on multifactor life testing of waste package materials  

SciTech Connect

Two documents that provide the approaches in designing a test program to investigate uniform corrosion of low-carbon cash steel in a salt repository environment were reviewed. Recommendations are made by the Peer Review Panel for improving the two reports.

McPheeters, C.C.; Harrison, W.; Ditmars, J.D.; Lerman, A.; Rote, D.M.; Edgar, D.E.; Hambley, D.F.

1984-09-01

198

Elemental depth profiling of nuclear waste glasses after two-years burial in a salt geology  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that detailed surface compositional analysis has been conducted on 12 simulated nuclear waste forms leached for two years in the brine environment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) of both cations and anions has identified characteristic leaching and precipitation zones within the leached layers on all specimens. The thickness of the leached layer is found to range from approximately 0.3 to 2.7 [mu]m and the total element loss from 80 to 625 mmol/m[sup 2], indicating that durability in brine differs by less than an order of magnitude between the different glasses. The in-depth profiles of anionic elements indicate the significant roles of carbon, fluorine, and chlorine in the formation of surface phases. Also recorded and discussed are elemental SIMS images of sputter crater tapers, providing additional documentation of leaching subzones.

Lodding, A.R.; Engstrom, E.U. (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Inst. of Physics); Zoitos, B.K.; Clark, D.E. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Wicks, G.G. (Savannah River Lab., Aiken, SC (United States))

1992-10-01

199

Stabilization of Radioactive Salt-Containing Liquid and Sludge waste on the Ceramic Matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vernadsky Institute of geochemistry and analytical chemistry, Frumkin Institute of physical chemistry and electrochemistry\\u000a Russian Academy of sciences, PA “Mayak” and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has worked since 2003 on a number of waste treatment\\u000a applications for the Ceramicrete technology based on KMgPO4 compound invented and patented at ANL. These include low level inorganic residues at Rocky Flats, and also

Ivan G. Tananaev

200

Structure and Dynamics for LiBH4-LiCl Solid Solutions  

SciTech Connect

A surprisingly high degree of structural and compositional dynamics is observed in the system LiBH{sub 4}-LiCl as a function of temperature and time. Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) data reveals that Cl{sup -} readily substitutes for BH{sub 4}{sup -} in the structure of LiBH{sub 4}. Prolonged heating a sample of LiBH{sub 4}-LiCl (1:1 molar ratio) above the phase transition temperature and below the melting point (108 < T < 275 C) can produce highly chloride substituted hexagonal lithium borohydride, h-Li(BH{sub 4}){sub 1-x}Cl{sub x}, e.g., x {approx} 0.42, after heating from room temperature (RT) to 224 C at 2.5 C/min. LiCl has a higher solubility in h-LiBH{sub 4} as compared to orthorhombic lithium borohydride, o-LiBH{sub 4}, which is illustrated by a LiBH{sub 4}-LiCl (1:1) sample equilibrated at 245 C for 24 days and left at RT for another 13 months. Rietveld refinement reveals that this sample contains o-Li(BH{sub 4}){sub 0.91}Cl{sub 0.09} and LiCl. This illustrates a significantly faster dissolution of LiCl in h-LiBH{sub 4} as compared to a slower segregation of LiCl from o-LiBH{sub 4}, which is also demonstrated by in situ SR-PXD from three cycles of heating and cooling of the same Li(BH{sub 4}){sub 0.91}Cl{sub 0.09} sample. The substitution of the smaller Cl{sup -} for the larger BH{sub 4}{sup -} ion is clearly observed as a reduction in the unit cell volume as a function of time and temperature. A significant stabilization of h-LiBH{sub 4} is found to depend on the degree of anion substitution. Variable temperature solid-state magic-angle spinning (MAS) {sup 7}Li and {sup 11}B NMR experiments on pure LiBH{sub 4} show an increase in full width at half maximum (fwhm) when approaching the phase transition from o- to h-LiBH{sub 4}, which indicates an increase of the relaxation rate (i.e., T{sub 2} decreases). A less pronounced effect is observed for ion-substituted Li(BH{sub 4}){sub 1-x}Cl{sub x}, 0.09 < x < 0.42. The MAS NMR experiments also demonstrate a higher degree of motion in the hexagonal phase, i.e., fwhm is reduced by more than a factor of 10 at the o- to h-LiBH{sub 4} phase transition.

Arnbjerg, L.; Ravnsbak, D; Filinchuk, Y; Vang, R; Cerenius, Y; Besenbacher, F; Jorgensen, J; Jakobsen, H; Jensen, T

2009-01-01

201

Effects of combustion and operating conditions on PCDD/PCDF emissions from power boilers burning salt-laden wood waste.  

PubMed

This paper discusses the effects of combustion conditions on PCDD/PCDF emissions from pulp and paper power boilers burning salt-laden wood waste. We found no correlation between PCDD/PCDF emissions and carbon monoxide emissions. A good correlation was, however, observed between PCDD/PCDF emissions and the concentration of stack polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the absence of TDF addition. Thus, poor combustion conditions responsible for the formation of products of incomplete combustion (PICs), such as PAHs and PCDD/PCDF precursors, increase PCDD/PCDF emissions. PAH concentrations increased with higher boiler load and/or low oxygen concentrations at the boiler exit, probably because of lower available residence times and insufficient excess air. Our findings are consistent with the current understanding that high ash carbon content generally favours heterogeneous reactions leading to either de novo synthesis of PCDD/PCDFs or their direct formation from precursors. We also found that, in grate-fired boilers, a linear increase in the grate/lower furnace temperature produces an exponential decrease in PCDD/PCDF emissions. Although the extent of this effect appears to be mill-specific, particularly at low temperatures, the results indicate that increasing the combustion temperature may decrease PCDD/PCDF emissions. It must be noted, however, that there are other variables, such as elevated ESP and stack temperatures, a high hog salt content, the presence of large amounts of PICs and a high Cl/S ratio, which contribute to higher PCDD/PCDFs emissions. Therefore, higher combustion temperatures, by themselves, will not necessarily result in low PCDD/PCDFs emissions. PMID:16216302

Leclerc, Denys; Duo, Wen Li; Vessey, Michelle

2006-04-01

202

Effects of resource activities upon repository siting and waste containment with reference to bedded salt  

SciTech Connect

The primary consideration for the suitability of a nuclear waste repository site is the overall ability of the repository to safely contain radioactive waste. This report is a discussion of the past, present, and future effects of resource activities on waste containment. Past and present resource activities which provide release pathways (i.e., leaky boreholes, adjacent mines) will receive initial evaluation during the early stages of any repository site study. However, other resource activities which may have subtle effects on containment (e.g., long-term pumping causing increased groundwater gradients, invasion of saline water causing lower retardation) and all potential future resource activities must also be considered during the site evaluation process. Resource activities will affect both the siting and the designing of repositories. Ideally, sites should be located in areas of low resource activity and low potential for future activity, and repository design should seek to eliminate or minimize the adverse effects of any resource activity. Buffer zones should be created to provide areas in which resource activities that might adversely affect containment can be restricted or curtailed. This could mean removing large areas of land from resource development. The impact of these frozen assets should be assessed in terms of their economic value and of their effect upon resource reserves. This step could require a major effort in data acquisition and analysis followed by extensive numerical modeling of regional fluid flow and mass transport. Numerical models should be used to assess the effects of resource activity upon containment and should include the cumulative effects of different resource activities. Analysis by other methods is probably not possible except for relatively simple cases.

Ashby, J.; Rowe, J.

1980-02-01

203

Effect of biosolid waste compost on soil respiration in salt-affected soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A great part of mediterranean soils are affected by salinization. This is an important problem in semiarid areas increased by the use of low quality waters, the induced salinization due to high phreatic levels and adverse climatology. Salinization affects 25% of irrigated agriculture, producing important losses on the crops. In this situation, the application of organic matter to the soil is one of the possible solutions to improve their quality. The main objective of this research was to asses the relation between the salinity level (electrical conductivity, EC) in the soil and the response of microbial activity (soil respiration rate) after compost addition. The study was conducted for a year. Soil samples were collected near to an agricultural area in Crevillente and Elche, "El Hondo" Natural Park (Comunidad de Regantes from San Felipe Neri). The experiment was developed to determine and quantify the soil respiration rate in 8 different soils differing in salinity. The assay was done in close pots -in greenhouse conditions- containing soil mixed with different doses of sewage sludge compost (2, 4 and 6%) besides the control. They were maintained at 60% of water holding capacity (WHC). Soil samples were analyzed every four months for a year. The equipment used to estimate the soil respiration was a Bac-Trac and CO2 emitted by the soil biota was measured and quantified by electrical impedance changes. It was observed that the respiration rate increases as the proportion of compost added to each sample increases as well. The EC was incremented in each sampling period from the beginning of the experiment, probably due to the fact that soils were in pots and lixiviation was prevented, so the salts could?t be lost from soil. Over time the compost has been degraded and, it was more susceptible to be mineralized. Salts were accumulated in the soil. Also it was observed a decrease of microbial activity with the increase of salinity in the soil. Keywords: soil respiration, compost, electrical conductivity, salinization, Bac-Trac References: Abdelbasset Lakhdar, Mokded Rabhi, Tahar Ghnaya, Francesco Montemurro, Naceur Jedidi , Chedly Abdelly. Effectiveness of compost use in salt-affected soil. Journal of Hazardous Materials 171 (2009) pp 29-37. M. Tejada, C. Garcia, J.L. Gonzalez , M.T. Hernandez . Use of organic amendment as a strategy for saline soil remediation:Influence on the physical, chemical and biological properties of soil. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38 (2006) pp 1413-1421. I. Gomez; J.M. Disla Soriano; J. Navarro-Pedreño; F. García-Orenes; M.B. Almendro-Candel; M.M. Jordan. Quantification of soil respiration in different saline soil of Alicante (Spain). EGU General Assembly (2012). Viena. Ed. Geophysycal Research Abstracts. Vol 14 EGU2012-2399,(2012). (Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Spanish MICINN. Project Ref.: CGL2009-11194)

Raya, Silvia; Gómez, Ignacio; García, Fuensanta; Navarro, José; Jordán, Manuel Miguel; Belén Almendro, María; Martín Soriano, José

2013-04-01

204

Repository environmental parameters and models/methodologies relevant to assessing the performance of high-level waste packages in basalt, tuff, and salt  

SciTech Connect

This document provides specifications for models/methodologies that could be employed in determining postclosure repository environmental parameters relevant to the performance of high-level waste packages for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) at Richland, Washington, the tuff at Yucca Mountain by the Nevada Test Site, and the bedded salt in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Guidance is provided on the identify of the relevant repository environmental parameters; the models/methodologies employed to determine the parameters, and the input data base for the models/methodologies. Supporting studies included are an analysis of potential waste package failure modes leading to identification of the relevant repository environmental parameters, an evaluation of the credible range of the repository environmental parameters, and a summary of the review of existing models/methodologies currently employed in determining repository environmental parameters relevant to waste package performance. 327 refs., 26 figs., 19 tabs.

Claiborne, H.C.; Croff, A.G.; Griess, J.C.; Smith, F.J.

1987-09-01

205

Site characterization plan conceptual design report for a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt, vertical emplacement mode: Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This Conceptual Design Report describes the conceptual design of a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt at a proposed site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Waste receipt, processing, packing, and other surface facility operations are described. Operations in the shafts underground are described, including waste hoisting, transfer, and vertical emplacement. This report specifically addresses the vertical emplacement mode, the reference design for the repository. Waste retrieval capability is described. The report includes a description of the layout of the surface, shafts, and underground. Major equipment items are identified. The report includes plans for decommissioning and sealing of the facility. The report discusses how the repository will satisfy performance objectives. Chapters are included on basis for design, design analyses, and data requirements for completion of future design efforts. 105 figs., 52 tabs.

Not Available

1987-12-01

206

Site characterization plan conceptual design report for a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt, horizontal emplacment mode: Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This Conceptual Design Report describes the conceptual design of a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt at a proposed site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Waste receipt, processing, packaging, and other surface facility operations are described. Operations in the shafts and underground are described, including waste hoisting, transfer, and horizontal emplacement. This report specifically addresses the horizontal emplacement mode, the passive alternate design for the repository. Waste retrieval capability is described. The report includes a description of the layout of the surface, shafts, and underground. Major equipment items are identified. The report includes plans for decommissioning and sealing of the facility. The report discusses how the repository will satisfy performance objectives. Chapters are included on basis for design, design analyses, and data requirements for completion of future design efforts. 105 figs., 52 tabs.

Not Available

1987-12-01

207

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's plan to decommission and reclaim exploratory shafts and related facilities  

SciTech Connect

The following recommendations are made for improving the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's plan for decommissioning and reclaiming exploratory shafts and other facilities associated with site characterization: (1) Discuss more comprehensively the technical aspects of activities related to decommissioning and reclamation. More detailed information will help convince the staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and others that the activities as outlined in the plan are properly structured and that the stated goals can be achieved. (2) Address in considerably greater detail how the proposed activities will satisfy specific federal, state, and local laws and regulations. (3) State clearly the precise purpose of the plan, preferably at the beginning and under an appropriate heading. (4) Also under an appropriate heading and immediately after the section on purpose, describe the scope of the plan. The tasks covered by this plan and closely related tasks covered by other appropriate plans should be clearly differentiated. (5) Discuss the possible environmental effects of drilling the exploratory shaft, excavating drifts in salt, and drilling boreholes as part of site characterization. Mitigation activities should be designed to counter specific potential impacts. High priority should be given to minimizing groundwater contamination and restoring the surface to a condition consistent with the proposed land use following completion of characterization activities at sites not chosen for repository construction. (6) Define ambiguous technical terms, either in the text when first introduced or in an appended glossary.

Fenster, D.F.; Schubert, J.P.; Zellmer, S.D.; Harrison, W.; Simpson, D.G.; Busch, J.S.

1984-07-01

208

Laboratory creep and mechanical tests on salt data report (1975-1996): Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) thermal/structural interactions program  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility located in a bedded salt formation in Carlsbad, New Mexico, is being used by the U.S. Department of Energy to demonstrate the technology for safe handling and disposal of transuranic wastes produced by defense activities in the United States. In support of that demonstration, mechanical tests on salt were conducted in the laboratory to characterize material behavior at the stresses and temperatures expected for a nuclear waste repository. Many of those laboratory test programs have been carried out in the RE/SPEC Inc. rock mechanics laboratory in Rapid City, South Dakota; the first program being authorized in 1975 followed by additional testing programs that continue to the present. All of the WIPP laboratory data generated on salt at RE/SPEC Inc. over the last 20 years is presented in this data report. A variety of test procedures were used in performance of the work including quasi-static triaxial compression tests, constant stress (creep) tests, damage recovery tests, and multiaxial creep tests. The detailed data is presented in individual plots for each specimen tested. Typically, the controlled test conditions applied to each specimen are presented in a plot followed by additional plots of the measured specimen response. Extensive tables are included to summarize the tests that were performed. Both the tables and the plots contain cross-references to the technical reports where the data were originally reported. Also included are general descriptions of laboratory facilities, equipment, and procedures used to perform the work.

Mellegard, K.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-02-01

209

Analysis of the salt retention of a titania membrane using the “DSPM” model: effect of pH, salt concentration and nature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retention measurements with single salt solutions of KCl, LiCl, K2SO4, MgCl2 and MgSO4 were carried out as a function of the permeate flux for a commercial titania membrane close to the nanofiltration (NF) range. The effect of both pH and salt concentration was studied. The membrane shows amphoteric behavior with an isoelectric point (iep) at pH 6.2 (in presence of

C Labbez; P Fievet; A Szymczyk; A Vidonne; A Foissy; J Pagetti

2002-01-01

210

Ceramicrete stabilization of radioactive-salt-containing liquid waste and sludge water. Final CRADA report.  

SciTech Connect

It was found that the Ceramicrete Specimens incorporated the Streams 1 and 2 sludges with the adjusted loading about 41.6 and 31.6%, respectively, have a high solidity. The visible cracks in the matrix materials and around the anionite AV-17 granules included could not obtain. The granules mentioned above fixed by Ceramicrete matrix very strongly. Consequently, we can conclude that irradiation of Ceramecrete matrix, goes from the high radioactive elements, not result the structural degradation. Based on the chemical analysis of specimens No.462 and No.461 used it was shown that these matrix included the formation elements (P, K, Mg, O), but in the different samples their correlations are different. These ratios of the content of elements included are about {+-} 10%. This information shows a great homogeneity of matrix prepared. In the list of the elements founded, expect the matrix formation elements, we detected also Ca and Si (from the wollastonite - the necessary for Ceramicrete compound); Na, Al, S, O, Cl, Fe, Ni also have been detected in the Specimen No.642 from the waste forms: NaCl, Al(OH){sub 3}, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Fe(OH){sub 3}, nickel ferrocyanide and Ni(NO{sub 3})2. The unintelligible results also were found from analysis of an AV-17 granules, in which we obtain the great amount of K. The X-ray radiographs of the Ceramicrete specimens with loading 41.4 % of Stream 1 and 31.6% of Stream 2, respectively showed that the realization of the advance technology, created at GEOHKI, leads to formation of excellent ceramic matrix with high amount of radioactive streams up to 40% and more. Really, during the interaction with start compounds MgO and KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} with the present of H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} and Wollastonite this process run with high speed under the controlled regimes. That fact that the Ceramicrete matrix with 30-40% of Streams 1 and 2 have a crystalline form, not amorphous matter, allows to permit that these matrix should be very stable, reliable for incorporation of a radionuclides.

Ehst, D.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2010-08-04

211

Structural, Spectroscopic and Vibrational Properties for Low-Lying Electronic States of LiCl  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) study has been carried out on the LiCl molecule. The potential energy has been calculated over a wide range of internuclear separation for the 21 low-lying electronic states of the LiCl molecule dissociating into Li (2S, 2P, 3S)+Cl (2P). The (4)1?+, (3)1?, 1-33?+, 1-33?, 1,3?, 1,3?-, (5)1?+, (4)3?+, (4)1?, (4)3? excited states are studied for the first time in theory. Molecular spectroscopic constants (Re,De, ?e, ?e?e, Be and ?e) have been derived for the 9 bound states (X1?+, (3)1?+, (2)3?+, 1,3?, 1,3?-, (4)1?, (4)3?) with a regular shape, and the spectroscopic constants of ground states X1?+ are in good agreement with available experimental and theoretical values. The relative differences between experimental values and our values for Re, De,?e, ?e?e, Be and ?e are 1.02%, 0.60%, 1.72%, 9.46%, 2.0%, and 0.75%, respectively. Moreover, vibrational levels of 9 bound states, which have not been investigated experimentally, are computed.

Cao, Yao-Feng; Gao, Yu-Feng; Gao, Tao

2013-11-01

212

Chemistry of brines in salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), southeastern New Mexico: a preliminary investigation  

SciTech Connect

We present here analyses of macro- and microscopic (intracrystalline) brines observed within the WIPP facility and in the surrounding halite, with interpretations regarding the origin and history of these fluids and their potential effect(s) on long-term waste storage. During excavation, several large fluid inclusions were recovered from an area of highly recrystallized halite in a thick salt bed at the repository horizon (2150 ft below ground level). In addition, 52 samples of brine ''weeps'' were collected from walls of recently excavated drifts at the same stratigraphic horizon from which the fluid inclusion samples are assumed to have been taken. Analyses of these fluids show that they differ substantially in composition from the inclusion fluids and cannot be explained by mixing of the fluid inclusion populations. Finally, holes in the facility floor that filled with brine were sampled but with no stratographic control; therefore it is not possible to interpret the compositions of these brines with any accuracy, except insofar as they resemble the weep compositions but with greater variation in both K/Mg and Na/Cl ratios. However, the Ca and SO/sub 4/ values for the floor holes are relatively close to the gypsum saturation curve, suggesting that brines filling floor holes have been modified by the presence of gypsum or anhydrite, possibly even originating in one or more of the laterally continuous anhydrite units referred to in the WIPP literature as marker beds. In conclusion, the wide compositional variety of fluids found in the WIPP workings suggest that (1) an interconnected hydrologic system which could effectively transport radonuclides away from the repository does not exist; (2) brine migration studies and experiments must consider the mobility of intergranular fluids as well as those in inclusions; and (3) near- and far-field radionuclide migration testing programs need to consider a wide range of brine compositions rather than a few reference brines.

Stein, C.L.; Krumhansl, J.L.

1986-03-01

213

Characterisation of nanofiltration membranes for predictive purposes — use of salts, uncharged solutes and atomic force microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An asymmetric nanofiltration membrane (Hoechst, PES5) has been characterised by three different techniques: modelling of the rejection of simple salts, modelling of the rejection of uncharged solutes and atomic force microscopy. Interpretation of experimental data for the rejection of three salts having common co-ion (LiCl, NaCl, KCl) with model calculations allows a characterisation of the membrane in terms of three

W. Richard Bowen; A. Wahab Mohammad; Nidal Hilal

1997-01-01

214

Repeated administration of LiCl produces an unconditioned stimulus preexposure effect in backward excitatory CTA but not habituation of the unconditioned increment in neophobia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In one experiment using conditioned taste aversion and the unconditioned stimulus (US) preexposure procedure, one group of rats was given LiCl exposure for 3 days, whereas two other groups received saline. Following this phase, all groups were given a novel flavour (saccharine) to drink following either LiCl (group preexposed and one of the control groups) or saline injections (the remaining

Isabel De Brugada; Felisa González; Antonio Cándido

2003-01-01

215

Numerical simulation of hydrothermal salt separation process and analysis and cost estimating of shipboard liquid waste disposal  

E-print Network

Due to environmental regulations, waste water disposal for US Navy ships has become a requirement which impacts both operations and the US Navy's budget. In 2006, the cost for waste water disposal Navy-wide was 54 million ...

Hunt, Andrew Robert

2007-01-01

216

The low frequency phonons dynamics in supercooled LiCl, 6 H2O.  

PubMed

We report the results of a series of ultrasound, Brillouin scattering, and optical heterodyne detected transient grating experiments performed on a LiCl, 6H(2)O solution from room temperature down to the vicinity of its liquid-glass transition, T(g) approximately 138 K. Down to T approximately 215 K, the supercooled liquid has a behavior similar to what is expected for supercooled water: its zero frequency sound velocity, C(0), continuously decreases while the corresponding infinite frequency velocity, C(infinity), sharply increases, reflecting the increasing importance of H bonding when temperature is lowered. Below 215 K, specific aspects of the solution, presumably related to the role of the Li(+) and Cl(-) ions, modify the thermal behavior of C(0), while a beta relaxation process also appears and couples to the sound propagation. The origin of those two effects is briefly discussed. PMID:19791891

Gallina, M E; Bove, L; Dreyfus, C; Polian, A; Bonello, B; Cucini, R; Taschin, A; Torre, R; Pick, R M

2009-09-28

217

Electronic excitations of bulk LiCl from many-body perturbation theory  

SciTech Connect

We present the quasiparticle band structure and the optical excitation spectrum of bulk LiCl, using many-body perturbation theory. Density-functional theory is used to calculate the ground-state geometry of the system. The quasiparticle band structure is calculated within the GW approximation. Taking the electron-hole interaction into consideration, electron-hole pair states and optical excitations are obtained by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the electron-hole two-particle Green function. The calculated band gap is 9.5 eV, which is in good agreement with the experimental result of 9.4 eV. And the calculated optical absorption spectrum, which contains an exciton peak at 8.8 eV and a resonant-exciton peak at 9.8 eV, is also in good agreement with experimental data.

Jiang, Yun-Feng; Wang, Neng-Ping, E-mail: wangnengping@nbu.edu.cn [Science Faculty, Ningbo University, Fenghua Road 818, 315211 Ningbo (China)] [Science Faculty, Ningbo University, Fenghua Road 818, 315211 Ningbo (China); Rohlfing, Michael [Institut für Festkörpertheorie, Universität Münster, 48149 Münster (Germany)] [Institut für Festkörpertheorie, Universität Münster, 48149 Münster (Germany)

2013-12-07

218

LiCl Dehumidifier LiBr absorption chiller hybrid air conditioning system with energy recovery  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to a hybrid air conditioning system that combines a solar powered LiCl dehumidifier with a LiBr absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier removes the latent load by absorbing moisture from the air, and the sensible load is removed by the absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier is coupled to a regenerator and the desiccant in the regenerator is heated by solar heated hot water to drive the moisture therefrom before being fed back to the dehumidifier. The heat of vaporization expended in the desiccant regenerator is recovered and used to partially preheat the driving fluid of the absorption chiller, thus substantially improving the overall COP of the hybrid system.

Ko, Suk M. (Huntsville, AL)

1980-01-01

219

Rheology Of MonoSodium Titanate (MST) And Modified Mst (mMST) Mixtures Relevant To The Salt Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River National Laboratory performed measurements of the rheology of suspensions and settled layers of treated material applicable to the Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility. Suspended solids mixtures included monosodium titanate (MST) or modified MST (mMST) at various solid concentrations and soluble ion concentrations with and without the inclusion of kaolin clay or simulated sludge. Layers of settled solids were MST/sludge or mMST/sludge mixtures, either with or without sorbed strontium, over a range of initial solids concentrations, soluble ion concentrations, and settling times.

Koopman, D. C.; Martino, C. J.; Shehee, T. C.; Poirier, M. R.

2013-07-31

220

Electrodialysis technology for salt recovery from aluminum salt cake  

SciTech Connect

Electrodialysis technology for recovering salt from aluminum salt cake is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. Salt cake, a slag-like aluminum-industry waste stream, contains aluminum metal, salt (NaCl and KCl), and nonmetallics (primarily aluminum oxide). Salt cake can be recycled by digesting with water and filtering to recover the metal and oxide values. A major obstacle to widespread salt cake recycling is the cost of recovering salt from the process brine. Electrodialysis technology developed at Argonne appears to be a cost-effective approach to handling the salt brines, compared to evaporation or disposal. In Argonne's technology, the salt brine is concentrated until salt crystals are precipitated in the electrodialysis stack; the crystals are recovered downstream. The technology is being evaluated on the pilot scale using Eurodia's EUR 40-76-5 stack.

Hryn, J. N.; Krumdick, G.; Graziano, D.; Sreenivasarao, K.

2000-02-02

221

Long-term cement corrosion in chloride-rich solutions relevant to radioactive waste disposal in rock salt - Leaching experiments and thermodynamic simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes are frequently solidified in a cement matrix. In a potential repository for nuclear wastes, the cementitious matrix is altered upon contact with solution and the resulting secondary phases may provide for significant retention of the radionuclides incorporated in the wastes. In order to assess the secondary phases formed upon corrosion in chloride-rich solutions, which are relevant for nuclear waste disposal in rock salt, leaching experiments were performed. Conventional laboratory batch experiments using powdered hardened cement paste in MgCl2-rich solutions were left to equilibrate for up to three years and full-scale cemented waste products were exposed to NaCl-rich and MgCl2-rich solutions for more than twenty years, respectively. Solid phase analyses revealed that corrosion of hardened cement in MgCl2-rich solutions advanced faster than in NaCl-rich solutions due to the extensive exchange of Mg from solution against Ca from the cementitious solid. Thermodynamic equilibrium simulations compared well to results at the final stages of the respective experiments indicating that close to equilibrium conditions were reached. At high cement product to brine ratios (>0.65 g mL-1), the solution composition in the laboratory-scale experiments was close to that of the full-scale experiments (cement to brine ratio of 2.5 g mL-1) in the MgCl2 systems. The present study demonstrates the applicability of thermodynamic methods used in this approach to adequately describe full-scale long-term experiments with cemented waste simulates.

Bube, C.; Metz, V.; Bohnert, E.; Garbev, K.; Schild, D.; Kienzler, B.

222

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of the D'Appolonia report on Schematic Designs for Penetration Seals for a Repository in the Permian Basin, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Argonne made the following recommedations for improving the reviewed reports. The authors of the report should: state the major assumptions of the study in Sec. 1.1 rather than later in the report; consider using salt for the shaft seals in salt horizons; reconsider whether keys are needed for the bulkheads; provide for interface grouting because use of expansive cement will not guarantee that interfaces will be impermeable; discuss the sealing schedule and, where appropriate, consider what needs to be done to ensure that emplaced radioactive waste could be retrieved if necessary; describe in more detail the sealing of the Dockum and Ogallala aquifers; consider an as low as reasonably achievable approach to performance requirements for the initial design phase; address the concerns in the 1983 US Nuclear Regulatory Commission document entitled Draft Technical Position: Borehole and Shaft Sealing of High-Level Nuclear Waste Repositories; cite the requirements for release of radioactivity by referring to specific clauses in the regulations of the US Environmental Protection Agency; and provide further explanation in the outline of future activities about materials development and verification testing. More emphasis on development of accelerated testing programs is also required.

Hambley, D.F.; Stormont, J.C.; Russell, J.E.; Edgar, D.E.; Fenster, D.F.; Harrison, W.; Tisue, M.W.

1984-09-01

223

Chemical characterization of SRP waste tank sludges and supernates. [Various analysis methods for supernate, sludge, and salt lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most high-level liquid wastes at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) are byproducts from plutonium and enriched uranium recovery processes. The high-level liquid wastes generated by these separations processes are stored in large, underground, carbon-steel tanks. The liquid wastes consist of: supernate (an aqueous solution containing sodium, nitrate, nitrite, hydroxyl, and aluminate ions), sludge (a gelatinous material containing insoluble components of

L. W. Gray; M. Y. Donnan; B. Y. Okamoto

1979-01-01

224

Purification of used eutectic (LiCl-KCl) salt electrolyte from pyroprocessing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The separation characteristics of surrogate rare-earth fission products in a eutectic (LiCl-KCl) molten salt were investigated. This system is based on the eutectic salt used for the pyroprocessing treatment of used nuclear fuel (UNF). The investigation was performed using an integrated rare-earth separation apparatus comprising a precipitation reactor, a solid detachment device, and a layer separation device. To separate rare-earth fission products, a phosphate precipitation method using both Li3PO4 and K3PO4 as a precipitant was performed. The use of an equivalent phosphate precipitant composed of 0.408 molar ratio-K3PO4 and 0.592 molar ratio-Li3PO4 can preserve the original eutectic ratio, LiCl-0.592 molar ratio (or 45.2 wt%), as well as provide a high separation efficiency of over 99.5% under conditions of 550 °C and Ar sparging when using La, Nd, Ce, and Pr chlorides. The mixture of La, Nd, Ce, and Pr phosphate had a typical monoclinic (or monazite) structure, which has been proposed as a reliable host matrix for the permanent disposal of a high-level waste form. To maximize the reusability of purified eutectic waste salt after rare-earth separation, the successive rare-earth separation process, which uses both phosphate precipitation and an oxygen sparging method, were introduced and tested with eight rare-earth (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd) chlorides. In the successive rare-earth separation process, the phosphate reaction was terminated within 1 h at 550 °C, and a 4-8 h oxygen sparging time were required to obtain over a 99% separation efficiency at 700-750 °C. The mixture of rare-earth precipitates separated by the successive rare-earth separation process was found to be phosphate, oxychloride, and oxide. Through the successive rare-earth separation process, the eutectic ratio of purified salt maintained its original value, and impurity content including the residual precipitant of purified salt can be minimized.

Cho, Yung-Zun; Lee, Tae-Kyo; Eun, Hee-Chul; Choi, Jung-Hoon; Kim, In-Tae; Park, Geun-Il

2013-06-01

225

Enhanced tolerance to NaCl and LiCl stresses by over-expressing Caragana korshinskii sodium/proton exchanger 1 (CkNHX1) and the hydrophilic C terminus is required for the activity of CkNHX1 in Atsos3-1 mutant and yeast  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CkNHX1 was isolated from Caragana korshinskii. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CkNHX1 was expressed mainly in roots, and significantly induced by NaCl in stems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of CkNHX1 enhanced the resistance to NaCl and LiCl in yeast and Atsos3-1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of CkNHX1-{Delta}C had little effect on NaCl/LiCl tolerance in Atsos3-1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C-terminal region of CkNHX1 is required for its Na{sup +} and Li{sup +} transporting activity. -- Abstract: Sodium/proton exchangers (NHX antiporters) play important roles in plant responses to salt stress. Previous research showed that hydrophilic C-terminal region of Arabidopsis AtNHX1 negatively regulates the Na{sup +}/H{sup +} transporting activity. In this study, CkNHX1 were isolated from Caragana korshinskii, a pea shrub with high tolerance to salt, drought, and cold stresses. Transcripts of CkNHX1 were detected predominantly in roots, and were significantly induced by NaCl stress in stems. Transgenic yeast and Arabidopsisthalianasos3-1 (Atsos3-1) mutant over-expressing CkNHX1 and its hydrophilic C terminus-truncated derivative, CkNHX1-{Delta}C, were generated and subjected to NaCl and LiCl stresses. Expression of CkNHX1 significantly enhanced the resistance to NaCl and LiCl stresses in yeast and Atsos3-1 mutant. Whereas, compared with expression of CkNHX1, the expression of CkNHX1-{Delta}C had much less effect on NaCl tolerance in Atsos3-1 and LiCl tolerance in yeast and Atsos3-1. All together, these results suggest that the predominant expression of CkNHX1 in roots might contribute to keep C. korshinskii adapting to the high salt condition in this plant's living environment; CkNHX1 could recover the phenotype of Atsos3-1 mutant; and the hydrophilic C-terminal region of CkNHX1 should be required for Na{sup +}/H{sup +} and Li{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanging activity of CkNHX1.

Yang, Da-Hai, E-mail: gresea_young@hotmail.com [Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China) [Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Department of Plant Physiology, Institute of General Botany and Plant Physiology, Friedrich-Schiller-University, Dornburger Strasse 159, 07743 Jena (Germany); Song, Li-Ying, E-mail: lysong@genetics.ac.cn [Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)] [Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Hu, Jun, E-mail: jhu@genetics.ac.cn [Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)] [Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Yin, Wei-Bo, E-mail: wbyin@genetics.ac.cn [Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)] [Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Li, Zhi-Guo, E-mail: gzhi@genetics.ac.cn [Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)] [Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Chen, Yu-Hong, E-mail: yhchen@genetics.ac.cn [Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)] [Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Su, Xiao-Hua, E-mail: suxh@caf.ac.cn [Research Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091 (China)] [Research Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091 (China); Wang, Richard R.-C., E-mail: Richard.Wang@ARS.USDA.GOV [USDA-ARS, FRRL, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322-6300 (United States); Hu, Zan-Min, E-mail: zmhu@genetics.ac.cn [Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)] [Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

2012-01-13

226

Actinide removal from spent salts  

DOEpatents

A method for removing actinide contaminants (uranium and thorium) from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents are added to precipitate the thorium as thorium oxide and/or the uranium as either uranium oxide or as a diuranate salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as radioactive waste. About 90% of the thorium and/or uranium present is removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 0.1 ppm of thorium or uranium.

Hsu, Peter C. (Pleasanton, CA); von Holtz, Erica H. (Livermore, CA); Hipple, David L. (Livermore, CA); Summers, Leslie J. (Livermore, CA); Adamson, Martyn G. (Danville, CA)

2002-01-01

227

Metals removal from spent salts  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for removing metal contaminants from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents may be added to precipitate the metal oxide and/or the metal as either metal oxide, metal hydroxide, or as a salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as waste or can be immobilized as ceramic pellets. More than about 90% of the metals and mineral residues (ashes) present are removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be spray-dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 1.0 ppm of contaminants.

Hsu, Peter C. (Pleasanton, CA); Von Holtz, Erica H. (Livermore, CA); Hipple, David L. (Livermore, CA); Summers, Leslie J. (Livermore, CA); Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Adamson, Martyn G. (Danville, CA)

2002-01-01

228

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's report on the Organic Geochemistry of Deep Groundwaters from the Palo Duro Basin, Texas  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes Argonne's review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's (ONWI's) final report entitled The Organic Geochemistry of Deep Ground Waters from the Palo Duro Basin, Texas, dated September 1983. Recommendations are made for improving the ONWI report. The main recommendation is to make the text consistent with the title and with the objective of the project as stated in the introduction. Three alternatives are suggested to accomplish this.

Fenster, D.F.; Brookins, D.G.; Harrison, W.; Seitz, M.G.; Lerman, A.; Stamoudis, V.C.

1984-08-01

229

Recycling of aluminum salt cake  

SciTech Connect

The secondary aluminum industry generates more than 110 {times} 10{sup 3} tons of salt-cake waste every year. This waste stream contains about 3--5% aluminum, 15--30% aluminum oxide, 30--40% sodium chloride, and 20--30% potassium chloride. As much as 50% of the content of this waste is combined salt (sodium and potassium chlorides). Salt-cake waste is currently disposed of in conventional landfills. In addition, over 50 {times} 10{sup 3} tons of black dross that is not economical to reprocess a rotary furnace for aluminum recovery ends up in landfills. The composition of the dross is similar to that of salt cake, except that it contains higher concentrations of aluminum (up to 20%) and correspondingly lower amounts of salts. Because of the high solubility of the salts in water, these residues, when put in landfills, represent a potential source of pollution to surface-water and groundwater supplies. The increasing number of environmental regulations on the generation and disposal of industrial wastes are likely to restrict the disposal of these salt-containing wastes in conventional landfills. Processes exist that employ the dissolution and recovery of the salts from the waste stream. These wet-processing methods are economical only when the aluminum concentration in that waste exceeds about 10%. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a study in which existing technologies were reviewed and new concepts that are potentially more cost-effective than existing processes were developed and evaluated. These include freeze crystallization, solvent/antisolvent extraction, common-ion effect, high-pressure/high-temperature process, and capillary-effect systems. This paper presents some of the technical and economic results of the aforementioned ANL study.

Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Karvelas, D.E.

1991-12-01

230

Modeling and Field Test Planning Activities in Support of Disposal of Heat-Generating Waste in Salt  

SciTech Connect

The modeling efforts in support of the field test planning conducted at LBNL leverage on recent developments of tools for modeling coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in salt and their effect on brine migration at high temperatures. This work includes development related to, and implementation of, essential capabilities, as well as testing the model against relevant information and published experimental data related to the fate and transport of water. These are modeling capabilities that will be suitable for assisting in the design of field experiment, especially related to multiphase flow processes coupled with mechanical deformations, at high temperature. In this report, we first examine previous generic repository modeling results, focusing on the first 20 years to investigate the expected evolution of the different processes that could be monitored in a full-scale heater experiment, and then present new results from ongoing modeling of the Thermal Simulation for Drift Emplacement (TSDE) experiment, a heater experiment on the in-drift emplacement concept at the Asse Mine, Germany, and provide an update on the ongoing model developments for modeling brine migration. LBNL also supported field test planning activities via contributions to and technical review of framework documents and test plans, as well as participation in workshops associated with field test planning.

Rutqvist, Jonny; Blanco Martin, Laura; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

2014-09-26

231

Elevated yield of monacolin K in Monascus purpureus by fungal elicitor and mutagenesis of UV and LiCl.  

PubMed

In China, Monascus spp., a traditional fungus used in fermentation, is used as a natural food additive. Monascus spp. can produce a secondary metabolite, monacolin K namely, which is proven to be a cholesterol-lowering and hypotensive agent. Hence, recently, many researchers have begun focusing on how to increase the production of monacolin K by Monascus purpureus. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the fungal elicitor and the mutagenesis of UV & LiCl on the amount of monacolin K produced by Monascus purpureus. The fugal elicitor, Sporobolomyces huaxiensis, was isolated from tea leaves and its filtrate was added into the culture filtrate of Monascus purpureus during growth to induct the production of monacolin K. The results showed that the highest amount of monacolin K produced by the liquid fermentation was 446.92 mg/mL, which was produced after the fungal elicitor was added to the culture filtrate of Monascus purpureus on the day 4; this amount was approximately 6 times greater than that of the control culture filtrate, whereas the highest amount of monacolin K produced by the mutated strain was 3 times greater than the control culture after the irradiation of UV light in the presence of 1.0 % LiCl in the medium. PMID:22446602

Sun, Jia-Long; Zou, Xiao; Liu, Ai-Ying; Xiao, Tang-Fu

2011-01-01

232

Mitigation of the inhibitory effect of soap by magnesium salt treatment of crude glycerol--a novel approach for enhanced biohydrogen production from the biodiesel industry waste.  

PubMed

Owing to its inhibitory effect on microbial growth, soap present in crude glycerol (CG) is a concern in biological valorization of the biodiesel manufacturing waste. By salting out strategy, up to 42% of the soap has been removed and the approach has beneficial effect on H2 production; however, removal of more than 7% of the soap was found to be inhibitory. Actually, soap is utilized as a co-substrate and due to removal; the carbon-nitrogen ratio of the medium might have decreased to reduce the production. Alternatively, without changing the carbon-nitrogen ratio of CG, MgSO4 treatment can convert the soap to its inactive form (scum). The approach was found to increase the H2 production rate (33.82%), cumulative H2 production (34.70%) as well as glycerol utilization (nearly 2.5-folds). Additionally, the treatment can increase the Mg (a nutrient) content of the medium from 0.57 ppm to 201.92 ppm. PMID:24189384

Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Le Bihan, Yann; Buelna, Gerardo; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

2014-01-01

233

Variations of organic matters and microbial community in thermophilic anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge with the addition of ferric salts.  

PubMed

Ferric salts will influence the thermophilic anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS). FeCl3 was found to contribute to the anaerobic digestion process with a cumulative biogas production of 357 mL/gVS, 79.6% higher than that in the control group, and Fe2(SO4)3 had no distinct impact, while Fe(NO3)3 inhibited the methanogenesis process. A favorable balance between the release of organic matters from WAS and consumption rate was established after dosing FeCl3 from the perspective of variations of soluble COD, volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and the dissolved organic matters (DOM) assessed by EEM fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence regional integration (FRI) technique. Conversely, the system with Fe(NO3)3 achieved an unsuitable substrates environment. Pyrosequencing revealed that the anaerobic digestion system with FeCl3 enriched Coprothermobacter for proteins fermentation and Methanosarcina for methanogenesis with the values of 18.7% and 63.2%, respectively, while that with the supplementation of Fe(NO3)3 obtained the lowest relative abundance. PMID:25545098

Yu, Bao; Lou, Ziyang; Zhang, Dongling; Shan, Aidang; Yuan, Haiping; Zhu, Nanwen; Zhang, Kanghan

2015-03-01

234

Small-Column Ion-Exchange Alternative to Remove 137Cs from Low-Curie Salt Waste: Summary of Phase 1  

SciTech Connect

A Small-Column Ion-Exchange (SCIX) system is being evaluated for removing cesium from the Type 2 and/or Type 3 dissolved saltcake wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to ensure that the dissolved saltcake meets the waste acceptance criteria at the Saltstone Facility. Both crystalline silicotitanate (CST) and IONSIV{trademark} IE-96 zeolite were evaluated as the ion-exchange media. The accelerated alternative, using CST in the SCIX, could save as much as $3 billion in operating and storage costs and {approx}20 years in processing time compared to the current baseline. With its proven high cesium-loading capacity for the expected dissolved saltcake compositions and temperatures, CST is the preferred sorbent for SCIX. The low-cost alternative sorbent, zeolite, greatly increases the volume of sorbent required because of its much lower cesium-loading capacity. Thus, zeolite greatly increases the cost for the alternative, mainly because of the increased number of Defense Waste Processing Facility canisters required to dispose of the loaded sorbent (potentially over 7000 for zeolite, compared with <500 for CST). The models previously developed for predicting cesium loading on CST compared favorably with laboratory measurements of equilibrium distribution ratios and column loading performance using dissolved saltcake simulants. These models predict that a column of 432 gal of CST can operate at 25 gal/min and treat 100,000 to 900,000 gal of dissolved saltcake, depending on the solution composition. An average value of 300,000 gal per column was used for the cost benefit analysis. Predicted cesium loading on the CST is normally below 300 Ci/L; however, solutions with low salt concentrations could potentially load the CST to 630 Ci/L. Heat transfer calculations predict nonboiling temperatures for the small columns with loadings <100 Ci/L with only natural convection cooling. For the loadings up to the maximum calculated for the tank farm (630 Ci/L), a water cooling system is required to ensure that no boiling occurs in the column if the process flow is stopped. Dose rate calculations indicate that the maximum dose rate above the tank riser is expected to be {approx} 10{sup -2} mrem/h for a column loaded at 300 Ci/L in the riser. The risk analysis indicates a net beneficial impact with no major problems likely to prevent implementation or completion of saltcake treatment.

Walker, JR.,J.F.

2004-05-12

235

[Bio-oil production from biomass pyrolysis in molten salt].  

PubMed

In order to investigate the effects of pyrolysis conditions on bio-oil production from biomass in molten salt, experiments of biomass pyrolysis were carried out in a self-designed reactor in which the molten salt ZnCl2-KCl (with mole ratio 7/6) was selected as heat carrier, catalyst and dispersion agent. The effects of metal salt added into ZnCl2-KCl and biomass material on biomass pyrolysis were discussed, and the main compositions of bio-oil were determined by GC-MS. Metal salt added into molten salt could affect pyrolysis production yields remarkably. Lanthanon salt could enhance bio-oil yield and decrease water content in bio-oil, when mole fraction of 5.0% LaCl3 was added, bio-oil yield could reach up to 32.0%, and water content of bio-oil could reduce to 61.5%. The bio-oil and char yields were higher when rice straw was pyrolysed, while gas yield was higher when rice husk was used. Metal salts showed great selectivity on compositions of bio-oil. LiCl and FeCl2 promoted biomass to pyrolyse into smaller molecular weight compounds. CrCl3, CaCl2 and LaCl3 could restrain second pyrolysis of bio-oil. The research provided a scientific reference for production of bio-oil from biomass pyrolysis in molten salt. PMID:21650030

Ji, Dengxiang; Cai, Tengyue; Ai, Ning; Yu, Fengwen; Jiang, Hongtao; Ji, Jianbing

2011-03-01

236

Crushed Salt Constitutive Model  

SciTech Connect

The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well.

Callahan, G.D.

1999-02-01

237

Substitution effects on the formation of T-shaped palladium carbene and thioketone complexes from Li/Cl carbenoids.  

PubMed

The preparation of palladium thioketone and T-shaped carbene complexes by treatment of thiophosphoryl substituted Li/Cl carbenoids with a Pd(0) precursor is reported. Depending on the steric demand, the anion-stabilizing ability of the silyl moiety (by negative hyperconjugation effects) and the remaining negative charge at the carbenic carbon atom, isolation of a three-coordinate, T-shaped palladium carbene complex is possible. In contrast, insufficient charge stabilization results in the transfer of the sulfur of the thiophosphoryl moiety and thus in the formation of a thioketone complex. While the thioketones are stable compounds the carbene complexes are revealed to be highly reactive and decompose under elimination of Pd metal. Computational studies revealed that both complexes are formed by a substitution mechanism. While the ketone turned out to be the thermodynamically favored product, the carbene is kinetically favored and thus preferentially formed at low reaction temperatures. PMID:24664573

Molitor, Sebastian; Feichtner, Kai-Stephan; Kupper, Claudia; Gessner, Viktoria H

2014-08-18

238

Separation of plutonium from lanthanum by electrolysis in LiCl KCl onto molten bismuth electrode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents a study on the electroseparation of plutonium from lanthanum using molten bismuth electrodes in LiCl-KCl eutectic at 733 K. The reduction potentials of Pu3+ and La3+ ions were measured on a Bi thin film electrode using cyclic voltammetry (CV). A difference between the peak potentials for the formation of PuBi2 and LaBi2 of approximately 100 mV was found. Separation tests were then carried out using different current densities and salt phase compositions between a plutonium rod anode and an unstirred molten Bi cathode in order to evaluate the efficiency of an electrolytic separation process. At a current density of 12 mA/cm2/wt% (Pu3+), only Pu3+ ions are reduced into the molten Bi electrode, leaving La3+ ions in the salt melt. Similar results were found at two different Pu/La concentration ratios ([Pu]/[La] = 4 and 10). At a current density of 26 mA/cm2/wt% (Pu3+), co-reduction of Pu and La was observed as expected by the large negative potential of the Bi cathode during the separation test.

Serp, J.; Lefebvre, P.; Malmbeck, R.; Rebizant, J.; Vallet, P.; Glatz, J.-P.

2005-04-01

239

Insulin and LiCl Synergistically Rescue Myogenic Differentiation of FoxO1 Over-Expressed Myoblasts  

PubMed Central

Most recent studies reported that FoxO1 transcription factor was a negative regulator of myogenesis under serum withdrawal condition, a situation not actually found in vivo. Therefore, the role of FoxO1 in myogenesis should be re-examined under more physiologically relevant conditions. Here we found that FoxO1 was preferentially localized to nucleus in proliferating (PMB) and confluent myoblasts (CMB) and its nuclear exclusion was a prerequisite for formation of multinucleated myotubes (MT). The nuclear shuttling of FoxO1 in PMB could be prevented by leptomycin B and we further found that cytoplasmic accumulation of FoxO1 in myotubes was caused by the blockade of its nuclear import. Although over-expression of wildtype FoxO1 in C2C12 myoblasts significantly blocked their myogenic differentiation under serum withdrawal condition, application of insulin and LiCl, an activator of Wnt signaling pathway, to these cells successfully rescued their myogenic differentiation and generated myotubes with larger diameters. Interestingly, insulin treatment significantly reduced FoxO1 level and also delayed nuclear re-accumulation of FoxO1 triggered by mitogen deprivation. We further found that FoxO1 directly repressed the promoter activity of myogenic genes and this repression can be relieved by insulin and LiCl treatment. These results suggest that FoxO1 inhibits myogenesis in serum withdrawal condition but turns into a hypertrophy potentiator when other myogenic signals, such as Wnt and insulin, are available. PMID:24551104

Wu, Yi Ju; Fang, Yen Hsin; Chi, Hsiang Cheng; Chang, Li Chiung; Chung, Shih Ying; Huang, Wei Chieh; Wang, Xiao Wen; Lee, Kuan Wei; Chen, Shen Liang

2014-01-01

240

Vitrification in the presence of salts  

SciTech Connect

Glass is an advantageous material for the immobilization of nuclear wastes because of the simplicity of processing and its unique ability to accept a wide variety of waste elements into its network structure. Unfortunately, some anionic species which are present in the nuclear waste streams have only limited solubility in oxide glasses. This can result in either vitrification concerns or it can affect the integrity, of the final vitrified waste form. The presence of immiscible salts can also corrode metals and refractories in the vitrification unit as well as degrade components in the off-gas system. The presence of a molten salt layer on the melt may alter the batch melting rate and increase operational safety concerns. These safety concerns relate to the interaction of the molten salt and the melter cooling fluids. Some preliminary data from ongoing experimental efforts examining the solubility of molten salts in glasses and the interaction of salts with melter component materials is included.

Marra, J.C.; Andrews, M.K.; Schumacher, R.F.

1994-07-01

241

Mixing of zeolite powders and molten salt  

SciTech Connect

Transuranics and fission products in a molten salt can be incorporated into zeolite A by an ion exchange process and by a batch mixing or blending process. The zeolite is then mixed with glass and consolidated into a monolithic waste form for geologic disposal. Both processes require mixing of zeolite powders with molten salt at elevated temperatures (>700 K). Complete occlusion of salt and a uniform distribution of chloride and fission products are desired for incorporation of the powders into the final waste form. The relative effectiveness of the blending process was studied over a series of temperature, time, and composition profiles. The major criteria for determining the effectiveness of the mixing operations were the level and uniformity of residual free salt in the mixtures. High operating temperatures (>775 K) improved salt occlusion. Reducing the chloride levels in the mixture to below 80% of the full salt capacity of the zeolite significantly reduced the free salt level in the final product.

Pereira, C.; Zyryanov, V.N.; Lewis, M.A.; Ackerman, J.P.

1996-05-01

242

Bath Salts  

MedlinePLUS

Synthetic cathinones, often called “bath salts,” are powerful, illegal, and can cause hallucinations and violent behavior, among other dangerous effects. Twitter Facebook RSS 582 Exposures Jan. 1, ...

243

Salts & Solubility  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online interactive simulation, learners will add different salts to water and then watch the salts dissolve and achieve a dynamic equilibrium with solid precipitate. Learners will also compare the number of ions in NaCl to other slightly soluble salts, and they will relate the charges on ions to the number of ions in the formula of a salt. Learners will also learn how to calculate Ksp values. This activity includes an online simulation, sample learning goals, a teacher's guide, and translations in over 20 languages.

2012-12-27

244

Radioactive waste isolation in salt:  

SciTech Connect

The approach presumes that measurements are undertaken to support performance predictions. A quantitative performance objective like groundwater travel time is compared with performance predictions. The approach recognizes that such predictions are uncertain because the measurements upon which they are based are uncertain. The effectiveness of measurement activities is quantified by an index, ..beta.., that reflects the number of standard deviations separating the best estimate of performance from the performance objective. Measurements that reduce the uncertainty in predictions lead to increased values of ..beta... Evaluating ..beta.. for a particular measurement scheme requires identifying the measured quantities that significantly affect prediction uncertainty. Sources of uncertainty are spatial variation, noise, estimation error, and measurement bias. Changing the measurement scheme to increase ..beta.. increases the likelihood of a performance objective being achieved or exceeded. The application of the ..beta..-index method to the Richton dome site in Mississippi focuses on uncertainties in hydraulic conductivity data in relation to groundwater travel time predictions. The ..beta.. values for four different measurement schemes for hydraulic conductivity are determined. 44 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs.

Ditmars, J.D.; Baecher, G.B.; Edgar, D.E.; Dowding, C.H.

1988-03-01

245

Effect of inorganic salts on crystallization of poly(ethylene glycol) in frozen solutions.  

PubMed

The effect of inorganic salts on eutectic crystallization of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) 1500-20,000 in frozen solution was studied to model the polymer and inorganic salt interaction in freeze-dried formulations. Thermal analysis of an aqueous PEG 3000 solution showed a eutectic PEG crystallization exotherm at approximately -47 degrees C and a subsequent PEG crystal melting endotherm at -14.9 degrees C. Addition of sodium chloride prevented the PEG crystallization in the freeze-concentrated solution surrounding ice crystals. Higher concentration NaCl was required to retain higher molecular weight PEG in the amorphous state. Various inorganic salts prevented the PEG crystallization to varying degrees depending mainly on the position of the anion in the Hofmeister's lyotropic series. Some salting-in and 'intermediate' salts (NaSCN, NaI, NaBr, NaCl, LiCl, KCl, and RbCl) inhibited the crystallization of PEG 7500 in frozen solutions. On the other hand, salting-out salts (NaH2PO4, Na2HPO4, Na2SO4, and NaF) did not show an apparent effect on the PEG crystallization. Some salting-out salts induced PEG crystallization in PEG and sucrose combination frozen solutions. The varying abilities of salts to prevent the PEG crystallization in frozen solutions strongly suggested that the solutes had different degrees of miscibility in the freeze-concentrates. PMID:15607262

Izutsu, Ken-ichi; Aoyagi, Nobuo

2005-01-01

246

Salt Painting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this art meets chemistry activity, early learners discover the almost magical absorbent properties of salt while creating ethereal watercolor paintings. Learners first use watercolor to paint an image. Then, they sprinkle salt on the wet paint and observe. Use the provided discussion questions to encourage reflection.

OMSI

2004-01-01

247

Clean salt process final report  

SciTech Connect

A process has been demonstrated in the laboratory for separating clean, virtually non-radioactive sodium nitrate from Hanford tank waste using fractional crystallization. The name of the process is the Clean Salt Process. Flowsheet modeling has shown that the process is capable of reducing the volume of vitrified low activity waste (LAW) by 80 to 90 %. Construction of the Clean Salt processing plant would cost less than $1 10 million, and would eliminate the need for building a $2.2 billion large scale vitrification plant planned for Privatization Phase 11. Disposal costs for the vitrified LAW would also be reduced by an estimated $240 million. This report provides a summary of five years of laboratory and engineering development activities, beginning in fiscal year 1992. Topics covered include laboratory testing of a variety of processing options; proof-of-principle demonstrations with actual waste samples from Hanford tanks 241-U-110 (U-110), 241-SY-101 (101-SY), and 241-AN-102 (102-AN); descriptions of the primary solubility phase diagrams that govem the process; a review of environmental regulations governing disposition of the reclaimed salt and an assessment of the potential beneficial uses of the reclaimed salt; preliminary plant design and construction cost estimates. A detailed description is given for the large scale laboratory demonstration of the process using waste from tank 241-AW-101 (101-AW), a candidate waste for 0044vitrification during Phase I Privatization.

Herting, D.L.

1996-09-30

248

Radiation-induced alkali formation and its effect on the corrosion of Grade12 titanium in rock salt nuclear waste repositories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural rock salt was gamma irradiated at a dose rate of 8 x 10⁶ rad\\/h for times up to 1338 h. Subsequent dissolution in water produced high pH solutions. The corrosion properties of ASTM Grade-12 titanium were evaluated in simulated alkaline rock salt brines. The uniform corrosion rates were enhanced compared to those for neutral solutions, but crevice corrosion rates

T. M. Ahn; S. V. Panno

1985-01-01

249

The Combination Effects of LiCl and the Active Leflunomide Metabolite, A771726, on Viral-Induced Interleukin 6 Production and EV-A71 Replication  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) is a neurotropic virus that can cause severe complications involving the central nervous system. No effective antiviral therapeutics are available for treating EV-A71 infection and drug discovery efforts are rarely focused to target this disease. Thus, the main goal of this study was to discover existing drugs with novel indications that may effectively inhibit EV-A71 replication and the inflammatory cytokines elevation. In this study, we showed that LiCl, a GSK3? inhibitor, effectively suppressed EV-A71 replication, apoptosis and inflammatory cytokines production (Interleukin 6, Interleukin-1?) in infected cells. Furthermore, LiCl and an immunomodular agent were shown to strongly synergize with each other in suppressing EV-A71 replication. The results highlighted potential new treatment regimens in suppressing sequelae caused by EV-A71 replication. PMID:25412347

Hung, Hui-Chen; Shih, Shin-Ru; Chang, Teng-Yuan; Fang, Ming-Yu; Hsu, John T.-A.

2014-01-01

250

Electrochemical and spectrophotometric study on trivalent neodymium ion in molten binary mixtures of LiCl and alkali earth chlorides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermodynamic stability of Nd(III) complexes was studied by electrochemical techniques for molten binary mixtures composed of LiCl and an alkali earth chloride, CaCl 2, SrCl 2, or BaCl 2 at 923 K. The Gibbs free energy change of formation of Nd(III) in the melts was determined. The obtained values showed a good correlation with the polarizing power of solvent cations. The Nd(III) complex was more stable in the melts with low polarizing power. The electronic absorption spectrum of the hypersensitive f- f transition of Nd 3+ was investigated to obtain information about the structural change of the NdCl63- complex. The estimated oscillator strength of the 4G5/2, 2G7/2 ? 4I9/2 transition and the degree of the energy splitting in electronic energy levels showed different trends upon the polarizing power for each of added alkali earth chloride. This indicates that the coordination environments further from second neighbors could have significant impact on the electronic energy levels of Nd(III) in the mixtures including alkali earth cations.

Fukasawa, Kazuhito; Uehara, Akihiro; Nagai, Takayuki; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Yamana, Hajimu

2011-07-01

251

Dechlorination of polychlorobiphenyls using NaBH(4) and NaBH(4)/LiCl at 120-310 degrees C in glyme solvents.  

PubMed

High temperature PCB dechlorination (Aroclor 1016) occurred using NaBH(4) alone in tetraglyme at 290-310 degrees C within 2h in a sealed tube. Aroclor 1016 dechlorination was also quantitatively achieved using NaBH(4)/LiCl/glyme solvents (di-, tri-, or tetraglyme) at 125-135 degrees C. The best results were obtained by prestirring NaBH(4), LiCl and the glyme solvent at room temperature before heating at 125-135 degrees C. At equivalent conditions, PCB dechlorination rates were found to depend on solvent in the order: tetraglyme>triglyme>diglyme. At 130 degrees C, Aroclor 1016 can be dechlorinated in NaBH(4)/LiCl/tetraglyme in 4h. 2-Chlorobiphenyl and 2,2'-dichlorobiphenyl were the least reactive congeners in dechlorinations with NaBH(4)/LiCl in diglyme. Competitive dechlorinations with NaBH(4)/LiCl in diglyme showed 3-chloro- and 4-chlorobiphenyl reacted faster than 2-chlorobiphenyl at 130 degrees C. The reactions were clean with no solvent decomposition in the range of 120-162 degrees C. PMID:11240070

Pittman, C U; Yang, C

2001-04-20

252

Thermophysical properties of reconsolidating crushed salt.  

SciTech Connect

Reconsolidated crushed salt is being considered as a backfilling material placed upon nuclear waste within a salt repository environment. In-depth knowledge of thermal and mechanical properties of the crushed salt as it reconsolidates is critical to thermal/mechanical modeling of the reconsolidation process. An experimental study was completed to quantitatively evaluate the thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt as a function of porosity and temperature. The crushed salt for this study came from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In this work the thermal conductivity of crushed salt with porosity ranging from 1% to 40% was determined from room temperature up to 300oC, using two different experimental methods. Thermal properties (including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat) of single-crystal salt were determined for the same temperature range. The salt was observed to dewater during heating; weight loss from the dewatering was quantified. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt decreases with increasing porosity; conversely, thermal conductivity increases as the salt consolidates. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt for a given porosity decreases with increasing temperature. A simple mixture theory model is presented to predict and compare to the data developed in this study.

Bauer, Stephen J.; Urquhart, Alexander

2014-03-01

253

Effect of hygroscopicity of the metal salt on the formation and air stability of lyotropic liquid crystalline mesophases in hydrated salt-surfactant systems.  

PubMed

It is known that alkali, transition metal and lanthanide salts can form lyotropic liquid crystalline (LLC) mesophases with non-ionic surfactants (such as CiH2i+1(OCH2CH2)jOH, denoted as CiEj). Here we combine several salt systems and show that the percent deliquescence relative humidity (%DRH) value of a salt is the determining parameter in the formation and stability of the mesophases and that the other parameters are secondary and less significant. Accordingly, salts can be divided into 3 categories: Type I salts (such as LiCl, LiBr, LiI, LiNO3, LiClO4, CaCl2, Ca(NO3)2, MgCl2, and some transition metal nitrates) have low %DRH and form stable salt-surfactant LLC mesophases in the presence of a small amount of water, type II salts (such as some sodium and potassium salts) that are moderately hygroscopic form disordered stable mesophases, and type III salts that have high %DRH values, do not form stable LLC mesophases and leach out salt crystals. To illustrate this effect, a large group of salts from alkali and alkaline earth metals were investigated using XRD, POM, FTIR, and Raman techniques. Among the different salts investigated in this study, the LiX (where X is Cl(-), Br(-), I(-), NO3(-), and ClO4(-)) and CaX2 (X is Cl(-), and NO3(-)) salts were more prone to establish LLC mesophases because of their lower %DRH values. The phase behavior with respect to concentration, stability, and thermal behavior of Li(I) systems were investigated further. It is seen that the phase transitions among different anions in the Li(I) systems follow the Hofmeister series. PMID:25112909

Albayrak, Cemal; Bar?m, Gözde; Dag, Ömer

2014-11-01

254

Process to separate transuranic elements from nuclear waste  

DOEpatents

A process for removing transuranic elements from a waste chloride electrolytic salt containing transuranic elements in addition to rare earth and other fission product elements so the salt waste may be disposed of more easily and the valuable transuranic elements may be recovered for reuse. The salt is contacted with a cadmium-uranium alloy which selectively extracts the transuranic elements from the salt. The waste salt is generated during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel associated with the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR).

Johnson, Terry R. (Wheaton, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL); Tomczuk, Zygmunt (Orland Park, IL); Fischer, Donald F. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

1989-01-01

255

Conceptual designs for waste packages for horizontal or vertical emplacement in a repository in salt for reference in the site characterization plan  

SciTech Connect

This report includes the options of horizontal and vertical emplacement, the addition of a phased repository, an additional waste form (intact spent fuel), revised geotechnical data appropriate for the Deaf Smith County site, new corrosion data for the container, and new repository design data. The waste package consists of waste form and canister within a thick-walled, low-carbon steel container surrounded by packing. The container is a hollow cylinder with a flat head welded to each end. The design concepts for the waste container or vertical and horizontal emplacement are identical. This report discusses the results of analyses of aspects of the reference waste package concept needing changes because of new data and information believed applicable to the Deaf Smith County site. Included are waste package conceptual designs or (1) the reference defense high-level waste form from the Savannah River Plant; (2) intact spent fuel with our pressurized-water-reactor or nine boiling-water-reactor assemblies per package for emplacement during Phase 1 of repository operation; and (3) spent fuel which has been disassembled and consolidated into a segmented cylindrical canister with rods from either 12 pressurized-water-reactor or 30 boiling-water-reactor assemblies per package for emplacement during Phase 2. 30 refs., 61 figs., 30 tabs.

Not Available

1987-06-01

256

SOLUTION MINING IN SALT DOMES OF THE GULF COAST EMBAYMENT  

SciTech Connect

Following a description of salt resources in the salt domes of the gulf coast embayment, mining, particularly solution mining, is described. A scenario is constructed which could lead to release of radioactive waste stored in a salt dome via inadvertent solution mining and the consequences of this scenario are analyzed.

Griswold, G. B.

1981-02-01

257

Radiation-induced alkali formation and its effect on the corrosion of Grade-12 titanium in rock salt nuclear waste repositories  

SciTech Connect

Natural rock salt was gamma irradiated at a dose rate of 8 x 10/sup 6/ rad/h for times up to 1338 h. Subsequent dissolution in water produced high pH solutions. The corrosion properties of ASTM Grade-12 titanium were evaluated in simulated alkaline rock salt brines. The uniform corrosion rates were enhanced compared to those for neutral solutions, but crevice corrosion rates were retarded because of difficulties in obtaining high acidity in the crevice region. Hydrogen uptake was enhanced because of the chemical dissolution of the oxide layer. Upon hydrogenation, tensile samples showed slow-strain-rate embrittlement. Stress corrosion cracking, however, was not detected in the alkaline brines. 23 references, 8 figures, 6 tables.

Ahn, T.M.; Panno, S.V.

1985-01-01

258

A new compound heterozygous frameshift mutation in the type II 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3{beta}-HSD gene causes salt-wasting 3{beta}-HSD deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia  

SciTech Connect

We report a new compound heterozygous frameshift mutation in the type II 3{Beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3{beta}-HSD) gene in a Pakistanian female child with the salt-wasting form of 3{Beta}-HSD deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The etiology for her congenital adrenal hyperplasia was not defined. Although the family history suggested possible 3{beta}-HSd deficiency disorder, suppressed adrenal function caused by excess glucocorticoid therapy in this child at 7 yr of age did not allow hormonal diagnosis. To confirm 3{beta}-HSD deficiency, we sequenced the type II 3{beta}-HSD gene in the patient, her family, and the parents of her deceased paternal cousins. The type II 3{beta}-HSD gene region of a putative promotor, exons I, II, III, and IV, and exon-intron boundaries were amplified by PCR and sequenced in all subjects. The DNA sequence of the child revealed a single nucleotide deletion at codon 318 [ACA(Thr){r_arrow}AA] in exon IV in one allele, and two nucleotide deletions at codon 273 [AAA(Lys){r_arrow}A] in exon IV in the other allele. The remaining gene sequences were normal. The codon 318 mutation was found in one allele from the father, brother, and parents of the deceased paternal cousins. The codon 273 mutation was found in one allele of the mother and a sister. These findings confirmed inherited 3{beta}-HSD deficiency in the child caused by the compound heterozygous type II 3{beta}-HSD gene mutation. Both codons at codons 279 and 367, respectively, are predicted to result in an altered and truncated type II 3{beta}-HSD protein, thereby causing salt-wasting 3{beta}-HSD deficiency in the patient. 21 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Zhang, L.; Sakkal-Alkaddour, S.; Chang, Ying T.; Yang, Xiaojiang; Songya Pang [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)] [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

1996-01-01

259

Salt Marsh  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

High school level and higher description of Spartina salt marshes with pictures. Page is full of fantastic photographs most featuring a descriptive caption. Topics discussed include zonation, succession, and the intertidal zone. The habitat's associated flora and fauna are discussed. Organisms of particular interest include: Spartina alterniflora, Spartina patens, Geukenzia demissa, Mytilus edulis, Distichlis spicata, Salicornia, Melampus bidentatus, Ilyanassa obsoleta, and Hydrobia totteni.

260

Bases, Assumptions, and Results of the Flowsheet Calculations for the Decision Phase Salt Disposition Alternatives  

SciTech Connect

The HLW salt waste (salt cake and supernate) now stored at the SRS must be treated to remove insoluble sludge solids and reduce the soluble concentration of radioactive cesium radioactive strontium and transuranic contaminants (principally Pu and Np). These treatments will enable the salt solution to be processed for disposal as saltstone, a solid low-level waste.

Elder, H.H.

2001-07-11

261

Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts")  

MedlinePLUS

... Synthetic Cathinones (“Bath Salts”) DrugFacts: Synthetic Cathinones (“Bath Salts”) Email Facebook Twitter Revised November 2012 The term “ ... Sky," "White Lightning," and “Scarface.” How Are Bath Salts Abused? Bath salts are typically taken orally, inhaled, ...

262

The effect of ferrocyanide ions on sodium chloride crystallization in salt mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of crystallization inhibitors has been proposed as a potential preventive treatment method against damage and is extensively tested for crystallization of single salts. However, in practice salt mixtures are present. Therefore, before using inhibitors in practice there is a strong need to explore their effect on salt mixtures. In this research, we studied the effect of ferrocyanide ions ([Fe(CN)6]4-) on NaCl crystallization in single salt and in salt mixtures of NaCl-KCl and NaCl-LiCl. A series of micro droplet drying experiments were undertaken. Time lapse microscopy of the crystallization was performed along with NMR measurements of hydrogen, sodium and lithium ions. This gives the possibility to visualize the drying of the droplet while simultaneously obtaining information of both NaCl and LiCl concentration in the droplet. For a NaCl solution droplet, in the presence of inhibitor, a significantly higher supersaturation prior to the onset of crystallization and a change in crystal morphology were observed. On the other hand, for salt mixtures, lower supersaturation compared to single salt and dendritic crystal morphology was seen in the presence of inhibitor. In a porous material, such a type of morphology can promote the formation of efflorescence that causes only little structural damage.

Gupta, Sonia; Pel, Leo; Steiger, Michael; Kopinga, Klaas

2015-01-01

263

Quality Assurance Program: Argonne peer review activities for the salt host-rock portion of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program  

SciTech Connect

This Quality Assurance (QA) Program sets forth the methods, controls, and procedures used to ensure that the results of Argonne National Laboratory's peer review activities are consistently of the highest quality and responsive to Salt Repository Project Office's needs and directives. Implementation of the QA procedures described herein establishes an operational framework so that task activities are traceable and the activities and decisions that influence the overall quality of the peer review process and results are fully documented. 56 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

Edgar, D.E.

1986-08-12

264

Efficacy of a Solution-Based Approach for Making Sodalite Waste Forms for an Oxide Reduction Salt Used in the Reprocessing of Used Uranium Oxide Fuel  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the various approaches attempted to make solution-derived sodalite with a LiCl-Li2O oxide reduction salt used to dissolve used uranium oxide fuel so the uranium can be recovered and recycled. The approaches include modified sol-gel and solutionbased synthesis processes. As-made products were mixed with 5 and 10 mass% of a Na2O-B2O3- SiO2 glass binder and these, along with product without a binder, were heated using either a cold-press-and-sinter method or hot uniaxial pressing. The results demonstrate the limitation of sodalite yield due to the fast intermediate reactions between Na+ and Cl- to form halite in solution and Li2O and SiO2 to form lithium silicates (e.g., Li2SiO3 or Li2Si2O5) in the calcined and sintered pellets. The results show that pellets can be made with high sodalite fractions in the crystalline product (~92 mass%) and low porosities using a solution-based approach and this LiCl-Li2O salt but that the incorporation of Li into the sodalite is low.

Brian J. Riley; David A. Pierce; Steven M. Frank; Josef Matyas; Carolyne A. Burns

2014-09-01

265

Waste Determination Equivalency - 12172  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility encompassing approximately 800 square kilometers near Aiken, South Carolina which began operations in the 1950's with the mission to produce nuclear materials. The SRS contains fifty-one tanks (2 stabilized, 49 yet to be closed) distributed between two liquid radioactive waste storage facilities at SRS containing carbon steel underground tanks with storage capacities ranging from 2,800,000 to 4,900,000 liters. Treatment of the liquid waste from these tanks is essential both to closing older tanks and to maintaining space needed to treat the waste that is eventually vitrified or disposed of onsite. Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act of Fiscal Year 2005 (NDAA) provides the Secretary of Energy, in consultation with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), a methodology to determine that certain waste resulting from prior reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel are not high-level radioactive waste if it can be demonstrated that the waste meets the criteria set forth in Section 3116(a) of the NDAA. The Secretary of Energy, in consultation with the NRC, signed a determination in January 2006, pursuant to Section 3116(a) of the NDAA, for salt waste disposal at the SRS Saltstone Disposal Facility. This determination is based, in part, on the Basis for Section 3116 Determination for Salt Waste Disposal at the Savannah River Site and supporting references, a document that describes the planned methods of liquid waste treatment and the resulting waste streams. The document provides descriptions of the proposed methods for processing salt waste, dividing them into 'Interim Salt Processing' and later processing through the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Interim Salt Processing is separated into Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment (DDA) and Actinide Removal Process/Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (ARP/MCU). The Waste Determination was signed by the Secretary of Energy in January of 2006 based on proposed processing techniques with the expectation that it could be revised as new processing capabilities became viable. Once signed, however, it became evident that any changes would require lengthy review and another determination signed by the Secretary of Energy. With the maturation of additional salt removal technologies and the extension of the SWPF start-up date, it becomes necessary to define 'equivalency' to the processes laid out in the original determination. For the purposes of SRS, any waste not processed through Interim Salt Processing must be processed through SWPF or an equivalent process, and therefore a clear statement of the requirements for a process to be equivalent to SWPF becomes necessary. (authors)

Freeman, Rebecca D. [Savannah River Remediation (United States)

2012-07-01

266

Understanding radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect

This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

Murray, R.L.

1981-12-01

267

Processes and parameters involved in modeling radionuclide transport from bedded salt repositories. Final report. Technical memorandum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parameters necessary to model radionuclide transport in salt beds are identified and described. A proposed plan for disposal of the radioactive wastes generated by nuclear power plants is to store waste canisters in repository sites contained in stable salt formations approximately 600 meters below the ground surface. Among the principal radioactive wastes contained in these canisters will be radioactive

D. E. Evenson; T. A. Prickett; P. A. Showalter

1979-01-01

268

Salt splitting using ceramic membranes  

SciTech Connect

Many radioactive aqueous wastes in the DOE complex have high concentrations of sodium that can negatively affect waste treatment and disposal operations. Sodium can decrease the durability of waste forms such as glass and is the primary contributor to large disposal volumes. Waste treatment processes such as cesium ion exchange, sludge washing, and calcination are made less efficient and more expensive because of the high sodium concentrations. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City UT) are developing an electrochemical salt splitting process based on inorganic ceramic sodium (Na), super-ionic conductor (NaSICON) membranes that shows promise for mitigating the impact of sodium. In this process, the waste is added to the anode compartment, and an electrical potential is applied to the cell. This drives sodium ions through the membrane, but the membrane rejects most other cations (e.g., Sr{sup +2}, Cs{sup +}). The charge balance in the anode compartment is maintained by generating H{sup +} from the electrolysis of water. The charge balance in the cathode is maintained by generating OH{sup {minus}}, either from the electrolysis of water or from oxygen and water using an oxygen cathode. The normal gaseous products of the electrolysis of water are oxygen at the anode and hydrogen at the cathode. Potentially flammable gas mixtures can be prevented by providing adequate volumes of a sweep gas, using an alternative reductant or destruction of the hydrogen as it is generated. As H{sup +} is generated in the anode compartment, the pH drops. The process may be operated with either an alkaline (pH>12) or an acidic anolyte (pH <1). The benefits of salt splitting using ceramic membranes are (1) waste volume reduction and reduced chemical procurement costs by recycling of NaOH; and (2) direct reduction of sodium in process streams, which enhances subsequent operations such as cesium ion exchange, calcination, and vitrification.

Kurath, D.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1997-10-01

269

Analysis of the relationship between Scl transcription factor complex protein expression patterns and the effects of LiCl on ATRA-induced differentiation in blast cells from patients with acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

Exogenous expression of the transcription factor Scl (Tal1) in WEHI-3B D+ myelomonocytic leukemia cells interferes with their capacity to respond to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) induced differentiation; combination of ATRA with LiCl, however, circumvents the inhibition of differentiation produced by Scl. To gain information on the possible involvement of this transcription factor in the non-responsiveness of acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) patients to ATRA, we compared the endogenous expression levels of Scl and its transcription complex partners [i.e., Rbtn1 (LMO1), Rbtn2 (LMO2), Ldb1, and GATA family proteins] in leukemic blast cells from patients with AML and acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), and determined the effects of lithium chloride alone or in combination with ATRA on the capacity of blast cells to differentiate during short-term ex vivo culture. Levels of Scl, Rbtn2, GATA1, and Ldb1 expression were comparable in AML and APL blasts, while the levels of expression of Rbtn1, GATA2, and GATA3 were absent or markedly lower in APL cells. Differentiation markers (cell surface myeloid antigens CD11b, CD15, CD14, and CD33) were also analyzed in blast cells. ATRA produced changes in at least one surface antigen differentiation marker in 89% of patient blasts, while LiCl caused such changes in 72% of the leukemic cells of patients. The combination of LiCl and ATRA induced the differentiation of leukemic blasts from 94% of patients. Although the expression of the transcription factors did not act as individual predictors of responsiveness or non-responsiveness to the inducers of differentiation, ATRA or ATRA plus LiCl, the addition of LiCl to ATRA increased the differentiation response over that of ATRA alone in a number of leukemic samples. These findings suggest that the combination of LiCl and ATRA may produce some clinical benefit in the treatment of the myeloid leukemias. PMID:15380350

Rice, Anna M; Holtz, Kathleen M; Karp, Judith; Rollins, Sandra; Sartorelli, Alan C

2004-11-01

270

Resistivity measurements of halide-salt/MgO separators for thermal cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resistivities of 20 compositions of halide-salt/MgO mixtures (various selections and percentages of LiF, LiCl, LiBr, KCl, KBr, CsBr, and MgO) to be used in Li-alloy/metal sulfide cells were measured at temperatures between the melting point of a particular mixture and 500 C. The resistivities were determined with cold pressed electrolyte-binder pellets by using a special cell and dc measuring technique. Temperature, salt composition, and MgO content were found to have a strong influence on resistivity. These factors are listed in decreasing order of the magnitude of the effect. The fabrication density (porosity) of the pellet also has some effect on resistivity. These measured resistivities provide a data base to select optimum compositions of electrolyte-binder pellets for LiSi/FeS2 thermal batteries and to calculate area-specific resistances of these components for battery modeling and optimization.

Redey, Lazlo; McParland, Margaret; Guidotti, Ron

1990-03-01

271

Nuclear waste solutions  

DOEpatents

High efficiency removal of technetium values from a nuclear waste stream is achieved by addition to the waste stream of a precipitant contributing tetraphenylphosphonium cation, such that a substantial portion of the technetium values are precipitated as an insoluble pertechnetate salt.

Walker, Darrel D. (1684 Partridge Dr., Aiken, SC 29801); Ebra, Martha A. (129 Hasty Rd., Aiken, SC 29801)

1987-01-01

272

Polyethylene encapsulation of molten salt oxidation mixed low-level radioactive salt residues  

SciTech Connect

A limited scope treatability study was conducted for polyethylene encapsulation of salt residues generated by a Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) technology demonstration at the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), operated by Rockwell International for the US Department of Energy (DOE). During 1992 and 1993, ETEC performed a demonstration with a prototype MSO unit and treated approximately 50 gallons of mixed waste comprised of radioactively contaminated oils produced by hot cell operations. A sample of the mixed waste contaminated spent salt was used during the BNL polyethylene encapsulation treatability study. A nominal waste loading of 50 wt % was successfully processed and waste form test specimens were made for Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing. The encapsulated product was compared with base-line TCLP results for total chromium and was found to be well within allowable EPA guidelines.

Lageraaen, P.R.; Kalb, P.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Grimmett, D.L.; Gay, R.L.; Newman, C.D. [Energy Technology Engineering Center, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

1995-10-01

273

Effects of heating on salt-occluded zeolite  

SciTech Connect

The electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel generates a waste stream of fission products in the electrolyte, LiCl-KCl eutectic salt. Argonne National Laboratory is developing a mineral waste form for this waste stream. The waste form consists of a composite formed by hot pressing salt-occluded zeolite and a glass binder. Pressing conditions must be judiciously chosen. For a given pressure, increasing temperatures and hold times give denser products but the zeolite is frequently converted to sodalite. Reducing the temperature or hold time leads to a porous zeolite composite. Therefore, conditions that affect the thermal stability of salt-occluded zeolite both with and without glass are being investigated in an ongoing study. The parameters varied in this stage of the work were heating time, temperature, salt loading, and glass content. The heat-treated samples were examined primarily by X-ray diffraction. Large variations were found in the rate at which salt-occluded zeolite converted to other phases such as nepheline, salt, and sodalite. The products depended on the initial salt loading. Heating times required for these transitions depended on the procedure and temperature used to prepare the salt-occluded zeolite. Mixtures of glass and zeolite reacted much faster than the pure salt-occluded zeolite and were almost always converted to sodalite.

Lewis, M.A.; Hash, M.C.; Pereira, C.; Ackerman, J.P.

1996-05-01

274

Crack closure and healing studies in WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) salt using compressional wave velocity and attenuation measurements: Test methods and results  

SciTech Connect

Compressional wave ultrasonic data were used to qualitatively assess the extent of crack closure during hydrostatic compression of damaged specimens of WIPP salt. Cracks were introduced during constant strain-rate triaxial tests at low confining pressure (0.5 MPa) as specimens were taken to either 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 percent axial strain. For three specimens taken to 1.0 percent axial strain, the pressure was increased to 5, 10 or 15 MPa. For the remaining specimens, pressure was raised to 15 MPa. Waveforms for compressional waves traveling both parallel and perpendicular to the direction of maximum principal stress were measured in the undamaged state, during constant strain-rate tests, and then monitored as functions of time while the specimens were held at pressure. Both wave velocities and amplitudes increased over time at pressure, indicating that cracks closed and perhaps healed. The recovery of ultrasonic wave characteristics depended upon both pressure and damage level. The higher the pressure, the greater the velocity recovery; however, amplitude recovery showed no clear correlation with pressure. For both amplitudes and velocities, recoveries were greatest in the specimens with the least damage. 13 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

Brodsky, N.S. (RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (USA))

1990-11-01

275

Physiological basis for the high salt tolerance of Debaryomyces hansenii.  

PubMed

The effects of KCl, NaCl, and LiCl on the growth of Debaryomyces hansenii, usually considered a halotolerant yeast, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were compared. KCl and NaCl had similar effects on D. hansenii, indicating that NaCl created only osmotic stress, while LiCl had a specific inhibitory effect, although relatively weaker than in S. cerevisiae. In media with low K+, Na+ was able to substitute for K+, restoring the specific growth rate and the final biomass of the culture. The intracellular concentration of Na+ reached values up to 800 mM, suggesting that metabolism is not affected by rather high concentrations of salt. The ability of D. hansenii to extrude Na+ and Li+ was similar to that described for S. cerevisiae, suggesting that this mechanism is not responsible for the increased halotolerance. Also, the kinetic parameters of Rb+ uptake in D. hansenii (Vmax, 4.2 nmol mg [dry weight]-1 min-1; K(m), 7.4 mM) indicate that the transport system was not more efficient than in S. cerevisiae. Sodium (50 mM) activated the transport of Rb+ by increasing the affinity for the substrate in D. hansenii, while the effect was opposite in S. cerevisiae. Lithium inhibited Rb+ uptake in D. hansenii. We propose that the metabolism of D. hansenii is less sensitive to intracellular Na+ than is that of S. cerevisiae, that Na+ substitutes for K+ when K+ is scarce, and that the transport of K+ is favored by the presence of Na+. In low K+ environments, D. hansenii behaved as a halophilic yeast. PMID:9327565

Prista, C; Almagro, A; Loureiro-Dias, M C; Ramos, J

1997-10-01

276

Listeria Phage and Phage Tail Induction Triggered by Components of Bacterial Growth Media (Phosphate, LiCl, Nalidixic Acid, and Acriflavine).  

PubMed

The detection of Listeria monocytogenes from food is currently carried out using a double enrichment. For the ISO methodology, this double enrichment is performed using half-Fraser and Fraser broths, in which the overgrowth of L. innocua can occur in samples where both species are present. In this study, we analyzed the induction of phages and phage tails of Listeria spp. in these media and in two brain heart infusion (BHI) broths (BHIM [bioMérieux] and BHIK [Biokar]) to identify putative effectors. It appears that Na2HPO4 at concentrations ranging from 1 to 40 g/liter with an initial pH of 7.5 can induce phage or phage tail production of Listeria spp., especially with 10 g/liter of Na2HPO4 and a pH of 7.5, conditions present in half-Fraser and Fraser broths. Exposure to LiCl in BHIM (18 to 21 g/liter) can also induce phage and phage tail release, but in half-Fraser and Fraser broths, the concentration of LiCl is much lower (3 g/liter). Low phage titers were induced by acriflavine and/or nalidixic acid. We also show that the production of phages and phage tails can occur in half-Fraser and Fraser broths. This study points out that induction of phages and phage tails could be triggered by compounds present in enrichment media. This could lead to a false-negative result for the detection of L. monocytogenes in food products. PMID:25595760

Lemaître, Jean-Paul; Duroux, Amandine; Pimpie, Romain; Duez, Jean-Marie; Milat, Marie-Louise

2015-03-15

277

Brines formed by multi-salt deliquescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The FY05 Waste Package Environment testing program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory focused on determining the temperature, relative humidity, and solution compositions of brines formed due to the deliquescence of NaCl-KNOâ-NaNOâ and NaCl-KNOâ-NaNOâ-Ca(NOâ)â salt mixtures. Understanding the physical and chemical behavior of these brines is important because they define conditions under which brines may react with waste canister surfaces. Boiling

S Carroll; J Rard; M Alai; K Staggs

2005-01-01

278

THORIUM FUEL CYCLES: A GRAPHITE-MODERATED MOLTEN SALT REACTOR  

E-print Network

with low radiotoxicity waste. Moreover, the transition to Thorium could be done through the incineration Thorium fuel cycles. For our MSR, we chose a classical design, close to the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

279

Determination of uranium and rare-earth metals separation coefficients in LiCl KCl melt by electrochemical transient techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main step in the pyrometallurgical process of spent nuclear fuel recycling is a molten salt electrorefining. The knowledge of separation coefficients of actinides (U, Np, Pu and Am) and rare-earth metals (Y, La, Ce, Nd and Gd) is very important for this step. Usually the separation coefficients are evaluated from the formal standard potentials of metals in melts containing their own ions, values obtained by potentiometric method. Electrochemical experiments were carried out at 723-823 K in order to estimate separation coefficients in LiCl-KCl eutectic melt containing uranium and lanthanum trichlorides. It was shown that for the calculation of uranium and lanthanum separation coefficients it is necessary to determine the voltammetric peak potentials of U(III) and La(III), their concentration in the melt and the kinetic parameters relating to U(III) discharge such as transfer and diffusion coefficients, and standard rate constants of charge transfer.

Kuznetsov, S. A.; Hayashi, H.; Minato, K.; Gaune-Escard, M.

2005-09-01

280

Pyrochemical investigations into recovering plutonium from americium extraction salt residues  

SciTech Connect

Progress into developing a pyrochemical technique for separating and recovering plutonium from spent americium extraction waste salts has concentrated on selective chemical reduction with lanthanum metal and calcium metal and on the solvent extraction of americium with calcium metal. Both techniques are effective for recovering plutonium from the waste salt, although neither appears suitable as a separation technique for recycling a plutonium stream back to mainline purification processes. 17 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

Fife, K.W.; West, M.H.

1987-05-01

281

Creep modeling of rock salts for geoenvironmental application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before using a rock salt as a nuclear waste repository, it is necessary to have adequate knowledge of the mechanical and thermomechanical behavior of the host geologic media. In rock salt, such mechanical and thermomechanical behavior is dominated, among other factors, by the time-dependent deformation commonly referred to as creep. The paper discusses a rate-dependent constitutive model to describe the

M. I. Hossain; M. O. Faruque; M. Zaman

1995-01-01

282

Technical review of Molten Salt Oxidation  

SciTech Connect

The process was reviewed for destruction of mixed low-level radioactive waste. Results: extensive development work and scaleup has been documented on coal gasification and hazardous waste which forms a strong experience base for this MSO process; it is clearly applicable to DOE wastes such as organic liquids and low-ash wastes. It also has potential for processing difficult-to-treat wastes such as nuclear grade graphite and TBP, and it may be suitable for other problem waste streams such as sodium metal. MSO operating systems may be constructed in relatively small units for small quantity generators. Public perceptions could be favorable if acceptable performance data are presented fairly; MSO will likely require compliance with regulations for incineration. Use of MSO for offgas treatment may be complicated by salt carryover. Figs, tabs, refs.

Not Available

1993-12-01

283

Electrolyte salts for power sources  

DOEpatents

Electrolyte salts are disclosed for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts. 2 figs.

Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

1995-11-28

284

Electrolyte salts for power sources  

DOEpatents

Electrolyte salts for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts.

Doddapaneni, Narayan (10516 Royal Birkdale, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111); Ingersoll, David (5824 Mimosa Pl., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111)

1995-01-01

285

Ammonia Solubility in High Concentration Salt Solutions  

SciTech Connect

Solubility data for ammonia in water and various dilute solutions are abundant in the literature. However, there is a noticeable lack of ammonia solubility data for high salt, basic solutions of various mixtures of salts including those found in many of the Hanford Washington underground waste tanks. As a result, models based on solubility data for dilute salt solutions have been used to extrapolate to high salt solutions. These significant extrapolations need to be checked against actual laboratory data. Some indirect vapor measurements have been made. A more direct approach is to determine the ratio of solubility of ammonia in water to its solubility in high salt solutions. In various experiments, pairs of solutions, one of which is water and the other a high salt solution, are allowed to come to equilibrium with a common ammonia vapor pressure. The ratio of concentrations of ammonia in the two solutions is equal to the ratio of the respective ammonia solubilities (Henry's Law constants) at a given temperature. This information can then be used to refine the models that predict vapor space compositions of ammonia. Ammonia at Hanford is of concern because of its toxicity in the environment and its contribution to the flammability of vapor space gas mixtures in waste tanks.

HEDENGREN, D.C.

2000-02-01

286

Salt repository project closeout status report  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an overview of the scope and status of the US Department of Energy (DOE`s) Salt Repository Project (SRP) at the time when the project was terminated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The report reviews the 10-year program of siting a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste in rock salt formations. Its purpose is to aid persons interested in the information developed during the course of this effort. Each area is briefly described and the major items of information are noted. This report, the three salt Environmental Assessments, and the Site Characterization Plan are the suggested starting points for any search of the literature and information developed by the program participants. Prior to termination, DOE was preparing to characterize three candidate sites for the first mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The sites were in Nevada, a site in volcanic tuff; Texas, a site in bedded salt (halite); and Washington, a site in basalt. These sites, identified by the screening process described in Chapter 3, were selected from the nine potentially acceptable sites shown on Figure I-1. These sites were identified in accordance with provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. 196 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs.

NONE

1988-06-01

287

Fracture and Healing of Rock Salt Related to Salt Caverns  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, serious investigations of potential extension of the useful life of older caverns or of the use of abandoned caverns for waste disposal have been of interest to the technical community. All of the potential applications depend upon understanding the reamer in which older caverns and sealing systems can fail. Such an understanding will require a more detailed knowledge of the fracture of salt than has been necessary to date. Fortunately, the knowledge of the fracture and healing of salt has made significant advances in the last decade, and is in a position to yield meaningful insights to older cavern behavior. In particular, micromechanical mechanisms of fracture and the concept of a fracture mechanism map have been essential guides, as has the utilization of continuum damage mechanics. The Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which is summarized extensively in this work was developed specifically to treat both the creep and fracture of salt, and was later extended to incorporate the fracture healing process known to occur in rock salt. Fracture in salt is based on the formation and evolution of microfractures, which may take the form of wing tip cracks, either in the body or the boundary of the grain. This type of crack deforms under shear to produce a strain, and furthermore, the opening of the wing cracks produce volume strain or dilatancy. In the presence of a confining pressure, microcrack formation may be suppressed, as is often the case for triaxial compression tests or natural underground stress situations. However, if the confining pressure is insufficient to suppress fracture, then the fractures will evolve with time to give the characteristic tertiary creep response. Two first order kinetics processes, closure of cracks and healing of cracks, control the healing process. Significantly, volume strain produced by microfractures may lead to changes in the permeability of the salt, which can become a major concern in cavern sealing and operation. The MDCF model is used in three simulations of field experiments in which indirect measures were obtained of the generation of damage. The results of the simulations help to verify the model and suggest that the model captures the correct fracture behavior of rock salt. The model is used in this work to estimate the generation and location of damage around a cylindrical storage cavern. The results are interesting because stress conditions around the cylindrical cavern do not lead to large amounts of damage. Moreover, the damage is such that general failure can not readily occur, nor does the extent of the damage suggest possible increased permeation when the surrounding salt is impermeable.

Chan, K.S.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

1999-03-01

288

Synthesis of rare earth phosphates in molten LiCl KCl eutectic: Application to preliminary treatment of chlorinated waste streams containing fission products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The precipitation of rare earth phosphates (RE = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, and Lu), from RECl 3 was investigated in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic at 500 °C in air. Ammonium dihydrogenphosphate (NH 4H 2PO 4) was used as the phosphorus precursor. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated the formation of compounds with monazite (La, Ce, Pr, and Nd) or xenotime (Lu) structures. 31P NMR spectroscopy measurements confirmed that lanthanum formed pure monazite, which indicates a LaCl 3 ? LaPO 4 conversion factor near 100%. These results demonstrate that the stoichiometric addition of NH 4H 2PO 4 is sufficient to obtain quantitative precipitation at 500 °C of anhydrous rare earth phosphates in molten LiCl-KCl. The use of this type of precursor, which has the advantage of not modifying the chemical composition of the medium after recovery of the rare earth phosphates, could be considered during the first step of purification of chlorinated baths containing fission products arising from spent fuel reprocessing by a pyrochemical process.

Hudry, Damien; Bardez, Isabelle; Rakhmatullin, Aydar; Bessada, Catherine; Bart, Florence; Jobic, Stéphane; Deniard, Philippe

2008-11-01

289

Removal of uranium from spent salt from the moltensalt oxidation process  

SciTech Connect

Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that has the capability of destroying organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials. In this process, combustible waste and air are introduced into the molten sodium carbonate salt. The organic constituents of the waste materials are oxidized to carbon dioxide and water, while most of the inorganic constituents, including toxic metals, minerals, and radioisotopes, are retained in the molten salt bath. As these impurities accumulate in the salt, the process efficiency drops and the salt must be replaced. An efficient process is needed to separate these toxic metals, minerals, and radioisotopes from the spent carbonate to avoid generating a large volume of secondary waste. Toxic metals such as cadmium, chromium, lead, and zinc etc. are removed by a method described elsewhere. This paper describes a separation strategy developed for radioisotope removal from the mixed spent salt, as well as experimental results, as part of the spent salt cleanup. As the MSO system operates, inorganic products resulting from the reaction of halides, sulfides, phosphates, metals and radionuclides with carbonate accumulate in the salt bath. These must be removed to prevent complete conversion of the sodium carbonate, which would result in eventual losses of destruction efficiency and acid scrubbing capability. There are two operational modes for salt removal: (1) during reactor operation a slip-stream of molten salt is continuously withdrawn with continuous replacement by carbonate, or (2) the spent salt melt is discharged completely and the reactor then refilled with carbonate in batch mode. Because many of the metals and/or radionuclides captured in the salt are hazardous and/or radioactive, spent salt removed from the reactor would create a large secondary waste stream without further treatment. A spent salt clean up/recovery system is necessary to segregate these materials and minimize the amount of secondary waste. These materials can then be encapsulated for final disposal.

Summers, L.; Hsu, P. C.; Holtz, E. V.; Hipple, D.; Wang, F.; Adamson, M.

1997-03-01

290

Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt  

DOEpatents

A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium from electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

Mullins, Lawrence J. (Los Alamos, NM); Christensen, Dana C. (Los Alamos, NM)

1984-01-01

291

Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt  

DOEpatents

A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium for electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

Mullins, L.J.; Christensen, D.C.

1982-09-20

292

Waste treatment for removed protective coatings  

SciTech Connect

A molten salt oxidation process is proposed for treatment of removed protective coatings along with the media used for removal. The treatment chemically reduces the waste, leaving any metals associated with the coating as a residue in the salt treatment media. The residue and the salt can be further treated for recycle of the metals, thus all but eliminating metal disposal as a waste problem. The process is expected to be simple and may be integrated into the coatings removal operations on location. Therefore, waste shipment and handling can be significantly reduced, and, as a secondary benefit, other waste can be treated in the same unit.

Gat, U.; Crosley, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Gay, R.L. [Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States)

1993-07-01

293

Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) Waste Analysis Plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document waste analysis activities associated with the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) to comply with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-300(1), (2), (3), (4), (5), and (6). WESF is an interim status other storage-miscellaneous storage unit. WESF stores mixed waste consisting of radioactive cesium and strontium salts. WESF is located in the 200 East Area on the Hanford Facility. Because dangerous waste does not include source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge.

SIMMONS, F.M.

2000-12-01

294

DEVELOPMENT OF AN INSOLUBLE SALT SIMULANT TO SUPPORT ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING TESTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The closure process for high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site will require dissolution of the crystallized salts that are currently stored in many of the tanks. The insoluble residue from salt dissolution is planned to be removed by an Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process. Development of a chemical cleaning process requires an insoluble salt simulant to support

Eibling

2008-01-01

295

The synthesis of a new family of boron-based anion receptors and the study of their effect on ion pair dissociation and conductivity of lithium salts in nonaqueous solutions  

SciTech Connect

A new family of anion receptors based on boron compounds has been synthesized. These compounds can be used as anion receptors in lithium battery electrolytes. This family includes various borane and borate compounds with different fluorinated aryl and fluorinated alkyl groups. When these anion receptors are used as additives in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) solutions containing various lithium salts, the ionic conductivities of these solutions are greatly increased. The electrolytes tested in this study were DME solutions containing the following lithium salts: LiF, LiCl, LiBr, LiI, CF{sub 3}COOLi, and C{sub 2}F{sub 5}COOLi. Without the additive the solubility of LiF in DME (and all other nonaqueous solvents) is very low. With some of these boron compounds as additives, LiF solutions in DME with concentration as high as 1 M were obtained. The solubilities of the other salts were also increased by these additives. Near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy studies show that Cl{sup {minus}} and I{sup {minus}} anions are complexed with these compounds in DME solutions containing LiCl or LiI salts. The degree of complexation is also closely related to the structures of the fluorinated aryl and alkyl groups, which act as electron-withdrawing groups. The NEXAFS results are in good agreement with ionic conductivity studies.

Lee, H.S.; Yang, X.Q.; Xiang, C.L.; McBreen, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Choi, L.S. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

1998-08-01

296

Process to separate transuranic elements from nuclear waste  

DOEpatents

A process is described for removing transuranic elements from a waste chloride electrolytic salt containing transuranic elements in addition to rare earth and other fission product elements so the salt waste may be disposed of more easily and the valuable transuranic elements may be recovered for reuse. The salt is contacted with a cadmium-uranium alloy which selectively extracts the transuranic elements from the salt. The waste salt is generated during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel associated with the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). 2 figs.

Johnson, T.R.; Ackerman, J.P.; Tomczuk, Z.; Fischer, D.F.

1989-03-21

297

Process to separate transuranic elements from nuclear waste  

DOEpatents

A process for removing transuranic elements from a waste chloride electrolytic salt containing transuranic elements in addition to rare earth and other fission product elements so the salt waste may be disposed of more easily and the valuable transuranic elements may be recovered for reuse. The salt is contacted with a cadmium-uranium alloy which selectively extracts the transuranic elements from the salt. The waste salt is generated during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel associated with the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). 2 figs.

Johnson, T.R.; Ackerman, J.P.; Tomczuk, Z.; Fischer, D.F.

1988-07-12

298

Report on the development of equipment and techniques for drilling and machining bedded salt  

SciTech Connect

Equipment and techniques are being developed in the evaluation of bedded salt as a storage media for nuclear waste. Beginning with the Conceptual Design Report for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and continuing with field and laboratory experiments indicate the need for a more complete understanding of bedded salt as an engineering material. This report discusses various aspects of bedded salt in its comparison to other materials, machining methods in the laboratory and equipment development to support experiments in mines.

Sumlin, H.A.

1981-02-01

299

Brines formed by multi-salt deliquescence  

SciTech Connect

The FY05 Waste Package Environment testing program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory focused on determining the temperature, relative humidity, and solution compositions of brines formed due to the deliquescence of NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures. Understanding the physical and chemical behavior of these brines is important because they define conditions under which brines may react with waste canister surfaces. Boiling point experiments show that NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures form brines that transform to hydrous melts that do not truly 'dry out' until temperatures exceed 300 and 400 C, respectively. Thus a conducting solution is present for these salt assemblages over the thermal history of the repository. The corresponding brines form at lower relative humidity at higher temperatures. The NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has a mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) of 25.9% at 120 C and 10.8% at 180 C. Similarly, the KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has MDRH of 26.4% at 120 C and 20.0% at 150 C. The KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture salts also absorb some water (but do not appear to deliquesce) at 180 C and thus may also contribute to the transfer of electrons at interface between dust and the waste package surface. There is no experimental evidence to suggest that these brines will degas and form less deliquescent salt assemblages. Ammonium present in atmospheric and tunnel dust (as the chloride, nitrate, or sulfate) will readily decompose in the initial heating phase of the repository, and will affect subsequent behavior of the remaining salt mixture only through the removal of a stoichiometric equivalent of one or more anions. Although K-Na-NO{sub 3}-Cl brines form at high temperature and low relative humidity, these brines are dominated by nitrate, which is known to inhibit corrosion at lower temperature. Nitrate to chloride ratios of the NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture are about NO{sub 3}:Cl = 19:1. The role of nitrate on corrosion at higher temperatures is addressed in a companion report (Dixit et al., 2005).

Carroll, S; Rard, J; Alai, M; Staggs, K

2005-11-04

300

Salt tectonics on Venus  

SciTech Connect

The discovery of a surprisingly high deuterium/hydrogen ratio on Venus immediately led to the speculation that Venus may have once had a volume of surface water comparable to that of the terrestrial oceans. The authors propose that the evaporation of this putative ocean may have yielded residual salt deposits that formed various terrain features depicted in Venera 15 and 16 radar images. By analogy with models for the total evaporation of the terrestrial oceans, evaporite deposits on Venus should be at least tens to hundreds of meters thick. From photogeologic evidence and in-situ chemical analyses, it appears that the salt plains were later buried by lava flows. On Earth, salt diapirism leads to the formation of salt domes, anticlines, and elongated salt intrusions - features having dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 km. Due to the rapid erosion of salt by water, surface evaporite landforms are only common in dry regions such as the Zagros Mountains of Iran, where salt plugs and glaciers exist. Venus is far drier than Iran; extruded salt should be preserved, although the high surface temperature (470/sup 0/C) would probably stimulate rapid salt flow. Venus possesses a variety of circular landforms, tens to hundreds of kilometers wide, which could be either megasalt domes or salt intrusions colonizing impact craters. Additionally, arcurate bands seen in the Maxwell area of Venus could be salt intrusions formed in a region of tectonic stress. These large structures may not be salt features; nonetheless, salt features should exist on Venus.

Wood, C.A.; Amsbury, D.

1986-05-01

301

Analysis of the relationship between Scl transcription factor complex protein expression patterns and the effects of LiCl on ATRA-induced differentiation in blast cells from patients with acute myeloid leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exogenous expression of the transcription factor Scl (Tal1) in WEHI-3B D+ myelomonocytic leukemia cells interferes with their capacity to respond to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) induced differentiation; combination of ATRA with LiCl, however, circumvents the inhibition of differentiation produced by Scl. To gain information on the possible involvement of this transcription factor in the non-responsiveness of acute myelocytic leukemia (AML)

Anna M. Rice; Kathleen M. Holtz; Judith Karp; Sandra Rollins; Alan C. Sartorelli

2004-01-01

302

Heterogeneity of Equilibrium Molten Globule State of Cytochrome c Induced by Weak Salt Denaturants under Physiological Condition  

PubMed Central

While many proteins are recognized to undergo folding via intermediate(s), the heterogeneity of equilibrium folding intermediate(s) along the folding pathway is less understood. In our present study, FTIR spectroscopy, far- and near-UV circular dichroism (CD), ANS and tryptophan fluorescence, near IR absorbance spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS) were used to study the structural and thermodynamic characteristics of the native (N), denatured (D) and intermediate state (X) of goat cytochorme c (cyt-c) induced by weak salt denaturants (LiBr, LiCl and LiClO4) at pH 6.0 and 25°C. The LiBr-induced denaturation of cyt-c measured by Soret absorption (??400) and CD ([?]409), is a three-step process, N ? X ? D. It is observed that the X state obtained along the denaturation pathway of cyt-c possesses common structural and thermodynamic characteristics of the molten globule (MG) state. The MG state of cyt-c induced by LiBr is compared for its structural and thermodynamic parameters with those found in other solvent conditions such as LiCl, LiClO4 and acidic pH. Our observations suggest: (1) that the LiBr-induced MG state of cyt-c retains the native Met80-Fe(III) axial bond and Trp59-propionate interactions; (2) that LiBr-induced MG state of cyt-c is more compact retaining the hydrophobic interactions in comparison to the MG states induced by LiCl, LiClO4 and 0.5 M NaCl at pH 2.0; and (3) that there exists heterogeneity of equilibrium intermediates along the unfolding pathway of cyt-c as highly ordered (X1), classical (X2) and disordered (X3), i.e., D ? X3 ? X2 ? X1 ? N. PMID:25849212

Rahaman, Hamidur; Alam Khan, Md. Khurshid; Hassan, Md. Imtaiyaz; Islam, Asimul; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Ahmad, Faizan

2015-01-01

303

Effect of salts on the interaction of oxidized glutathione with dibasic amino acids.  

PubMed

The interaction of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) with dibasic amino acids was studied with charge-transfer chromatography carried out on unimpregnated cellulose layers in the absence and presence of LiCl, NaCl, KCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2. GSSG decreased in each case the apparent lipophilicity of dibasic amino acids, indicating some type of interaction. Calculations proved that the strength of GSSG - dibasic amino acid interaction decreases with increasing concentration of salts suggesting a hydrophilic character of interaction. It can be assumed that electrostatic forces between the carboxyl group of GSSG and the amino groups of amino acids are involved in the interaction. GSSG binds stronger to arginine than to lysine and ornithine suggesting that arginine is probably the primary binding site in proteins for GSSG. PMID:9584987

Cserháti, T

1998-04-01

304

Utah: Salt Lake Region  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

article title:  Winter and Summer Views of the Salt Lake Region     View Larger Image Magnificent views of the region surrounding Salt Lake City, Utah are captured in these winter and summer images from the ...

2014-05-15

305

What Are Bath Salts?  

MedlinePLUS

... Menu | Search Enter Search Term(s): Home + Drug Facts Anabolic Steroids Bath Salts Cocaine Cough and Cold Medicine (DXM ... Web site Citation Site Map Home Drug Facts Anabolic Steroids Bath Salts Cocaine Cough and Cold Medicine (DXM ...

306

Retrospective salt tectonics  

SciTech Connect

The conceptual breakthroughs in understanding salt tectonics can be recognized by reviewing the history of salt tectonics, which divides naturally into three parts: the pioneering era, the fluid era, and the brittle era. The pioneering era (1856-1933) featured the search for a general hypothesis of salt diapirism, initially dominated by bizarre, erroneous notions of igneous activity, residual islands, in situ crystallization, osmotic pressures, and expansive crystallization. Gradually data from oil exploration constrained speculation. The effects of buoyancy versus orogeny were debated, contact relations were characterized, salt glaciers were discovered, and the concepts of downbuilding and differential loading were proposed as diapiric mechanisms. The fluid era (1933-{approximately}1989) was dominated by the view that salt tectonics resulted from Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in which a dense fluid overburden having negligible yield strength sinks into a less dense fluid salt layer, displacing it upward. Density contrasts, viscosity contrasts, and dominant wavelengths were emphasized, whereas strength and faulting of the overburden were ignored. During this era, palinspastic reconstructions were attempted; salt upwelling below thin overburdens was recognized; internal structures of mined diapirs were discovered; peripheral sinks, turtle structures, and diapir families were comprehended; flow laws for dry salt were formulated; and contractional belts on divergent margins and allochthonous salt sheets were recognized. The 1970s revealed the basic driving force of salt allochthons, intrasalt minibasins, finite strains in diapirs, the possibility of thermal convection in salt, direct measurement of salt glacial flow stimulated by rainfall, and the internal structure of convecting evaporites and salt glaciers. The 1980`s revealed salt rollers, subtle traps, flow laws for damp salt, salt canopies, and mushroom diapirs.

Jackson, M.P.A. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

307

Catalytic oxidation of waste materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aqueous stream of human waste is mixed with soluble ruthenium salts and is introduced into reactor at temperature where ruthenium black catalyst forms on internal surfaces of reactor. This provides catalytically active surface to convert oxidizable wastes into breakdown products such as water and carbon dioxide.

Jagow, R. B.

1977-01-01

308

Plant salt tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress in plant agriculture worldwide. This has led to research into salt tolerance with the aim of improving crop plants. However, salt tolerance might have much wider implications because transgenic salt-tolerant plants often also tolerate other stresses including chilling, freezing, heat and drought. Unfortunately, suitable genetic model systems have been hard to find. A

Jian-Kang Zhu

2001-01-01

309

Correlation of Creep Behavior of Domal Salts  

SciTech Connect

The experimentally determined creep responses of a number of domal salts have been reported in, the literature. Some of these creep results were obtained using standard (conventional) creep tests. However, more typically, the creep data have come from multistage creep tests, where the number of specimens available for testing was small. An incremental test uses abrupt changes in stress and temperature to produce several time increments (stages) of different creep conditions. Clearly, the ability to analyze these limited data and to correlate them with each other could be of considerable potential value in establishing the mechanical characteristics of salt domes, both generally and specifically. In any analysis, it is necessary to have a framework of rules to provide consistency. The basis for the framework is the Multimechanism-Deformation (M-D) constitutive model. This model utilizes considerable general knowledge of material creep deformation to supplement specific knowledge of the material response of salt. Because the creep of salt is controlled by just a few micromechanical mechanisms, regardless of the origin of the salt, certain of the material parameters are values that can be considered universal to salt. Actual data analysis utilizes the methodology developed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) program, and the response of a bedded pure WIPP salt as the baseline for comparison of the domal salts. Creep data from Weeks Island, Bryan Mound, West Hackberry, Bayou Choctaw, and Big Hill salt domes, which are all sites of Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) storage caverns, were analyzed, as were data from the Avery Island, Moss Bluff, and Jennings salt domes. The analysis permits the parameter value sets for the domal salts to be determined in terms of the M-D model with various degrees of completeness. In turn this permits detailed numerical calculations simulating cavern response. Where the set is incomplete because of the sparse database, reasonable assumptions permit the set to be completed. From the analysis, two distinct response groups were evident, with the salts of one group measurably more creep resistant than the other group. Interestingly, these groups correspond well with the indirectly determined creep closure of the SPR storage caverns, a correlation that probably should be expected. Certainly, the results suggest a simple laboratory determination of the creep characteristics of a salt material from a dome site can indicate the relative behavior of any potential cavern placed within that dome.

Munson, D.E.

1999-02-16

310

Distribution and diversity of halophilic bacteria in a subsurface salt formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a salt mine constructed 650 meters below the ground surface by the United States\\u000a Department of Energy. The facility will be used for permanent disposal of transuranic wastes. This underground repository\\u000a has been constructed in the geologically stable Permian age Salado salt formation. Of the wastes to be placed into the facility,\\u000a 85%

Russell H. Vreeland; Anthony F. Piselli Jr; S. McDonnough; S. S. Meyers

1998-01-01

311

INSPECTIONS OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT.  

EPA Science Inventory

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a disposal system for radioactive wastes. Developed by the Department of Energy (DOE), the WIPP is located near Carlsbad in southeastern New Mexico. The DOE is burying radioactive waste 2150 feet underground in an ancient layer of salt ...

312

Concept for Underground Disposal of Nuclear Waste  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Packaged waste placed in empty oil-shale mines. Concept for disposal of nuclear waste economically synergistic with earlier proposal concerning backfilling of oil-shale mines. New disposal concept superior to earlier schemes for disposal in hard-rock and salt mines because less uncertainty about ability of oil-shale mine to contain waste safely for millenium.

Bowyer, J. M.

1987-01-01

313

Molten salts and nuclear energy production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molten salts (fluorides or chlorides) were considered near the beginning of research into nuclear energy production. This was initially due to their advantageous physical and chemical properties: good heat transfer capacity, radiation insensitivity, high boiling point, wide range solubility for actinides. In addition it was realised that molten salts could be used in numerous situations: high temperature heat transfer, core coolants with solid fuels, liquid fuel in a molten salt reactor, solvents for spent nuclear solid fuel in the case of pyro-reprocessing and coolant and tritium production in the case of fusion. Molten salt reactors, one of the six innovative concepts chosen by the Generation IV international forum, are particularly interesting for use as either waste incinerators or thorium cycle systems. As the neutron balance in the thorium cycle is very tight, the possibility to perform online extraction of some fission product poisons from the salt is very attractive. In this article the most important questions that must be addressed to demonstrate the feasibility of molten salt reactor will be reviewed.

Le Brun, Christian

2007-01-01

314

Preconceptual design of a salt splitting process using ceramic membranes  

SciTech Connect

Inorganic ceramic membranes for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions are being developed for treating U. S. Department of Energy tank wastes. The process consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON) membranes. The primary NaSICON compositions being investigated are based on rare- earth ions (RE-NaSICON). Potential applications include: caustic recycling for sludge leaching, regenerating ion exchange resins, inhibiting corrosion in carbon-steel tanks, or retrieving tank wastes; reducing the volume of low-level wastes volume to be disposed of; adjusting pH and reducing competing cations to enhance cesium ion exchange processes; reducing sodium in high-level-waste sludges; and removing sodium from acidic wastes to facilitate calcining. These applications encompass wastes stored at the Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sites. The overall project objective is to supply a salt splitting process unit that impacts the waste treatment and disposal flowsheets and meets user requirements. The potential flowsheet impacts include improving the efficiency of the waste pretreatment processes, reducing volume, and increasing the quality of the final waste disposal forms. Meeting user requirements implies developing the technology to the point where it is available as standard equipment with predictable and reliable performance. This report presents two preconceptual designs for a full-scale salt splitting process based on the RE-NaSICON membranes to distinguish critical items for testing and to provide a vision that site users can evaluate.

Kurath, D.E.; Brooks, K.P.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Clemmer, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Balagopal, S.; Landro, T.; Sutija, D.P. [Ceramatec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1997-01-01

315

CRITICALITY SAFETY OF PROCESSING SALT SOLUTION AT SRS  

SciTech Connect

High level radioactive liquid waste generated as a result of the production of nuclear material for the United States defense program at the Savannah River Site has been stored as 36 million gallons in underground tanks. About ten percent of the waste volume is sludge, composed of insoluble metal hydroxides primarily hydroxides of Mn, Fe, Al, Hg, and most radionuclides including fission products. The remaining ninety percent of the waste volume is saltcake, composed of primarily sodium (nitrites, nitrates, and aluminates) and hydroxides. Saltcakes account for 30% of the radioactivity while the sludge accounts for 70% of the radioactivity. A pilot plant salt disposition processing system has been designed at the Savannah River Site for interim processing of salt solution and is composed of two facilities: the Actinide Removal Process Facility (ARPF) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Data from the pilot plant salt processing system will be used for future processing salt at a much higher rate in a new salt processing facility. Saltcake contains significant amounts of actinides, and other long-lived radioactive nuclides such as strontium and cesium that must be extracted prior to disposal as low level waste. The extracted radioactive nuclides will be mixed with the sludge from waste tanks and vitrified in another facility. Because of the presence of highly enriched uranium in the saltcake, there is a criticality concern associated with concentration and/or accumulation of fissionable material in the ARP and MCU.

Stephens, K; Davoud Eghbali, D; Michelle Abney, M

2008-01-15

316

Characterization of salt cake from secondary aluminum production.  

PubMed

Salt cake is a major waste component generated from the recycling of secondary aluminum processing (SAP) waste. Worldwide, the aluminum industry produces nearly 5 million tons of waste annually and the end-of-life management of these wastes is becoming a challenge in the U.S. and elsewhere. In this study, the mineral phases, metal content and metal leachability of 39 SAP waste salt cake samples collected from 10 different facilities across the U.S. were determined. The results showed that aluminum (Al), aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride and its oxides, spinel and elpasolite are the dominant aluminum mineral phases in salt cake. The average total Al content was 14% (w/w). The overall percentage of the total leachable Al in salt cake was 0.6% with approximately 80% of the samples leaching at a level less than 1% of the total aluminum content. The extracted trace metal concentrations in deionized water were relatively low (?gL(-1) level). The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was employed to further evaluate leachability and the results indicated that the leached concentrations of toxic metals from salt cake were much lower than the EPA toxicity limit set by USEPA. PMID:24747373

Huang, Xiao-Lan; Badawy, Amro El; Arambewela, Mahendranath; Ford, Robert; Barlaz, Morton; Tolaymat, Thabet

2014-05-30

317

Radioactive Waste Radioactive Waste  

E-print Network

#12;Radioactive Waste at UF Bldg 831 392-8400 #12;Radioactive Waste · Program is designed to;Radioactive Waste · Program requires · Generator support · Proper segregation · Packaging · labeling #12;Radioactive Waste · What is radioactive waste? · Anything that · Contains · or is contaminated

Slatton, Clint

318

Enzyme assays with boronic acid appended bipyridinium salts.  

PubMed

In-vitro fluorescent enzyme assays have been developed for sucrose phosphorylase (SPO) and phosphoglucomutase (PGM). These assays make use of a selective carbohydrate sensing system that detects the unlabeled enzymatic products fructose and glucose-6-phosphate. The system comprises 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid trisodium salt as the reporter unit and boronic acid appended viologens as selective receptors with working ranges from 70 microM to 1.0 mM for fructose (SPO) and 190 microM to 2.0 mM for glucose-6-phosphate (PGM). The change in fluorescence can be converted into product concentration, allowing initial reaction velocities and Michaelis-Menten kinetics to be calculated. The assays are also carried out in multiwell plate formats, making them suitable for high-throughput screening of enzyme inhibitors. Rapid PGM inhibition screening is demonstrated with EDTA and LiCl. The PGM assay can also be used for enzyme quantification with a detection limit of 50 ng mL(-1). PMID:19699401

Vilozny, Boaz; Schiller, Alexander; Wessling, Ritchie A; Singaram, Bakthan

2009-09-01

319

In situ Removal of Actinides and Strontium from High Level Waste Tanks, Tea Bag versus Adsorption Column  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initiatives are underway at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to accelerate the disposition of the supernate and salt portions of the waste in the SRS High Level Waste (HLW) tank farm system. Significant savings in processing time and overall cost could be achieved by in situ treatment of waste supernate or dissolved salt inside a tank farm waste tank. For

2004-01-01

320

Brine flow in heated geologic salt.  

SciTech Connect

This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes' governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

2013-03-01

321

Novel ternary molten salt electrolytes for intermediate-temperature sodium/nickel chloride batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sodium-nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery is operated at relatively high temperature (250-350 °C) to achieve adequate electrochemical performance. Reducing the operating temperature in the range of 150200 °C can not only lead to enhanced cycle life by suppressing temperature-related degradations, but also allow the use of lower cost materials for construction. To achieve adequate electrochemical performance at lower operating temperatures, reduction in ohmic losses is required, including the reduced ohmic resistance of ??-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) and the incorporation of low melting point secondary electrolytes. In present work, planar-type Na/NiCl2 cells with a thin BASE (600 ?m) and low melting point secondary electrolyte were evaluated at reduced temperatures. Molten salts used as secondary electrolytes were fabricated by the partial replacement of NaCl in the standard secondary electrolyte (NaAlCl4) with other lower melting point alkali metal salts such as NaBr, LiCl, and LiBr. Electrochemical characterization of these ternary molten salts demonstrated improved ionic conductivity and sufficient electrochemical window at reduced temperatures. Furthermore, Na/NiCl2 cells with 50 mol% NaBr-containing secondary electrolyte exhibited reduced polarizations at 175 °C compared to the cell with the standard NaAlCl4 catholyte. The cells also exhibited stable cycling performance even at 150 °C.

Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Coyle, Christopher A.; Kim, Jin Y.; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

2012-12-01

322

Creep and creep rupture of rock salt  

SciTech Connect

A fundamental review is given of creep properties and flow processes of experimentally and naturally deformed rocksalt as background pertinent to waste repository design. Deformational behavior of halite single crystals is discussed first, followed by a brief treatment of experimentally deformed artifically prepared halite aggregates. The results of recent extensive quasi-static compression and creep tests on natural aggregates, especially on southeastern New Mexico bedded salt and on Avery Island domal salt, are then reviewed in some detail. The mechanical behavior of these two very different rocksalts is remarkably similar, an observation that provides some confidence to extrapolations of the results to repository condition. The relatively scarce data for accelerating creep and creep-rupture of rocksalt are reviewed, followed by a general treatment of relevant experiments and observations from the Project Salt Vault demonstration. The question of brine migration is then discussed and pertinent observations from flow of rocksalt glaciers and diapirs are reviewed briefly. Recommendations are made for additional fundamental research in various areas and it is concluded, on the basis of all available information, that dry domal salt deposits would provide nearly ideal media for radioactive waste repositories.

Carter, N.L.

1983-06-01

323

[Historical roles of salt].  

PubMed

Recently increasing evidence has been provided pointing to a close relation of salt consumption to hypertension as well as to target organ damage. It is interesting to note that the discussion concerning salt is unusually emotional. This may be explained, at least in part, by the fact that since ancient times salt had deep symbolic significance, as exemplified, mostly subconsciously, by many customs and expressions still in current use. In the past salt was essential to preserve food. The past importance of salt as a commodity can well be compared with that of oil today. These and further historical aspects of the role of salt are briefly dealt with in this article. PMID:15605314

Ritz, E; Ritz, C

2004-12-17

324

Photochemistry of triarylsulfonium salts  

SciTech Connect

The photolysis of triphenylsulfonium, tris(4-methylphenyl)sulfonium, tris(4-chlorophenyl)sulfonium, several monosubstituted (4-F, 4-Cl, 4-Me, 4-MeO, 4-PhS, and 4-PhCO), and disubstituted (4,4{prime}-Me{sub 2} and 4,4{prime}-(MeO){sub 2}) triphenylsulfonium salts was examined in solution. It was found that direct irradiation of triphenylsulfonium salts produced new rearrangement products, phenylthiobiphenyls, along with diphenyl sulfide, which had been previously reported. Similarly, the triarylsulfonium salts, with the exception of the (4-(phenylthio)phenyl)diphenylsulfonium salts produced new rearrangement products, phenylthiobiphenyls, along with diphenyl sulfide, which had been previously reported. Similarly, the triarylsulfonium salts, with the exception of the (4-(phenylthio)phenyl)diphenylsulfonium salts, gave the new rearrangement products. The mechanism for direct photolysis is proposed to occur from the singlet excited states to give a predominant heterolytic cleavage along with some homolytic cleavage.

Dektar, J.L.; Hacker, N.P. (Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA (USA))

1990-08-01

325

Laboratory investigation of crushed salt consolidation and fracture healing  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory test program was conducted to investigate the consolidation behavior of crushed salt and fracture healing in natural and artificial salt. Crushed salt is proposed for use as backfill in a nuclear waste repository in salt. Artificial block salt is proposed for use in sealing a repository. Four consolidation tests were conducted in a hydrostatic pressure vessel at a maximum pressure of 2500 psi (17.2 MPa) and at room temperature. Three 1-month tests were conducted on salt obtained from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and one 2-month test was conducted on salt from Avery Island. Permeability was obtained using argon and either a steady-state or transient method. Initial porosities ranged from 0.26 to 0.36 and initial permeabilities from 2000 to 50,000 md. Final porosities and permeabilities ranged from 0.05 to 0.19 and from <10/sup -5/ md to 110 md, respectively. The lowest final porosity (0.05) and permeability (<10/sup -5/ md) were obtained in a 1-month test in which 2.3% moisture was added to the salt at the beginning of the test. The consolidation rate was much more rapid than in any of the dry salt tests. The fracture healing program included 20 permeability tests conducted on fractured and unfractured samples. The tests were conducted in a Hoek cell at hydrostatic pressures up to 3000 psi (20.6 MPa) with durations up to 8 days. For the natural rock salt tested, permeability was strongly dependent on confining pressure and time. The effect of confining pressure was much weaker in the artificial salt. In most cases the combined effects of time and pressure were to reduce the permeability of fractured samples to the same order of magnitude (or less) as the permeability measured prior to fracturing.

Not Available

1987-01-01

326

Deformation of underground deep cavities in rock salts at their long-term operations  

SciTech Connect

The underground deep cavities are created in rock salts of various morphological types with the purpose of storage of petroleum, gas and nuclear wastes. It is well known that the rock salt has rheological properties, which can result in closure of caverns and loss of their stability. In the evaporitic rocks, especially those containing halite, time-dependent deformation is pronounced even at comparatively low stress levels. At high stress levels this creep becomes a dominant feature of the mechanical behavior of salt rocks. So the knowledge of creep behavior of rock salt is of paramount importance in underground storage application of gas, petroleum products and nuclear wastes.

Zhuravleva, T.; Shafarenko, E. [Podzemgasprom, STC, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-12-01

327

New public information resources on salt caverns.  

SciTech Connect

For the past decade, interest has been growing in using underground salt caverns for disposing of wastes. The Railroad Commission of Texas has permitted a few caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) and one cavern for disposal of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) from oil field activities. Several salt caverns in Canada have also been permitted for disposal of NOW. In addition, oil and gas agencies in Louisiana and New Mexico are developing cavern disposal regulations. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has funded several studies to evaluate the technical feasibility, legality, economic viability, and risk of disposing of NOW and NORM in caverns. The results of these studies have been disseminated to the scientific and regulatory communities. However, as use of caverns for waste disposal increases, more government and industry representatives and members of the public will become aware of this practice and will need adequate information about how disposal caverns operate and the risks they pose. In anticipation of this need, DOE has funded Argonne National Laboratory to develop a salt cavern public outreach program. Key components of this program are an informational brochure designed for nontechnical persons and a website that provides greater detail on cavern operations and allows downloadable access to the reports on the topic funded by DOE. This paper provides an overview of the public outreach program.

Tomasko, D.; Veil, J. A.

1999-08-25

328

New public information resources on salt caverns.  

SciTech Connect

For the past decade, interest has been growing in using underground salt caverns for disposing of wastes. The Railroad Commission of Texas has permitted a few caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) and one cavern for disposal of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) from oil field activities. Several salt caverns in Canada have also been permitted for disposal of NOW. In addition, oil and gas agencies in Louisiana and New Mexico are developing cavern disposal regulations. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has funded several studies to evaluate the technical feasibility, legality, economic viability, and risk of disposing of NOW and NORM in caverns. The results of these studies have been disseminated to the scientific and regulatory communities. However, as use of caverns for waste disposal increases, more government and industry representatives and members of the public will become aware of this practice and will need adequate information about how disposal caverns operate and the risks they pose. In anticipation of this need, DOE has fi.mded Argonne National Laboratory to develop a salt cavern public outreach program. Key components of this program are an informational brochure designed for nontechnical persons and a website that provides greater detail on cavern operations and allows downloadable access to the reports on the topic funded by DOE. This paper provides an overview of the public outreach program.

Tomasko, D.; Veil, J. A.

1999-08-25

329

Reference repository design concept for bedded salt  

SciTech Connect

A reference design concept is presented for the subsurface portions of a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. General geologic, geotechnical, hydrologic and geochemical data as well as descriptions of the physical systems are provided for use on generic analyses of the pre- and post-sealing performance of repositories in this geologic medium. The geology of bedded salt deposits and the regional and repository horizon stratigraphy are discussed. Structural features of salt beds including discontinuities and dissolution features are presented and their effect on repository performance is discussed. Seismic hazards and the potential effects of earthquakes on underground repositories are presented. The effect on structural stability and worker safety during construction from hydrocarbon and inorganic gases is described. Geohydrologic considerations including regional hydrology, repository scale hydrology and several hydrological failure modes are presented in detail as well as the hydrological considerations that effect repository design. Operational phase performance is discussed with respect to operations, ventilation system, shaft conveyances, waste handling and retrieval systems and receival rates of nuclear waste. Performance analysis of the post sealing period of a nuclear repository is discussed, and parameters to be used in such an analysis are presented along with regulatory constraints. Some judgements are made regarding hydrologic failure scenarios. Finally, the design and licensing process, consistent with the current licensing procedure is described in a format that can be easily understood.

Carpenter, D.W.; Martin, R.W.

1980-10-08

330

Dosimetry using silver salts  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a method for detecting ionizing radiation. Exposure of silver salt AgX to ionizing radiation results in the partial reduction of the salt to a mixture of silver salt and silver metal. The mixture is further reduced by a reducing agent, which causes the production of acid (HX) and the oxidized form of the reducing agent (R). Detection of HX indicates that the silver salt has been exposed to ionizing radiation. The oxidized form of the reducing agent (R) may also be detected. The invention also includes dosimeters employing the above method for detecting ionizing radiation.

Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM)

2003-06-24

331

Impact insensitive dinitromethanide salts.  

PubMed

Several stable guanidinium, triazolium, and tetrazolium dinitromethanide salts with high nitrogen content, good detonation properties, and concomitant low impact sensitivities are potential energetic materials. PMID:24067808

He, Ling; Tao, Guo-Hong; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

2013-11-11

332

24. VIEW SHOWING WASTE GATES ON GRAND CANAL AT JUNCTION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. VIEW SHOWING WASTE GATES ON GRAND CANAL AT JUNCTION WITH OLD CROSSCUT NE/4, Sec. 7, TIN, R4E; LOOKING WEST. OLD CROSSCUT CANAL ENTERS FROM RIGHT. WASTE GATE ON LEFT EMPTIES INTO SALT RIVER BED Photographer: Kevin Kreisel-Coons, May 1990 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

333

Exponential-time creep law for Avery Island salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triaxial compression creep data previously collected for specimens of dome salt from Avery Island, Louisiana were fitted to an exponential-time creep law. An exponential-time law was used because it has been identified as the baseline creep law to be used for salt in the National Waste Terminal Storage Program. Fits to the data reveal the creep law is bi-modal in

K. D. Mellegard; P. E. Senseny

1983-01-01

334

Tank 37H Salt Removal Batch Process and Salt Dissolution Mixing Study  

SciTech Connect

Tank 30H is the receipt tank for concentrate from the 3H Evaporator. Tank 30H has had problems, such as cooling coil failure, which limit its ability to receive concentrate from the 3H Evaporator. SRS High Level Waste wishes to use Tank 37H as the receipt tank for the 3H Evaporator concentrate. Prior to using Tank 37H as the 3H Evaporator concentrate receipt tank, HLW must remove 50 inches of salt cake from the tank. They requested SRTC to evaluate various salt removal methods for Tank 37H. These methods include slurry pumps, Flygt mixers, the modified density gradient method, and molecular diffusion.

Kwon, K.C.

2001-09-18

335

Fission product removal from molten salt using zeolite  

SciTech Connect

Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) can be treated in a molten salt electrorefiner for conversion into metal and mineral waste forms for geologic disposal. The fuel is dissolved in molten chloride salt. Non-transuranic fission products in the molten salt are ion-exchanged into zeolite A, which is subsequently mixed with glass and consolidated. Zeolite was found to be effective in removing fission product cations from the molten salt. Breakthrough of cesium and the alkaline earths occurred more rapidly than was observed for the rare earths. The effluent composition as a function of time is presented, as well as results for the distribution of fission products along the length of the column. Effects of temperature and salt flow rate are also discussed.

Pereira, C.; Babcock, B.D.

1996-10-01

336

Utah: Salt Lake City  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... for the 2002 Winter Olympics, to be held in Salt Lake City, Utah. The mountains surrounding Salt Lake City are renowned for the dry, ... view. The Uinta Mountains contain the highest peaks in Utah and are notable as the most prominent east-west trending range in the ...

2014-05-15

337

Salts of Zinc  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE green tint referred to by ``S.'' (supra) as imparted by zinc sulphate to the Bunsen flame is only observed whilst the water of crystallisation contained in the salt is being given off; the dry salt which remains imparts no colour to the flame. It therefore appears probable that the green colouration of the flame is caused by very finely

W. Bott

1880-01-01

338

Improving crop salt tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity is an ever-present threat to crop yields, especially in countries where irrigation is an essential aid to agriculture. Although the tolerance of saline conditions by plants is variable, crop species are generally intolerant of one-third of the concentration of salts found in seawater. Attempts to improve the salt tolerance of crops through conventional breeding programmes have met with very

T. J. Flowers

2004-01-01

339

SALT for Language Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses Schuster's Suggestive-Accelerative Learning Techniques (SALT) Method, which combines Lozanov's Suggestopedia with such American methods as Asher's Total Physical Response and Galyean's Confluent Education. The article argues that students trained with the SALT Method have higher achievement scores and better attitudes than others. (14…

Bancroft, W. Jane

1996-01-01

340

Mountain of Salt  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This photo shows a road salt storage stockpile that is awaiting use for pavement deicing, Port of Milwaukee, WI. The use of salt to deice pavement can be harmful to aquatic life in urban streams. The USGS is involved in studies that focus on the influence of winter runoff on aquatic ecosystems....

341

Acids and Salts (GCMP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acids and Salts: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". This problem will explore a few properties of common acids and their salts. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

342

Molten salt electrolyte separator  

DOEpatents

The patent describes a molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication. 5 figs.

Kaun, T.D.

1996-07-09

343

Tank waste chemistry: A new understanding of waste aging  

SciTech Connect

There is concern about the risk of uncontrolled exothermic reaction(s) in Hanford Site waste tanks containing NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/NO{sub 2} based salts and/or metal hydroxide sludges in combination with organics or ferrocyanides. However, gradual oxidation of the waste in the tanks to less reactive species appears to have reduced the risk. In addition, wastes sampled to date contain sufficiently large quantities of water so that propagation reactions are highly unlikely. This paper investigates various aspects of the aging of Hanford tank wastes.

Babad, H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Camaioni, D.M.; Lilga, M.A.; Samuels, W.D.; Strachan, D.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-02-01

344

[Salt and cancer].  

PubMed

Besides cardiovascular disease, a high salt intake causes other adverse health effects, i.e., gastric and some other cancers, obesity (risk factor for many cancer sites), Meniere's disease, worsening of renal disease, triggering an asthma attack, osteoporosis, exacerbation of fluid retention, renal calculi, etc. Diets containing high amounts of food preserved by salting and pickling are associated with an increased risk of cancers of the stomach, nose and throat. Because gastric cancer is still the most common cancer in some countries (especially in Japan), its prevention is one of the most important aspects of cancer control strategy. Observations among Japanese immigrants in the U.S.A. and Brazil based on the geographic differences, the trend in cancer incidence with time, and change in the incidence patterns indicate that gastric cancer is closely associated with dietary factors such as the intake of salt and salted food. The findings of many epidemiological studies suggest that high dietary salt intake is a significant risk factor for gastric cancer and this association was found to be strong in the presence of Helicobacter (H.) pylori infection with atrophic gastritis. A high-salt intake strips the lining of the stomach and may make infection with H. pylori more likely or may exacerbate the infection. Salting, pickling and smoking are traditionally popular ways of preparing food in Japan and some parts of Asia. In addition to salt intake, cigarette smoking and low consumption of fruit and vegetables increase the risk of stomach cancer. However, it is not known whether it is specifically the salt in these foods or a combination of salt and other chemicals that can cause cancer. One study identified a mutagen in nitrite-treated Japanese salted fish, and chemical structure of this mutagen suggests that it is derived from methionine and that salt and nitrite are precursors for its formation. Working under conditions of heat stress greatly increased the workers' salt excretion through perspiration. Workers exposed to heat stress consumed as much as 13-38 g salt daily. As salt strongly enhances and promotes chemical gastric carcinogenesis and H. pylori infection in both humans and animals, there is an association between work, salt intake, and development of stomach cancer. Reducing salt intake, especially during pregnancy, also reduces the risk of developing breast cancer and many other diseases, as well as obesity. The risk of most cancers is reduced by losing weight. The geographical data and analyses currently available suggest that road salt (road salting in winter) may be associated with elevated mortality from cancer of the breast, lung, esophagus, throat, larynx, large intestine, rectum and bladder. There is no available literature on the health impacts of road salt. The cause and effect relationships cannot be established without further studies. PMID:20649083

Strnad, Marija

2010-05-01

345

Clinical salt deficits.  

PubMed

Salt retention or salt deficit has a bearing on the body fluid volume. Both states are clinically difficult to recognize and quantitate. Salt deficit is particularly cumbersome in that regard since orthostatic blood pressure, heart rate changes, and simple physical inspection are inaccurate and unreliable. Salt deficit can be acute such as after hemorrhage or massive diarrhea, or more chronic as observed in Addison's disease, failure of renal sodium chloride transporters, drug-related effects, or distal nephron disease. Molecular genetics has given us important new insights into salt deficit syndromes. Recent recognition of a novel sodium storage compartment involving sodium binding to proteoglycans adds to the overall complexity of these syndromes. PMID:25471347

Luft, Friedrich C

2015-03-01

346

Salt studies: Conclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report represents the conclusion of the compressed air energy storage (CAES) program in salt. It includes a brief background of salt cavity studies and utilization for CAES, the focuses on long-term stability criteria for solution mined salt cavities. Summary statements are made on some of the more important criteria and their significance for operational peaking-power plants utilizing salt cavities for CAES reservoirs. The concluding section of this report incorporates a discussion of the future for CAES in U.S. salt deposits. This discussion is based mainly on technical considerations, since they have been the main consideration in this particular study. Obviously, economic analyses will dominate decisions by utilities on construction schedules for any technically feasible CAES study.

Thoms, R. L.; Gehle, R. M.

1982-12-01

347

Lowering Salt in Your Diet  

MedlinePLUS

... this page Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Lowering Salt in Your Diet Search the Consumer Updates Section ... mail Consumer Updates RSS Feed Everyone needs some salt to function. Also known as sodium chloride, salt ...

348

Hanford's Simulated Low Activity Waste Cast Stone Processing  

SciTech Connect

Cast Stone is undergoing evaluation as the supplemental treatment technology for Hanford’s (Washington) high activity waste (HAW) and low activity waste (LAW). This report will only cover the LAW Cast Stone. The programs used for this simulated Cast Stone were gradient density change, compressive strength, and salt waste form phase identification. Gradient density changes show a favorable outcome by showing uniformity even though it was hypothesized differently. Compressive strength exceeded the minimum strength required by Hanford and greater compressive strength increase seen between the uses of different salt solution The salt waste form phase is still an ongoing process as this time and could not be concluded.

Kim, Young

2013-08-20

349

Water purification using organic salts  

DOEpatents

Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

Currier, Robert P.

2004-11-23

350

Linking external and internal salt geometries - a key to understanding salt dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Considering the growing importance of salt in the energy, food and waste disposal industries, this paper reviews the status quo and major developments in salt research over the last decade. As a way forward in order to close identified gaps in knowledge, an integrated salt basin evaluation concept is proposed appreciating both external and internal geometries and properties. Examples of key studies in the Central European Basin and the South Oman Salt basin show that such a model may improve our understanding of the multi-scale processes operating in salt terrains. The workflow proposed allows to better asses (i) the initiation and maintenance of salt dynamics, (ii) the evolution of the internal structure of evaporites during halokinesis in salt giants, (iii) the coupling of processes in the evaporites and the salt's under- and overburden. It will lead to a better integration of the different data sets and resulting models, which will provide new insights into the structural evolution of salt giants. Finally it will also stimulate new concepts for (i) the initiation dynamics of halokinesis, (ii) the rheology and mechanics of the evaporites by brittle and ductile processes, (iii) the coupling of processes in the evaporites and the under- and overburden, and (iv) the impact of the layered evaporite rheology on the structural evolution. As an outlook for future research to be initiated in salt terrains we still need to improve our database on evaporite rocks especially the ones which take changes of properties in time into account. This includes for example the dependencies of thermal and mechanical properties on changes in strain, pressure and temperature or external and internal geometry changes relating to slow geological processes. Also geomechanical modelling efforts can be significantly improved by making full use of the data available on the effects of water, and some of the discrepancies seen in experimental data on different salts can probably be explained in terms of these effects. This all will contribute to the development of new integrated techniques for investigating and predicting salt structures from multiple data sets.

Kukla, Peter; Urai, Janos

2014-05-01

351

Bedded-salt repository analysis. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report contains a description of an analysis of generic nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. This analysis was performed by TASC for inclusion in a major Lawrence Livermore Laboratory report to NRC; this report therefore should be viewed as providing more complete and detailed information about this analysis than was possible to include in the LLL report. The analysis is performed with the NUTRAN computer codes which are described in the report. The model to be analyzed is defined, and the results of a series of possible waste migration scenarios are presented. Several of these scenarios are used as the basis for a sensitivity analysis, and an uncertainty analysis utilizing Monte Carlo techniques is also performed. A new method for defining the consequences to users of a well drilled near the repository is also described, and results are presented based on two of the waste migration scenarios.

Guiffre, M.S.; Kaplan, M.F.; Ensminger, D.A.; Oston, S.G.; Nalbandian, J.Y.

1980-03-31

352

Waste package/repository impact study: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Package/Repository Impact Study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using the current reference salt waste package in the salt repository conceptual design. All elements of the repository that may impact waste package parameters, i.e., (size, weight, heat load) were evaluated. The repository elements considered included waste hoist feasibility, transporter and emplacement machine feasibility, subsurface entry dimensions, feasibility of emplacement configuration, and temperature limits. The evaluations are discussed in detail with supplemental technical data included in Appendices to this report, as appropriate. Results and conclusions of the evaluations are discussed in light of the acceptability of the current reference waste package as the basis for salt conceptual design. Finally, recommendations are made relative to the salt project position on the application of the reference waste package as a basis for future design activities. 31 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs.

Not Available

1985-09-01

353

Development of Polymeric Waste Forms for the Encapsulation of Toxic Wastes Using an Emulsion-Encapsulation Based Process  

SciTech Connect

Developed technologies in vitrification, cement, and polymeric materials manufactured using flammable organic solvents have been used to encapsulate solid wastes, including low-level radioactive materials, but are impractical for high salt-content waste streams (Maio, 1998). In this work, we investigate an emulsification process for producing an aqueous-based polymeric waste form as a preliminary step towards fabricating hybrid organic/inorganic polyceram matrices. The material developed incorporates epoxy resin and polystyrene-butadiene (PSB) latex to produce a waste form that is non-flammable, light weight, of relatively low cost, and that can be loaded to a relatively high weight content of waste materials. Sodium nitrate was used as a model for the salt waste. Small-scale samples were manufactured and analyzed using leach tests designed to measure the diffusion coefficient and leachability index for the fastest diffusing species in the waste form, the salt ions. The microstructure and composition of the samples were probed using SEM/EDS techniques. The results show that some portion of the salt migrates towards the exterior surfaces of the waste forms during the curing process. A portion of the salt in the interior of the sample is contained in polymer corpuscles or sacs. These sacs are embedded in a polymer matrix phase that contains fine, well-dispersed salt crystals. The diffusion behavior observed in sections of the waste forms indicates that samples prepared using this emulsion process meet or exceed the leachability criteria suggested for low level radioactivity waste forms.

Evans, R.; Quach, A.; Birnie, D. P.; Saez, A. E.; Ela, W. P.; Zeliniski, B. J. J.; Xia, G.; Smith, H.

2003-01-01

354

Purification of lithium salts by CSA continuous countercurrent ion exchange  

SciTech Connect

A Continuous Countercurrent Ion Exchange (CCIX) process was developed for extraction of low levels of sodium, potassium, iron, and nickel from strong solutions of lithium chloride and lithium hydroxide. This study was done on a two-inch diameter CSA, Inc. CCIX pilot unit. A standard 8% cross-linked cation exchange resin was used. The feed was either 2[und M] LiCl or 2[und M] LiOH. The trace levels of contaminants had a slightly higher affinity for the resin than lithium and extracted 90% or better. Residual lithium on the resin was scrubbed of with KOH to render a lithium loss of less than 1% in the waste. Contaminants were stripped from the resin with 3[und M] HCl. Zinc was one metal that was not extracted because it formed an anionic chloride complex. However zinc and certain other metals were extracted with high efficiency using strong-base type resin. Other resins are available for efficient extraction of many other metal contaminants, but the alkali metals, Na and K, were dependent on the CCIX common cation exchange system.

Higgins, I.R. (CSA, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States))

1986-12-01

355

Modeling of Pilot-Scale Salt-cake Dissolution  

SciTech Connect

Large portions of the high-level waste present at the Hanford Site and Savannah River Site are comprised of porous salts with associated interstitial liquors. Various processes have been proposed wherein the aqueous phase is removed followed by dissolution of the salt with further mixing or blending of the resulting stream in a receiver tank. This leads to a large reduction in the radioactivity for the dissolved salt-cake; however, the interstitial retrieval process is hindered by capillary forces within the salt-cake pores and large aqueous phase fractions may remain. Thus, the interim stabilized or low-curie salt processes may have less separation effectiveness than desired. In addition, based on the initial extent of pretreatment of the waste, the salt-cake may be either unsaturated or hydraulically saturated. Different interactions are expected based on the contact of the diluent with the salt and/or on mixing the diluent with the salt and some fraction of interstitial liquid. The initial approximation is that the dissolution is governed by the associated thermodynamics of the system. This may be correct assuming sufficient time for contact between the salt and diluent has occurred. Pilot-scale simulant salt-cake dissolution experiments have been conducted by the Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University. As part of a companion program, these experiments have been modeled at the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL, Mississippi State University) using the Environmental Simulation Program (ESP, OLI Systems, Inc.). Hanford simulant compositions were examined under unsaturated and saturated conditions. To account for channeling that occurred during the unsaturated experiment, additional operations were required for the process flowsheet. Direct modeling of the saturated bed was possible without this consideration. The results have impacts on the salt-cake retrieval process. First, depending on the extent of interstitial liquid contained in the waste, recycling may be necessary; removal of the resulting aqueous stream at the largest specific gravity consistent with the operating safety basis ensures productive use of water. Secondly, direct modeling of a given waste dissolution must consider variations in the extent of channeling such that limits can be established on anticipated concentrations expected during the course of the retrieval. Finally, the ability to account for heterogeneous dissolution has been accounted for. Details regarding the development of the modeling strategy as well as knowledge gained regarding flowsheet development are provided. (authors)

Toghiani, R.K.; Smith, L.T.; Lindner, J.S. [Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory, Mississippi State University, 205 Research Blvd, Starkville, MS, 39759 (United States); Tachiev, G.I.; Yaari, G. [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler St, EC 2100, Miami, FL, 33174 (United States)

2006-07-01

356

Concentration and precipitation of NaCl and KCl from salt cake leach solutions by electrodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrodialysis was investigated for cost-effective recovery of salt from salt cake leach solutions. (Salt cake is a waste stream generated by the aluminum industry during treatment of aluminum drosses and scrap.) We used a pilot-scale electrodialysis stack of 5 membrane pairs, each with an effective area of 0.02 m². The diluate stream contained synthetic NaCl, KCl,mixtures of NaCl and KCl,

K Sreenivasarao; F. Patsiogiannis; J. N. Hryn

1997-01-01

357

Results of water quality sampling near Richton, Cypress Creek and Lampton Salt Domes, Mississippi  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the Mississippi salt basin in southern Mississippi, chemical quality studies of surface water and ground water have been made to determine present water-quality conditions near three salt domes being studied by the Department of Energy as potential repositories for radioactive wastes. Chloride concentrations in excess of 60 milligrams per liter in surface water and ground water in Perry County indicate that contamination could be occurring from industrial wastes, oil test wells, or dissolution of Richton or Cypress Creek domes. (USGS)

Gandl, L.A.; Spiers, C.A.

1980-01-01

358

Cooking without salt  

MedlinePLUS

... Also, use small amounts of condiments like ketchup, mustard, and soy sauce. Even the low-salt versions ... add a little heat and spice, try: Dry mustard Fresh chopped hot peppers A sprinkle of paprika, ...

359

Dissolving Salts in Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity adapted from Iowa State University, design and carry out an experiment: dissolve salts in water, see how different ionic compounds produce different reactions, and observe the resulting changes in temperature.

2007-08-09

360

Salt Plains Microbial Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is home of the Salt Plains Microbial Observatory, located in the Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge in northern Oklahoma. This area has permitted the first extensive study of a non-marine, terrestrial, hypersaline environment. The web site offers information about the extreme environment, images and video clips of its microbial inhabitants, an image-rich summary of research activities, information about summer courses and research opportunities, a list of publications, and links to other informative resources pertaining to hypersaline environments.

Mark Buchheim

361

Not salt taste perception but self-reported salt eating habit predicts actual salt intake.  

PubMed

Excessive dietary salt intake is related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although dietary salt restriction is essential, it is difficult to achieve because of salt palatability. However, the association between salt perception or salt eating habit and actual salt intake remains uncertain. In this study, we recruited 74 healthy young individuals. We investigated their salt-eating habits by questionnaire and salt taste threshold through a rating scale that used serial dilution of a sodium chloride solution. Predicted 24-hr urinary salt excretions using Kawasaki's and Tanaka's equations estimated dietary salt intake. Participants' mean age was 35 yr, and 59.5% were male. Salt sense threshold did not show any relationship with actual salt intake and a salt-eating habit. However, those eating "salty" foods showed higher blood pressure (P for trend=0.048) and higher body mass index (BMI; P for trend=0.043). Moreover, a salty eating habit was a significant predictor for actual salt intake (regression coefficient [?] for Kawasaki's equation 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 10-2.69, P=0.048; ? for Tanaka's equation 0.66, 95% CI 0.01-1.31, P=0.047). In conclusion, a self-reported salt-eating habit, not salt taste threshold predicts actual salt intake. PMID:25317023

Lee, Hajeong; Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Bae, Eunjin; Kim, Yong Chul; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun

2014-09-01

362

Actinide removal from spent salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for removing actinide contaminants (uranium and thorium) from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents are added to precipitate the thorium as thorium oxide

Peter C. Hsu; Erica H. von Holtz; David L. Hipple; Leslie J. Summers; Martyn G. Adamson

2002-01-01

363

Salt Lake City, Utah  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Salt Lake City, Utah, will host the 2002 Winter Olympic Games. The city is located on the southeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake and sits to the west of the Wasatch Mountains, which rise more than 3,500 meters (10,000 feet) above sea level. The city was first settled in 1847 by pioneers seeking relief from religious persecution. Today Salt Lake City, the capital of Utah, is home to more than 170,000 residents. This true-color image of Salt Lake City was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), flying aboard Landsat 7, on May 26, 2000. The southeastern tip of the Great Salt Lake is visible in the upper left of the image. The furrowed green and brown landscape running north-south is a portion of the Wasatch Mountains, some of which are snow-capped (white pixels). The greyish pixels in the center of the image show the developed areas of the city. A number of water reservoirs can be seen east of the mountain range. Salt Lake City International Airport is visible on the northwestern edge of the city. About 20 miles south of the airport is the Bingham Canyon Copper Mine (tan pixels), the world's largest open pit excavation. See also this MODIS image of Utah. Image courtesy NASA Landsat7 Science Team and USGS Eros Data Center

2002-01-01

364

Effect of the graphite electrode material on the characteristics of molten salt electrolytically produced carbon nanomaterials  

SciTech Connect

The electrochemical erosion of a graphite cathode during the electrolysis of molten lithium chloride salt may be used for the preparation of nano-structured carbon materials. It has been found that the structures and morphologies of these carbon nanomaterials are dependent on those of the graphite cathodes employed. A combination of tubular and spherical carbon nanostructures has been produced from a graphite with a microstructure of predominantly planar micro-sized grains and a minor fraction of more irregular nano-sized grains, whilst only spherical carbon nanostructures have been produced from a graphite with a microstructure of primarily nano-sized grains. Based on the experimental results, a best-fit regression equation is proposed that relates the crystalline domain size of the graphite reactants and the carbon products. The carbon nanomaterials prepared possess a fairly uniform mesoporosity with a sharp peak in pore size distribution at around 4 nm. The results are of crucial importance to the production of carbon nanomaterials by way of the molten salt electrolytic method. - Highlights: {yields} Carbon nanomaterials are synthesised by LiCl electrolysis with graphite electrodes. {yields} The degree of crystallinity of graphite reactant and carbon product are related. {yields} A graphite reactant is identified that enables the preparation of carbon nanotubes. {yields} The carbon products possess uniform mesoporosity with narrow pore size distribution.

Kamali, Ali Reza, E-mail: ark42@cam.ac.uk; Schwandt, Carsten; Fray, Derek J.

2011-10-15

365

Electrochemistry of LiCl-Li2O-H2O Molten Salt Systems  

SciTech Connect

Uranium can be recovered from uranium oxide (UO2) spent fuel through the combination of the oxide reduction and electrorefining processes. During oxide reduction, the spent fuel is introduced to molten LiCl-Li2O salt at 650 degrees C and the UO2 is reduced to uranium metal via two routes: (1) electrochemically, and (2) chemically by lithium metal (Li0) that is produced electrochemically. However, the hygroscopic nature of both LiCl and Li2O leads to the formation of LiOH, contributing hydroxyl anions (OH-), the reduction of which interferes with the Li0 generation required for the chemical reduction of UO2. In order for the oxide reduction process to be an effective method for the treatment of uranium oxide fuel, the role of moisture in the LiCl-Li2O system must be understood. The behavior of moisture in the LiCl-Li2O molten salt system was studied using cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry and chronoamperometry, while reduction to hydrogen was confirmed with gas chromatography.

Natalie J. Gese; Batric Pesic

2013-03-01

366

Effect of Chorda Tympani Nerve Transection on Salt Taste Perception in Mice  

PubMed Central

Effects of gustatory nerve transection on salt taste have been studied extensively in rats and hamsters but have not been well explored in the mouse. We examined the effects of chorda tympani (CT) nerve transection on NaCl taste preferences and thresholds in outbred CD-1 mice using a high-throughput phenotyping method developed in our laboratory. To measure taste thresholds, mice were conditioned by oral self-administration of LiCl or NaCl and then presented with NaCl concentration series in 2-bottle preference tests. LiCl-conditioned and control NaCl-exposed mice were given bilateral transections of the CT nerve (LiCl-CTX, NaCl-CTX) or were left intact as controls (LiCl-CNT, NaCl-CNT). After recovery from surgery, mice received a concentration series of NaCl (0–300 mM) in 48-h 2-bottle tests. CT transection increased NaCl taste thresholds in LiCl-conditioned mice and eliminated avoidance of concentrated NaCl in control NaCl-exposed mice. This demonstrates that in mice, the CT nerve is important for detection and recognition of NaCl taste and is necessary for the normal avoidance of high concentrations of NaCl. The results of this experiment also show that the method of high-throughput phenotyping of salt taste thresholds is suitable for detecting changes in the taste periphery in mouse genetic studies. PMID:21743094

Ishiwatari, Yutaka; Theodorides, Maria L.; Bachmanov, Alexander A.

2011-01-01

367

Waste acid detoxification and reclamation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economically feasible processes that reduce the volume, quantity, and toxicity of metal-bearing waste acids by reclaiming, reusing, and recycling spent acids and metal salts are being developed and demonstrated. The acids used in the demonstrations are generated during metal-finishing operations used in nuclear fuel fabrication; HF-HNOâ, HNOâ, and HNOâ-HâSOâ wastes result from Zr etching, Cu stripping, and chemical milling of

T. M. Brouns; T. L. Stewart

1988-01-01

368

Accelerators for Subcritical Molten-Salt Reactors  

SciTech Connect

Accelerator parameters for subcritical reactors have usually been based on using solid nuclear fuel much like that used in all operating critical reactors as well as the thorium burning accelerator-driven energy amplifier proposed by Rubbia et al. An attractive alternative reactor design that used molten salt fuel was experimentally studied at ORNL in the 1960s, where a critical molten salt reactor was successfully operated using enriched U235 or U233 tetrafluoride fuels. These experiments give confidence that an accelerator-driven subcritical molten salt reactor will work better than conventional reactors, having better efficiency due to their higher operating temperature, having the inherent safety of subcritical operation, and having constant purging of volatile radioactive elements to eliminate their accumulation and potential accidental release in dangerous amounts. Moreover, the requirements to drive a molten salt reactor can be considerably relaxed compared to a solid fuel reactor, especially regarding accelerator reliability and spallation neutron targetry, to the point that much of the required technology exists today. It is proposed that Project-X be developed into a prototype commercial machine to produce energy for the world by, for example, burning thorium in India and nuclear waste from conventional reactors in the USA.

Johnson, Roland (Muons, Inc.) [Muons, Inc.

2011-08-03

369

Solubility of uranium in alkaline salt solutions  

SciTech Connect

The solubility of uranium in alkaline salt solutions was investigated to screen for significant factors and interactions among the major salt components and temperature. The components included in the study were the sodium salts of hydroxide, nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, sulfate, and carbonate. General findings from the study included: (1) uranium solubilities are very low (1-20 mg/L) for all solution compositions at hydroxide concentrations from 0.1 to 17 molar (2) carbonate, sulfate, and aluminate are not effective complexants for uranium at high hydroxide concentration, (3) uranium solubility decreases with increasing temperature for most alkaline salt solutions, and (4) uranium solubility increases with changes in solution chemistry that reflect aging of high level waste (increase in nitrite and carbonate concentrations, decrease in nitrate and hydroxide concentrations). A predictive model for the concentration of uranium as a function of component concentrations and temperature was fitted to the data. All of the solution components and temperature were found to be significant. There is a significant lack of fit for the model, which suggests that the dependence on the uranium solubility over the wide range of solution compositions is non-linear and/or that there are other uncontrolled parameters which are important to the uranium solubility.

Hobbs, D.T.; Edwards, T.B.

1994-03-29

370

Crushed-salt constitutive model update  

SciTech Connect

Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Mellegard, K.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-01-01

371

Salt Stress in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough: an Integrated Genomics Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to reduce, and therefore contain, toxic and radioactive metal waste has made all factors that affect the physiology of this organism of great interest. Increased salinity is an important and frequent fluctuation faced by D. vulgaris in its natural habitat. In liquid culture, exposure to excess salt resulted in striking elongation of D. vulgaris

Aindrila Mukhopadhyay; Zhili He; Eric J. Alm; Adam P. Arkin; Edward E. Baidoo; Sharon C. Borglin; Wenqiong Chen; Terry C. Hazen; Qiang He; Hoi-Ying Holman; Katherine Huang; Rick Huang; Dominique C. Joyner; Natalie Katz; Martin Keller; Paul Oeller; Alyssa Redding; Jun Sun; Judy Wall; Jing Wei; Zamin Yang; Huei-Che Yen; Jizhong Zhou; Jay D. Keasling

2006-01-01

372

Salt effects on beta-glucosidase: pH-profile narrowing.  

PubMed

Salts inhibit the activity of sweet almond beta-glucosidase. For cations (Cl(-) salts) the effectiveness follows the series: Cu(+2), Fe(+2)>Zn(+2)>Li(+)>Ca(+2)>Mg(+2)>Cs(+)>NH(4)(+)>Rb(+)>K(+)>Na(+) and for anions (Na(+) salts) the series is: I(-)>ClO(4)(-)>(-)SCN>Br(-) approximately NO(3)(-)>Cl(-) approximately (-)OAc>F(-) approximately SO(4)(-2). The activity of the enzyme, like that of most glycohydrolases, depends on a deprotonated carboxylate (nucleophile) and a protonated carboxylic acid for optimal activity. The resulting pH-profile of k(cat)/K(m) for the beta-glucosidase-catalyzed hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl glucoside is characterized by a width at half height that is strongly sensitive to the nature and concentration of the salt. Most of the inhibition is due to a shift in the enzymic pK(a)s and not to an effect on the pH-independent second-order rate constant, (k(cat)/K(m))(lim). For example, as the NaCl concentration is increased from 0.01 M to 1.0 M the apparent pK(a1)increases (from 3.7 to 4.9) and the apparent pK(a2)decreases (from 7.2 to 5.9). With p-nitrophenyl glucoside, the value of the pH-independent (k(cat)/K(m))(lim) (=9 x 10(4) M(-1) s(-1)) is reduced by less than 4% as the NaCl concentration is increased. There is a similar shift in the pK(a)s when the LiCl concentration is increased to 1.0 M. The results of these salt-induced pK(a) shifts rule out a significant contribution of reverse protonation to the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme. At low salt concentration, the fraction of the catalytically active monoprotonated enzyme in the reverse protonated form (i.e., proton on the group with a pK(a) of 3.7 and dissociated from the group with a pK(a) of 7.2) is very small ( approximately 0.03%). At higher salt concentrations, where the two pK(a)s become closer, the fraction of the monoprotonated enzyme in the reverse protonated form increases over 300-fold. However, there is no increase in the intrinsic reactivity, (k(cat)/K(m))(lim), of the monoprotonated species. For other enzymes which may show such salt-induced pK(a) shifts, this provides a convenient test for the role of reverse protonation. PMID:17997993

Bowers, Erin M; Ragland, Lindsey O; Byers, Larry D

2007-12-01

373

Stability of SG1 nitroxide towards unprotected sugar and lithium salts: a preamble to cellulose modification by nitroxide-mediated graft polymerization  

PubMed Central

Summary The range of applications of cellulose, a glucose-based polysaccharide, is limited by its inherently poor mechanical properties. The grafting of synthetic polymer chains by, for example, a “grafting from” process may provide the means to broaden the range of applications. The nitroxide-mediated polymerization (NMP) method is a technique of choice to control the length, the composition and the architecture of the grafted copolymers. Nevertheless, cellulose is difficult to solubilize in organic media because of inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonds. One possibility to circumvent this limitation is to solubilize cellulose in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) or N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA) with 5 to 10 wt % of lithium salts (LiCl or LiBr), and carry out grafted polymerization in this medium. The stability of nitroxides such as SG1 has not been studied under these conditions yet, even though these parameters are of crucial importance to perform the graft modification of polysaccharide by NMP. The aim of this work is to offer a model study of the stability of the SG1 nitroxide in organic media in the presence of unprotected glucose or cellobiose (used as a model of cellulose) and in the presence of lithium salts (LiBr or LiCl) in DMF or DMA. Contrary to TEMPO, SG1 proved to be stable in the presence of unprotected sugar, even with an excess of 100 molar equivalents of glucose. On the other hand, lithium salts in DMF or DMA clearly degrade SG1 nitroxide as proven by electron-spin resonance measurements. The instability of SG1 in these lithium-containing solvents may be explained by the acidification of the medium by the hydrolysis of DMA in the presence of LiCl. This, in turn, enables the disproportionation of the SG1 nitroxide into an unstable hydroxylamine and an oxoammonium ion. Once the conditions to perform an SG1-based nitroxide-mediated graft polymerization from cellobiose have been established, the next stage of this work will be the modification of cellulose and cellulose derivatives by NMP. PMID:23946859

Moreira, Guillaume; Charles, Laurence; Major, Mohamed; Vacandio, Florence; Guillaneuf, Yohann

2013-01-01

374

Bacterial Degraders of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Isolated from Salt-Contaminated Soils and Bottom Sediments in Salt Mining Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen bacterial strains capable of utilizing naphthalene, phenanthrene, and biphenyl as the sole sources of carbon and energy were isolated from soils and bottom sediments contaminated with waste products generated by chemical- and salt-producing plants. Based on cultural, morphological, and chemotaxonomic characteristics, ten of these strains were identified as belonging to the genera Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, and Pseudomonas. All ten

E. G. Plotnikova; O. V. Altyntseva; I. A. Kosheleva; I. F. Puntus; A. E. Filonov; E. Yu. Gavrish; V. A. Demakov; A. M. Boronin

2001-01-01

375

Salt Made the World Go Round: MRBLOCH Salt Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Don't you just love it when everything can be summed up with one simple explanantion? Created by David Bloch, this Website proves that life as we know depends upon salt. Sections of the site look at salt in relation to a wide range of areas of study, such as Physiology, Geology, Archaeology, Paleoclimatology, Religion, and Economics. For example, the Economics section provides information on the use of salt as money, the history of the control of salt by monopolies, and the influence of the salt trade on transportation. The Religion section points out the importance of salt in religious practices, such as Jewish koshering and Egyptian embalming. Also included are links to over fifty additional salt sites, an email list, and an announcement for Salt 2000, the 8th World Salt Symposium, to be held in the Hague in May 2000.

Bloch, David.

376

Feed Basis for Processing Relatively Low Radioactivity Waste Tanks  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the characterization of potential feed for processing relatively low radioactive waste tanks. The feed characterization is based on waste characterization data extracted from the waste characterization system. This data is compared to salt cake sample results from Tanks 37, 38 and 41.

Pike, J.A.

2002-07-09

377

Feed Basis for Processing Relatively Low Radioactivity Waste Tanks  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the characterization of potential feed for processing relatively low radioactive waste tanks. The feed characterization is based on waste characterization data extracted from the waste characterization system. This data is compared to salt cake sample results from Tanks 37, 38, and 41.

Jones (contact), R.T.

2003-02-18

378

Treatment for hydrazine-containing waste water solution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The treatment for waste solutions containing hydrazine is presented. The invention attempts oxidation and decomposition of hydrazine in waste water in a simple and effective processing. The method adds activated charcoal to waste solutions containing hydrazine while maintaining a pH value higher than 8, and adding iron salts if necessary. Then, the solution is aerated.

Yade, N.

1986-01-01

379

Analysis of Multistage and Other Creep Data for Domal Salts  

SciTech Connect

There have existed for some time relatively sparse creep databases for a number of domal salts. Although all of these data were analyzed at the time they were reported, to date there has not been a comprehensive, overall evaluation within the same analysis framework. Such an evaluation may prove of value. The analysis methodology is based on the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) description of salt creep and the corresponding model parameters determined from conventional creep tests. The constitutive model of creep wss formulated through application of principles involved in micromechanical modeling. It was possible, at minimum, to obtain the steady state parameters of the creep model from the data on the domal salts. When this was done, the creep of the domal salts, as compared to the well-defined Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) bedded clean salt, was either essentially identical to, or significantly harder (more creep resistant) than WIPP salt. Interestingly, the domal salts form two distinct groups, either sofl or hard, where the difference is roughly a factor often in creep rate between the twcl groups. As might be expected, this classification corresponds quite well to the differences in magnitude of effective creep volume losses of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) caverns as determined by the CAVEMAN cavern pressure history analysis, depending upon the specific dome or region within the dome. Creep response shoulcl also correlate to interior cavern conditions that produce salt falls. WMle, in general, the caverns in hard sah have a noticeably greater propensity for salt falls, a smaller number of similar events are exhibited even in the caverns in soft salt.

Munson, D.E.

1998-10-01

380

Fundamental Properties of Salts  

SciTech Connect

Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

2012-11-01

381

SERS in salt wells.  

PubMed

We report herein a simple, inexpensive fabrication methodology of salt microwells, and define the utility of the latter as nanoparticle containers for highly sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) studies. AFM characterization of Ag and Au loaded salt microwells reveal the ability to contain favorable nanostructures such as nanoparticle dimers, which can significantly enhance the Raman intensity of molecules. By performing diffraction-limited confocal Raman microscopy on salt microwells, we show high sensitivity and fidelity in the detection of dyes, peptides, and proteins, as a proof of our concept. The SERS limit of detection (accumulation time of 1 s) for rhodamine B and TAT contained in salt mircowells is 10 pM and 1 nM, respectively. The Raman characterization measurements of salt microwells with three different laser lines (532 nm, 632.81 nm, 785 nm) reveal low background intensity and high signal-to-noise ratio upon nanoparticle loading, which makes them suitable for enhanced Raman detection. SERS mapping of these sub-femtoliter containers show spatial confinement of the relevant analyte to a few microns, which make them potential candidates for microscale bioreactors. PMID:19750533

Kumar, G V Pavan; Irudayaraj, Joseph

2009-10-19

382

INTERSTATE WASTE TECHNOLOGIES THERMOSELECT TECHNOLOGY  

E-print Network

of organic compounds (1200-2000°C, > 2s) Shock cooling freezes stable state, no denovo synthesis #12;7 MJ OVERVIEW Zinc Concentrate Salt Clean water Sulfur Synthesis Gas Production of Hydrogen Methanol AmmoniaHigh Temperature Reactor Waste of all kinds Process water treatment Synthesis gas scrubbing Metals and Minerals

Columbia University

383

Laboratory scale vitrification of low-level radioactive nitrate salts and soils from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

INEL has radiologically contaminated nitrate salt and soil waste stored above and below ground in Pad A and the Acid Pit at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Pad A contain uranium and transuranic contaminated potassium and sodium nitrate salts generated from dewatered waste solutions at the Rocky Flats Plant. The Acid Pit was used to dispose of liquids containing waste mineral acids, uranium, nitrate, chlorinated solvents, and some mercury. Ex situ vitrification is a high temperature destruction of nitrates and organics and immobilizes hazardous and radioactive metals. Laboratory scale melting of actual radionuclides containing INEL Pad A nitrate salts and Acid Pit soils was performed. The salt/soil/additive ratios were varied to determine the range of glass compositions (resulted from melting different wastes); maximize mass and volume reduction, durability, and immobilization of hazardous and radioactive metals; and minimize viscosity and offgas generation for wastes prevalent at INEL and other DOE sites. Some mixtures were spiked with additional hazardous and radioactive metals. Representative glasses were leach tested and showed none. Samples spiked with transuranic showed low nuclide leaching. Wasteforms were two to three times bulk densities of the salt and soil. Thermally co-processing soils and salts is an effective remediation method for destroying nitrate salts while stabilizing the radiological and hazardous metals they contain. The measured durability of these low-level waste glasses approached those of high-level waste glasses. Lab scale vitrification of actual INEL contaminated salts and soils was performed at General Atomics Laboratory as part of the INEL Waste Technology Development and Environmental Restoration within the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program.

Shaw, P. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Anderson, B. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States). NRT Div.; Davis, D. [Envitco Inc., Toledo, OH (United States)

1993-07-01

384

Development of iron phosphate ceramic waste form to immobilize radioactive waste solution  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research was to develop an iron phosphate ceramic (IPC) waste form using converter slag obtained as a by-product of the steel industry as a source of iron instead of conventional iron oxide. Both synthetic off-gas scrubber solution containing technetium-99 (or Re as a surrogate) and LiCl-KCl eutectic salt, a final waste solution from pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuel, were used as radioactive waste streams. The IPC waste form was characterized for compressive strength, reduction capacity, chemical durability, and contaminant leachability. Compressive strengths of the IPC waste form prepared with different types of waste solutions were 16 MPa and 19 MPa for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and the off-gas scrubber simulant, respectively, which meet the minimum compressive strength of 3.45 MPa (500 psi) for waste forms to be accepted into the radioactive waste repository. The reduction capacity of converter slag, a main dry ingredient used to prepare the IPC waste form, was 4,136 meq/kg by the Ce(IV) method, which is much higher than those of the conventional Fe oxides used for the IPC waste form and the blast furnace slag materials. Average leachability indexes of Tc, Li, and K for the IPC waste form were higher than 6.0, and the IPC waste form demonstrated stable durability even after 63-day leaching. In addition, the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure measurements of converter slag and the IPC waste form with LiCl-KCl eutectic salt met the universal treatment standard of the leachability limit for metals regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This study confirms the possibility of development of the IPC waste form using converter slag, showing its immobilization capability for radionuclides in both LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and off-gas scrubber solutions with significant cost savings.

Choi, Jongkwon; Um, Wooyong; Choung, Sungwook

2014-05-09

385

Development of iron phosphate ceramic waste form to immobilize radioactive waste solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this research was to develop an iron phosphate ceramic (IPC) waste form using converter slag obtained as a by-product of the steel industry as a source of iron instead of conventional iron oxide. Both synthetic off-gas scrubber solution containing technetium-99 (or Re as a surrogate) and LiCl-KCl eutectic salt, a final waste solution from pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuel, were used as radioactive waste streams. The IPC waste form was characterized for compressive strength, reduction capacity, chemical durability, and contaminant leachability. Compressive strengths of the IPC waste form prepared with different types of waste solutions were 16 MPa and 19 MPa for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and the off-gas scrubber simulant, respectively, which meet the minimum compressive strength of 3.45 MPa (500 psi) for waste forms to be accepted into the radioactive waste repository. The reduction capacity of converter slag, a main dry ingredient used to prepare the IPC waste form, was 4136 meq/kg by the Ce(IV) method, which is much higher than those of the conventional Fe oxides used for the IPC waste form and the blast furnace slag materials. Average leachability indexes of Tc, Li, and K for the IPC waste form were higher than 6.0, and the IPC waste form demonstrated stable durability even after 63-day leaching. In addition, the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure measurements of converter slag and the IPC waste form with LiCl-KCl eutectic salt met the universal treatment standard of the leachability limit for metals regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This study confirms the possibility of development of the IPC waste form using converter slag, showing its immobilization capability for radionuclides in both LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and off-gas scrubber solutions with significant cost savings.

Choi, Jongkwon; Um, Wooyong; Choung, Sungwook

2014-09-01

386

Tank waste chemistry: A new understanding of waste aging  

SciTech Connect

There is concern about the risk of uncontrolled exothermic reactions(s) in Hanford Site waste tanks containing NO{sub 3{sup minus}}/NO{sub 2{sup minus}} based salts and/or metal hydroxide sludges in combination with organics or ferrocyanides. However, gradual oxidation of the waste in the tanks to less reactive species appears to have reduced the risk. In addition, wastes sampled to date contain sufficiently large quantities of water so that propagation reactions are highly unlikely. This report details an investigation into the risk of an uncontrolled exothermic reaction in Hanford Site high-activity water tanks.

Babad, H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Camaioni, D.M.; Lilga, M.A.; Samuels, W.D.; Strachan, D.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-02-01

387

Engineered waste-package-system design specification  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the waste package performance requirements and geologic and waste form data bases used in developing the conceptual designs for waste packages for salt, tuff, and basalt geologies. The data base reflects the latest geotechnical information on the geologic media of interest. The parameters or characteristics specified primarily cover spent fuel, defense high-level waste, and commercial high-level waste forms. The specification documents the direction taken during the conceptual design activity. A separate design specification will be developed prior to the start of the preliminary design activity.

Not Available

1983-05-01

388

Safe actinide disposition in molten salt reactors  

SciTech Connect

Safe molten salt reactors (MSR) can readily accommodate the burning of all fissile actinides. Only minor compromises associated with plutonium are required. The MSRs can dispose safely of actinides and long lived isotopes to result in safer and simpler waste. Disposing of actinides in MSRs does increase the source term of a safety optimized MSR. It is concluded that the burning and transmutation of actinides in MSRs can be done in a safe manner. Development is needed for the processing to handle and separate the actinides. Calculations are needed to establish the neutron economy and the fuel management. 9 refs.

Gat, U.

1997-03-01

389

Permeability of WIPP Salt During Damage Evolution and Healing  

SciTech Connect

The presence of damage in the form of microcracks can increase the permeability of salt. In this paper, an analytical formulation of the permeability of damaged rock salt is presented for both initially intact and porous conditions. The analysis shows that permeability is related to the connected (i.e., gas accessible) volumetric strain and porosity according to two different power-laws, which may be summed to give the overall behavior of a porous salt with damage. This relationship was incorporated into a constitutive model, known as the Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which has been formulated to describe the inelastic flow behavior of rock salt due to coupled creep, damage, and healing. The extended model was used to calculate the permeability of rock salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site under conditions where damage evolved with stress over a time period. Permeability changes resulting from both damage development under deviatoric stresses and damage healing under hydrostatic pressures were considered. The calculated results were compared against experimental data from the literature, which indicated that permeability in damaged intact WIPP salt depends on the magnitude of the gas accessible volumetric strain and not on the total volumetric strain. Consequently, the permeability of WIPP salt is significantly affected by the kinetics of crack closure, but shows little dependence on the kinetics of crack removal by sintering.

BODNER,SOL R.; CHAN,KWAI S.; MUNSON,DARRELL E.

1999-12-03

390

Testing of stripping columns for the removal of benzene from aqueous radioactive salt solution  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive high level wastes (HLW) generated from production of special nuclear materials at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are held in interim storage in 51 underground, million gallon tanks. Radioactive cesium ({sup 137}Cs) is segregated by evaporation of aqueous waste solution for interim storage in a salt matrix comprised of Na and K salts or in concentrated salt solution. The saltcake will be dissolved and {sup 137}Cs will be separated from the nonradioactive salts in solution in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) Process. The cesium will be combined with other radioactive species and glass formers to be melted and poured into stainless steel canisters in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The salt solution remaining after decontamination in the ITP process will be incorporated into grout for disposal at the site`s Saltstone facility. In the ITP facility, sodium tetraphenylborate (STPB) will be added to precipitate the cesium. Potassium in the waste solution also reacts with STPB and precipitates. Due to radiolytic and chemical degradation of the tetraphenylborate (TPB) precipitate, benzene is generated. The benzene dissolves into the decontaminated salt solution (DSS) and into water (WW) used to {open_quotes}wash{close_quotes} the precipitate to lower the soluble salt content of the slurry. Safety and processing requirements for disposal of the DSS and for temporary storage of the WW dictate that the benzene concentration be reduced.

Georgeton, G.K.; Taylor, G.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Gaughan, T.P. [Elf Atochem North America, Inc., King of Prussia, PA (United States)] [and others

1995-06-27

391

Gas releases from salt  

SciTech Connect

The occurrence of gas in salt mines and caverns has presented some serious problems to facility operators. Salt mines have long experienced sudden, usually unexpected expulsions of gas and salt from a production face, commonly known as outbursts. Outbursts can release over one million cubic feet of methane and fractured salt, and are responsible for the lives of numerous miners and explosions. Equipment, production time, and even entire mines have been lost due to outbursts. An outburst creates a cornucopian shaped hole that can reach heights of several hundred feet. The potential occurrence of outbursts must be factored into mine design and mining methods. In caverns, the occurrence of outbursts and steady infiltration of gas into stored product can effect the quality of the product, particularly over the long-term, and in some cases renders the product unusable as is or difficult to transport. Gas has also been known to collect in the roof traps of caverns resulting in safety and operational concerns. The intent of this paper is to summarize the existing knowledge on gas releases from salt. The compiled information can provide a better understanding of the phenomena and gain insight into the causative mechanisms that, once established, can help mitigate the variety of problems associated with gas releases from salt. Outbursts, as documented in mines, are discussed first. This is followed by a discussion of the relatively slow gas infiltration into stored crude oil, as observed and modeled in the caverns of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve. A model that predicts outburst pressure kicks in caverns is also discussed.

Ehgartner, B.; Neal, J.; Hinkebein, T.

1998-06-01

392

Diastereoselective synthesis of nitroso acetals from (S,E)-?-aminated nitroalkenes via multicomponent [4 + 2]/[3 + 2] cycloadditions promoted by LiCl or LiClO4  

PubMed Central

Summary Chiral nonracemic aminated nitroso acetals were synthesized via diastereoselective multicomponent [4 + 2]/[3 + 2] cycloadditions employing new (S,E)-?-nitrogenated nitroalkenes 5a–c as heterodienes, ethyl vinyl ether (EVE) as a dienophile, and selected electron-deficient alkenes as 1,3-dipolarophiles. The employment of different organic solutions of LiClO4 or LiCl as promoter systems provided the respective nitroso acetals with yields from 34–72% and good levels of diastereoselectivity. In addition, the nitroso acetal 9c was transformed to the pyrrolizidin-3-one derivative 14c, proving the usefulness of the route in the synthesis of an interesting chiral compound. The elucidation of the stereostructures was based on 2D COSY, NOESY and HSQC NMR experiments as well as an X-ray diffraction experiment. PMID:23766798

de Carvalho, Leandro Lara; Burrow, Robert Alan

2013-01-01

393

Laboratory Characterization of Mechanical and Permeability Properties of Dynamically Compacted Crushed Salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U. S. Department of Energy plans to dispose of transuranic wastes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a geologic repository located at a depth of about 655 meters. The WIPP underground facility is located in the bedded salt of the Salado Formation. Access to the facility is provided through vertical shafts, which will be sealed after decommissioning to

F. D. Hansen; K. D. Mellegard; T. W. Pfeifle

1999-01-01

394

Burn wastes cost-effectively  

SciTech Connect

Chemical processes generate side reaction compounds and other wastes. Many of these residuals are now considered toxic and hazardous. Consequently, hydrocarbon processing companies are seeking safe and economical methods to treat and discard unwanted byproducts. Burning/incinerating hazardous liquid wastes is an acceptable alternative to converting residuals such as halogenated compounds, inorganic salts, sulfur compounds, etc., into safely disposed of compounds. Another benefit from incineration is recovering waste-heat energy from hot incinerator flue gases. Several examples describe how to design an incineration unit that cost-effectively recovers thermal energy as steam. Equally important, these designs must meet stringent air emission requirements and handle corrosive compounds at extreme temperatures.

Leite, O.C. [T-Thermal Co., Blue Bell, PA (United States)

1998-05-01

395

The Nature of Salt  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a hands-on lab activity about the composition of salt. Learners will explain the general relationship between an element's Periodic Table Group Number and its tendency to gain or lose electron(s), and explain the difference between molecular compounds and ionic compounds. They will then use household materials to build a model to demonstrate sodium chloride's cubic form and describe the nature of the electrostatic attraction that holds the structure of salt together. Background information, common preconceptions, a glossary and more is included. This activity is part of the Aquarius Hands-on Laboratory Activities.

2012-08-03

396

Solvent Extraction Batch Distribution Coefficients with Savannah River Site Dissolved Salt Cake  

SciTech Connect

Researchers characterized high-level waste derived from dissolved salt cake from the Savannah River Site (SRS) tank farm and measured the cesium distribution coefficients (DCs) for extraction, scrub, and stripping steps of the caustic-side solvent extraction (CSSX) flowsheet. The measurements used two SRS high-level waste samples derived entirely or in part from salt cake. The chemical compositions of both samples are reported. Dissolved salt cake waste contained less Cs-137 and more dianions than is typical of supernate samples. Extraction, scrub, and strip DCs values for both samples exceeded process requirements and agreed well with model predictions. The results indicate no significant problems processing dissolved salt cake compared to supernate. During the course of testing, researchers observed sorption of cesium on glass sample vials containing strip solutions. The problem was detected in the material balance calculated for each organic/aqueous contact. Methods and recommendations for avoiding this problem are discussed.

Walker, D.D.

2002-05-22

397

Avi's Sensational Salt Dough  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 5 of the PDF, learners mimic the process for making bricks. Learners shape and bake creations from a dough that is made from flour, salt, and water. Use this activity to introduce learners to chemical changes. Safety notes: Follow Milli's safety notes (on page 2) and do this activity with an adult.

American Chemical Society

2006-01-01

398

Unitized paramagnetic salt thermometer  

SciTech Connect

The details of construction and assembly of a cerous magnesium nitrate (CMN) paramagnetic thermometer are presented. The thermometer is a small unit consisting of a primary, two secondaries, the salt pill, and thermal links. The thermometer calibration changes very little on successive coolings and is reliable to 35 mK. A typical calibration curve is also presented.

Abraham, B.M.

1982-06-01

399

A Dash of Salt  

E-print Network

(Morus alba), pictured at left, and Arizona Cypress (Cupressus arizonica). tx H2O | pg. 20 The second most frequent problem is soil saliniza- tion, or too much salt accumulation in the soil. This usually occurs in clayey (silty clay loam, clay loam...

Supercinski, Danielle

2006-01-01

400

Salt Marshes at Chincoteague Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Salt marshes at Chincoteague Island. The salt marshes that make up Chincoteague Island are important habitat for migrating waterfowl. In addition, they serve an important role in protecting inland ecosystems and communities from oceanic storms....

401

Diferulic acids in the cell wall may contribute to the suppression of shoot growth in the first phase of salt stress in maize.  

PubMed

In the first phase of salt stress the elongation growth of maize shoots is severely affected. The fixation of shape at the end of the elongation phase in Poaceae leaves has frequently been attributed to the formation of phenolic cross-links in the cell wall. In the present work it was investigated whether this process is accelerated under salt stress in different maize hybrids. Plants were grown in nutrient solution in a growth chamber. Reduction of shoot fresh mass was 50% for two hybrids which have recently been developed for improved salt resistance (SR 03, SR 12) and 60% for their parental genotype (Pioneer 3906). For SR 12 and Pioneer 3906, the upper three leaves were divided into elongated and elongating tissue and cell walls were isolated from which phenolic substances and neutral sugars were determined. Furthermore, for the newly developed hybrids the activity of phenolic peroxidase in the cell wall was analysed in apoplastic washing fluids and after sequential extraction of cell-wall material with CaCl2 and LiCl. The concentration of ferulic acid, the predominant phenolic cross-linker in the grass cell wall, was about 5mgg(-1) dry cell wall in elongating and in elongated tissue. The concentration of diferulic acids (DFA) was 2-3mgg(-1) dry cell wall in both tissues. Salt stress increased the concentration of ferulic acid (FA) and DFA in the parental genotype Pioneer 3906, but not in SR 12. Both genotypes showed an increase in arabinose, which is the molecule at which FA and DFA are coupled to interlocking arabinoxylan polymers. In SR 12, the activity of phenolic peroxidase was not influenced by salt stress. However, in SR 03 salt stress clearly increased the phenolic peroxidase activity. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that accelerated oxidative fixation of shape contributes to growth suppression in the first phase of salt stress in a genotype-specific manner. PMID:24661612

Uddin, Md Nesar; Hanstein, Stefan; Faust, Franziska; Eitenmüller, Philipp T; Pitann, Britta; Schubert, Sven

2014-06-01

402

Fission product ion exchange between zeolite and a molten salt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and has been demonstrated through processing the sodium-bonded SNF from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II in Idaho. In this process, components of the SNF, including U and species more chemically active than U, are oxidized into a bath of lithium-potassium chloride (LiCl-KCl) eutectic molten salt. Uranium is removed from the salt solution by electrochemical reduction. The noble metals and inactive fission products from the SNF remain as solids and are melted into a metal waste form after removal from the molten salt bath. The remaining salt solution contains most of the fission products and transuranic elements from the SNF. One technique that has been identified for removing these fission products and extending the usable life of the molten salt is ion exchange with zeolite A. A model has been developed and tested for its ability to describe the ion exchange of fission product species between zeolite A and a molten salt bath used for pyroprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The model assumes (1) a system at equilibrium, (2) immobilization of species from the process salt solution via both ion exchange and occlusion in the zeolite cage structure, and (3) chemical independence of the process salt species. The first assumption simplifies the description of this physical system by eliminating the complications of including time-dependent variables. An equilibrium state between species concentrations in the two exchange phases is a common basis for ion exchange models found in the literature. Assumption two is non-simplifying with respect to the mathematical expression of the model. Two Langmuir-like fractional terms (one for each mode of immobilization) compose each equation describing each salt species. The third assumption offers great simplification over more traditional ion exchange modeling, in which interaction of solvent species with each other is considered. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Gougar, Mary Lou D.

403

Polarized Raman spectroscopic study on the solvent state of glassy LiCl aqueous solutions and the state of relaxed high-density amorphous ices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measure polarized OH-stretching Raman spectra of the glassy lithium chloride aqueous solutions (LiClaq solutions) and the relaxed high-density amorphous ices (HDA). The totally OH symmetric vibrational mode around 3100 cm-1 (g1 mode) for the glassy LiClaq solutions of 14.3 mol% and the g1 mode for the glassy LiClaq solution of 10.0 mol% seem to be similar to the g1 mode for HDA at high pressure and the g1 mode for HDA at 1 atm, respectively. This indicates that the solvent state of glassy LiClaq solution relates to the state of HDA and that the attenuation of the salt effect on water is equivalent to the attenuation of the pressure effect on water. This suggests a possibility that the hydration in electrolyte aqueous solution may relate to high-density liquid water.

Suzuki, Yoshiharu; Tominaga, Yasunori

2011-06-01

404

Hazardous solid waste from agriculture.  

PubMed Central

Large quantities of food processing, crop, forestry, and animal solid wastes are generated in the United States each year. The major components of these wastes are biodegradable. However, they also contain components such as nitrogen, human and animal pathogens, medicinals, feed additives, salts, and certain metals, that under uncontrolled conditions can be detrimental to aquatic, plant, animal, or human life. The most common method of disposal of these wastes is application to the land. Thus the major pathways for transmission of hazards are from and through the soil. Use of these wastes as animal feed also can be a pathway. While at this time there are no crises associated with hazardous materials in agricultural solid wastes, the potential for problems should not be underestimated. Manpower and financial support should be provided to obtain more detailed information in this area, esepcially to better delineate transport and dispersal and to determine and evaluate risks. PMID:367770

Loehr, R C

1978-01-01

405

Flame spectra of copper salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

]NTRODUCTION COPPER SALTS, specially the halides, like so many other salts of alkalire earths and iron group, from their natural colours and the co]ours which they impart to the flames in which they are introdueed, have been drawing the attention of workers from very early times. Most of the copper salts, when put into a flame, give a yellowish luminescence

Nand Lal Singh

1947-01-01

406

APPLICATIONS OF SALT IN ELECTROFISHING  

E-print Network

APPLICATIONS OF SALT IN ELECTROFISHING iNlarine Biological Laboratory LIB55.A.K.Y WOODS HOLE, MASS OF SALT IN ELECTROFISHING By Robert E . Lennon and Phillip S . Parker Fishery Research Biologists Leetown. Electric fisliliiK. 2. Salt. i. Farker, Phillip Slieridaii, 192t>- .joiut author, ii. Title. ( Series : IT

407

Geohydrology of the Keechi, Mount Sylvan, Oakwood, and Palestine salt domes in the northeast Texas salt-dome basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Department of Energy is considering the feasibility of using salt domes in the northeast Texas salt-dome basin as repositories for radioactive wastes that may require complete confinement for as much as 250,000 years. Four of fourteen known shallow piercement salt domes within the basin--Keechi, Mount Sylvan, Oakwood, and Palestine Salt Domes--have been selected as candidate domes for further study and possible selection as storage sites. Dissolution may exist at all four candidate salt domes, possibly through contact with Cretaceous or Tertiary aquifers, or through fault systems in the vicinity of the domes. Strata overlying and surrounding Palestine and Keechi Salt Domes have been arched into steeply-dipping folds that are complexly faulted. Similar conditions exist at Oakwood and Mount Sylvan Domes, except that the Tertiary strata have been only moderately disturbed. Cap rock, which is generally accepted to be an indication of salt dissolution, is present in varying amounts over all four domes. Saline water has been reported at the surface at all candidate domes except Oakwood, but only two water wells near the domes yield water containing possible anomalous concentrations of dissolved chloride--one at Keechi and one at Oakwood. Possible subsurface plumes of saline water, which are indications of instability, exist at all four domes. Additional problems concerning the hydrologic stability of Oakwood and Palestine salt domes have resulted from the disposal of oil-field saline water in the cap rock at the Oakwood dome and previous solution mining of salt at the Palestine dome. Additional investigations are needed to determine if a selected dome is hydrologically stable. Needed investigations include (1) more complete comparative analysis of the regional and local geohydrologic system; (2) a site-specific drilling and sampling program to analyze the cap rock-aquifer boundary, sediment distribution, hydraulic-parameter variations, hydraulic-head relationships, and hydrochemical patterns; and (3) mass-transport computer modeling of groundwater flow at the domes. (USGS)

Carr, Jerry E.; Halasz, Stephen J.; Peters, Henry B.

1980-01-01

408

Brine Inclusions Migration in Intact Salt Crystals under Thermal Gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behavior of water contained in rock salt under the influence of thermal gradients is critical to the performance of salt as a medium for the disposal of nuclear waste. Water contained in salt can be present as discrete inclusions within intact salt crystals, at the interface between salt crystals and aggregates, and also as hydration water and structural water present in accessory minerals present in salt. Water content in pure halite salt usually rages from 0.1 to 0.5 wt. % but is significantly higher in clay rich salt, for which water content can be up to several wt. %. Under the influence of thermal gradients brine inclusions and water associated to the accessory mineral is mobilized. Previous investigations have shown brine inclusions tend to move towards the heat source through a mechanism that involves the dissolution of salt at the hot face of the brine inclusion and its precipitation at the colder side of the inclusion. Uncertainties remain on the exact parameters that define the rate of brine migration and whether it truly migrates to towards the heat source. We performed studies under controlled thermal gradients to examine the behavior of brine inclusions in single salt crystals obtained from the underground salt mine at the Waste Isolation Power Plant (WIPP). We found that the behavior of the brine inclusions under thermal gradients is dependent on the thermal gradient magnitude and the nature of the inclusion. Full inclusions (liquid only) migrate predominantly towards the heat source, but when the inclusions are large and close to the surface they fracture the salt and release water near the surface. Inclusions that migrate towards the heat source migrate through a mechanism that involves the dissolution of salt at the hot side of the inclusion and its deposition along the migration path. SEM analysis of the migration pathways shows that brine migrates through the creation of a network of square shaped hollow channels of about 10 micron diameter. The behavior of two phase inclusions (liquid and gas) in a temperature gradient is distinctly different from that of full inclusions. The brine in the two phase inclusions still migrates towards the heat source; however, the vapor phase moves away from the heat source through narrow square shaped channels. The resulting salt crystals are much more fractured and have a distinct appearance compared to salt crystals with full inclusion. The composition of the salt deposited along the migration channels changes along migration pathway. At the start of the inclusion migration pathway the deposited salt is composed of a mixture of NaCl, MgCl2, and CaCl2, with minor other elements. However, as the brine migrates towards the heat source its composition changes and it gets enriched in NaCl. SEM images and migration channels

Caporuscio, F.; Boukhalfa, H.

2013-12-01

409

Concentration and precipitation of NaCl and KCl from salt cake leach solutions by electrodialysis  

SciTech Connect

Electrodialysis was investigated for cost-effective recovery of salt from salt cake leach solutions. (Salt cake is a waste stream generated by the aluminum industry during treatment of aluminum drosses and scrap.) We used a pilot-scale electrodialysis stack of 5 membrane pairs, each with an effective area of 0.02 m{sup 2}. The diluate stream contained synthetic NaCl, KCl,mixtures of NaCl and KCl, and actual salt cake leach solutions (mainly NaCl and KCl, with small amounts of MgCl{sub 2}). We concentrated and precipitated NaCl and KCl salts from the concentrate steam when the initial diluate stream concentration was 21.5 to 28.8 wt% NaCl and KCl. We found that water transferring through the membranes was a significant factor in overall efficiency of salt recovery by electrodialysis.

Sreenivasarao, K; Patsiogiannis, F.; Hryn, J.N.

1997-02-09

410

Results of Analyses of Tank 37H Criticality Salt Samples (HTK-493 and 494)  

SciTech Connect

High Level Waste Division (HLWD) personnel requested Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) support in analyzing samples of salt cake from Tank 37H as input to a Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation (NCSE) in support of dissolution of the salt in the tank. Two salt core samples (HTK-493 and 494) were pulled from Tank 37H and transferred to the SRTC Shielded Cells Facility on April 2, 2002 for analyses of species that may affect criticality as the salt is dissolved. The core samples were composited and prepared for analysis of the as-received sample and of insoluble solids separated from as-received sample. Results of the analyses are presented herein. Results are given for the as-received salt cake, for insoluble solids separated from the core sample both with and without a correction for soluble solids remaining after dissolution, and for wash water produced by dissolving the soluble salts in inhibited water.

Swingle, R.F.

2002-07-10

411

The Mixed Waste Management Facility. Preliminary design review  

SciTech Connect

This document presents information about the Mixed Waste Management Facility. Topics discussed include: cost and schedule baseline for the completion of the project; evaluation of alternative options; transportation of radioactive wastes to the facility; capital risk associated with incineration; radioactive waste processing; scaling of the pilot-scale system; waste streams to be processed; molten salt oxidation; feed preparation; initial operation to demonstrate selected technologies; floorplans; baseline revisions; preliminary design baseline; cost reduction; and project mission and milestones.

NONE

1995-12-31

412

Salt stress or salt shock: which genes are we studying?  

PubMed

Depending on the method of NaCl application, whether gradual or in a single step, plants may experience either salt stress or salt shock, respectively. The first phase of salt stress is osmotic stress. However, in the event of salt shock, plants suffer osmotic shock, leading to cell plasmolysis and leakage of osmolytes, phenomena that do not occur with osmotic stress. Patterns of gene expression are different in response to salt stress and salt shock. Salt stress initiates relatively smooth changes in gene expression in response to osmotic stress and a more pronounced change in expression of significant numbers of genes related to the ionic phase of salt stress. There is a considerable time delay between changes in expression of genes related to the osmotic and ionic phases of salt stress. In contrast, osmotic shock results in strong, rapid changes in the expression of genes with osmotic function, and fewer changes in ionic-responsive genes that occur earlier. There are very few studies in which the effects of salt stress and salt shock are described in parallel experiments. However, the patterns of changes in gene expression observed in these studies are consistently as described above, despite the use of diverse plant species. It is concluded that gene expression profiles are very different depending the method of salt application. Imposition of salt stress by gradual exposure to NaCl rather than salt shock with a single application of a high concentration of NaCl is recommended for genetic and molecular studies, because this more closely reflects natural incidences of salinity. PMID:23186621

Shavrukov, Yuri

2013-01-01

413

TRU waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Revision 3  

SciTech Connect

This document is intended to delineate the criteria by which unclassified waste will be accepted for emplacement at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico and describe the bases upon which these criteria were established. These criteria are not intended to be specifications but rather limits that will allow waste generating and shipping sites to develop their own procedures and specifications for preparation of TRU waste for shipment to the WIPP. These criteria will also allow waste generating sites to plan future facilities for waste preparation that will produce TRU waste forms compatible with WIPP waste emplacement and isolation requirements. These criteria only apply to contract-handled (CH) and remote-handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) waste forms and are not intended to apply to beta-gamma wastes, spent fuel, high-level waste (HLW), low-level waste (LLW), low specific activity (LSA) waste, or forms of radioactive waste for experimental purposes. Specifications for receipt of experimental waste forms will be prepared by the responsible projects in conjunction with the staff of the WIPP project at a later date. In addition, these criteria only apply to waste emplaced in bedded rock salt. Technical bases for these criteria may differ significantly from those for other host rocks. 25 refs. 4 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1989-01-01