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1

Conditioning of Waste LiCl Salt from Pyrochemical Process Using Zeolite A  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrolytic (LiCl-LiO) reduction process (Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process; ACP) and the electrorefining process, which are being developed by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), are to generate two types of molten salt wastes such as a LiCl salt and a LiCl-KCl eutectic salt, respectively. These waste salts must meet certain criteria for a disposal. A conditioning process

J. G. Kim; J. H. Lee; E. H. Kim; D. H. Ahn; J. H. Kim

2006-01-01

2

Salt effect of LiCl on vapor–liquid equilibrium of the acetone–methanol system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of lithium chloride (LiCl) at salt mole fractions from 0.005 to 0.15 and at saturation on vapor–liquid equilibrium (VLE) of the binary acetone–methanol system has been experimentally investigated at 101.32 kPa using a modified Othmer equilibrium still, in order to elucidate the behavior of this mixture whose existing data are rather contradictory. The salting-out effect of the salt

Maria C. Iliuta; Ion Iliuta; Ortansa M. Landauer; Fernand C. Thyrion

1998-01-01

3

Electrochemical behavior of a platinum anode for reduction of uranium oxide in a LiCl molten salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical behavior of a platinum anode has been investigated during the electrolysis of uranium oxide in a LiCl molten salt. Pt is oxidized to Pt2+ at 2.6V (vs. Li–Pb reference electrode) in the absence of O2? ion. The platinum dissolution takes place at a more anodic potential with an increase of O2? ion. Although the main anodic process in

Sang Mun Jeong; Ho-Sup Shin; Soo-Haeng Cho; Jin-Mok Hur; Han Soo Lee

2009-01-01

4

Distillation and condensation of LiCl–KCl eutectic salts for a separation of pure salts from salt wastes from an electrorefining process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt separation and recovery from the salt wastes generated from a pyrochemical process is necessary to minimize the high-level waste volumes and to stabilize a final waste form. In this study, the thermal behavior of the LiCl–KCl eutectic salts containing rare earth oxychlorides or oxides was investigated during a vacuum distillation and condensation process. LiCl was more easily vaporized than

Hee Chul Eun; Hee Chul Yang; Han Soo Lee; In Tae Kim

2009-01-01

5

Electrochemical reduction behavior of U 3O 8 powder in a LiCl molten salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reduction path of the U3O8 powder vol-oxidized at 1200°C has been determined by a series of electrochemical experiments in a 1wt.% Li2O\\/LiCl molten salt. Various reaction intermediates are observed by during electrolysis of U3O8. The formation of the metallic uranium is caused from two different reduction paths, a direct reduction of uranium oxide and an electro-lithiothermic reduction. As the

Sang Mun Jeong; Ho-Sup Shin; Sun-Seok Hong; Jin-Mok Hur; Jae Bum Do; Han Soo Lee

2010-01-01

6

High-performance LiCoO 2 by molten salt (LiNO 3:LiCl) synthesis for Li-ion batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to increase and sustain the reversible capacity of LiCoO2 on cycling, LiCoO2 is prepared by using the molten-salt of the eutectic LiNO3–LiCl at temperatures 650–850°C with or without KOH as an oxidizing flux. The compounds are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), chemical analysis, surface area and density techniques. Cathodic behaviour was examined by

K. S. Tan; M. V. Reddy; G. V. Subba Rao; B. V. R. Chowdari

2005-01-01

7

Organic waste processing using molten salt oxidation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal means of oxidizing (destroying) the organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials while retaining inorganic and radioactive constituents in the salt. For this reason, MSO is consid...

M. Adamson

1998-01-01

8

Disposal of Savannah River Plant waste salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 26-million gallons of soluble low-level waste salts will be produced during solidification of 6-million gallons of high-level defense waste in the proposed Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Soluble wastes (primarily NaNOâ, NaNOâ, and NaOH) stored in the waste tanks will be decontaminated by ion exchange and solidified in concrete. The resulting salt-concrete mixture,

Dukes

1982-01-01

9

Salt waste volume reduction by sodium removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A literature searcha nd preliminary experiments were carried out to ; determine the feasibility of reducing salt waste volumes by the removal of sodium ; and purifying the sodium as metal for reuse or less restricted storage for use in ; the long-term storage of Hanford's radioactive salt waste. Included in the ; experimental part of the study were oxalate

L. L. Burger; J. L. Ryan; J. L. Swanson; L. A. Bray

1973-01-01

10

Organic waste processing using molten salt oxidation  

SciTech Connect

Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal means of oxidizing (destroying) the organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials while retaining inorganic and radioactive constituents in the salt. For this reason, MSO is considered a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. The U. S. Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (DOE/EM) is currently funding research that will identify alternatives to incineration for the treatment of organic-based mixed wastes. (Mixed wastes are defined as waste streams which have both hazardous and radioactive properties.) One such project is Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Expedited Technology Demonstration of Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO). The goal of this project is to conduct an integrated demonstration of MSO, including off-gas and spent salt treatment, and the preparation of robust solid final forms. Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has constructed an integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system in which tests and demonstrations are presently being performed under carefully controlled (experimental) conditions. The system consists of a MSO process vessel with dedicated off-gas treatment, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and equipment for preparing ceramic final waste forms. In this paper we describe the integrated system and discuss its capabilities as well as preliminary process demonstration data. A primary purpose of these demonstrations is to identify the most suitable waste streams and waste types for MSO treatment.

Adamson, M. G., LLNL

1998-03-01

11

Alternative Waste Forms for Electro-Chemical Salt Waste  

SciTech Connect

This study was undertaken to examine alternate crystalline (ceramic/mineral) and glass waste forms for immobilizing spent salt from the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) electrochemical separations process. The AFCI is a program sponsored by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and demonstrate a process for recycling spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The electrochemical process is a molten salt process for the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel in an electrorefiner and generates spent salt that is contaminated with alkali, alkaline earths, and lanthanide fission products (FP) that must either be cleaned of fission products or eventually replaced with new salt to maintain separations efficiency. Currently, these spent salts are mixed with zeolite to form sodalite in a glass-bonded waste form. The focus of this study was to investigate alternate waste forms to immobilize spent salt. On a mole basis, the spent salt is dominated by alkali and Cl with minor amounts of alkaline earth and lanthanides. In the study reported here, we made an effort to explore glass systems that are more compatible with Cl and have not been previously considered for use as waste forms. In addition, alternate methods were explored with the hope of finding a way to produce a sodalite that is more accepting of as many FP present in the spent salt as possible. This study was done to investigate two different options: (1) alternate glass families that incorporate increased concentrations of Cl; and (2) alternate methods to produce a mineral waste form.

Crum, Jarrod V.; Sundaram, S. K.; Riley, Brian J.; Matyas, Josef; Arreguin, Shelly A.; Vienna, John D.

2009-10-28

12

Disposal of NORM waste in salt caverns  

SciTech Connect

Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approving cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

1998-07-01

13

Salt caverns for oil field waste disposal.  

SciTech Connect

Salt caverns used for oil field waste disposal are created in salt formations by solution mining. When created, caverns are filled with brine. Wastes are introduced into the cavern by pumping them under low pressure. Each barrel of waste injected to the cavern displaces a barrel of brine to the surface. The brine is either used for drilling mud or is disposed of in an injection well. Figure 8 shows an injection pump used at disposal cavern facilities in west Texas. Several types of oil field waste may be pumped into caverns for disposal. These include drilling muds, drill cuttings, produced sands, tank bottoms, contaminated soil, and completion and stimulation wastes. Waste blending facilities are constructed at the site of cavern disposal to mix the waste into a brine solution prior to injection. Overall advantages of salt cavern disposal include a medium price range for disposal cost, large capacity and availability of salt caverns, limited surface land requirement, increased safety, and ease of establishment of individual state regulations.

Veil, J.; Ford, J.; Rawn-Schatzinger, V.; Environmental Assessment; RMC, Consultants, Inc.

2000-07-01

14

Effects of Heat Generation on Nuclear Waste Disposal in Salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disposal of nuclear waste in salt is an established technology, as evidenced by the successful operations of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) since 1999. The WIPP is located in bedded salt in southeastern New Mexico and is a deep underground facility for transuranic (TRU) nuclear waste disposal. There are many advantages for placing radioactive wastes in a geologic bedded-salt

D. J. Clayton

2008-01-01

15

Simulation of salt waste evaporation/crystallization  

SciTech Connect

The database of ProChem software has been enhanced to account for the formation of the mineral, Burkite which can form in alkaline tank wastes during evaporation. This mineral was not suspected until recent evaporation/crystallization studies suggested its presence. The enhanced data base will predict its occurrence and realm of existence. If salt cake temperatures drop below 30[degrees]C the Burkite phase is unstable toward hydrated sodium carbonates and sulfates. ProChem will not predict if this phase is more or less rapidly dissolved than its component salts. The enhanced database improves our ability to simulate waste chemistry.

Orebaugh, E.G.

1993-01-22

16

Simulation of salt waste evaporation/crystallization  

SciTech Connect

The database of ProChem software has been enhanced to account for the formation of the mineral, Burkite which can form in alkaline tank wastes during evaporation. This mineral was not suspected until recent evaporation/crystallization studies suggested its presence. The enhanced data base will predict its occurrence and realm of existence. If salt cake temperatures drop below 30{degrees}C the Burkite phase is unstable toward hydrated sodium carbonates and sulfates. ProChem will not predict if this phase is more or less rapidly dissolved than its component salts. The enhanced database improves our ability to simulate waste chemistry.

Orebaugh, E.G.

1993-01-22

17

Aspects of Underground Disposal of Radioactive Waste in Rock Salt.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The subject of the thesis concerns disposal of radioactive waste in underground rock-salt formations. Rock salt is one of the few potential host formations for accomodating radioactive waste; it has a relatively high thermal conductivity and is practicall...

W. M. G. T. van den Broek

1989-01-01

18

Molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials  

DOEpatents

A molten salt destruction process is used to treat and destroy energetic waste materials such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels. The energetic material is pre-blended with a solid or fluid diluent in safe proportions to form a fluid fuel mixture. The fuel mixture is rapidly introduced into a high temperature molten salt bath. A stream of molten salt is removed from the vessel and may be recycled as diluent. Additionally, the molten salt stream may be pumped from the reactor, circulated outside the reactor for further processing, and delivered back into the reactor or cooled and circulated to the feed delivery system to further dilute the fuel mixture entering the reactor.

Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA); Pruneda, Cesar O. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01

19

Simulation of salt waste evaporation\\/crystallization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The database of ProChem software has been enhanced to account for the formation of the mineral, Burkite which can form in alkaline tank wastes during evaporation. This mineral was not suspected until recent evaporation\\/crystallization studies suggested its presence. The enhanced data base will predict its occurrence and realm of existence. If salt cake temperatures drop below 30°C the Burkite phase

Orebaugh

1993-01-01

20

Simulation of salt waste evaporation\\/crystallization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The database of ProChem software has been enhanced to account for the formation of the mineral, Burkite which can form in alkaline tank wastes during evaporation. This mineral was not suspected until recent evaporation\\/crystallization studies suggested its presence. The enhanced data base will predict its occurrence and realm of existence. If salt cake temperatures drop below 30[degrees]C the Burkite phase

Orebaugh

1993-01-01

21

Cementitious Stabilization of Mixed Wastes with High Salt Loadings  

SciTech Connect

Salt loadings approaching 50 wt % were tolerated in cementitious waste forms that still met leach and strength criteria, addressing a Technology Deficiency of low salt loadings previously identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area. A statistical design quantified the effect of different stabilizing ingredients and salt loading on performance at lower loadings, allowing selection of the more effective ingredients for studying the higher salt loadings. In general, the final waste form needed to consist of 25 wt % of the dry stabilizing ingredients to meet the criteria used and 25 wt % water to form a workable paste, leaving 50 wt % for waste solids. The salt loading depends on the salt content of the waste solids but could be as high as 50 wt % if all the waste solids are salt.

Spence, R.D.; Burgess, M.W.; Fedorov, V.V.; Downing, D.J.

1999-04-01

22

Delivery system for molten salt oxidation of solid waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention is a delivery system for safety injecting solid waste particles, including mixed wastes, into a molten salt bath for destruction by the process of molten salt oxidation. The delivery system includes a feeder system and an injector that allow the solid waste stream to be accurately metered, evenly dispersed in the oxidant gas, and maintained at a

William A. Brummond; Dwight V. Squire; Jeffrey A. Robinson; Palmer A. House

2002-01-01

23

Waste form dissolution in bedded salt  

SciTech Connect

A model was devised for waste dissolution in bedded salt, a hydrologically tight medium. For a typical Spent UnReprocessed Fuel (SURF) emplacement, the dissolution rate wll be diffusion limited and will rise to a steady state value after t/sub eq/ approx. = 250 (1+(1-epsilon/sub 0/) K/sub D//epsilon/sub 0/) (years) epsilon/sub 0/ is the overpack porosity and K/sub d/ is the overpack sorption coefficient. The steady state dissolution rate itself is dominated by the solubility of UO/sub 2/. Steady state rates between 5 x 10/sup -5/ and .5 (g/year) are achievable by SURF emplacements in bedded salt without overpack, and rates between 5 x 10/sup -7/ and 5 x 10/sup -3/ (g/year) with an overpack having porosity of 10/sup -2/.

Kaufman, A.M.

1980-09-16

24

Delivery system for molten salt oxidation of solid waste  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a delivery system for safety injecting solid waste particles, including mixed wastes, into a molten salt bath for destruction by the process of molten salt oxidation. The delivery system includes a feeder system and an injector that allow the solid waste stream to be accurately metered, evenly dispersed in the oxidant gas, and maintained at a temperature below incineration temperature while entering the molten salt reactor.

Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Squire, Dwight V. (Livermore, CA); Robinson, Jeffrey A. (Manteca, CA); House, Palmer A. (Walnut Creek, CA)

2002-01-01

25

Hydrometallurgical treatment of plutonium. Bearing salt baths waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The salt flux issuing from the electrorefining of plutonium metal alloy in salt baths (KCl + NaCl) poses a difficult problem of the back-end alpha waste management. An alternative to the salt process promoted by Los Alamos Laboratory is to develop a hydro...

P. Bros J. P. Gozlan M. Lecomte J. Bourges

1993-01-01

26

Mixed Waste Salt Encapsulation Using Polysiloxane - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

A proof-of-concept experimental study was performed to investigate the use of Orbit Technologies polysiloxane grouting material for encapsulation of U.S. Department of Energy mixed waste salts leading to a final waste form for disposal. Evaporator pond salt residues and other salt-like material contaminated with both radioactive isotopes and hazardous components are ubiquitous in the DOE complex and may exceed 250,000,000 kg of material. Current treatment involves mixing low waste percentages (less than 10% by mass salt) with cement or costly thermal treatment followed by cementation to the ash residue. The proposed technology involves simple mixing of the granular salt material (with relatively high waste loadings-greater than 50%) in a polysiloxane-based system that polymerizes to form a silicon-based polymer material. This study involved a mixing study to determine optimum waste loadings and compressive strengths of the resultant monoliths. Following the mixing study, durability testing was performed on promising waste forms. Leaching studies including the accelerated leach test and the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure were also performed on a high nitrate salt waste form. In addition to this testing, the waste form was examined by scanning electron microscope. Preliminary cost estimates for applying this technology to the DOE complex mixed waste salt problem is also given.

Miller, C.M.; Loomis, G.G.; Prewett, S.W.

1997-11-01

27

Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from United States repository development, such as seal system design, coupled process simulation, and application of performance assessment methodology, helps define a clear strategy for a heat-generating nuclear waste repository in salt.

Leigh, Christi D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Hansen, Francis D.

2011-01-01

28

Effects of Heat Generation on Nuclear Waste Disposal in Salt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disposal of nuclear waste in salt is an established technology, as evidenced by the successful operations of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) since 1999. The WIPP is located in bedded salt in southeastern New Mexico and is a deep underground facility for transuranic (TRU) nuclear waste disposal. There are many advantages for placing radioactive wastes in a geologic bedded-salt environment. One desirable mechanical characteristic of salt is that it flows plastically with time ("creeps"). The rate of salt creep is a strong function of temperature and stress differences. Higher temperatures and deviatoric stresses increase the creep rate. As the salt creeps, induced fractures may be closed and eventually healed, which then effectively seals the waste in place. With a backfill of crushed salt emplaced around the waste, the salt creep can cause the crushed salt to reconsolidate and heal to a state similar to intact salt, serving as an efficient seal. Experiments in the WIPP were conducted to investigate the effects of heat generation on the important phenomena and processes in and around the repository (Munson et al. 1987; 1990; 1992a; 1992b). Brine migration towards the heaters was induced from the thermal gradient, while salt creep rates showed an exponential dependence on temperature. The project "Backfill and Material Behavior in Underground Salt Repositories, Phase II" (BAMBUS II) studied the crushed salt backfill and material behavior with heat generation at the Asse mine located near Remlingen, Germany (Bechthold et al. 2004). Increased salt creep rates and significant reconsolidation of the crushed salt were observed at the termination of the experiment. Using the data provided from both projects, exploratory modeling of the thermal-mechanical response of salt has been conducted with varying thermal loading and waste spacing. Increased thermal loading and decreased waste spacing drive the system to higher temperatures, while both factors are desired to reduce costs, as well as decrease the overall footprint of the repository. Higher temperatures increase the rate of salt creep which then effectively seals the waste quicker. Data of the thermal-mechanical response of salt at these higher temperatures is needed to further validate the exploratory modeling and provide meaningful constraints on the repository design. Sandia is a multi program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04- 94AL85000.

Clayton, D. J.

2008-12-01

29

Hyponatremia--What Is Cerebral Salt Wasting?  

PubMed Central

Background: Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte imbalance in hospitalized patients. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, especially if the underlying cause is incorrectly diagnosed and not treated appropriately. Often, the hospitalist is faced with a clinical dilemma when a patient presents with hyponatremia of an unclear etiology and with uncertain volume status. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is frequently diagnosed in this clinical setting, but cerebral salt wasting (CSW) is an important diagnosis to consider. Objective: We wanted to describe the diagnosis, treatment, and history of CSW to provide clinicians with a better understanding of the differential diagnosis for hyponatremia. Conclusion: CSW is a process of extracellular volume depletion due to a tubular defect in sodium transport. Two postulated mechanisms for CSW are the excess secretion of natriuretic peptides and the loss of sympathetic stimulation to the kidney. Making the distinction between CSW and SIADH is important because the treatment for the two conditions is very different.

Momi, Jasminder; Tang, Christopher M; Abcar, Antoine C; Kujubu, Dean A; Sim, John J

2010-01-01

30

Molten salt processing of mixed wastes with offgas condensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing an advanced process for treatment of mixed wastes in molten salt media at temperatures of 700--1000°C. Waste destruction has been demonstrated in a single stage oxidation process, with destruction efficiencies above 99.9999% for many waste categories. The molten salt provides a heat transfer medium, prevents thermal surges, and functions as an in situ scrubber to transform the

J. F. Cooper; W. Brummond; J. Celeste; J. Farmer; C. Hoenig; O. H. Krikorian; R. Upadhye; R. L. Gay; A. Stewart; S. Yosim

1991-01-01

31

Modeling of Sulfate Double-salts in Nuclear Wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to limited tank space at Hanford and Savannah River, the liquid nuclear wastes or supernatants have been concentrated in evaporators to remove excess water prior to the hot solutions being transferred to underground storage tanks. As the waste solutions cooled, the salts in the waste exceeded the associated solubility limits and precipitated in the form of saltcakes. The initial

B. Toghiani; J. S. Lindner; C. F. Weber; R. D. Hunt

2000-01-01

32

Expected brine movement at potential nuclear waste repository salt sites  

SciTech Connect

The BRINEMIG brine migration code predicts rates and quantities of brine migration to a waste package emplaced in a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The BRINEMIG code is an explicit time-marching finite-difference code that solves a mass balance equation and uses the Jenks equation to predict velocities of brine migration. Predictions were made for the seven potentially acceptable salt sites under consideration as locations for the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Predicted total quantities of accumulated brine were on the order of 1 m/sup 3/ brine per waste package or less. Less brine accumulation is expected at domal salt sites because of the lower initial moisture contents relative to bedded salt sites. Less total accumulation of brine is predicted for spent fuel than for commercial high-level waste because of the lower temperatures generated by spent fuel. 11 refs., 36 figs., 29 tabs.

McCauley, V.S.; Raines, G.E.

1987-08-01

33

Method for immobilizing mixed waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and other hazardous wastes  

DOEpatents

The invention is a method for the encapsulation of soluble radioactive waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as strontium, cesium and hazardous wastes such as barium so that they may be permanently stored without future threat to the environment. The process consists of contacting the salts containing the radionuclides and hazardous wastes with certain zeolites which have been found to ion exchange with the radionuclides and to occlude the chloride salts so that the resulting product is leach resistant.

Lewis, Michele A. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Terry R. (Wheaton, IL)

1993-01-01

34

Salt caverns show promise for nonhazardous oil field waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

Salt caverns show promise for the disposal of non-hazardous oil field wastes, and there are no apparent regulatory barriers to this application. Solution-mined salt caverns have been used for many years for storing hydrocarbon products. Argonne National laboratory has reviewed the legality, technical suitability, and feasibility of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration and production wastes in salt caverns. An analysis of regulations indicates that there are no outright regulatory prohibitions on cavern disposal of oil field wastes at either the federal level or in the 11 oil-producing states that were studied (Kansas, Louisiana, Michigan, Mississippi, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, and Texas). The paper discusses the two types of salt deposits in the US, regulatory concerns, wastes, cavern design, disposal operations, closure and remediation, and results of the feasibility study.

Veil, J.A. [Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

1996-11-18

35

Disposal of NORM waste in salt caverns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existi...

J. A. Veil K. P. Smith D. Tomasko D. Elcock D. Blunt

1998-01-01

36

Physical chemistry of molten-salt batteries. Final report, October 1, 1981September 30, 1982. LiCl precipitation from LiCl-KCl anolyte in porous Li-Al electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composition gradients such as those predicted to occur during discharge of porous Li-Al negative electrodes of Li\\/S batteries with LiCl-KCl eutectic electrolyte were generated and measured in the LiCl-KCl anolyte of an electrolysis cell with Li-Al electrodes. LiCl precipitation during electrolysis was observed by two-dimensional scanning of electrolyte composition in the front part of quenched porous Li-Al anode sections using

C. E. Vallet; D. E. Heatherly; L. Jr. Heatherly; J. Braunstein

1983-01-01

37

Molten salt processing of mixed wastes with offgas condensation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We are developing an advanced process for treatment of mixed wastes in molten salt media at temperatures of 700--1000(degrees)C. Waste destruction has been demonstrated in a single stage oxidation process, with destruction efficiencies above 99.9999% for ...

J. F. Cooper W. Brummond J. Celeste J. Farmer C. Hoenig

1991-01-01

38

Treatment of Difficult Wastes with Molten Salt Oxidation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is a good alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes such as explosives, low-level mixed waste streams, PCB contaminated oils, spent resins and carbon. Since mid- 1990s, the U.S. Army Defense A...

P. C. Hsu S. Kwak

2003-01-01

39

Disposal of oil field wastes and NORM wastes into salt caverns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt caverns can be formed through solution mining in the bedded or domal salt formations that are found in many states. Salt caverns have traditionally been used for hydrocarbon storage, but caverns have also been used to dispose of some types of wastes. This paper provides an overview of several years of research by Argonne National Laboratory on the feasibility

Veil

1999-01-01

40

Disposal of oil field wastes and NORM wastes into salt caverns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Salt caverns can be formed through solution mining in the bedded or domal salt formations that are found in many states. Salt caverns have traditionally been used for hydrocarbon storage, but caverns have also been used to dispose of some types of wastes....

J. A. Veil

1999-01-01

41

Molten salt treatment to minimize and optimize waste  

SciTech Connect

A combination molten salt oxidizer (MSO) and molten salt reactor (MSR) is described for treatment of waste. The MSO is proposed for contained oxidization of organic hazardous waste, for reduction of mass and volume of dilute waste by evaporation of the water. The NTSO residue is to be treated to optimize the waste in terms of its composition, chemical form, mixture, concentration, encapsulation, shape, size, and configuration. Accumulations and storage are minimized, shipments are sized for low risk. Actinides, fissile material, and long-lived isotopes are separated and completely burned or transmuted in an MSR. The MSR requires no fuel element fabrication, accepts the materials as salts in arbitrarily small quantities enhancing safety, security, and overall acceptability.

Gat, U.; Crosley, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Gay, R.L. [Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States)

1993-07-01

42

Membrane Treatment of Liquid Salt Bearing Radioactive Wastes  

SciTech Connect

The main fields of introduction and application of membrane methods for preliminary treatment and processing salt liquid radioactive waste (SLRW) can be nuclear power stations (NPP) and enterprises on atomic submarines (AS) utilization. Unlike the earlier developed technology for the liquid salt bearing radioactive waste decontamination and concentrating this report presents the new enhanced membrane technology for the liquid salt bearing radioactive waste processing based on the state-of-the-art membrane unit design, namely, the filtering units equipped with the metal-ceramic membranes of ''TruMem'' brand, as well as the electrodialysis and electroosmosis concentrators. Application of the above mentioned units in conjunction with the pulse pole changer will allow the marked increase of the radioactive waste concentrating factor and the significant reduction of the waste volume intended for conversion into monolith and disposal. Besides, the application of the electrodialysis units loaded with an ion exchange material at the end polishing stage of the radioactive waste decontamination process will allow the reagent-free radioactive waste treatment that meets the standards set for the release of the decontaminated liquid radioactive waste effluents into the natural reservoirs of fish-farming value.

Dmitriev, S. A.; Adamovich, D. V.; Demkin, V. I.; Timofeev, E. M.

2003-02-25

43

Molten salt processing of mixed wastes with offgas condensation  

SciTech Connect

We are developing an advanced process for treatment of mixed wastes in molten salt media at temperatures of 700--1000{degrees}C. Waste destruction has been demonstrated in a single stage oxidation process, with destruction efficiencies above 99.9999% for many waste categories. The molten salt provides a heat transfer medium, prevents thermal surges, and functions as an in situ scrubber to transform the acid-gas forming components of the waste into neutral salts and immobilizes potentially fugitive materials by a combination of particle wetting, encapsulation and chemical dissolution and solvation. Because the offgas is collected and assayed before release, and wastes containing toxic and radioactive materials are treated while immobilized in a condensed phase, the process avoids the problems sometimes associated with incineration processes. We are studying a potentially improved modification of this process, which treats oxidizable wastes in two stages: pyrolysis followed by catalyzed molten salt oxidation of the pyrolysis gases at ca. 700{degrees}C. 15 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Cooper, J.F.; Brummond, W.; Celeste, J.; Farmer, J.; Hoenig, C.; Krikorian, O.H.; Upadhye, R. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Gay, R.L.; Stewart, A.; Yosim, S. (Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (USA). Energy Systems Group)

1991-05-13

44

Integrated demonstration of molten salt oxidation with salt recycle for mixed waste treatment  

SciTech Connect

Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal, nonflame process that has the inherent capability of completely destroying organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials while retaining inorganic and radioactive constituents in the salt. For this reason, MSO is considered a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has prepared a facility and constructed an integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system in which tests and demonstrations are performed under carefully controlled (experimental) conditions. The system consists of a MSO processor with dedicated off-gas treatment, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and equipment for preparing ceramic final waste forms. This integrated system was designed and engineered based on laboratory experience with a smaller engineering-scale reactor unit and extensive laboratory development on salt recycle and final forms preparation. In this paper we present design and engineering details of the system and discuss its capabilities as well as preliminary process demonstration data. A primary purpose of these demonstrations is identification of the most suitable waste streams and waste types for MSO treatment.

Hsu, P.C.

1997-11-01

45

Containment of solidified liquid hazardous waste in domal salt  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, the solidification of hazardous liquid waste has become a viable option in waste management. The solidification process results in an increased volume but more stable waste form that must be disposed of or stored in a dry environment. An environment of choice in south central Texas is domal salt. The salt dome currently under investigation has a water content of 0.002 percent by weight and a permeability less than one nanodarcy. A question that must be addressed is whether a salt dome has a particular set of attributes that will prevent the release of contaminants to the environment. From a regulatory perspective, a no migration'' petition must be approved by the U.S.E.P.A. for the containment facility. By no migration'' it is implied that the waste must be contained for 10,000 years. A demonstration that this condition will be met will require model calculations and such models must be based on the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste form and the geologic environment. In particular, the models must address the rate of brine infiltration into the caverns, providing information on how fast an immobile solid waste form could convert to a more mobile liquid state. Additionally, the potential for migration by both diffusion and advection is of concern. Lastly, given a partially saturated cavern, the question of how far gaseous waste will be transported over the 10,000 year containment period must also be addressed. Results indicate that the containment capabilities of domal salt are exceptional. A nominal volume of brine will seep into the cavern and most voids between the injected solidified waste pellets will remain unsaturated. Very small quantities of hazardous constituents will be leached from the waste pellets.

Domenico, P.A. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Geology Dept.); Lerman, A. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. Geological Sciences)

1992-01-01

46

MIXING MODELING ANALYSIS FOR SRS SALT WASTE DISPOSITION  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear waste at Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks consists of three different types of waste forms. They are the lighter salt solutions referred to as supernate, the precipitated salts as salt cake, and heavier fine solids as sludge. The sludge is settled on the tank floor. About half of the residual waste radioactivity is contained in the sludge, which is only about 8 percentage of the total waste volume. Mixing study to be evaluated here for the Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) project focuses on supernate preparations in waste tanks prior to transfer to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) feed tank. The methods to mix and blend the contents of the SRS blend tanks were evalutaed to ensure that the contents are properly blended before they are transferred from the blend tank such as Tank 50H to the SWPF feed tank. The work consists of two principal objectives to investigate two different pumps. One objective is to identify a suitable pumping arrangement that will adequately blend/mix two miscible liquids to obtain a uniform composition in the tank with a minimum level of sludge solid particulate in suspension. The other is to estimate the elevation in the tank at which the transfer pump inlet should be located where the solid concentration of the entrained fluid remains below the acceptance criterion (0.09 wt% or 1200 mg/liter) during transfer operation to the SWPF. Tank 50H is a Waste Tank that will be used to prepare batches of salt feed for SWPF. The salt feed must be a homogeneous solution satisfying the acceptance criterion of the solids entrainment during transfer operation. The work described here consists of two modeling areas. They are the mixing modeling analysis during miscible liquid blending operation, and the flow pattern analysis during transfer operation of the blended liquid. The modeling results will provide quantitative design and operation information during the mixing/blending process and the transfer operation of the blended liquid in the Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) facility. The results will also help validate the anticipated performance of the pump vendor's design.

Lee, S.

2011-01-18

47

Hydrological methods preferentially recover cesium from nuclear waste salt cake  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site is treating high level radioactive waste in the form of insoluble solids (sludge), crystallized salt (salt cake), and salt solutions. High costs and operational concerns have prompted DOE to look for ways to improve the salt cake treatment process. A numerical model was developed to evaluate the feasibility of pump and treat technology for extracting cesium from salt cake. A modified version of the VAM3DCG code was used to first establish a steady-state flow field, then to simulate 30 days of operation. Simulation results suggest that efficient cesium extraction can be obtained with low displacement volumes. The actual extraction process will probably be less impressive because of nonuniform properties. 2 refs., 2 figs.

Brooke, J.N.; Hamm, L.L.

1997-05-01

48

Laboratory simulation of salt dissolution during waste removal  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory experiments were performed to support the field demonstration of improved techniques for salt dissolution in waste tanks at the Savannah River Site. The tests were designed to investigate three density driven techniques for salt dissolution: (1) Drain-Add-Sit-Remove, (2) Modified Density Gradient, and (3) Continuous Salt Mining. Salt dissolution was observed to be a very rapid process as salt solutions with densities between 1.38-1.4 were frequently removed. Slower addition and removal rates and locating the outlet line at deeper levels below the top of the saltcake provided the best contact between the dissolution water and the saltcake. It was observed that dissolution with 1 M sodium hydroxide solution resulted in salt solutions that were within the current inhibitor requirements for the prevention of stress corrosion cracking. This result was independent of the density driven technique. However, if inhibited water (0.01 M sodium hydroxide and 0.011 M sodium nitrite) was utilized, the salt solutions were frequently outside the inhibitor requirements. Corrosion testing at conditions similar to the environments expected during waste removal was recommended.

Wiersma, B.J.; Parish, W.R.

1997-01-01

49

Incineration in molten salts of alpha-contaminated solid waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incineration by the molten salt process is found to be suitable for the safe destruction of alpha-contaminated waste without pollution but with the possibility of plutonium recovery. A detailed description of the processes involved in the incineration process is given covering: combustion, acid dissolution, recovery of U and\\/or Pu by electrolytic means, separation of ash, and recycling of the eutectic

G. Brambilla; E. Quercioli; L. Beaulardi; R. Gritti

2008-01-01

50

Expected Environment for Waste Packages in a Salt Repository.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper discusses results of recent efforts to define the very near-field (within approximately 2 m) environmental conditions to which waste packages will be exposed in a salt repository. These conditions must be considered in the experimental design f...

L. R. Pederson D. E. Clark F. N. Hodges G. L. McVay D. Rai

1983-01-01

51

Treatment of solid wastes with molten salt oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is a robust thermal treatment process that can be used to oxidatively and efficiently destroy the organic constituents of mixed and hazardous wastes, and energetic materials [1–7]. An integrated pilot-scale MSO demonstration facility has been installed and operated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This facility, which has been operational since December 1997, was built to

Peter C. Hsu; Kenneth G. Foster; Timothy D. Ford; P. Henrik Wallman; Bruce E. Watkins; César O. Pruneda; Martyn G. Adamson

2000-01-01

52

Release of salts from municipal solid waste combustion residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residues from fluidized bed combustion of municipal solid waste were investigated with respect to their leaching behavior and possible extraction of salts. The total water extractable amounts of Na, K, Ca, Cl?, Br?, F? and SO42? along with the total dissolved solids of bottom, hopper, cyclone and bag house filter ashes were determined. A simple multistage washing process (using water

Zareen Abbas; Azadeh Partovi Moghaddam; Britt-Marie Steenari

2003-01-01

53

Principles of geomechanical safety assessment for radioactive waste disposal in salt structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, a large amount of knowledge is available concerning various sites of potential high active waste (HAW) repositories in salt media. Domal Zechstein salt formations have been examined at several sites in Germany. Extensive R&D work was initiated in the former Asse Salt Mine in order to explore the suitability of salt for waste isolation by laboratory tests, theoretical studies

M Langer

1999-01-01

54

Injector nozzle for molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials  

DOEpatents

An injector nozzle has been designed for safely injecting energetic waste materials, such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels, into a molten salt reactor in a molten salt destruction process without premature detonation or back burn in the injection system. The energetic waste material is typically diluted to form a fluid fuel mixture that is injected rapidly into the reactor. A carrier gas used in the nozzle serves as a carrier for the fuel mixture, and further dilutes the energetic material and increases its injection velocity into the reactor. The injector nozzle is cooled to keep the fuel mixture below the decomposition temperature to prevent spontaneous detonation of the explosive materials before contact with the high-temperature molten salt bath.

Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA)

1996-01-01

55

Salt Repository Project waste emplacement mode decision paper: Revison 1  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a recommendation as to the mode of waste emplacement to be used as the current basis for site characterization activity for the Deaf Smith County, Texas, high level nuclear waste repository site. It also presents a plan for implementing the recommendation so as to provide a high level of confidence in the project's success. Since evaluations of high-level waste disposal in geologic repositories began in the 1950s, most studies emplacement in salt formations employed the vertical orientation for emplacing waste packages in boreholes in the floor of the underground facility. This orientation was used in trials at Project Salt Vault in the 1960s. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has recently settled on a combination of vertical and horizontal modes for various waste types. This paper analyzes the information available and develops a project position upon which to base current site characterization activities. The position recommended is that the SRP should continue to use the vertical waste emplacement mode as the reference design and to carry the horizontal mode as a ''passive'' alternative. This position was developed based upon the conclusions of a decision analysis, risk assessment, and cost/schedule impact assessment. 52 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1987-08-01

56

Simulation of salt waste evaporation/crystallization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The database of ProChem software has been enhanced to account for the formation of the mineral, Burkite which can form in alkaline tank wastes during evaporation. This mineral was not suspected until recent evaporation/crystallization studies suggested it...

E. G. Orebaugh

1993-01-01

57

Salt-occluded zeolite waste forms: Crystal structures and transformability  

SciTech Connect

Neutron diffraction studies of salt-occluded zeolite and zeolite/glass composite samples, simulating nuclear waste forms loaded with fission products, have revealed complex structures, with cations assuming the dual roles of charge compensation and occlusion (cluster formation). These clusters roughly fill the 6--8 {angstrom} diameter pores of the zeolites. Samples are prepared by equilibrating zeolite-A with complex molten Li, K, Cs, Sr, Ba, Y chloride salts, with compositions representative of anticipated waste systems. Samples prepared using zeolite 4A (which contains exclusively sodium cations) as starting material are observed to transform to sodalite, a denser aluminosilicate framework structure, while those prepared using zeolite 5A (sodium and calcium ions) more readily retain the zeolite-A structure. Because the sodalite framework pores are much smaller than those of zeolite-A, clusters are smaller and more rigorously confined, with a correspondingly lower capacity for waste containment. Details of the sodalite structures resulting from transformation of zeolite-A depend upon the precise composition of the original mixture. The enhanced resistance of salt-occluded zeolites prepared from zeolite 5A to sodalite transformation is thought to be related to differences in the complex chloride clusters present in these zeolite mixtures. Data relating processing conditions to resulting zeolite composition and structure can be used in the selection of processing parameters which lead to optimal waste forms.

Richardson, J.W. Jr. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Intense Pulsed Neutron Source Div.

1996-12-31

58

Radiation damage in a rock salt nuclear waste repository  

SciTech Connect

In many countries rock salt formations are candidates to host nuclear waste repositories. One of the aspects that needs careful consideration before such a repository can be put into operation is the formation of radiation damage din the salt. A model has been developed that provides a fundamental understanding of the buildup of radiation damage in NaCl. This model is based on kinetic rate reactions and takes into account the effect of impurities and the colloid nucleation stage on the growth of metallic sodium colloids. With this model, the authors have calculated the amounts of NaCl that can be converted into metallic sodium and molecular Cl[sub 2] for various options for repository design and intermediate storage times. It is shown that the concentrations of these defect aggregates, even very close to the high-level radioactive waste containers with steel walls 5 mm-thick, will be limited to a few mole percent.

Soppe, W.J.; Prij, J. (Netherlands Energy Research Foundation, Petten (Netherlands))

1994-09-01

59

BLENDING ANALYSIS FOR RADIOACTIVE SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated methods to mix and blend the contents of the blend tanks to ensure the contents are properly blended before they are transferred from the blend tank such as Tank 21 and Tank 24 to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) feed tank. The tank contents consist of three forms: dissolved salt solution, other waste salt solutions, and sludge containing settled solids. This paper focuses on developing the computational model and estimating the operation time of submersible slurry pump when the tank contents are adequately blended prior to their transfer to the SWPF facility. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics approach was taken by using the full scale configuration of SRS Type-IV tank, Tank 21H. Major solid obstructions such as the tank wall boundary, the transfer pump column, and three slurry pump housings including one active and two inactive pumps were included in the mixing performance model. Basic flow pattern results predicted by the computational model were benchmarked against the SRNL test results and literature data. Tank 21 is a waste tank that is used to prepare batches of salt feed for SWPF. The salt feed must be a homogeneous solution satisfying the acceptance criterion of the solids entrainment during transfer operation. The work scope described here consists of two modeling areas. They are the steady state flow pattern calculations before the addition of acid solution for tank blending operation and the transient mixing analysis during miscible liquid blending operation. The transient blending calculations were performed by using the 95% homogeneity criterion for the entire liquid domain of the tank. The initial conditions for the entire modeling domain were based on the steady-state flow pattern results with zero second phase concentration. The performance model was also benchmarked against the SRNL test results and literature data.

Lee, S.

2012-05-10

60

Molten salt oxidation for treating low-level mixed wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

MS0 is a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has prepared a facility (please see the photo attached) in which an integrated pilot-scale MS0 treatment system is being tested and demonstrated. The system consists of a MS0 vessel with a dedicated off-gas treatment system, a salt recycle system,

M G Adamson; T D Ford; Kenneth G. Foster; D L Hipple; R W Hopper; P C Hsu

1998-01-01

61

Disposal of soluble salt waste from coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses pollutants in the form of soluble salts and resource recovery in the form of water and land. A design for disposal of soluble salts has been produced. The interactions of its parameters have been shown by a process design study. The design will enable harmonious compliance with United States Public Laws 92-500 and 94-580, relating to water pollution and resource recovery. In the disposal of waste salt solutions, natural water resources need not be contaminated, because an encapsulation technique is available which will immobilize the salts. At the same time it will make useful landforms available, and water as a resource can be recovered. There is a cost minimum when electrodialysis and evaporation are combined, which is not realizable with evaporation alone, unless very low-cost thermal energy is available or unless very high-cost pretreatment for electrodialysis is required. All the processes making up the proposed disposal process are commercially available, although they are nowhere operating commercially as one process. Because of the commercial availability of the processes, the proposed process may be a candidate 'best commercially available treatment' for soluble salt disposal.

McKnight, C.E.

1980-06-01

62

Analysis of plutonium and uranium volatilities from mixed wastes in the molten salt processor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rockwell International has conductd a series of bench-scale molten salt processor tests on oxidation of simulated laboratory mixed waste materials to evaluate the retention of radionuclides such as Pu, U, I, Ru, Eu, Sr, and Cs in the molten salt bath of processor, and to obtain process information for designing a large-scale molten salt processor for mixed wastes. It is

Krikorian

1991-01-01

63

Waste package reference conceptual designs for a repository in salt  

SciTech Connect

This report provides the reference conceptual waste package designs for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation to baseline these designs, thereby establishing the configuration and interface controls necessary, within the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, formerly the National Waste Terminal Storage Program, to proceed in an orderly manner with preliminary design. Included are designs for the current reference defense high-level waste form from the Savannah River Plant, an optimized commercial high-level waste form, and spent fuel which has been disassembled and compacted into a circular bundle containing either 12 pressurized-water reactor or 30 boiling-water reactor assemblies. For compacted spent fuel, it appears economically attractive to standardize the waste package diameter for all fuel types. The reference waste packages consist of the containerized waste form, a low carbon steel overpack, and, after emplacement, a cover of salt. The overpack is a hollow cylinder with a flat head welded to each end. Its design thickness is the sum of the structural thickness required to resist the 15.4-MPa lithostatic pressure plus the corrosion allowance necessary to assure the required structural thickness will exist through the 1000-year containment period. Based on available data and completed analyses, the reference concepts described in this report satisfy all requirements of the US Department of Energy and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with reasonable assurance. In addition, sufficient design maturity exists to form a basis for preliminary design; these concepts can be brought under configuration control to serve as reference package designs. Development programs are identified that will be required to support these designs during the licensing process. 19 refs., 37 figs., 31 tabs.

Not Available

1986-02-01

64

Engineering study of the potential uses of salts from selective crystallization of Hanford tank wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Clean Salt Process (CSP) is the fractional crystallization of nitrate salts from tank waste stored on the Hanford Site. This study reviews disposition options for a CSP product made from Hanford Site tank waste. These options range from public release to onsite low-level waste disposal to no action. Process, production, safety, environment, cost, schedule, and the amount of CSP

Hendrickson

1996-01-01

65

Pyrolytic conversion of plastic and rubber waste to hydrocarbons with basic salt catalysts  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to a process for improving the pyrolytic conversion of waste selected from rubber and plastic to low molecular weight olefinic materials by employing basis salt catalysts in the waste mixture. The salts comprise alkali or alkaline earth compounds, particularly sodium carbonate, in an amount of greater than about 1 weight percent based on the waste feed.

Wingfield, Jr., Robert C. (Southfield, MI); Braslaw, Jacob (Southfield, MI); Gealer, Roy L. (West Bloomfield, MI)

1985-01-01

66

Analyses of Mass Transport in a Nuclear Waste Repository in Salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt is the proposed host rock for geologic repositories of nuclear waste in several nations because it is ``dry'' and probably ``impermeable.'' To evaluate the safety of nuclear waste disposal in salt, it is necessary to calculate the rate of release of nuclides from solidified waste form and to predict the transport of released radionuclides. Our objective is to develop

Y. Hwang; T. H. Pigford; P. L. Chambré; W. W.-L. Lee

1992-01-01

67

Analyses of mass transport in a nuclear waste repository in salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt is the proposed host rock for geologic repositories of nuclear waste in several nations because it is “dry” and probably “impermeable”. To evaluate the safety of nuclear waste disposal in salt, it is necessary to calculate the rate of release of nuclides from solidified waste form and to predict the transport of released radionuclides. Our objective is to develop

Y. Hwang; T. H. Pigford; P. L. Chambré; W. W.-L. Lee

1992-01-01

68

Ceramic waste form for residues from molten salt oxidation of mixed wastes  

SciTech Connect

A ceramic waste form based on Synroc-D is under development for the incorporation of the mineral residues from molten salt oxidation treatment of mixed low-level wastes. Samples containing as many as 32 chemical elements have been fabricated, characterized, and leach-tested. Universal Treatment Standards have been satisfied for all regulated elements except and two (lead and vanadium). Efforts are underway to further improve chemical durability.

Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Hopper, R.W.; Rard, J.A. [and others

1995-11-01

69

Risk Analyses for Disposing Nonhazardous Oil Field Wastes in Salt Caverns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Salt caverns have been used for several decades to store various hydrocarbon products. In the past few years, four facilities in the United States have been permitted to dispose nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns. Several other disposal caverns...

D. Tomasko D. Elcock J. Veil D. Caudle

1997-01-01

70

Thermal Properties of Fly Ash Substituted Slag Cement Waste Forms for Disposal of Savannah River Plant Salt Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Waste processing at the Savannah River Plant will involve reconstitution of the salts (NaNO sub 3 , NaNO sub 2 , NaOH, etc.) into a concentrated solution (32 weight percent salts) followed by solidification in a cement-based waste form for burial. The sta...

D. M. Roy S. Kaushal P. H. Licastro C. A. Langton

1985-01-01

71

Evaluation of the Thermomechanical Behavior About a Waste Container/Sleeve in Salt.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report deals with the very-near-field aspects of waste disposal in conceptual repositories within a salt medium and concentrates on the thermomechanical behavior around a drillhole containing a nuclear waste canister. Specifically, this includes an i...

H. Waldman

1983-01-01

72

Salt Repository Project: Waste Package Program (WPP) Modeling Activiteis: FY 1984 Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is supporting the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Salt Repository Project (SRP) through its Waste Package Program (WPP). During FY 1984, the WPP continued its program of waste package component development and intera...

W. L. Kuhn S. A. Simonson B. A. Pulsipher

1987-01-01

73

Final Status of the Salt Repository Project Waste Package Program Experimental Database.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the final status of the Salt Repository Project Waste Package Program Experimental Database. The data base serves as a clearinghouse for all data collected within the Waste Package Program (WPP) and its predecessor programs at Pacifi...

B. M. Thornton P. W. Reimus

1988-01-01

74

Treatment of waste by the Molten Salt Oxidation process at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) process has been under development by the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC) to treat hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste. Testing of the system was done on a number of wastes to demonstrate the technical feasi...

S. M. Crosley D. K. Lorenzo J. E. Van Cleve R. L. Gay K. M. Barclay

1993-01-01

75

Treatment of Difficult Wastes with Molten Salt Oxidation  

SciTech Connect

Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is a good alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes such as explosives, low-level mixed waste streams, PCB contaminated oils, spent resins and carbon. Since mid-1990s, the U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center (DAC) and the Department of Energy (DOE) have jointly invested in MSO development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). LLNL first demonstrated the MSO process for the effective destruction of explosives, explosives-contaminated materials, and other wastes on a 1.5-kg/hr bench-scale unit, and then in an integrated MSO facility capable of treating 8 kg/hr of low-level radioactive mixed wastes. Several MSO systems have been built with sizes up to 10 ft in height and 16 inches in diameter. LLNL in 2001 completed a MSO plant for DAC for the destruction of explosives-contaminated sludge and explosives-contaminated carbon. We will present in this paper our latest demonstration data and our operational experience with MSO.

Hsu, P C; Kwak, S

2003-02-21

76

Candidate waste forms for immobilisation of waste chloride salt from pyroprocessing of spent nuclear fuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodalite/glass bodies prepared by hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) at ˜850 °C/100 MPa are candidates for immobilising fission product-bearing waste KCl-LiCl pyroprocessing salts. To study the capacity of sodalite to structurally incorporate such pyroprocessing salts, K, Li, Cs, Sr, Ba and La were individually targeted for substitution in a Na site in sodalite (Na vacancies targeted as charge compensators for alkaline and rare earths) and studied by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy after sintering in the range of 800-1000 °C. K and Li appeared to enter the sodalite, but Cs, Sr and Ba formed aluminosilicate phases and La formed an oxyapatite phase. However these non-sodalite phases have reasonable resistance to water leaching.Pure chlorapatite gives superior leach resistance to sodalite, and alkalis, alkaline and rare earth ions are generally known to enter chlorapatite, but attempts to incorporate simulated waste salt formulations into HIPed chlorapatite-based preparations or to substitute Cs alone into the structure of Ca-based chlorapatite were not successful on the basis of scanning electron microscopy. The materials exhibited severe water leachability, mainly in regard to Cs release. Attempts to substitute Cs into Ba- and Sr-based chlorapatites also did not look encouraging. Consequently the use of apatite alone to retain fission product-bearing waste pyroprocessing salts from electrolytic nuclear fuel reprocessing is problematical, but chlorapatite glass-ceramics may be feasible, albeit with reduced waste loadings. Spodiosite, Ca2(PO4)Cl, does not appear to be suitable for incorporation of Cl-bearing waste containing fission products.

Vance, E. R.; Davis, J.; Olufson, K.; Chironi, I.; Karatchevtseva, I.; Farnan, I.

2012-01-01

77

Engineering study of the potential uses of salts from selective crystallization of Hanford tank wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Clean Salt Process (CSP) is the fractional crystallization of nitrate salts from tank waste stored on the Hanford Site. This study reviews disposition options for a CSP product made from Hanford Site tank waste. These options range from public release...

D. W. Hendrickson

1996-01-01

78

Disposal of transuranic solid waste using Atomics International's molten salt combustion process. II  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Atomics International Molten Salt Combustion Process reduces the weight and volume of combustible transuranic waste by utilizing a molten salt medium to combust organic materials, to trap particulates and fissile material, and to react chemically with any acidic gases produced during combustion. The ''ash'' is retained by the molten salt. To control the amount of noncombustible substances in the

L. F. Grantham; D. E. McKenzie; R. D. Oldenkamp; W. L. Richards

1976-01-01

79

Waste salt disposal at the Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect

High-level nuclear wastes will be processed at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) to separate the high-level fraction from the low-level fraction. The separation will be accomplished in existing waste tanks by a process combining precipitation, adsorption, and filtration. The high-level fraction will be vitrified into borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for disposal in a Federal repository. The low-level fraction, called decontaminated salt solution, will be mixed with a cement-fly ash blend. The resulting product, called saltstone, will be disposed onsite in an engineered disposal area. Laboratory testing of saltstone has shown the predominant mechanism for release of contaminants to the environment to be diffusion. The diffusion coefficient for nitrate has been determined to be 1.04 {plus minus} 0.09 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} cm{sup 2}/sec. Field-testing of three 30-ton blocks of saltstone has been underweight since January 1984. Mathematical models, both analytical and numerical, have been applied to predict the impact of saltstone disposal on groundwater quality. Based on model predictions, the saltstone disposal area is designed to meet or exceed groundwater standards for all potential contaminants. Results of laboratory and field-testing and model results will be discussed. 2 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

Wilhite, E.L.

1986-01-01

80

Method to synthesize dense crystallized sodalite pellet for immobilizing halide salt radioactive waste  

DOEpatents

A method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as cesium and strontium and hazardous materials such as barium. A sodalite intermediate is prepared by mixing appropriate amounts of silica, alumina and sodium hydroxide with respect to sodalite and heating the mixture to form the sodalite intermediate and water. Heating is continued to drive off the water to form a water-free intermediate. The water-free intermediate is mixed with either waste salt or waste salt which has been contacted with zeolite to concentrate the radionuclides and hazardous material. The waste salt-intermediate mixture is then compacted and heated under conditions of heat and pressure to form sodalite with the waste salt, radionuclides and hazardous material trapped within the sodalite cage structure. This provides a final product having excellent leach resistant capabilities.

Koyama, Tadafumi (Tokyo, JP)

1994-01-01

81

Test plan for immobilization of salt-containing surrogate mixed wastes using polyester resins  

SciTech Connect

Past operations at many Department of Energy (DOE) sites have resulted in the generation of several waste streams with high salt content. These wastes contain listed and characteristic hazardous constituents and are radioactive. The salts contained in the wastes are primarily chloride, sulfate, nitrate, metal oxides, and hydroxides. DOE has placed these types of wastes under the purview of the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). The MWFA has been tasked with developing and facilitating the implementation of technologies to treat these wastes in support of customer needs and requirements. The MWFA has developed a Technology Development Requirements Document (TDRD), which specifies performance requirements for technology owners and developers to use as a framework in developing effective waste treatment solutions. This project will demonstrate the use of polyester resins in encapsulating and solidifying DOE`s mixed wastes containing salts, as an alternative to conventional and other emerging immobilization technologies.

Biyani, R.K.; Douglas, J.C.; Hendrickson, D.W.

1997-07-07

82

Application of molten salt oxidation for the minimization and recovery of plutonium-238 contaminated wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the technical and economic feasibility of molten salt oxidation technology as a volume reduction and recovery process for ²³⁸Pu contaminated waste. Combustible low-level waste material contaminated with ²³⁸Pu residue is destroyed by oxidation in a 900 C molten salt reaction vessel. The combustible waste is destroyed creating carbon dioxide and steam and a small amount of ash

R. Wishau; K. B. Ramsey; A. Montoya

1998-01-01

83

Preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste into salt caverns  

SciTech Connect

Caverns can be readily formed in salt formations through solution mining. The caverns may be formed incidentally, as a result of salt recovery, or intentionally to create an underground chamber that can be used for storing hydrocarbon products or compressed air or disposing of wastes. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the feasibility, suitability, and legality of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration, development, and production wastes (hereafter referred to as oil field wastes, unless otherwise noted) in salt caverns. Chapter 2 provides background information on: types and locations of US subsurface salt deposits; basic solution mining techniques used to create caverns; and ways in which salt caverns are used. Later chapters provide discussion of: federal and state regulatory requirements concerning disposal of oil field waste, including which wastes are considered eligible for cavern disposal; waste streams that are considered to be oil field waste; and an evaluation of technical issues concerning the suitability of using salt caverns for disposing of oil field waste. Separate chapters present: types of oil field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location; disposal operations; and closure and remediation. This report does not suggest specific numerical limits for such factors or variables as distance to neighboring activities, depths for casings, pressure testing, or size and shape of cavern. The intent is to raise issues and general approaches that will contribute to the growing body of information on this subject.

Veil, J.; Elcock, D.; Raivel, M.; Caudle, D.; Ayers, R.C. Jr.; Grunewald, B.

1996-06-01

84

Recovery of salt wastes in the production of propylene oxide  

SciTech Connect

In the production of propylene oxide as much as 40 t dilute calcium chloride solution forms per ton of product in the step of saponification of propylene chlorhydrine with milk of lime. To create a zero-waste technology for production of propylene oxide, there is practical interest in saponification of propylene chlorhydrine with electrolysis brines with recovery of the resultant solution of sodium chloride after purification to remove organic impurities. The possibility of using an electrochemical method to purify wastewater from production of propylene oxide in using the purified solution as starting material for production of electrolysis brines was investigated. Experimental testing of processes of purification and recovery of wastewaters in a regime of industrial electrolysis confirmed the possibility of using purified wastewater from production of propylene oxide as brine for electrolysis. Incorporation of the developed method into industry will permit zero-waste production of propylene oxide with a closed salt cycle. The cost of purification of 1 m/sup 3/ wastewater is 1-1.5 rubles.

Zyablitseva, M.P.; Tyurin, B.K.; Kudinov, V.I.; Bukbulatov, I.K.; Mazanko, A.F.

1983-02-01

85

Expedited demonstration of molten salt mixed waste treatment technology. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This final report discusses the molten salt mixed waste project in terms of the various subtasks established. Subtask 1: Carbon monoxide emissions; Establish a salt recycle schedule and/or a strategy for off-gas control for MWMF that keeps carbon monoxide emission below 100 ppm on an hourly averaged basis. Subtask 2: Salt melt viscosity; Experiments are conducted to determine salt viscosity as a function of ash composition, ash concentration, temperature, and time. Subtask 3: Determine that the amount of sodium carbonate entrained in the off-gas is minimal, and that any deposited salt can easily be removed form the piping using a soot blower or other means. Subtask 4: The provision of at least one final waste form that meets the waste acceptance criteria of a landfill that will take the waste. This report discusses the progress made in each of these areas.

NONE

1995-02-02

86

Terahertz Reflection Spectroscopy of Aqueous NaCl and LiCl Solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present spectroscopic measurements of the full dielectric function of aqueous solutions of sodium chloride and lithium chloride at concentrations approaching their solubility limits at room temperature. We find that the dielectric properties of the two salts are rather different at THz frequencies. Whereas both the real and imaginary part of the permittivity of NaCl increases with concentration, we see that the imaginary part of the permittivity of LiCl (related to the absorption) decreases with increasing salt concentration. We relate these changes to the behavior of slow and fast Debye relaxation processes in the solutions.

Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Merbold, Hannes

2010-04-01

87

Treatment of waste by the Molten Salt Oxidation process at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) process has been under development by the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC) to treat hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste. Testing of the system was done on a number of wastes to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the process. This testing included simulated intermediate level waste (ILW) from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The intermediate level

S. M. Crosley; D. K. Lorenzo; J. E. Van Cleve; R. L. Gay; K. M. Barclay; J. C. Newcomb; S. J. Yosim

1993-01-01

88

Application of molten salt oxidation for the minimization and recovery of plutonium-238 contaminated wastes  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the technical and economic feasibility of molten salt oxidation technology as a volume reduction and recovery process for {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste. Combustible low-level waste material contaminated with {sup 238}Pu residue is destroyed by oxidation in a 900 C molten salt reaction vessel. The combustible waste is destroyed creating carbon dioxide and steam and a small amount of ash and insoluble {sup 2328}Pu in the spent salt. The valuable {sup 238}Pu is recycled using aqueous recovery techniques. Experimental test results for this technology indicate a plutonium recovery efficiency of 99%. Molten salt oxidation stabilizes the waste converting it to a non-combustible waste. Thus installation and use of molten salt oxidation technology will substantially reduce the volume of {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste. Cost-effectiveness evaluations of molten salt oxidation indicate a significant cost savings when compared to the present plans to package, or re-package, certify and transport these wastes to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for permanent disposal. Clear and distinct cost advantages exist for MSO when the monetary value of the recovered {sup 238}Pu is considered.

Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.

1998-12-31

89

Recycling of LiCl-KCl eutectic based salt wastes containing radioactive rare earth oxychlorides or oxides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recycling of LiCl-KCl eutectic salt wastes containing radioactive rare earth oxychlorides or oxides was studied to recover renewable salts from the salt wastes and to minimize the radioactive wastes by using a vacuum distillation method. Vaporization of the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt was effective above 900 °C and at 5 Torr. The condensations of the vaporized salt were largely dependent on temperature gradient. Based on these results, a recycling system of the salt wastes as a closed loop type was developed to obtain a high efficiency of the salt recovery condition. In this system, it was confirmed that renewable salt was recovered at more than 99 wt.% from the salt wastes, and the changes in temperature and pressure in the system could be utilized to understand the present condition of the system operation.

Eun, H. C.; Cho, Y. Z.; Son, S. M.; Lee, T. K.; Yang, H. C.; Kim, I. T.; Lee, H. S.

2012-01-01

90

Alternative Electrochemical Salt Waste Forms, Summary of FY2010 Results  

SciTech Connect

In FY2009, PNNL performed scoping studies to qualify two waste form candidates, tellurite (TeO2-based) glasses and halide minerals, for the electrochemical waste stream for further investigation. Both candidates showed promise with acceptable PCT release rates and effective incorporation of the 10% fission product waste stream. Both candidates received reprisal for FY2010 and were further investigated. At the beginning of FY2010, an in-depth literature review kicked off the tellurite glasses study. The review was aimed at ascertaining the state-of-the-art for chemical durability testing and mixed chloride incorporation for tellurite glasses. The literature review led the authors to 4 unique binary and 1 unique ternary systems for further investigation which include TeO2 plus the following: PbO, Al2O3-B2O3, WO3, P2O5, and ZnO. Each system was studied with and without a mixed chloride simulated electrochemical waste stream and the literature review provided the starting points for the baseline compositions as well as starting points for melting temperature, compatible crucible types, etc. The most promising glasses in each system were scaled up in production and were analyzed with the Product Consistency Test, a chemical durability test. Baseline and PCT glasses were analyzed to determine their state, i.e., amorphous, crystalline, phase separated, had undissolved material within the bulk, etc. Conclusions were made as well as the proposed direction for FY2011 plans. Sodalite was successfully synthesized by the sol-gel method. The vast majority of the dried sol-gel consisted of sodalite with small amounts of alumino-silicates and unreacted salt. Upon firing the powders made by sol-gel, the primary phase observed was sodalite with the addition of varying amounts of nepheline, carnegieite, lithium silicate, and lanthanide oxide. The amount of sodalite, nepheline, and carnegieite as well as the bulk density of the fired pellets varied with firing temperature, sol-gel process chemistry, and the amount of glass sintering aid added to the batch. As the firing temperature was increased from 850 C to 950 C, chloride volatility increased, the fraction of sodalite decreased, and the fractions nepheline and carnegieite increased. This indicates that the sodalite structure is not stable and begins to convert to nepheline and carnegieite under these conditions at 950 C. Density has opposite relationship with relation to firing temperature. The addition of a NBS-1, a glass sintering aid, had a positive effect on bulk density and increased the stability of the sodalite structure in a minimal way.

Riley, Brian J.; Rieck, Bennett T.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Matyas, Josef; McCloy, John S.; Sundaram, S. K.; Vienna, John D.

2010-08-01

91

Criticality considerations for salt-cake disolution in DOE waste tanks  

SciTech Connect

A large amount of high-level waste is being stored in the form of salt cake at the Savannah River site (SRS) in large (1.3 x 106 gal) underground tanks awaiting startup of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This salt cake will be dissolved with water, and the solution will be fed to DWPF for immobilization in borosilicate glass. Some of the waste that was transferred to the tanks contained enriched uranium and plutonium from chemical reprocessing streams. As water is added to these tanks to dissolve the salt cake, the insoluble portion of this fissile material will be left behind in the tank as the salt solution is pumped out. Because the salt acts as a diluent to the fissile material, the process of repeated water addition, salt dissolution, and salt solution removal will act as a concentrating mechanism for the undissolved fissile material that will remain in the tank. It is estimated that tank 41 H at SRS contains 20 to 120 kg of enriched uranium, varying from 10 to 70% {sup 235}U, distributed nonuniformly throughout the tank. This paper discusses the criticality concerns associated with the dissolution of salt cake in this tank. These concerns are also applicable to other salt cake waste tanks that contain significant quantities of enriched uranium and/or plutonium.

Trumble, E.F.; Niemer, K.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)

1995-12-31

92

Reconsolidation of salt as applied to permanent seals for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

Reconsolidated salt is a fundamental component of the permanent seals for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. As regulations are currently understood and seal concepts envisioned, emplaced salt is the sole long-term seal component designed to prevent the shafts from becoming preferred pathways for rating gases or liquids. Studies under way in support of the sealing function of emplaced salt include laboratory testing of crushed salt small-scale in situ tests, constitutive modeling of crushed salt, calculations of the opening responses during operation and closure, and design practicalities including emplacement techniques. This paper briefly summarizes aspects of these efforts and key areas of future work.

Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Callahan, G.D.; Van Sembeek, L.L. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States)

1993-07-01

93

Method to synthesize dense crystallized sodalite pellet for immobilizing halide salt radioactive waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as cesium and strontium and hazardous materials such as barium. A sodalite intermediate is prepared by mixing appropriate amounts of silica, alumina and sod...

T. Koyama

1992-01-01

94

Solution-mined salt caverns for the disposal of hazardous chemical wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for storage caverns (oil, gas) and depositories (radioactive waste, toxic chemical waste) is rising world-wide. Rock\\u000a salt (halite) formations are particularly suitable for the construction of cavities for such purposes. Rock salt is practically\\u000a impermeable to gases and liquids. The solution mining method provides the means for the creation of large storage capacities\\u000a at economic costs and, due

M. Langer; M. Wallner

1988-01-01

95

Regulatory Requirements for Pollution Prevention for the Salt Waste Processing Facility at Savannah River Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy facility for production of nuclear materials located near Aiken, South Carolina that is operated by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. Waste sludges and salts generated from the processing of nuclear materials have been stored in underground storage tanks since operations began in the 1950s. These sludges and salts contain high levels

Malik

1999-01-01

96

Advantages of a salt/bentonite backfill for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal rooms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 70/30 wt% salt/bentonite mixture is shown to be preferable to pure crushed salt as backfill for disposal rooms in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report discusses several selection criteria used to arrive at this conclusion: the need for lo...

B. M. Butcher C. F. Novak M. Jercinovic

1991-01-01

97

Expedited demonstration of molten salt mixed waste treatment technology. Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This final report discusses the molten salt mixed waste project in terms of the various subtasks established. Subtask 1: Carbon monoxide emissions; Establish a salt recycle schedule and/or a strategy for off-gas control for MWMF that keeps carbon monoxide...

1995-01-01

98

New opportunities for metals extraction and waste treatment by electrochemical processing in molten salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molten salt electrolysis is a proven technology for the extraction of metals -- all the world's primary aluminum is produced in this manner. The unique properties of molten salts also make them excellent media in which to treat a variety of forms of waste. Of special note in this regard is electrolysis in molten oxides, a concept put forward by

Donald R. Sadoway

1995-01-01

99

The advantages of a salt\\/bentonite backfill for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal rooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 70\\/30 wt% salt\\/bentonite mixture is shown to be preferable to pure crushed salt as backfill for disposal rooms in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report discusses several selection criteria used to arrive at this conclusion: the need for low permeability and porosity after closure, chemical stability with the surroundings, adequate strength to avoid shear erosion from human

B. M. Butcher; C. F. Novak; M. Jercinovic

1991-01-01

100

Molten salt oxidation: a versatile and promising technology for the destruction of organic-containing wastes.  

PubMed

Molten salt oxidation (MSO), a robust thermal but non-flame process, has the inherent capability of destroying organic constituents in wastes, while retaining inorganic and radioactive materials in situ. It has been considered as an alternative to incineration and may be a solution to many waste disposal problems. The present review first describes the history and development of MSO, as well as design and engineering details, and then focuses on reaction mechanisms and its potential applications in various wastes, including hazardous wastes, medical wastes, mixed wastes, and energetic materials. Finally, the current status of and prospects for the MSO process and directions for future research are considered. PMID:21726891

Yao, Zhitong; Li, Jinhui; Zhao, Xiangyang

2011-07-02

101

Application of molten salt oxidation for the minimization and recovery of plutonium-238 contaminated wastes  

SciTech Connect

Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is proposed as a {sup 238}Pu waste treatment technology that should be developed for volume reduction and recovery of {sup 238}Pu and as an alternative to the transport and permanent disposal of {sup 238}Pu waste to the WIPP repository. In MSO technology, molten sodium carbonate salt at 800--900 C in a reaction vessel acts as a reaction media for wastes. The waste material is destroyed when injected into the molten salt, creating harmless carbon dioxide and steam and a small amount of ash in the spent salt. The spent salt can be treated using aqueous separation methods to reuse the salt and to recover 99.9% of the precious {sup 238}Pu that was in the waste. Tests of MSO technology have shown that the volume of combustible TRU waste can be reduced by a factor of at least twenty. Using this factor the present inventory of 574 TRU drums of {sup 238}Pu contaminated wastes is reduced to 30 drums. Further {sup 238}Pu waste costs of $22 million are avoided from not having to repackage 312 of the 574 drums to a drum total of more than 4,600 drums. MSO combined with aqueous processing of salts will recover approximately 1.7 kilograms of precious {sup 238}Pu valued at 4 million dollars (at $2,500/gram). Thus, installation and use of MSO technology at LANL will result in significant cost savings compared to present plans to transport and dispose {sup 238}Pu TRU waste to the WIPP site. Using a total net present value cost for the MSO project as $4.09 million over a five-year lifetime, the project can pay for itself after either recovery of 1.6 kg of Pu or through volume reduction of 818 drums or a combination of the two. These savings show a positive return on investment.

Wishau, R.

1998-05-01

102

Salt-mudstones and rock-salt suitabilities for radioactive-waste storage systems: rheological properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rheological properties of salt massif are crucial factors deciding about its tightness. The purpose of this article is the comparison of stationary creep rate of salt-mudstones with salt rock. The object of the research was brown and red salt-mudstone containing 20–30% of insoluble parts. It was found that the content of insoluble parts has no significant rheological influence. On the

J. ?lizowski; L. Lankof

2003-01-01

103

Modified phosphate ceramics for stabilization and solidification of salt mixed wastes.  

SciTech Connect

Novel chemically bonded phosphate ceramics have been investigated for stabilization and solidification of chloride and nitrate salt wastes. Using low-temperature processing, we stabilized and solidified chloride and nitrate surrogate salts (with hazardous metals) in magnesium potassium phosphate ceramics up to waste loadings of 70-80 wt.%. A variety of characterizations, including strength, microstructure, and leaching, were then conducted on the waste forms. Leaching tests show that all heavy metals in the leachant are well below the EPAs universal treatment standard limits. Long-term leaching tests, per ANS 16. 1 procedure, yields leachability index for nitrate ions > 12. Chloride ions are expected to have an even higher (i.e., better) leachability index. Structural performance of these final waste forms, as indicated by compression strength and durability in aqueous environments, satisfies the regulatory criteria. Thus, based on the results of this study, it seems that phosphate ceramics are viable option for containment of salt wastes.

Singh, D.

1998-06-26

104

Design evaluation: Structural calculations for the construction and salt handling shaft and the waste handling shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

One fundamental strategy under consideration for sealing the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) shafts involves the consolidation of the salt backfill in specified portions of the shaft. The criterion for effective salt consolidation was defined to occur when the fractional density of the crushed salt reaches 95%. Thus, the shaft is sealed with a backfill material (crushed salt and\\/or precompacted

1988-01-01

105

Brine migration in salt and its implications in the geologic disposal of nuclear waste  

SciTech Connect

This report respresents a comprehensive review and analysis of available information relating to brine migration in salt surrounding radioactive waste in a salt repository. The topics covered relate to (1) the characteristics of salt formations and waste packages pertinent to considerations of rates, amounts, and effects of brine migration, (2) experimental and theoretical information on brine migration, and (3) means of designing to minimize any adverse effects of brine migration. Flooding, brine pockets, and other topics were not considered, since these features will presumably be eliminated by appropriate site selection and repository design. 115 references.

Jenks, G.H.; Claiborne, H.C.

1981-12-01

106

In situ tests of salt deformation for validation of a radioactive waste repository predictive technology  

SciTech Connect

To assure the safety of a radioactive waste repository, it is necessary to predict the performance of the repository far into the future. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Program is responsible for developing the technology for such performance predictions in bedded salt. An important technology development activity concerns the fielding of very large scale in situ tests to determine the time-dependent deformation of underground openings salt as a basis for validation of the predictive technology. This technology is necessary to predict repository seal performance and final closure times of rooms, and may be of value to the salt and potash mining community, as well. 7 refs., 5 figs.

Munson, D.E. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1991-07-01

107

In situ tests of salt deformation for validation of a radioactive waste repository predictive technology  

SciTech Connect

To assure the safety of a radioactive waste repository, it is necessary to predict the performance of the repository far into the future. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Program is responsible for developing the technology for such performance predictions in bedded salt. An important technology development activity concerns the fielding of very large scale in situ tests to determine the time-dependent deformation of underground openings salt as a basis for validation of the predictive technology. This technology is necessary to predict repository seal performance and final closure times of rooms, and may be of value to the salt and potash mining community, as well. 7 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Munson, D.E.

1990-01-01

108

Study of lithium borosilicotitanate glasses with LiCl  

SciTech Connect

The effect of LiCl addition on the properties of Li{sub 2}O: B{sub 2}O{sub 3}: SiO{sub 2}: TiO{sub 2} glasses has been studied. It has been observed that the ionic conductivity increases by about half an order with LiCl addition. The decrease in glass transition temperature T{sub g} and increase in the molar volume with LiCl addition have good correlation with conductivity results. The observed increase in density of glasses has been explained on the basis of heavier Cl{sup -} ion which is accommodated in the interstices in the glass network.

Deshpande, A. V.; Paighan, N. S. [Department of Applied Physics Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur, 440010 (India)

2012-06-05

109

Technetium removal column flow testing with alkaline, high salt, radioactive tank waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes two bench-scale column tests conducted to demonstrate the removal of Tc-99 from actual alkaline high salt radioactive waste. The waste used as feed for these tests was obtained from the Hanford double shell tank AW-101, which contains double shell slurry feed (DSSF). The tank sample was diluted to approximately 5 M Na with water, and most of

D. L. Jr. Blanchard; D. E. Kurath; G. R. Golcar; S. D. Conradson

1996-01-01

110

Molten salt oxidation of mixed waste: Preliminary bench-scale experiments without radioactivity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is a process in which organic wastes are oxidized by sparging them with air through a bed of molten sodium carbonate (bp 851 (degrees)C) at (ge) 900(degrees)C. This process is readily applicable to the mixed waste because acidi...

P. A. Haas J. C. Rudolph J. T. Bell

1994-01-01

111

Alternative Electrochemical Salt Waste Forms, Summary of FY/CY2011 Results  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the 2011 fiscal+calendar year efforts for developing waste forms for a spent salt generated in reprocessing nuclear fuel with an electrochemical separations process. The two waste forms are tellurite (TeO2-based) glasses and sol-gel-derived high-halide mineral analogs to stable minerals found in nature.

Riley, Brian J.; McCloy, John S.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Windisch, Charles F.; Lepry, William C.; Matyas, Josef; Westman, Matthew P.; Rieck, Bennett T.; Lang, Jesse B.; Pierce, David A.

2011-12-01

112

Developing and testing electrochemical methods for treating metal salts, cyanides and organic compounds in waste streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical methods to process radioactive and hazardous (mixed) wastes were studied at a bench scale. Cadmium, copper, mercury, and chromium salts, cyanides, and simple organic compounds were used in the tests. Effective conditions were found to process these waste components by electrolysis. The equipment used in the tests included flow-through cells, a membrane cell, and a graphite packed bed cell.

J. Dziewinski; S. Marczak; E. Nuttall; G. Purdy; W. Smith; J. Taylor; C. Zhou

1998-01-01

113

Test procedures for polyester immobilized salt-containing surrogate mixed wastes  

SciTech Connect

These test procedures are written to meet the procedural needs of the Test Plan for immobilization of salt containing surrogate mixed waste using polymer resins, HNF-SD-RE-TP-026 and to ensure adequacy of conduct and collection of samples and data. This testing will demonstrate the use of four different polyester vinyl ester resins in the solidification of surrogate liquid and dry wastes, similar to some mixed wastes generated by DOE operations.

Biyani, R.K.; Hendrickson, D.W.

1997-07-18

114

Ab initio investigation on the elastic, dynamical and thermodynamic properties of LiCl  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work reports a study of the structural, elastic, dynamical and thermodynamic properties of rock salt (RS) LiCl within density functional theory. It is found that the lattice constant and elastic constants are in very good agreement with the other calculations or experimental values. The phonon dispersion curve along several high symmetry lines at the Brillouin zone (BZ) is determined using density functional perturbation theory (DFPT), and the phonon frequencies at the ? point of the Brillouin zone are in reasonable agreement with previous calculations and experimental values. We also calculate the thermodynamic functions based on phonon density of states.

Hou, H. J.; Kong, F. J.; Yang, J. W.; Wan, S. Q.; Yang, S. X.

2013-11-01

115

Nuclear-waste repository impaired by effects of sub-surface salt dissolution  

SciTech Connect

Thirty alkaline lake basins are underlain by Permian salt in West Texas-eastern New Mexico. Early workers thought the basins were created by solution of Permian salt, causing surface collapse. It wasn't until studies by Gustavson and others (1980-85) that salt dissolution beneath several basins was confirmed. Study of alkaline lake basins 240 km south of the main area worked by Gustavson and others (1980-85) shows basins associated and not associated with salt dissolution. Basins associated with salt dissolution are often underlain by Cretaceous formations which are either horizontal or displaced. Thus, evidence indicates many of the large lake basins are antecedent to salt dissolution, that salt dissolution results from infiltration of lake water, and that a certain amount of dissolution occurs before propagation of the cavity to surface. Areas of unusually thick Cretaceous rocks around several lake basins in the central Southern High Plains and unusually thick sections of Tertiary Ogallala in the Northern High Plains indicate regional dissolution of Permian salt beds prior to Cretaceous deposition. Therefore, dissolution of Permian salt in West Texas has been of long-term, regional extent, and formation of sinks, faults and the solute discharge of streams east of the Southern High Plains indicates salt dissolution continues. It therefore follows that the geologic integrity of any high-level nuclear-waste repository site in the Permian salt beds may be seriously impaired, and that the geologic suitability of bedded salts for high-level nuclear-waste storage anywhere by seriously questions.

Reeves, C.C. Jr.; Temple, J.M.

1985-01-01

116

Treatment of waste by the Molten Salt Oxidation process at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) process has been under development by the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC) to treat hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste. Testing of the system was done on a number of wastes to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the process. This testing included simulated intermediate level waste (ILW) from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The intermediate level waste stream consisted of a slurry of concentrated aqueous solutions of sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate, with a small amount of miscellaneous combustible components (PVC, TBP, kerosene, and ion exchange resins). The purpose of these tests was to evaluate the destruction of the organics, evaporation of the water, and conversion of the hazardous salts (hydroxide and nitrate) to non-hazardous sodium carbonate. Results of the tests are discussed and analyzed, and the possibilities of applying the MSO process to different waste streams at ORNL in the future are explored.

Crosley, S.M.; Lorenzo, D.K.; Van Cleve, J.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Gay, R.L.; Barclay, K.M.; Newcomb, J.C.; Yosim, S.J. [Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States)

1993-03-01

117

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's report on Functional Design Criteria for a Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes Argonne's review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's (ONWI's) draft report entitled Functional Design Criteria for High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository in Salt, dated January 23, 1984. Recommendations are given for improving the ONWI draft report.

Hambley, D.F.; Russell, J.E.; Busch, J.S.; Harrison, W.; Edgar, D.E.; Tisue, M.W.

1984-08-01

118

Evaluation of Sludge Batch 5 Qualification with ISDP Salt Batch 1 Compliance to DWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to document the acceptability of Sludge Batch 5 with the initial macrobatch operation of the Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) waste to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF).

A. Shafer

2010-01-01

119

Conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements for disposal of borosilicate glass defense high-level waste forms in salt geologic repositories  

SciTech Connect

The conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements presented are applicable specifically to the normal borosilicate glass product of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). They provide preliminary numerical values for the defense high-level waste form parameters and properties identified in the waste form performance specification for geologic isolation in salt repositories. Subject areas treated include containment and isolation, operational period safety, criticality control, waste form/production canister identification, and waste package performance testing requirements. This document was generated for use in the development of conceptual waste package designs in salt. It will be revised as additional data, analyses, and regulatory requirements become available.

Not Available

1983-06-01

120

Analysis of plutonium and uranium volatilities from mixed wastes in the molten salt processor  

SciTech Connect

Rockwell International has conductd a series of bench-scale molten salt processor tests on oxidation of simulated laboratory mixed waste materials to evaluate the retention of radionuclides such as Pu, U, I, Ru, Eu, Sr, and Cs in the molten salt bath of processor, and to obtain process information for designing a large-scale molten salt processor for mixed wastes. It is in the purpose of this report to apply thermodynamic methods to assess the volatility of plutonium and uranium in the molten salt processor, especially in regard to identifying the types and amounts of volatilizing plutonium and uranium species, and comparing these with the observed amounts of plutonium and uranium found downstream of the processor. 15 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

Krikorian, O.H.

1991-03-22

121

Triaxial compression creep tests on salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Topical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-six triaxial compression creep tests were performed on argillaceous and clean salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The average water- and EDTA-insoluble content of the argillaceous salt was 1.5 and 0.75%, respectively. This small quantity of impurities corresponded to consistent, but small, increases in the deformation measured during the tests. Results of these tests are similar to those obtained

Senseny

1986-01-01

122

Glovebox design requirements for molten salt oxidation processing of transuranic waste  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an overview of potential technologies for stabilization of {sup 238}Pu-contaminated combustible waste. Molten salt oxidation (MSO) provides a method for removing greater than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible waste. Implementation of MSO processing at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Plutonium Facility will eliminate the combustible matrix from {sup 238}Pu-contaminated waste and consequently reduce the cost of TRU waste disposal operations at LANL. The glovebox design requirements for unit operations including size reduction and MSO processing will be presented.

Ramsey, K.B.; Acosta, S.V. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Wernly, K.D. [Molten Salt Oxidation Corp., Bensalem, PA (United States)

1998-12-31

123

Molten salt oxidation of mixed wastes: Separation of radioactive materials and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is involved in a program to apply a molten salt oxidation (MSO) process to the treatment of mixed wastes at Oak Ridge and other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Mixed wastes are defined as those wastes that contain both radioactive components, which are regulated by the atomic energy legislation, and hazardous waste components, which

J. T. Bell; P. A. Haas; J. C. Rudolph

1993-01-01

124

Evaluation of Permain salt deposits in the Texas Panhandle and western Oklahoma for underground storage of radioactive wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report concludes that thick salt deposits of the Palo Duro basin, and, to a lesser extent, those of the Dalhart basin, have many features that would be favorable for underground storage of radioactive waste. The principal parameters used in evaluating these basins for radioactive-waste storage include salt thickness, depth, tectonic and seismic history, lithology, permeability, proximity to aquifers, mineral-resource

Johnson

1976-01-01

125

Analysis of external combustion of municipal solid waste. [SALT\\/MSW code  

Microsoft Academic Search

External combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) allows the waste to be burned separately from an existing fossil-fuel-fired facility. An MSW combustor and a fossil-fuel combustor are fired separately, and either the combustion products or the energy produced are then combined. The Systems Analysis Language Translator (SALT) computer code was modified and extended to analyze this concept. This report describes

C. B. Dennis; G. F. Berry; G. N. Reddy; J. E. Helt

1986-01-01

126

Nitrogen Conservation in Simulated Food Waste Aerobic Composting Process with Different Mg and P Salt Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the effects of three types of Mg and P salt mixtures (potassium phosphate [K3PO4]\\/magnesium sulfate [MgSO4], potassium dihydrogen phosphate [K2HPO4]\\/MgSO4, KH2PO4\\/MgSO4) on the conservation of N and the biodegradation of organic materials in an aerobic food waste composting process, batch experiments were undertaken in four reactors (each with an effective volume of 30 L). The synthetic food waste

Yu Li; Bensheng Su; Jianlin Liu; Xianyuan Du; Guohe Huang

2011-01-01

127

Caustic Recycle from Hanford Tank Waste Using NaSICON Ceramic Membrane Salt Splitting Process  

SciTech Connect

A family of inorganic ceramic materials, called sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON), has been studied at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to investigate their ability to separate sodium from radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions for treating U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tank wastes. Ceramatec Inc. developed and fabricated a membrane containing a proprietary NAS-GY material formulation that was electrochemically tested in a bench-scale apparatus with both a simulant and a radioactive tank-waste solution to determine the membrane performance when removing sodium from DOE tank wastes. Implementing this sodium separation process can result in significant cost savings by reducing the disposal volume of low-activity wastes and by producing a NaOH feedstock product for recycle into waste treatment processes such as sludge leaching, regenerating ion exchange resins, inhibiting corrosion in carbon-steel tanks, or retrieving tank wastes.

Fountain, Matthew S.; Kurath, Dean E.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Pendleton, J.; Balagopal, S.; Quist, M.; Clay, D.

2009-02-20

128

Modeling of Sulfate Double-Salt in Nuclear Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Environmental Simulation Program (ESP) continues to adequately predict the solubility of most key chemical systems in the Hanford tank waste. For example, the ESP predictions were in fair agreement with the solubility experiments for the fluoride-phos...

B. Toghiani J. S. Lindner C. F. Weber R. D. Hunt

2000-01-01

129

Disposal of Norm-Contaminated Oil Field Wastes in Salt Caverns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) into salt caverns. That study con...

D. L. Blunt D. Elcock K. P. Smith D. Tomasko J. A. Viel G. P. Williams

1999-01-01

130

Destruction of high explosives and wastes containing high explosives using the Molten Salt Destruction Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current method of disposal of large quantities of high explosives (HE), or other energetic materials, by open-pit burning, or detonation is becoming an environmentally unacceptable form of bulk destruction of these materials because of the products of incomplete combustion of HE. The Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process has been demonstrated for the destruction of HE and HE-containing wastes. MSD

R. S. Upadhye; W. A. Brummond; C. O. Pruneda

1992-01-01

131

Molten salt destruction as an alternative to open burning of energetic material wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

LLNL has built a small-scale (about 1 kg\\/hr throughput unit to test the destruction of energetic materials using the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) process. We have modified the unit described in the earlier references to inject energetic waste material continuously into the unit. In addition to the HMX, other explosives we have destroyed include RDX, PETN, ammonium picrate, TNT, nitroguanadine,

R. S. Upadhye; B. E. Watkins; C. O. Pruneda; W. A. Brummond

1994-01-01

132

Preliminary Technical and Legal Evaluation of Disposing of Nonhazardous Oil Field Waste into Salt Caverns  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an initial evaluation of the suitability, feasibility, and legality of using salt caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes. Given the preliminary and general nature of this report, we recognize that some of our findings and conclusions maybe speculative and subject to change upon further research on this topic.

Ayers, Robert C.; Caudle, Dan; Elcock, Deborah; Raivel, Mary; Veil, John; and Grunewald, Ben

1999-01-21

133

Thermomigration of Fluid Inclusions in Rock Salt. Implications for the Disposal of Nuclear Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A mathematical model has been suggested to predict the time-dependent accumulation of brine at nuclear waste packages emplaced in a rock salt repository owing to thermomigration of brine inclusions. The model is based mainly on a description of the migrat...

W. Noack K. Runge

1984-01-01

134

Disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in Salt Caverns.  

SciTech Connect

In 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) into salt caverns. That study concluded that disposal of NOW into salt caverns is feasible and legal. If caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they can be a suitable means of disposing of NOW (Veil et al. 1996). Considering these findings and the increased U.S. interest in using salt caverns for NOW disposal, the Office of Fossil Energy asked Argonne to conduct further research on the cost of cavern disposal compared with the cost of more traditional NOW disposal methods and on preliminary identification and investigation of the risks associated with such disposal. The cost study (Veil 1997) found that disposal costs at the four permitted disposal caverns in the United States were comparable to or lower than the costs of other disposal facilities in the same geographic area. The risk study (Tomasko et al. 1997) estimated that both cancer and noncancer human health risks from drinking water that had been contaminated by releases of cavern contents were significantly lower than the accepted risk thresholds. Since 1992, DOE has funded Argonne to conduct a series of studies evaluating issues related to management and disposal of oil field wastes contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Included among these studies were radiological dose assessments of several different NORM disposal options (Smith et al. 1996). In 1997, DOE asked Argonne to conduct additional analyses on waste disposal in salt caverns, except that this time the wastes to be evaluated would be those types of oil field wastes that are contaminated by NORM. This report describes these analyses. Throughout the remainder of this report, the term ''NORM waste'' is used to mean ''oil field waste contaminated by NORM''.

Veil, J. A.; Smith, K. P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G. P.

1998-08-28

135

Engineering study of the potential uses of salts from selective crystallization of Hanford tank wastes  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Salt Process (CSP) is the fractional crystallization of nitrate salts from tank waste stored on the Hanford Site. This study reviews disposition options for a CSP product made from Hanford Site tank waste. These options range from public release to onsite low-level waste disposal to no action. Process, production, safety, environment, cost, schedule, and the amount of CSP material which may be used are factors considered in each option. The preferred alternative is offsite release of clean salt. Savings all be generated by excluding the material from low-level waste stabilization. Income would be received from sales of salt products. Savings and income from this alternative amount to $1,027 million, excluding the cost of CSP operations. Unless public sale of CSP products is approved, the material should be calcined. The carbonate form of the CSP could then be used as ballast in tank closure and stabilization efforts. Not including the cost of CSP operations, savings of $632 million would be realized. These savings would result from excluding the material from low-level waste stabilization and reducing purchases of chemicals for caustic recycle and stabilization and closure. Dose considerations for either alternative are favorable. No other cost-effective alternatives that were considered had the capacity to handle significant quantities of the CSP products. If CSP occurs, full-scale tank-waste stabilization could be done without building additional treatment facilities after Phase 1 (DOE 1996). Savings in capital and operating cost from this reduction in waste stabilization would be in addition to the other gains described.

Hendrickson, D.W.

1996-04-30

136

Disposal of NORM-Contaminated Oil Field Wastes in Salt Caverns  

SciTech Connect

In 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) into salt caverns. That study concluded that disposal of NOW into salt caverns is feasible and legal. If caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they can be a suitable means of disposing of NOW (Veil et al. 1996). Considering these findings and the increased U.S. interest in using salt caverns for NOW disposal, the Office of Fossil Energy asked Argonne to conduct further research on the cost of cavern disposal compared with the cost of more traditional NOW disposal methods and on preliminary identification and investigation of the risks associated with such disposal. The cost study (Veil 1997) found that disposal costs at the four permitted disposal caverns in the United States were comparable to or lower than the costs of other disposal facilities in the same geographic area. The risk study (Tomasko et al. 1997) estimated that both cancer and noncancer human health risks from drinking water that had been contaminated by releases of cavern contents were significantly lower than the accepted risk thresholds. Since 1992, DOE has funded Argonne to conduct a series of studies evaluating issues related to management and disposal of oil field wastes contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Included among these studies were radiological dose assessments of several different NORM disposal options (Smith et al. 1996). In 1997, DOE asked Argonne to conduct additional analyses on waste disposal in salt caverns, except that this time the wastes to be evaluated would be those types of oil field wastes that are contaminated by NORM. This report describes these analyses. Throughout the remainder of this report, the term ''NORM waste'' is used to mean ''oil field waste contaminated by NORM''.

Blunt, D.L.; Elcock, D.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Viel, J.A.; and Williams, G.P.

1999-01-21

137

Direct Grout Stabilization of High Cesium Salt Waste: Cesium Leaching Studies  

SciTech Connect

'The direct grout alternative is a viable option for treatment/stabilization and disposal of salt waste containing Cs-137 concentrations of 1-3 Ci/gal. The significant difference between these waste solutions is that the high cesium salt solution will contain between 1 and 3 Curies of Cs-137 per gallon compared to a negligible amount in the current salt solution. This difference will require special engineering and shielding for a direct grout processing facility and disposal units to achieve acceptable radiation exposure conditions. The higher cesium concentrations in the direct grout also require that the cesium leaching be evaluated as a function of curing temperature. ANS 16.1 leaching results and distribution ratios (approximations of distribution coefficients) as a function of temperature are presented in this report.'

Langton, C.A.

1999-09-19

138

Testing of low-temperature stabilization alternatives for salt containing mixed wastes -- Approach and results to date  

SciTech Connect

Through its annual process of identifying technology deficiencies associated with waste treatment, the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) determined that the former DOE weapons complex lacks efficient mixed waste stabilization technologies for salt containing wastes. These wastes were generated as sludge and solid effluents from various primary nuclear processes involving acids and metal finishing; and well over 10,000 cubic meters exist at 6 sites. In addition, future volumes of these problematic wastes will be produced as other mixed waste treatment methods such as incineration and melting are deployed. The current method used to stabilize salt waste for compliant disposal is grouting with Portland cement. This method is inefficient since the highly soluble and reactive chloride, nitrate, and sulfate salts interfere with the hydration and setting processes associated with grouting. The inefficiency results from having to use low waste loadings to ensure a durable and leach resistant final waste form. The following five alternatives were selected for MWFA development funding in FY97 and FY98: phosphate bonded ceramics; sol-gel process; polysiloxane; polyester resin; and enhanced concrete. Comparable evaluations were planned for the stabilization development efforts. Under these evaluations each technology stabilized the same type of salt waste surrogates. Final waste form performance data such as compressive strength, waste loading, and leachability could then be equally compared. Selected preliminary test results are provided in this paper.

Maio, V.; Loomis, G. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spence, R.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Smith, G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Biyani, R.K. [SGN Eurisys Services Corp., Richland, WA (United States); Wagh, A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1998-05-01

139

Closure of a nuclear waste repository deeply imbedded in a stratified salt bed  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a repository vault, mined deep into a salt strata. It eventually closes in on itself, encapsulating its contents. At room temperature salt may be regarded as a linear, isotropic, viscoelastic material. In this study, using triaxial compression test results on salt, the authors determine the relaxation functions and set up the boundary value problem for the encapsulation mechanism of a salt vault. Closure of the repository as a function of time is determined using a three-dimensional finite element model. The Tresca failure criterion is used to predict the stability of the repository. Finally, the study is validated by comparing the results to in-situ measured data.

Xu, W.; Genin, J. (New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1994-10-01

140

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: geochemistry of brine in rock salt in temperature gradients and gamma-radiation fields - a selective annotated bibliography  

SciTech Connect

Evaluation of the extensive research concerning brine geochemistry and transport is critically important to successful exploitation of a salt formation for isolating high-level radioactive waste. This annotated bibliography has been compiled from documents considered to provide classic background material on the interactions between brine and rock salt, as well as the most important results from more recent research. Each summary elucidates the information or data most pertinent to situations encountered in siting, constructing, and operating a mined repository in salt for high-level radioactive waste. The research topics covered include the basic geology, depositional environment, mineralogy, and structure of evaporite and domal salts, as well as fluid inclusions, brine chemistry, thermal and gamma-radiation effects, radionuclide migration, and thermodynamic properties of salts and brines. 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Hull, A.B.; Williams, L.B.

1985-07-01

141

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of low-activity waste immobilization. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudohydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Studies at PNNL are directed toward new solvent formulation for the practical sodium pseudohydroxide extraction systems.

Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

2006-06-01

142

Room closure response to gas generation and mechanical strength of different waste forms in a bedded salt repository  

SciTech Connect

Finite element calculations of the porosity history of a nuclear waste disposal room in a bedded salt formation have been completed. The analyses include an elastic/secondary creep model for the host halite and a nonlinear consolidation model for the crushed salt backfill. Separate gas generation and constitutive models were used for three distinct waste forms, (1) unaltered defense related CH-TRU waste, (2) shredded and cemented CH-TRU waste, and (3) incinerated and vitrified CH-TRU waste. Solutions were determined for a 2000 year time period starting from the decommissioning of the repository. The resulting room porosities varied from roughly 55% to less than 10%.

Mendenhall, F.T.; Stone, C.M.

1993-05-01

143

Molten salt destruction of energetic material wastes as an alternative to open burning. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

As a result of the end of the Cold War and the shift in emphasis to a smaller stockpile, many munitions, both conventional and nuclear, are scheduled for retirement and rapid dismantlement and demilitarization. Major components of these munitions are the explosives and propellants, or energetic materials. The Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process has been demonstrated for the destruction of HE and HE-containing wastes. MSD converts the organic constituents of the waste into non-hazardous substances such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water. Any inorganic constituents of the waste, such as binders and metallic particles, are retained in the molten salt. LLNL has built a small-scale (about 1 kg/hr throughput) unit to test the destruction of HE using the MSD process. The authors have demonstrated that HE`s and liquid propellants can be safely and fully destroyed using the molten salt destruction process. The authors are currently working on a number of improvements to the process. They are modifying the design of unit to obtain more throughput without any increase in salt entrainment. They are implementing an advanced nozzle design for injection of larger particles. They are defining operating envelopes for a number of high explosives and formulations. They are developing models to study the temperature profile of a top-feed nozzle for feeding larger particles into the unit.

Upadhye, R.S.; Brummond, W.A.; Pruneda, C.O.; Watkins, B.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Energetic Materials Center

1994-11-02

144

Characteristics of wasteform composing of phosphate and silicate to immobilize radioactive waste salts.  

PubMed

In the radioactive waste management, metal chloride wastes from a pyrochemical process is one of problematic wastes not directly applicable to a conventional solidification process. Different from a use of minerals or a specific phosphate glass for immobilizing radioactive waste salts, our research group applied an inorganic composite, SAP (SiO(2)-Al(2)O(3)-P(2)O(5)), to stabilize them by dechlorination. From this method, a unique wasteform composing of phosphate and silicate could be fabricated. This study described the characteristic of the wasteform on the morphology, chemical durability, and some physical properties. The wasteform has a unique "domain-matrix" structure which would be attributed to the incompatibility between silicate and phosphate glass. At higher amounts of chemical binder, "P-rich phase encapsulated by Si-rich phase" was a dominant morphology, but it was changed to be Si-rich phase encapsulated by P-rich phase at a lower amount of binder. The domain and subdomain size in the wasteform was about 0.5-2 ?m and hundreds of nm, respectively. The chemical durability of wasteform was confirmed by various leaching test methods (PCT-A, ISO dynamic leaching test, and MCC-1). From the leaching tests, it was found that the P-rich phase had ten times lower leach-resistance than the Si-rich phase. The leach rates of Cs and Sr in the wasteform were about 10(-3)g/m(2)· day, and the leached fractions of them were about 0.04% and 0.06% at 357 days, respectively. Using this method, we could stabilize and solidify the waste salt to form a monolithic wasteform with good leach-resistance. Also, the decrease of waste volume by the dechlorination approach would be beneficial in the final disposal cost, compared with the present immobilization methods for waste salt. PMID:21288037

Park, Hwan-Seo; Cho, In-Hak; Eun, Hee Chul; Kim, In-Tae; Cho, Yong Zun; Lee, Han-Soo

2011-02-02

145

Asse salt mine nuclear waste repository simulation experiments  

SciTech Connect

The field tests underway in Asse, Federal Republic of Germany are dicected toward the development of test plans, techniques and equipment to be used in Exploratory Shafts or At Depth Test Facilities confirmation tests. These simulated repository tests will also provide information which address the following issues: brine migration (liquid and vapor); radiation effects of gamma rays; gas generation caused by radiation and corrosion; accelerated corrosion and leaching; altered properties of salt (the effects of heat, radiation and brine); and the effects of heat and radiation on test assemblies, instruments, and various materials exposed to repository conditions. This paper is a status of the first 82 days of operation of the Asse Brine Migration Tests, which were initiated on May 25, 1983. 6 references.

Coyle, A.J.

1983-01-01

146

Metals recovering from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) using molten salts.  

PubMed

Recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEE) has been taken into consideration in the literature due to the large quantity of concerned wastes and their hazardous contents. The situation is so critical that EU published European Directives imposing collection and recycling with a minimum of material recovery [1]. Moreover, WEEEs contain precious metals, making the recycling of these wastes economically interesting, but also some critical metals and their recycling leads to resource conservation. This paper reports on a new approach for recycling waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). Molten salts and specifically molten KOH-NaOH eutectic is used to dissolve glasses, oxides and to destruct plastics present in wastes without oxidizing the most valuable metals. This method is efficient for recovering a copper-rich metallic fraction, which is, moreover, cleared of plastics and glasses. In addition, analyses of gaseous emission show that this method is environmentally friendly since most of the process gases, such as carbon monoxide and dioxide and halogens, are trapped in the highly basic molten salt. In other respects, under operation without oxygen, a large quantity of hydrogen is produced and might be used as fuel gas or as synthesis gas, leading to a favourable energy balance for this new process. PMID:22398030

Flandinet, L; Tedjar, F; Ghetta, V; Fouletier, J

2012-02-21

147

Prenatal programming of renal salt wasting resets postnatal salt appetite, which drives food intake in the rat.  

PubMed

Sodium retention has been proposed as the cause of hypertension in the LP rat (offspring exposed to a maternal low-protein diet in utero) model of developmental programming because of increased renal NKCC2 (Na+/K+/2Cl- co-transporter 2) expression. However, we have shown that LP rats excrete more rather than less sodium than controls, leading us to hypothesize that LP rats ingest more salt in order to maintain sodium balance. Rats were fed on either a 9% (low) or 18% (control) protein diet during pregnancy; male and female offspring were studied at 4 weeks of age. LP rats of both sexes held in metabolism cages excreted more sodium and urine than controls. When given water to drink, LP rats drank more and ate more food than controls, hence sodium intake matched excretion. However, when given a choice between saline and water to drink, the total volume of fluid ingested by LP rats fell to control levels, but the volume of saline taken was significantly larger [3.8±0.1 compared with 8.8±1.3 ml/24 h per 100 g of body weight in control and LP rats respectively; P<0.001]. Interestingly food intake also fell to control levels. Total body sodium content and ECF (extracellular fluid) volumes were greater in LP rats. These results show that prenatal programming of renal sodium wasting leads to a compensatory increase in salt appetite in LP rats. We speculate that the need to maintain salt homoeostasis following malnutrition in utero stimulates greater food intake, leading to accelerated growth and raised BP (blood pressure). PMID:21966935

Alwasel, Saleh H; Barker, David J P; Ashton, Nick

2012-03-01

148

Possible Salt Mine and Brined Cavity Sites for Radioactive Waste Disposal in the Northeastern Southern Peninsula of Michigan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A reconnaissance report on the possibilities for disposal of radioactive waste covers Michigan only, and is more detailed than an earlier one involving the northeastern states. Revised ''ground rules'' for pinpointing both mine and dissolved salt cavern s...

K. K. Landes H. L. Bourne

1976-01-01

149

Strain Related Radiation Damage Measurements in Rock Salt for Waste Disposal Applications. Quarterly Report, July 1-September 30, 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Radiation damage in natural rock salt, synthetic NaCl crystals, and other minerals of interest for radioactive waste disposal application was studied. The following topics were covered: (1) the role of strain applied prior to irradiation on the radiation-...

K. J. Swyler L. J. Teutonico P. W. Levy

1979-01-01

150

Strain Related Radiation Damage Measurements in Rock Salt for Waste Disposal Applications. Quarterly Report, April 1, 1979-June 30, 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Radiation damage in natural rock salt, synthetic NaCl crystals, and other minerals of interest for radioactive waste disposal application was studied. The following topics were covered: (1) temperature dependence of radiation induced F-center formation in...

K. J. Swyler L. J. Teutonico P. W. Levy

1979-01-01

151

Estimated human health risks of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste in salt caverns  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has completed an evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) disposed in domal salt caverns. In this assessment, several steps were used to evaluate potential human health risks: identifying potential contaminants of concern, determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing the contaminants` toxicities, estimating contaminant intakes, and, finally, calculating human cancer and noncancer risks.

Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.

1997-09-01

152

Definition of the waste package environment for a repository located in salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expected environmental conditions for emplaced waste packages in a salt repository are simulated in the materials testing program to evaluate performance. Synthetic brines, based on the analyses of actual brines (both intrusion and inclusion), are used for corrosion and leach testing. Elevated temperatures (to 150°C) and radiation fields of up to 10³ rad\\/h are employed as conservative conditions to

D. E. Clark; D. J. Bradley

1983-01-01

153

Risk analyses for disposing nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns  

SciTech Connect

Salt caverns have been used for several decades to store various hydrocarbon products. In the past few years, four facilities in the US have been permitted to dispose nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns. Several other disposal caverns have been permitted in Canada and Europe. This report evaluates the possibility that adverse human health effects could result from exposure to contaminants released from the caverns in domal salt formations used for nonhazardous oil field waste disposal. The evaluation assumes normal operations but considers the possibility of leaks in cavern seals and cavern walls during the post-closure phase of operation. In this assessment, several steps were followed to identify possible human health risks. At the broadest level, these steps include identifying a reasonable set of contaminants of possible concern, identifying how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing the toxicities of these contaminants, estimating their intakes, and characterizing their associated human health risks. The contaminants of concern for the assessment are benzene, cadmium, arsenic, and chromium. These were selected as being components of oil field waste and having a likelihood to remain in solution for a long enough time to reach a human receptor.

Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.; Caudle, D.

1997-12-01

154

Aspects of the thermal and transport properties of crystalline salt in designing radioactive waste storages in halogen formations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some of the properties of natural rock salt are described. This rock is of great practical interest, because, along with its conventional applications in the chemical and food industries, it is promising for use in engineering underground radioactive waste storages and natural gas reservoirs. The results of structural and texture studies of rock salt by neutron diffraction are discussed. The nature of the salt permeability under temperature and stress gradients is theoretically estimated.

Nikitin, A. N.; Pocheptsova, O. A.; Matthies, S.

2010-05-01

155

Aspects of the thermal and transport properties of crystalline salt in designing radioactive waste storages in halogen formations  

SciTech Connect

Some of the properties of natural rock salt are described. This rock is of great practical interest, because, along with its conventional applications in the chemical and food industries, it is promising for use in engineering underground radioactive waste storages and natural gas reservoirs. The results of structural and texture studies of rock salt by neutron diffraction are discussed. The nature of the salt permeability under temperature and stress gradients is theoretically estimated.

Nikitin, A. N., E-mail: nikitin@nf.jinr.ru; Pocheptsova, O. A.; Matthies, S. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Frank Laboratory of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

2010-05-15

156

USING MINED SPACE FOR LONG-TERM RETENTION OF NONRADIOACTIVE HAZARDOUS WASTE. VOLUME 2. SOLUTION MINED SALT CAVERNS  

EPA Science Inventory

This two-volume report assesses the current status of using mined-space for long-term retention of nonradioactive hazardous waste. Volume 2 expands the definition of mined space to include that created by solution mining of salt. This report examines the extent of salt deposits i...

157

ICP-MS nebulizer performance for analysis of SRS high salt simulated radioactive waste tank solutions ({number_sign}3053)  

SciTech Connect

High Level Radioactive Waste Tanks at the Savannah River Site are high in salt content. The cross-flow nebulizer provided the most stable signal for all salt matrices with the smallest signal loss/suppression due to this matrix. The DIN exhibited a serious lack of tolerance for TDS; possibly due to physical de-tuning of the nebulizer efficiency.

Jones, V.D.

1997-11-01

158

ICP-MS nebulizer performance for analysis of SRS high salt simulated radioactive waste tank solutions ( no. 3053).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High Level Radioactive Waste Tanks at the Savannah River Site are high in salt content. The cross-flow nebulizer provided the most stable signal for all salt matrices with the smallest signal loss/suppression due to this matrix. The DIN exhibited a seriou...

V. D. Jones

1997-01-01

159

Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), Modular CSSX Unit (CSSX), and Waste Transfer Line System of Salt Processing Program (U)  

SciTech Connect

All of the waste streams from ARP, MCU, and SWPF processes will be sent to DWPF for vitrification. The impact these new waste streams will have on DWPF's ability to meet its canister production goal and its ability to support the Salt Processing Program (ARP, MCU, and SWPF) throughput needed to be evaluated. DWPF Engineering and Operations requested OBU Systems Engineering to evaluate DWPF operations and determine how the process could be optimized. The ultimate goal will be to evaluate all of the Liquid Radioactive Waste (LRW) System by developing process modules to cover all facilities/projects which are relevant to the LRW Program and to link the modules together to: (1) study the interfaces issues, (2) identify bottlenecks, and (3) determine the most cost effective way to eliminate them. The results from the evaluation can be used to assist DWPF in identifying improvement opportunities, to assist CBU in LRW strategic planning/tank space management, and to determine the project completion date for the Salt Processing Program.

CHANG, ROBERT

2006-02-02

160

Electronic Structure of the F Center in LiCl  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electronic structure of the F-center lattice defect in LiCl is investigated with calculations based on the usual model of the F center proposed by de Boer. The ground- and excited-state wave functions and energies of the trapped electron are determined by two different methods. First, the method of linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) is used. This method is

R. F. Wood; J. Korringa

1961-01-01

161

Predicted temperature/time histories resulting from the burial of nuclear waste canisters in bedded salt  

SciTech Connect

This report provides computed thermal mappings for bedded salt surrounding canisters containing nuclear waste. This information can be used to study the possible migration of fluids within bedded salt under the influence of thermal gradients created by the heat-generating nuclear waste. The results presented were obtained from CINDA thermal models. Three different drift/canister configurations were modeled. The thermal conductivity of the salt was assumed to be temperature dependent while both the density and specific heat were assumed to be constant. Thermal power densities of 30, 75, and 150 kW/acre were examined with canister powers of 0.581 kW (51.6 canisters/acre), 3.5 kW (21.4 canisters/acre), and 3.5 kW (42.9 canisters/acre) at emplacement, respectively. These three cases resulted in maximum salt temperatures of 55/sup 0/C, 117/sup 0/C, and 176/sup 0/C, respectively; and maximum thermal gradients of -15/sup 0/C/m, -63/sup 0/C/m, and -101/sup 0/C/m, respectively. Computer-generated plots of temperature versus distance in horizontal planes at the top, midpoint, and bottom of the canister were made for several times after emplacement. Logarithmic or linear equations (whichever provided the better fit) were used to describe these curves. Derivatives of temperature with respect to distance were then taken and results of the form x(dT/dx) and dT/dx for the logarithmic and linear equations, respectively, were plotted against time. For the two cases where the waste thermal outputs decayed exponentially, it was found that x(dT/dx) and dT/dx were linear functions of time over a large period of years.

George, O.L. Jr.

1980-07-01

162

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of low-activity waste immobilization. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudohydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Synthesis efforts are being directed toward enhanced sodium binding by crown ethers, both neutral and proton-ionizable. Studies with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent compositions that have promising properties.

Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

2005-06-01

163

Thermal Destruction of Highly Chlorinated Mixed Wastes Without Generating Corrosive Off-Gases Using Molten Salt Oxidation (1,2).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A pilot-scale MSO (Molten Salt Oxidation) system was used to process 45-gallons of a halogenated mixed waste that is difficult to treat with other thermal systems. The mixed waste was a halogenated solvent that consisted mostly of methylchloroform. The 80...

W. Smtih F. Feizollahi

2002-01-01

164

Observations regarding the stability of bentonite backfill in a high-level waste (HLW) repository in rock salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consideration of bentonite as a component of the engineered barrier system surrounding high-level nuclear waste (HLW) canisters in rock salt raised several questions regarding the stability of this clay. Dehydration studies pertinent to the period immediately following waste emplacement showed a partial loss in swelling ability, the extent of which depended on the composition of the rehydrating brine and increased

Krumhansl

1986-01-01

165

Mineralocorticoid-resistant renal hyperkalemia without salt wasting (type II pseudohypoaldosteronism): Role of increased renal chloride reabsorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineralocorticoid-resistant renal hyperkalemia without salt wasting (type II pseudohypoaldosteronism): Role of increased renal chloride reabsorption. A rare syndrome has been described in which mineralocorticoid-resistant hyperkalemia of renal origin occurs in the absence of glomerular insufficiency and renal sodium wasting and in which hyperchloremic acidosis, hypertension, and hyporeninemia coexist. The primary abnormality has been postulated to be a defect of the

Morris Schambelan; Anthony Sebastian; Floyd C Rector

1981-01-01

166

THERMAL DESTRUCTION OF HIGHLY CHLORINATED MIXED WASTES WITHOUT GENERATING CORROSIVE OFF-GASES USING MOLTEN SALT OXIDATION (1,2)  

SciTech Connect

A pilot-scale MSO (Molten Salt Oxidation) system was used to process 45-gallons of a halogenated mixed waste that is difficult to treat with other thermal systems. The mixed waste was a halogenated solvent that consisted mostly of methylchloroform. The 80 weight percent of waste consisting of highly corrosive chlorine was captured in the first process vessel as sodium chloride. The sodium chloride leached chrome from that process vessel and the solidified salt exhibited the toxicity characteristic for chrome as measured by TCLP (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure) testing. The operating ranges for parameters such as salt bed temperature, off-gas temperature, and feed rate that enable sustained operation were identified. At feed rates below the sustainable limit, both processing capacity and maintenance requirements increased with feed rate. Design and operational modifications to increase the sustainable feed rate limit and reduce maintenance requirements reduced both salt carryover and volumetric gas flows.

Smith, W.; Feizollahi, F.

2002-02-25

167

Disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns -- Legality, technical feasibility, economics, and risk  

SciTech Connect

Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approaching cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

1998-07-01

168

Forced-choice discrimination of equimolar NaCl and LiCl solutions in rats: effects of ablating the chemosensitive area postrema on acquisition and retention.  

PubMed

The area postrema (AP), a chemosensitive organ located in the fourth ventricle, has been shown to mediate the formation of a lithium-induced conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) in rats. The present experiments examined the role of the AP in the discrimination between two equimolar solutions of sodium chloride (NaCl) and lithium chloride (LiCl). In the first experiment adult male rats were trained to discriminate between equimolar (0.12 M) solutions of NaCl and LiCl in a forced-choice procedure over a 10-day acquisition phase. Subsequently half of the rats (n = 7) received AP lesions (APX) and the other half (n = 7) were given sham lesions (SHAM). In the retention phase all animals were again exposed to the same salt solutions over a 10-day period. Good discrimination (P < 0.001) between the two salt solutions was demonstrated by the end of the acquisition phase and both the APX and SHAM groups exhibited robust retention (P < 0.01) of this discrimination in the second phase. However, when only a LiCl solution was available the APX group ingested significantly more (P < 0.01) than the SHAM rats. No significant group difference emerged when only NaCl was available. In the second experiment rats received ablations of AP or sham lesions and were then trained to discriminate between 0.12 M NaCl and LiCl solutions in a forced-choice procedure over a 10-day period. Both groups exhibited a clear discrimination (P < 0.01) between the two solutions by the end of the acquisition phase. APX rats ingested significantly more LiCl (P < 0.01) than did the SHAM group when this was the only type of fluid available. Again, no such difference was evident when only NaCl was available. These experiments demonstrate that the AP is not necessary for either the acquisition or retention of a discrimination between equimolar solutions of NaCl and LiCl in a forced-choice procedure and that this discrimination is not mediated by a conditioned taste aversion to the LiCl solution. PMID:9331470

Ossenkopp, K P; Ladowsky, R L; Eckel, L A

1997-08-01

169

Hydrostatic and shear consolidation tests with permeability measurements on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant crushed salt  

SciTech Connect

Crushed natural rock salt is a primary candidate for use as backfill and barrier material at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and therefore Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been pursuing a laboratory program designed to quantify its consolidation properties and permeability. Variables that influence consolidation rate that have been examined include stress state and moisture content. The experimental results presented in this report complement existing studies and work in progress conducted by SNL. The experiments described in this report were designed to (1) measure permeabilities of consolidated specimens of crushed salt, (2) determine the influence of brine saturation on consolidation under hydrostatic loads, and 3) measure the effects of small applied shear stresses on consolidation properties. The laboratory effort consisted of 18 individual tests: three permeability tests conducted on specimens that had been consolidated at Sandia, six hydrostatic consolidation and permeability tests conducted on specimens of brine-saturated crushed WIPP salt, and nine shear consolidation and permeability tests performed on crushed WIPP salt specimens containing 3 percent brine by weight. For hydrostatic consolidation tests, pressures ranged from 1.72 MPa to 6.90 MPa. For the shear consolidation tests, confining pressures were between 3.45 MPa and 6.90 MPa and applied axial stress differences were between 0.69 and 4.14 MPa. All tests were run under drained conditions at 25{degrees}C.

Brodsky, N.S. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States)

1994-03-01

170

Waste package materials field test in S. E. New Mexico salt  

SciTech Connect

A six-part, waste package materials field test was conducted in a halite horizon of a potash mine in southeastern New Mexico. The primary purposes of this test were to evaluate the thermophysical and geochemical performance of candidate HLW-package backfill materials emplaced in rock salt and the corrosion behavior of candidate waste canister or overpack alloys. This field test series also served as a precursor to forthcoming Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in-situ waste package performance experiments on simulated defense high-level waste packages, serving to develop applicable testing, instrumentation, and sampling techniques. The backfill materials tested (individually, in one- to five-month tests) were: low-density bentonite clay; low-density bentonite (70 wt %)-silica sand (30 wt %) mixtures, both dry and brine-injected; high-density bentonite-sand annular compacts; trapped air; and finely-crushed WIPP salt. The in-situ measured thermal conductivities (at a maximum canister-heater surface temperature of 150/sup 0/ or 250/sup 0/C) for the backfills ranged from 0.25 W/mK for pure bentonite to about 1.25 W/mK for the high-density bentonite-sand. No significant backfill material degradation products were detected in post-test analyses. No appreciable corrosion of the titanium-, nickel-, or iron-based alloys embedded in the hot backfill was found; potentially significant pitting corrosion of 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel and copper was detected. 11 references, 1 table.

Molecke, M.A.; Torres, T.M.

1983-11-01

171

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of vitrification. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudo hydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Synthesis efforts are being directed toward enhanced sodium binding by crown ethers, both neutral and proton-ionizable. Studies with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent compositions that have promising properties.

Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Custelcean, Radu; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Engle, Nancy L.; Kang, Hyun-Ah; Keever, Tamara J.; Marchand, Alan P.; Gadthula, Srinivas; Gore, Vinayak K.; Huang, Zilin; Sivappa, Rasapalli; Tirunahari, Pavan K.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

2005-09-26

172

Salt Processing at the Savannah River Site: Results of Technology Down-Selection and Research and Development to Support New Salt Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste (HLW) program is responsible for storage, treatment, and immobilization of HLW for disposal. The Salt Processing Project (SPP) is the salt waste (water-soluble) treatment portion of this effort. The overall SPP encompasses the selection, design, construction, and operation of technologies to prepare the salt-waste feed material for immobilization at the site's Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) and vitrification facility (Defense Waste Processing Facility [DWPF]). Major constituents that must be removed from the salt waste and sent as feed to DWPF include cesium (Cs), strontium (Sr), and actinides. In April 2000, the DOE Deputy Secretary for Project Completion (EM-40) established the SRS Salt Processing Project Technical Working Group (TWG) to manage technology development of treatment alternatives for SRS high-level salt wastes. The separation alternatives investigated included three candidate Cs-removal processes selected, as well as actinide and Sr removal that are also required as a part of each process. The candidate Cs-removal processes are: crystalline Silicotitanate Non-Elutable Ion Exchange (CST); caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX); and small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP). The Tanks Focus Area was asked to assist DOE by managing the SPP research and development (R&D), revising roadmaps, and developing down-selection criteria. The down-selection decision process focused its analysis on three levels: (a) identification of goals that the selected technology should achieve, (b) selection criteria that are a measure of performance of the goal, and (c) criteria scoring and weighting for each technology alternative. After identifying the goals and criteria, the TWG analyzed R&D results and engineering data and scored the technology alternatives versus the criteria. Based their analysis and scoring, the TWG recommended CSSX as the preferred alternative. This recommendation was formalized in July 2001 when DOE published the Savannah River Site Salt Processing Alternatives Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) and was finalized in the DOE Record of Decision issued in October 2001.

Lang, K.; Gerdes, K.; Picha, K.; Spader, W.; McCullough, J.; Reynolds, J.; Morin, J. P.; Harmon, H. D.

2002-02-26

173

Nitrogen conservation in simulated food waste aerobic composting process with different Mg and P salt mixtures.  

PubMed

To assess the effects of three types of Mg and P salt mixtures (potassium phosphate [K3PO4]/magnesium sulfate [MgSO4], potassium dihydrogen phosphate [K2HPO4]/MgSO4, KH2PO4/MgSO4) on the conservation of N and the biodegradation of organic materials in an aerobic food waste composting process, batch experiments were undertaken in four reactors (each with an effective volume of 30 L). The synthetic food waste was composted of potatoes, rice, carrots, leaves, meat, soybeans, and seed soil, and the ratio of C and N was 17:1. Runs R1-R3 were conducted with the addition of K3PO4/ MgSO4, K2HPO4/MgSO4, and KH2PO4/MgSO4 mixtures, respectively; run R0 was a blank performed without the addition of Mg and P salts. After composting for 25 days, the degrees of degradation of the organic materials in runs R0-R3 were 53.87, 62.58, 59.14, and 49.13%, respectively. X-ray diffraction indicated that struvite crystals were formed in runs R1-R3 but not in run R0; the gaseous ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) losses in runs R0-R3 were 21.2, 32.8, 12.6, and 3.5% of the initial total N, respectively. Of the tested Mg/P salt mixtures, the K2HPO4/ MgSO4 system provided the best combination of conservation of N and biodegradation of organic materials in this food waste composting process. PMID:21850832

Li, Yu; Su, Bensheng; Liu, Jianlin; Du, Xianyuan; Huang, Guohe

2011-07-01

174

Suitability of salt-mudstones as a host rock in salt domes for radioactive-waste storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the rock-salt structures and of the conceptual model of SNF and radwaste repositories has shown that in the procedure of site selection, two types of host rocks namely, rock salt and salt-mudstones, should be considered. Laboratory investigations of the mineralogical, chemical, physical and geomechanical properties of salt-mudstones, from the point-of-view of their suitabilities for containing radwaste deposition, are

K. ?lizowski; J. Janeczek; K. Przew?ocki

2003-01-01

175

Review of geochemical measurement techniques for a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt  

SciTech Connect

A broad, general review is presented of geochemical measurement techniques that can provide data necessary for site selection and repository effectiveness assessment for a radioactive waste repository in bedded salt. The available measurement techniques are organized according to the parameter measured. The list of geochemical parameters include all those measurable geochemical properties of a sample whole values determine the geochemical characteristics or behavior of the system. For each technique, remarks are made pertaining to the operating principles of the measurement instrument and the purpose for which the technique is used. Attention is drawn to areas where further research and development are needed.

Knauss, K.G.; Steinborn, T.L.

1980-05-22

176

The source term and waste optimization of molten salt reactors with processing  

SciTech Connect

The source term of a molten salt reactor (MSR) with fuel processing is reduced by the ratio of processing time to refueling time as compared to solid fuel reactors. The reduction, which can be one to two orders of magnitude, is due to removal of the long-lived fission products. The waste from MSRs can be optimized with respect to its chemical composition, concentration, mixture, shape, and size. The actinides and long-lived isotopes can be separated out and returned to the reactor for transmutation. These features make MSRs more acceptable and simpler in operation and handling.

Gat, U. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dodds, H.L. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

1993-07-01

177

DEGRADED TBP SOLVENT REGENERATION TECHNOLOGY USING BUTYLAMINE AS A SOLVENT WASHING TO REDUCE SOLID SALT WASTE  

SciTech Connect

Normal butylamine compounds are studied as salt-free wash reagents for degraded solvent used in PUREX process in spent fuel reprocessing. The solvent wash tests were carried out with two types of butylamine compounds, n-butylamine oxalate and n-butylamine bicarbonate, by counter-current mode using a small size mixer-settler composed of two 4-stage wash steps. Di-n-butyl phosphoric acid (HDBP), the main degradation product from TBP, was removed from real degraded solvent with decontamination factor of 2.5 {approx} 7.9. The study on electrolytic decomposition of butylamine compounds was also conducted for waste treatment.

Asakura, T.; Itoh, Y.; Hotoku, S.; Morita, Y.; Uchiyama, G.

2003-02-27

178

Independent Assessment of the Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Salt Disposition Alternatives Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the Independent Project Evaluation (IPE) Team assessment of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company High-Level Waste Salt Disposition Systems Engineering (SE) Team's deliberations, evaluations, and selections. The Westinghouse Savannah River Company concluded in early 1998 that production goals and safety requirements for processing SRS HLW salt to remove Cs-137 could not be met in the existing In-Tank Precipitation Facility as currently configured for precipitation of cesium tetraphenylborate. The SE Team was chartered to evaluate and recommend an alternative(s) for processing the existing HLW salt to remove Cs-137. To replace the In-Tank Precipitation process, the Savannah River Site HLW Salt Disposition SE Team downselected (October 1998) 140 candidate separation technologies to two alternatives: Small-Tank Tetraphenylborate (TPB) Precipitation (primary alternative) and Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Nonelutable Ion Exchange (backup alternative). The IPE Team, commissioned by the Department of Energy, concurs that both alternatives are technically feasible and should meet all salt disposition requirements. But the IPE Team judges that the SE Team's qualitative criteria and judgments used in their downselection to a primary and a backup alternative do not clearly discriminate between the two alternatives. To properly choose between Small-Tank TPB and CST Ion Exchange for the primary alternative, the IPE Team suggests the following path forward: Complete all essential R and D activities for both alternatives and formulate an appropriate set of quantitative decision criteria that will be rigorously applied at the end of the R and D activities. Concurrent conceptual design activities should be limited to common elements of the alternatives.

J. T. Case (DOE-ID); M. L. Renfro (INEEL)

1998-12-01

179

Separation of plutonium from lanthanum by electrolysis in LiCl KCl onto molten bismuth electrode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents a study on the electroseparation of plutonium from lanthanum using molten bismuth electrodes in LiCl KCl eutectic at 733 K. The reduction potentials of Pu3+ and La3+ ions were measured on a Bi thin film electrode using cyclic voltammetry (CV). A difference between the peak potentials for the formation of PuBi2 and LaBi2 of approximately 100 mV was found. Separation tests were then carried out using different current densities and salt phase compositions between a plutonium rod anode and an unstirred molten Bi cathode in order to evaluate the efficiency of an electrolytic separation process. At a current density of 12 mA/cm2/wt% (Pu3+), only Pu3+ ions are reduced into the molten Bi electrode, leaving La3+ ions in the salt melt. Similar results were found at two different Pu/La concentration ratios ([Pu]/[La] = 4 and 10). At a current density of 26 mA/cm2/wt% (Pu3+), co-reduction of Pu and La was observed as expected by the large negative potential of the Bi cathode during the separation test.

Serp, J.; Lefebvre, P.; Malmbeck, R.; Rebizant, J.; Vallet, P.; Glatz, J.-P.

2005-04-01

180

Electrochemistry and Spectroelectrochemistry of Europium(III) Chloride in 3LiCl-2KCl from 643 to 1123 K.  

PubMed

The electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical behavior of europium(III) chloride in a molten salt eutectic, 3LiCl-2KCl, over a temperature range of 643-1123 K using differential pulse voltammetry, cyclic voltammetry, potential step chronoabsorptometry, and thin-layer spectroelectrochemistry is reported. The electrochemical reaction was determined to be the one-electron reduction of Eu(3+) to Eu(2+) at all temperatures. The redox potential of Eu(3+/2+) shifts to more positive potentials, and the diffusion coefficient for Eu(3+) increases as temperature increases. The results for the number of electrons transferred, redox potential, and diffusion coefficient are in good agreement between the electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical techniques. This research extends our ability to develop a spectroelectrochemical sensor for lanthanides and actinides into molten salt media. PMID:24016214

Schroll, Cynthia A; Chatterjee, Sayandev; Levitskaia, Tatiana G; Heineman, William R; Bryan, Samuel A

2013-09-30

181

Summary strategy for compliance with postclosure requirements for the waste package for the Salt Repository Project: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This document presents a summary of the strategy of the Salt Repository Project (SRP) to show compliance with the requirements for the waste package after permanent closure of the repository at the site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The postclosure requirements that govern the performance of the waste package are those in 10 CFR 60.113 for substantially complete containment of the waste and for gradual release of radionuclides after the containment period, and for the postclosure design requirements in 10 CFR 60.135. Also, the waste package plays a role in showing compliance with the total system release requirement in 40 CFR 191.13. 12 refs.

Not Available

1988-03-01

182

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's Socioeconomic Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

The following recommendations have been abstracted from the body of this report. The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's Socioeconomic Program Plan for the Establishment of Mined Geologic Repositories to Isolate Nuclear Waste should be modified to: (1) encourage active public participation in the decision-making processes leading to repository site selection; (2) clearly define mechanisms for incorporating the concerns of local residents, state and local governments, and other potentially interested parties into the early stages of the site selection process. In addition, the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation should carefully review the overall role that these persons and groups, including local pressure groups organized in the face of potential repository development, will play in the siting process; (3) place significantly greater emphasis on using primary socioeconomic data during the site selection process, reversing the current overemphasis on secondary data collection, description of socioeconomic conditions at potential locations, and development of analytical methodologies; (4) include additional approaches to solving socioeconomic problems. For example, a reluctance to acknowledge that solutions to socioeconomic problems need to be found jointly with interested parties is evident in the plan; (5) recognize that mitigation mechanisms other than compensation and incentives may be effective; (6) as soon as potential sites are identified, the US Department of Energy (DOE) should begin discussing impact mitigation agreements with local officials and other interested parties; and (7) comply fully with the pertinent provisions of NWPA.

Winter, R.; Fenster, D.; O'Hare, M.; Zillman, D.; Harrison, W.; Tisue, M.

1984-07-01

183

Estimate of the risks of disposing nonhazardous oil field wastes into salt caverns  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has completed an evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) disposed in domal salt caverns. Potential human health risks associated with hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) in NOW were assessed under four postclosure cavern release scenarios: inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks or leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. To estimate potential human health risks for these scenarios, contaminant concentrations at the receptor were calculated using a one-dimensional solution to an advection/dispersion equation that included first order degradation. Assuming a single, generic salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, the best-estimate excess cancer risks ranged from 1.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} to 1.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} and hazard indices (referring to noncancer health effects) ranged from 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} to 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}. Under worse-case conditions in which the probability of cavern failure is 1.0, excess cancer risks ranged from 4.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} to 1.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} and hazard indices ranged from 7.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} to 0.07. Even under worst-case conditions, the risks are within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target range for acceptable exposure levels. From a human health risk perspective, salt caverns can, therefore, provide an acceptable disposal method for NOW.

Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.

1997-12-31

184

Salt tectonics  

SciTech Connect

Salt deposits have economic significance because of their importance as oil and gas traps and their potential as radioactive waste disposal sites. This article reviews the formation of salt domes, beginning with a description of the formation of salt deposits as evaporites and a discussion of early attempts to model the development of salt domes. Current work on tectonics of salt dome formation and related tectonics is then discussed in detail.

Talbot, C.J.; Jackson, M.P.A.

1988-01-01

185

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: Peer review of the Golder Associates draft test plan for in situ testing in an exploratory shaft in salt  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the peer review conducted by Argonne National Laboratory of a document entitled ''Draft Test Plan for In Situ Testing in an Exploratory Shaft in Salt,'' prepared for Battelle Memorial Institute's Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation by Golder Associates, Inc. In general, the peer review panelists found the test plan to be technically sound, although some deficiencies were identified. Recommendations for improving the test plan are presented in this review report. A microfiche copy of the following unpublished report is attached to the inside back cover of this report: ''Draft Test Plan for In Situ Testing in an Exploratory Shaft in Salt,'' prepared by Golder Associates, Inc., for Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation, Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, Ohio (March 1985).

Hambley, D.F.; Mraz, D.Z.; Unterberter, R.R.; Stormont, J.C.; Neuman, S.P.; Russell, J.E.; Jacoby, C.H.; Hull, A.B.; Brady, B.H.G.; Ditmars, J.D.

1987-01-01

186

Laboratory creep and mechanical tests on salt data report (1975-1996): Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) thermal\\/structural interactions program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility located in a bedded salt formation in Carlsbad, New Mexico, is being used by the U.S. Department of Energy to demonstrate the technology for safe handling and disposal of transuranic wastes produced by defense activities in the United States. In support of that demonstration, mechanical tests on salt were conducted in the

K. D. Mellegard; D. E. Munson

1997-01-01

187

LiCl induces TNF-? and FasL production, thereby stimulating apoptosis in cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Background The incidence of cancer in patients with neurological diseases, who have been treated with LiCl, is below average. LiCl is a well-established inhibitor of Glycogen synthase kinase-3, a kinase that controls several cellular processes, among which is the degradation of the tumour suppressor protein p53. We therefore wondered whether LiCl induces p53-dependent cell death in cancer cell lines and experimental tumours. Results Here we show that LiCl induces apoptosis of tumour cells both in vitro and in vivo. Cell death was accompanied by cleavage of PARP and Caspases-3, -8 and -10. LiCl-induced cell death was not dependent on p53, but was augmented by its presence. Treatment of tumour cells with LiCl strongly increased TNF-? and FasL expression. Inhibition of TNF-? induction using siRNA or inhibition of FasL binding to its receptor by the Nok-1 antibody potently reduced LiCl-dependent cleavage of Caspase-3 and increased cell survival. Treatment of xenografted rats with LiCl strongly reduced tumour growth. Conclusions Induction of cell death by LiCl supports the notion that GSK-3 may represent a promising target for cancer therapy. LiCl-induced cell death is largely independent of p53 and mediated by the release of TNF-? and FasL. Key words: LiCl, TNF-?, FasL, apoptosis, GSK-3, FasL

2011-01-01

188

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's Socioeconomic Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

The ONWI Socioeconomic Program Plan spells out DOE's approach to analyzing the socioeconomic impacts from siting, constructing, and operating radioactive waste repositories and discusses mitigation strategies. The peer review indicated the following modifications should be made to the Plan: encourage active public participation in the decision-making processes leading to repository site selection; clearly define mechanisms for incorporating the concerns of local residents, state and local governments, and other potentially interested parties into the early stages of the site selection process; place significantly greater emphasis on using primary socioeconomic data during the site selection process, reversing the current overemphasis on secondary data collection, description of socioeconomic conditions at potential locations, and development of analytical methodologies; recognize that mitigation mechanisms other than compensation and incentives may be effective; as soon as potential sites are identified, the US Department of Energy (DOE) should begin discussing impact mitigation agreements with local officials and other interested parties; and comply fully with the pertinent provisions of NWPA.

Winter, R.; Fenster, D.; O'Hare, M.; Zillman, D.; Harrison, W.; Tisue, M.

1984-02-01

189

Partitioning of High-Level Waste with an Extractant Based on Chlorinated Cobalt Dicarbollide and Dibutylphosphoric Acid Zirconium Salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new extractant allowing full partitioning of high-level waste was developed. It consists of chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, dibutylphosphoric acid zirconium salt, and polyethylene glycol, dissolved in a polar diluent, mononitrobenzotrifluoride. This extractant recovers from the Purex process raffinate REE, TPE, Cs, Sr, Mo, and Zr. The component ratio ensuring maximal recovery of REE and TPE was found. The majority of

D. N. Shishkin; B. Ya. Galkin; Yu. S. Fedorov; B. Ya. Zilberman; O. V. Shmidt

2003-01-01

190

Progress in validation of structural codes for radioactive waste repository applications in bedded salt  

SciTech Connect

Over the last nine years, coordinated activities in laboratory database generation, constitutive model formulation, and numerical code capability development have led to an improved ability of thermal/structural codes to predict the creep deformation of underground rooms in bedded salt deposits. In the last year, these codes have been undergoing preliminary validation against an extensive database collected from the large scale underground structural in situ tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Southeastern New Mexico. This validation exercise has allowed prediction capabilities to be evaluated for accuracy. We present here a summary of the predictive capability and the nature of the in situ database involved in the validation exercise. The WIPP validation exercise has proven to be especially productive. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Munson, D.E. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); DeVries, K.L. (RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (USA))

1990-08-01

191

Splicing mutation in CYP21 associated with delayed presentation of salt-wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia  

SciTech Connect

Patients with salt-wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia (SW-CAH) most commonly carry an A-G transition at nucleotide 656 (nt 656 A{r_arrow}G), causing abnormal splicing of exons 2 and 3 in CYP21, the gene encoding active steroid 21-hydroxylase. Affected infants are severely deficient in cortisol and aldosterone, and usually come to medical attention during the neonatal period. We report on 2 affected boys, homozygous for the nt 656 mutation, who thrived in early infancy, but suffered salt-wasting crises unusually late in infancy, at 3.5 and 5.5 months, respectively. Laboratory studies at presentation showed hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, dehydration, and acidosis; serum aldosterone was low in spite of markedly elevated plasma renin activity. Basal 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels were only moderately elevated, yet the stimulated levels were more typical of severe, classic CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Genomic DNA from the patients was analyzed. Southern blot showed no major deletions or rearrangements. CYP21-specific amplification by polymerase chain reaction, coupled with allele-specific hybridization using wild-type and mutant probes at each of 9 sites for recognized disease-causing mutations, revealed a single, homozygous mutation in each patient: nt 656 A{r_arrow}G. These results were confirmed by sequence analysis. We conclude that the common nt 656 A{r_arrow}G mutation is sometimes associated with delayed phenotypic expression of SW-CAH. We speculate that variable splicing of the mutant CYP21 may modify the clinical manifestation of this disease. 22 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Kohn, B.; Patel, S.V.; Pelczar, J.V. [North Shore Univ. Hospital, Manhasset, NY (United States)] [and others

1995-07-03

192

More on Renal Salt Wasting Without Cerebral Disease: Response to Saline Infusion  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives: The existence and prevalence of cerebral salt wasting (CSW) or the preferred term, renal salt wasting (RSW), and its differentiation from syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) have been controversial. This controversy stems from overlapping clinical and laboratory findings and an inability to assess the volume status of these patients. The authors report another case of RSW without clinical cerebral disease and contrast it to SIADH. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Three patients with hyponatremia, hypouricemia, increased fractional excretion (FE) of urate, urine sodium >20 mmol/L, and concentrated urines were infused with isotonic saline after collection of baseline data. Results: One patient with RSW had pneumonia without cerebral disease and showed increased plasma aldosterone and FEphosphate, and two patients with SIADH had increased blood volume, low plasma renin and aldosterone, and normal FEphosphate. The patient with RSW responded to isotonic saline by excretion of dilute urines, prompt correction of hyponatremia, and normal water loading test after volume repletion. Hypouricemia and increased FEurate persisted after correction of hyponatremia. Two patients with SIADH failed to dilute their urines and remained hyponatremic during 48 and 110 h of saline infusion. Conclusions: The authors demonstrate appropriate stimulation of ADH in RSW. Differences in plasma renin and aldosterone levels and FEphosphate can differentiate RSW from SIADH, as will persistent hypouricemia and increased FEurate after correction of hyponatremia in RSW. FEphosphate was the only contrasting variable at baseline. The authors suggest an approach to treat the hyponatremic patient meeting criteria for SIADH and RSW and changing CSW to the more appropriate term, RSW.

Bitew, Solomon; Imbriano, Louis; Miyawaki, Nobuyuki; Fishbane, Steven; Maesaka, John K.

2009-01-01

193

Molten salt destruction as an alternative to open burning of energetic material wastes  

SciTech Connect

LLNL has built a small-scale (about 1 kg/hr throughput unit to test the destruction of energetic materials using the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) process. We have modified the unit described in the earlier references to inject energetic waste material continuously into the unit. In addition to the HMX, other explosives we have destroyed include RDX, PETN, ammonium picrate, TNT, nitroguanadine, and TATB. We have also destroyed a liquid gun propellant comprising hydroxyl ammonium nitrate, triethanolammonium nitrate and water. In addition to these pure components, we have destroyed a number of commonly used formulations, such as LX-10 (HMX/Viton), LX-16 (PETN/FPC461, LX-17 (TATB/Kel F), and PBX-9404 (HMX)/CEF/Nitro cellulose). Our experiments have demonstrated that energetic materials can be safely and effectively treated by MSD.We have also investigated the issue of steam explosions in molten salt units, both experimentally and theoretically, and concluded that steam explosions can be avoided under proper design and operating conditions. We are currently building a larger unit (nominal capacity 5 kg/hr,) to investigate the relationship between residence time, temperature, feed concentration and throughputs, avoidance of back-burn, a;nd determination of the products of combustion under different operating conditions.

Upadhye, R.S.; Watkins, B.E.; Pruneda, C.O.; Brummond, W.A.

1994-07-05

194

Risk analyses for disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has completed an evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) disposed of in domal salt caverns. In this assessment, several steps were used to evaluate potential human health risks: identifying potential contaminants of concern; determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants; assessing the contaminants` toxicities; estimating contaminant intakes; and, finally, calculating human cancer and noncancer risks. Potential human health risks associated with hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) in NOW were assessed under four postclosure cavern release scenarios: inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks or leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. To estimate potential human health risks for these scenarios, contaminant concentrations at the receptor were calculated using a one-dimensional solution to an advection/dispersion equation that included first order degradation. Even under worst-case conditions, the risks have been found to be within the US EPA target range for acceptable exposure levels. From a human health risk perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for NOW.

Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.

1997-09-01

195

Design evaluation: Structural calculations for the construction and salt handling shaft and the waste handling shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)  

SciTech Connect

One fundamental strategy under consideration for sealing the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) shafts involves the consolidation of the salt backfill in specified portions of the shaft. The criterion for effective salt consolidation was defined to occur when the fractional density of the crushed salt reaches 95%. Thus, the shaft is sealed with a backfill material (crushed salt and/or precompacted salt blocks) that eventually develops properties considered favorable for long-term sealing purposes. This report describes the structural analyses performed to address how much deformation will occur in the shaft as a function of time and depth and how long will it take for the backfill to consolidate to 95% relative density. The two-dimensional axisymmetric shaft model was allowed to creep for a period of 30 years before instantaneous backfill emplacement. Results indicate that the backfill will consolidate to 95% density in less than 300 years at the repository horizon for an initial relative density of 0.60. Most of the backfill in the shaft reaches 95% density in less than 1000 years if the backfill is emplaced at an initial relative density of 0.85. Thus, the calculations show that salt seal materials can reconsolidate in the WIPP shafts to densities nearly equal to those for the intact host rock salt in a relatively short time span. 10 refs., 17 figs.

Torres, T.M.

1988-02-01

196

Distillation Separation of Hydrofluoric Acid and Nitric Acid from Acid Waste Using the Salt Effect on Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents the distillation separation of hydrofluoric acid with use of the salt effect on the vapor-liquid equilibrium for acid aqueous solutions and acid mixtures. The vapor-liquid equilibrium of hydrofluoric acid + salt systems (fluorite, potassium nitrate, cesium nitrate) was measured using an apparatus made of perfluoro alkylvinylether. Cesium nitrate showed a salting-out effect on the vapor-liquid equilibrium of the hydrofluoric acid-water system. Fluorite and potassium nitrate showed a salting-in effect on the hydrofluoric acid-water system. Separation of hydrofluoric acid from an acid mixture containing nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid was tested by the simple distillation treatment using the salt effect of cesium nitrate (45 mass%). An acid mixture of nitric acid (5.0 mol · dm-3) and hydrofluoric acid (5.0 mol · dm-3) was prepared as a sample solution for distillation tests. The concentration of nitric acid in the first distillate decreased from 5.0 mol · dm-3 to 1.13 mol · dm-3, and the concentration of hydrofluoric acid increased to 5.41 mol · dm-3. This first distillate was further distilled without the addition of salt. The concentrations of hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid in the second distillate were 7.21 mol · dm-3 and 0.46 mol · dm-3, respectively. It was thus found that the salt effect on vapor-liquid equilibrium of acid mixtures was effective for the recycling of acids from acid mixture wastes.

Yamamoto, Hideki; Sumoge, Iwao

2011-03-01

197

SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INCIPIENT SLUDGE MIXING IN RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE STORAGE TANKS DURING SALT SOLUTION BLENDING  

SciTech Connect

This paper is the second in a series of four publications to document ongoing pilot scale testing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of mixing processes in 85 foot diameter, 1.3 million gallon, radioactive liquid waste, storage tanks at Savannah River Site (SRS). Homogeneous blending of salt solutions is required in waste tanks. Settled solids (i.e., sludge) are required to remain undisturbed on the bottom of waste tanks during blending. Suspension of sludge during blending may potentially release radiolytically generated hydrogen trapped in the sludge, which is a safety concern. The first paper (Leishear, et. al. [1]) presented pilot scale blending experiments of miscible fluids to provide initial design requirements for a full scale blending pump. Scaling techniques for an 8 foot diameter pilot scale tank were also justified in that work. This second paper describes the overall reasons to perform tests, and documents pilot scale experiments performed to investigate disturbance of sludge, using non-radioactive sludge simulants. A third paper will document pilot scale CFD modeling for comparison to experimental pilot scale test results for both blending tests and sludge disturbance tests. That paper will also describe full scale CFD results. The final paper will document additional blending test results for stratified layers in salt solutions, scale up techniques, final full scale pump design recommendations, and operational recommendations. Specifically, this paper documents a series of pilot scale tests, where sludge simulant disturbance due to a blending pump or transfer pump are investigated. A principle design requirement for a blending pump is UoD, where Uo is the pump discharge nozzle velocity, and D is the nozzle diameter. Pilot scale test results showed that sludge was undisturbed below UoD = 0.47 ft{sup 2}/s, and that below UoD = 0.58 ft{sup 2}/s minimal sludge disturbance was observed. If sludge is minimally disturbed, hydrogen will not be released. Installation requirements were also determined for a transfer pump which will remove tank contents, and which is also required to not disturb sludge. Testing techniques and test results for both types of pumps are presented.

Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Lee, S.; Steeper, T.; Fowley, M.; Parkinson, K.

2011-01-12

198

Solubility in the ternary system LiCl + MgCl2 + H2O at 60 and 75°C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solubility of ternary system of lithium, magnesium and chloride and refractive indexes have been determined at 60 and 75°C, respectively. Using the experimental results, the phase diagrams of the ternary system were plotted. The single-salt Pitzer parameters of LiCl and MgCl2 ?(0), ?(1) and C ? were calculated by using the equations reported by Li Y-H and de Lima at different temperatures, respectively. On the basis of Pitzer ion-interaction model and solubility product equation for mixed electrolytes, the mixing parameters ?Li, Mg, ?Li, Mg, Cl and equilibrium constant K sp were evaluated in this system, which were not reported in literature. A complete phase diagram of the ternary system was predicted at 60 and 75°C. The prediction of solubilities in ternary system was then demonstrated. The calculated solubilities agreed well with the experimental values.

Yang, Ji-Min; Ji, Jun

2010-07-01

199

Determination of uranium and rare-earth metals separation coefficients in LiCl KCl melt by electrochemical transient techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main step in the pyrometallurgical process of spent nuclear fuel recycling is a molten salt electrorefining. The knowledge of separation coefficients of actinides (U, Np, Pu and Am) and rare-earth metals (Y, La, Ce, Nd and Gd) is very important for this step. Usually the separation coefficients are evaluated from the formal standard potentials of metals in melts containing their own ions, values obtained by potentiometric method. Electrochemical experiments were carried out at 723 823 K in order to estimate separation coefficients in LiCl KCl eutectic melt containing uranium and lanthanum trichlorides. It was shown that for the calculation of uranium and lanthanum separation coefficients it is necessary to determine the voltammetric peak potentials of U(III) and La(III), their concentration in the melt and the kinetic parameters relating to U(III) discharge such as transfer and diffusion coefficients, and standard rate constants of charge transfer.

Kuznetsov, S. A.; Hayashi, H.; Minato, K.; Gaune-Escard, M.

2005-09-01

200

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: special advisory report on the status of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's plans for repository performance assessment  

SciTech Connect

Repository performance assessment is analysis that identifies events and processes that might affect a repository system for isolation of radioactive waste, examines their effects on barriers to waste migration, and estimates the probabilities of their occurrence and their consequences. In 1983 Battelle Memorial Institute's Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) prepared two plans - one for performance assessment for a waste repository in salt and one for verification and validation of performance assessment technology. At the request of the US Department of Energy's Salt Repository Project Office (SRPO), Argonne National Laboratory reviewed those plans and prepared this report to advise SRPO of specific areas where ONWI's plans for performance assessment might be improved. This report presents a framework for repository performance assessment that clearly identifies the relationships among the disposal problems, the processes underlying the problems, the tools for assessment (computer codes), and the data. In particular, the relationships among important processes and 26 model codes available to ONWI are indicated. A common suggestion for computer code verification and validation is the need for specific and unambiguous documentation of the results of performance assessment activities. A major portion of this report consists of status summaries of 27 model codes indicated as potentially useful by ONWI. The code summaries focus on three main areas: (1) the code's purpose, capabilities, and limitations; (2) status of the elements of documentation and review essential for code verification and validation; and (3) proposed application of the code for performance assessment of salt repository systems. 15 references, 6 figures, 4 tables.

Ditmars, J.D.; Walbridge, E.W.; Rote, D.M.; Harrison, W.; Herzenberg, C.L.

1983-10-01

201

Costs for off-site disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes: Salt caverns versus other disposal methods  

SciTech Connect

According to an American Petroleum Institute production waste survey reported on by P.G. Wakim in 1987 and 1988, the exploration and production segment of the US oil and gas industry generated more than 360 million barrels (bbl) of drilling wastes, more than 20 billion bbl of produced water, and nearly 12 million bbl of associated wastes in 1985. Current exploration and production activities are believed to be generating comparable quantities of these oil field wastes. Wakim estimates that 28% of drilling wastes, less than 2% of produced water, and 52% of associated wastes are disposed of in off-site commercial facilities. In recent years, interest in disposing of oil field wastes in solution-mined salt caverns has been growing. This report provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in oil-and gas-producing states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and the amounts they charge. It also compares cavern disposal costs with the costs of other forms of waste disposal.

Veil, J.A.

1997-09-01

202

Polyacrylonitrile nanofibers prepared using coaxial electrospinning with LiCl solution as sheath fluid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modified coaxial electrospinning process including an electrolyte solution as sheath fluid was used for preparing high quality polymer nanofibers. A series of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers were fabricated utilizing a coaxial electrospinning containing LiCl in N, N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) as the sheath fluid. FESEM results demonstrated that the sheath LiCl solutions have a significant influence on the quality of PAN nanofibers. Nanofibers with smaller diameters, smoother surfaces and uniform structures were successfully prepared. The diameters of nanofibers were controlled by adjusting the conductivity of the sheath fluid over a suitable range and this was determined by varying LiCl concentrations. The influence of the effect of LiCl on the formation of PAN fibers is discussed and it is concluded that coaxial electrospinning with electrolyte solutions is a convenient and facile process for achieving high quality polymer nanofibers.

Yu, Deng-Guang; Lu, Ping; Branford-White, Christopher; Yang, Jun-He; Wang, Xia

2011-10-01

203

Polyacrylonitrile nanofibers prepared using coaxial electrospinning with LiCl solution as sheath fluid.  

PubMed

A modified coaxial electrospinning process including an electrolyte solution as sheath fluid was used for preparing high quality polymer nanofibers. A series of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers were fabricated utilizing a coaxial electrospinning containing LiCl in N, N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) as the sheath fluid. FESEM results demonstrated that the sheath LiCl solutions have a significant influence on the quality of PAN nanofibers. Nanofibers with smaller diameters, smoother surfaces and uniform structures were successfully prepared. The diameters of nanofibers were controlled by adjusting the conductivity of the sheath fluid over a suitable range and this was determined by varying LiCl concentrations. The influence of the effect of LiCl on the formation of PAN fibers is discussed and it is concluded that coaxial electrospinning with electrolyte solutions is a convenient and facile process for achieving high quality polymer nanofibers. PMID:21955591

Yu, Deng-Guang; Lu, Ping; Branford-White, Christopher; Yang, Jun-He; Wang, Xia

2011-09-29

204

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: Peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's draft report on an issues hierarchy and data needs for site characterization  

SciTech Connect

At the request of the Salt Repository Project (SRPO), Argonne National Laboratory conducted an independent peer review of a report by the Battelle Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation entitled ''Salt Repository Project Issues Hierarchy and Data Needs for Site Characterization (Draft).'' This report provided a logical structure for evaluating the outstanding questions (issues) related to selection and licensing of a site as a high-level waste repository. It also provided a first estimate of the information and data necessary to answer or resolve those questions. As such, this report is the first step in developing a strategy for site characterization. Microfiche copies of ''Draft Issues Hierarchy, Resolution Strategy, and Information Needs for Site Characterization and Environmental/Socioeconomic Evaluation - July, 1986'' and ''Issues Hierarchy and Data Needs for Site Characterization - February, 1985'' are included in the back pocket of this report.

Harrison, W.; Fenster, D.F.; Ditmars, J.D.; Paddock, R.A.; Rote, D.M.; Hambley, D.F.; Seitz, M.G.; Hull, A.B.

1986-12-01

205

Thermodynamic characteristics of double salts crystallizing in LiCl-RbCl-H2O system at 298.15 K  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pitzer ion-interaction model has been used for calculations of thermodynamic characteristics of double salts 3RbCl · LiCl · 2H2O and RbCl · 2LiCl · 4H2O in the ternary system LiCl-RbCl-H2O at 298.15 K. The standard molar Gibbs energy of formation of the two double salts from the corresponding simple salts LiCl · H2O and RbCl, as well as the

B. Hu; P. S. Song; Y. H. Li; F. Y. Wang

2009-01-01

206

Resistance of Coatings for Boiler Components of Waste-to-Energy Plants to Salt Melts Containing Copper Compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accelerating effect of heavy metal compounds on the corrosive attack of boiler components like superheaters poses a severe problem in modern waste-to-energy plants (WTPs). Coatings are a possible solution to protect cheap, low alloyed steel substrates from heavy metal chloride and sulfate salts, which have a relatively low melting point. These salts dissolve many alloys, and therefore often are the limiting factor as far as the lifetime of superheater tubes is concerned. In this work the corrosion performance under artificial salt deposits of different coatings, manufactured by overlay welding, thermal spraying of self-fluxing as well as conventional systems was investigated. The results of our studies clearly demonstrate the importance of alloying elements such as molybdenum or silicon. Additionally, the coatings have to be dense and of a certain thickness in order to resist the corrosive attack under these severe conditions.

Galetz, Mathias Christian; Bauer, Johannes Thomas; Schütze, Michael; Noguchi, Manabu; Cho, Hiromitsu

2013-06-01

207

Acoustic emission in host-rock material for radioactive waste disposal: comparison between clay and rock salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The use of clay masses for radioactive waste disposal requires a comprehensive analysis of fracture processes in clay. Acoustic\\u000a emission (AE) was used to obtain a better insight into damage evolution during uniaxial loading of Boom Clay specimens. A\\u000a comparison of AE in clay and rock salt shows a much lower AE activity in clay. This, together with the

A. Lavrov; A. Vervoort; Y. Filimonov; M. Wevers; J. Mertens

2002-01-01

208

Effects of combustion and operating conditions on PCDD\\/PCDF emissions from power boilers burning salt-laden wood waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the effects of combustion conditions on PCDD\\/PCDF emissions from pulp and paper power boilers burning salt-laden wood waste.We found no correlation between PCDD\\/PCDF emissions and carbon monoxide emissions. A good correlation was, however, observed between PCDD\\/PCDF emissions and the concentration of stack polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the absence of TDF addition. Thus, poor combustion conditions responsible

Denys Leclerc; Wen Li Duo; Michelle Vessey

2006-01-01

209

Composite backfill materials for radioactive waste isolation by deep burial in salt  

SciTech Connect

Bentonite and hectorite were found to sorb Pu(IV) and Am(III) from concentrated brines with distribution coefficients K/sub d/ > 3000 ml/g. The permeability of bentonite to brine was less than 1 microdarcy at a confining pressure of 18 MPa, the expected lithostatic pressure at the 800 m level in a salt repository. Getters for sorption of TcO/sub 4//sup -/ (K/sub d/ approx. 300 ml/g), I/sup -/ (K/sub d/ greater than or equal to 30 ml/g), Cs (K/sub d/ greater than or equal to 30 ml/g) and Sr (K/sub d/ greater than or equal to approx. 100 ml/g) from brines were identified. Their sorption properties are presented. Thermal conductivity results (>0.5 W/mK) and evidence for bentonite stability in brines at hydrothermal conditions are also given. It is shown by calculated estimates that a 3-ft-thick mixture of bentonite with other getter materials could retain Pu, Am, and TcO/sub 4//sup -/ for >10/sup 4/ years and I/sup -/ for > 10/sup 3/ years. Another tailored mixture could retain Cs for approx. 600 years, Sr for approx. 700 years, TcO/sub 4/ for approx. 4000 years and I/sup -/ for approx. 400 years. The backfill can offer a significant contribution to the isolation capability of a waste package system.

Nowak, E.J.

1980-01-01

210

Scoping Model Calculations of the Reconsolidation of Crushed Salt in WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) Shafts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Scoping model calculations show that crushed salt seal material can reconsolidate in a WIPP shaft to densities and permeabilities that are nearly equal to those for intact WIPP host rock salt. Crushed salt in the lower one-third of a WIPP shaft will meet ...

E. J. Nowak J. C. Stormont

1987-01-01

211

Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed, The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts, For instance, in the

Eugene T. Premuzic; Mow S. Lin

1994-01-01

212

Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed. The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts. For instance, in the

E. T. Premuzic; M. S. Lin

1994-01-01

213

Waste Stream Generated and Waste Disposal Plans for Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) site is located in Tennessee, on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), south of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) main plant across Haw Ridge in Melton Valley. The MSRE was run by ORNL to demonstrate the desirable features of the molten-salt concept in a practical reactor that could be

M. H. Haghighi; R. M. Szozda; M. R. Jugan

2002-01-01

214

Alternative methods to manage waste salt from repository excavation in the Deaf Smith County and Swisher County locations, Texas: A scoping study: Technical report. [Salt and salt-laden material  

SciTech Connect

This report describes and qualitatively evaluates eight options for managing the large volumes of salt and salt-laden rock that would result from the excavation of a high-level radioactive waste repository in Deaf Smith County or Swisher County, Texas. The options are: distribution for commercial use; ocean disposal; deep-well injection; disposal in multilevel mines on the site; disposal in abandoned salt mines off the site; disposal off the site in abandoned mines developed for minerals other than salt; disposal in excavated landfills; and surface disposal on alkali flats. The main features of each option are described, as well as the associated environmental and economic impacts, and regulatory constraints. The options are evaluated in terms of 11 factors that jointly constitute a test of relative suitability. The results of the evaluation and implications for further study are indicated. This document does not consider or include the actual numbers, findings, or conclusions contained in the final Deaf Smith County Environmental Assessment (DOE, 1986). 43 refs., 8 tabs.

Not Available

1987-01-01

215

Combined Utilization of Cation Exchanger and Neutral Receptor to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts  

SciTech Connect

In this report, novel approaches to the selective liquid-liquid extraction separation of sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from high-level alkaline tank waste will be discussed. Sodium hydroxide can be successfully separated from alkaline tank-waste supernatants by weakly acidic lipophilic hydroxy compounds via a cation-exchange mechanism referred to as pseudo hydroxide extraction. In a multi-cycle process, as sodium hydroxide in the aqueous phase becomes depleted, it is helpful to have a neutral sodium receptor in the extraction system to exploit the high nitrate concentration in the waste solution to promote sodium removal by an ion-pair extraction process. Simultaneous utilization of an ionizable organic hydroxy compound and a neutral extractant (crown ether) in an organic phase results in the synergistic enhancement of ion exchange and improved separation selectivity due to the receptor's strong and selective sodium binding. Moreover, combination of the hydroxy compound and the crown ether provides for mutually increased solubility, even in a non-polar organic solvent. Accordingly, application of Isopar{reg_sign} L, a kerosene-like alkane solvent, becomes feasible. This investigation involves examination of such dual-mechanism extraction phases for sodium extraction from simulated and actual salt cake waste solutions. Sodium salts can be regenerated upon the contact of the loaded extraction phases with water. Finally, conditions of potential extraction/strip cycling will be discussed.

Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Moyer, Bruce A.

2004-03-29

216

Measurement of unsaturated hydraulic properties of salt cake simulant relevant to hanford and SRS high-level waste tanks using a pilot-scale setup  

Microsoft Academic Search

Closure of the remaining tanks and final disposition of the radioactive waste is a high priority task at both Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford. The radioactive waste in the tanks are generally found in layers: supernate (on top) containing soluble fission products, and salt-cake and sludge (on the bottom of the tank) containing insoluble actinides. One strategy for minimizing

G. Tachiev; G. Yaari; S. Long; R. Srivastava; D. Roelant

2007-01-01

217

Stabilization of 238Pu-contaminated combustible waste by molten salt oxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surrogate studies were conducted using the molten salt oxidation system at the Naval Surface Warfare Center-Indian Head Division. This system uses a rotary feed system and an alumina molten salt oxidation vessel. The combustible materials were tested individually and together in a homogenized mixture. A slurry containing pyrolyzed cheesecloth ash spiked with cerium oxide, which is used as a surrogate for plutonium, and ethylene glycol were also treated in the molten salt oxidation vessel. .

Stimmel, Jay J.; Remerowski, Mary Lynn; Ramsey, Kevin B.; Heslop, J. Mark

2000-07-01

218

Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters  

DOEpatents

A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed, The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts, For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates.

Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY)

1994-11-22

219

Disposal alternatives and recommendations for waste salt management for repository excavation in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas  

SciTech Connect

This report documents an evaluation of five alternatives for the disposal of waste salt that would be generated by the construction of a repository for radioactive waste in underground salt deposits at either of two sites in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas. The alternatives include commercial disposal, offsite deep-well injection, disposal in abandoned mines, ocean disposal, and land surface disposal on or off the site. For each alternative a reference case was rated - positive, neutral, or negative - in terms of environmental and dependability factors developed specifically for Texas sites. The factors constituting the environmental checklist relate to water quality impact, water- and land-use conflicts, ecological compatibility, conformity with air quality standards, and aesthetic impact. Factors on the dependability check-list relate to public acceptance, the adequacy of site characterization, permit and licensing requirements, technological requirements, and operational availability. A comparison of the ratings yielded the following viable alternatives, in order of preference: (1) land surface disposal, specifically disposal on tailings piles associated with abandoned potash mines; (2) disposal in abandoned mines, specifically potash mines; and (3) commercial disposal. Approaches to the further study of these three salt management techniques are recommended.

Not Available

1987-01-01

220

Preservation of artifacts in salt mines as a natural analog for the storage of transuranic wastes at the WIPP repository  

SciTech Connect

Use of nature`s laboratory for scientific analysis of complex systems is a largely untapped resource for understanding long-term disposal of hazardous materials. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the US is a facility designed and approved for storage of transuranic waste in a salt medium. Isolation from the biosphere must be ensured for 10,000 years. Natural analogs provide a means to interpret the evolution of the underground disposal setting. Investigations of ancient sites where manmade materials have experienced mechanical and chemical processes over millennia provide scientific information unattainable by conventional laboratory methods. This paper presents examples of these pertinent natural analogs, provides examples of features relating to the WIPP application, and identifies potential avenues of future investigations. This paper cites examples of analogical information pertaining to the Hallstatt salt mine in Austria and Wieliczka salt mine in Poland. This paper intends to develop an appreciation for the applicability of natural analogs to the science and engineering of a long-term disposal facility in geomedia.

Martell, M.A.; Hansen, F.; Weiner, R.

1998-10-01

221

Emissions from energetic material waste during the Molten Salt Destruction process  

SciTech Connect

The Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) process is an alternative to open burn/open detonation for destroying energetic materials; MSD has inherently low gaseous emissions, and the salt bath can scrub both acidic gases and particulates. It was demonstrated that high explosives and a liquid propellant can be safely and completely destroyed using MSD. Gaseous emissions of NOx and CO are very low. Nitrate builds up in the salt bath when nitrate-rich materials are destroyed, but addition fuel reduces the nitrate to NO. A program has been begun to add catalytic materials to the bed to further reduce emissions; a small molten salt bath has been constructed for chemical kinetic studies.

Watkins, B.E.; Upadhye, R.S.; Pruneda, C.O.; Brummond, W.A.

1994-07-05

222

Engineering geological and safety technological aspects for the final disposal of in situ-consolidated radioactive waste in hard rock and salt formations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In connection with its research and development work the Gesellschaft für Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH München (GSF)\\u000a has successfully developed and tested methods for the final disposal of low and medium radioactive waste in 200 litre containers\\u000a at the Asse salt mine. The low radioactive waste (LLW) was disposed of in chambers using various methods. The medium radioactive\\u000a waste (MLW)

P. Quast; E. Hawickenbrauck; M. W. Schmidt

1986-01-01

223

Rock salt — the mechanical properties of the host rock material for a radioactive waste repository  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the long-term prediction of deformation, stress and permeability of a repository in a salt formation, one needs a reliable extrapolation of the mechanical behaviour of rock salt. This is only possible by means of material laws with a physical basis. A detailed description of the so-called composite model for transient and steady state creep is given, which is based

Udo Hunsche; Andreas Hampel

1999-01-01

224

Stabilization of 238Pu-contaminated combustible waste by molten salt oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surrogate studies were conducted using the molten salt oxidation system at the Naval Surface Warfare Center-Indian Head Division. This system uses a rotary feed system and an alumina molten salt oxidation vessel. The combustible materials were tested individually and together in a homogenized mixture. A slurry containing pyrolyzed cheesecloth ash spiked with cerium oxide, which is used as a surrogate

Jay J. Stimmel; Mary Lynn Remerowski; Kevin B. Ramsey; J. Mark Heslop

2000-01-01

225

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: Peer review of the Fluor Technology, Inc. , report and position paper concerning waste emplacement mode and its effect on repository conceptual design  

SciTech Connect

Recommendations for revising the Fluor Technology, Inc., draft position paper entitled Evaluation of Waste Emplacement Mode and the final report entitled Waste Package/Repository Impact Study include: reevaluate the relative rankings for the various emplacement modes; delete the following want objectives: maximize ability to locate the package horizon because sufficient flexibility exists to locate rooms in the relatively clean San Andres Unit 4 Salt and maximize far-field geologic integrity during retrieval because by definition the far field will be unaffected by thermal and stress perturbations caused by remining; give greater emphasis to want objectives regarding cost and use of present technology; delete the following statements from pages 1-1 and 1-2 of the draft position paper: ''No thought or study was given to the impacts of this configuration (vertical emplacement) on repository construction or short and long-term performance of the site'' and ''Subsequent salt repository designs adopted the vertical emplacement configuration as the accepted method without further evaluation.''; delete App. E and lines 8-17 of page 1-4 of the draft position paper because they are inappropriate; adopt a formal decision-analysis procedure for the 17 identified emplacement modes; revise App. F of the impact study to more accurately reflect current technology; consider designing the underground layout to take advantage of stress-relief techniques; consider eliminating reference to fuel assemblies <10 yr ''out-of-reactor''; model the temperature distribution, assuming that the repository is constructed in an infinitely large salt body; state that the results of creep analyses must be considered tentative until they can be validated by in situ measurements; and reevaluate the peak radial stresses on the waste package so that the calculated stress conditions more closely approximate expected in situ conditions.

Hambley, D.F.; Russell, J.E.; Whitfield, R.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Harrison, W.; Jacoby, C.H.; Bump, T.R.; Mraz, D.Z.; Busch, J.S.; Fischer, L.E.

1987-02-01

226

Observations regarding the stability of bentonite backfill in a high-level waste (HLW) repository in rock salt  

SciTech Connect

Consideration of bentonite as a component of the engineered barrier system surrounding high-level nuclear waste (HLW) canisters in rock salt raised several questions regarding the stability of this clay. Dehydration studies pertinent to the period immediately following waste emplacement showed a partial loss in swelling ability, the extent of which depended on the composition of the rehydrating brine and increased with temperature from 150/sup 0/ to 320/sup 0/C. At a later date, hydrothermal reactions between brine and bentonite may occur as pressure in the repository rises and the backfill saturates with brine. In pure sodium chloride brines little change in the bentonite was observed after two months at 250/sup 0/C. In the same amount of time, brines rich in potassium formed mixed-layer, illite-smectite clays. Adding magnesium to the brine arrested mixed-layer clay formation; instead, a magnesium-enriched montmorillonite formed and the brine pH dropped. Radiation stability studies to 10/sup 10/ rads were conducted in both wet and dry environments, but caused no detectable alteration of the clay. In contrast, fluid-phase compositions changed significantly. Gamma irradiation of dry bentonite produced an oxygen-depleted atmosphere which was enriched in both hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Mixed bentonite-brine slurries produced copious amounts of both hydrogen and oxygen gas when irradiated. These irradiated slurries generally had posttest pH values between 4 and 6. Solutions made by exposing preirradiated salt and bentonite to unirradiated water, or brine, had pH values between 6 and 8.5 and, in the case of salt solutions, were highly oxidizing. Although more research is needed for a complete performance assessment, it appears that such backfills may prove useful in a variety of rock-salt environments.

Krumhansl, J.L.

1986-01-01

227

Review of the radioactive and thermal stability of low density polyethylene encapsulated nitrate salt waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Low density polyethylene extrusion is under consideration as a stabilization technique for the treatment of several mixed waste streams produced at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). The main focus of this development is the nitrate sat waste stream; Rocky Flat...

A. M. Faucette B. W. Logsdon J. H. Oldham

1992-01-01

228

Waste Stream Generated and Waste Disposal Plans for Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) site is located in Tennessee, on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), south of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) main plant across Haw Ridge in Melton Valley. The MSRE was run by...

M. H. Haghighi M. K. Ford R. M. Szozda M. R. Jugan

2002-01-01

229

Stabilization of rare earth nuclides in LiCl-KCl eutectic salt wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distillation and condensation characteristics of LiCl-KCl eutectic salts containing rare earth precipitates were investigated\\u000a and a conversion of the rare earth oxychlorides to oxides was performed. The distillation flux was increased by about 1,000\\u000a times by reducing the pressure from 760 Torr to 0.5 Torr. The composition of the recovered salts was changed according to\\u000a the condensed spot. The conversion

H. C. Eun; H. C. Yang; Y. Z. Cho; H. S. Park; H. S. Lee; I. T. Kim

2009-01-01

230

Radiolytic bubble formation and level changes in simulated high-level waste salts and sludges -- application to Savannah River Site and Hanford Storage tanks  

SciTech Connect

Radiolytically-produced bubbles of trapped gas are observed in simulated high-level waste (HLW) damp salt cake exposed to Co-60 gamma radiation. As the damp salt cake is irradiated, its volume increases due to the formation of trapped gas bubbles. Based on the increase in volume, the rate of trapped gas generation varies between 0.04 and 0.2 molecules/100 eV of energy deposited in the damp salt cake. The maximum volume of trapped gas observed in experiments is in the range 21--26 vol %. After reaching these volumes, the gas bubbles begin to escape. The generated gas includes hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrous oxide. The ratio in which these components are produced depends on the composition of the waste. Nitrous oxide production increases with the amount of sodium nitrite. Gases trapped by this mechanism may account for some of the observed level changes in Savannah River Site and Hanford waste tanks.

Walker, D.D.; Crawford, C.L.; Bibler, N.E.

1993-12-31

231

Salton Sea Geothermal Field, California, as a near-field natural analog of a radioactive waste repository in salt  

SciTech Connect

Since high concentrations of radionuclides and high temperatures are not normally encountered in salt domes or beds, finding an exact geologic analog of expected near-field conditions in a mined nuclear waste repository in salt will be difficult. The Salton Sea Geothermal Field, however, provides an opportunity to investigate the migration and retardation of naturally occurring U, Th, Ra, Cs, Sr and other elements in hot brines which have been moving through clay-rich sedimentary rocks for up to 100,000 years. The more than thirty deep wells drilled in this field to produce steam for electrical generation penetrate sedimentary rocks containing concentrated brines where temperatures reach 365/sup 0/C at only 2 km depth. The brines are primarily Na, K, Ca chlorides with up to 25% of total dissolved solids; they also contain high concentrations of metals such as Fe, Mn, Li, Zn, and Pb. This report describes the geology, geophysics and geochemistry of this system as a prelude to a study of the mobility of naturally occurring radionuclides and radionuclide analogs within it. The aim of this study is to provide data to assist in validating quantitative models of repository behavior and to use in designing and evaluating waste packages and engineered barriers. 128 references, 33 figures, 13 tables.

Elders, W.A.; Cohen, L.H.

1983-11-01

232

Geohydrology of the northern Louisiana salt-dome basin pertinent to the storage of radioactive wastes; a progress report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Salt domes in northern Louisiana are being considered as possible storage sites for nuclear wastes. The domes are in an area that received regional sedimentation through early Tertiary (Eocene) time with lesser amounts of Quaternary deposits. The Cretaceous-Tertiary accumulation is a few thousand feet thick; the major sands are regional aquifers that extend far beyond the boundaries of the salt-dome basin. Because of multiple aquifers, structural deformation, and variations in the hydraulic characteristics of cap rock, the ground-water hydrology around a salt dome may be highly complex. The Sparta Sand is the most productive and heavily used regional aquifer. It is either penetrated by or overlies most of the domes. A fluid entering the Sparta flow system would move toward one of the pumping centers, all at or near municipalities that pump from the Sparta. Movement could be toward surface drainage where local geologic and hydrologic conditions permit leakage to the surface or to a surficial aquifer. (Woodard-USGS)

Hosman, R. L.

1978-01-01

233

Potential effects of gamma irradiation on the chemistry and alkalinity of brine in high-level nuclear waste repositories in rock salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to investigate the possible changes in brine chemistry and alkalinity in a high-level nuclear waste salt repository caused by the interaction of brine with gamma-irradiated host rock. The technique employed involves measurements of the pH and total base in solution of brines made from rock salt irradiated to doses between 10⁷ and 10¹° rad under various

S. V. Panno; P. Soo

1984-01-01

234

Thermal Properties of LiCl-KCl Molten Salt for Nuclear Waste Separation  

SciTech Connect

This project addresses both practical and fundamental scientific issues of direct relevance to operational challenges of the molten LiCl-KCl salt pyrochemical process, while providing avenues for improvements in the process. In order to understand the effects of the continually changing composition of the molten salt bath during the process, the project team will systematically vary the concentrations of rare earth surrogate elements, lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, and neodymium, which will be added to the molten LiCl-KCl salt. They will also perform a limited number of focused experiments by the dissolution of depleted uranium. All experiments will be performed at 500°C. The project consists of the following tasks. Researchers will measure density of the molten salts using an instrument specifically designed for this purpose, and will determine the melting points with a differential scanning calorimeter. Knowledge of these properties is essential for salt mass accounting and taking the necessary steps to prevent melt freezing. The team will use cyclic voltammetry studies to determine redox potentials of the rare earth cations, as well as their diffusion coefficients and activities in the molten LiCl-KCl salt. In addition, the team will perform anodic stripping voltammetry to determine the concentration of the rare earth elements and their solubilities, and to develop the scientific basis for an on-line diagnostic system for in situ monitoring of the cation species concentration (rare earths in this case). Solubility and activity of the cation species are critically important for the prediction of the salt's useful lifetime and disposal.

Kumar Sridharan; Todd Allen; Mark Anderson

2012-11-30

235

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's reports on preferred repository sites within the Palo Duro Basin, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Documents are being submitted to the Salt Repository Project Office (SRPO) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) by Battelle Memorial Institute's Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) to satisfy milestones of the Salt Repository Project of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. Some of these documents are being reviewed by multidisciplinary groups of peers to ensure DOE of their adequacy and credibility. Adequacy of documents refers to their ability to meet the standards of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, as enunciated in 10 CFR 60, and the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Credibility of documents refers to the validity of the assumptions, methods, and conclusions, as well as to the completeness of coverage. This report summarizes Argonne's review of ONWI's two-volume draft report entitled Identification of Preferred Sites within the Palo Duro Basin: Vol. 1 - Palo Duro Location A, and Vol. 2 - Palo Duro Location B, dated January 1984. Argonne was requested by DOE to review these documents on January 17 and 24, 1984 (see App. A). The review procedure involved obtaining written comments on the reports from three members of Argonne's core peer review staff and three extramural experts in related research areas. The peer review panel met at Argonne on February 6, 1984, and reviewer comments were integrated into this report by the review session chairman, with the assistance of Argonne's core peer review staff. All of the peer review panelists concurred in the way in which their comments were represented in this report (see App. B). A letter report and a draft of this report were sent to SRPO on February 10, 1984, and April 17, 1984, respectively. 5 references.

Fenster, D.; Edgar, D.; Gonzales, S.; Domenico, P.; Harrison, W.; Engelder, T.; Tisue, M.

1984-04-01

236

The Herfa-Neurode hazardous waste repository in bedded salt as an operating model for safe mixed waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

For 18 years, The Herfa-Neurode underground repository has demonstrated the environmentally sound disposal of hazardous waste in a former potash mine. Its principal characteristics make it an excellent analogue to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The Environmental Protection Agency has ruled in its first conditional no-migration determination that is reasonably certain that no hazardous constituents of the mixed waste, destined for the WIPP during its test phase, will migrate from the site for up to ten years. Knowledge of and reference to the Herfa-Neurode operating model may substantially improve the no-migration variance petition for the WIPP's disposal phase and thereby expedite its approval. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Rempe, N.T.

1991-01-01

237

Technetium in alkaline, high-salt, radioactive tank waste supernate: Preliminary characterization and removal  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the initial work conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to study technetium (Tc) removal from Hanford tank waste supernates and Tc oxidation state in the supernates. Filtered supernate samples from four tanks were studied: a composite double shell slurry feed (DSSF) consisting of 70% from Tank AW-101, 20% from AP-106, and 10% from AP-102; and three complexant concentrate (CC) wastes (Tanks AN-107, SY-101, ANS SY-103) that are distinguished by having a high concentration of organic complexants. The work included batch contacts of these waste samples with Reillex{trademark}-HPQ (anion exchanger from Reilly Industries) and ABEC 5000 (a sorbent from Eichrom Industries), materials designed to effectively remove Tc as pertechnetate from tank wastes. A short study of Tc analysis methods was completed. A preliminary identification of the oxidation state of non-pertechnetate species in the supernates was made by analyzing the technetium x-ray absorption spectra of four CC waste samples. Molybdenum (Mo) and rhenium (Re) spiked test solutions and simulants were tested with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry to evaluate the feasibility of the technique for identifying Tc species in waste samples.

Blanchard, D.L. Jr.; Brown, G.N.; Conradson, S.D. [and others

1997-01-01

238

Comments on a letter by George D. DeBuchananne (US Geological Survey) regarding the use of salt domes for high-level waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

The US Geological Survey (USGS) concluded in a letter to the US Department of Energy, dated March 7, 1981, that subsurface geologic conditions in bedded salt are more predictable and less complex than those in domal salt. This predictability is equated with the relative suitability of bedded and domal salt as repository host media. This report comments on the USGS letter. The key points made are as follows: Complexities which may exist in the geologic setting of a salt dome (or other potential host medium) should not a priori preclude the dome from being an acceptable host medium for a high-level waste (HLW) repository. Predictability, as used by the USGS, focused on the spatial extrapolation of information on geologic conditions and should not be confused with predicting the performance of a repository. Notwithstanding the general characteristics of bedded and domal salt, there are salt domes whose individual characteristics should make them as acceptable as potential bedded salt areas for HLW repository sites. Complexities which may occur in the geologic setting of a salt dome can be explored and characterized with sufficient accuracy by available techniques.

Not Available

1984-08-01

239

Use of dairy proteins and microbial transglutaminase to obtain low-salt fish products from filleting waste from silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restructured fish products from the filleting waste from silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) were obtained using sodium caseinate (1%), whey protein concentrate (WPC) (1%) or MTGase (0.3%) at different levels of salt (0%, 1% or 2%). The restructured products were obtained by incubating at 40 °C for 60 min and then at 90 °C for 20 min. Changes in the mechanical

Roc??o M. Uresti; Simón J. Téllez-Luis; José A. Ram??rez; Manuel Vázquez

2004-01-01

240

Development and field placement of an expansive salt-saturated concrete (ESC) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

An expansive salt-saturated concrete (ESC) was proportioned for placement underground in halite rock at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site, near Carlsbad, New Mexico. Requirements for this concrete were: (1) to be chemically compatible with the host rock; (2) to remain pumpable for four hours: (3) to give net volume increase beginning at an early age, and continuing until

L. D. Wakeley; D. M. Walley

1986-01-01

241

Coupled fluid-flow modeling of brines flowing through deforming salt around the excavations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), in the Permian Salado Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small brine weeps have been observed on the exposed surfaces of the otherwise dry repository horizon excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Furthermore, it is known that creep of the surrounding salt will enhance permeabilities and porosities in the region encompassing the excavations, offering the potential for increased brine inflow. This study is part of an ongoing effort

J. Pietz; M. Wallace; B. Lauctes; J. Case; D. Deal

1990-01-01

242

Critical parameters for a high-level waste repository: Volume 3, Salt  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the identification and prioritization of critical parameters for a repository in bedded salt. A parameter is a physical property whose value helps determine the characteristics or behavior of a repository system. A parameter is considered to be critical if a mistake in its measurement, or the inability to measure it, could lead to a wrong conclusion about the adequacy of a repository. Consideration was given to the relative importance of critical parameters in four specific discipline areas: geomechanics, geology, hydrology, and geochemistry. Relative importance of the parameters was independently considered for each of the four major phases of repository activity: site characterization, site construction, site operation, and site closure and decommissioning. Important activities are determination of hydrologic characteristics and salt dissolution rates, and their long-term monitoring. 169 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

Binnall, E.P.; Wollenberg, H.A.; Benson, S.M.; Tsao, L.; Didwall, E.M.

1987-07-01

243

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: rationale and methodology for Argonne-conducted reviews of site characterization programs  

SciTech Connect

Both regulatory and technical concerns must be addressed in Argonne-conducted peer reviews of site characterization programs for individual sites for a high-level radioactive waste repository in salt. This report describes the regulatory framework within which reviews must be conducted and presents background information on the structure and purpose of site characterization programs as found in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 4.17 and Title 10, Part 60, of the Code of Federal Regulations. It also presents a methodology to assist reviewers in addressing technical concerns relating to their respective areas of expertise. The methodology concentrates on elements of prime importance to the US Department of Energy's advocacy of a given salt repository system during the NRC licensing process. Instructions are given for reviewing 12 site characterization program elements, starting with performance objectives, performance issues, and levels of performance of repository subsystem components; progressing through performance assessment; and ending with plans for data acquisition and evaluation. The success of a site characterization program in resolving repository performance issues will be determined by judging the likelihood that the proposed data acquisition activities will reduce uncertainties in the performance predictions. 8 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

Harrison, W.; Ditmars, J.D.; Tisue, M.W.; Hambley, D.F.; Fenster, D.F.; Rote, D.M.

1985-07-01

244

Effects of equilibrating salt solutions on phosphate sorption by soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several equilibrating salt solutions have been used in the studies of P sorption by soils and sediments. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of 10 salt solutions on estimation of P sorption by soils. Results obtained showed that, when the equilibrating solution was made to contain 0.01M with respect to CaCl2, Ca(NO3)2, CaSO4, MgCl2, KCl, LiCl, Nacl, or

B. B. Singh; M. A. Tabatabai

1976-01-01

245

Molecular to ionic transition of BiCl3 in LiCl KCl eutectic melt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The local structures of molten BiCl3 and its mixtures in LiCl KCl eutectic melt were investigated by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) technique. The first Bi Cl correlation in molten pure BiCl3 shows covalent nature, since the distance was almost the same as sum of the covalent radii of Bi and Cl and the coordination number was almost 3. The similar property was also observed in the mixture of 75% BiCl3 with LiCl KCl eutectic melt. Drastic change was detected in 25% BiCl3 mixture melt. The first Bi Cl distance was the sum of the ionic radii in molten 25% BiCl3 melt. The results suggest that BiCl3 changes from molecular liquid to ionic by mixing with alkali chlorides.

Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Minato, Kazuo

2005-07-01

246

Chemical recycling of post-consumer PET wastes by glycolysis in the presence of metal salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical recycling of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) has been the subject of increased interest as a valuable feedstock for different chemical processes. In this work, glycolysis of PET waste granules was carried out using excess ethylene glycol in the presence of different simple chemicals acting as catalysts, namely zinc acetate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, sodium sulphate and potassium sulphate. Comparable high

R. López-Fonseca; I. Duque-Ingunza; B. de Rivas; S. Arnaiz; J. I. Gutiérrez-Ortiz

2010-01-01

247

Transport of contaminants in geologic media: Radioactive waste in salt, corrosion of copper, and colloid migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical and numerical models on mass transfer of radionuclides from a waste package to surrounding rock are analyzed. Based on developed models corresponding computer programs are developed. These models would be used to evaluate possible hazardous radionuclide release rates into the surrounding rock\\/biosphere. Specifically the following fields are studied. (1) Analysis on the possible copper canister pitting corrosion by sulfide

Yong Soo Hwang

2006-01-01

248

Geomechanical stability and integrity of waste disposal mines in salt structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of the geotechnical stability and integrity is an important part of any safety assessment of a permanent repository for hazardous waste. Such an analysis is based on engineering geology studies of the site, laboratory and in-situ experiments, and geomechanical modelling.Central to the calculations for the safety analysis is the modelling of the host rock. The model should simulate

M. Langer; S. Heusermann

2001-01-01

249

Recommendation for Using Smaller (0.1 micro sign) Pore-Size Media for Filtration in Salt Waste Processing Project  

SciTech Connect

Based on experimental studies with simulated and actual wastes, we recommend adopting the use of 0.1-micron pore-size, sintered stainless-steel filter elements within the design of the Salt Waste Processing Facility. Furthermore, adopting the smaller pore size elements for the Actinide Removal Process would result in a significant risk to the start-up schedule due to delays for buying, installing, and testing new equipment. The existing 0.5-micron pore-size filters will provide nearly equivalent service with no additional capital investment. Unless the planned filter test at Building 512-S fails to meet specifications, the project should proceed with the existing equipment, including spares. When the existing equipment reaches the end of the service life, management can consider replacement with the smaller pore-size elements. The laboratory studies indicate that use of the smaller pore size equipment will result in greater protection against particulate fines passing to downstream facilities while giving equivalent or superior processing rates than provided by the 0.5-micron elements.

Poirier, M.R.

2003-05-02

250

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's Geochemical Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

Describe the management program for coordinating subcontractors and their work, and integrating research results. Appropriate flowcharts should be included. Provide more information on the overall scope of the program. For each subcontractor, provide specific workscopes that indicate whether analytical activities are developmental or routine, approximate number of analyses to be made, and something of the adequacy of the analyses to meet program goals. Indicate interfaces with other earth-science disciplines like hydrology and with other groups doing relevant geochemical research and engineering design. Address the priorities for each activity or group of activities. High priority should be given to early development of a geochemical statement of what constitutes suitable salt for a repository. Reference standard procedures for sampling, sample preservation, and sample analysis wherever appropriate or, if not appropriate, indicate that any deviations from standard procedures will be documented. Ensure that appropriate quality assurance procedures will be followed for the procedures listed above. Include specific procedures for the choice, verification, validation, and documentation of computer codes related to the geochemical aspects of repository performance assessment. Include activities addressing regional hydrochemistry and make clear that each principal hydrogeologic unit at each site will be studied geochemically. Indicate that proposed plans for obtaining hydrogeochemical data will be included in each site characterization plan. Describe how site geochemical stability will be handled, especially with respect to dissolution, postemplacement geochemistry, human influences, and climatic variations. Minor recommendations and suggested improvements in the text of the plan are given in Sec. 5.

Harrison, W.; Seitz, M.; Fenster, D.; Lerman, A.; Brookins, D.; Tisue, M.

1984-02-01

251

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's reports on multifactor life testing of waste package materials  

SciTech Connect

Two documents that provide the approaches in designing a test program to investigate uniform corrosion of low-carbon cash steel in a salt repository environment were reviewed. Recommendations are made by the Peer Review Panel for improving the two reports.

McPheeters, C.C.; Harrison, W.; Ditmars, J.D.; Lerman, A.; Rote, D.M.; Edgar, D.E.; Hambley, D.F.

1984-09-01

252

Pseudohypoaldosteronism without nephropathy masking salt-wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia genetically confirmed.  

PubMed

Salt-losing crisis with hypoglycaemia and shock are the main manifestations of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) during the first weeks of life, while hyponatremia and hyperpotassemia alone are seen on mineralocorticoid deficiency or resistance. During the neonatal period, high blood levels of adrenal steroids may lead to confusing laboratory tests not being able to identify the real level of each hormone. A 33-day-old male baby was admitted at the emergency department with severe salt-losing crisis (Na(+) 99 mEq/l and K(+) 9.4 mEq/l) and mild acidosis. No hypoglycaemia or hypotension was seen. Urinary tract infection was excluded. Despite treatment with hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone, hyperpotassemia was hard to control. Laboratory tests could not differentiate between pseudohypoaldosteronism and CAH as both the aldosterone (2454 pg/ml) and 17-OH-progesterone (656.6 ng/ml) levels were high. Diagnosis was made, thanks to the genetic study that proved classical mutations in both alleles of the 21-hydroxylase gene. PMID:23370958

Balcells, Carla; Gili, Teresa; Pérez, Jacobo; Corripio, Raquel

2013-01-30

253

Structure and Dynamics for LiBH4-LiCl Solid Solutions  

SciTech Connect

A surprisingly high degree of structural and compositional dynamics is observed in the system LiBH{sub 4}-LiCl as a function of temperature and time. Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) data reveals that Cl{sup -} readily substitutes for BH{sub 4}{sup -} in the structure of LiBH{sub 4}. Prolonged heating a sample of LiBH{sub 4}-LiCl (1:1 molar ratio) above the phase transition temperature and below the melting point (108 < T < 275 C) can produce highly chloride substituted hexagonal lithium borohydride, h-Li(BH{sub 4}){sub 1-x}Cl{sub x}, e.g., x {approx} 0.42, after heating from room temperature (RT) to 224 C at 2.5 C/min. LiCl has a higher solubility in h-LiBH{sub 4} as compared to orthorhombic lithium borohydride, o-LiBH{sub 4}, which is illustrated by a LiBH{sub 4}-LiCl (1:1) sample equilibrated at 245 C for 24 days and left at RT for another 13 months. Rietveld refinement reveals that this sample contains o-Li(BH{sub 4}){sub 0.91}Cl{sub 0.09} and LiCl. This illustrates a significantly faster dissolution of LiCl in h-LiBH{sub 4} as compared to a slower segregation of LiCl from o-LiBH{sub 4}, which is also demonstrated by in situ SR-PXD from three cycles of heating and cooling of the same Li(BH{sub 4}){sub 0.91}Cl{sub 0.09} sample. The substitution of the smaller Cl{sup -} for the larger BH{sub 4}{sup -} ion is clearly observed as a reduction in the unit cell volume as a function of time and temperature. A significant stabilization of h-LiBH{sub 4} is found to depend on the degree of anion substitution. Variable temperature solid-state magic-angle spinning (MAS) {sup 7}Li and {sup 11}B NMR experiments on pure LiBH{sub 4} show an increase in full width at half maximum (fwhm) when approaching the phase transition from o- to h-LiBH{sub 4}, which indicates an increase of the relaxation rate (i.e., T{sub 2} decreases). A less pronounced effect is observed for ion-substituted Li(BH{sub 4}){sub 1-x}Cl{sub x}, 0.09 < x < 0.42. The MAS NMR experiments also demonstrate a higher degree of motion in the hexagonal phase, i.e., fwhm is reduced by more than a factor of 10 at the o- to h-LiBH{sub 4} phase transition.

Arnbjerg, L.; Ravnsbak, D; Filinchuk, Y; Vang, R; Cerenius, Y; Besenbacher, F; Jorgensen, J; Jakobsen, H; Jensen, T

2009-01-01

254

Recycling of aluminum salt cake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The secondary aluminum industry generates more than 110 à 10³ tons of salt-cake waste every year. This waste stream contains about 3--5% aluminum, 15--30% aluminum oxide, 30--40% sodium chloride, and 20--30% potassium chloride. As much as 50% of the content of this waste is combined salt (sodium and potassium chlorides). Salt-cake waste is currently disposed of in conventional landfills. In

B. J. Jody; E. J. Daniels; P. V. Bonsignore; D. E. Karvelas

1991-01-01

255

Effects of resource activities upon repository siting and waste containment with reference to bedded salt  

SciTech Connect

The primary consideration for the suitability of a nuclear waste repository site is the overall ability of the repository to safely contain radioactive waste. This report is a discussion of the past, present, and future effects of resource activities on waste containment. Past and present resource activities which provide release pathways (i.e., leaky boreholes, adjacent mines) will receive initial evaluation during the early stages of any repository site study. However, other resource activities which may have subtle effects on containment (e.g., long-term pumping causing increased groundwater gradients, invasion of saline water causing lower retardation) and all potential future resource activities must also be considered during the site evaluation process. Resource activities will affect both the siting and the designing of repositories. Ideally, sites should be located in areas of low resource activity and low potential for future activity, and repository design should seek to eliminate or minimize the adverse effects of any resource activity. Buffer zones should be created to provide areas in which resource activities that might adversely affect containment can be restricted or curtailed. This could mean removing large areas of land from resource development. The impact of these frozen assets should be assessed in terms of their economic value and of their effect upon resource reserves. This step could require a major effort in data acquisition and analysis followed by extensive numerical modeling of regional fluid flow and mass transport. Numerical models should be used to assess the effects of resource activity upon containment and should include the cumulative effects of different resource activities. Analysis by other methods is probably not possible except for relatively simple cases.

Ashby, J.; Rowe, J.

1980-02-01

256

Site characterization plan conceptual design report for a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt, horizontal emplacment mode: Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This Conceptual Design Report describes the conceptual design of a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt at a proposed site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Waste receipt, processing, packaging, and other surface facility operations are described. Operations in the shafts and underground are described, including waste hoisting, transfer, and horizontal emplacement. This report specifically addresses the horizontal emplacement mode, the passive alternate design for the repository. Waste retrieval capability is described. The report includes a description of the layout of the surface, shafts, and underground. Major equipment items are identified. The report includes plans for decommissioning and sealing of the facility. The report discusses how the repository will satisfy performance objectives. Chapters are included on basis for design, design analyses, and data requirements for completion of future design efforts. 105 figs., 52 tabs.

Not Available

1987-12-01

257

Site characterization plan conceptual design report for a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt, vertical emplacement mode: Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This Conceptual Design Report describes the conceptual design of a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt at a proposed site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Waste receipt, processing, packing, and other surface facility operations are described. Operations in the shafts underground are described, including waste hoisting, transfer, and vertical emplacement. This report specifically addresses the vertical emplacement mode, the reference design for the repository. Waste retrieval capability is described. The report includes a description of the layout of the surface, shafts, and underground. Major equipment items are identified. The report includes plans for decommissioning and sealing of the facility. The report discusses how the repository will satisfy performance objectives. Chapters are included on basis for design, design analyses, and data requirements for completion of future design efforts. 105 figs., 52 tabs.

Not Available

1987-12-01

258

Repository environmental parameters and models/methodologies relevant to assessing the performance of high-level waste packages in basalt, tuff, and salt  

SciTech Connect

This document provides specifications for models/methodologies that could be employed in determining postclosure repository environmental parameters relevant to the performance of high-level waste packages for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) at Richland, Washington, the tuff at Yucca Mountain by the Nevada Test Site, and the bedded salt in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Guidance is provided on the identify of the relevant repository environmental parameters; the models/methodologies employed to determine the parameters, and the input data base for the models/methodologies. Supporting studies included are an analysis of potential waste package failure modes leading to identification of the relevant repository environmental parameters, an evaluation of the credible range of the repository environmental parameters, and a summary of the review of existing models/methodologies currently employed in determining repository environmental parameters relevant to waste package performance. 327 refs., 26 figs., 19 tabs.

Claiborne, H.C.; Croff, A.G.; Griess, J.C.; Smith, F.J.

1987-09-01

259

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's plan to decommission and reclaim exploratory shafts and related facilities  

SciTech Connect

The following recommendations are made for improving the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's plan for decommissioning and reclaiming exploratory shafts and other facilities associated with site characterization: (1) Discuss more comprehensively the technical aspects of activities related to decommissioning and reclamation. More detailed information will help convince the staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and others that the activities as outlined in the plan are properly structured and that the stated goals can be achieved. (2) Address in considerably greater detail how the proposed activities will satisfy specific federal, state, and local laws and regulations. (3) State clearly the precise purpose of the plan, preferably at the beginning and under an appropriate heading. (4) Also under an appropriate heading and immediately after the section on purpose, describe the scope of the plan. The tasks covered by this plan and closely related tasks covered by other appropriate plans should be clearly differentiated. (5) Discuss the possible environmental effects of drilling the exploratory shaft, excavating drifts in salt, and drilling boreholes as part of site characterization. Mitigation activities should be designed to counter specific potential impacts. High priority should be given to minimizing groundwater contamination and restoring the surface to a condition consistent with the proposed land use following completion of characterization activities at sites not chosen for repository construction. (6) Define ambiguous technical terms, either in the text when first introduced or in an appended glossary.

Fenster, D.F.; Schubert, J.P.; Zellmer, S.D.; Harrison, W.; Simpson, D.G.; Busch, J.S.

1984-07-01

260

Mass transport in bedded salt and salt interbeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt is the proposed host rock for geologic repositories of nuclear waste in several nations because it is nearly dry and probably impermeable. Although experiments and experience at potential salt sites indicate that salt may contain brine, the low porosity, creep, and permeability of salt make it still a good choice for geologic isolation. In this paper we summarize several

Y. Hwang; T. H. Pigford; P. L. Chambre; W. W. L. Lee

1989-01-01

261

Conversion Reactions of Metal Chlorides into Oxides with Boric Acid Applicability to the Vitrification of Molten Salt Wastes Generated in Pyro-reprocessing Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conversion reactions of metal chlorides into oxides with boric acid (H3BO3) were studied to develop the method for vitrification of radioactive molten salt wastes generated in the pyro- reprocessing process. Mixtures of metal chlorides and H3BO3 with appropriate compositions in Pt crucible were heated at 1,000°C for 1h in an electric furnace, followed by rapid cooling to room temperature. The

Yasuhisa IKEDA; Yoichi TAKASHIMA; Hiroaki KOBAYASHI; Hiroshi IGARASHI

1995-01-01

262

Sodium carbonate salt transport system.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A sodium carbonate salt transport system is required to support the Molten Salt Oxidation system being constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. We are embarking on a project to create a national test bed for evaluating mixed waste destructio...

W. Brummond

1995-01-01

263

Gustatory insular cortex lesions disrupt drug-, but not LiCl-, induced suppression of CS intake  

PubMed Central

Rats suppress intake of a normally preferred 0.15% saccharin conditioned stimulus (CS) when it is paired with an aversive agent like lithium chloride (LiCl) or a preferred substances such as sucrose or a drug of abuse. The reward comparison hypothesis suggests that rats avoid intake of a saccharin cue following pairings with a drug of abuse because the rats are anticipating the availability of the rewarding properties of the drug. The present study used bilateral ibotenic acid lesions to examine the role of the gustatory cortex in the suppression of CS intake induced by cocaine, morphine, and LiCl. The results show that bilateral lesions of the insular gustatory cortex (1) fully prevent the suppressive effects of both a 15- and a 30-mg/kg dose of morphine, (2) attenuate the suppressive effect of a 10 mg/kg dose of cocaine, but (3) are overridden by a 20 mg/kg dose of the drug. Finally, these same cortical lesions had no impact on LiCl-induced conditioned taste aversion. The current data show that the insular taste cortex plays an integral role in drug-induced avoidance of a gustatory CS.

Geddes, Rastafa I.; Han, Li; Baldwin, Anne E.; Norgren, Ralph; Grigson, Patricia S.

2013-01-01

264

Electrolytic LiCl precipitation from LiCl-KCl melt in porous Li-Al anodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Composition gradients such as those predicted to occur during discharge of porous Li-Al negative electrodes of Li/S batteries with LiCl-KCl eutectic electrolyte were generated and measured in the LiCl-KCl anolyte of an electrolysis cell with Li-Al electrodes. Precipitation of lithium chloride during electrolysis was observed by two-dimensional scanning of electrolyte composition in the front part of quenched porous Li-Al anode sections using SEM/EDX. The distribution of sites of increased or decreased LiCl concentration, LiCl saturation and precipitation was mapped. Cathodic regions were observed near the cell walls. Preliminary results of analysis by Auger spectroscopy confirm LiCl precipitation in the porous anode.

Vallet, C. E.; Heatherly, D. E.; Heatherly, L., Jr.; Braunstein, J.

1983-12-01

265

Salt River Salt Banks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Salt River Salt Banks are located on the north shore of the Salt River on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation. Three small springs emerge above and flow over the salt banks resulting in the formation of stalactites. The mechanism by which the banks wer...

E. L. Smith G. L. Bender

1973-01-01

266

Chemistry of brines in salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), southeastern New Mexico: a preliminary investigation  

SciTech Connect

We present here analyses of macro- and microscopic (intracrystalline) brines observed within the WIPP facility and in the surrounding halite, with interpretations regarding the origin and history of these fluids and their potential effect(s) on long-term waste storage. During excavation, several large fluid inclusions were recovered from an area of highly recrystallized halite in a thick salt bed at the repository horizon (2150 ft below ground level). In addition, 52 samples of brine ''weeps'' were collected from walls of recently excavated drifts at the same stratigraphic horizon from which the fluid inclusion samples are assumed to have been taken. Analyses of these fluids show that they differ substantially in composition from the inclusion fluids and cannot be explained by mixing of the fluid inclusion populations. Finally, holes in the facility floor that filled with brine were sampled but with no stratographic control; therefore it is not possible to interpret the compositions of these brines with any accuracy, except insofar as they resemble the weep compositions but with greater variation in both K/Mg and Na/Cl ratios. However, the Ca and SO/sub 4/ values for the floor holes are relatively close to the gypsum saturation curve, suggesting that brines filling floor holes have been modified by the presence of gypsum or anhydrite, possibly even originating in one or more of the laterally continuous anhydrite units referred to in the WIPP literature as marker beds. In conclusion, the wide compositional variety of fluids found in the WIPP workings suggest that (1) an interconnected hydrologic system which could effectively transport radonuclides away from the repository does not exist; (2) brine migration studies and experiments must consider the mobility of intergranular fluids as well as those in inclusions; and (3) near- and far-field radionuclide migration testing programs need to consider a wide range of brine compositions rather than a few reference brines.

Stein, C.L.; Krumhansl, J.L.

1986-03-01

267

Long-term safety of radioactive waste disposal: Retention of Pu, Am, Np and Tc in the corrosion of COGEMA glass R7T7 in salt solutions. Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For performance assessment of high-level radioactive waste disposal in salt formations, corrosion tests were carried out, using high active R7T7-type glass containing reprocessing waste, produced by CEA Marcoule. The objective of this investigation was to...

B. Grambow W. Lutze L. Kahl H. Geckeis E. Bohnert

1996-01-01

268

Distillation Separation of Hydrofluoric Acid and Nitric Acid from Acid Waste Using the Salt Effect on Vapor–Liquid Equilibrium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents the distillation separation of hydrofluoric acid with use of the salt effect on the vapor–liquid equilibrium\\u000a for acid aqueous solutions and acid mixtures. The vapor–liquid equilibrium of hydrofluoric acid + salt systems (fluorite,\\u000a potassium nitrate, cesium nitrate) was measured using an apparatus made of perfluoro alkylvinylether. Cesium nitrate showed\\u000a a salting-out effect on the vapor–liquid equilibrium of

Hideki Yamamoto; Iwao Sumoge

2011-01-01

269

Mass transport in bedded salt and salt interbeds  

SciTech Connect

Salt is the proposed host rock for geologic repositories of nuclear waste in several nations because it is nearly dry and probably impermeable. Although experiments and experience at potential salt sites indicate that salt may contain brine, the low porosity, creep, and permeability of salt make it still a good choice for geologic isolation. In this paper we summarize several mass-transfer and transport analyses of salt repositories. The mathematical details are given in our technical reports.

Hwang, Y.; Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.

1989-08-01

270

Impurities in Rock-Salt: Consequences for the Temperature Increases at the Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In part A the thermal properties of halite and the other materials occurring in rock-salt (the 'impurities') are collected. Except for sylvite (the specific heat of this salt is about 70% of the value for halite) all specific heats are larger than the spe...

W. M. G. T. van den Broek

1982-01-01

271

Salt effects in the synergistic solvent extraction of Co 2+  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of Co2+ by mixtures of acetylacetone (acac) and either pyridine (Py), benzylamine (ba), triethylamine (tea) or tripyridylamine (tpa)\\u000a bases in xylene solvent was investigated from an aqueous phase containing salts of LiCl, NaCl, KCl, RbCl and CsCl in concentrations\\u000a varying up to 3M. The different hydration properties of the alkali metal cations is show to affect very slightly

A. T. Kandil; A. M. El-Atrash

1978-01-01

272

Evaluation of the role of threshold pressure in controlling flow of waste-generated gas into bedded salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Anoxic corrosion and microbial degradation of contact-handled transuranic waste may produce sufficient quantities of gas over a long time period to generate high pressure in the disposal rooms at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository. Dissipat...

P. B. Davies

1991-01-01

273

Observation of nanophase segregation in LiCl aqueous solutions from transient grating experiments.  

PubMed

Transient grating experiments performed on supercooled LiCl, RH2O solutions with R > 6 reveal the existence of well resolved, short time, extra signal which superposes to the normal signal observed for the R = 6 solution and for homogenous glass forming systems. This extra signal shows up below 190 K, its shape and the associated timescale depend only on temperature, while its intensity increases with R. We show that the origin of this signal is a phase separation between clusters with a low solute concentration and the remaining, more concentrated, solution. Our analysis demonstrates that these clusters have a nanometer size and a composition which are rather temperature independent, while increasing R simply increases the density of these clusters. PMID:23901987

Bove, L E; Dreyfus, C; Torre, R; Pick, R M

2013-07-28

274

LiCl Dehumidifier LiBr absorption chiller hybrid air conditioning system with energy recovery  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to a hybrid air conditioning system that combines a solar powered LiCl dehumidifier with a LiBr absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier removes the latent load by absorbing moisture from the air, and the sensible load is removed by the absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier is coupled to a regenerator and the desiccant in the regenerator is heated by solar heated hot water to drive the moisture therefrom before being fed back to the dehumidifier. The heat of vaporization expended in the desiccant regenerator is recovered and used to partially preheat the driving fluid of the absorption chiller, thus substantially improving the overall COP of the hybrid system.

Ko, Suk M. (Huntsville, AL)

1980-01-01

275

Observation of nanophase segregation in LiCl aqueous solutions from transient grating experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transient grating experiments performed on supercooled LiCl, RH2O solutions with R > 6 reveal the existence of well resolved, short time, extra signal which superposes to the normal signal observed for the R = 6 solution and for homogenous glass forming systems. This extra signal shows up below 190 K, its shape and the associated timescale depend only on temperature, while its intensity increases with R. We show that the origin of this signal is a phase separation between clusters with a low solute concentration and the remaining, more concentrated, solution. Our analysis demonstrates that these clusters have a nanometer size and a composition which are rather temperature independent, while increasing R simply increases the density of these clusters.

Bove, L. E.; Dreyfus, C.; Torre, R.; Pick, R. M.

2013-07-01

276

Melting and vaporization of salts in a U-LiCl-Li 2 O system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The electrochemical reduction of uranium oxide in the treatment of spent nuclear fuel requires a characterization of the LiCl-Li2O salt used as a reaction medium. Physical properties, melting and vaporization are important for the application of the salt\\u000a and thus they have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG), respectively. Experimental\\u000a data suggest LiCl and Li2O compound

J. M. Hur; S. B. Park; C. S. Seo; K. J. Jung; S. W. Park

2006-01-01

277

Protein refolding in predominantly organic media markedly enhanced by common salts  

SciTech Connect

The refolding/reoxidation of unfolded/reduced hen egg-white lysozyme was investigated in a variety of predominantly nonaqueous media consisting of protein-dissolving organic solvents and water. It was discovered that LiCl and other common salts dramatically increased the refolding yield of lysozyme in such nonaqueous systems, while reducing it in water. The mechanism of this surprising phenomenon appears to involve salt-induced suppression of nonspecific lysozyme aggregation during refolding due to an enhanced protein solubility.

Rariy, R.V.; Klibanov, A.M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1999-03-20

278

Sodium carbonate salt transport system  

SciTech Connect

A sodium carbonate salt transport system is required to support the Molten Salt Oxidation system being constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. We are embarking on a project to create a national test bed for evaluating mixed waste destruction technologies. This project is called the Mixed Waste Management Facility. It is currently in the second phase of design and will be operational in 1998. One of the first technologies demonstrated in this facility is Molten Salt Oxidation. Molten Salt Oxidation is a thermal process that destroys the organic constituents of mixed and hazardous wastes. Sodium carbonate salt is heated in a reactor vessel to approximately 950{degrees}C. Organic wastes, along with oxidant air, are injected under the pool of molten salt. A catalytic reaction occurs converting the organics into CO{sub 2} and water. Inorganic constituents in the salt such as metals, silica, alumina, and radionuclides remain captured in the salt. Chlorides in the waste feed are converted in the salt to sodium chloride. As these impurities build up in the salt, the salt must be recycled to remove them or else the reaction rate is reduced. Spent salt is periodically taken from the reactor and transported to a salt recycle system. In this system the molten salt is freeze-dried, dissolved in water, and filtered to remove the insoluble inorganics. The unconverted sodium carbonate is removed by fractional crystallization. This sodium carbonate is then dried and stored for future use in the reactors, eliminating a secondary waste stream. The remaining brine is disposed of as waste.

Brummond, W.

1995-09-12

279

Long-term cement corrosion in chloride-rich solutions relevant to radioactive waste disposal in rock salt - Leaching experiments and thermodynamic simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes are frequently solidified in a cement matrix. In a potential repository for nuclear wastes, the cementitious matrix is altered upon contact with solution and the resulting secondary phases may provide for significant retention of the radionuclides incorporated in the wastes. In order to assess the secondary phases formed upon corrosion in chloride-rich solutions, which are relevant for nuclear waste disposal in rock salt, leaching experiments were performed. Conventional laboratory batch experiments using powdered hardened cement paste in MgCl2-rich solutions were left to equilibrate for up to three years and full-scale cemented waste products were exposed to NaCl-rich and MgCl2-rich solutions for more than twenty years, respectively. Solid phase analyses revealed that corrosion of hardened cement in MgCl2-rich solutions advanced faster than in NaCl-rich solutions due to the extensive exchange of Mg from solution against Ca from the cementitious solid. Thermodynamic equilibrium simulations compared well to results at the final stages of the respective experiments indicating that close to equilibrium conditions were reached. At high cement product to brine ratios (>0.65 g mL-1), the solution composition in the laboratory-scale experiments was close to that of the full-scale experiments (cement to brine ratio of 2.5 g mL-1) in the MgCl2 systems. The present study demonstrates the applicability of thermodynamic methods used in this approach to adequately describe full-scale long-term experiments with cemented waste simulates.

Bube, C.; Metz, V.; Bohnert, E.; Garbev, K.; Schild, D.; Kienzler, B.

280

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of the D'Appolonia report on Schematic Designs for Penetration Seals for a Repository in the Permian Basin, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Argonne made the following recommedations for improving the reviewed reports. The authors of the report should: state the major assumptions of the study in Sec. 1.1 rather than later in the report; consider using salt for the shaft seals in salt horizons; reconsider whether keys are needed for the bulkheads; provide for interface grouting because use of expansive cement will not guarantee that interfaces will be impermeable; discuss the sealing schedule and, where appropriate, consider what needs to be done to ensure that emplaced radioactive waste could be retrieved if necessary; describe in more detail the sealing of the Dockum and Ogallala aquifers; consider an as low as reasonably achievable approach to performance requirements for the initial design phase; address the concerns in the 1983 US Nuclear Regulatory Commission document entitled Draft Technical Position: Borehole and Shaft Sealing of High-Level Nuclear Waste Repositories; cite the requirements for release of radioactivity by referring to specific clauses in the regulations of the US Environmental Protection Agency; and provide further explanation in the outline of future activities about materials development and verification testing. More emphasis on development of accelerated testing programs is also required.

Hambley, D.F.; Stormont, J.C.; Russell, J.E.; Edgar, D.E.; Fenster, D.F.; Harrison, W.; Tisue, M.W.

1984-09-01

281

Electrodialysis technology for salt recovery from aluminum salt cake  

SciTech Connect

Electrodialysis technology for recovering salt from aluminum salt cake is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. Salt cake, a slag-like aluminum-industry waste stream, contains aluminum metal, salt (NaCl and KCl), and nonmetallics (primarily aluminum oxide). Salt cake can be recycled by digesting with water and filtering to recover the metal and oxide values. A major obstacle to widespread salt cake recycling is the cost of recovering salt from the process brine. Electrodialysis technology developed at Argonne appears to be a cost-effective approach to handling the salt brines, compared to evaporation or disposal. In Argonne's technology, the salt brine is concentrated until salt crystals are precipitated in the electrodialysis stack; the crystals are recovered downstream. The technology is being evaluated on the pilot scale using Eurodia's EUR 40-76-5 stack.

Hryn, J. N.; Krumdick, G.; Graziano, D.; Sreenivasarao, K.

2000-02-02

282

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: Peer review of the Fluor Technology, Inc. , report and position paper concerning waste emplacement mode and its effect on repository conceptual design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recommendations for revising the Fluor Technology, Inc., draft position paper entitled Evaluation of Waste Emplacement Mode and the final report entitled Waste Package\\/Repository Impact Study include: reevaluate the relative rankings for the various emplacement modes; delete the following want objectives: maximize ability to locate the package horizon because sufficient flexibility exists to locate rooms in the relatively clean San Andres

D. F. Hambley; J. E. Russell; R. G. Whitfield; L. D. McGinnis; W. Harrison; C. H. Jacoby; T. R. Bump; D. Z. Mraz; J. S. Busch; L. E. Fischer

1987-01-01

283

Radiation damage measurements on rock salt and other minerals for waste disposal applications. Quarterly report, January 1, 1980-March 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect

Different aspects of radiation damage in both synthetic NaCl crystals and various natural rock salt samples as well as granite, basalt and other minerals which will be important for radioactive waste disposal applications are being investigated. The principal means of measuring radiation damage is the determination of F-center concentrations, and the concentration and size of sodium metal colloid particles. Formation of these and other defects during irradiation and the annealing of defects and characterization of other processes occurring after irradiation are being studied as a function of dose rate, total dose, sample temperature during irradiation, strain applied prior to and during irradiation, etc. Measurements are being made on synthetic NaCl and natural rock salt samples from different geological locations, including some potential repository sites. It will be necessary to determine if radiation damage in the minerals from different localities is similar. If non-negligible differences are observed a detailed study must be made for each locality under consideration. Almost all current studies are being made on rock salt but other minerals particularly granite and basalt are being phased into the program. It is now established that radiation damage formation in both natural and synthetic rock salt is strongly dependent on strain. The strain related effects strongly indicate that the damage formation processes and in particular the colloid nucleation processes are related to the strain induced disolcations. A temporary theoretical effort has been started to determine which dislocation related effects are important for radiation damage processes and, most importantly, what dislocation interactions are most likely to create nucleation sites for colloid particles. If these preliminary studies indicate that additional theoretical studies will be useful an effort will be made to have them extended.

Swyler, K J; Loman, J M; Teutonico, L J; Elgort, G E; Levy, P W

1980-04-10

284

Enhanced tolerance to NaCl and LiCl stresses by over-expressing Caragana korshinskii sodium/proton exchanger 1 (CkNHX1) and the hydrophilic C terminus is required for the activity of CkNHX1 in Atsos3-1 mutant and yeast.  

PubMed

Sodium/proton exchangers (NHX antiporters) play important roles in plant responses to salt stress. Previous research showed that hydrophilic C-terminal region of Arabidopsis AtNHX1 negatively regulates the Na(+)/H(+) transporting activity. In this study, CkNHX1 were isolated from Caragana korshinskii, a pea shrub with high tolerance to salt, drought, and cold stresses. Transcripts of CkNHX1 were detected predominantly in roots, and were significantly induced by NaCl stress in stems. Transgenic yeast and Arabidopsisthalianasos3-1 (Atsos3-1) mutant over-expressing CkNHX1 and its hydrophilic C terminus-truncated derivative, CkNHX1-?C, were generated and subjected to NaCl and LiCl stresses. Expression of CkNHX1 significantly enhanced the resistance to NaCl and LiCl stresses in yeast and Atsos3-1 mutant. Whereas, compared with expression of CkNHX1, the expression of CkNHX1-?C had much less effect on NaCl tolerance in Atsos3-1 and LiCl tolerance in yeast and Atsos3-1. All together, these results suggest that the predominant expression of CkNHX1 in roots might contribute to keep C. korshinskii adapting to the high salt condition in this plant's living environment; CkNHX1 could recover the phenotype of Atsos3-1 mutant; and the hydrophilic C-terminal region of CkNHX1 should be required for Na(+)/H(+) and Li(+)/H(+) exchanging activity of CkNHX1. PMID:22197553

Yang, Da-Hai; Song, Li-Ying; Hu, Jun; Yin, Wei-Bo; Li, Zhi-Guo; Chen, Yu-Hong; Su, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Richard R-C; Hu, Zan-Min

2011-12-14

285

Stabilization of lithium superionic conduction phase and enhancement of conductivity of LiBH4 by LiCl addition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LiBH4 exhibits lithium superionic conduction accompanied by structural transition at around 390 K. Addition of LiCl to LiBH4 drastically affects both the transition and electrical conductivity: Transition from low-temperature (LT) to high-temperature (HT) phases in LiBH4 is observed at 370 K upon heating and the HT phase can be retained at 350-330 K upon cooling. Further, the conductivity in the LT phase is more than one or two orders of magnitude higher than that of pure LiBH4. These properties could be attributed to the dissolution of LiCl into LiBH4, suggested by in situ x-ray diffraction measurement.

Matsuo, Motoaki; Takamura, Hitoshi; Maekawa, Hideki; Li, Hai-Wen; Orimo, Shin-Ichi

2009-02-01

286

Oxygen sparging of residue salts  

SciTech Connect

Oxygen sparge is a process for treating salt residues at Los Alamos National Laboratory by sparging oxygen through molten salts. Oxygen reacts with the plutonium trichloride in these salts to form plutonium dioxide. There is further reaction of the plutonium dioxide with plutonium metal and the molten salt to form plutonium oxychloride. Both of the oxide plutonium species are insoluble in the salt and collect atthe bottom of the crucible. This results in a decrease of a factor of 2--3 in the amount of salt that must be treated, and the amount of waste generated by aqueous treatment methods.

Garcia, E.; Griego, W.J.; Owens, S.D.; Thorn, C.W.; Vigil, R.A.

1993-01-01

287

Oxygen sparging of residue salts  

SciTech Connect

Oxygen sparge is a process for treating salt residues at Los Alamos National Laboratory by sparging oxygen through molten salts. Oxygen reacts with the plutonium trichloride in these salts to form plutonium dioxide. There is further reaction of the plutonium dioxide with plutonium metal and the molten salt to form plutonium oxychloride. Both of the oxide plutonium species are insoluble in the salt and collect atthe bottom of the crucible. This results in a decrease of a factor of 2--3 in the amount of salt that must be treated, and the amount of waste generated by aqueous treatment methods.

Garcia, E.; Griego, W.J.; Owens, S.D.; Thorn, C.W.; Vigil, R.A.

1993-03-01

288

Enthalpic interactions in size exclusion chromatography of pullulan and cellulose in LiCl– N, N-dimethylacetamide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enthalpic phenomena were shown to contribute to the size exclusion separation mechanisms during chromatographic analysis of solutions of pullulan and cellulose in LiCl–N,N-dimethylacetamide (LiCl–DMAc) solvent and eluent. The effect of LiCl concentration in the sample solutions and the effect of temperature were of the same order of magnitude for both pullulan and cellulose samples. This led to systematic errors in

Matija Strli?; Jana Kolenc; Jana Kolar; Boris Pihlar

2002-01-01

289

Ionic Molar Conductivities in Solutions of KCl, NaCl and LiCl in Glycerol at 25°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conductivities of solutions of KCl, NaCl and LiCl in glycerol at 25°C have been measured for concentrations in the range 0.0005 to 0.5 mol dm, and values of molar conductivity at infinite dilution obtained by extrapolation. Using previously measured transference numbers for KCl dissolved in glycerol, values of ionic molar conductivities at infinite dilution have been deducted for K, Na,

M. C. Blanco; D. C. Champeney; M. Kameche

1989-01-01

290

Disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns -- Legality, technical feasibility, economics, and risk.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field was...

J. A. Veil K. P. Smith D. Tomasko D. Elcock D. Blunt

1998-01-01

291

Synthesis of LiSm 0.01Mn 1.99O 4 by molten salt technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samarium substituted lithium manganese oxide powders were successfully prepared by molten-salt synthesis (MSS) using eutectic mixture of LiCl, SmCl3·6H2O and MnO2 salt at 700 °C. The synthesis was carried out in open atmosphere. The crystalline powders were characterized for their phase identification using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The physico-chemical properties of the samarium substituted lithium manganese oxide powders were investigated

M. Helan; L. John Berchmans

2010-01-01

292

Influence of soil properties on trace element availability and plant accumulation in a Mediterranean salt marsh polluted by mining wastes: implications for phytomanagement.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to determine the factors which control metal and As phytoavailability in the different microenvironments (Sand Dunes, Salt Flat, Dry River and Shrubs) present at a Mediterranean salt marsh polluted by mining wastes. We performed a field study following a plot sampling survey. The analyses of soil parameters (pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon contents, etc.), total metal and As concentrations and their phytoavailability assessed with EDTA were related to each microenvironment and the corresponding plant species uptake. The averages of pH and EC were slightly alkaline (pH ? 7.5) and saline (? 2.2 to 17.1 dS m(-1)) respectively. The soil samples from the Salt Flat subzone showed the highest metal concentrations (e.g. 51 mg kg(-1) Cd, 11,600 mg kg(-1) Pb) while for As, the highest concentrations occurred in the Dry River (380 mg kg(-1) As). The total metal and EDTA-extractable concentrations occurred as it follows: Salt Flat>Dry River>Degraded Dunes>Shrubs. In relation to plant metal and As accumulation, the highest root concentrations were obtained in the species from the Salt Flat subzone: ~17 mg kg(-1) As, ~620 mg kg(-1) Pb, for both, Juncus maritimus and Arthrocnemum macrostachyum. However the highest metal and As shoot concentrations occurred in species from the Sand Dunes: ~23 mg kg(-1) As ~270 mg kg(-1) Pb for Dittrichia viscosa; ~23 mg kg(-1) As, ~390 mg kg(-1) Zn for Crucianella maritima. The occurrence of edaphic gradients including salinity and texture determined the vegetation distribution. However, it cannot be concluded that there was a disturbance due to metal(loid)s soil concentrations in terms of vegetation composition except in the Degraded Dunes and Dry River. The higher EDTA-extractable concentrations were coincidental with the most saline soils but this did not result in higher metal(loid)s plant accumulation. PMID:21851964

Conesa, H M; María-Cervantes, A; Alvarez-Rogel, J; González-Alcaraz, M N

2011-08-17

293

Preconceptual design of a salt splitting process using ceramic membranes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Inorganic ceramic membranes for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions are being developed for treating U. S. Department of Energy tank wastes. The process consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt sol...

D. E. Kurath K. P. Brooks G. W. Hollenberg R. Clemmer S. Balagopal

1997-01-01

294

Mobiliteit van Zoutkoepels (Mobility of Salt Domes).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The mobility of salt domes in the northeast Netherlands was studied using LANDSAT Thematic Mapper and SPOT satellite pictures with a view to the underground storage of chemical and radioactive wastes. The detection of salt diapirism is important because i...

J. H. A. Bosch

1992-01-01

295

Thermodynamic and Kinetic Studies of Dioxin Formation and Emissions from Power Boilers Burning Salt-Laden Wood Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been demonstrated that both organic chlorine (e.g. PVC) and inorganic chlorides (e.g. NaCl) can be significant chlorine sources for PCDD\\/F formation during combustion processes. However, it is not precisely known how NaCl participates in dioxin formation reactions and under what conditions NaCl behaves like, or unlike, PVC. This paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of high temperature salt chemistry.

Wenli Duo; Denys Leclerc

296

Synthesis and Reactions of the First Room Temperature Stable Li/Cl Phosphinidenoid Complex.  

PubMed

P-Trityl substituted Li/Cl phosphinidenoid tungsten(0) complex (OC)(5)W{Ph(3)CP(Li/12-crown-4)Cl} (3) was prepared via chlorine/lithium exchange in complex (OC)(5)W{Ph(3)CPCl(2)} (2) using (t)BuLi in the presence of 12-crown-4 in tetrahydrofuran (THF) at low temperature; complex 3 possesses significantly increased thermal stability in contrast to previously reported analogue derivatives. Terminal phosphinidene-like reactivity of 3 was used in reactions with benzaldehyde and isopropyl alcohol as oxaphosphirane complex (OC)(5)W{Ph(3)CPC(Ph)O} (5) and phosphinite complex (OC)(5)W{Ph(3)CP(H)O(i)Pr} (6) were obtained selectively. Reaction of 3 with phosgene allowed to obtain the first kinetically stabilized chloroformylphosphane complex (OC)(5)W{Ph(3)CP(Cl)C(O)Cl} (4). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations revealed remarkable differences in the degree of P-Li bond dissociation 3a-d: using a continuum model 3 displays a covalent character of P-Li bond (COSMO (THF)) (a), which becomes elongated if 12-crown-4 is coordinated to lithium (b) and is cleaved if a dimethylether unit is additionally coordinated to lithium (c). A similar result was obtained for the case of 3(thf)(4) in which also a solvent-separated ion pair structure is present (d). All products were unambiguously characterized by various spectroscopic means and, in the case of 2 and 4-6, by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In all structures very long P-C bonds were determined being in the range from 1.896 to 1.955 Å. PMID:23134468

Nesterov, Vitaly; Schnakenburg, Gregor; Espinosa, Arturo; Streubel, Rainer

2012-11-01

297

Removal of alkaline-earth elements by a carbonate precipitation in a chloride molten salt  

SciTech Connect

Separation of some alkaline-earth chlorides (Sr, Ba) was investigated by using carbonate injection method in LiCl-KCl eutectic and LiCl molten salts. The effects of the injected molar ratio of carbonate([K{sub 2}(or Li{sub 2})CO{sub 3}/Sr(or Ba)Cl{sub 2}]) and the temperature(450-750 deg.) on the conversion ratio of the Sr or Ba carbonate were determined. In addition, the form of the Sr and Ba carbonate resulting from the carbonation reaction with carbonates was identified via XRD and SEM-EDS analysis. In these experiments, the carbonate injection method can remove Sr and Ba chlorides effectively over 99% in both LiCl-KCl eutectic and LiCl molten salt conditions. When Sr and Ba were co-presented in the eutectic molten salt, they were carbonated in a form of Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.3}CO{sub 3}. And when Sr was present in LiCl molten salt, it was carbonated in the form of SrCO{sub 3}. Carbonation ratio increased with a decreasing temperature and it was more favorable in the case of a K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} injection than that of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Based on this experiment, it is postulated that carbonate precipitation method has the potential for removing alkali-earth chlorides from LiCl-KCl eutectic and LiCl molten salts. (authors)

Yung-Zun Cho; In-Tae Kim; Hee-Chui Yang; Hee-Chui Eun; Hwan-Seo Park; Eung-Ho Kim [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2007-07-01

298

Salt formations offer disposal alternative  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses how three U.S. firms are spending millions to permit and build underground disposal sites in salt formations. These companies claim salt is the ideal geological medium for holding hazardous wastes. Two Texas locations and one in Michigan have been targeted as future sites for hazardous waste disposal. The Michigan site, outside Detroit, is a former salt mine 2,000 feet beneath the Ford Motor Co. (Detroit) assembly works in Dearborn. Both Texas sites are atop salt domes---one east and one west of Houston.

Funderburk, R. (IM-Tech Immobilization Technologes, Fairfield, TX (US))

1990-06-01

299

Purification of used eutectic (LiCl-KCl) salt electrolyte from pyroprocessing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The separation characteristics of surrogate rare-earth fission products in a eutectic (LiCl-KCl) molten salt were investigated. This system is based on the eutectic salt used for the pyroprocessing treatment of used nuclear fuel (UNF). The investigation was performed using an integrated rare-earth separation apparatus comprising a precipitation reactor, a solid detachment device, and a layer separation device. To separate rare-earth fission products, a phosphate precipitation method using both Li3PO4 and K3PO4 as a precipitant was performed. The use of an equivalent phosphate precipitant composed of 0.408 molar ratio-K3PO4 and 0.592 molar ratio-Li3PO4 can preserve the original eutectic ratio, LiCl-0.592 molar ratio (or 45.2 wt%), as well as provide a high separation efficiency of over 99.5% under conditions of 550 °C and Ar sparging when using La, Nd, Ce, and Pr chlorides. The mixture of La, Nd, Ce, and Pr phosphate had a typical monoclinic (or monazite) structure, which has been proposed as a reliable host matrix for the permanent disposal of a high-level waste form. To maximize the reusability of purified eutectic waste salt after rare-earth separation, the successive rare-earth separation process, which uses both phosphate precipitation and an oxygen sparging method, were introduced and tested with eight rare-earth (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd) chlorides. In the successive rare-earth separation process, the phosphate reaction was terminated within 1 h at 550 °C, and a 4-8 h oxygen sparging time were required to obtain over a 99% separation efficiency at 700-750 °C. The mixture of rare-earth precipitates separated by the successive rare-earth separation process was found to be phosphate, oxychloride, and oxide. Through the successive rare-earth separation process, the eutectic ratio of purified salt maintained its original value, and impurity content including the residual precipitant of purified salt can be minimized.

Cho, Yung-Zun; Lee, Tae-Kyo; Eun, Hee-Chul; Choi, Jung-Hoon; Kim, In-Tae; Park, Geun-Il

2013-06-01

300

Properties of salt-saturated concrete and grout after six years in situ at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of concrete and grout were recovered from short boreholes in the repository floor at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant more than six years after the concrete and grout were placed. Plugs from the Plug Test Matrix of the Plugging and Sealing Program of Sandia National Laboratories were overcored to include a shell of host rock. The cores were analyzed

L. D. Wakeley; P. T. Harrington; C. A. Jr. Weiss

1993-01-01

301

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: Peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's report on the organic geochemistry of deep groundwaters from the Palo Duro Basin, Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's (ONWI's) final report entitled the organic geochemistry of deep ground waters from the Palo Duro Basin, Texas, dated September 1983, is reviewed. Recommendations are made for improving the ONWI report. The main recommendation is to make the text consistent with the title and with the objective of the project as stated in the introduction. Three alternatives are suggested to accomplish this.

Fenster, D. F.; Brookins, D. G.; Harrison, W.; Seitz, M. G.; Lerman, A.; Stamoudis, V. C.

1984-08-01

302

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's report on the Organic Geochemistry of Deep Groundwaters from the Palo Duro Basin, Texas  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes Argonne's review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's (ONWI's) final report entitled The Organic Geochemistry of Deep Ground Waters from the Palo Duro Basin, Texas, dated September 1983. Recommendations are made for improving the ONWI report. The main recommendation is to make the text consistent with the title and with the objective of the project as stated in the introduction. Three alternatives are suggested to accomplish this.

Fenster, D.F.; Brookins, D.G.; Harrison, W.; Seitz, M.G.; Lerman, A.; Stamoudis, V.C.

1984-08-01

303

Experimental investigation of mechanical properties of bedded salt rock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of salt cavern utilization for liquid, gas and solid waste storage, salt rock mechanical properties are needed for assessments of facility, stability and safety. Bedded salt deposits are widespread and used as much or more than diapiric salt bodies as storage facility hosts, but experimental data on the mechanical properties of bedded salt rock with impurities are far less

W. Liang; C. Yang; Y. Zhao; M. B. Dusseault; J. Liu

2007-01-01

304

Removal of alkaline-earth elements by a carbonate precipitation in a chloride molten salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Separation of some alkaline-earth chlorides (Sr, Ba) was investigated by using carbonate injection method in LiCl-KCl eutectic and LiCl molten salts. The effects of the injected molar ratio of carbonate([K(or Li)CO\\/Sr(or Ba)Cl]) and the temperature(450-750 deg.) on the conversion ratio of the Sr or Ba carbonate were determined. In addition, the form of the Sr and Ba carbonate resulting from

Yung-Zun Cho; In-Tae Kim; Hee-Chui Yang; Hee-Chui Eun; Hwan-Seo Park; Eung-Ho Kim

2007-01-01

305

Investigation of salt — Mixed solvent systems. XXXVII. Crystallization enthalpy of lithium chloride in mixed solvent systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crystallization enthalpy of LiCl at 25°C in LiCl-H2O-cosolvent systems is determined calorimetrically as a function of the cosolvent content in the mixed solvent. This parameter is used for the investigation of heat phenomena accompanying the solvation of the salt in a saturated solution. The cosolvents employed include methanol, acetone, and N,N-dimethylformamide. The most pronounced change is effected by replacement

H. H. Emons; H. Jahn; G. Wolf

1990-01-01

306

Separation of Actinides from LWR Spent Fuel Using Molten-Salt-Based Electrochemical Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented of work done at Argonne National Laboratory to develop a molten-salt-based electrochemical technology for extracting uranium and transuranic elements from spent light water reactor fuel. In this process, the actinide oxides in the spent fuel are reduced using lithium at 650 deg. C in the presence of molten LiCl, yielding the corresponding actinides and LiâO. The actinides

Eric J. Karell; Karthick V. Gourishankar; James L. Smith; Lorac S. Chow; Laszlo Redey

2001-01-01

307

Separation of actinides from LWR spent fuel using morten-salt based electrochemical processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented of work done at Argonne National Laboratory to develop a molten-salt-based electrochemical technology for extracting uranium and transuranic elements from spent light water reactor fuel. In this process, the actinide oxides in the spent fuel are reduced using lithium at 650{sup o}C in the presence of molten LiCl, yielding the corresponding actinides and LiâO. The actinides are

E. J. Karell; K. V. Gourishankar; J. L. Smith; L. S. Chow; L. R. Redey

2001-01-01

308

Combining piracetam and lithium salts: ionic co-crystals and co-drugs?  

PubMed

Mechanochemical reaction of solid piracetam with the inorganic salts LiCl and LiBr yields ionic co-crystals which are also co-drugs, characterized by markedly different thermal properties with respect to pure components, also depending on the method for preparation and/or conditions of measurements; single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction at variable temperatures, DSC, TGA, hot stage microscopy (HSM) and intrinsic dissolution rate have been used to fully characterize the solid products. PMID:22781963

Braga, Dario; Grepioni, Fabrizia; Maini, Lucia; Capucci, Davide; Nanna, Saverio; Wouters, Johan; Aerts, Luc; Quéré, Luc

2012-07-10

309

Transparency of Hydrophobic Vinyl Polymers Containing Small Amounts of Inorganic Chloride Salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Termination of n-BuLi-initiated anionic polymerizations of vinyl monomers (i.e. styrene or butadiene) by chlorotrimethylsilae (CTMS) or methoxytrimethylsilane (MTMS) resulted in an opaque or transparent polymer product. Small amounts of salt (i.e. LiCl from CTMS- or Li(OCH3) from MTMS-terminated polymerization) generated during termination stage was presumably the cause of the transparency difference. To verify this, turbid solutions were prepared by mixing

K.-H. Chan; J.-L. Hong; A.-C. Su

2004-01-01

310

Multifactor test design to investigate uniform corrosion of low-carbon steel in a nuclear waste salt repository environment  

SciTech Connect

The Salt Repository Project Panel on the Experimental Design for the Uniform Corrosion of Low-Carbon Steel was convened to develop a well-documented consensus test matrix. A multidisciplinary panel of seven scientists and engineers have recommended a full factorial matrix of 250 tests with 4 experimental factors: time, temperature, oxygen fugacity, and magnesium concentration. The panel also recommended 31 supplementary tests to study the effects of other factors. Because of the large number of tests involved, the panel recommended a stepwise implementation starting with 78 tests at various combinations of time, temperature, magnesium concentration, and oxygen fugacity. When the test results become available, they should be analyzed to determine future test needs.

Gopal, S.; Ballinger, R.; Cunnane, J.; Kuhn, W.; Lee, B.; Moran, P.; Westerman, R.

1987-06-01

311

Heavy metals, salts and organic residues in old solid urban waste landfills and surface waters in their discharge areas: determinants for restoring their impact.  

PubMed

This study was designed to determine the state of polluted soils in the main landfills of the Community of Madrid (central Spain), as part of a continuous assessment of the impacts of urban solid waste (USW) landfills that were capped with a layer of soil 20 years ago. Our analysis of this problem has been highly conditioned by the constant re-use of many of the USW landfills, since they have never been the target of any specific restoration plan. Our periodical analysis of cover soils and soils from discharge areas of the landfills indicates soil pollution has worsened over the years. Here, we examined heavy metal, salts, and organic compounds in soil and surface water samples taken from 15 landfills in the Madrid region. Impacts of the landfill soil covers on nematode and plant diversity were also evaluated. These analyses continue to reveal the presence of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cd) in soils, and salts (sulphates, chlorides and nitrates) in soils and surface waters. In addition, non-agricultural organic compounds, mainly aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons, often appeared in very high concentrations, and high levels of insecticides such as gamma-HCH (lindane) were also detected in soils. Around 50% of the water samples collected showed chemical demand of oxygen (CDO) values in excess of 150 mg/l. Traces of phenolic compounds were detected in some landfills, some of which exhibited high levels of 2-chlorophenol and pentachlorophenol. All these factors are conditioning both the revegetation of the landfill systems and the remediation of their slopes and terrestrial ecosystems arising in their discharge areas. This work updates the current situation and discusses risks for the health of the ecosystems, humans, domestic animals and wildlife living close to these landfills. PMID:21764209

Pastor, J; Hernández, A J

2011-07-20

312

Recycling of aluminum salt cake  

SciTech Connect

The secondary aluminum industry generates more than 110 {times} 10{sup 3} tons of salt-cake waste every year. This waste stream contains about 3--5% aluminum, 15--30% aluminum oxide, 30--40% sodium chloride, and 20--30% potassium chloride. As much as 50% of the content of this waste is combined salt (sodium and potassium chlorides). Salt-cake waste is currently disposed of in conventional landfills. In addition, over 50 {times} 10{sup 3} tons of black dross that is not economical to reprocess a rotary furnace for aluminum recovery ends up in landfills. The composition of the dross is similar to that of salt cake, except that it contains higher concentrations of aluminum (up to 20%) and correspondingly lower amounts of salts. Because of the high solubility of the salts in water, these residues, when put in landfills, represent a potential source of pollution to surface-water and groundwater supplies. The increasing number of environmental regulations on the generation and disposal of industrial wastes are likely to restrict the disposal of these salt-containing wastes in conventional landfills. Processes exist that employ the dissolution and recovery of the salts from the waste stream. These wet-processing methods are economical only when the aluminum concentration in that waste exceeds about 10%. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a study in which existing technologies were reviewed and new concepts that are potentially more cost-effective than existing processes were developed and evaluated. These include freeze crystallization, solvent/antisolvent extraction, common-ion effect, high-pressure/high-temperature process, and capillary-effect systems. This paper presents some of the technical and economic results of the aforementioned ANL study.

Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Karvelas, D.E.

1991-12-01

313

Synthesis and electrochemical properties of lithium cobalt oxides prepared by molten-salt synthesis using the eutectic mixture of LiCl–Li 2CO 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium cobalt oxide powders have been successfully prepared by a molten-salt synthesis (MSS) method using a eutectic mixture of LiCl and Li2CO3 salts. The physico-chemical properties of the lithium cobalt oxide powders are investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), particle-size analysis and charge–discharge cycling. A lower temperature and a shorter time (?700°C and 1h) in the

Chi-Hwan Han; Young-Sik Hong; Chang Moon Park; Keon Kim

2001-01-01

314

A self-assembled, redox-responsive receptor for the selective extraction of LiCl from water  

PubMed Central

There is considerable interest in synthetic ionophores with high affinity and selectivity for Li+. But so far, compounds that selectively bind Li+ in the presence of other alkali and alkaline earth metal ions are rare and current approaches toward this goal are often accompanied with substantial synthetic efforts. Here we describe a trinuclear ruthenium metallamacrocyclic complex (1) that was obtained by self-assembly of ruthenium halfsandwich complexes and 3-hydroxy-2-pyridone ligands. This complex was shown to be an extremely potent receptor for LiCl with an affinity high enough to extract LiCl from water. The selectivity of this receptor is exceptional: even in the presence of a large excess of Na+, K+, Cs+, Ca2+, and Mg2+, Li+ was extracted exclusively. The Li+/Na+ selectivity ratio was determined to be higher than 1,000:1. Compared with other synthetic ionophores, the receptor 1 offers two additional advantages: (i) the synthesis can be accomplished in one step by using simple starting materials; and (ii) the presence of lithium ions can be detected electrochemically. Complex 1 is therefore a very attractive candidate for the construction of a Li+-specific chemosensor.

Piotrowski, Holger; Severin, Kay

2002-01-01

315

Interaction of water with LiCl, LiBr, and LiI in the deeply supercooled region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydration mechanism of lithium halides was studied using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry as a function of temperature. The lithium halides embedded in thin films of amorphous solid water segregate to the surface at temperatures higher than 135-140 K, with efficiency increasing in the order of LiCl, LiBr, and LiI. A monolayer of LiCl and LiI adsorbed on the surface of amorphous solid water tends to diffuse into the bulk at 160 K. The infrared absorption band revealed that the aqueous lithium-halide solutions and crystals are formed simultaneously at 160 K these phenomena are explicable as a consequence of the evolution of supercooled liquid water. The strong surfactant effect is inferred to arise from hydration of a contact ion pair having hydrophilic (lithium) and hydrophobic (halide) moieties. Furthermore, bulk diffusion of lithium halides might result from the formation of a solvent-separated ion pair in supercooled liquid water. The presence of two liquid phases of water with different local structures is probably responsible for the formation of these two hydrates, consistent with the calculated result reported by Jungwirth and Tobias[J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 6361 (2002)].

Souda, Ryutaro

2007-12-01

316

Coexistence of central diabetes insipidus and salt wasting: the difficulties in diagnosis, changes in natremia, and treatment.  

PubMed

Both central diabetes insipidus (DI) and a high rate of excretion of sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl) contributed to the development of polyuria and dysnatremia in two patients during the acute postoperative period after neurosurgery. To minimize difficulties in diagnosis and projections for therapy, two available (but not often used) clinical tools were helpful. First, the osmole excretion rate early on revealed the co-existence of central DI and an osmotic diuresis. The osmoles excreted were largely Na salts; after antidiuretic hormone acted, this electrolyte diuresis caused the urine flow rate to be much higher than otherwise anticipated. Interestingly, part of this saline diuresis occurred when the extracellular fluid volume was contracted. The tool to explain the basis for the dysnatremias was a tonicity balance. Hypernatremia, which developed before treatment of central DI, was primarily a result of a positive balance for Na rather than a large negative balance for water. Moreover, hyponatremia that developed once antidiuretic hormone acted was primarily a result of a negative balance for Na; the urine volume was large and its Na concentration was hypertonic. To prevent a further decline in the plasma Na concentration, either the Na concentration in the urine should be decreased by provision of urea or a loop diuretic while replacing all unwanted water and electrolyte losses; alternatively, the fluid infused should have a similar Na concentration and volume as the urine (infuse hypertonic saline). PMID:8989730

Laredo, S; Yuen, K; Sonnenberg, B; Halperin, M L

1996-12-01

317

Crushed salt reconsolidation at elevated temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a long history of testing crushed salt as backfill for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant program, but testing was typically done at 100 C or less. Future applications may involve backfilling crushed salt around heat-generating waste packages, where near-field temperatures could reach 250 C or hotter. A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of hydrostatic

David Joseph Holcomb; Daniel James Clayton; Moo Yul Lee; David R. Bronowski

2010-01-01

318

Synthesis of N,N-Dialkyl-N'-arylhydrazines via palladium-catalyzed N-arylation by using N,N-dialkylhydrazines/2LiCl adducts.  

PubMed

[reaction: see text] The reaction of N,N-dialkylhydrazine/2LiCl adducts with aryl bromides in the presence of Pd(2)(dba)(3) as the palladium source, Xantphos or X-phos as the ligands, toluene as the solvent, and NaOBu-t as the base provides an efficient route to N,N-dialkyl-N'-arylhydrazines. Best results were obtained by using N,N-dialkylhydrazine/2LiCl adducts prepared in situ, omitting their isolation. PMID:15816736

Cacchi, Sandro; Fabrizi, Giancarlo; Goggiamani, Antonella; Licandro, Emanuela; Maiorana, Stefano; Perdicchia, Dario

2005-04-14

319

Neutron diffraction study of the Li-Cl distance in molten mixture systems (Li, K)Cl and (Li, Cs)Cl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutron diffraction with a time-of-flight method has been performed for the molten binary systems (7Li, K)Cl and (7Li, Cs)Cl at 1073 K and 973 K, respectively, with the main aim of determining the change in the nearest neighbour Li-Cl distance with concentration; the concentrations investigated were xLiCl (mole fraction of LiCl)=0, 0·20, 0·35, 0·50, 0·65 and 0·80 for the former,

Yasushi Miyamoto; Susumu Okazaki; Osamu Odawara; Isao Okada; Masakatsu Misawa; Toshiharu Fukunaga

1994-01-01

320

Salt disposition alternatives filtration at SRTC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several of the prospective salt disposition alternative technologies require a monosodium titanate (MST) contact to remove strontium and actinides from inorganic salt solution feedstock. This feedstock also contains sludge solids from waste removal operations and may contain defoamers added in the evaporator systems. Filtration is required to remove the sludge and MST solids before sending the salt solution for further

B. W. Walker; D. Hobbs

2000-01-01

321

The material flow of salt  

SciTech Connect

Salt (NaCl) is a universal mineral commodity used by virtually every person in the world. Although a very common mineral today, at one time it was considered as precious as gold in certain cultures. This study traces the material flow of salt from its origin through the postconsumer phase of usage. The final disposition of salt in the estimated 14,000 different uses, grouped into several macrocategories, is traced from the dispersive loss of salt into the environment to the ultimate disposal of salt-base products into the waste stream after consumption. The base year for this study is 1990, in which an estimated 196 million short tons of municipal solid waste was discarded by the US population. Approximately three-fourths of domestic salt consumed is released to the environment and unrecovered while about one-fourth is discharged to landfills and incinerators as products derived from salt. Cumulative historical domestic production, trade, and consumption data have been compiled to illustrate the long-term trends within the US salt industry and the cumulative contribution that highway deicing salt has had on the environment. Salt is an important component of drilling fluids in well drilling. It is used to flocculate and to increase the density of the drilling fluid in order to overcome high down-well gas pressures. Whenever drilling activities encounter salt formations, salt is added to the drilling fluid to saturate the solution and minimize the dissolution within the salt strata. Salt is also used to increase the set rate of concrete in cemented casings. This subsector includes companies engaged in oil, gas, and crude petroleum exploration and in refining and compounding lubricating oil. It includes SIC major groups 13 and 29. 13 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

Kostick, D.S. (Bureau of Mines, Washington, DC (United States))

1993-01-01

322

Crushed Salt Constitutive Model  

SciTech Connect

The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well.

Callahan, G.D.

1999-02-01

323

Recycling of aluminum salt cake.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The secondary aluminum industry generates more than 110 (times) 10(sup 3) tons of salt-cake waste every year. This waste stream contains about 3--5% aluminum, 15--30% aluminum oxide, 30--40% sodium chloride, and 20--30% potassium chloride. As much as 50% ...

B. J. Jody E. J. Daniels P. V. Bonsignore D. E. Karvelas

1991-01-01

324

The aqueous salt-promoted Diels–Alder reaction of anthracene-9-carbinol with N-ethylmaleimide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Diels–Alder reaction of anthracene-9-carbinol with N-ethylmaleimide has been investigated in several aqueous salt solutions of different concentrations. The enhancement in reaction rates in the presence of LiCl, NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, Na2SO4 and Gn2SO4 are attributed to the salting-out effect. On the other hand, LiClO4, NaClO4, GnCl, GnBr, CH3COOGn and GnClO4 inhibit the rate owing to the salting-in effect. The

Anil Kumar; Sanjay S Pawar

2002-01-01

325

[Bio-oil production from biomass pyrolysis in molten salt].  

PubMed

In order to investigate the effects of pyrolysis conditions on bio-oil production from biomass in molten salt, experiments of biomass pyrolysis were carried out in a self-designed reactor in which the molten salt ZnCl2-KCl (with mole ratio 7/6) was selected as heat carrier, catalyst and dispersion agent. The effects of metal salt added into ZnCl2-KCl and biomass material on biomass pyrolysis were discussed, and the main compositions of bio-oil were determined by GC-MS. Metal salt added into molten salt could affect pyrolysis production yields remarkably. Lanthanon salt could enhance bio-oil yield and decrease water content in bio-oil, when mole fraction of 5.0% LaCl3 was added, bio-oil yield could reach up to 32.0%, and water content of bio-oil could reduce to 61.5%. The bio-oil and char yields were higher when rice straw was pyrolysed, while gas yield was higher when rice husk was used. Metal salts showed great selectivity on compositions of bio-oil. LiCl and FeCl2 promoted biomass to pyrolyse into smaller molecular weight compounds. CrCl3, CaCl2 and LaCl3 could restrain second pyrolysis of bio-oil. The research provided a scientific reference for production of bio-oil from biomass pyrolysis in molten salt. PMID:21650030

Ji, Dengxiang; Cai, Tengyue; Ai, Ning; Yu, Fengwen; Jiang, Hongtao; Ji, Jianbing

2011-03-01

326

Molten salt synthesis of LiMn 2O 4 using chloride–carbonate melt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium manganese oxide powders have been successfully prepared by molten salt synthesis (MSS) route using the eutectic mixture of LiCl, MnCl2·4H2O and Li2CO3 salts. The synthesis was performed at 700°C using an electrical resistance furnace. The crystalline powders were characterized using TGA\\/DTA, XRD, FT-IR, AAS, CHNS, EDAX, EPR and SEM analyses. The lattice constant value for LiMn2O4 is a=8.1834Å. The

M. Helan; L. John Berchmans; Timy P. Jose; A. Visuvasam; S. Angappan

2010-01-01

327

Electrochemistry of room-temperature chloroaluminate molten salts at graphitic and nongraphitic electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemistry of unbuffered and buffered neutral AlCl3-EMIC-MC1 (EMIC =1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and MC1= LiCl, NaCl or KCl) room-temperature molten salts was studied at graphitic and nongraphitic electrodes. In the case of the unbuffered 1 : 1 AlCl3 : EMIC molten salt, the organic cation reductive intercalation at about -1.6 V and the AlCl4- anion oxidative intercalation at about +1.8 V

R. T. Carlin; J. Fuller; W. K. Kuhn; M. J. Lysaght; P. C. Trulove

1996-01-01

328

Salt Tolerance  

PubMed Central

Studying salt stress is an important means to the understanding of plant ion homeostasis and osmo-balance. Salt stress research also benefits agriculture because soil salinity significantly limits plant productivity on agricultural lands. Decades of physiological and molecular studies have generated a large body of literature regarding potential salt tolerance determinants. Recent advances in applying molecular genetic analysis and genomics tools in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana are shading light on the molecular nature of salt tolerance effectors and regulatory pathways.

Xiong, Liming; Zhu, Jian-Kang

2002-01-01

329

Characterisation and treatment of Australian salt cakes by aqueous leaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt cakes are complex waste products derived from the melting of aluminium drosses to recover some of the metallic aluminium present. This paper reports the results of detailed characterisation studies on two different Australian salt cakes and proposes a flowsheet that could be used to render the salt cakes less toxic, reduce waste volumes for disposal, and, importantly, recover valuable

W. J. Bruckard; J. T. Woodcock

2007-01-01

330

Structural modelling of the LiCl aqueous solution by the hybrid reverse Monte Carlo (HRMC) simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) simulation is applied in the study of an aqueous electrolyte LiCl6H2O. On the basis of the available experimental neutron scattering data, RMC computes pair radial distribution functions in order to explore the structural features of the system. The obtained results include some unrealistic features. To overcome this problem, we use the hybrid reverse Monte Carlo (HRMC), incorporating an additional energy constraint in addition to the usual constraints of the pair correlation functions and average coordination. Our results show a good agreement between experimental and computed partial distribution functions (PDFs) as well as a significant improvement in pair partial distribution curves. This kind of study can be considered as a useful test for a defined interaction model for conventional simulation techniques

Habchi, M.; Mesli, S. M.; Kotbi, M.; Xu, H.

2012-08-01

331

Ab initio MRSDCI study on the low-lying electronic states of the lithium chloride molecule (LiCl)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potential energy curves (PECs) for the low-lying states of the lithium chloride molecule (LiCl) have been calculated using the internally contracted multireference single- and double-excitation configuration interaction (MRSDCI) method with the aug-cc-PVnZ (AVnZ) and aug-cc-PCVnZ (ACVnZ) basis sets, where n = T, Q, and 5. First, we calculate PECs for 7 spin-orbit (SO)-free ?-S states, X1?+, A1?+, 3?+, 1?, and 3?, and then obtain PECs for 13 SO ? states, X0+, A0+, B0+, 0-(I), 0-(II), 1(I), 1(II), 1(III), and 2, by diagonalizing the matrix of the electronic Hamiltonian plus the Breit-Pauli SO Hamiltonian. The MRSDCI calculations not including core orbital correlation through the single and double excitations are also performed with the AV5Z and ACV5Z basis sets. The Davidson corrections (Q0) are added to both the ?-S and ? state energies. Vibrational eigenstates for the obtained X1?+ and X0+ PECs are calculated by solving the time-independent Schrödinger equation with the grid method. Thus, the effects of basis set, core orbital correlation, and the Davidson correction on the X1?+ and X0+ PECs of LiCl are investigated by comparing the spectroscopic constants calculated from the PECs with one another and with experiment. It is confirmed that to accurately predict the spectroscopic constants we need to include core-electron correlation in the CI expansion and use the basis sets designed to describe core-valence correlation, i.e., ACVnZ. The SO PECs presented in this paper will be of help in the future study of diatomic alkali halide dynamics.

Kurosaki, Yuzuru; Yokoyama, Keiichi

2012-08-01

332

Ab initio MRSDCI study on the low-lying electronic states of the lithium chloride molecule (LiCl).  

PubMed

Potential energy curves (PECs) for the low-lying states of the lithium chloride molecule (LiCl) have been calculated using the internally contracted multireference single- and double-excitation configuration interaction (MRSDCI) method with the aug-cc-PVnZ (AVnZ) and aug-cc-PCVnZ (ACVnZ) basis sets, where n = T, Q, and 5. First, we calculate PECs for 7 spin-orbit (SO)-free ?-S states, X(1)?(+), A(1)?(+), (3)?(+), (1)?, and (3)?, and then obtain PECs for 13 SO ? states, X0(+), A0(+), B0(+), 0(-)(I), 0(-)(II), 1(I), 1(II), 1(III), and 2, by diagonalizing the matrix of the electronic Hamiltonian plus the Breit-Pauli SO Hamiltonian. The MRSDCI calculations not including core orbital correlation through the single and double excitations are also performed with the AV5Z and ACV5Z basis sets. The Davidson corrections (Q0) are added to both the ?-S and ? state energies. Vibrational eigenstates for the obtained X(1)?(+) and X0(+) PECs are calculated by solving the time-independent Schro?dinger equation with the grid method. Thus, the effects of basis set, core orbital correlation, and the Davidson correction on the X(1)?(+) and X0(+) PECs of LiCl are investigated by comparing the spectroscopic constants calculated from the PECs with one another and with experiment. It is confirmed that to accurately predict the spectroscopic constants we need to include core-electron correlation in the CI expansion and use the basis sets designed to describe core-valence correlation, i.e., ACVnZ. The SO PECs presented in this paper will be of help in the future study of diatomic alkali halide dynamics. PMID:22897271

Kurosaki, Yuzuru; Yokoyama, Keiichi

2012-08-14

333

Comparative study of electron stimulated positive-ion desorption from LiCl and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[trifluoromethylsulfonyl]imide.  

PubMed

The mechanism of electron stimulated desorption (ESD) from LiCl has been investigated in comparison with that from a room-temperature ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[trifluoromethylsulfonyl]imide, [emim][Tf(2)N]. The bonding natures of these materials are discussed based on the matrix effect in positive-ion yields. The [emim](+) and fragment ions are emitted from the [emim][Tf(2)N] molecule unless it is in direct contact with a metal surface, suggesting that the ions are emitted provided that the electronic excitation can be localized in each molecule. In contrast, the electronic excitation tends to be delocalized over the LiCl film, as evidenced by a monotonic increase of a Li(+) yield in the multilayer regime. The Li(+) ion is created via gas-phase ionization of desorbed neutrals or emitted directly from the surface, in which self-trapped excitons or hot carriers created in the bulk play a role. The Li(+) and Li(+)(LiCl) ions are emitted efficiently from LiCl nanoclusters formed on a rare-gas solid film via Coulombic fission. The delocalized nature of hot holes is also manifested by steep decay of the ion yields with increasing LiCl coverage. The structural transformation of [emim][Tf(2)N] during the phase transition is also revealed based on ESD positive-ion yields as a function of temperature. PMID:19725616

Souda, Ryutaro

2009-08-28

334

Application of lithium in molten-salt reduction processes.  

SciTech Connect

Metallothermic reductions have been extensively studied in the field of extractive metallurgy. At Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), we have developed a molten-salt based reduction process using lithium. This process was originally developed to reduce actinide oxides present in spent nuclear fuel. Preliminary thermodynamic considerations indicate that this process has the potential to be adapted for the extraction of other metals. The reduction is carried out at 650 C in a molten-salt (LiCl) medium. Lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O), produced during the reduction of the actinide oxides, dissolves in the molten salt. At the end of the reduction step, the lithium is regenerated from the salt by an electrowinning process. The lithium and the salt from the electrowinning are then reused for reduction of the next batch of oxide fuel. The process cycle has been successfully demonstrated on an engineering scale in a specially designed pyroprocessing facility. This paper discusses the applicability of lithium in molten-salt reduction processes with specific reference to our process. Results are presented from our work on actinide oxides to highlight the role of lithium and its effect on process variables in these molten-salt based reduction processes.

Gourishankar, K. V.

1998-11-11

335

Molten salt oxidation as an alternative to incineration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Molten Salt Oxidation was originally developed by Rockwell International as part of their coal gasification, and nuclear-and hazardous-waste treatment programs. Single-stage oxidation units employing molten carbonate salt mixtures were found to process up...

L. W. Gray M. G. Adamson J. F. Cooper J. C. Farmer R. S. Upadhye

1992-01-01

336

Processing of effluent salt from the direct oxide reduction process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The production of reactive metals by Direct Oxide Reduction (DOR) process using calcium in a molten calcium salt system generates significant amount of contaminated waste as calcium oxide saturated calcium chloride salt mix with calcium oxide content of u...

B. Mishra D. L. Olson W. A. Averill

1992-01-01

337

Mixing of zeolite powders and molten salt  

SciTech Connect

Transuranics and fission products in a molten salt can be incorporated into zeolite A by an ion exchange process and by a batch mixing or blending process. The zeolite is then mixed with glass and consolidated into a monolithic waste form for geologic disposal. Both processes require mixing of zeolite powders with molten salt at elevated temperatures (>700 K). Complete occlusion of salt and a uniform distribution of chloride and fission products are desired for incorporation of the powders into the final waste form. The relative effectiveness of the blending process was studied over a series of temperature, time, and composition profiles. The major criteria for determining the effectiveness of the mixing operations were the level and uniformity of residual free salt in the mixtures. High operating temperatures (>775 K) improved salt occlusion. Reducing the chloride levels in the mixture to below 80% of the full salt capacity of the zeolite significantly reduced the free salt level in the final product.

Pereira, C.; Zyryanov, V.N.; Lewis, M.A.; Ackerman, J.P.

1996-05-01

338

76 FR 47613 - Board Meeting: September 13-14, 2011-Salt Lake City, UT; the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...provide ongoing objective expert advice to Congress and the Secretary of Energy on technical issues related to nuclear waste management and to review the technical validity of DOE activities related to implementing the Nuclear Waste Policy...

2011-08-05

339

Salts & Solubility  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online interactive simulation, learners will add different salts to water and then watch the salts dissolve and achieve a dynamic equilibrium with solid precipitate. Learners will also compare the number of ions in NaCl to other slightly soluble salts, and they will relate the charges on ions to the number of ions in the formula of a salt. Learners will also learn how to calculate Ksp values. This activity includes an online simulation, sample learning goals, a teacher's guide, and translations in over 20 languages.

Adams, Wendy; Koch, Linda; Lemaster, Ron; Loeblein, Trish; Perkins, Kathy; Harlow, Danielle

2011-01-01

340

Two phase (air-molten carbonate salt) flow characteristics in a molten salt oxidation reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molten salt oxidation process is one of the most promising alternatives to incineration that can be used to effectively destroy\\u000a the organic components of mixed and hazardous wastes. To detect the flow characteristics of the molten salt oxidation process\\u000a (air-molten carbonate salt two-phase flow), differential pressure fluctuation signals from a molten salt oxidation process\\u000a have been analyzed by adopting the

Yung-Zun Cho; Hee-Chul Yang; Yong Kang

2009-01-01

341

Thermodynamic characteristics of double salts crystallizing in LiCl-RbCl-H 2 O system at 298.15 K  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pitzer ion-interaction model has been used for calculations of thermodynamic characteristics of double salts 3RbCl · LiCl\\u000a · 2H2O and RbCl · 2LiCl · 4H2O in the ternary system LiCl-RbCl-H2O at 298.15 K. The standard molar Gibbs energy of formation of the two double salts from the corresponding simple salts LiCl\\u000a · H2O and RbCl, as well as the

B. Hu; P. S. Song; Y. H. Li; F. Y. Wang

2009-01-01

342

Salt Painting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this art meets chemistry activity, early learners discover the almost magical absorbent properties of salt while creating ethereal watercolor paintings. Learners first use watercolor to paint an image. Then, they sprinkle salt on the wet paint and observe. Use the provided discussion questions to encourage reflection.

Omsi

2004-01-01

343

Crack closure and healing studies in WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) salt using compressional wave velocity and attenuation measurements: Test methods and results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Compressional wave ultrasonic data were used to qualitatively assess the extent of crack closure during hydrostatic compression of damaged specimens of WIPP salt. Cracks were introduced during constant strain-rate triaxial tests at low confining pressure ...

N. S. Brodsky

1990-01-01

344

Simulation of Humidity Transport in Rock Salt in a Temperature Field. Contribution to the Study of Problems Involved in High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This contribution studies the humidity transport in rock salt heated up above natural temperature, develops the physical models and suitable computer programs. Two temperature field experiments carried out in the Asse mine - i.e. Temperature Experiment 5 ...

M. Schlich

1986-01-01

345

Quality Assurance Program: Argonne Peer Review Activities for the Salt Host-Rock Portion of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Quality Assurance (QA) Program sets forth the methods, controls, and procedures used to ensure that the results of Argonne National Laboratory's peer review activities are consistently of the highest quality and responsive to Salt Repository Project ...

D. E. Edgar

1986-01-01

346

Clean salt process final report  

SciTech Connect

A process has been demonstrated in the laboratory for separating clean, virtually non-radioactive sodium nitrate from Hanford tank waste using fractional crystallization. The name of the process is the Clean Salt Process. Flowsheet modeling has shown that the process is capable of reducing the volume of vitrified low activity waste (LAW) by 80 to 90 %. Construction of the Clean Salt processing plant would cost less than $1 10 million, and would eliminate the need for building a $2.2 billion large scale vitrification plant planned for Privatization Phase 11. Disposal costs for the vitrified LAW would also be reduced by an estimated $240 million. This report provides a summary of five years of laboratory and engineering development activities, beginning in fiscal year 1992. Topics covered include laboratory testing of a variety of processing options; proof-of-principle demonstrations with actual waste samples from Hanford tanks 241-U-110 (U-110), 241-SY-101 (101-SY), and 241-AN-102 (102-AN); descriptions of the primary solubility phase diagrams that govem the process; a review of environmental regulations governing disposition of the reclaimed salt and an assessment of the potential beneficial uses of the reclaimed salt; preliminary plant design and construction cost estimates. A detailed description is given for the large scale laboratory demonstration of the process using waste from tank 241-AW-101 (101-AW), a candidate waste for 0044vitrification during Phase I Privatization.

Herting, D.L.

1996-09-30

347

Electrochemical behaviors of PuN and (U, Pu)N in LiCl KCl eutectic melts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrochemical behaviors of PuN and (U, Pu)N in the LiCl KCl eutectic melts at 773 K were investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical dissolution of PuN and (U, Pu)N began nearly at -0.90±0.05 and -0.95±0.05 V (vs. Ag+/Ag), respectively. The rest potentials of PuN and (U, Pu)N were observed at about 0.15 V more negative potential than that of UN, in the present experimental condition. The observed rest potentials of (U, Pu)N depended on the equilibrium potential of the Pu3+/PuN. In the cyclic voltammogram measured by use of (U, Pu)N as the working electrode, a steep rise of the positive current was observed at potentials more positive than -0.45 V in analogy with the cyclic voltammogram measured by use of UN as the working electrode. These indicate that UN and PuN in (U, Pu)N would be dissolved independently irrespective of forming the solid solution.

Shirai, O.; Kato, T.; Iwai, T.; Arai, Y.; Yamashita, T.

2005-02-01

348

Deuterium isotope effects in the solvolysis of benzal chlorides. 4. Salt effects and. cap alpha. -deuterium isotope effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of LiClOâ, BuâNClOâ, LiCl, BuâNCl, and mixtures of these salts on the rate and ..cap alpha..-deuterium isotope effects are reported for the solvolysis of p-methoxybenzal chloride in 75% and 85% (v\\/v) dioxane-water mixtures at 25°C. In the less polar of these solvents (85D), k\\/sub ext\\/° values from the Winstein equation for the two salts LiClOâ and BuâNClOâ are

V. P. Vitullo; F. P. Wilgis

1981-01-01

349

Thermochemical properties of lanthanides (Ln = La, Nd) and actinides (An = U, Np, Pu, Am) in the molten LiCl KCl eutectic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrochemical reduction of actinides (U, Pu, Np and Am) and lanthanides (La and Nd) chlorides was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry at different temperatures in LiCl KCl eutectic. The diffusion coefficients of these metallic cations were estimated as well as their apparent standard potentials. These values of potentials are compared with existing data measured also by transient electrochemical techniques or e.m.f. measurements.

Masset, Patrick; Konings, Rudy J. M.; Malmbeck, Rikard; Serp, Jérôme; Glatz, Jean-Paul

2005-09-01

350

Effect of inorganic salts on crystallization of poly(ethylene glycol) in frozen solutions.  

PubMed

The effect of inorganic salts on eutectic crystallization of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) 1500-20,000 in frozen solution was studied to model the polymer and inorganic salt interaction in freeze-dried formulations. Thermal analysis of an aqueous PEG 3000 solution showed a eutectic PEG crystallization exotherm at approximately -47 degrees C and a subsequent PEG crystal melting endotherm at -14.9 degrees C. Addition of sodium chloride prevented the PEG crystallization in the freeze-concentrated solution surrounding ice crystals. Higher concentration NaCl was required to retain higher molecular weight PEG in the amorphous state. Various inorganic salts prevented the PEG crystallization to varying degrees depending mainly on the position of the anion in the Hofmeister's lyotropic series. Some salting-in and 'intermediate' salts (NaSCN, NaI, NaBr, NaCl, LiCl, KCl, and RbCl) inhibited the crystallization of PEG 7500 in frozen solutions. On the other hand, salting-out salts (NaH2PO4, Na2HPO4, Na2SO4, and NaF) did not show an apparent effect on the PEG crystallization. Some salting-out salts induced PEG crystallization in PEG and sucrose combination frozen solutions. The varying abilities of salts to prevent the PEG crystallization in frozen solutions strongly suggested that the solutes had different degrees of miscibility in the freeze-concentrates. PMID:15607262

Izutsu, Ken-ichi; Aoyagi, Nobuo

2004-11-11

351

Screening Specifications for Gulf Coast Salt Domes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A reconnaissance survey of the salt domes of Mississippi, Louisiana, and east Texas is being planned to identify study areas for potential sites for radioactive waste disposal. Preliminary screening specifications were derived for each of the geological e...

G. D. Brunton R. B. Laughon W. C. McClain

1978-01-01

352

Effects of heating on salt-occluded zeolite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel generates a waste stream of fission products in the electrolyte, LiCl-KCl eutectic salt. Argonne National Laboratory is developing a mineral waste form for this waste stream. The waste form consists of a composite formed by hot pressing salt-occluded zeolite and a glass binder. Pressing conditions must be judiciously chosen. For a given pressure,

M. A. Lewis; M. C. Hash; C. Pereira; J. P. Ackerman

1996-01-01

353

238Pu recovery and salt disposition from the molten salt oxidation process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have begun designing and optimizing our recovery and recycling processes by experimenting with samples of ``spent salt'' produced by MSO treatment of surrogate waste in the reaction vessel at the Naval Surface Warfare Center-Indian Head. One salt was produced by treating surrogate waste containing pyrolysis ash spiked with cerium. The other salt contains residues from MSO treatment of materials similar to those used in 238Pu processing, e.g., Tygon tubing, PVC bagout bags, HDPE bottles. Using these two salt samples, we will present results from our investigations. .

Remerowski, M. L.; Stimmel, Jay J.; Wong, Amy S.; Ramsey, Kevin B.

2000-07-01

354

Preparation of Simulated Waste Solutions  

SciTech Connect

Waste Processing Technology personnel routinely prepare 0.5 to 10 L batches of salt solutions simulating Savannah River Site (SRS) soluble waste. This report describes the compositions and preparation methods.

Walker, D.D.

1999-06-08

355

Investigation on Phase Diagram of Ternary System LaCl3-BaCl2-LiCl.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The knowledge of the phase diagram of the molten salts is of primary importance for investigating their physicochemical properties and for electrolytic preparation of the corresponding metals. Up to now, however, the phase diagram of the ternary system La...

C. G. Zheng Y. P. Chen L. P. Zhang

1994-01-01

356

Conceptual designs for waste packages for horizontal or vertical emplacement in a repository in salt for reference in the site characterization plan  

SciTech Connect

This report includes the options of horizontal and vertical emplacement, the addition of a phased repository, an additional waste form (intact spent fuel), revised geotechnical data appropriate for the Deaf Smith County site, new corrosion data for the container, and new repository design data. The waste package consists of waste form and canister within a thick-walled, low-carbon steel container surrounded by packing. The container is a hollow cylinder with a flat head welded to each end. The design concepts for the waste container or vertical and horizontal emplacement are identical. This report discusses the results of analyses of aspects of the reference waste package concept needing changes because of new data and information believed applicable to the Deaf Smith County site. Included are waste package conceptual designs or (1) the reference defense high-level waste form from the Savannah River Plant; (2) intact spent fuel with our pressurized-water-reactor or nine boiling-water-reactor assemblies per package for emplacement during Phase 1 of repository operation; and (3) spent fuel which has been disassembled and consolidated into a segmented cylindrical canister with rods from either 12 pressurized-water-reactor or 30 boiling-water-reactor assemblies per package for emplacement during Phase 2. 30 refs., 61 figs., 30 tabs.

Not Available

1987-06-01

357

Process to separate transuranic elements from nuclear waste  

DOEpatents

A process for removing transuranic elements from a waste chloride electrolytic salt containing transuranic elements in addition to rare earth and other fission product elements so the salt waste may be disposed of more easily and the valuable transuranic elements may be recovered for reuse. The salt is contacted with a cadmium-uranium alloy which selectively extracts the transuranic elements from the salt. The waste salt is generated during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel associated with the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR).

Johnson, Terry R. (Wheaton, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL); Tomczuk, Zygmunt (Orland Park, IL); Fischer, Donald F. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

1989-01-01

358

Quality Assurance Program: Argonne peer review activities for the salt host-rock portion of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Quality Assurance (QA) Program sets forth the methods, controls, and procedures used to ensure that the results of Argonne National Laboratory's peer review activities are consistently of the highest quality and responsive to Salt Repository Project Office's needs and directives. Implementation of the QA procedures described herein establishes an operational framework so that task activities are traceable and the

Edgar

1986-01-01

359

Reduction of perchlorate and nitrate by salt tolerant bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spent regenerant brine from ion-exchange technology for the removal of perchlorate and nitrate produces a high salt waste stream, which requires remediation before disposal. Bioremediation is an attractive treatment option. In this study, we enriched for salt tolerant bacteria from sediments from Cargill salt evaporation facility (California, USA), the Salton Sea (California, USA), and a high density hydrocarbon oxidizing bacterial

Benedict C. Okeke; Tara Giblin; William T. Frankenberger Jr

2002-01-01

360

Measurements of the partial electronic conductivity in lithium chloride - potassium chloride molten salts  

SciTech Connect

The partial electronic conductivity of the lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutectic molten salt electrolyte has been studied as a function of lithium activity, temperature and melt composition using the Wagner asymmetric d-c polarization technique. Measurements were made over the temperature range 383-465/sup 0/C and at lithium activities extending from 1.95 X 10/sup -7/ to unity. The results confirmed the applicability of this technique to molten salt systems. The partial electronic conductivity was shown to be much greater than the partial hole conductivity over the range of lithium activities investigated, and was found to increase monotonically with temperature and lithium activity, but decreased on addition of excess LiCl to the eutectic composition. Approximate values of self-discharge currents for cells utilizing an ''Al/LiAl'' negative electrode and a LiCl-KCl molten salt electrolyte have been calculated.

Reynolds, G.J.; Huggins, R.A.; Lee, M.C.Y.

1983-05-01

361

New public information resources on salt caverns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For the past decade, interest has been growing in using underground salt caverns for disposing of wastes. The Railroad Commission of Texas has permitted a few caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) and one cavern for disposal of natura...

D. Tomasko J. A. Veil

1999-01-01

362

CALCINING OF WASTES PROGRESS REPORT ON WASTE PROCESSING DEVELOPMENT PROJECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calciner concept of waste processing is based on the idea of ; incorporating into radiochemical waste solutions a salt that melts at a ; reasonable temperatures has an appreciable fluid ranges and is not too viscous. ; This salt serves as a transport fiuid for fission products after the original ; fluids waters has been removed. NaNCâ was found

S. Zwickler; B. Manowitz

1956-01-01

363

A new compound heterozygous frameshift mutation in the type II 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3{beta}-HSD gene causes salt-wasting 3{beta}-HSD deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia  

SciTech Connect

We report a new compound heterozygous frameshift mutation in the type II 3{Beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3{beta}-HSD) gene in a Pakistanian female child with the salt-wasting form of 3{Beta}-HSD deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The etiology for her congenital adrenal hyperplasia was not defined. Although the family history suggested possible 3{beta}-HSd deficiency disorder, suppressed adrenal function caused by excess glucocorticoid therapy in this child at 7 yr of age did not allow hormonal diagnosis. To confirm 3{beta}-HSD deficiency, we sequenced the type II 3{beta}-HSD gene in the patient, her family, and the parents of her deceased paternal cousins. The type II 3{beta}-HSD gene region of a putative promotor, exons I, II, III, and IV, and exon-intron boundaries were amplified by PCR and sequenced in all subjects. The DNA sequence of the child revealed a single nucleotide deletion at codon 318 [ACA(Thr){r_arrow}AA] in exon IV in one allele, and two nucleotide deletions at codon 273 [AAA(Lys){r_arrow}A] in exon IV in the other allele. The remaining gene sequences were normal. The codon 318 mutation was found in one allele from the father, brother, and parents of the deceased paternal cousins. The codon 273 mutation was found in one allele of the mother and a sister. These findings confirmed inherited 3{beta}-HSD deficiency in the child caused by the compound heterozygous type II 3{beta}-HSD gene mutation. Both codons at codons 279 and 367, respectively, are predicted to result in an altered and truncated type II 3{beta}-HSD protein, thereby causing salt-wasting 3{beta}-HSD deficiency in the patient. 21 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Zhang, L.; Sakkal-Alkaddour, S.; Chang, Ying T.; Yang, Xiaojiang; Songya Pang [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

1996-01-01

364

Effect of lithium salts on lactate dehydrogenase, adenylate kinase, and 1-phosphofructokinase activities.  

PubMed

Inhibitions of 30 nM rabbit muscle 1-phosphofructokinase (PFK-1) by lithium, potassium, and sodium salts showed inhibition or not depending upon the anion present. Generally, potassium salts were more potent inhibitors than sodium salts; the extent of inhibition by lithium salts also varied with the anion. Li(2)CO(3) was a relatively potent inhibitor of PFK-1 but LiCl and lithium acetate were not. Our results suggest that extents of inhibition by monovalent salts were due to both cations and anions, and the latter needs to be considered before inhibition can be credited to the cation. An explanation for monovalent salt inhibitions is proffered involving interactions of both cations and anions at negative and positive sites of PFK-1 that affect enzyme activity. Our studies suggest that lithium cations per se are not inhibitors: the inhibitors are the lithium salts, and we suggest that in vitro studies involving the effects of monovalent salts on enzymes should involve more than one anion. PMID:20597606

Russell, Percy; Williams, Anita; Abbott, Ami; Chadwick, Jessica; Ehya, Farnaz; Flores, Roxana; Hardamon, Chanae

2010-08-01

365

Modeling of anodic dissolution of U Pu Zr ternary alloy in the molten LiCl KCl electrolyte  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The metallic fuel anode in the molten salt electrorefining step for the pyrometallurgical reprocessing was modeled based on the findings from the anodic dissolution tests using a U Pu Zr ternary alloy. This anode model simulates selective dissolution of uranium and plutonium at lower anode potential, growth of a diffusion controlling layer consisting of a mixture of the molten salt electrolyte and the remaining zirconium metal, and simultaneous dissolution of all the constituents at higher anode potential. The calculation with this model reproduced well the actual anodic behavior of the U Pu Zr ternary alloy such as two-step rapid rise in the anode potential.

Iizuka, Masatoshi; Kinoshita, Kensuke; Koyama, Tadafumi

2005-02-01

366

Salt Marsh  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

High school level and higher description of Spartina salt marshes with pictures. Page is full of fantastic photographs most featuring a descriptive caption. Topics discussed include zonation, succession, and the intertidal zone. The habitat's associated flora and fauna are discussed. Organisms of particular interest include: Spartina alterniflora, Spartina patens, Geukenzia demissa, Mytilus edulis, Distichlis spicata, Salicornia, Melampus bidentatus, Ilyanassa obsoleta, and Hydrobia totteni.

367

Anomalous ion effects on rupture and lifetime of aqueous foam films formed from monovalent salt solutions up to saturation concentration.  

PubMed

We report the effects of ions on rupture and lifetime of aqueous foam films formed from sodium chloride (NaCl), lithium chloride (LiCl), sodium acetate (NaAc), and sodium chlorate (NaClO 3) using microinterferometry. In the case of NaCl and LiCl, the foam films prepared from the salt solutions below 0.1 M were unstable they thinned until rupturing. The film lifetime measured from the first interferogram (appearing at a film thickness on the order of 500 nm) until the film rupture was only a second or so. However, relatively long lasting and nondraining films prepared from salt solutions above 0.1 M were observed. The film lifetime was significantly longer by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude, i.e., from 10 to 100 s. Importantly, both the film lifetime and the (average) thickness of the nondraining films increased with increasing salt concentration. This effect has not been observed with foam films stabilized by surfactants. The film lifetime and thickness also increased with increasing film radius. The films exhibited significant surface corrugations. The films with large radii often contained standing dimples. There was a critical film radius below which the films thinned until rupturing. In the cases of NaAc and NaClO 3, the films were unstable at all radii and salt concentrations they thinned until rupturing, ruling out the effect of solution viscosity on stabilizing the films. PMID:18783259

Karakashev, Stoyan I; Nguyen, Phong T; Tsekov, Roumen; Hampton, Marc A; Nguyen, Anh V

2008-09-11

368

Treatment of organic waste  

DOEpatents

An organic waste containing at least one element selected from the group consisting of strontium, cesium, iodine and ruthenium is treated to achieve a substantial reduction in the volume of the waste and provide for fixation of the selected element in an inert salt. The method of treatment comprises introducing the organic waste and a source of oxygen into a molten salt bath maintained at an elevated temperature to produce solid and gaseous reaction products. The gaseous reaction products comprise carbon dioxide and water vapor, and the solid reaction products comprise the inorganic ash constituents of the organic waste and the selected element which is retained in the molten salt. The molten salt bath comprises one or more alkali metal carbonates, and may optionally include from 1 to about 25 wt.% of an alkali metal sulfate.

Grantham, LeRoy F. (Calabasas, CA)

1979-01-01

369

Bases, Assumptions, and Results of the Flowsheet Calculations for the Decision Phase Salt Disposition Alternatives  

SciTech Connect

The HLW salt waste (salt cake and supernate) now stored at the SRS must be treated to remove insoluble sludge solids and reduce the soluble concentration of radioactive cesium radioactive strontium and transuranic contaminants (principally Pu and Np). These treatments will enable the salt solution to be processed for disposal as saltstone, a solid low-level waste.

Elder, H.H.

2001-07-11

370

Development of damage and permeability in deforming rock salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permeability of undisturbed rock salt, or of rock salt which has been sufficiently compacted during laboratory testing, is very low (less than 10?20m2). Therefore, rock salt structures are used as host rocks for storage caverns (oil, hydrocarbons) and are considered for the long-term storage of radioactive waste. Rock salt deforms plastically without the formation and propagation of dilating cracks as

Otto Schulze; Till Popp; Hartmut Kern

2001-01-01

371

Cell having an alkali metal anode, a fluorinated carbon cathode and an electrolyte which includes an alkali metal halide salt and a solvent system consisting of an ether solvent and a cyclic carbonate cosolvent  

SciTech Connect

A novel electrochemical cell is disclosed utilizing an alkali metal anode, a fluorinated carbon cathode, and an electrolyte which includes an alkali metal halide salt and a mixed solvent system consisting of an ether and a cyclic carbonate. Preferred are the cells wherein the anode is lithium, the cathode is C/sub 2/F, and the electrolyte contains essentially of LiCl and a solvent system of dimethoxyethane and propylene carbonate.

Malachesky, P. A.

1981-02-03

372

Quality Assurance Program: Argonne peer review activities for the salt host-rock portion of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program  

SciTech Connect

This Quality Assurance (QA) Program sets forth the methods, controls, and procedures used to ensure that the results of Argonne National Laboratory's peer review activities are consistently of the highest quality and responsive to Salt Repository Project Office's needs and directives. Implementation of the QA procedures described herein establishes an operational framework so that task activities are traceable and the activities and decisions that influence the overall quality of the peer review process and results are fully documented. 56 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

Edgar, D.E.

1986-08-12

373

Thermodynamic Properties of Magnesium Chloride Hydroxide Hydrate (Mg3Cl(OH)5:4H2O, Phase 5), and Its importance to Nuclear Waste Isolation in Geological Repositories in Salt Formations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MgO (bulk, pure MgO corresponding to the mineral periclase) is the only engineered barrier certified by the Environmental Protection Agency for emplacement in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the US, and an Mg(OH)2-based engineered barrier (bulk, pure Mg(OH)2 corresponding to brucite) is to be employed in the Asse repository in Germany. Both the WIPP and the Asse are located in salt formations. The WIPP is a U.S. Department of Energy geological repository being used for the permanent disposal of defense-related transuranic waste (TRU waste). The repository is 655 m below the surface, and is situated in the Salado Formation, a Permian salt bed mainly composed of halite, and of lesser amounts of polyhalite, anhydrite, gypsum, magnesite, clays and quartz. The WIPP Generic Weep Brine (GWB), a Na-Mg-Cl dominated brine, is associated with the Salado Formation. The previous vendor for MgO for the WIPP was Premier Chemicals and the current vendor is Martin Marietta Materials. Experimental studies of both Premier MgO and Martin Marietta MgO with the GWB at SNL indicate the formation of magnesium chloride hydroxide hydrate, Mg3Cl(OH)5:4H2O, termed as phase 5. However, this important phase is lacking in the existing thermodynamic database. In this study, the solubility constant of phase 5 is determined from a series of solubility experiments in MgCl2-NaCl solutions. The solubility constant at 25 oC for the following reaction, Mg3Cl(OH)5:4H2O + 5H+ = 3Mg2+ + 9H2O(l) + Cl- is recommended as 43.21±0.33 (2?) based on the Specific Interaction Theory (SIT) model for extrapolation to infinite dilution. The log K obtained via the Pitzer equations is identical to the above value within the quoted uncertainty. The Gibbs free energy and enthalpy of formation for phase 5 at 25 oC are derived as -3384±2 (2?) kJ mol-1 and -3896±6 (2?) kJ mol-1, respectively. The standard entropy and heat capacity of phase 5 at 25 oC are estimated as 393±20 J mol-1 K-1 and 374±19 J mol-1 K-1, respectively. Phase 5, and its similar phase, phase 3 (Mg2Cl(OH)3:4H2O), could have a significant role in influencing the geochemical conditions in geological repositories for nuclear waste in salt formations where MgO or brucite is employed as engineered barriers, when Na-Mg-Cl dominated brines react with MgO or brucite. Based on our solubility constant for phase 5 in combination with the literature value for phase 3, we predict that the composition for the invariant point of phase 5 and phase 3 would be mMg = 1.70 and pmH = 8.93 in the Mg-Cl binary system. The recent WIPP Compliance Recertification Application PA Baseline Calculations indicate that phase 5 instead of phase 3 is indeed a stable phase when GWB equilibrates with actinide-source-term phases, brucite, magnesium carbonates, halite and anhydrite. 1. This research is funded by WIPP programs administered by the U.S. Department of Energy. 2. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Xiong, Y.; Deng, H.; Nemer, M. B.; Johnsen, S.

2009-12-01

374

Understanding radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect

This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

Murray, R.L.

1981-12-01

375

SAFETY EXCAVATION IN SALT ROCK USED FOR UNDERGROUND STORAGE IN ROMANIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of underground excavation in salt-rock formations for waste storage imposes the precise analysis of properties of salt rock and a stress analysis. One of the main mechanisms responsible for a degradation of isolation ability of the rock salt is the generation and development of cracks under influence of mining processes. Various aspects of cracking in salt rocks are

Susana Arad; Victor Arad; Joel Veres; Olimpiu Stoicuta

376

Recovery of carboxylic acids, C 2?C 6, from an aqueous waste stream using tributylphosphate (TBP): Effect of presence of inorganic acids and their sodium salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction of carboxylic acids, C2?C6, was carried out with tributylphosphate (TBP) from an aqueous waste stream at pH = 2, 2.5, and at as such pH taken from an environmental process engineering point of view. The effect of the presence of H2SO4 and HCl on the distribution coefficients for C2?C6 carboxylic acids was investigated. The measurements were also carried out

M. N. Ingale; V. V. Mahajani

1996-01-01

377

Electrodialysis-ion exchange for the separation of dissolved salts  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy generates and stores a significant quantity of low level, high level, and mixed wastes. As some of the DOE facilities are decontaminated and decommissioned, additional and possibly different forms of wastes will be generated. A significant portion of these wastes are aqueous streams containing acids, bases, and salts, or are wet solids containing inorganic salts. Some of these wastes are quite dilute solutions, whereas others contain large quantities of nitrates either in the form of dissolved salts or acids. Many of the wastes are also contaminated with heavy metals, radioactive products, or organics. Some of these wastes are in storage because a satisfactory treatment and disposal processes have not been developed. This report describes the process of electrodialysis-ion exchange (EDIX) for treating aqueous wastes streams consisting of nitrates, sodium, organics, heavy metals, and radioactive species.

Baroch, C.J.; Grant, P.J.

1995-12-31

378

Lithology, Microstructures, Fluid Inclusions, and Geochemistry of Rock Salt and of the Cap-Rock Contact in Oakwood Dome, East Texas: Significance for Nuclear Waste Storage. Report of Investigations No. 120.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Oakwood salt dome in Leon and Freestone Counties, Texas, has a core composed of a diapiric salt stock at a depth of 355 m. A vertical borehole in the center of the salt stock yielded 57.3 m of continuous rock-salt core overlain by 137 m of anhydrite-calci...

M. P. A. Jackson O. R. Dix

1982-01-01

379

Conceptual design and performance analysis of absorption heat pumps for waste-heat utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study is to explore the potential of the absorption cycle for recovering low-temperature waste heat (60 C) as a first step toward the construction of a working system to provide process heat. The system is considered with lithium chloride (LiCl-) and lithium bromide(LiBr-) water solutions as working fluids. The benefits of multistaging for achieving large temperature

G. Grossman; H. Perez-Blanco

1982-01-01

380

MOLTEN SALT OXIDATION OF CHLOROBENZENE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation focuses on the oxidation of chlorobenzene izn a laboratory-scale molten salt reactor. A Fourier transform infrared spectrometer with a long-path cell is used to monitor the organic waste oxidation process, including the formation of by-products as a function of temperature. The measured oxidation by-products are compared with results reported in the literature and are obtained in a combustion-driven

S. PANDETI; S. G. BUCKLEY

2004-01-01

381

Nuclear waste solutions  

DOEpatents

High efficiency removal of technetium values from a nuclear waste stream is achieved by addition to the waste stream of a precipitant contributing tetraphenylphosphonium cation, such that a substantial portion of the technetium values are precipitated as an insoluble pertechnetate salt.

Walker, Darrel D. (1684 Partridge Dr., Aiken, SC 29801); Ebra, Martha A. (129 Hasty Rd., Aiken, SC 29801)

1987-01-01

382

A calorimetric characterization of the salt dependence of the stability of the GCN4 leucine zipper.  

PubMed

The effects of different salts (LiCl, NaCl, ChoCl, KF, KCl, and KBr) on the structural stability of a 33-residue peptide corresponding to the leucine zipper region of GCN4 have been studied by high-sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry. These experiments have allowed an estimation of the salt dependence of the thermodynamic parameters that define the stability of the coiled coil. Independent of the nature of the salt, a destabilization of the coiled coil is always observed upon increasing salt concentration up to a maximum of approximately 0.5 M, depending on the specific cation or anion. At higher salt concentrations, this effect is reversed and a stabilization of the leucine zipper is observed. The effect of salt concentration is primarily entropic, judging from the lack of a significant salt dependence of the transition enthalpy. The salt dependence of the stability of the peptide is complex, suggesting the presence of specific salt effects at high salt concentrations in addition to the nonspecific electrostatic effects that are prevalent at lower salt concentrations. The data is consistent with the existence of specific interactions between anions and peptide with an affinity that follows a reverse size order (F- > Cl- > Br-). Under all conditions studied, the coiled coil undergoes reversible thermal unfolding that can be well represented by a reaction of the form N2<==>2U, indicating that the unfolding is a two-state process in which the helices are only stable when they are in the coiled coil conformation. PMID:8528092

Kenar, K T; García-Moreno, B; Freire, E

1995-09-01

383

A calorimetric characterization of the salt dependence of the stability of the GCN4 leucine zipper.  

PubMed Central

The effects of different salts (LiCl, NaCl, ChoCl, KF, KCl, and KBr) on the structural stability of a 33-residue peptide corresponding to the leucine zipper region of GCN4 have been studied by high-sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry. These experiments have allowed an estimation of the salt dependence of the thermodynamic parameters that define the stability of the coiled coil. Independent of the nature of the salt, a destabilization of the coiled coil is always observed upon increasing salt concentration up to a maximum of approximately 0.5 M, depending on the specific cation or anion. At higher salt concentrations, this effect is reversed and a stabilization of the leucine zipper is observed. The effect of salt concentration is primarily entropic, judging from the lack of a significant salt dependence of the transition enthalpy. The salt dependence of the stability of the peptide is complex, suggesting the presence of specific salt effects at high salt concentrations in addition to the nonspecific electrostatic effects that are prevalent at lower salt concentrations. The data is consistent with the existence of specific interactions between anions and peptide with an affinity that follows a reverse size order (F- > Cl- > Br-). Under all conditions studied, the coiled coil undergoes reversible thermal unfolding that can be well represented by a reaction of the form N2<==>2U, indicating that the unfolding is a two-state process in which the helices are only stable when they are in the coiled coil conformation.

Kenar, K. T.; Garcia-Moreno, B.; Freire, E.

1995-01-01

384

Experimental Study of Temperature Effects on Physical and Mechanical Characteristics of Salt Rock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  Because of its advantageous physical and mechanical characteristics, salt rock is considered an excellent host rock for nuclear\\u000a waste disposal. Nuclear wastes in a salt rock repository will continue to emit radiation and thermal energy for decades after\\u000a placement, resulting in a significant rise of the surrounding salt rock temperature. Consequently, study of the physical and\\u000a mechanical characteristics of salt

W. G. Liang; S. G. Xu; Y. S. Zhao

2006-01-01

385

Polyethylene encapsulation of molten salt oxidation mixed low-level radioactive salt residues  

SciTech Connect

A limited scope treatability study was conducted for polyethylene encapsulation of salt residues generated by a Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) technology demonstration at the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), operated by Rockwell International for the US Department of Energy (DOE). During 1992 and 1993, ETEC performed a demonstration with a prototype MSO unit and treated approximately 50 gallons of mixed waste comprised of radioactively contaminated oils produced by hot cell operations. A sample of the mixed waste contaminated spent salt was used during the BNL polyethylene encapsulation treatability study. A nominal waste loading of 50 wt % was successfully processed and waste form test specimens were made for Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing. The encapsulated product was compared with base-line TCLP results for total chromium and was found to be well within allowable EPA guidelines.

Lageraaen, P.R.; Kalb, P.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Grimmett, D.L.; Gay, R.L.; Newman, C.D. [Energy Technology Engineering Center, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

1995-10-01

386

Coupled Hydromechanical Processes In Rock Salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt structures are widely used as host rocks for the storage of oil and hydrocarbons and, probably, for the long-term storage of radioactive waste, due to their very low in-situ permeability (less than 10-20 m2). The low permeability is basically attributed to the ductility of the halite minerals ensuring healing processes. Nevertheless, rock salt shows all aspects of brittle-ductile deformation.

T. Popp; H. Kern; O. Schulze

2002-01-01

387

Experimental determination of the solubility constant for magnesium chloride hydroxide hydrate (Mg 3Cl(OH) 5·4H 2O, phase 5) at room temperature, and its importance to nuclear waste isolation in geological repositories in salt formations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the solubility constant of magnesium chloride hydroxide hydrate, Mg 3Cl(OH) 5·4H 2O, termed as phase 5, is determined from a series of solubility experiments in MgCl 2-NaCl solutions. The solubility constant in logarithmic units at 25 °C for the following reaction, MgCl(OH)·4HO+5H=3Mg+9HO(l)+Cl is calculated as 43.21 ± 0.33 (2 ?) based on the specific interaction theory (SIT) model for extrapolation to infinite dilution. The Gibbs free energy and enthalpy of formation for phase 5 at 25 °C are derived as -3384 ± 2 (2 ?) kJ mol -1 and -3896 ± 6 (2 ?) kJ mol -1, respectively. MgO (bulk, pure MgO corresponding to the mineral periclase) is the only engineered barrier certified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for emplacement in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the US, and an Mg(OH) 2-based engineered barrier (bulk, pure Mg(OH) 2 corresponding to brucite) is to be employed in the Asse repository in Germany. Phase 5, and its similar phase, phase 3 (Mg 2Cl(OH) 3·4H 2O), could have a significant role in influencing the geochemical conditions in geological repositories for nuclear waste in salt formations where MgO or brucite is employed as engineered barriers. Based on our solubility constant for phase 5 in combination with the literature value for phase 3, we predict that the composition for the invariant point of phase 5 and phase 3 would be mMg = 1.70 and pmH = 8.94 in the Mg-Cl binary system. The recent WIPP Compliance Recertification Application Performance Assessment Baseline Calculations indicate that phase 5, instead of phase 3, is indeed a stable phase when the WIPP Generic Weep Brine (GWB), a Na-Mg-Cl-dominated brine associated with the Salado Formation, equilibrates with actinide-source-term phases, brucite, magnesium carbonates, halite and anhydrite. Therefore, phase 5 is important to the WIPP, and potentially important to other repositories in salt formations.

Xiong, Yongliang; Deng, Haoran; Nemer, Martin; Johnsen, Shelly

2010-08-01

388

Removal behavior of Cs from molten salt by using zeolitic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive molten salt generated from a pyrochemical process to separate reusable U and TRU elements is one of problematic\\u000a wastes to manage for a final disposal. For the minimization of final waste, it is desirable to selectively remove radionuclides\\u000a from the waste salts. In this paper, structural change of some zeolites in a series of molten salt systems and its

Hwan-Seo Park; In-Tae Kim; Yong-Jun Cho; Mi-Sook Son; Hee-Chul Eun

2010-01-01

389

Resistivity measurements of halide-salt/MgO separators for thermal cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resistivities of 20 compositions of halide-salt/MgO mixtures (various selections and percentages of LiF, LiCl, LiBr, KCl, KBr, CsBr, and MgO) to be used in Li-alloy/metal sulfide cells were measured at temperatures between the melting point of a particular mixture and 500 C. The resistivities were determined with cold pressed electrolyte-binder pellets by using a special cell and dc measuring technique. Temperature, salt composition, and MgO content were found to have a strong influence on resistivity. These factors are listed in decreasing order of the magnitude of the effect. The fabrication density (porosity) of the pellet also has some effect on resistivity. These measured resistivities provide a data base to select optimum compositions of electrolyte-binder pellets for LiSi/FeS2 thermal batteries and to calculate area-specific resistances of these components for battery modeling and optimization.

Redey, Lazlo; McParland, Margaret; Guidotti, Ron

1990-03-01

390

Constitutive representation of damage development and healing in WIPP salt  

SciTech Connect

There has been considerable interest in characterizing and modeling the constitutive behavior of rock salt with particular reference to long-term creep and creep failure. The interest is motivated by the projected use of excavated rooms in salt rock formations as repositories for nuclear waste. It is presumed that closure of those rooms by creep ultimately would encapsulate the waste material, resulting in its effective isolation. A continuum mechanics approach for treating damage healing is formulated as part of a constitutive model for describing coupled creep, fracture, and healing in rock salt. Formulation of the healing term is, described and the constitutive model is evaluated against experimental data of rock salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. The results indicate that healing anistropy in WIPP salt can be modeled with an appropriate power-conjugate equivalent stress, kinetic equation, and evolution equation for damage healing.

Chan, K.S.; Bodner, S.R. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Fossum, A.F [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-12-31

391

Low Temperature Aluminum Dissolution Of Sludge Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

High Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently stored in aging underground storage tanks. This waste is a complex mixture of insoluble solids, referred to as sludge, and soluble salts. Continued long-term storage of these radioactive wastes poses an environmental risk. The sludge is currently being stabilized in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) through a

M. T. Keefer; B. A. Hamm; J. A. Pike

2008-01-01

392

Current and proposed regulations for salt water disposal wells  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, all aspects of hydrocarbon exploration and production (E & P) activities have drawn closer scrutiny in terms of existing and potential impairment of the environment. In addition to drilling, production, and transportation activities, the USEPA has focused on the nature of E & P generated wastes, and the subsequent management of both hazardous and nonhazardous E & P wastes. Approximately 98% of all of the volume of wastes generated by E & P activities is salt water associated with the recovery of hydrocarbons. By far the majority of this waste is disposed of in class II salt water disposal wells. Due to the tremendous volume of salt water generated, the USEPA continues to reevaluate the federal class II salt water injection well program, offering comments, revising its interpretation of existing regulations, and promulgating new regulations. The purpose of the presentation will be to provide a review of existing class II federal regulations, and to provide an overview of potential or newly promulgated regulations.

Moody, T. [Terra Dynamics, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

1994-09-01

393

Retrieval of Canistered Experimental Waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To assess the suitability of bedded salt for nuclear waste disposal, an extensive experimental program will be implemented at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. In order to evaluate experimental results, it will be necessary to recover certain of these expe...

R. E. Stinebaugh

1979-01-01

394

Molten salt oxidation as an alternative to incineration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molten Salt Oxidation was originally developed by Rockwell International as part of their coal gasification, and nuclear-and hazardous-waste treatment programs. Single-stage oxidation units employing molten carbonate salt mixtures were found to process up to one ton\\/day of common solid and liquid wastes (such as paper, rags, plastics, and solvents), and (in larger units) up to one ton\\/hour of coal. After

L. W. Gray; M. G. Adamson; J. F. Cooper; J. C. Farmer; R. S. Upadhye

1992-01-01

395

Creep modeling of rock salts for geoenvironmental application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before using a rock salt as a nuclear waste repository, it is necessary to have adequate knowledge of the mechanical and thermomechanical behavior of the host geologic media. In rock salt, such mechanical and thermomechanical behavior is dominated, among other factors, by the time-dependent deformation commonly referred to as creep. The paper discusses a rate-dependent constitutive model to describe the

M. I. Hossain; M. O. Faruque; M. Zaman

1995-01-01

396

Destruction of organic wastes with molten oxidizers  

DOEpatents

A process for destruction of biologically hazardous organic chemical wastes by using liquefied strongly oxidizing inorganic salts, such as the alkali metal nitrates, at high temperatures and atmospheric pressure, to yield inorganic salts, carbon dioxide, and water. The oxidizing salts are regenerated and recycled.

Bradshaw, R.W.; Holmes, J.T.; Tyner, C.E.

1990-12-31

397

Destruction of organic wastes with molten oxidizers  

DOEpatents

A process for destruction of biologically hazardous organic chemical wastes by using liquefied strongly oxidizing inorganic salts, such as the alkali metal nitrates, at high temperatures and atmospheric pressure, to yield inorganic salts, carbon dioxide, and water. The oxidizing salts are regenerated and recycled.

Bradshaw, R.W.; Holmes, J.T.; Tyner, C.E.

1990-01-01

398

Electrolyte salts for power sources  

DOEpatents

Electrolyte salts are disclosed for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts. 2 figs.

Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

1995-11-28

399

Electrolyte salts for power sources  

DOEpatents

Electrolyte salts for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts.

Doddapaneni, Narayan (10516 Royal Birkdale, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111); Ingersoll, David (5824 Mimosa Pl., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111)

1995-01-01

400

Stability of YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 minus x in molten chloride salts  

SciTech Connect

The decomposition products of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} depend on the composition of the molten chloride salt for exposure at 1173 K in air. The presence of dichloride salts such as CuCl{sub 2}, CaCl{sub 2}, or MgCl{sub 2} promote formation of CuO, Cu{sub 2}Y{sub 2}O{sub 59} and loss of barium to the chloride salt as BaCl{sub 2}. Salts based on BaCl{sub 2} or containing LiCl results in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} decomposition products of Y{sub 2}BaCuP{sub 59} CuO, and BaCl{sub 2}. High barium activity in the salt supports formation of the Y{sub 2}BaCuO{sub 5} phase and reaction of CO{sub 2} with the salt producing BaCO{sub 3}. Decomposition is most sluggish in binary NaCl-KCl salts where minimal amounts of reaction or decomposition products are observed.

Raeder, C.H.; Knorr, D.B. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (USA). Dept. of Materials Engineering)

1990-08-01

401

Full-scale borehole sealing test in salt under simulated downhole conditions. Volume 1. [Avery Island diapiric salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

A full-scale borehole sealing test was conducted in Avery Island diapiric salt. The test was performed under simulated in situ stress (15.86 MPa (2300 psi)) and temperature (30°C) of a theoretical salt nuclear waste repository. To evaluate the sealing performance and the effect of the grout on the salt, temperature and pressure versus time histories of the grout were measured

D. D. Bush; S. Piele

1986-01-01

402

Salt Bath Furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A salt bath furnace is basically a ceramic or metal container filled with molten salt into which work is immersed for either heating or cooling. The furnace contains salt such as nitrates, nitrites, caustic soda, chlorides, carbonates, and cyanide. Mixtures of salt are selected to give a specific temperature range and a desired treatment (or lack of treatment) to the

Gordon W. Anderson

1974-01-01

403

Gas releases from salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of gas in salt mines and caverns has presented some serious problems to facility operators. Salt mines have long experienced sudden, usually unexpected expulsions of gas and salt from a production face, commonly known as outbursts. Outbursts can release over one million cubic feet of methane and fractured salt, and are responsible for the lives of numerous miners

Brian Ehgartner; Jim Neal; Tom Hinkebein

1998-01-01

404

Mass transfer in a salt repository  

SciTech Connect

To meet regulatory requirements for radioactive waste in a salt repository it is necessary to predict the rates of corrosion of the waste container, the release rates of radionuclides from the waste package, and the cumulative release of radionuclides into the accessible environment. The mechanisms that may control these rates and an approach to predicting these rates from mass-transfer theory are described. This new mechanistic approach is suggested by three premises: (a) a brine inclusion originally in a salt crystal moves along grain boundaries after thermal-induced migration out of the crystal, (b) brine moves along a grain boundary under the influence of a pressure gradient, and (c) salt surrounding a heat-generating waste package will soon creep and consolidate as a monolithic medium surrounding and in contact with the waste package. After consolidation there may be very little migration of intergranular and intragranular brine to the waste package. The corrosion rate of the waste container may then be limited by the rate at which brine reaches the container and may be calculable from mass-transfer theory, and the rate at which dissolved radionuclides leave the waste package may be limited by molecular diffusion in intragranular brine and may be calculable from mass-transfer theory. If porous nonsalt interbeds intersect the waste-package borehole, the release rate of dissolved radionuclides to interbed brine may also be calculable from mass-transfer theory. The logic of these conclusions is described, as an aid in formulating the calculations that are to be made.

Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.

1985-05-01

405

SALT CORE SAMPLING EVOLUTION AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS), a Department of Energy (DOE) facility, has over 30 million gallons of legacy waste from its many years of processing nuclear materials. The majority of waste is stored in 49 buried tanks. Available underground piping is the primary and desired pathway to transfer waste from one tank to another until the waste is delivered to the glass plant, DWPF, or the grout plant, Saltstone. Prior to moving the material, the tank contents need to be evaluated to ensure the correct destination for the waste is chosen. Access ports are available in each tank top in a number of locations and sizes to be used to obtain samples of the waste for analysis. Material consistencies vary for each tank with the majority of waste to be processed being radioactive salts and sludge. The following paper describes the progression of equipment and techniques developed to obtain core samples of salt and solid sludge at SRS.

Nance, T; Daniel Krementz, D; William Cheng, W

2007-11-29

406

Excavation Damaged Zones In Rock Salt Formations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt formations have long been proposed as potential host rocks for nuclear waste disposal. After the operational phase of a repository the openings, e.g., boreholes, galleries, and chambers, have to be sealed in order to avoid the release of radionuclides into the biosphere. For optimising the sealing techniques knowledge about the excavation damaged zones (EDZ) around these openings is essential.

N. Jockwer; K. Wieczorek

2008-01-01

407

Safe actinide disposition in molten salt reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safe molten salt reactors (MSR) can readily accommodate the burning of all fissile actinides. Only minor compromises associated with plutonium are required. The MSRs can dispose safely of actinides and long lived isotopes to result in safer and simpler waste. Disposing of actinides in MSRs does increase the source term of a safety optimized MSR. It is concluded that the

Gat

1997-01-01

408

Salt repository project closeout status report  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an overview of the scope and status of the US Department of Energy (DOE`s) Salt Repository Project (SRP) at the time when the project was terminated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The report reviews the 10-year program of siting a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste in rock salt formations. Its purpose is to aid persons interested in the information developed during the course of this effort. Each area is briefly described and the major items of information are noted. This report, the three salt Environmental Assessments, and the Site Characterization Plan are the suggested starting points for any search of the literature and information developed by the program participants. Prior to termination, DOE was preparing to characterize three candidate sites for the first mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The sites were in Nevada, a site in volcanic tuff; Texas, a site in bedded salt (halite); and Washington, a site in basalt. These sites, identified by the screening process described in Chapter 3, were selected from the nine potentially acceptable sites shown on Figure I-1. These sites were identified in accordance with provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. 196 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs.

NONE

1988-06-01

409

Separation of actinides from LWR spent fuel using morten-salt based electrochemical processes.  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented of work done at Argonne National Laboratory to develop a molten-salt-based electrochemical technology for extracting uranium and transuranic elements from spent light water reactor fuel. In this process, the actinide oxides in the spent fuel are reduced using lithium at 650{sup o}C in the presence of molten LiCl, yielding the corresponding actinides and Li{sub 2}O. The actinides are then extracted from the reduction product by means of electrorefining. Associated with the reduction step is an ancillary salt-recovery step designed to electrochemically reduce the Li{sub 2}O concentration of the salt and recover the lithium metal.Experiments were performed at the laboratory scale (50 to 150 g of fuel and 0.5 to 3.5 l of salt) and engineering scale (3.7 to 5.2 kg of fuel and 50 l of salt). Laboratory-scale experiments were designed to obtain information on the fundamental factors affecting process rates. Engineering-scale experiments were conducted to verify that the parameters controlling process scaleup are sufficiently understood, and to test equipment and operating concepts at or near full scale. All indications are that the electrochemical-based process should be workable at practical plant sizes.

Karell, E. J.; Gourishankar, K. V.; Smith, J. L.; Chow, L. S.; Redey, L. R.; Chemical Engineering

2001-12-01

410

Separation of Actinides from LWR Spent Fuel Using Molten-Salt-Based Electrochemical Processes  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented of work done at Argonne National Laboratory to develop a molten-salt-based electrochemical technology for extracting uranium and transuranic elements from spent light water reactor fuel. In this process, the actinide oxides in the spent fuel are reduced using lithium at 650 deg. C in the presence of molten LiCl, yielding the corresponding actinides and Li{sub 2}O. The actinides are then extracted from the reduction product by means of electrorefining. Associated with the reduction step is an ancillary salt-recovery step designed to electrochemically reduce the Li{sub 2}O concentration of the salt and recover the lithium metal.Experiments were performed at the laboratory scale (50 to 150 g of fuel and 0.5 to 3.5 l of salt) and engineering scale (3.7 to 5.2 kg of fuel and 50 l of salt). Laboratory-scale experiments were designed to obtain information on the fundamental factors affecting process rates. Engineering-scale experiments were conducted to verify that the parameters controlling process scaleup are sufficiently understood, and to test equipment and operating concepts at or near full scale. All indications are that the electrochemical-based process should be workable at practical plant sizes.

Karell, Eric J.; Gourishankar, Karthick V.; Smith, James L.; Chow, Lorac S.; Redey, Laszlo [Argonne National Laboratory (United States)

2001-12-15

411

Fracture and Healing of Rock Salt Related to Salt Caverns  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, serious investigations of potential extension of the useful life of older caverns or of the use of abandoned caverns for waste disposal have been of interest to the technical community. All of the potential applications depend upon understanding the reamer in which older caverns and sealing systems can fail. Such an understanding will require a more detailed knowledge of the fracture of salt than has been necessary to date. Fortunately, the knowledge of the fracture and healing of salt has made significant advances in the last decade, and is in a position to yield meaningful insights to older cavern behavior. In particular, micromechanical mechanisms of fracture and the concept of a fracture mechanism map have been essential guides, as has the utilization of continuum damage mechanics. The Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which is summarized extensively in this work was developed specifically to treat both the creep and fracture of salt, and was later extended to incorporate the fracture healing process known to occur in rock salt. Fracture in salt is based on the formation and evolution of microfractures, which may take the form of wing tip cracks, either in the body or the boundary of the grain. This type of crack deforms under shear to produce a strain, and furthermore, the opening of the wing cracks produce volume strain or dilatancy. In the presence of a confining pressure, microcrack formation may be suppressed, as is often the case for triaxial compression tests or natural underground stress situations. However, if the confining pressure is insufficient to suppress fracture, then the fractures will evolve with time to give the characteristic tertiary creep response. Two first order kinetics processes, closure of cracks and healing of cracks, control the healing process. Significantly, volume strain produced by microfractures may lead to changes in the permeability of the salt, which can become a major concern in cavern sealing and operation. The MDCF model is used in three simulations of field experiments in which indirect measures were obtained of the generation of damage. The results of the simulations help to verify the model and suggest that the model captures the correct fracture behavior of rock salt. The model is used in this work to estimate the generation and location of damage around a cylindrical storage cavern. The results are interesting because stress conditions around the cylindrical cavern do not lead to large amounts of damage. Moreover, the damage is such that general failure can not readily occur, nor does the extent of the damage suggest possible increased permeation when the surrounding salt is impermeable.

Chan, K.S.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

1999-03-01

412

Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) Waste Analysis Plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document waste analysis activities associated with the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) to comply with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-300(1), (2), (3), (4), (5), and (6). WESF is an interim status other storage-miscellaneous storage unit. WESF stores mixed waste consisting of radioactive cesium and strontium salts. WESF is located in the 200 East Area on the Hanford Facility. Because dangerous waste does not include source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge.

SIMMONS, F.M.

2000-12-01

413

Waste treatment for removed protective coatings  

SciTech Connect

A molten salt oxidation process is proposed for treatment of removed protective coatings along with the media used for removal. The treatment chemically reduces the waste, leaving any metals associated with the coating as a residue in the salt treatment media. The residue and the salt can be further treated for recycle of the metals, thus all but eliminating metal disposal as a waste problem. The process is expected to be simple and may be integrated into the coatings removal operations on location. Therefore, waste shipment and handling can be significantly reduced, and, as a secondary benefit, other waste can be treated in the same unit.

Gat, U.; Crosley, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Gay, R.L. [Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States)

1993-07-01

414

Removal of uranium from spent salt from the moltensalt oxidation process  

SciTech Connect

Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that has the capability of destroying organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials. In this process, combustible waste and air are introduced into the molten sodium carbonate salt. The organic constituents of the waste materials are oxidized to carbon dioxide and water, while most of the inorganic constituents, including toxic metals, minerals, and radioisotopes, are retained in the molten salt bath. As these impurities accumulate in the salt, the process efficiency drops and the salt must be replaced. An efficient process is needed to separate these toxic metals, minerals, and radioisotopes from the spent carbonate to avoid generating a large volume of secondary waste. Toxic metals such as cadmium, chromium, lead, and zinc etc. are removed by a method described elsewhere. This paper describes a separation strategy developed for radioisotope removal from the mixed spent salt, as well as experimental results, as part of the spent salt cleanup. As the MSO system operates, inorganic products resulting from the reaction of halides, sulfides, phosphates, metals and radionuclides with carbonate accumulate in the salt bath. These must be removed to prevent complete conversion of the sodium carbonate, which would result in eventual losses of destruction efficiency and acid scrubbing capability. There are two operational modes for salt removal: (1) during reactor operation a slip-stream of molten salt is continuously withdrawn with continuous replacement by carbonate, or (2) the spent salt melt is discharged completely and the reactor then refilled with carbonate in batch mode. Because many of the metals and/or radionuclides captured in the salt are hazardous and/or radioactive, spent salt removed from the reactor would create a large secondary waste stream without further treatment. A spent salt clean up/recovery system is necessary to segregate these materials and minimize the amount of secondary waste. These materials can then be encapsulated for final disposal.

Summers, L., Hsu, P.C., Holtz, E.V., Hipple, D., Wang, F., Adamson, M.

1997-03-01

415

Characterization of the molten salt reactor experiment fuel and flush salts  

SciTech Connect

Wise decisions about the handling and disposition of spent fuel from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) must be based upon an understanding of the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of the frozen fuel and flush salts. These {open_quotes}static{close_quotes} properties can be inferred from the extensive documentation of process history maintained during reactor operation and the knowledge gained in laboratory development studies. Just as important as the description of the salt itself is an understanding of the dynamic processes which continue to transform the salt composition and govern its present and potential physicochemical behavior. A complete characterization must include a phenomenological characterization in addition to the typical summary of properties. This paper reports on the current state of characterization of the fuel and flush salts needed to support waste management decisions.

Williams, D.F.; Peretz, F.J.

1996-05-01

416

Analyses of backfilled transuranic wastes disposal rooms  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) research and development facility established to demonstrate the safe geologic disposal of transuranic (TRU) wastes generated from defense-related activities. Crushed salt and crushed-salt treatments are the candidate materials to be used as backfill around waste and waste packages in the underground disposal rooms. In response to room closure, the backfill is anticipated to compact sufficiently such that an effective seal is formed reducing brine inflow and radionuclide transport. In this report, different backfill and backfill/TRU waste combinations are investigated based on finite element simulations for a 200-year period conducted to examine and compare the sealing efficacy of different backfill scenarios. Specifically, disposal room content scenarios investigated include crushed salt, a crushed salt/bentonite mixture, crushed salt covering TRU waste, crushed salt/bentonite covering TRU waste, crushed salt covering a mixture of crushed salt and shredded metallic waste and crushed salt covering vitrified waste. The simulations were conducted with the thermomechanical finite element program SPECTROM-32. The report includes a description of constitutive relations used to simulate the backfill and host rock formation including viscoplastic (creep), nonlinear elastic, creep consolidation, and nonlinear elastic and consolidation mixture models. The simulation results show that the backfill attains average void fractions less than 5 percent in all cases except for the case with crushed salt/bentonite covering TRU waste, which is only slightly greater than 5 percent. The time required to attain these void fractions varies considerably between cases. 27 refs., 22 figs., 11 tabs.

Callahan, G.D.; DeVries, K.L. (RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States))

1991-04-01

417

Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt  

DOEpatents

A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium for electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

Mullins, L.J.; Christensen, D.C.

1982-09-20

418

Assessment of the Immune Status of Women Working in the Potassium Salt Industry and Their Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of the immune system was studied in the women working at the OAO Uralkalii (Berezniki) and OAO Sil'vinit (Solikamsk), where they were permanently exposed to salts and halite waste, and their children born after at least three years of such exposure. The control group consisted of women who had no occupational contact with salts and halite wastes and

S. V. Shirshev; B. A. Bakhmet'ev; V. A. Chereshnev; V. A. Lopatina; S. A. Zamorina; O. G. Lyalina

2003-01-01

419

Study of Thermal-Gradient-Induced Migration of Brine Inclusions in Salt. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Natural salt deposits, which are being considered for high-level waste disposal, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temper...

D. R. Olander

1984-01-01

420

Treatment of salt cakes by aqueous leaching and Bayer-type digestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt cakes are toxic waste products which are produced when aluminium drosses are remelted under a salt cover to recover some of the metallic aluminium present. They are expensive to dispose of in waste dumps because they contain many toxic compounds and many water-soluble compounds. However, they also contain many relatively valuable compounds, some of which may be worth recovering.

M. Davies; P. Smith; W. J. Bruckard; J. T. Woodcock

2008-01-01

421

A Low-Temperature Crossover in Water Dynamics in an Aqueous LiCl Solution: Diffusion Probed by Neutron Spin-Echo and NMR  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous solutions of lithium chloride are an excellent model system for studying the dynamics of water molecules down to low temperatures without freezing. The apparent dynamic crossover observed in an aqueous solution of LiCl at about 220 to 225 K [Mamontov, JPCB 2009, 113, 14073] is located practically at the same temperature as the crossover found for pure water confined in small hydrophilic pores. This finding suggests a strong similarity of water behavior in these two types of systems. At the same time, studies of solutions allow more effective explorations of the long-range diffusion dynamics, because the water molecules are not confined inside an impenetrable matrix. In contrast to the earlier incoherent quasielastic neutron scattering results obtained for the scattering momentum transfers of 0.3 {angstrom}{sup -1} {le} Q {le} 0.9 {angstrom}{sup -1}, our present incoherent neutron spin-echo measurements at a lower Q of 0.1 {angstrom}{sup -1} exhibit no apparent crossover in the relaxation times down to 200 K. At the same time, our present nuclear magnetic resonance measurements of the diffusion coefficients clearly show a deviation at the lower temperatures from the non-Arrhenius law obtained at the higher temperatures. Our results are consistent with a scenario in which more than one relaxational component may exist below the temperature of the dynamic crossover in water.

Mamontov, Eugene [ORNL; Faraone, Antonio [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Hagaman, Edward {Ed} W [ORNL; Han, Kee Sung [ORNL; Fratini, E [University of Florence

2010-01-01

422

Control of Hes7 Expression by Tbx6, the Wnt Pathway and the Chemical Gsk3 Inhibitor LiCl in the Mouse Segmentation Clock  

PubMed Central

The mouse segmentation is established from somites, which are iteratively induced every two hours from the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) by a system known as the segmentation clock. A crucial component of the segmentation clock is the gene Hes7, which is regulated by the Notch and Fgf/Mapk pathways, but its relation to other pathways is unknown. In addition, chemical alteration of the Wnt pathway changes the segmentation clock period but the mechanism is unclear. To clarify these questions, we have carried out Hes7 promoter analysis in transgenic mouse embryos and have identified an essential 400 bp region, which contains binding sites of Tbx6 and the Wnt signaling effector Lef1. We have found that the Hes7 promoter is activated by Tbx6, and normal activity of the Hes7 promoter in the mouse PSM requires Tbx6 binding sites. Our results demonstrate that Wnt pathway molecules activate the Hes7 promoter cooperatively with Tbx6 in cell culture and are necessary for its proper expression in the mouse PSM. Furthermore, it is shown that the chemical Gsk3 inhibitor LiCl lengthens the oscillatory period of Hes7 promoter activity. Our data suggest that Tbx6 and the Wnt pathway cooperatively regulate proper Hes7 expression. Furthermore, proper Hes7 promoter activity and expression is important for the normal pace of oscillation.

Gonzalez, Aitor; Manosalva, Iris; Liu, Tianxiao; Kageyama, Ryoichiro

2013-01-01

423

Brines formed by multi-salt deliquescence  

SciTech Connect

The FY05 Waste Package Environment testing program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory focused on determining the temperature, relative humidity, and solution compositions of brines formed due to the deliquescence of NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures. Understanding the physical and chemical behavior of these brines is important because they define conditions under which brines may react with waste canister surfaces. Boiling point experiments show that NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures form brines that transform to hydrous melts that do not truly 'dry out' until temperatures exceed 300 and 400 C, respectively. Thus a conducting solution is present for these salt assemblages over the thermal history of the repository. The corresponding brines form at lower relative humidity at higher temperatures. The NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has a mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) of 25.9% at 120 C and 10.8% at 180 C. Similarly, the KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has MDRH of 26.4% at 120 C and 20.0% at 150 C. The KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture salts also absorb some water (but do not appear to deliquesce) at 180 C and thus may also contribute to the transfer of electrons at interface between dust and the waste package surface. There is no experimental evidence to suggest that these brines will degas and form less deliquescent salt assemblages. Ammonium present in atmospheric and tunnel dust (as the chloride, nitrate, or sulfate) will readily decompose in the initial heating phase of the repository, and will affect subsequent behavior of the remaining salt mixture only through the removal of a stoichiometric equivalent of one or more anions. Although K-Na-NO{sub 3}-Cl brines form at high temperature and low relative humidity, these brines are dominated by nitrate, which is known to inhibit corrosion at lower temperature. Nitrate to chloride ratios of the NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture are about NO{sub 3}:Cl = 19:1. The role of nitrate on corrosion at higher temperatures is addressed in a companion report (Dixit et al., 2005).

Carroll, S; Rard, J; Alai, M; Staggs, K

2005-11-04

424

Simultaneous conditioning of “gaping” responses and taste avoidance in rats injected with LiCl and saccharin: Examining the role of context and taste cues in the rodent model of anticipatory nausea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether rats can simultaneously learn to associate lithium chloride (LiCl)-induced nausea with both contextual and intravascular taste cues. During the conditioning phase (4 days, 72h apart), 32 male Long Evans rats were injected intraperitoneally with either isotonic saline (NaCl), lithium chloride (LiCl, 127mg\\/kg), saline plus 2% saccharin (NaCl+Saccharin), or lithium chloride plus 2% saccharin (LiCl+Saccharin) immediately prior

Caylen J. Cloutier; Shelley K. Cross-Mellor; Martin Kavaliers; Klaus-Peter Ossenkopp

2011-01-01

425

Partial molar volumes at infinite dilution in aqueous solutions of NaCl, LiCl, NaBr, and CsBr at temperatures from 550 K to 725 K  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partial molar volumes at infinite dilution provide a convenient test of theoretical models of aqueous solutions. In this communication, previously published experimental results of the apparent molar volumes for NaCl, NaBr, LiCl, and CsBr at near-critical conditions were extrapolated to infinite dilution. In the temperature range included in this study (550 to 725) K, ionic association processes must be considered.

Josef Sedlbauer; Eric M. Yezdimer; Robert H. Wood

1998-01-01

426

BAM R67: Salts-Phosphate Buffered Saline Solution (Salts ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM R67: Salts-Phosphate Buffered Saline Solution (Salts-PBS). January 2001. ... R67 Salts-Phosphate Buffered Saline Solution (Salts-PBS). ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/laboratorymethods

427

Molten salt electrolyte separator  

DOEpatents

A molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication.

Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

1996-01-01

428

Novel Ternary Molten Salt Electrolytes for intermediate-temperature sodium/nickel chloride batteries  

SciTech Connect

The sodium-nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery is typically operated at relatively high temperature (250~350°C) to achieve adequate electrochemical performance. Reducing the operating temperature in the range of 150 to 200°C can lead to enhanced cycle life by suppressing temperature related degradation mechanisms. The reduced temperature range also allows for lower cost materials of construction such as elastomeric sealants and gaskets. To achieve adequate electrochemical performance at lower operating temperatures requires an overall reduction in ohmic losses associated with temperature. This includes reducing the ohmic resistance of ?”-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) and the incorporation of low melting point molten salt as the secondary electrolyte. In present work, planar-type Na/NiCl2 cells with a thin flat plate BASE (600 ?m) and low melting point secondary electrolyte were evaluated at reduced temperatures. Molten salt formulation for use as secondary electrolytes were fabricated by the partial replace of NaCl in the standard secondary electrolyte (NaAlCl4) with other lower melting point alkali metal salts such as NaBr, LiCl, and LiBr. Electrochemical characterization of the ternary molten salts demonstrated , improved ionic conductivity, and sufficient electrochemical window at reduced temperatures. Furthermore, Na/NiCl2 cells with 50 mol% NaBr-containing secondary electrolyte exhibited reduced polarizations at 175°C compared to the cell with the standard NaAlCl4 catholyte. The cells also exhibited stable cycling performance even at 150oC.

Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Coyle, Christopher A.; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

2012-12-15

429

Mercury separation from aqueous wastes  

SciTech Connect

This project is providing an assessment of new sorbents for removing mercury from wastes at US Department of Energy sites. Four aqueous wastes were chosen for lab-scale testing; a high-salt, acidic waste currently stored at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); a high-salt, alkaline waste stored at the Savannah River Site (SRS); a dilute lithium hydroxide solution stored at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant; and a low-salt, neutral groundwater generated at the Y-12 Plant. Eight adsorbents have been identified for testing, covering a wide range of cost and capability. Screening tests have been completed, which identified the most promising adsorbents for each waste stream. Batch isotherm tests have been completed using the most promising adsorbents, and column tests are in progress. Because of the wide range of waste compositions tested, no one adsorbent is effective in all of these waste streams. Based on loading capacity and compatibility with the waste solutions. the most effective adsorbents identified to date are SuperLig 618 for the INEL tank waste stimulant; Mersorb followed by lonac SR-3 for the SRS tank waste stimulant; Durasil 70 and Ionac SR-3) for the LIOH solution; and lonac SR-3 followed by lonac SR-4 and Mersorb for the Y-12 groundwater.

Taylor, P.A.; Klasson, K.T.; Corder, S.L.

1995-07-01

430

Molten salt test loop  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the Molten Salt Test Loop Project was to design, construct, and demonstrate operation of an outdoor high temperature molten salt test facility. This facility is operational, and can now be used to evaluate materials and components, and the design features and operating procedures required for molten salt heat transport systems. The initial application of the loop was

J. R. Schuster; G. H. Eggers

1980-01-01

431

PLANTS PASS THE SALT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recently, overexpression of the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter SOS1 was shown to increase salt tolerance of Arabidopsis and revealed that levels of SOS1 mRNA are post-transcriptionally regulated by salt stress. In addition to demonstrating a novel approach to engineer salt-tolerant crops, the res...

432

Sugar and Salt Solutions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What happens when sugar and salt are added to water? Pour in sugar, shake in salt, and evaporate water to see the effects on concentration and conductivity. Zoom in to see how different sugar and salt compounds dissolve. Zoom in again to explore the role of water.

Simulations, Phet I.; Lancaster, Kelly; Reid, Sam; Moore, Emily; Chamberlain, Julia; Loeblein, Trish

2011-10-12

433

Plant salt tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress in plant agriculture worldwide. This has led to research into salt tolerance with the aim of improving crop plants. However, salt tolerance might have much wider implications because transgenic salt-tolerant plants often also tolerate other stresses including chilling, freezing, heat and drought. Unfortunately, suitable genetic model systems have been hard to find. A

Jian-Kang Zhu

2001-01-01

434

Design and construction innovations of the Defense Waste Processing Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is essentially complete. The facility is designed to convert high level radioactive waste, now contained in large steel tanks as aqueous salts and sludge, into b...

J. M. McKibben C. R. Pair H. K. Bethmann

1990-01-01

435

Mixed Waste Management Facility monthly report August 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project is concerned with the design of a mixed waste facility to prepare solid and liquid wastes for processing by electrochemical oxidation, molten salt oxidation, wet oxidation, or UV photolysis. The facility will have a receiving and shipping unit...

R. D. Streit

1995-01-01

436

INSPECTIONS OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT.  

EPA Science Inventory

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a disposal system for radioactive wastes. Developed by the Department of Energy (DOE), the WIPP is located near Carlsbad in southeastern New Mexico. The DOE is burying radioactive waste 2150 feet underground in an ancient layer of salt ...

437

Distribution and diversity of halophilic bacteria in a subsurface salt formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a salt mine constructed 650 meters below the ground surface by the United States\\u000a Department of Energy. The facility will be used for permanent disposal of transuranic wastes. This underground repository\\u000a has been constructed in the geologically stable Permian age Salado salt formation. Of the wastes to be placed into the facility,\\u000a 85%

Russell H. Vreeland; Anthony F. Piselli Jr; S. McDonnough; S. S. Meyers

1998-01-01

438

Integrated Salt Basin Evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salt tectonics plays a major role in the development of many sedimentary basins. Basins containing salt thus frequently display a complex geodynamic evolution characterized by several phases of halokinesis and associated sedimentation. One classic area of salt tectonics is the Central European Basin System (CEBS). Here, the mobile Permian Zechstein salt formed a large number of salt structures such as anticlines, diapirs, pillows, sheets, stocks, and walls during an extended period of salt tectonic activity in Mesozoic and Cenozoic times. Major changes in sedimentation patterns and structural regimes are associated and common in this setting. Increasingly complex subsurface evaluation therefore requires an approach to study salt basins including analogue and numerical models, field studies and laboratory studies which combine seismic, structural and sedimentary studies with analysis of rheological properties, and geomechanic modelling. This concept can be demonstrated using case studies from Permian Salt Basins in Europe and the Late Neoproterozoic to Early Cambrian South Oman Salt Basin. There salt-influenced sedimentary responses to renewed phases of tectonism can be clearly discerned from detailed sequence analysis based on seismic and log data combined with retrodeformation modelling studies. High quality 3-D seismic data integrated with structural modelling improves the definition of the internal dynamics of salt structures and associated sediment architecture in salt-controlled sequences. Paleo-caprocks inside the diapirs point to long phases of dissolution. Salt wedges formed by extrusion and lateral flow of salt glaciers during periods of diapir emergence and reduced sediment accumulation can be accurately modelled. Although salt is widely regarded as a perfect seal, it can become permeable for one- or two-phase fluids under certain conditions of fluid pressure, temperature and deviatoric stress. The fluid pathways can be either along zones of diffuse grain boundary dilatancy, or along open fractures, depending on the fluid overpressure and deviatoric stress.

Kukla, P. A.

2012-04-01

439

Using TOUGH2 to model the coupled effects of gas generation, repository consolidation, and multiphase brine and gas flow at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a US Department of Energy facility designed to demonstrate the safe underground disposal of transuranic waste. Following waste emplacement, each room will be backfilled with crushed salt. Due to deviatoric stress introduced by excavation, the walls of the waste disposal rooms in the repository will deform over time, consolidating waste containers and salt

G. A. Freeze; K. W. Larson; P. B. Davies; S. W. Webb

1995-01-01

440

A spectrophotometric study of aqueous copper(I)-chloride complexes in LiCl solutions between 100 °C and 250 °C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copper transport and deposition in highly saline hydrothermal fluids are controlled by the stability of copper(I) complexes with ligands such as chloride and hydrosulphide. However, our understanding of the behavior of copper(I)-chloride complexes at elevated temperatures and in highly saline brines is limited by the conditions of existing experimental studies where the maximum chloride concentration is 2 m. This paper presents the results of a study of copper(I)-chloride complexes at much higher chloride concentrations, 1.5 m to 9.1 m, using a UV spectrophotometric method. The UV spectra of copper(I)-bearing LiCl solutions were measured at temperatures between 100 °C and 250 °C at vapor-saturated pressures and quantitative interpretation of the spectra shows that CuCl 2-, CuCl 32-, and CuCl 43- were present in the experimental solutions. The fitted logarithms of formation constants (log K) for CuCl 2- are in good agreement with the previous results of solubility experiments reported by Xiao et al. (1998) and Liu et al. (2001). The log K values for CuCl 32- also agree with those of Liu et al. (2001) and theoretical estimates of Sverjensky et al. (1997). This study presents the first experimentally determined formation constants for CuCl 43-, at temperatures greater than 25 °C, and indicates that this complex predominates at chloride concentrations greater than 5 m. Based on the new log K values generated from this study, the calculated chalcopyrite solubility in NaCl solutions indicates that in addition to cooling, fluid mixing (dilution of saline fluids) may be an important factor controlling the deposition of copper minerals from hydrothermal solutions.

Liu, Weihua; Brugger, Joël; McPhail, D. C.; Spiccia, Leone

2002-10-01

441

Molten salts and nuclear energy production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molten salts (fluorides or chlorides) were considered near the beginning of research into nuclear energy production. This was initially due to their advantageous physical and chemical properties: good heat transfer capacity, radiation insensitivity, high boiling point, wide range solubility for actinides. In addition it was realised that molten salts could be used in numerous situations: high temperature heat transfer, core coolants with solid fuels, liquid fuel in a molten salt reactor, solvents for spent nuclear solid fuel in the case of pyro-reprocessing and coolant and tritium production in the case of fusion. Molten salt reactors, one of the six innovative concepts chosen by the Generation IV international forum, are particularly interesting for use as either waste incinerators or thorium cycle systems. As the neutron balance in the thorium cycle is very tight, the possibility to perform online extraction of some fission product poisons from the salt is very attractive. In this article the most important questions that must be addressed to demonstrate the feasibility of molten salt reactor will be reviewed.

Le Brun, Christian

2007-01-01

442

Disposal of Nuclear Wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical options which should be studied relative to the disposal of ; radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants, the technical advantages and ; disadvantages of each method, and the cost and benefits of different disposal ; methods are discussed. These options include: mausolea (engineered near-surface ; structures); disposal in mines, salt vaults, or continental ice sheets; in situ ;

Arthur S. Kubo; David J. Rose

1973-01-01

443

Preconceptual design of a salt splitting process using ceramic membranes  

SciTech Connect

Inorganic ceramic membranes for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions are being developed for treating U. S. Department of Energy tank wastes. The process consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON) membranes. The primary NaSICON compositions being investigated are based on rare- earth ions (RE-NaSICON). Potential applications include: caustic recycling for sludge leaching, regenerating ion exchange resins, inhibiting corrosion in carbon-steel tanks, or retrieving tank wastes; reducing the volume of low-level wastes volume to be disposed of; adjusting pH and reducing competing cations to enhance cesium ion exchange processes; reducing sodium in high-level-waste sludges; and removing sodium from acidic wastes to facilitate calcining. These applications encompass wastes stored at the Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sites. The overall project objective is to supply a salt splitting process unit that impacts the waste treatment and disposal flowsheets and meets user requirements. The potential flowsheet impacts include improving the efficiency of the waste pretreatment processes, reducing volume, and increasing the quality of the final waste disposal forms. Meeting user requirements implies developing the technology to the point where it is available as standard equipment with predictable and reliable performance. This report presents two preconceptual designs for a full-scale salt splitting process based on the RE-NaSICON membranes to distinguish critical items for testing and to provide a vision that site users can evaluate.

Kurath, D.E.; Brooks, K.P.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Clemmer, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Balagopal, S.; Landro, T.; Sutija, D.P. [Ceramatec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1997-01-01

444

Radial transport of salt and water in roots of the common reed (Phragmites australis?Trin. ex Steudel).  

PubMed

To understand the root function in salt tolerance, radial salt and water transport were studied using reed plants growing in brackish habitat water with an osmotic pressure (?M ) of 0.63?MPa. Roots bathed in this medium exuded a xylem sap with NaCl as the major osmolyte and did so even at higher salt concentration (?M up to 1.3?MPa). Exudation was stopped after a small increase of ?M (0.26?MPa) using polyethylene glycol 600 as osmolyte. The endodermis of fine lateral roots was found to be the main barrier to radial solute diffusion on an apoplastic path. Apoplastic salt transfer was proven by rapid replacement of stelar Na(+) by Li(+) in an isomolar LiCl medium. Water fluxes did not exert a true solvent drag on NaCl. Xylem sap concentrations of NaCl in basal internodes of transpiring culms were more than five times higher than in medial and upper ones. It was concluded that the radial NaCl flux was mainly diffusion through the apoplast, and radial water transport, because of the resistance of the cell wall matrix to convective mass flow, was confined to the symplast. Radial salt permeation in roots reduced the water stress exerted by the brackish medium. PMID:23488547

Fritz, Michael; Ehwald, Rudolf

2013-04-11

445

Pretreatment of TcContaining Waste and Its Effect on Tc99 Leaching From Grouts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A salt solution (doped with Tc-99), that simulates the salt waste stream to be processed at the Saltstone Production Facility, was immobilized in grout waste forms with and without (1) ground granulated blast furnace slag and (2) pretreatment with iron salts. The degree of immobilization of Tc-99 was measured through monolithic and crushed grout leaching tests. Although Fe (+2) was

Albert Aloy; Elena N. Kovarskaya; John R. Harbour; Christine A. Langton; E. William Holtzscheiter

2007-01-01

446

Separation of actinides from rare earth elements by means of molten salt electrorefining with anodic dissolution of U Pu Zr alloy fuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrorefining is the main process for pyro-reprocessing of the fuel of a metallic fuel FBR. To obtain a basic knowledge of electrorefining technology, a series of experiments was carried out with unirradiated fuel alloy. The alloy, 71U 19Pu 10Zr (wt.%), was dissolved anodically into a molten LiCl KCl bath at 753 K. Simultaneously, Pu and U were recovered into the Cd cathode with small amounts of minor actinides, Zr and rare earth elements (REs). The separation factors of U, Np, Am, Cm and Ce against Pu, derived from the composition of recovered deposits and of the salt bath, were about 2.04, 0.949, 0.597, 0.534 and 0.0393, respectively, which are similar to the equilibrium values observed in a distribution experiment in a LiCl KCl/Cd system. This demonstrates that electrorefining achieves the separation of actinides from REs. The anodic dissolution of the alloy was found to progress from the outside, leaving a dense layer containing salt and Zr metal around the alloy surface. It was found that more than 99.9% of both U and Pu could be dissolved from the alloy and about 55% of Zr remained in this layer.

Kinoshita, Kensuke; Koyama, Tadafumi; Inoue, Tadashi; Ougier, Michel; Glatz, Jean-Paul

2005-02-01

447

Nitrate removal using a mixed-culture entrapped microbial cell immobilization process under high salt conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brine wastes resulting from the regeneration of exhausted ion exchange resins require further treatment for final disposal. In this study, a mixed-culture entrapped microbial cell immobilization (EMCI) process for nitrate removal from brine wastes was examined. Because of the presence of elevated concentrations of sodium chloride or sodium bicarbonate in the brine waste, the effects of high salt concentrations on

P. Y. Yang; S. Nitisoravut; Jy S. Wu

1995-01-01

448

Envirocare of Utah: Expanding Waste Acceptance Criteria to Provide Low-Level and Mixed Waste Disposal Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Envirocare of Utah operates a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility 80 miles west of Salt Lake City in Clive, Utah. Accepted waste types includes NORM, 11e2 byproduct material, Class A low-level waste, and mixed waste. Since 1988, Envirocare has offered disposal options for environmental restoration waste for both government and commercial remediation projects. Annual waste receipts exceed 12 million cubic

B. Rogers; K. Loveland

2003-01-01

449

Plants pass the salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, overexpression of the plasma membrane Na+\\/H+ antiporter SOS1 was shown to increase salt tolerance of Arabidopsis and revealed that levels of SOS1 mRNA are post-transcriptionally regulated by salt stress. In addition to demonstrating a novel approach to engineer salt-tolerant crops, the results provide the first glimpse of a previously unknown mechanism used by plants to regulate gene expression in

John M. Ward; Kendal D. Hirschi; Heven Sze

2003-01-01

450

Iodised salt is safe.  

PubMed

Iodine deficiency disorders are prevalent in all the States and Union Territories in India. Under the National Iodine Deficiency Disorders control programme, the Government of India has adopted a strategy to iodisation of all edible salt in the country which is a long term and sustainable preventive solution to eliminate iodine deficiency disorders. The benefits to be derived from universal salt iodisation are more to the population. Iodised salt is safe and does not cause any side effect. PMID:8690505

Ranganathan, S

451

Process for depositing salts  

SciTech Connect

A process for depositing a salt by applying an electric current or voltage to at least one pair of electrodes placed in a supersaturated aqueous solution or supercolled molten liquid of an inorganic or organic salt, whereby the supersaturation or supercooling can be broken or prevented and the crystallization or solidification of the salt can be efficiently made. The process of the invention is advantageously utilized in an air-conditioning system.

Kotani, Y.; Kashimoto, T.

1985-07-16

452

Salt Repository Project transportation program plan  

SciTech Connect

The Salt Repository Project (SRP) has the responsibility to develop a comprehensive transportation program plan (TrPP) that treats the transportation of workers, supplies, and high-level radioactive waste to the site and the transportation of salt, low-level, and transuranic wastes from the site. The TrPP has developed a systematic approach to transportation which is directed towards satisfying statutes, regulations, and directives and is guided by a hierarchy of specific functional requirements, strategies, plans, and reports. The TrPP identifies and develops the planning process for transportation-related studies and provides guidance to staff in performing and documenting these activities. The TrPP also includes an explanation of the responsibilities of the organizational elements involved in these transportation studies. Several of the report chapters relate to identifying routes for transporting nuclear waste to the site. These include a chapter on identifying an access corridor for a new rail route leading to the site, identifying and evaluating emergency-response preparedness capabilities along candidate routes in the state, and identifying alternative routes from the state border, ports, or in-state reactors to the site. The TrPP also includes plans for identifying salt disposal routes and a discussion of repository/transportation interface requirements. 89 refs., 6 figs.

Fisher, R.L.; Greenberg, A.H.; Anderson, T.L.; Yates, K.R.

1987-11-02

453

Impact insensitive dinitromethanide salts.  

PubMed

Several stable guanidinium, triazolium, and tetrazolium dinitromethanide salts with high nitrogen content, good detonation properties, and concomitant low impact sensitivities are potential energetic materials. PMID:24067808

He, Ling; Tao, Guo-Hong; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

2013-10-01

454

Effect of salts on the water sorption kinetics of dried pasta.  

PubMed

The water sorption kinetics of dried pasta were measured in the 20-90 °C range in 1.83 mol/L of NaCl and at 80 °C in 1.83 mol/L of LiCl, KCl, NaBr and NaI solutions in order to elucidate the role of salt in the kinetics. At the temperatures higher than 70.8 °C, the change in the enthalpy of sorption, ?H, in the 1.83 mol/L NaCl solution was 33.1 kJ/mol, which was greater than the ?H value in water, and the activation energy for the sorption, E, in the salt solution was 25.6 kJ/mol, which was slightly lower than the E value in water. The Hofmeister series of ions was an index for their effect on the equilibrium amount of the sorbed solution of pasta. The apparent diffusion coefficient of water into pasta was not correlated with the crystal radius of the salts, but was with the Stokes radius of the hydrated ions. Equations were formulated to predict the amount of sorbed solution under any condition of temperature and NaCl concentration. PMID:23391911

Ogawa, Takenobu; Adachi, Shuji

2013-02-07

455

Two Novel Lithium-15-Crown-5 Complexes: An Extended LiCl Chain Stabilized by Crown Ether and a Dimeric Complex Stabilized by Hydrogen Bonding with Water.  

PubMed

Two lithium chloride-15C5 (15C5 = 15-crown-5) complexes, [Li(15C5)(&mgr;-Cl)(2)Li](infinity), 1, and {[Li(15C5)(H(2)O)]Cl}(2), 2, were synthesized. Their structures, characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, are dictated by the absence of or presence of water. Complex 1, prepared in an anhydrous environment, is the first example of an extended LiCl chain structure. It contains repeating units Li(&mgr;-Cl)Li(15C5) that are connected by additional bridging Cl atoms. One Li has close contacts with one Cl and all five O atoms of 15C5 and the other Li with three Cl and one O of 15C5. However, the chain structure cannot form in the presence of water. Instead dimeric complex 2 was formed when LiCl.xH(2)O (x = 1.14) was the starting material. In this case H(2)O is coordinated to lithium through a Li-O linkage and is hydrogen bonded to Cl(-) (H.Cl). The Li(+) cation is coordinated to the five O atoms of 15C5 as well as the O atom from H(2)O, and the Cl(-) counteranion is isolated from Li(+) by two hydrogen bonds with one H atom each from two H(2)O molecules with H.Cl distances of 2.30(4) and 2.35(4) Å, respectively. A crystallographically imposed center of symmetry generates a dimer that resembles a 2:2 anion-paired encapsulate. Crystal data for 1: space group Pna2(1) (no. 33), a = 14.974(1) Å, b = 13.553(1) Å, c = 7.160(1) Å, V = 1453.0(2) Å(3), Z = 4. Cryst