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1

Conditioning of Waste LiCl Salt from Pyrochemical Process Using Zeolite A  

SciTech Connect

The electrolytic (LiCl-Li{sub 2}O) reduction process (Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process; ACP) and the electrorefining process, which are being developed by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), are to generate two types of molten salt wastes such as a LiCl salt and a LiCl-KCl eutectic salt, respectively. These waste salts must meet certain criteria for a disposal. A conditioning process composed of an immobilization and then a thermal treatment, for LiCl salt waste from the ACP has been developed using zeolite A. The immobilization of molten LiCl salt waste was conducted in a blender by mixing it with zeolite A at 923 K, producing a salt-loaded zeolite (SLZ). During the immobilization, the zeolite A was transformed to zeolite Li-A [Li{sub 2}Al{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 80}], with some minor phases such as a Li-type sodalite [Li{sub 8}Cl{sub 2}-Sod; Li{sub 8}(AlSiO{sub 4}){sub 6}Cl{sub 2}] and Nepheline for some zeolite-rich condition. In order to obtain a final ceramic waste form with Na-type sodalite [Na{sub 8}Cl{sub 2}-Sod; Na{sub 8}(AlSiO{sub 4}){sub 6}Cl{sub 2}], the very highly leach-resistant crystal phase, the SLZ with r (=LiCl/zeolite) < 0.3 should be treated in a high temperature furnace above 1173 K, which was independent from an addition of glass frit during a mixing. (authors)

Kim, J.G.; Lee, J.H.; Kim, E.H.; Ahn, D.H.; Kim, J.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute P.O. Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01

2

Electrochemical reduction behavior of U 3O 8 powder in a LiCl molten salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reduction path of the U3O8 powder vol-oxidized at 1200°C has been determined by a series of electrochemical experiments in a 1wt.% Li2O\\/LiCl molten salt. Various reaction intermediates are observed by during electrolysis of U3O8. The formation of the metallic uranium is caused from two different reduction paths, a direct reduction of uranium oxide and an electro-lithiothermic reduction. As the

Sang Mun Jeong; Ho-Sup Shin; Sun-Seok Hong; Jin-Mok Hur; Jae Bum Do; Han Soo Lee

2010-01-01

3

Recovery of minor actinides from spent molten salt waste and decontamination of molten salt waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recovery of minor actinides from spent molten salt is one of the important issues. Decontamination of spent molten salt waste is also the problem to be solved for establishment of pyrochemical reprocessing. The decontamination method of spent molten salt waste with recovery of minor actinides has been proposed. Our proposed process is based on the hydrometallurgical process. This process consists

Tatsuya Suzuki; Maiko Tanaka; Shin-ichi Koyama

2011-01-01

4

Alternative Waste Forms for Electro-Chemical Salt Waste  

SciTech Connect

This study was undertaken to examine alternate crystalline (ceramic/mineral) and glass waste forms for immobilizing spent salt from the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) electrochemical separations process. The AFCI is a program sponsored by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and demonstrate a process for recycling spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The electrochemical process is a molten salt process for the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel in an electrorefiner and generates spent salt that is contaminated with alkali, alkaline earths, and lanthanide fission products (FP) that must either be cleaned of fission products or eventually replaced with new salt to maintain separations efficiency. Currently, these spent salts are mixed with zeolite to form sodalite in a glass-bonded waste form. The focus of this study was to investigate alternate waste forms to immobilize spent salt. On a mole basis, the spent salt is dominated by alkali and Cl with minor amounts of alkaline earth and lanthanides. In the study reported here, we made an effort to explore glass systems that are more compatible with Cl and have not been previously considered for use as waste forms. In addition, alternate methods were explored with the hope of finding a way to produce a sodalite that is more accepting of as many FP present in the spent salt as possible. This study was done to investigate two different options: (1) alternate glass families that incorporate increased concentrations of Cl; and (2) alternate methods to produce a mineral waste form.

Crum, Jarrod V.; Sundaram, S. K.; Riley, Brian J.; Matyas, Josef; Arreguin, Shelly A.; Vienna, John D.

2009-10-28

5

Salt caverns for oil field waste disposal.  

SciTech Connect

Salt caverns used for oil field waste disposal are created in salt formations by solution mining. When created, caverns are filled with brine. Wastes are introduced into the cavern by pumping them under low pressure. Each barrel of waste injected to the cavern displaces a barrel of brine to the surface. The brine is either used for drilling mud or is disposed of in an injection well. Figure 8 shows an injection pump used at disposal cavern facilities in west Texas. Several types of oil field waste may be pumped into caverns for disposal. These include drilling muds, drill cuttings, produced sands, tank bottoms, contaminated soil, and completion and stimulation wastes. Waste blending facilities are constructed at the site of cavern disposal to mix the waste into a brine solution prior to injection. Overall advantages of salt cavern disposal include a medium price range for disposal cost, large capacity and availability of salt caverns, limited surface land requirement, increased safety, and ease of establishment of individual state regulations.

Veil, J.; Ford, J.; Rawn-Schatzinger, V.; Environmental Assessment; RMC, Consultants, Inc.

2000-07-01

6

Fuel production from wastes using molten salts  

SciTech Connect

The Rockwell International molten salt process for gasification of wastes with resource recovery has been shown here to be well-suited for the processing of a variety of wastes. A variety of waste forms may be processed, that is, solids, liquids, and solid-liquid mixtures. The process is suitable for applications which involve either small or large throughputs. The gasification medium, sodium carbonate, is stable, non-volatile, inexpensive, and nontoxic. Sulfur-containing pollutants are retained in the melt when sulfur-containing wastes are gasified. In the same manner, halogen-containing pollutants are retained during gasification of halogen-containing wastes. The gasification of a high-nitrogen-content waste (leather scraps) produces very little NO/sub x/ in the off-gas. Valuable minerals may be recovered by processing of the salt after gasification of mineral-laden wastes. In general, the molten salt process is best applied to waste materials involving potential pollutants (such as sulfur or chromium) or to wastes where gasification and resource recovery are important (such as the recovery of silver with simultaneous gasification of x-ray film).

Gay, R.L.; Barclay, K.M.; Grantham, L.F.; Yosim, S.J.

1980-01-01

7

Simulation of salt waste evaporation/crystallization  

SciTech Connect

The database of ProChem software has been enhanced to account for the formation of the mineral, Burkite which can form in alkaline tank wastes during evaporation. This mineral was not suspected until recent evaporation/crystallization studies suggested its presence. The enhanced data base will predict its occurrence and realm of existence. If salt cake temperatures drop below 30{degrees}C the Burkite phase is unstable toward hydrated sodium carbonates and sulfates. ProChem will not predict if this phase is more or less rapidly dissolved than its component salts. The enhanced database improves our ability to simulate waste chemistry.

Orebaugh, E.G.

1993-01-22

8

Simulation of salt waste evaporation/crystallization  

SciTech Connect

The database of ProChem software has been enhanced to account for the formation of the mineral, Burkite which can form in alkaline tank wastes during evaporation. This mineral was not suspected until recent evaporation/crystallization studies suggested its presence. The enhanced data base will predict its occurrence and realm of existence. If salt cake temperatures drop below 30[degrees]C the Burkite phase is unstable toward hydrated sodium carbonates and sulfates. ProChem will not predict if this phase is more or less rapidly dissolved than its component salts. The enhanced database improves our ability to simulate waste chemistry.

Orebaugh, E.G.

1993-01-22

9

Characterization of a ceramic waste form encapsulating radioactive electrorefiner salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Argonne National Laboratory has developed a ceramic waste form to immobilize radioactive waste salt produced during the electrometallurgical treatment of spent fuel. This study presents the first results from electron microscopy and durability testing of a ceramic waste form produced from that radioactive electrorefiner salt. The waste form consists of two primary phases: sodalite and glass. The sodalite phase appears

T. L. Moschetti; W. Sinkler; T. DiSanto; M. Noy; A. R. Warren; D. G. Cummings; S. G. Johnson; K. M. Goff; K. J. Bateman; S. M. Frank

1999-01-01

10

Molten salt destruction process for mixed wastes  

SciTech Connect

We are developing an advanced two-stage process for the treatment of mixed wastes, which contain both hazardous and radioactive components. The wastes, together with an oxidant gas, such as air, are injected into a bed of molten salt comprising a mixture of sodium-, potassium-, and lithium-carbonates, with a melting point of about 580{degree}C. The organic constituents of the mixed waste are destroyed through the combined effect of pyrolysis and oxidation. Heteroatoms. such as chlorine, in the mixed waste form stable salts, such as sodium chloride, and are retained in the melt. The radioactive actinides in the mixed waste are also retained in the melt because of the combined action of wetting and partial dissolution. The original process, consists of a one-stage unit, operated at 900--1000{degree}C. The advanced two-stage process has two stages, one for pyrolysis and one for oxidation. The pyrolysis stage is designed to operate at 700{degree}C. The oxidation stage can be operated at a higher temperature, if necessary.

Upadhye, R.S.; Wilder, J.G.; Karlsen, C.E.

1993-04-01

11

Cementitious Stabilization of Mixed Wastes with High Salt Loadings  

SciTech Connect

Salt loadings approaching 50 wt % were tolerated in cementitious waste forms that still met leach and strength criteria, addressing a Technology Deficiency of low salt loadings previously identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area. A statistical design quantified the effect of different stabilizing ingredients and salt loading on performance at lower loadings, allowing selection of the more effective ingredients for studying the higher salt loadings. In general, the final waste form needed to consist of 25 wt % of the dry stabilizing ingredients to meet the criteria used and 25 wt % water to form a workable paste, leaving 50 wt % for waste solids. The salt loading depends on the salt content of the waste solids but could be as high as 50 wt % if all the waste solids are salt.

Spence, R.D.; Burgess, M.W.; Fedorov, V.V.; Downing, D.J.

1999-04-01

12

Membrane Treatment of Liquid Salt Bearing Radioactive Wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main fields of introduction and application of membrane methods for preliminary treatment and processing salt liquid radioactive waste (SLRW) can be nuclear power stations (NPP) and enterprises on atomic submarines (AS) utilization. Unlike the earlier developed technology for the liquid salt bearing radioactive waste decontamination and concentrating this report presents the new enhanced membrane technology for the liquid salt

S. A. Dmitriev; D. V. Adamovich; V. I. Demkin; E. M. Timofeev

2003-01-01

13

Modeling Solute Thermokinetics in LiCI-KCI Molten Salt for Nuclear Waste Separation  

SciTech Connect

Recovery of actinides is an integral part of a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Pyrometallurgical nuclear fuel recycling processes have been developed in the past for recovering actinides from spent metallic and nitride fuels. The process is essentially to dissolve the spent fuel in a molten salt and then extract just the actinides for reuse in a reactor. Extraction is typically done through electrorefining, which involves electrochemical reduction of the dissolved actinides and plating onto a cathode. Knowledge of a number of basic thermokinetic properties of salts and salt-fuel mixtures is necessary for optimizing present and developing new approaches for pyrometallurgical waste processing. The properties of salt-fuel mixtures are presently being studied, but there are so many solutes and varying concentrations that direct experimental investigation is prohibitively time consuming and expensive (particularly for radioactive elements like Pu). Therefore, there is a need to reduce the number of required experiments through modeling of salt and salt-fuel mixture properties. This project will develop first-principles-based molecular modeling and simulation approaches to predict fundamental thermokinetic properties of dissolved actinides and fission products in molten salts. The focus of the proposed work is on property changes with higher concentrations (up to 5 mol%) of dissolved fuel components, where there is still very limited experimental data. The properties predicted with the modeling will be density, which is used to assess the amount of dissolved material in the salt; diffusion coefficients, which can control rates of material transport during separation; and solute activity, which determines total solubility and reduction potentials used during electrorefining. The work will focus on La, Sr, and U, which are chosen to include the important distinct categories of lanthanides, alkali earths, and actinides, respectively. Studies will be performed using LiCl-KCl salt at the eutectic composition (58 mol% LiCl, 42 mol% KCl), which is used for treating spent EBR-II fuel. The same process being used for EBRII fuel is currently being studied for widespread international implementation. The methods will focus on first-principles and first- principles derived interatomic potential based simulations, primarily using molecular dynamics. Results will be validated against existing literature and parallel ongoing experimental efforts. The simulation results will be of value for interpreting experimental results, validating analytical models, and for optimizing waste separation by potentially developing new salt configurations and operating conditions.

Morgan, Dane; Eapen, Jacob

2013-10-01

14

Delivery system for molten salt oxidation of solid waste  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a delivery system for safety injecting solid waste particles, including mixed wastes, into a molten salt bath for destruction by the process of molten salt oxidation. The delivery system includes a feeder system and an injector that allow the solid waste stream to be accurately metered, evenly dispersed in the oxidant gas, and maintained at a temperature below incineration temperature while entering the molten salt reactor.

Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA) [Livermore, CA; Squire, Dwight V. (Livermore, CA) [Livermore, CA; Robinson, Jeffrey A. (Manteca, CA) [Manteca, CA; House, Palmer A. (Walnut Creek, CA) [Walnut Creek, CA

2002-01-01

15

Mixed Waste Salt Encapsulation Using Polysiloxane - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

A proof-of-concept experimental study was performed to investigate the use of Orbit Technologies polysiloxane grouting material for encapsulation of U.S. Department of Energy mixed waste salts leading to a final waste form for disposal. Evaporator pond salt residues and other salt-like material contaminated with both radioactive isotopes and hazardous components are ubiquitous in the DOE complex and may exceed 250,000,000 kg of material. Current treatment involves mixing low waste percentages (less than 10% by mass salt) with cement or costly thermal treatment followed by cementation to the ash residue. The proposed technology involves simple mixing of the granular salt material (with relatively high waste loadings-greater than 50%) in a polysiloxane-based system that polymerizes to form a silicon-based polymer material. This study involved a mixing study to determine optimum waste loadings and compressive strengths of the resultant monoliths. Following the mixing study, durability testing was performed on promising waste forms. Leaching studies including the accelerated leach test and the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure were also performed on a high nitrate salt waste form. In addition to this testing, the waste form was examined by scanning electron microscope. Preliminary cost estimates for applying this technology to the DOE complex mixed waste salt problem is also given.

Miller, C.M.; Loomis, G.G.; Prewett, S.W.

1997-11-01

16

Mixed Waste Salt Encapsulation Using Polysiloxane - Final Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proof-of-concept experimental study was performed to investigate the use of Orbit Technologies polysiloxane grouting material for encapsulation of U.S. Department of Energy mixed waste salts leading to a final waste form for disposal. Evaporator pond salt residues and other salt-like material contaminated with both radioactive isotopes and hazardous components are ubiquitous in the DOE complex and may exceed 250,000,000

C. M. Miller; G. G. Loomis; S. W. Prewett

1997-01-01

17

Salt-occluded zeolites as an immobilization matrix for chloride waste salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pyrometallurgical processing of spent fuel from the integral fast reactor (IFR), an advanced reactor under development at Argonne National Laboratory, will generate a chloride salt waste containing the alkali-metal, alkaline-earth, and some of the rare-earth fission products. Salt-occluded zeolite A, formed by equilibrating simulated molten waste salt and zeolite A, has been investigated as an immobilization matrix for this

Michele A. Lewis; Donald F. Fischer; Londa J. Smith

1993-01-01

18

Modeling of Sulfate Double-salts in Nuclear Wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to limited tank space at Hanford and Savannah River, the liquid nuclear wastes or supernatants have been concentrated in evaporators to remove excess water prior to the hot solutions being transferred to underground storage tanks. As the waste solutions cooled, the salts in the waste exceeded the associated solubility limits and precipitated in the form of saltcakes. The initial

B. Toghiani; J. S. Lindner; C. F. Weber; R. D. Hunt

2000-01-01

19

Expected brine movement at potential nuclear waste repository salt sites  

SciTech Connect

The BRINEMIG brine migration code predicts rates and quantities of brine migration to a waste package emplaced in a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The BRINEMIG code is an explicit time-marching finite-difference code that solves a mass balance equation and uses the Jenks equation to predict velocities of brine migration. Predictions were made for the seven potentially acceptable salt sites under consideration as locations for the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Predicted total quantities of accumulated brine were on the order of 1 m/sup 3/ brine per waste package or less. Less brine accumulation is expected at domal salt sites because of the lower initial moisture contents relative to bedded salt sites. Less total accumulation of brine is predicted for spent fuel than for commercial high-level waste because of the lower temperatures generated by spent fuel. 11 refs., 36 figs., 29 tabs.

McCauley, V.S.; Raines, G.E.

1987-08-01

20

Method for immobilizing mixed waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and other hazardous wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention is a method for the encapsulation of soluble radioactive waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as strontium, cesium and hazardous wastes such as barium so that they may be permanently stored without future threat to the environment. The process consists of contacting the salts containing the radionuclides and hazardous wastes with certain zeolites which have been found to

Michele A. Lewis; Terry R. Johnson

1993-01-01

21

Characterization of a ceramic waste form encapsulating radioactive electrorefiner salt  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory has developed a ceramic waste form to immobilize radioactive waste salt produced during the electrometallurgical treatment of spent fuel. This study presents the first results from electron microscopy and durability testing of a ceramic waste form produced from that radioactive electrorefiner salt. The waste form consists of two primary phases: sodalite and glass. The sodalite phase appears to incorporate most of the alkali and alkaline earth fission products. Other fission products (rare earths and yttrium) tend to form a separate phase and are frequently associated with the actinides, which form mixed oxides. Seven-day leach test results are also presented.

Moschetti, T. L.; Sinkler, W.; DiSanto, T.; Noy, M.; Warren, A. R.; Cummings, D. G.; Johnson, S. G.; Goff, K. M.; Bateman, K. J.; Frank, S. M.

1999-11-11

22

Characteristics of solidified products containing radioactive molten salt waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a treatment of molten salt wastes generated from a pyro-processing of oxide spent fuel, we had suggested a stable chemical route, named GRSS (Gel-Route Stabilization and Solidification), and a subsequent consolidation method. By using this method, a series of monolithic wasteforms with different conditions were fabricated, and then their physicochemical properties were investigated. A simulated salt containing 90 wt%

In-Tae Kim; Hwan-Seo Park; Yong-Zun Cho; Kwang-Wook Kim; Seong-Won Park; Eung-Ho Kim

2007-01-01

23

Waste salt disposal at the Savannah River Plant. [Saltstone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste salt solution, produced during processing of high-level nuclear waste, will be incorporated in a cement matrix for emplacement in an engineered disposal facility. Wasteform characteristics and disposal facility details will be presented along with results of a field test of wasteform contaminant release and of modeling studies to predict releases. 5 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

C. A. Langton; S. B. Oblath; D. W. Pepper; E. L. Wilhite

1986-01-01

24

Molten salt treatment to minimize and optimize waste  

SciTech Connect

A combination molten salt oxidizer (MSO) and molten salt reactor (MSR) is described for treatment of waste. The MSO is proposed for contained oxidization of organic hazardous waste, for reduction of mass and volume of dilute waste by evaporation of the water. The NTSO residue is to be treated to optimize the waste in terms of its composition, chemical form, mixture, concentration, encapsulation, shape, size, and configuration. Accumulations and storage are minimized, shipments are sized for low risk. Actinides, fissile material, and long-lived isotopes are separated and completely burned or transmuted in an MSR. The MSR requires no fuel element fabrication, accepts the materials as salts in arbitrarily small quantities enhancing safety, security, and overall acceptability.

Gat, U.; Crosley, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Gay, R.L. [Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States)

1993-07-01

25

Disposition of salt-waste from pyrochemical nuclear fuel processing  

SciTech Connect

Waste salts from pyrochemical processing of nuclear fuel can be immobilised in sodalite if consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at {approx}750 deg. C/100 MPa in thick stainless steel 316 cans. Other canning materials for this purpose also look possible. Spodiosite-based waste forms do not look promising in terms of leach resistance and their incorporation of alkali ions and compatibility with other phases which could potentially accommodate fission products, such as NaZr{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} or alumino-phosphate glass. Chloro- or fluor-apatite-based waste forms however have been reported to successfully accommodate fission products and alkalis which would be derived from either chloride- or fluoride-based waste pyro-processing salts. The presence of 10 or 20 wt% of additional Whitlockite, Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}, should allow chemical flexibility to maintain the same qualitative phase assemblage when there are variations in the waste feed and in the waste/precursor ratios. Experimental verification of incorporation of the full complement of waste salts and fission products is not yet complete however. Apatite-rich samples could likely be HIPed in Inconel 600 cans. Other candidate HIP canning materials such as Alloy 22 or Inconel 625 are under study by encapsulating them in the candidate waste form and studying their interaction or otherwise with the waste form. (author)

Vance, E.R. [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)

2007-07-01

26

Defense waste salt disposal at the Savannah River Plant. [Cement-based waste form, saltstone  

SciTech Connect

A cement-based waste form, saltstone, has been designed for disposal of Savannah River Plant low-level radioactive salt waste. The disposal process includes emplacing the saltstone in engineered trenches above the water table but below grade at SRP. Design of the waste form and disposal system limits the concentration of salts and radionuclides in the groundwater so that EPA drinking water standards will not be exceeded at the perimeter of the disposal site. 10 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

Langton, C A; Dukes, M D

1984-01-01

27

Membrane Treatment of Liquid Salt Bearing Radioactive Wastes  

SciTech Connect

The main fields of introduction and application of membrane methods for preliminary treatment and processing salt liquid radioactive waste (SLRW) can be nuclear power stations (NPP) and enterprises on atomic submarines (AS) utilization. Unlike the earlier developed technology for the liquid salt bearing radioactive waste decontamination and concentrating this report presents the new enhanced membrane technology for the liquid salt bearing radioactive waste processing based on the state-of-the-art membrane unit design, namely, the filtering units equipped with the metal-ceramic membranes of ''TruMem'' brand, as well as the electrodialysis and electroosmosis concentrators. Application of the above mentioned units in conjunction with the pulse pole changer will allow the marked increase of the radioactive waste concentrating factor and the significant reduction of the waste volume intended for conversion into monolith and disposal. Besides, the application of the electrodialysis units loaded with an ion exchange material at the end polishing stage of the radioactive waste decontamination process will allow the reagent-free radioactive waste treatment that meets the standards set for the release of the decontaminated liquid radioactive waste effluents into the natural reservoirs of fish-farming value.

Dmitriev, S. A.; Adamovich, D. V.; Demkin, V. I.; Timofeev, E. M.

2003-02-25

28

Integrated demonstration of molten salt oxidation with salt recycle for mixed waste treatment  

SciTech Connect

Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal, nonflame process that has the inherent capability of completely destroying organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials while retaining inorganic and radioactive constituents in the salt. For this reason, MSO is considered a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has prepared a facility and constructed an integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system in which tests and demonstrations are performed under carefully controlled (experimental) conditions. The system consists of a MSO processor with dedicated off-gas treatment, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and equipment for preparing ceramic final waste forms. This integrated system was designed and engineered based on laboratory experience with a smaller engineering-scale reactor unit and extensive laboratory development on salt recycle and final forms preparation. In this paper we present design and engineering details of the system and discuss its capabilities as well as preliminary process demonstration data. A primary purpose of these demonstrations is identification of the most suitable waste streams and waste types for MSO treatment.

Hsu, P.C.

1997-11-01

29

Oil field waste disposal in salt caverns: An information website  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory has completed the construction of a Website for the US Department of Energy (DOE) that provides detailed information on salt caverns and their use for disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Specific topics in the Website include the following: descriptions of salt deposits and salt caverns within the US, salt cavern construction methods, potential types of wastes, waste emplacement, regulatory issues, costs, carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic human health risks associated with postulated cavern release scenarios, new information on cavern disposal (e.g., upcoming meetings, regulatory issues, etc.), other studies supported by the National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) (e.g., considerations of site location, cavern stability, development issues, and bedded salt characterization in the Midland Basin), and links to other associated Web sites. In addition, the Website allows downloadable access to reports prepared on the topic that were funded by DOE. Because of the large quantities of NOW and NORM wastes generated annually by the oil industry, information presented on this Website is particularly interesting and valuable to project managers, regulators, and concerned citizens.

Tomasko, D.; Veil, J. A.

1999-12-10

30

Hydrological methods preferentially recover cesium from nuclear waste salt cake  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site is treating high level radioactive waste in the form of insoluble solids (sludge), crystallized salt (salt cake), and salt solutions. High costs and operational concerns have prompted DOE to look for ways to improve the salt cake treatment process. A numerical model was developed to evaluate the feasibility of pump and treat technology for extracting cesium from salt cake. A modified version of the VAM3DCG code was used to first establish a steady-state flow field, then to simulate 30 days of operation. Simulation results suggest that efficient cesium extraction can be obtained with low displacement volumes. The actual extraction process will probably be less impressive because of nonuniform properties. 2 refs., 2 figs.

Brooke, J.N.; Hamm, L.L.

1997-05-01

31

Direct Grout Stabilization of High Cesium Salt Waste: Salt Alternative Phase III Feasibility Study  

SciTech Connect

The direct grout alternative is a viable option for treatment/stabilization and disposal of salt waste containing Cs-137 concentrations of 1-3 Ci/gal. The composition of the direct grout salt solution is higher in sodium salts and contains up to a few hundred ppm Cs-137 more than the current reference salt solution. However it is still similar to the composition of the current reference salt solution. Consequently, the processing, setting, and leaching properties (including TCLP for Cr and Hg) of the direct grout and current saltstone waste forms are very similar. The significant difference between these waste solutions is that the high cesium salt solution will contain between 1 and 3 Curies of Cs-137 per gallon compared to a negligible amount in the current salt solution. This difference will require special engineering and shielding for a direct grout processing facility and disposal units to achieve acceptable radiation exposure conditions. The Cs-137 concentration in the direct grout salt solution will also affect the long-term curing temperature of the waste form since 4.84 Watts of energy are generated per 1000 Ci of Cs-137. The temperature rise of the direct grout during long-term curing has been calculated by A. Shaddy, SRTC.1 The effect of curing temperature on the strength, leaching and physical durability of the direct grout saltstone is described in this report. At the present time, long term curing at 90 degrees C appears to be unacceptable because of cracking which will affect the structural integrity as evaluated in the immersion test. (The experiments conducted in this feasibility study do not address the effect of cracking on leaching of contaminants other than Cr, Hg, and Cs.) No cracking of the direct grout or reference saltstone waste forms was observed for samples cured at 70 degrees C. At the present time the implications of waste form cracking at elevated curing temperatures has not been fully addressed. The direct grout falls within the definition of NRC Class C waste. NRC requires that Class C waste forms or their containers demonstrate structural integrity to qualify for disposal. Direct grout cured at 90 degrees C will not meet the integrity requirement. However, the disposal vault may meet this requirement.

Langton, C.A.

1998-12-07

32

Injector nozzle for molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials  

DOEpatents

An injector nozzle has been designed for safely injecting energetic waste materials, such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels, into a molten salt reactor in a molten salt destruction process without premature detonation or back burn in the injection system. The energetic waste material is typically diluted to form a fluid fuel mixture that is injected rapidly into the reactor. A carrier gas used in the nozzle serves as a carrier for the fuel mixture, and further dilutes the energetic material and increases its injection velocity into the reactor. The injector nozzle is cooled to keep the fuel mixture below the decomposition temperature to prevent spontaneous detonation of the explosive materials before contact with the high-temperature molten salt bath. 2 figs.

Brummond, W.A.; Upadhye, R.S.

1996-02-13

33

Waste Management Analysis for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. I. Actinide Recovery from Aqueous Salt Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A preliminary feasibility study of solvent extraction methods has been completed for removing actinides from selected salt wastes likely to be produced during reactor fuel fabrication and reprocessing. The use of a two-step solvent extraction system, trib...

L. L. Martella J. D. Navratil

1979-01-01

34

Molten salt oxidation for treating low-level mixed wastes  

SciTech Connect

MS0 is a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has prepared a facility (please see the photo attached) in which an integrated pilot-scale MS0 treatment system is being tested and demonstrated. The system consists of a MS0 vessel with a dedicated off-gas treatment system, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and a ceramic final waste forms immobilization system. The MSO/off-gas system has been operational since December 1997. The salt recycle system and the ceramic final forms immobilization became operational in May and August 1998, respectively. We have tested the MS0 facility with various organic feeds, including chlorinated solvents; tributyl phosphate/kerosene, PCB-contaminated waste oils & solvents, booties, plastic pellets, ion exchange resins, activated carbon, radioactive-spiked organics, and well-characterized low- level liquid mixed wastes. MS0 is a versatile technology for hazardous waste treatment and may be a solution to many waste disposal problems. In this paper we will present our operational experience with MS0 and also discuss its process capabilities as well as performance data with different feeds.

Adamson, M G; Ford, T D; Foster, K G; Hipple, D L; Hopper, R W; Hsu, P C

1998-12-10

35

Salt-occluded zeolite waste forms: Crystal structures and transformability  

SciTech Connect

Neutron diffraction studies of salt-occluded zeolite and zeolite/glass composite samples, simulating nuclear waste forms loaded with fission products, have revealed complex structures, with cations assuming the dual roles of charge compensation and occlusion (cluster formation). These clusters roughly fill the 6--8 {angstrom} diameter pores of the zeolites. Samples are prepared by equilibrating zeolite-A with complex molten Li, K, Cs, Sr, Ba, Y chloride salts, with compositions representative of anticipated waste systems. Samples prepared using zeolite 4A (which contains exclusively sodium cations) as starting material are observed to transform to sodalite, a denser aluminosilicate framework structure, while those prepared using zeolite 5A (sodium and calcium ions) more readily retain the zeolite-A structure. Because the sodalite framework pores are much smaller than those of zeolite-A, clusters are smaller and more rigorously confined, with a correspondingly lower capacity for waste containment. Details of the sodalite structures resulting from transformation of zeolite-A depend upon the precise composition of the original mixture. The enhanced resistance of salt-occluded zeolites prepared from zeolite 5A to sodalite transformation is thought to be related to differences in the complex chloride clusters present in these zeolite mixtures. Data relating processing conditions to resulting zeolite composition and structure can be used in the selection of processing parameters which lead to optimal waste forms.

Richardson, J.W. Jr. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Intense Pulsed Neutron Source Div.

1996-12-31

36

BLENDING ANALYSIS FOR RADIOACTIVE SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated methods to mix and blend the contents of the blend tanks to ensure the contents are properly blended before they are transferred from the blend tank such as Tank 21 and Tank 24 to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) feed tank. The tank contents consist of three forms: dissolved salt solution, other waste salt solutions, and sludge containing settled solids. This paper focuses on developing the computational model and estimating the operation time of submersible slurry pump when the tank contents are adequately blended prior to their transfer to the SWPF facility. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics approach was taken by using the full scale configuration of SRS Type-IV tank, Tank 21H. Major solid obstructions such as the tank wall boundary, the transfer pump column, and three slurry pump housings including one active and two inactive pumps were included in the mixing performance model. Basic flow pattern results predicted by the computational model were benchmarked against the SRNL test results and literature data. Tank 21 is a waste tank that is used to prepare batches of salt feed for SWPF. The salt feed must be a homogeneous solution satisfying the acceptance criterion of the solids entrainment during transfer operation. The work scope described here consists of two modeling areas. They are the steady state flow pattern calculations before the addition of acid solution for tank blending operation and the transient mixing analysis during miscible liquid blending operation. The transient blending calculations were performed by using the 95% homogeneity criterion for the entire liquid domain of the tank. The initial conditions for the entire modeling domain were based on the steady-state flow pattern results with zero second phase concentration. The performance model was also benchmarked against the SRNL test results and literature data.

Lee, S.

2012-05-10

37

Highly Conducting Lyotropic Liquid Crystalline Mesophases of Pluronics (P65, P85, P103, and P123) and Hydrated Lithium Salts (LiCl and LiNO3).  

PubMed

Demand for ionically conducting materials, as membranes and electrodes, is one of the driving forces of current research in chemistry, physics, and engineering. The lithium ion is a key element of these materials, and its assembly into nanostructures and mesophases is important for the membrane and electrode technologies. In this investigation, we show that hydrated lithium salts (such as LiCl·xH2O and LiNO3·xH2O, x is as low as 1.5 and 3.0, respectively) and pluronics (triblock copolymer such as PX where X is 65, 85, 103, and 123) form lyotropic liquid crystalline mesophases (LLCM), denoted as LiY·xH2O-PX-n (Y is Cl(-) or NO3(-), and n is the salt/PX mole ratio). The structure of the mesophase is hexagonal over a broad salt concentration and transforms to a cubic mesophase and then to disordered gel phase with an increasing salt content of the mixtures. The mesophases are unstable at low salt contents and undergo a phase separation into pure pluronics and salt-rich LLCMs. The salt content of the ordered mesophase can be as high as 30 mole ratio for each pluronic, which is a record high for any known salted phases. The mesophases also display high ac ionic conductivities, reaching up to 21 mS/cm at room temperature (RT), and are sensitive to the water content. These mesophases can be useful as ion-conducting membranes and can be used as media for the synthesis of lithium-containing nanoporous materials. PMID:24874818

Bar?m, Gözde; Albayrak, Cemal; Y?lmaz, Ezgi; Dag, Omer

2014-06-17

38

Disposal of soluble salt waste from coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses pollutants in the form of soluble salts and resource recovery in the form of water and land. A design for disposal of soluble salts has been produced. The interactions of its parameters have been shown by a process design study. The design will enable harmonious compliance with United States Public Laws 92-500 and 94-580, relating to water pollution and resource recovery. In the disposal of waste salt solutions, natural water resources need not be contaminated, because an encapsulation technique is available which will immobilize the salts. At the same time it will make useful landforms available, and water as a resource can be recovered. There is a cost minimum when electrodialysis and evaporation are combined, which is not realizable with evaporation alone, unless very low-cost thermal energy is available or unless very high-cost pretreatment for electrodialysis is required. All the processes making up the proposed disposal process are commercially available, although they are nowhere operating commercially as one process. Because of the commercial availability of the processes, the proposed process may be a candidate 'best commercially available treatment' for soluble salt disposal.

McKnight, C.E.

1980-06-01

39

Saltstone: cement-based waste form for disposal of Savannah River Plant low-level radioactive salt waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defense waste processing at the Savannah River Plant will include decontamination and disposal of approximately 400 million liters of waste containing NaNOâ, NaOH, NaâSOâ, and NaNOâ. After decontamination, the salt solution is classified as low-level waste. A cement-based waste form, saltstone, has been designed for disposal of Savannah River Plant low-level radioactive salt waste. Bulk properties of this material have

Langton

1984-01-01

40

Modeling of Sulfate Double-salts in Nuclear Wastes  

SciTech Connect

Due to limited tank space at Hanford and Savannah River, the liquid nuclear wastes or supernatants have been concentrated in evaporators to remove excess water prior to the hot solutions being transferred to underground storage tanks. As the waste solutions cooled, the salts in the waste exceeded the associated solubility limits and precipitated in the form of saltcakes. The initial step in the remediation of these saltcakes is a rehydration process called saltcake dissolution. At Hanford, dissolution experiments have been conducted on small saltcake samples from five tanks. Modeling of these experimental results, using the Environmental Simulation Program (ESP), are being performed at the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at Mississippi State University. The River Protection Project (RPP) at Hanford will use these experimental and theoretical results to determine the amount of water that will be needed for its dissolution and retrieval operations. A comprehensive effort by the RPP and the Tank Focus Area continues to validate and improve the ESP and its databases for this application. The initial effort focused on the sodium, fluoride, and phosphate system due to its role in the formation of pipeline plugs. In FY 1999, an evaluation of the ESP predictions for sodium fluoride, trisodium phosphate dodecahydrate, and natrophosphate clearly indicated that improvements to the Public database of the ESP were needed. One of the improvements identified was double salts. The inability of any equilibrium thermodynamic model to properly account for double salts in the system can result in errors in the predicted solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) of species in the system. The ESP code is evaluated by comparison with experimental data where possible. However, data does not cover the range of component concentrations and temperatures found in many tank wastes. Therefore, comparison of ESP with another code is desirable, and may illuminate problems with both. For this purpose, the SOLGASMIX code was used in conjunction with a small private database developed at ORNL. This code calculates thermodynamic equilibria through minimization of Gibbs Energy, and utilizes the Pitzer model for activity coefficients. The sodium nitrate-sulfate double salt and the sodium fluoride-sulfate double salt were selected for the FY 2000 validation study of ESP. Even though ESP does not include the sulfate-nitrate double salt, this study found that this omission does not appear to be a major consequence. In this case, the solubility predictions with and without the sulfate-nitrate double salt are comparable. In contrast, even though the sulfate-fluoride double salt is included within the ESP databank, comparison to previous experimental results indicates that ESP underestimates solubility. Thus, the prediction for the sulfate-fluoride system needs to be improved. A main consequence of the inability to accurately predict the SLE of double salts is its impact on the predicted ionic strength of the solution. The ionic strength has been observed to be an important factor in the formation of pipeline plugs. To improve the ESP prediction, solubility tests on the sulfate-fluoride system are underway at DIAL, and these experimental results will be incorporated into the Public database by OLI System, Inc. Preliminary ESP simulations also indicated difficulties with the SLE prediction for anhydrous sodium sulfate. The Public database for the ESP does not include fundamental parameters for this solid in mixed solutions below 32.4 C. The limitation, in the range of anhydrous sodium sulfate, leads to convergence problems in ESP and to inaccurate predictions of solubility near the invariant point when sodium sulfate decahydrate and other salts, such as sodium nitrate, were present. These difficulties were partially corrected through the use of an additional database. In conclusion, these results indicate the need for experimental data at temperatures above 25 C and in solutions containing both nitrate and hydroxide. Furthermore, the validation and do

Toghiani, B.

2000-10-30

41

Analyses of mass transport in a nuclear waste repository in salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt is the proposed host rock for geologic repositories of nuclear waste in several nations because it is “dry” and probably “impermeable”. To evaluate the safety of nuclear waste disposal in salt, it is necessary to calculate the rate of release of nuclides from solidified waste form and to predict the transport of released radionuclides. Our objective is to develop

Y. Hwang; T. H. Pigford; P. L. Chambré; W. W.-L. Lee

1992-01-01

42

Analyses of Mass Transport in a Nuclear Waste Repository in Salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt is the proposed host rock for geologic repositories of nuclear waste in several nations because it is ``dry'' and probably ``impermeable.'' To evaluate the safety of nuclear waste disposal in salt, it is necessary to calculate the rate of release of nuclides from solidified waste form and to predict the transport of released radionuclides. Our objective is to develop

Y. Hwang; T. H. Pigford; P. L. Chambré; W. W.-L. Lee

1992-01-01

43

Pyrolytic conversion of plastic and rubber waste to hydrocarbons with basic salt catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention relates to a process for improving the pyrolytic conversion of waste selected from rubber and plastic to low molecular weigt olefinic materials by employing basis salt catalysts in the waste mixture. The salts comprise alkali or alkaline earth compounds, particularly sodium carbonate, in an amount of greater than about 1 weight percent based on the waste feed.

R. C. Wingfield Jr; J. Braslaw; R. L. Gealer

1985-01-01

44

Ceramic waste form for residues from molten salt oxidation of mixed wastes  

SciTech Connect

A ceramic waste form based on Synroc-D is under development for the incorporation of the mineral residues from molten salt oxidation treatment of mixed low-level wastes. Samples containing as many as 32 chemical elements have been fabricated, characterized, and leach-tested. Universal Treatment Standards have been satisfied for all regulated elements except and two (lead and vanadium). Efforts are underway to further improve chemical durability.

Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Hopper, R.W.; Rard, J.A. [and others

1995-11-01

45

Identifying suitable "piercement" salt domes for nuclear waste storage sites  

SciTech Connect

Piercement salt domes of the northern interior salt basins of the Gulf of Mexico are being considered as permanent storage sites for both nuclear and chemically toxic wastes. The suitable domes are stable and inactive, having reached their final evolutionary configuration at least 30 million years ago. They are buried to depths far below the level to which erosion will penetrate during the prescribed storage period and are not subject to possible future reactivation. The salt cores of these domes are themselves impermeable, permitting neither the entry nor exit of ground water or other unwanted materials. In part, a stable dome may be recognized by its present geometric configuration, but conclusive proof depends on establishing its evolutionary state. The evolutionary state of a dome is obtained by reconstructing the growth history of the dome as revealed by the configuration of sedimentary strata in a large area (commonly 3,000 square miles or more) surrounding the dome. A high quality, multifold CDP reflection seismic profile across a candidate dome will provide much of the necessary information when integrated with available subsurface control. Additional seismic profiles may be required to confirm an apparent configuration of the surrounding strata and an interpreted evolutionary history. High frequency seismic data collected in the near vicinity of a dome are also needed as a supplement to the CDP data to permit accurate depiction of the configuration of shallow strata. Such data must be tied to shallow drill hole control to confirm the geologic age at which dome growth ceased. If it is determined that a dome reached a terminal configuration many millions of years ago, such a dome is incapable of reactivation and thus constitutes a stable storage site for nuclear wastes.

Kehle, R.

1980-08-01

46

Candidate waste forms for immobilisation of waste chloride salt from pyroprocessing of spent nuclear fuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodalite/glass bodies prepared by hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) at ˜850 °C/100 MPa are candidates for immobilising fission product-bearing waste KCl-LiCl pyroprocessing salts. To study the capacity of sodalite to structurally incorporate such pyroprocessing salts, K, Li, Cs, Sr, Ba and La were individually targeted for substitution in a Na site in sodalite (Na vacancies targeted as charge compensators for alkaline and rare earths) and studied by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy after sintering in the range of 800-1000 °C. K and Li appeared to enter the sodalite, but Cs, Sr and Ba formed aluminosilicate phases and La formed an oxyapatite phase. However these non-sodalite phases have reasonable resistance to water leaching. Pure chlorapatite gives superior leach resistance to sodalite, and alkalis, alkaline and rare earth ions are generally known to enter chlorapatite, but attempts to incorporate simulated waste salt formulations into HIPed chlorapatite-based preparations or to substitute Cs alone into the structure of Ca-based chlorapatite were not successful on the basis of scanning electron microscopy. The materials exhibited severe water leachability, mainly in regard to Cs release. Attempts to substitute Cs into Ba- and Sr-based chlorapatites also did not look encouraging. Consequently the use of apatite alone to retain fission product-bearing waste pyroprocessing salts from electrolytic nuclear fuel reprocessing is problematical, but chlorapatite glass-ceramics may be feasible, albeit with reduced waste loadings. Spodiosite, Ca 2(PO 4)Cl, does not appear to be suitable for incorporation of Cl-bearing waste containing fission products.

Vance, E. R.; Davis, J.; Olufson, K.; Chironi, I.; Karatchevtseva, I.; Farnan, I.

2012-01-01

47

Closure of a nuclear waste repository deeply imbedded in a stratified salt bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a repository vault, mined deep into a salt strata. It eventually closes in on itself, encapsulating its contents. At room temperature salt may be regarded as a linear, isotropic, viscoelastic material. In this study, using triaxial compression test results on salt, the authors determine the relaxation functions and set up the boundary value

Wei Xu; Joseph Genin

1994-01-01

48

Equipment evaluation for low density polyethylene encapsulated nitrate salt waste at the Rocky Flats Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) are subject to regulation by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Polymer solidification is being developed as a final treatment technology for several of these mixed wastes, including nitrate salts. Encapsulation nitrate salts with low density polyethylene (LDPE) has been the preliminary focus of the RFP polymer solidification effort. Literature reviews,

W. I. Yamada; A. M. Faucette; R. C. Jantzen; B. W. Logsdon; J. H. Oldham; D. M. Saiki; R. J. Yudnich

1993-01-01

49

Method to synthesize dense crystallized sodalite pellet for immobilizing halide salt radioactive waste  

DOEpatents

A method is described for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as cesium and strontium and hazardous materials such as barium. A sodalite intermediate is prepared by mixing appropriate amounts of silica, alumina and sodium hydroxide with respect to sodalite and heating the mixture to form the sodalite intermediate and water. Heating is continued to drive off the water to form a water-free intermediate. The water-free intermediate is mixed with either waste salt or waste salt which has been contacted with zeolite to concentrate the radionuclides and hazardous material. The waste salt-intermediate mixture is then compacted and heated under conditions of heat and pressure to form sodalite with the waste salt, radionuclides and hazardous material trapped within the sodalite cage structure. This provides a final product having excellent leach resistant capabilities.

Koyama, Tadafumi.

1994-08-23

50

Method to synthesize dense crystallized sodalite pellet for immobilizing halide salt radioactive waste  

DOEpatents

This report describes a method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as cesium and strontium and hazardous materials such as barium. A sodalite intermediate is prepared by mixing appropriate amounts of silica, alumina and sodium hydroxide with respect to sodalite and heating the mixture to form the sodalite intermediate and water. Heating is continued to drive off the water to form a water-free intermediate. The water-free intermediate is mixed with either waste salt or waste salt which has been contacted with zeolite to concentrate the radionuclides and hazardous material. The waste salt-intermediate mixture is then compacted and heated under conditions of heat and pressure to form sodalite with the waste salt, radionuclides and hazardous material trapped within the sodalite cage structure. This provides a final product having excellent leach resistant capabilities.

Koyama, T.

1992-01-01

51

Container materials for isolation of radioactive waste in salt  

SciTech Connect

The workshop reviewed the extensive data on the corrosion resistance of low-carbon steel in simulated salt repository environments, determined whether these data were sufficient to recommend low-carbon steel for fabrication of the container, and assessed the suitability of other materials under consideration in the SRP. The panelists determined the need for testing and research programs, recommended experimental approaches, and recommended materials based on existing technology. On the first day of the workshop, presentations were made on waste package requirements; the expected corrosion environment; degradation processes, including a review of data from corrosion tests on carbon steel; and rationales for container design and materials, modeling studies, and planned future work. The second day was devoted to a panel caucus, presentation of workshop findings, and open discussion. 76 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Streicher, M.A.; Andrews, A. (eds.)

1987-10-01

52

Electrodialysis-based separation process for salt recovery and recycling from waste water  

DOEpatents

A method for recovering salt from a process stream containing organic contaminants is provided, comprising directing the waste stream to a desalting electrodialysis unit so as to create a concentrated and purified salt permeate and an organic contaminants containing stream, and contacting said concentrated salt permeate to a water-splitting electrodialysis unit so as to convert the salt to its corresponding base and acid.

Tsai, Shih-Perng (Naperville, IL)

1997-01-01

53

Preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste into salt caverns  

SciTech Connect

Caverns can be readily formed in salt formations through solution mining. The caverns may be formed incidentally, as a result of salt recovery, or intentionally to create an underground chamber that can be used for storing hydrocarbon products or compressed air or disposing of wastes. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the feasibility, suitability, and legality of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration, development, and production wastes (hereafter referred to as oil field wastes, unless otherwise noted) in salt caverns. Chapter 2 provides background information on: types and locations of US subsurface salt deposits; basic solution mining techniques used to create caverns; and ways in which salt caverns are used. Later chapters provide discussion of: federal and state regulatory requirements concerning disposal of oil field waste, including which wastes are considered eligible for cavern disposal; waste streams that are considered to be oil field waste; and an evaluation of technical issues concerning the suitability of using salt caverns for disposing of oil field waste. Separate chapters present: types of oil field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location; disposal operations; and closure and remediation. This report does not suggest specific numerical limits for such factors or variables as distance to neighboring activities, depths for casings, pressure testing, or size and shape of cavern. The intent is to raise issues and general approaches that will contribute to the growing body of information on this subject.

Veil, J.; Elcock, D.; Raivel, M.; Caudle, D.; Ayers, R.C. Jr.; Grunewald, B.

1996-06-01

54

Cement-based waste forms for disposal of Savannah River Plant low-level radioactive salt waste  

SciTech Connect

Defense waste processing at the Savannah River Plant will include decontamination and disposal of approximately 100 million liters of soluble salts containing primarily NaNO/sub 3/, NaOH, NaNO/sub 2/, NaAl(OH)/sub 4/, and Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. A cement-based waste form, saltstone, has been designed for disposal of Savannah River Plant low-level radioactive salt waste. Bulk properties of this material have been tailored with respect to salt leach rate, permeability, and compressive strength. Microstructure and mineralogy of leached and unleached specimens were characterized by SEM and x-ray diffraction analyses, respectively. It has been concluded that the salt leach rate can be limited so that amounts of salt and radionuclides in the groundwater at the perimeter of the 100-acre disposal site will not exceed EPA drinking water standards. 7 references, 4 figures, 6 tables.

Langton, C A; Dukes, M D; Simmons, R V

1983-01-01

55

Polyethylene encapsulatin of nitrate salt wastes: Waste form stability, process scale-up, and economics  

SciTech Connect

A polyethylene encapsulation system for treatment of low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Polyethylene has several advantages compared with conventional solidification/stabilization materials such as hydraulic cements. Waste can be encapsulated with greater efficiency and with better waste form performance than is possible with hydraulic cement. The properties of polyethylene relevant to its long-term durability in storage and disposal environments are reviewed. Response to specific potential failure mechanisms including biodegradation, radiation, chemical attack, flammability, environmental stress cracking, and photodegradation are examined. These data are supported by results from extensive waste form performance testing including compressive yield strength, water immersion, thermal cycling, leachability of radioactive and hazardous species, irradiation, biodegradation, and flammability. The bench-scale process has been successfully tested for application with a number of specific problem'' waste streams. Quality assurance and performance testing of the resulting waste form confirmed scale-up feasibility. Use of this system at Rocky Flats Plant can result in over 70% fewer drums processed and shipped for disposal, compared with optimal cement formulations. Based on the current Rocky Flats production of nitrate salt per year, polyethylene encapsulation can yield an estimated annual savings between $1.5 million and $2.7 million, compared with conventional hydraulic cement systems. 72 refs., 23 figs., 16 tabs.

Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

1991-07-01

56

Application of molten salt oxidation for the minimization and recovery of plutonium-238 contaminated wastes  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the technical and economic feasibility of molten salt oxidation technology as a volume reduction and recovery process for {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste. Combustible low-level waste material contaminated with {sup 238}Pu residue is destroyed by oxidation in a 900 C molten salt reaction vessel. The combustible waste is destroyed creating carbon dioxide and steam and a small amount of ash and insoluble {sup 2328}Pu in the spent salt. The valuable {sup 238}Pu is recycled using aqueous recovery techniques. Experimental test results for this technology indicate a plutonium recovery efficiency of 99%. Molten salt oxidation stabilizes the waste converting it to a non-combustible waste. Thus installation and use of molten salt oxidation technology will substantially reduce the volume of {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste. Cost-effectiveness evaluations of molten salt oxidation indicate a significant cost savings when compared to the present plans to package, or re-package, certify and transport these wastes to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for permanent disposal. Clear and distinct cost advantages exist for MSO when the monetary value of the recovered {sup 238}Pu is considered.

Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.

1998-12-31

57

Alternative Electrochemical Salt Waste Forms, Summary of FY2010 Results  

SciTech Connect

In FY2009, PNNL performed scoping studies to qualify two waste form candidates, tellurite (TeO2-based) glasses and halide minerals, for the electrochemical waste stream for further investigation. Both candidates showed promise with acceptable PCT release rates and effective incorporation of the 10% fission product waste stream. Both candidates received reprisal for FY2010 and were further investigated. At the beginning of FY2010, an in-depth literature review kicked off the tellurite glasses study. The review was aimed at ascertaining the state-of-the-art for chemical durability testing and mixed chloride incorporation for tellurite glasses. The literature review led the authors to 4 unique binary and 1 unique ternary systems for further investigation which include TeO2 plus the following: PbO, Al2O3-B2O3, WO3, P2O5, and ZnO. Each system was studied with and without a mixed chloride simulated electrochemical waste stream and the literature review provided the starting points for the baseline compositions as well as starting points for melting temperature, compatible crucible types, etc. The most promising glasses in each system were scaled up in production and were analyzed with the Product Consistency Test, a chemical durability test. Baseline and PCT glasses were analyzed to determine their state, i.e., amorphous, crystalline, phase separated, had undissolved material within the bulk, etc. Conclusions were made as well as the proposed direction for FY2011 plans. Sodalite was successfully synthesized by the sol-gel method. The vast majority of the dried sol-gel consisted of sodalite with small amounts of alumino-silicates and unreacted salt. Upon firing the powders made by sol-gel, the primary phase observed was sodalite with the addition of varying amounts of nepheline, carnegieite, lithium silicate, and lanthanide oxide. The amount of sodalite, nepheline, and carnegieite as well as the bulk density of the fired pellets varied with firing temperature, sol-gel process chemistry, and the amount of glass sintering aid added to the batch. As the firing temperature was increased from 850 C to 950 C, chloride volatility increased, the fraction of sodalite decreased, and the fractions nepheline and carnegieite increased. This indicates that the sodalite structure is not stable and begins to convert to nepheline and carnegieite under these conditions at 950 C. Density has opposite relationship with relation to firing temperature. The addition of a NBS-1, a glass sintering aid, had a positive effect on bulk density and increased the stability of the sodalite structure in a minimal way.

Riley, Brian J.; Rieck, Bennett T.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Matyas, Josef; McCloy, John S.; Sundaram, S. K.; Vienna, John D.

2010-08-01

58

Recycling of LiCl-KCl eutectic based salt wastes containing radioactive rare earth oxychlorides or oxides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recycling of LiCl-KCl eutectic salt wastes containing radioactive rare earth oxychlorides or oxides was studied to recover renewable salts from the salt wastes and to minimize the radioactive wastes by using a vacuum distillation method. Vaporization of the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt was effective above 900 °C and at 5 Torr. The condensations of the vaporized salt were largely dependent on temperature gradient. Based on these results, a recycling system of the salt wastes as a closed loop type was developed to obtain a high efficiency of the salt recovery condition. In this system, it was confirmed that renewable salt was recovered at more than 99 wt.% from the salt wastes, and the changes in temperature and pressure in the system could be utilized to understand the present condition of the system operation.

Eun, H. C.; Cho, Y. Z.; Son, S. M.; Lee, T. K.; Yang, H. C.; Kim, I. T.; Lee, H. S.

2012-01-01

59

Criticality considerations for salt-cake disolution in DOE waste tanks  

SciTech Connect

A large amount of high-level waste is being stored in the form of salt cake at the Savannah River site (SRS) in large (1.3 x 106 gal) underground tanks awaiting startup of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This salt cake will be dissolved with water, and the solution will be fed to DWPF for immobilization in borosilicate glass. Some of the waste that was transferred to the tanks contained enriched uranium and plutonium from chemical reprocessing streams. As water is added to these tanks to dissolve the salt cake, the insoluble portion of this fissile material will be left behind in the tank as the salt solution is pumped out. Because the salt acts as a diluent to the fissile material, the process of repeated water addition, salt dissolution, and salt solution removal will act as a concentrating mechanism for the undissolved fissile material that will remain in the tank. It is estimated that tank 41 H at SRS contains 20 to 120 kg of enriched uranium, varying from 10 to 70% {sup 235}U, distributed nonuniformly throughout the tank. This paper discusses the criticality concerns associated with the dissolution of salt cake in this tank. These concerns are also applicable to other salt cake waste tanks that contain significant quantities of enriched uranium and/or plutonium.

Trumble, E.F.; Niemer, K.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)

1995-12-31

60

Groundwater Recharge and Discharge Scenarios for a Nuclear Waste Repository in Bedded Salt.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Twelve potential scenarios have been identified whereby groundwater may enter or exit a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. The 12 scenarios may be grouped into 4 categories or failure modes: dissolution, fracturing, voids, and penetration. Dissoluti...

D. W. Carpenter T. L. Steinborn L. D. Thorson

1979-01-01

61

Disposal of NORM-Contaminated Oil Field Wastes in Salt Caverns  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) into salt caverns. That study concluded that disposal of NOW into salt caverns is feasible and legal. If caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed

D. L. Blunt; D. Elcock; K. P. Smith; D. Tomasko; J. A. Viel

1999-01-01

62

Disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in Salt Caverns  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) into salt caverns. That study concluded that disposal of NOW into salt caverns is feasible and legal. If caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed

J. A. Veil; K. P. Smith; D. Tomasko; D. Elcock; D. Blunt; G. P. Williams

1998-01-01

63

Modified phosphate ceramics for stabilization and solidification of salt mixed wastes.  

SciTech Connect

Novel chemically bonded phosphate ceramics have been investigated for stabilization and solidification of chloride and nitrate salt wastes. Using low-temperature processing, we stabilized and solidified chloride and nitrate surrogate salts (with hazardous metals) in magnesium potassium phosphate ceramics up to waste loadings of 70-80 wt.%. A variety of characterizations, including strength, microstructure, and leaching, were then conducted on the waste forms. Leaching tests show that all heavy metals in the leachant are well below the EPAs universal treatment standard limits. Long-term leaching tests, per ANS 16. 1 procedure, yields leachability index for nitrate ions > 12. Chloride ions are expected to have an even higher (i.e., better) leachability index. Structural performance of these final waste forms, as indicated by compression strength and durability in aqueous environments, satisfies the regulatory criteria. Thus, based on the results of this study, it seems that phosphate ceramics are viable option for containment of salt wastes.

Singh, D.

1998-06-26

64

Brine migration in salt and its implications in the geologic disposal of nuclear waste  

SciTech Connect

This report respresents a comprehensive review and analysis of available information relating to brine migration in salt surrounding radioactive waste in a salt repository. The topics covered relate to (1) the characteristics of salt formations and waste packages pertinent to considerations of rates, amounts, and effects of brine migration, (2) experimental and theoretical information on brine migration, and (3) means of designing to minimize any adverse effects of brine migration. Flooding, brine pockets, and other topics were not considered, since these features will presumably be eliminated by appropriate site selection and repository design. 115 references.

Jenks, G.H.; Claiborne, H.C.

1981-12-01

65

Effect of added electrolytes, NaCl and LiCl, on the palisade layer water structure of Triton X-100 micelle: A fluorescence anisotropy study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rotational relaxation times of coumarin 151 dye in Triton X-100 micelle gradually increase with added NaCl, and is interpreted as the increased microviscosity due to strong hydration of Na+ ions in the Palisade layer, causing the entrapped water molecules to form clusters around the ions. Contrary to this, with added LiCl, rotational relaxation times initially decrease and then show a sudden increase beyond about 1 M salt. This is attributed to the complexation of Li+ ions with surfactant oxoethylene groups at lower LiCl concentrations. At higher LiCl concentrations, the above complexation apparently gets saturated, and the excess Li+ ions in the Palisade layer cause a sudden increase in the microviscosity via the strong hydration of these ions, as it happens with Na+ ions at all the salt concentrations.

Kumbhakar, Manoj; Mukherjee, Tulsi; Pal, Haridas

2005-09-01

66

Valence photoionization of the LiCl monomer and dimer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports a study of valence photoionization of the LiCl monomer and dimer. The behavior of the photoionization partial cross section for molecular valence orbitals was measured as a function of photon energy between 15 and 35 eV. A square-integrable-function method was used to model the ionization partial cross section in both the LiCl monomer and dimer.

Niskanen, J.; Urpelainen, S.; Aksela, S.; Aksela, H.; Vahtras, O.; Carravetta, V.; Ågren, H.

2010-04-01

67

Using Aspen simulation package to determine solubility of mixed salts in TRU waste evaporator bottoms  

SciTech Connect

Nitric acid from plutonium process waste is a candidate for waste minimization by recycling. Process simulation software packages, such as Aspen, are valuable tools to estimate how effective recovery processes can be, however, constants in equations of state for many ionic components are not in their data libraries. One option is to combine single salt solubility`s in the Aspen model for mixed salt system. Single salt solubilities were regressed in Aspen within 0.82 weight percent of literature values. These were combined into a single Aspen model and used in the mixed salt studies. A simulated nitric acid waste containing mixed aluminum, calcium, iron, magnesium and sodium nitrate was tested to determine points of solubility between 25 and 100 C. Only four of the modeled experimental conditions, at 50 C and 75 C, produced a saturated solution. While experimental results indicate that sodium nitrate is the first salt to crystallize out, the Aspen computer model shows that the most insoluble salt, magnesium nitrate, the first salt to crystallize. Possible double salt formation is actually taking place under experimental conditions, which is not captured by the Aspen model.

Hatchell, J.L.

1998-03-01

68

Alternative Electrochemical Salt Waste Forms, Summary of FY/CY2011 Results  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the 2011 fiscal+calendar year efforts for developing waste forms for a spent salt generated in reprocessing nuclear fuel with an electrochemical separations process. The two waste forms are tellurite (TeO2-based) glasses and sol-gel-derived high-halide mineral analogs to stable minerals found in nature.

Riley, Brian J.; McCloy, John S.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Windisch, Charles F.; Lepry, William C.; Matyas, Josef; Westman, Matthew P.; Rieck, Bennett T.; Lang, Jesse B.; Pierce, David A.

2011-12-01

69

Molten salt oxidation: A versatile and promising technology for the destruction of organic-containing wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molten salt oxidation (MSO), a robust thermal but non-flame process, has the inherent capability of destroying organic constituents in wastes, while retaining inorganic and radioactive materials in situ. It has been considered as an alternative to incineration and may be a solution to many waste disposal problems. The present review first describes the history and development of MSO, as well

Zhitong Yao; Jinhui Li; Xiangyang Zhao

2011-01-01

70

Test procedures for polyester immobilized salt-containing surrogate mixed wastes  

SciTech Connect

These test procedures are written to meet the procedural needs of the Test Plan for immobilization of salt containing surrogate mixed waste using polymer resins, HNF-SD-RE-TP-026 and to ensure adequacy of conduct and collection of samples and data. This testing will demonstrate the use of four different polyester vinyl ester resins in the solidification of surrogate liquid and dry wastes, similar to some mixed wastes generated by DOE operations.

Biyani, R.K.; Hendrickson, D.W.

1997-07-18

71

Treatment of waste by the Molten Salt Oxidation process at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) process has been under development by the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC) to treat hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste. Testing of the system was done on a number of wastes to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the process. This testing included simulated intermediate level waste (ILW) from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The intermediate level waste stream consisted of a slurry of concentrated aqueous solutions of sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate, with a small amount of miscellaneous combustible components (PVC, TBP, kerosene, and ion exchange resins). The purpose of these tests was to evaluate the destruction of the organics, evaporation of the water, and conversion of the hazardous salts (hydroxide and nitrate) to non-hazardous sodium carbonate. Results of the tests are discussed and analyzed, and the possibilities of applying the MSO process to different waste streams at ORNL in the future are explored.

Crosley, S.M.; Lorenzo, D.K.; Van Cleve, J.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Gay, R.L.; Barclay, K.M.; Newcomb, J.C.; Yosim, S.J. [Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States)

1993-03-01

72

Evaluation of Sludge Batch 5 Qualification with ISDP Salt Batch 1 Compliance to DWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to document the acceptability of Sludge Batch 5 with the initial macrobatch operation of the Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) waste to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF).

A. Shafer

2010-01-01

73

Renal salt wasting as part of dysautonomia in Guillain-Barre syndrome.  

PubMed

Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD) are the most important causes of non-iatrogenic hyponatraemia that can significantly complicate various brain diseases. Salt wasting without an underlying CNS disease may have been disregarded so far by clinicians and has been described as renal salt-wasting (RSW) in patients as drug side effect (eg, cisplatin), in older people with various common diseases (eg, hip fracture, pulmonary infections) and other sporadic conditions. In Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS), however, hyponatraemia has been described mainly as SIAD. However, symptoms of hyponatraemia rarely develop in GBS. Here, we report on a woman with GBS with dominant symptoms of dysautonomia and moderate severe hyponatraemia. We could identify RSW as part of the autonomic dysfunction that significantly contributed to disease worsening. PMID:20732865

Lenhard, T; Grimm, C; Ringleb, P A

2011-09-01

74

Conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements for disposal of borosilicate glass defense high-level waste forms in salt geologic repositories  

SciTech Connect

The conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements presented are applicable specifically to the normal borosilicate glass product of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). They provide preliminary numerical values for the defense high-level waste form parameters and properties identified in the waste form performance specification for geologic isolation in salt repositories. Subject areas treated include containment and isolation, operational period safety, criticality control, waste form/production canister identification, and waste package performance testing requirements. This document was generated for use in the development of conceptual waste package designs in salt. It will be revised as additional data, analyses, and regulatory requirements become available.

Not Available

1983-06-01

75

Evaluation of Permain salt deposits in the Texas Panhandle and western Oklahoma for underground storage of radioactive wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report concludes that thick salt deposits of the Palo Duro basin, and, to a lesser extent, those of the Dalhart basin, have many features that would be favorable for underground storage of radioactive waste. The principal parameters used in evaluating these basins for radioactive-waste storage include salt thickness, depth, tectonic and seismic history, lithology, permeability, proximity to aquifers, mineral-resource

Johnson

1976-01-01

76

Effect of dissolved LiCl on the ionic liquid–Au(111) interface: an in situ STM study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of the electrolyte/electrode interface plays a significant role in electrochemical processes. To date, most studies are focusing on understanding the interfacial structure in pure ionic liquids. In this paper in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) has been employed to elucidate the structure of the charged Au(111)–ionic liquid (1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate, [Py1,4]FAP) interface in the presence of 0.1 M LiCl. The addition of the Li salt to the ionic liquid has a strong influence on the interfacial structure. In the first STM scan in situ measurements reveal that Au(111) undergoes the (22 \\times \\surd 3) ‘herringbone’ reconstruction in a certain potential regime, and there is strong evidence that the gold surface dissolves at negative electrode potentials in [Py1,4]FAP containing LiCl. Bulk deposition of Li is obtained at ?2.9 V in the second STM scan.

Borisenko, Natalia; Atkin, Rob; Lahiri, Abhishek; Zein El Abedin, Sherif; Endres, Frank

2014-07-01

77

Effect of dissolved LiCl on the ionic liquid-Au(111) interface: an in situ STM study.  

PubMed

The structure of the electrolyte/electrode interface plays a significant role in electrochemical processes. To date, most studies are focusing on understanding the interfacial structure in pure ionic liquids. In this paper in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) has been employed to elucidate the structure of the charged Au(111)-ionic liquid (1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate, [Py1,4]FAP) interface in the presence of 0.1 M LiCl. The addition of the Li salt to the ionic liquid has a strong influence on the interfacial structure. In the first STM scan in situ measurements reveal that Au(111) undergoes the ([Formula: see text]) 'herringbone' reconstruction in a certain potential regime, and there is strong evidence that the gold surface dissolves at negative electrode potentials in [Py1,4]FAP containing LiCl. Bulk deposition of Li is obtained at -2.9 V in the second STM scan. PMID:24919647

Borisenko, Natalia; Atkin, Rob; Lahiri, Abhishek; Abedin, Sherif Zein El; Endres, Frank

2014-07-16

78

Caustic Recycle from Hanford Tank Waste Using NaSICON Ceramic Membrane Salt Splitting Process  

SciTech Connect

A family of inorganic ceramic materials, called sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON), has been studied at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to investigate their ability to separate sodium from radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions for treating U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tank wastes. Ceramatec Inc. developed and fabricated a membrane containing a proprietary NAS-GY material formulation that was electrochemically tested in a bench-scale apparatus with both a simulant and a radioactive tank-waste solution to determine the membrane performance when removing sodium from DOE tank wastes. Implementing this sodium separation process can result in significant cost savings by reducing the disposal volume of low-activity wastes and by producing a NaOH feedstock product for recycle into waste treatment processes such as sludge leaching, regenerating ion exchange resins, inhibiting corrosion in carbon-steel tanks, or retrieving tank wastes.

Fountain, Matthew S.; Kurath, Dean E.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Pendleton, J.; Balagopal, S.; Quist, M.; Clay, D.

2009-02-20

79

Groundwater recharge and discharge scenarios for a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve potential scenarios have been identified whereby groundwater may enter or exit a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. The 12 scenarios may be grouped into 4 categories or failure modes: dissolution, fracturing, voids, and penetration. Dissolution modes include breccia pipe and breccia blanket formation, and dissolution around boreholes. Fracture modes include flow through preexisting or new fractures and the

D. W. Carpenter; T. L. Steinborn; L. D. Thorson

1979-01-01

80

Fluid Transport Driven by Heat-Generating Nuclear Waste in Bedded Salt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The question of where to safely dispose high-level nuclear waste (HLW) provides ample motivation for scientific research on deep geologic disposal options. The goal of this study is to model the dominant heat and mass transport processes that would be driven by heat generating nuclear waste buried in bedded salt. The interaction between liquid brine flow towards the heat source, establishment of a heat pipe in the mine-run salt backfill, boiling, and vapor condensation leads to changes in porosity, permeability, saturation, thermal conductivity, and rheology of the salt surrounding potential waste canisters. The Finite Element Heat and Mass transfer code (FEHM) was used to simulate these highly coupled thermal, hydrological, and chemical processes. The numerical model has been tested against recent and historical experimental data to develop and improve the salt material model. We used the validated numerical model to make predictions of temperature gradients, porosity changes, and tracer behavior that will be testable in a future 2-year field-scale heater experiment to be carried out in an experimental test bed at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site near Carlsbad, NM.

Jordan, A.; Harp, D. R.; Stauffer, P. H.; Ten Cate, J. A.; Labyed, Y.; Boukhalfa, H.; Lu, Z.; Person, M. A.; Robinson, B. A.

2013-12-01

81

Mineralocorticoid replacement during infancy for salt wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The protocols for glucocorticoid replacement in children with salt wasting 21-hydroxylase deficiency are well established; however, the current recommendation for mineralocorticoid replacement is general and suggests individualized dose adjustments. This study aims to retrospectively review the 9-?-fludrocortisone dose regimen in salt wasting 21-hydroxylase deficient children who have been adequately treated during infancy. METHODS: Twenty-three salt wasting 21-hydroxylase deficient patients with good anthropometric and hormonal control were followed in our center since diagnosis. The assessments of cortisone acetate and 9-?-fludrocortisone doses, anthropometric parameters, and biochemical and hormonal levels were rigorously evaluated in pre-determined intervals from diagnosis to two years of age. RESULTS: The 9-?-fludrocortisone doses decreased over time during the first and second years of life; the median fludrocortisone doses were 200 ?g at 0-6 months, 150 ?g at 7-18 months and 125 ?g at 19-24 months. The cortisone acetate dose per square meter was stable during follow-up (median?=?16.8 mg/m2/day). The serum sodium, potassium and plasma rennin activity levels during treatment were normal, except in the first month of life, when periodic 9-?-fludrocortisone dose adjustments were made. CONCLUSIONS: The mineralocorticoid needs of salt wasting 21-hydroxylase deficient patients are greater during early infancy and progressively decrease during the first two years of life, which confirms that a partial aldosterone resistance exists during this time. Our study proposes a safety regiment for mineralocorticoid replacement during this critical developmental period.

Gomes, Larissa G.; Madureira, Guiomar; Mendonca, Berenice B.; Bachega, Tania A. S. S.

2013-01-01

82

Preliminary Technical and Legal Evaluation of Disposing of Nonhazardous Oil Field Waste into Salt Caverns  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an initial evaluation of the suitability, feasibility, and legality of using salt caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes. Given the preliminary and general nature of this report, we recognize that some of our findings and conclusions maybe speculative and subject to change upon further research on this topic.

Ayers, Robert C.; Caudle, Dan; Elcock, Deborah; Raivel, Mary; Veil, John; and Grunewald, Ben

1999-01-21

83

Direct Grout Stabilization of High Cesium Salt Waste: Cesium Leaching Studies  

SciTech Connect

'The direct grout alternative is a viable option for treatment/stabilization and disposal of salt waste containing Cs-137 concentrations of 1-3 Ci/gal. The significant difference between these waste solutions is that the high cesium salt solution will contain between 1 and 3 Curies of Cs-137 per gallon compared to a negligible amount in the current salt solution. This difference will require special engineering and shielding for a direct grout processing facility and disposal units to achieve acceptable radiation exposure conditions. The higher cesium concentrations in the direct grout also require that the cesium leaching be evaluated as a function of curing temperature. ANS 16.1 leaching results and distribution ratios (approximations of distribution coefficients) as a function of temperature are presented in this report.'

Langton, C.A.

1999-09-19

84

Engineering study of the potential uses of salts from selective crystallization of Hanford tank wastes  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Salt Process (CSP) is the fractional crystallization of nitrate salts from tank waste stored on the Hanford Site. This study reviews disposition options for a CSP product made from Hanford Site tank waste. These options range from public release to onsite low-level waste disposal to no action. Process, production, safety, environment, cost, schedule, and the amount of CSP material which may be used are factors considered in each option. The preferred alternative is offsite release of clean salt. Savings all be generated by excluding the material from low-level waste stabilization. Income would be received from sales of salt products. Savings and income from this alternative amount to $1,027 million, excluding the cost of CSP operations. Unless public sale of CSP products is approved, the material should be calcined. The carbonate form of the CSP could then be used as ballast in tank closure and stabilization efforts. Not including the cost of CSP operations, savings of $632 million would be realized. These savings would result from excluding the material from low-level waste stabilization and reducing purchases of chemicals for caustic recycle and stabilization and closure. Dose considerations for either alternative are favorable. No other cost-effective alternatives that were considered had the capacity to handle significant quantities of the CSP products. If CSP occurs, full-scale tank-waste stabilization could be done without building additional treatment facilities after Phase 1 (DOE 1996). Savings in capital and operating cost from this reduction in waste stabilization would be in addition to the other gains described.

Hendrickson, D.W.

1996-04-30

85

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: geochemistry of brine in rock salt in temperature gradients and gamma-radiation fields - a selective annotated bibliography  

SciTech Connect

Evaluation of the extensive research concerning brine geochemistry and transport is critically important to successful exploitation of a salt formation for isolating high-level radioactive waste. This annotated bibliography has been compiled from documents considered to provide classic background material on the interactions between brine and rock salt, as well as the most important results from more recent research. Each summary elucidates the information or data most pertinent to situations encountered in siting, constructing, and operating a mined repository in salt for high-level radioactive waste. The research topics covered include the basic geology, depositional environment, mineralogy, and structure of evaporite and domal salts, as well as fluid inclusions, brine chemistry, thermal and gamma-radiation effects, radionuclide migration, and thermodynamic properties of salts and brines. 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Hull, A.B.; Williams, L.B.

1985-07-01

86

The advantages of a salt/bentonite backfill for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal rooms  

SciTech Connect

A 70/30 wt% salt/bentonite mixture is shown to be preferable to pure crushed salt as backfill for disposal rooms in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report discusses several selection criteria used to arrive at this conclusion: the need for low permeability and porosity after closure, chemical stability with the surroundings, adequate strength to avoid shear erosion from human intrusion, ease of emplacement, and sorption potential for brine and radionuclides. Both salt and salt/bentonite are expected to consolidate to a final state of impermeability (i.e., {le} 10{sup {minus}18}m{sup 2}) adequate for satisfying federal nuclear regulations. Any advantage of the salt/bentonite mixture is dependent upon bentonite's potential for sorbing brine and radionuclides. Estimates suggest that bentonite's sorption potential for water in brine is much less than for pure water. While no credit is presently taken for brine sorption in salt/bentonite backfill, the possibility that some amount of inflowing brine would be chemically bound is considered likely. Bentonite may also sorb much of the plutonium, americium, and neptunium within the disposal room inventory. Sorption would be effective only if a major portion of the backfill is in contact with radioactive brine. Brine flow from the waste out through highly localized channels in the backfill would negate sorption effectiveness. Although the sorption potentials of bentonite for both brine and radionuclides are not ideal, they are distinctly beneficial. Furthermore, no detrimental aspects of adding bentonite to the salt as a backfill have been identified. These two observations are the major reasons for selecting salt/bentonite as a backfill within the WIPP. 39 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

Butcher, B.M.; Novak, C.F. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Jercinovic, M. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1991-04-01

87

Testing of low-temperature stabilization alternatives for salt containing mixed wastes -- Approach and results to date  

SciTech Connect

Through its annual process of identifying technology deficiencies associated with waste treatment, the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) determined that the former DOE weapons complex lacks efficient mixed waste stabilization technologies for salt containing wastes. These wastes were generated as sludge and solid effluents from various primary nuclear processes involving acids and metal finishing; and well over 10,000 cubic meters exist at 6 sites. In addition, future volumes of these problematic wastes will be produced as other mixed waste treatment methods such as incineration and melting are deployed. The current method used to stabilize salt waste for compliant disposal is grouting with Portland cement. This method is inefficient since the highly soluble and reactive chloride, nitrate, and sulfate salts interfere with the hydration and setting processes associated with grouting. The inefficiency results from having to use low waste loadings to ensure a durable and leach resistant final waste form. The following five alternatives were selected for MWFA development funding in FY97 and FY98: phosphate bonded ceramics; sol-gel process; polysiloxane; polyester resin; and enhanced concrete. Comparable evaluations were planned for the stabilization development efforts. Under these evaluations each technology stabilized the same type of salt waste surrogates. Final waste form performance data such as compressive strength, waste loading, and leachability could then be equally compared. Selected preliminary test results are provided in this paper.

Maio, V.; Loomis, G. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spence, R.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Smith, G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Biyani, R.K. [SGN Eurisys Services Corp., Richland, WA (United States); Wagh, A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1998-05-01

88

Molten salt oxidation of mixed waste: Preliminary bench-scale experiments without radioactivity  

SciTech Connect

Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is a process in which organic wastes are oxidized by sparging them with air through a bed of molten sodium carbonate (bp 851 {degrees}C) at {ge} 900{degrees}C. This process is readily applicable to the mixed waste because acidic products from Cl, S, P, etc., in the waste, along with most metals and most radionuclides, are retained within the melt as oxides or salts. Rockwell International has studied the application of MSO to various wastes, including some mixed waste. A unit used by Rockwell to study the mixed waste treatment is presently in use at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL`s studies to date have concentrated on chemical flowsheet questions. Concerns that were studied included carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, NO{sub x}, emissions, and metal retention under a variety of conditions. Initial experiments show that CO emissions increase with increasing NaCl content in the melt, increasing temperature, and increasing airflow. Carbon monoxide content is especially high (> 2000 ppm) with high chlorine content (> 10%). Thermal NO{sub x}, emissions are relatively low ( < 5 ppm) at temperatures < 1000{degrees}C. However, most (85--100%) of the nitrogen in the feed as organic nitrate or amine was released as NO{sub x}, The metal contents of the melt and of knockout pot samples of condensed salt show high volatilities of Cs as CsCl. Average condensed salt concentrations were 60% for barium and 100% for strontium and cobalt. The cerium disappeared -- perhaps from deposition on the alumina reactor walls.

Haas, P.A.; Rudolph, J.C.; Bell, J.T.

1994-06-01

89

Molten salt destruction of energetic material wastes as an alternative to open burning. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

As a result of the end of the Cold War and the shift in emphasis to a smaller stockpile, many munitions, both conventional and nuclear, are scheduled for retirement and rapid dismantlement and demilitarization. Major components of these munitions are the explosives and propellants, or energetic materials. The Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process has been demonstrated for the destruction of HE and HE-containing wastes. MSD converts the organic constituents of the waste into non-hazardous substances such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water. Any inorganic constituents of the waste, such as binders and metallic particles, are retained in the molten salt. LLNL has built a small-scale (about 1 kg/hr throughput) unit to test the destruction of HE using the MSD process. The authors have demonstrated that HE`s and liquid propellants can be safely and fully destroyed using the molten salt destruction process. The authors are currently working on a number of improvements to the process. They are modifying the design of unit to obtain more throughput without any increase in salt entrainment. They are implementing an advanced nozzle design for injection of larger particles. They are defining operating envelopes for a number of high explosives and formulations. They are developing models to study the temperature profile of a top-feed nozzle for feeding larger particles into the unit.

Upadhye, R.S.; Brummond, W.A.; Pruneda, C.O.; Watkins, B.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Energetic Materials Center

1994-11-02

90

Subsurface geology of a potential waste emplacement site, Salt Valley Anticline, Grand County, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Salt Valley anticline, which is located about 32 km northeast of Moab, Utah, is perhaps one of the most favorable waste emplacement sites in the Paradox basin. The site, which includes about 7.8 km 2, is highly accessible and is adjacent to a railroad. The anticline is one of a series of northwest-trending salt anticlines lying along the northeast edge of the Paradox basin. These anticlines are cored by evaporites of the Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation of Middle Pennsylvanian age. The central core of the Salt Valley anticline forms a ridgelike mass of evaporites that has an estimated amplitude of 3,600 m. The evaporite core consists of about 87 percent halite rock, which includes some potash deposits; the remainder is black shale, silty dolomite, and anhydrite. The latter three lithologies are referred to as 'marker beds.' Using geophysical logs from drill holes on the anticline, it is possible to demonstrate that the marker beds are complexly folded and faulted. Available data concerning the geothermal gradient and heatflow at the site indicate that heat from emplaced wastes should be rapidly dissipated. Potentially exploitable resources of potash and petroleum are present at Salt Valley. Development of these resources may conflict with use of the site for waste emplacement.

Hite, R. J.

1977-01-01

91

Equipment evaluation for low density polyethylene encapsulated nitrate salt waste at the Rocky Flats Plant  

SciTech Connect

Mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) are subject to regulation by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Polymer solidification is being developed as a final treatment technology for several of these mixed wastes, including nitrate salts. Encapsulation nitrate salts with low density polyethylene (LDPE) has been the preliminary focus of the RFP polymer solidification effort. Literature reviews, industry surveys, and lab-scale and pilot-scale tests have been conducted to evaluate several options for encapsulating nitrate salts with LDPE. Most of the effort has focused on identifying compatible drying and extrusion technologies. Other processing options, specifically meltration and non-heated compounding machines, were also investigated. The best approach appears to be pretreatment of the nitrate salt waste brine in either a vertical or horizontal thin film evaporator followed by compounding of the dried waste with LDPE in an intermeshing, co-rotating, twin-screw extruder. Additional pilot-scale tests planned for the fall of 1993 should further support this recommendation. Preliminary evaluation work indicates that meltration is not possible at atmospheric pressure with the LDPE (Chevron PE-1409) provided by RFP. However, meltration should be possible at atmospheric pressure using another LDPE formulation with altered physical and rheological properties: Lower molecular weight and lower viscosity (Epoline C-15). Contract modifications are now in process to allow a follow-on pilot scale demonstration. Questions regarding changed safety and physical properties of the resultant LDPE waste form due to use of the Epoline C-15 will be addressed. No additional work with non-heated mixer compounder machines is planned at this time.

Yamada, W.I.; Faucette, A.M.; Jantzen, R.C.; Logsdon, B.W.; Oldham, J.H.; Saiki, D.M.; Yudnich, R.J.

1993-08-30

92

Dielectric and conductivity relaxation in mixtures of glycerol with LiCl.  

PubMed

We report a thorough dielectric characterization of the alpha relaxation of glass-forming glycerol with varying additions of LiCl. Nine salt concentrations from 0.1 to 20mol% are investigated in a frequency range of 20Hz-3GHz and analyzed in the dielectric loss and modulus representation. Information on the dc conductivity, the dielectric relaxation time (from the loss) and the conductivity relaxation time (from the modulus) is provided. Overall, with increasing ion concentration, a transition from reorientationally to translationally dominated behavior is observed and the translational ion dynamics and the dipolar reorientational dynamics become successively coupled. This gives rise to the prospect that, by adding ions to dipolar glass formers, dielectric spectroscopy may directly couple to the translational degrees of freedom determining the glass transition, even in frequency regimes where usually strong decoupling is observed. PMID:18752012

Köhler, M; Lunkenheimer, P; Loidl, A

2008-10-01

93

Dielectric and conductivity relaxation in mixtures of glycerol with LiCl  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a thorough dielectric characterization of the ? relaxation of glass-forming glycerol with varying additions of LiCl. Nine salt concentrations from 0.1 to 20mol% are investigated in a frequency range of 20Hz-3GHz and analyzed in the dielectric loss and modulus representation. Information on the dc conductivity, the dielectric relaxation time (from the loss) and the conductivity relaxation time (from the modulus) is provided. Overall, with increasing ion concentration, a transition from reorientationally to translationally dominated behavior is observed and the translational ion dynamics and the dipolar reorientational dynamics become successively coupled. This gives rise to the prospect that, by adding ions to dipolar glass formers, dielectric spectroscopy may directly couple to the translational degrees of freedom determining the glass transition, even in frequency regimes where usually strong decoupling is observed.

Köhler, M.; Lunkenheimer, P.; Loidl, A.

2008-10-01

94

Testing of low temperature stabilization alternatives for salt-containing mixed wastes -- approach and results to date  

SciTech Connect

Through its annual process of identifying technology deficiencies associated with waste treatment, the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) determined that the former DOE weapons complex lacks efficient mixed waste stabilization technologies for salt containing wastes. The current method used to stabilize salt waste for compliant disposal is grouting with Portland cement. This method is inefficient since the highly soluble and reactive chloride, nitrate, and sulfate salts interfere with the hydration and setting processes associated with grouting. The following five alternative salt waste stabilization technologies were selected for MWFA development funding in FY97 and FY98: (1) Phosphate Bonded Ceramics, (2) Sol-gel, (3) Polysiloxane, (4) Polyester Resin, and (5) Enhanced Concrete. Comparable evaluations were planned for the stabilization development efforts. Under these evaluations each technology stabilized the same type of salt waste surrogates as specified by the MWFA. Final waste form performance data such as compressive strength, waste loading, and leachability can then be equally compared to the requirements originally specified. In addition to the selected test results provided in this paper, the performance of each alternative stabilization technology, will be documented in formal MWFA Innovative Technology Summary Reports (ITSRs).

Maio, V.; Loomis, G. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Biyani, R.K. [SGN Eurisys Services Corp., Richland, WA (United States)] [SGN Eurisys Services Corp., Richland, WA (United States); Smith, G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Spence, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wagh, A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1998-07-01

95

Mislocalization of K+ channels causes the renal salt wasting in EAST/SeSAME syndrome.  

PubMed

The Kir4.1/Kir5.1 channel mediates basolateral K(+) recycling in renal distal tubules; this process is critical for Na(+) reabsorption at the tubules. Mutations in Kir4.1 are associated with EAST/SeSAME syndrome, a genetic disorder characterized by renal salt wasting. In this study, we found that MAGI-1 anchors Kir4.1 channels (Kir4.1 homomer and Kir4.1/Kir5.1 heteromer) and contributes to basolateral K(+) recycling. The Kir4.1 A167V mutation associated with EAST/SeSAME syndrome caused mistrafficking of the mutant channels and inhibited their expression on the basolateral surface of tubular cells. These findings suggest mislocalization of the Kir4.1 channels contributes to renal salt wasting. PMID:24561201

Tanemoto, Masayuki; Abe, Takaaki; Uchida, Shunya; Kawahara, Katsumasa

2014-03-18

96

DNA extraction conditions from Porphyra perforata using LiCl  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid and economical method of DNA extraction from a red seaweedPorphyra perforata J. Agardh has been developed by the use of lithium chloride. This paper describes the optimization of extraction conditions. Heat treatment of tissues in a solution (0.8 M LiCl, 0.6% Sarkosyl, 10 mM EDTA, 0.2% PVPP, 5% ß-mercaptoethanol, pH 9.0) at 55 °C for 10 min extracts

Yong-Ki Hong; Sang-Dal Kim; Miriam Polne-Fuller; Aharon Gibor

1995-01-01

97

Assessing solid waste compost application as a practical approach for salt-affected soil reclamation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short-term pot experiment was made to evaluate the effectiveness of municipal solid waste compost amendment on salt-affected soil. Hordeum maritimum plants were cultivated in pots filled with a clay-loam soil containing 0 or 40 t ha of compost and irrigated with tap water at 0 or 4 g l NaCl. Soil properties and heavy metal (Zn, Pb, Cd) accumulation

Abdelbasset Lakhdar; Chokri Hafsi; Ahmed Debez; Francesco Montemurro; Naceur Jedidi; Chedly Abdelly

2011-01-01

98

Electrochemistry and Spectroelectrochemistry of Europium(III) chloride in 3 LiCl – 2KCl from 643 to 1123 K  

SciTech Connect

The electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical behavior of Europium(III) chloride in a molten salt eutectic, 3 LiCl – 2 KCl, over a temperature range of 643 – 1123 K using differential pulse voltammetry, cyclic voltammetry, potential step chronoabsorptometry, and thin-layer spectroelectrochemistry is reported. The electrochemical reaction was determined to be the one electron reduction of Eu3+ to Eu2+ at all temperatures. The redox potential of Eu3+/2+ shifts to more positive potentials and the diffusion coefficient for Eu3+ increases as temperature increases. The results for the number of electrons transferred, redox potential and diffusion coefficient are in good agreement between the electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical techniques.

Schroll, Cynthia A.; Chatterjee, Sayandev; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Heineman, William R.; Bryan, Samuel A.

2013-09-09

99

Strain Related Radiation Damage Measurements in Rock Salt for Waste Disposal Applications. Quarterly Report, April 1, 1979-June 30, 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Radiation damage in natural rock salt, synthetic NaCl crystals, and other minerals of interest for radioactive waste disposal application was studied. The following topics were covered: (1) temperature dependence of radiation induced F-center formation in...

K. J. Swyler L. J. Teutonico P. W. Levy

1979-01-01

100

Fabrication Process of Blocks of Radioactive Wastes Encapsulated in Cement and Resistant to Leaching and Salt Solutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Waterproof additives are claimed to decrease water penetration through the cement such as silicone resins, latex emulsions or organic aluminium salts, avoiding leaching of radioactive wastes. (ERA citation 14:021761)

H. Holtz

1987-01-01

101

Aspects of the thermal and transport properties of crystalline salt in designing radioactive waste storages in halogen formations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some of the properties of natural rock salt are described. This rock is of great practical interest, because, along with its conventional applications in the chemical and food industries, it is promising for use in engineering underground radioactive waste storages and natural gas reservoirs. The results of structural and texture studies of rock salt by neutron diffraction are discussed. The nature of the salt permeability under temperature and stress gradients is theoretically estimated.

Nikitin, A. N.; Pocheptsova, O. A.; Matthies, S.

2010-05-01

102

USING MINED SPACE FOR LONG-TERM RETENTION OF NONRADIOACTIVE HAZARDOUS WASTE. VOLUME 2. SOLUTION MINED SALT CAVERNS  

EPA Science Inventory

This two-volume report assesses the current status of using mined-space for long-term retention of nonradioactive hazardous waste. Volume 2 expands the definition of mined space to include that created by solution mining of salt. This report examines the extent of salt deposits i...

103

Demonstration of Cesium Removal Technologies Using High-Level Waste in Support of the Salt Processing Project at the Savannah River Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Energy established the Salt Processing Program (SPP) at the Savannah River Site to develop and implement technologies for the treatment of the stored salt (i.e., soluble) portion of the High Level Waste (HLW) at that site. The SPP encompasses the selection, design, construction and operation of treatment technologies to prepare the salt waste feed material for the

S. D. Fink; T. B. Peters; D. D. Walker; M. J. Barnes; R. A. Pierce; M. A. Norato; W. R. Wilmarth

2002-01-01

104

Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), Modular CSSX Unit (CSSX), and Waste Transfer Line System of Salt Processing Program (U)  

SciTech Connect

All of the waste streams from ARP, MCU, and SWPF processes will be sent to DWPF for vitrification. The impact these new waste streams will have on DWPF's ability to meet its canister production goal and its ability to support the Salt Processing Program (ARP, MCU, and SWPF) throughput needed to be evaluated. DWPF Engineering and Operations requested OBU Systems Engineering to evaluate DWPF operations and determine how the process could be optimized. The ultimate goal will be to evaluate all of the Liquid Radioactive Waste (LRW) System by developing process modules to cover all facilities/projects which are relevant to the LRW Program and to link the modules together to: (1) study the interfaces issues, (2) identify bottlenecks, and (3) determine the most cost effective way to eliminate them. The results from the evaluation can be used to assist DWPF in identifying improvement opportunities, to assist CBU in LRW strategic planning/tank space management, and to determine the project completion date for the Salt Processing Program.

CHANG, ROBERT

2006-02-02

105

Effect of LiCl on phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase kinase and the phosphorylation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in leaf disks and leaves of Sorghum vulgare.  

PubMed

In the present work, the effect of LiCl on phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase kinase (PEPCase-k), C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase: EC 4.1.1.31) and its phosphorylation process has been investigated in illuminated leaf disks and leaves of the C4 plant Sorghum vulgare. Although this salt induced severe damages to older leaves, it did not significantly alter the physiological parameters (photosynthesis, transpiration rate, intercellular CO2 concentration) of young leaves. An immunological approach was used to demonstrate that the PEPCase-k protein accumulated rapidly in illuminated leaf tissues, consistent with the increase in its catalytic activity. In vivo, LiCl was shown to strongly enhance the light effect on PEPCase-k protein content, this process being dependent on protein synthesis. In marked contrast, the salt was found to inhibit the PEPCase-k activity in reconstituted assays and to decrease the C4 PEPCase content and phosphorylation state in LiCl treated plants. Short-term (15 min) LiCl treatment increased IP3 levels, PPCK gene expression, and PEPCase-k accumulation. Extending the treatment (1 h) markedly decreased IP3 and PPCK gene expression, while PEPCase-k activity was kept high. The cytosolic protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX), which blocked the light-dependent up-regulation of the kinase in control plants, was found not to be active on this process in preilluminated, LiCl-treated leaves. This suggested that the salt causes the kinase turnover to be altered, presumably by decreasing degradation of the corresponding polypeptide. Taken together, these results establish PEPCase-k and PEPCase phosphorylation as lithium targets in higher plants and that this salt can provide a means to investigate further the organization and functioning of the cascade controlling the activity of both enzymes. PMID:16983537

Monreal, José Antonio; López-Baena, Francisco Javier; Vidal, Jean; Echevarría, Cristina; García-Mauriño, Sofia

2007-03-01

106

RESULTS OF THE EXTRACTION-SCRUB-STRIP TESTING USING AN IMPROVED SOLVENT FORMULATION AND SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY SIMULATED WASTE  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent - also known as the next generation solvent (NGS) - for deployment at the Savannah River Site to remove cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is a collaborative effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). As part of the program, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has performed a number of Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests. These batch contact tests serve as first indicators of the cesium mass transfer solvent performance with actual or simulated waste. The test detailed in this report used simulated Tank 49H material, with the addition of extra potassium. The potassium was added at 1677 mg/L, the maximum projected (i.e., a worst case feed scenario) value for the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The results of the test gave favorable results given that the potassium concentration was elevated (1677 mg/L compared to the current 513 mg/L). The cesium distribution value, DCs, for extraction was 57.1. As a comparison, a typical D{sub Cs} in an ESS test, using the baseline solvent formulation and the typical waste feed, is {approx}15. The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) uses the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process to remove cesium (Cs) from alkaline waste. This process involves the use of an organic extractant, BoBCalixC6, in an organic matrix to selectively remove cesium from the caustic waste. The organic solvent mixture flows counter-current to the caustic aqueous waste stream within centrifugal contactors. After extracting the cesium, the loaded solvent is stripped of cesium by contact with dilute nitric acid and the cesium concentrate is transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), while the organic solvent is cleaned and recycled for further use. The Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), under construction, will use the same process chemistry. The Office of Waste Processing (EM-31) expressed an interest in investigating the further optimization of the organic solvent by replacing the BoBCalixC6 extractant with a more efficient extractant. This replacement should yield dividends in improving cesium removal from the caustic waste stream, and in the rate at which the caustic waste can be processed. To that end, EM-31 provided funding for both the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). SRNL wrote a Task Technical Quality and Assurance Plan for this work. As part of the envisioned testing regime, it was decided to perform an ESS test using a simulated waste that simulated a typical envisioned SWPF feed, but with added potassium to make the waste more challenging. Potassium interferes in the cesium removal, and its concentration is limited in the feed to <1950 mg/L. The feed to MCU has typically contained <500 mg/L of potassium.

Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Fink, S.

2012-01-09

107

Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste with High Salt Content by Colloidal Adsorbents - 13274  

SciTech Connect

Treatment processes have been fully developed for most of the liquid radioactive wastes generated during the operation of nuclear power plants. However, a process for radioactive liquid waste with high salt content, such as waste seawater generated from the unexpected accident at nuclear power station, has not been studied extensively. In this study, the adsorption efficiencies of cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) in radioactive liquid waste with high salt content were investigated using several types of zeolite with different particle sizes. Synthesized and commercial zeolites were used for the treatment of simulated seawater containing Cs and Sr, and the reaction kinetics and adsorption capacities of colloidal zeolites were compared with those of bulk zeolites. The experimental results demonstrated that the colloidal adsorbents showed fast adsorption kinetic and high binding capacity for Cs and Sr. Also, the colloidal zeolites could be successfully applied to the static adsorption condition, therefore, an economical benefit might be expected in an actual processes where stirring is not achievable. (authors)

Lee, Keun-Young; Chung, Dong-Yong; Kim, Kwang-Wook; Lee, Eil-Hee; Moon, Jei-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute - KAERI, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)] [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute - KAERI, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01

108

Transport of contaminants in geologic media: Radioactive waste in salt, corrosion of copper, and colloid migration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analytical and numerical models on mass transfer of radionuclides from a waste package to surrounding rock are analyzed. Based on developed models corresponding computer programs are developed. These models would be used to evaluate possible hazardous radionuclide release rates into the surrounding rock/biosphere. Specifically the following fields are studied. (1) Analysis on the possible copper canister pitting corrosion by sulfide intrusion is performed to predict the canister lifetime. The study includes both steady-state and time-dependent cases. (2) Analysis on the brine migration in a salt repository is studied. Brine was traditionally thought to be the major factor on radionuclide migration in salt. But results given in this dissertation provide that the brine migration velocity is small enough to be neglected. Two analyses are developed for open bore hole as well as consolidated salt cases. (3) Analysis on the radionuclide migration in a salt repository is carried out. After proving that the diffusion is a dominant migration mechanism, the time-dependent diffusive mass transfer theory is used to predict fractional release rates of low-soluble as well as highly-soluble nuclides. Also the steady-state radionuclide migration through interbeds is analyzed based on the potential flow theory. Finally assuming no advective flow inside interbeds the transient radionuclide migration into interbeds is studied. Results show that salt is a good host rock for a future high-level waste repository. (4) Analysis on the radiocolloid migration through the porous media with filtration effect is performed. Results show that due to the strong filtration radiocolloid would not migrate significant distance in geologic media. Cylindrical geometry is used. For this analysis due to the complexity of the prescribed problem the numerical analysis based on upwind scheme is developed. (5) Analysis on the radiocolloid migration through fractures with solute matrix diffusion into surrounding rock matrix is studied with and without filtration. Interaction between colloid and solute accelerates the radiocolloid migration in fractures.

Hwang, Yong Soo

109

NRC Monitoring of Salt Waste Disposal at the Savannah River Site - 13147  

SciTech Connect

As part of monitoring required under Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 (NDAA), the NRC staff reviewed an updated DOE performance assessment (PA) for salt waste disposal at the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The NRC staff concluded that it has reasonable assurance that waste disposal at the SDF meets the 10 CFR 61 performance objectives for protection of individuals against intrusion (chap.61.42), protection of individuals during operations (chap.61.43), and site stability (chap.61.44). However, based on its evaluation of DOE's results and independent sensitivity analyses conducted with DOE's models, the NRC staff concluded that it did not have reasonable assurance that DOE's disposal activities at the SDF meet the performance objective for protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity (chap.61.41) evaluated at a dose limit of 0.25 mSv/yr (25 mrem/yr) total effective dose equivalent (TEDE). NRC staff also concluded that the potential dose to a member of the public is expected to be limited (i.e., is expected to be similar to or less than the public dose limit in chap.20.1301 of 1 mSv/yr [100 mrem/yr] TEDE) and is expected to occur many years after site closure. The NRC staff used risk insights gained from review of the SDF PA, its experience monitoring DOE disposal actions at the SDF over the last 5 years, as well as independent analysis and modeling to identify factors that are important to assessing whether DOE's disposal actions meet the performance objectives. Many of these factors are similar to factors identified in the NRC staff's 2005 review of salt waste disposal at the SDF. Key areas of interest continue to be waste form and disposal unit degradation, the effectiveness of infiltration and erosion controls, and estimation of the radiological inventory. Based on these factors, NRC is revising its plan for monitoring salt waste disposal at the SDF in coordination with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). DOE has completed or begun additional work related to salt waste disposal to address these factors. NRC staff continues to evaluate information related to the performance of the SDF and has been working with DOE and SCDHEC to resolve NRC staff's technical concerns. (authors)

Pinkston, Karen E.; Ridge, A. Christianne; Alexander, George W.; Barr, Cynthia S.; Devaser, Nishka J.; Felsher, Harry D. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (United States)] [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (United States)

2013-07-01

110

Harvesting capacitive carbon by carbonization of waste biomass in molten salts.  

PubMed

Conversion of waste biomass to value-added carbon is an environmentally benign utilization of waste biomass to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution caused by open burning. In this study, various waste biomasses are converted to capacitive carbon by a single-step molten salt carbonization (MSC) process. The as-prepared carbon materials are amorphous with oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface. For the same type of waste biomass, the carbon materials obtained in Na2CO3-K2CO3 melt have the highest Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and specific capacitance. The carbon yield decreases with increasing reaction temperature, while the surface area increases with increasing carbonization temperature. A working temperature above 700 °C is required for producing capacitive carbon. The good dissolving ability of alkaline carbonate molten decreases the yield of carbon from waste biomasses, but helps to produce high surface area carbon. The specific capacitance data confirm that Na2CO3-K2CO3 melt is the best for producing capacitive carbon. The specific capacitance of carbon derived from peanut shell is as high as 160 F g(-1) and 40 ?F cm(-2), and retains 95% after 10?000 cycles at a rate of 1 A g(-1). MSC offers a simple and environmentally sound way for transforming waste biomass to highly capacitive carbon as well as an effective carbon sequestration method. PMID:24983414

Yin, Huayi; Lu, Beihu; Xu, Yin; Tang, Diyong; Mao, Xuhui; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Dihua; Alshawabkeh, Akram N

2014-07-15

111

Thermal Destruction of Highly Chlorinated Mixed Wastes Without Generating Corrosive Off-Gases Using Molten Salt Oxidation (1,2).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A pilot-scale MSO (Molten Salt Oxidation) system was used to process 45-gallons of a halogenated mixed waste that is difficult to treat with other thermal systems. The mixed waste was a halogenated solvent that consisted mostly of methylchloroform. The 80...

W. Smtih F. Feizollahi

2002-01-01

112

Hydrostatic and shear consolidation tests with permeability measurements on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant crushed salt  

SciTech Connect

Crushed natural rock salt is a primary candidate for use as backfill and barrier material at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and therefore Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been pursuing a laboratory program designed to quantify its consolidation properties and permeability. Variables that influence consolidation rate that have been examined include stress state and moisture content. The experimental results presented in this report complement existing studies and work in progress conducted by SNL. The experiments described in this report were designed to (1) measure permeabilities of consolidated specimens of crushed salt, (2) determine the influence of brine saturation on consolidation under hydrostatic loads, and 3) measure the effects of small applied shear stresses on consolidation properties. The laboratory effort consisted of 18 individual tests: three permeability tests conducted on specimens that had been consolidated at Sandia, six hydrostatic consolidation and permeability tests conducted on specimens of brine-saturated crushed WIPP salt, and nine shear consolidation and permeability tests performed on crushed WIPP salt specimens containing 3 percent brine by weight. For hydrostatic consolidation tests, pressures ranged from 1.72 MPa to 6.90 MPa. For the shear consolidation tests, confining pressures were between 3.45 MPa and 6.90 MPa and applied axial stress differences were between 0.69 and 4.14 MPa. All tests were run under drained conditions at 25{degrees}C.

Brodsky, N.S. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States)

1994-03-01

113

Suitability of Palestine salt dome, Anderson Co. , Texas for disposal of high-level radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect

The suitability of Palestine salt dome, in Anderson County, Texas, is in serious doubt for a repository to isolate high-level nuclear waste because of abandoned salt brining operations. The random geographic and spatial occurrence of 15 collapse sinks over the dome may prevent safe construction of the necessary surface installations for a repository. The dissolution of salt between the caprock and dome, from at least 15 brine wells up to 500 feet deep, may permit increased rates of salt dissolution long into future geologic time. The subsurface dissolution is occurring at a rate difficult, if not impossible, to assess or to calculate. It cannot be shown that this dissolution rate is insignificant to the integrity of a future repository or to ancillary features. The most recent significant collapse was 36 feet in diameter and took place in 1972. The other collapses ranged from 27 to 105 feet in diameter and from 1.5 to more than 15 feet in depth. ONWI recommends that this dome be removed from consideration as a candidate site.

Patchick, P.F.

1980-01-01

114

Differential effects of morphine and LiCl on schedule-induced polydipsia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium chloride (LiCl) and morphine both produce a conditioned taste avoidance response, while only LiCl is able to elicit a conditioned rejection response (taste reactivity), indicating that the effects of conditioning are drug and preparation dependent. The present experiments extend this assessment to another behavioral preparation, schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP), by examining the ability of LiCl and morphine to produce conditioned

Ashley Myracle; Mati Lopez-Grancha; Pilar Flores; John Glowa; Anthony L. Riley

2005-01-01

115

Defense Waste Glass Studies Program: FY 1986 annual report: Salt repository project  

SciTech Connect

DWGS is developing the necessary data and models to predict the radionuclide release behavior of defense waste glasses in a salt repository environment. In FY 1986, contributions toward achieving this goal were made under the following four subtasks: static testing; flow testing; colloid studies; and modeling. Static leach tests were performed with Savannah River Laboratory defense waste glass (SRL-165) in a high-magnesium salt brine (PBB3) at a temperature of 90/degree/C. The flow testing subtask was formed in FY 1986. A leach test procedure was developed, 'Flow-Through Waste Glass Testing,' which may be used in future work to study glass leaching mechanisms. Objective of the colloid studies subtask is to develop a submodel describing radionuclide release associated with colloids, provided such a submodel is needed. Under the modeling subtask, a simple glass dissolution model was formulated that balances the consumption and production of silicic acid to control the rate of glass dissolution. A more comprehensive model is under preparation. 23 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

McGrail, B.P.; Reimus, M.A.

1987-12-01

116

Review of geochemical measurement techniques for a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt  

SciTech Connect

A broad, general review is presented of geochemical measurement techniques that can provide data necessary for site selection and repository effectiveness assessment for a radioactive waste repository in bedded salt. The available measurement techniques are organized according to the parameter measured. The list of geochemical parameters include all those measurable geochemical properties of a sample whole values determine the geochemical characteristics or behavior of the system. For each technique, remarks are made pertaining to the operating principles of the measurement instrument and the purpose for which the technique is used. Attention is drawn to areas where further research and development are needed.

Knauss, K.G.; Steinborn, T.L.

1980-05-22

117

Cerebral salt wasting syndrome in a patient affected of spontaneous frontoparietal subdural haematoma.  

PubMed

Ever since cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSW) was first described in 1950, there have been debates over its existence and whether it has an important place in the differential diagnosis of hyponatraemia. We report the case of a neurosurgical patient with sustained hyponatraemia and abnormally high sodium loss in the urine, with signs of fluid volume depletion. Hyponatraemia was not corrected after an intravenous infusion of saline solution. Stable concentrations of blood sodium above 130 mmol/l were achieved with the administration of 100 mg of hydrocortisone daily, with an ensuing reduction in sodium elimination through the urine. PMID:21994520

Cerdá-Esteve, Mariaina; Badia, Mariona; Trujillano, Javier; Vilanova, Cecília; Maravall, Javier; Mauricio, Dídac

2009-01-01

118

Cerebral salt wasting syndrome in a patient affected of spontaneous frontoparietal subdural haematoma  

PubMed Central

Ever since cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSW) was first described in 1950, there have been debates over its existence and whether it has an important place in the differential diagnosis of hyponatraemia. We report the case of a neurosurgical patient with sustained hyponatraemia and abnormally high sodium loss in the urine, with signs of fluid volume depletion. Hyponatraemia was not corrected after an intravenous infusion of saline solution. Stable concentrations of blood sodium above 130 mmol/l were achieved with the administration of 100 mg of hydrocortisone daily, with an ensuing reduction in sodium elimination through the urine.

Cerda-Esteve, Mariaina; Badia, Mariona; Trujillano, Javier; Vilanova, Cecilia; Maravall, Javier; Mauricio, Didac

2009-01-01

119

DEGRADED TBP SOLVENT REGENERATION TECHNOLOGY USING BUTYLAMINE AS A SOLVENT WASHING TO REDUCE SOLID SALT WASTE  

SciTech Connect

Normal butylamine compounds are studied as salt-free wash reagents for degraded solvent used in PUREX process in spent fuel reprocessing. The solvent wash tests were carried out with two types of butylamine compounds, n-butylamine oxalate and n-butylamine bicarbonate, by counter-current mode using a small size mixer-settler composed of two 4-stage wash steps. Di-n-butyl phosphoric acid (HDBP), the main degradation product from TBP, was removed from real degraded solvent with decontamination factor of 2.5 {approx} 7.9. The study on electrolytic decomposition of butylamine compounds was also conducted for waste treatment.

Asakura, T.; Itoh, Y.; Hotoku, S.; Morita, Y.; Uchiyama, G.

2003-02-27

120

Waste  

SciTech Connect

A process for converting wastes in molten salts into usable fuels is described. The molten salt acts as a reaction medium and potential acidic pollutants are retained in the melt. The waste is converted to a fuel gas by reacting it with insufficient air for complete conversion to CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O. The product gas is cleared of particles using a baghouse or venturi scrubber and it is then burned in a boiler to produce steam. The results for waste streams containing a high-sulfur oil refinery waste, rubber, wood, leather scraps, and waste x-ray film are presented in this article.

Gay, R.L.; Barclay, K.M.; Grantham, L.F.; Yosim, S.J.

1981-09-01

121

A Retrospective Analysis of the Growth Pattern in Patients with Salt-wasting 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate the growth pattern of children with the salt-wasting form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD). We reviewed the medical records of 13 patients in whom salt-wasting 21-OHD was diagnosed during the first 2 mo of life at our hospital from 1980 through 2008. Six reached adult height. Growth patterns, bone age, biochemical data, and the hydrocortisone dose at each growth stage were analyzed retrospectively. The mean adult height was 155.1 ± 6.5 cm (mean ± SD) in females and 158.1 ± 7.1 cm in males. Although length at birth was normal or longer than the national mean in almost all patients, the mean height SD score of both boys and girls decreased to below 0 SD during infancy. Subsequently, both boys and girls transiently showed growth acceleration and reached their peak growth velocity at 3–10 yr of age. In conclusion, in addition to suppression of growth during infancy, there was inappropriate growth acceleration during childhood. Especially from 3 mo to 3 yr of age, decreasing the hydrocortisone dose in patients who exhibit slower growth may lead to satisfactory height outcomes. Also, strict adjustment of the hydrocortisone dose to avoid accelerated growth from childhood to adolescence might improve adult height outcomes of patients with 21-OHD.

Kawano, Atsuko; Kohno, Hitoshi; Miyako, Kenichi

2014-01-01

122

A Retrospective Analysis of the Growth Pattern in Patients with Salt-wasting 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the growth pattern of children with the salt-wasting form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD). We reviewed the medical records of 13 patients in whom salt-wasting 21-OHD was diagnosed during the first 2 mo of life at our hospital from 1980 through 2008. Six reached adult height. Growth patterns, bone age, biochemical data, and the hydrocortisone dose at each growth stage were analyzed retrospectively. The mean adult height was 155.1 ± 6.5 cm (mean ± SD) in females and 158.1 ± 7.1 cm in males. Although length at birth was normal or longer than the national mean in almost all patients, the mean height SD score of both boys and girls decreased to below 0 SD during infancy. Subsequently, both boys and girls transiently showed growth acceleration and reached their peak growth velocity at 3-10 yr of age. In conclusion, in addition to suppression of growth during infancy, there was inappropriate growth acceleration during childhood. Especially from 3 mo to 3 yr of age, decreasing the hydrocortisone dose in patients who exhibit slower growth may lead to satisfactory height outcomes. Also, strict adjustment of the hydrocortisone dose to avoid accelerated growth from childhood to adolescence might improve adult height outcomes of patients with 21-OHD. PMID:24790384

Kawano, Atsuko; Kohno, Hitoshi; Miyako, Kenichi

2014-04-01

123

Complex glycerol kinase deficiency: an unusual cause of salt-wasting in males.  

PubMed

We report the case of a male infant who at 10 days of life presented with salt-wasting. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia was excluded on the basis of normal 17 alpha-hydroxy-progesterone plasma levels evaluated before the onset of steroid replacement therapy. The incidental finding of hypertriglyceridaemia led us to suspect the condition of complex glycerol kinase deficiency which was confirmed by the direct measurement of serum glycerol (7.16 mmol/l, normal range 0.02-0.21). Serum creatine kinase was markedly elevated (5963 U/l, normal range 37-290). High resolution cytogenetic investigation of peripheral blood showed a small interstitial deletion within Xp21. The same deletion was found in the patient's mother although not in his maternal grandmother. We present this case in order to emphasize the necessity of evaluating plasma triglycerides in all neonatal males with salt-wasting which can not be explained by congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Plasma triglycerides measurement carried out using a routine clinical method which measures glycerol released after lipolysis facilitates early recognition of this syndrome, and enables appropriate therapy and subsequent genetic counselling. PMID:7750200

Balducci, R; Municchi, G; Toscano, V; Mangiantini, A; Sabatini, R; Caiola, S; Tedeschi, B; Orlandi, L; Boscherini, B

1995-04-01

124

Expected environments in high-level nuclear waste and spent fuel repositories in salt  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to describe the expected environments associated with high-level waste (HLW) and spent fuel (SF) repositories in salt formations. These environments include the thermal, fluid, pressure, brine chemistry, and radiation fields predicted for the repository conceptual designs. In this study, it is assumed that the repository will be a room and pillar mine in a rock-salt formation, with the disposal horizon located approx. 2000 ft (610 m) below the surface of the earth. Canistered waste packages containing HLW in a solid matrix or SF elements are emplaced in vertical holes in the floor of the rooms. The emplacement holes are backfilled with crushed salt or other material and sealed at some later time. Sensitivity studies are presented to show the effect of changing the areal heat load, the canister heat load, the barrier material and thickness, ventilation of the storage room, and adding a second row to the emplacement configuration. The calculated thermal environment is used as input for brine migration calculations. The vapor and gas pressure will gradually attain the lithostatic pressure in a sealed repository. In the unlikely event that an emplacement hole will become sealed in relatively early years, the vapor space pressure was calculated for three scenarios (i.e., no hole closure - no backfill, no hole closure - backfill, and hole closure - no backfill). It was assumed that the gas in the system consisted of air and water vapor in equilibrium with brine. A computer code (REPRESS) was developed assuming that these changes occur slowly (equilibrium conditions). The brine chemical environment is outlined in terms of brine chemistry, corrosion, and compositions. The nuclear radiation environment emphasized in this report is the stored energy that can be released as a result of radiation damage or crystal dislocations within crystal lattices.

Claiborne, H.C.; Rickertsen, L.D., Graham, R.F.

1980-08-01

125

Differential effects of morphine and LiCl on schedule-induced polydipsia.  

PubMed

Lithium chloride (LiCl) and morphine both produce a conditioned taste avoidance response, while only LiCl is able to elicit a conditioned rejection response (taste reactivity), indicating that the effects of conditioning are drug and preparation dependent. The present experiments extend this assessment to another behavioral preparation, schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP), by examining the ability of LiCl and morphine to produce conditioned suppression of nonregulatory drinking. In Experiment 1, schedule-induced saccharin consumption was followed by LiCl or morphine (at doses comparably effective in conditioning taste avoidance under water deprivation) or by the distilled water vehicle. Although both LiCl and morphine suppressed SIP, morphine produced a significantly weaker suppression than did LiCl. Using a massed feeding design in which animals received all their food pellets in a single meal, Experiment 2 determined that LiCl and morphine were equally effective in suppressing consumption, indicating that the differential effects seen under SIP were due to the schedule of spaced food pellet deliveries. The basis for the differential effects of LiCl and morphine on SIP may be a function of an increase in the reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse (such as morphine) within this procedure that mask the acquisition and/or display of the conditioned suppression. If so, then this procedure may be useful in assessing the reinforcing properties of such drugs. PMID:15652396

Myracle, Ashley; Lopez-Grancha, Mati; Flores, Pilar; Glowa, John; Riley, Anthony L

2005-01-01

126

Structural and functional response of toad urinary bladder to LiCl.  

PubMed

The physiological and morphological response of toad urinary bladder was examined during mucosal exposure of LiCl both with and without vasopressin (VP). With 20 or 100 mU/ml of VP in the serosal bath there was a decrease in Jv between the first and second VP stimulation in LiCl-treated bladders (VP20, -14 +/- 6%; VP100, -16 +/- 5%) that was not different from that observed without LiCl (VP20, -8 +/- 3%, P = NS). However, with 1 mU/ml of VP, a significant decrease in Jv was evident in LiCl-treated (-30 +/- 10%) versus control sacs (+6 +/- 8%; P less than 0.02). At all VP concentrations tested, a significant decrease in SCC and PD was observed between the first stimulation without LiCl and the second stimulation with LiCl. Both osmotic (Pf) and diffusional water permeability (Pd) were increased significantly with 11 mM LiCl only, while neither basal nor VP-stimulated urea permeability (Pu) was affected. Morphological changes paralleled the physiological alterations induced by LiCl. These data demonstrate that LiCl interferes with the osmotic response of the toad bladder to low concentrations of VP, and increases both Pf and Pd while leaving Pu unaffected. These findings coupled with the cell swelling and intracellular vacuolization suggest the presence of a defect in transepithelial water movement somewhere beyond the apical membrane of the granular cell exposed to LiCl. PMID:6325797

Fernandez-Repollet, E; LeFurgey, A; Hardy, M A; Tisher, C C

1983-12-01

127

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: Peer review of the Golder Associates draft test plan for in situ testing in an exploratory shaft in salt  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the peer review conducted by Argonne National Laboratory of a document entitled ''Draft Test Plan for In Situ Testing in an Exploratory Shaft in Salt,'' prepared for Battelle Memorial Institute's Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation by Golder Associates, Inc. In general, the peer review panelists found the test plan to be technically sound, although some deficiencies were identified. Recommendations for improving the test plan are presented in this review report. A microfiche copy of the following unpublished report is attached to the inside back cover of this report: ''Draft Test Plan for In Situ Testing in an Exploratory Shaft in Salt,'' prepared by Golder Associates, Inc., for Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation, Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, Ohio (March 1985).

Hambley, D.F.; Mraz, D.Z.; Unterberter, R.R.; Stormont, J.C.; Neuman, S.P.; Russell, J.E.; Jacoby, C.H.; Hull, A.B.; Brady, B.H.G.; Ditmars, J.D.

1987-01-01

128

Molten salt oxidation of mixed wastes: Separation of radioactive materials and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) materials  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is involved in a program to apply a molten salt oxidation (MSO) process to the treatment of mixed wastes at Oak Ridge and other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Mixed wastes are defined as those wastes that contain both radioactive components, which are regulated by the atomic energy legislation, and hazardous waste components, which are regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). A major part of our ORNL program involves the development of separation technologies that are necessary for the complete treatment of mixed wastes. The residues from the MSO treatment of the mixed wastes must be processed further to separate the radioactive components, to concentrate and recycle residues, or to convert the residues into forms acceptable for final disposal. This paper is a review of the MSO requirements for separation technologies, the information now available, and the concepts for our development studies.

Bell, J.T.; Haas, P.A.; Rudolph, J.C.

1993-12-01

129

Progress in validation of structural codes for radioactive waste repository applications in bedded salt  

SciTech Connect

Over the last nine years, coordinated activities in laboratory database generation, constitutive model formulation, and numerical code capability development have led to an improved ability of thermal/structural codes to predict the creep deformation of underground rooms in bedded salt deposits. In the last year, these codes have been undergoing preliminary validation against an extensive database collected from the large scale underground structural in situ tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Southeastern New Mexico. This validation exercise has allowed prediction capabilities to be evaluated for accuracy. We present here a summary of the predictive capability and the nature of the in situ database involved in the validation exercise. The WIPP validation exercise has proven to be especially productive. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Munson, D.E. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); DeVries, K.L. (RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (USA))

1990-08-01

130

Evaluation of Permain Salt Deposits in the Texas Panhandle and Western Oklahoma for Underground Storage of Radioactive Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report concludes that thick salt deposits of the Palo Duro basin, and, to a lesser extent, those of the Dalhart basin, have many features that would be favorable for underground storage of radioactive waste. The principal parameters used in evaluatin...

K. S. Johnson

1976-01-01

131

Development of industrial waste heat recovery system using chemical heat pump with NH3-salt(I).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this research is to develop industrial waste heat recovery system using chemical heat pump with adopt NH(sub 3)-salt as a medium. Generally, the chemical heat pump is more efficient than compression type heat pump. Furthermore, it is one ...

I. S. Choi Y. I. Kim C. H. Kim B. M. Min W. K. Choi

1994-01-01

132

Prediction of Temperature Increases in a Salt Repository Expected from the Storage of Spent Fuel or High-Level Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Comparisons in temperature increases incurred from hypothetical storage of 133 MW of 10-year-old spent fuel (SF) or high-level waste (HLW) in underground salt formations have been made using the HEATING5 computer code. The comparisons are based on far-fie...

G. H. Llewellyn

1978-01-01

133

Results of Screening Activities in Salt States Prior to the Enactment of the National Waste Policy Act.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The identification of potential sites for a nuclear waste repository through screening procedures in the salt states is a well-established, deliberate process. This screening process has made it possible to carry out detailed studies of many of the most p...

W. A. Carbiener

1983-01-01

134

Splicing mutation in CYP21 associated with delayed presentation of salt-wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia  

SciTech Connect

Patients with salt-wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia (SW-CAH) most commonly carry an A-G transition at nucleotide 656 (nt 656 A{r_arrow}G), causing abnormal splicing of exons 2 and 3 in CYP21, the gene encoding active steroid 21-hydroxylase. Affected infants are severely deficient in cortisol and aldosterone, and usually come to medical attention during the neonatal period. We report on 2 affected boys, homozygous for the nt 656 mutation, who thrived in early infancy, but suffered salt-wasting crises unusually late in infancy, at 3.5 and 5.5 months, respectively. Laboratory studies at presentation showed hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, dehydration, and acidosis; serum aldosterone was low in spite of markedly elevated plasma renin activity. Basal 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels were only moderately elevated, yet the stimulated levels were more typical of severe, classic CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Genomic DNA from the patients was analyzed. Southern blot showed no major deletions or rearrangements. CYP21-specific amplification by polymerase chain reaction, coupled with allele-specific hybridization using wild-type and mutant probes at each of 9 sites for recognized disease-causing mutations, revealed a single, homozygous mutation in each patient: nt 656 A{r_arrow}G. These results were confirmed by sequence analysis. We conclude that the common nt 656 A{r_arrow}G mutation is sometimes associated with delayed phenotypic expression of SW-CAH. We speculate that variable splicing of the mutant CYP21 may modify the clinical manifestation of this disease. 22 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Kohn, B.; Patel, S.V.; Pelczar, J.V. [North Shore Univ. Hospital, Manhasset, NY (United States)] [and others

1995-07-03

135

Molten salt destruction as an alternative to open burning of energetic material wastes  

SciTech Connect

LLNL has built a small-scale (about 1 kg/hr throughput unit to test the destruction of energetic materials using the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) process. We have modified the unit described in the earlier references to inject energetic waste material continuously into the unit. In addition to the HMX, other explosives we have destroyed include RDX, PETN, ammonium picrate, TNT, nitroguanadine, and TATB. We have also destroyed a liquid gun propellant comprising hydroxyl ammonium nitrate, triethanolammonium nitrate and water. In addition to these pure components, we have destroyed a number of commonly used formulations, such as LX-10 (HMX/Viton), LX-16 (PETN/FPC461, LX-17 (TATB/Kel F), and PBX-9404 (HMX)/CEF/Nitro cellulose). Our experiments have demonstrated that energetic materials can be safely and effectively treated by MSD.We have also investigated the issue of steam explosions in molten salt units, both experimentally and theoretically, and concluded that steam explosions can be avoided under proper design and operating conditions. We are currently building a larger unit (nominal capacity 5 kg/hr,) to investigate the relationship between residence time, temperature, feed concentration and throughputs, avoidance of back-burn, a;nd determination of the products of combustion under different operating conditions.

Upadhye, R.S.; Watkins, B.E.; Pruneda, C.O.; Brummond, W.A.

1994-07-05

136

Solubility in the ternary system LiCl + MgCl2 + H2O at 60 and 75°C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solubility of ternary system of lithium, magnesium and chloride and refractive indexes have been determined at 60 and 75°C, respectively. Using the experimental results, the phase diagrams of the ternary system were plotted. The single-salt Pitzer parameters of LiCl and MgCl2 ?(0), ?(1) and C ? were calculated by using the equations reported by Li Y-H and de Lima at different temperatures, respectively. On the basis of Pitzer ion-interaction model and solubility product equation for mixed electrolytes, the mixing parameters ?Li, Mg, ?Li, Mg, Cl and equilibrium constant K sp were evaluated in this system, which were not reported in literature. A complete phase diagram of the ternary system was predicted at 60 and 75°C. The prediction of solubilities in ternary system was then demonstrated. The calculated solubilities agreed well with the experimental values.

Yang, Ji-Min; Ji, Jun

2010-07-01

137

Conceptual design of retrieval systems for emplaced transuranic waste containers in a salt bed depository. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission have jurisdiction over the nuclear waste management program. Design studies were previously made of proposed repository site configurations for the receiving, processing, and storage of nuclear wastes. However, these studies did not provide operational designs that were suitable for highly reliable TRU retrieval in the deep geologic salt environment for the required 60-year period. The purpose of this report is to develop a conceptual design of a baseline retrieval system for emplaced transuranic waste containers in a salt bed depository. The conceptual design is to serve as a working model for the analysis of the performance available from the current state-of-the-art equipment and systems. Suggested regulations would be based upon the results of the performance analyses.

Fogleman, S.F.

1980-04-01

138

Distillation Separation of Hydrofluoric Acid and Nitric Acid from Acid Waste Using the Salt Effect on Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents the distillation separation of hydrofluoric acid with use of the salt effect on the vapor-liquid equilibrium for acid aqueous solutions and acid mixtures. The vapor-liquid equilibrium of hydrofluoric acid + salt systems (fluorite, potassium nitrate, cesium nitrate) was measured using an apparatus made of perfluoro alkylvinylether. Cesium nitrate showed a salting-out effect on the vapor-liquid equilibrium of the hydrofluoric acid-water system. Fluorite and potassium nitrate showed a salting-in effect on the hydrofluoric acid-water system. Separation of hydrofluoric acid from an acid mixture containing nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid was tested by the simple distillation treatment using the salt effect of cesium nitrate (45 mass%). An acid mixture of nitric acid (5.0 mol · dm-3) and hydrofluoric acid (5.0 mol · dm-3) was prepared as a sample solution for distillation tests. The concentration of nitric acid in the first distillate decreased from 5.0 mol · dm-3 to 1.13 mol · dm-3, and the concentration of hydrofluoric acid increased to 5.41 mol · dm-3. This first distillate was further distilled without the addition of salt. The concentrations of hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid in the second distillate were 7.21 mol · dm-3 and 0.46 mol · dm-3, respectively. It was thus found that the salt effect on vapor-liquid equilibrium of acid mixtures was effective for the recycling of acids from acid mixture wastes.

Yamamoto, Hideki; Sumoge, Iwao

2011-03-01

139

SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INCIPIENT SLUDGE MIXING IN RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE STORAGE TANKS DURING SALT SOLUTION BLENDING  

SciTech Connect

This paper is the second in a series of four publications to document ongoing pilot scale testing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of mixing processes in 85 foot diameter, 1.3 million gallon, radioactive liquid waste, storage tanks at Savannah River Site (SRS). Homogeneous blending of salt solutions is required in waste tanks. Settled solids (i.e., sludge) are required to remain undisturbed on the bottom of waste tanks during blending. Suspension of sludge during blending may potentially release radiolytically generated hydrogen trapped in the sludge, which is a safety concern. The first paper (Leishear, et. al. [1]) presented pilot scale blending experiments of miscible fluids to provide initial design requirements for a full scale blending pump. Scaling techniques for an 8 foot diameter pilot scale tank were also justified in that work. This second paper describes the overall reasons to perform tests, and documents pilot scale experiments performed to investigate disturbance of sludge, using non-radioactive sludge simulants. A third paper will document pilot scale CFD modeling for comparison to experimental pilot scale test results for both blending tests and sludge disturbance tests. That paper will also describe full scale CFD results. The final paper will document additional blending test results for stratified layers in salt solutions, scale up techniques, final full scale pump design recommendations, and operational recommendations. Specifically, this paper documents a series of pilot scale tests, where sludge simulant disturbance due to a blending pump or transfer pump are investigated. A principle design requirement for a blending pump is UoD, where Uo is the pump discharge nozzle velocity, and D is the nozzle diameter. Pilot scale test results showed that sludge was undisturbed below UoD = 0.47 ft{sup 2}/s, and that below UoD = 0.58 ft{sup 2}/s minimal sludge disturbance was observed. If sludge is minimally disturbed, hydrogen will not be released. Installation requirements were also determined for a transfer pump which will remove tank contents, and which is also required to not disturb sludge. Testing techniques and test results for both types of pumps are presented.

Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Lee, S.; Steeper, T.; Fowley, M.; Parkinson, K.

2011-01-12

140

Development of Technology for Immobilization of Waste Salt from Electrorefining Spent Nuclear Fuel in Zeolite-A for Eventual Disposition in a Ceramic Waste Form  

SciTech Connect

The results of process development for the blending of waste salt from the electrorefining of spent fuel with zeolite-A are presented. This blending is a key step in the ceramic waste process being used for treatment of EBR-II spent fuel and is accomplished using a high-temperature v-blender. A labscale system was used with non-radioactive surrogate salts to determine optimal particle size distributions and time at temperature. An engineering-scale system was then installed in the Hot Fuel Examination Facility hot cell and used to demonstrate blending of actual electrorefiner salt with zeolite. In those tests, it was shown that the results are still favorable with actinide-loaded salt and that batch size of this v-blender could be increased to a level consistent with efficient production operations for EBR-II spent fuel treatment. One technical challenge that remains for this technology is to mitigate the problem of material retention in the v-blender due to formation of caked patches of salt/zeolite on the inner v-blender walls.

Michael F. Simpson; Prateek Sachdev

2008-04-01

141

Evidence of deeply supercooled liquid water in interaction with LiCl.  

PubMed

The properties of water above the glass transition temperature are highly controversial. By using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), the presence of deeply supercooled water is manifested by dissolution of LiCl in the pure amorphous water films heated at 140-155 K and the formation of aqueous LiCl solutions. Two phases of deeply supercooled water, that lead to the dilute and concentrated LiCl solutions, are clearly identified. The former is short-lived and merges into the latter, whereas the latter is basically identical to normal liquid water as far as the solubility of LiCl is concerned. PMID:16869587

Souda, Ryutaro

2006-08-01

142

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: special advisory report on the status of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's plans for repository performance assessment  

SciTech Connect

Repository performance assessment is analysis that identifies events and processes that might affect a repository system for isolation of radioactive waste, examines their effects on barriers to waste migration, and estimates the probabilities of their occurrence and their consequences. In 1983 Battelle Memorial Institute's Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) prepared two plans - one for performance assessment for a waste repository in salt and one for verification and validation of performance assessment technology. At the request of the US Department of Energy's Salt Repository Project Office (SRPO), Argonne National Laboratory reviewed those plans and prepared this report to advise SRPO of specific areas where ONWI's plans for performance assessment might be improved. This report presents a framework for repository performance assessment that clearly identifies the relationships among the disposal problems, the processes underlying the problems, the tools for assessment (computer codes), and the data. In particular, the relationships among important processes and 26 model codes available to ONWI are indicated. A common suggestion for computer code verification and validation is the need for specific and unambiguous documentation of the results of performance assessment activities. A major portion of this report consists of status summaries of 27 model codes indicated as potentially useful by ONWI. The code summaries focus on three main areas: (1) the code's purpose, capabilities, and limitations; (2) status of the elements of documentation and review essential for code verification and validation; and (3) proposed application of the code for performance assessment of salt repository systems. 15 references, 6 figures, 4 tables.

Ditmars, J.D.; Walbridge, E.W.; Rote, D.M.; Harrison, W.; Herzenberg, C.L.

1983-10-01

143

Structural and functional response of toad urinary bladder to LiCl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural and functional response of toad urinary bladder to LiCl. The physiological and morphological response of toad urinary bladder was examined during mucosal exposure of LiCl both with and without vasopressin (VP). With 20 or 100 mU\\/ml of VP in the serosal bath there was a decrease in Jv between the first and second VP stimulation in LiCl-treated bladders (VP20,

Emma Fernandez-Repollet; Ann LeFurgey; Marcos A Hardy; C Craig Tisher

1983-01-01

144

Effect of LiCl Filler on the Structure and Morphology of PVDF Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyvinyldene fluoride (PVDF) films filled with LiCl of mass fraction range 2 ? W ? 10 wt% are prepared by casting technique by using N, N-dimethylacetamide as a solvent. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis indicates the presence of ? and ?-phases of PVDF. The maximum content of these phases increment at 6 and 4 wt% LiCl, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD)

I. S. Eleshmawi

2008-01-01

145

Accumulation of COGEMA-La Hague-derived reprocessing wastes in French salt marsh sediments.  

PubMed

Over the past five decades, authorized low-level discharges from coastal nuclear facilities have released significant quantities of artificial radionuclides into the marine environment. In northwest Europe, the majority of the total discharge has derived from nuclear reprocessing activities at Sellafield in the United Kingdom and COGEMA-La Hague in France. At the Sellafield site, a significant amount of the discharges has been trapped in offshore fine sediment deposits, and notably in local coastal and estuarine sediments, and much research has been focused on understanding the distribution, accumulation, and reworking of long-lived radionuclides in these deposits. In contrast, there are few high-resolution published data on the vertical distribution of radionuclides in fine-grained estuarine sediments near, and downstream of, COGEMA-La Hague. This paper therefore examines the vertical distribution of a range of anthropogenic radionuclides in dated salt marsh cores from two estuaries, one adjacent to, and the other downstream of, the COGEMA-La Hague discharge point (the Havre de Carteret at Barneville-Carteret and the Baie de Somme, respectively). The radionuclides examined show a vertical distribution which predominantly reflects variations in input from COGEMA-La Hague (albeit much more clearly at Barneville-Carteret than at the Baie de Somme site), and Pu isotopic ratios are consistent with a La Hague, rather than weapons' fallout, source. Because of sediment mixing, the marshes apparently retain an integrated record of the La Hague discharges, rather than an exact reproduction of the discharge history. Sorption of radionuclides increases in the order 90Sr < 137Cs < 60Co < 239,240Pu, which is consistent with Kd values reported in the literature. In general, the radionuclide activities observed at the sites studied are low (particularly in comparison with salt marsh sediments near the Sellafield facility), but are similar to those found in areas of fine sedimentation in the central Channel. These marshes are not major sinks for discharged reprocessing wastes. PMID:12523411

Cundy, Andrew B; Croudace, Ian W; Warwick, Phillip E; Oh, Jung-Suk; Haslett, Simon K

2002-12-01

146

Resistance of Coatings for Boiler Components of Waste-to-Energy Plants to Salt Melts Containing Copper Compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accelerating effect of heavy metal compounds on the corrosive attack of boiler components like superheaters poses a severe problem in modern waste-to-energy plants (WTPs). Coatings are a possible solution to protect cheap, low alloyed steel substrates from heavy metal chloride and sulfate salts, which have a relatively low melting point. These salts dissolve many alloys, and therefore often are the limiting factor as far as the lifetime of superheater tubes is concerned. In this work the corrosion performance under artificial salt deposits of different coatings, manufactured by overlay welding, thermal spraying of self-fluxing as well as conventional systems was investigated. The results of our studies clearly demonstrate the importance of alloying elements such as molybdenum or silicon. Additionally, the coatings have to be dense and of a certain thickness in order to resist the corrosive attack under these severe conditions.

Galetz, Mathias Christian; Bauer, Johannes Thomas; Schütze, Michael; Noguchi, Manabu; Cho, Hiromitsu

2013-06-01

147

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of Westinghouse Electric Corporation's report on reference conceptual designs for a repository waste package  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the findings of the peer panel constituted by Argonne National Laboratory to review Region A of Westinghouse Electric Corporation's report entitled Waste Package Reference Conceptual Designs for a Repository in Salt. The panel determined that the reviewed report does not provide reasonable assurance that US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements for waste packages will be met by the proposed design. It also found that it is premature to call the design a ''reference design,'' or even a ''reference conceptual design.'' This review report provides guidance for the preparation of a more acceptable design document.

Rote, D.M.; Hull, A.B.; Was, G.S.; Macdonald, D.D.; Wilde, B.E.; Russell, J.E.; Kruger, J.; Harrison, W.; Hambley, D.F.

1985-10-01

148

Mineralogy, Petrology and Bromine Geochemistry of Selected Samples of the Salado Salt, Lea and Eddy Counties, New Mexico: A Potential Horizon for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the mineralogy, petrology and dehydration characteristics of the Salado Salt near Carlsbad, New Mexico (a potential radioactive waste repository). Bedded evaporite deposits were selected by the National Acade...

D. W. Combs

1975-01-01

149

Combined Utilization of Cation Exchanger and Neutral Receptor to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts  

SciTech Connect

In this report, novel approaches to the selective liquid-liquid extraction separation of sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from high-level alkaline tank waste will be discussed. Sodium hydroxide can be successfully separated from alkaline tank-waste supernatants by weakly acidic lipophilic hydroxy compounds via a cation-exchange mechanism referred to as pseudo hydroxide extraction. In a multi-cycle process, as sodium hydroxide in the aqueous phase becomes depleted, it is helpful to have a neutral sodium receptor in the extraction system to exploit the high nitrate concentration in the waste solution to promote sodium removal by an ion-pair extraction process. Simultaneous utilization of an ionizable organic hydroxy compound and a neutral extractant (crown ether) in an organic phase results in the synergistic enhancement of ion exchange and improved separation selectivity due to the receptor's strong and selective sodium binding. Moreover, combination of the hydroxy compound and the crown ether provides for mutually increased solubility, even in a non-polar organic solvent. Accordingly, application of Isopar{reg_sign} L, a kerosene-like alkane solvent, becomes feasible. This investigation involves examination of such dual-mechanism extraction phases for sodium extraction from simulated and actual salt cake waste solutions. Sodium salts can be regenerated upon the contact of the loaded extraction phases with water. Finally, conditions of potential extraction/strip cycling will be discussed.

Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Moyer, Bruce A.

2004-03-29

150

Stabilization of 238Pu-contaminated combustible waste by molten salt oxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surrogate studies were conducted using the molten salt oxidation system at the Naval Surface Warfare Center-Indian Head Division. This system uses a rotary feed system and an alumina molten salt oxidation vessel. The combustible materials were tested individually and together in a homogenized mixture. A slurry containing pyrolyzed cheesecloth ash spiked with cerium oxide, which is used as a surrogate for plutonium, and ethylene glycol were also treated in the molten salt oxidation vessel. .

Stimmel, Jay J.; Remerowski, Mary Lynn; Ramsey, Kevin B.; Heslop, J. Mark

2000-07-01

151

Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters  

DOEpatents

A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed, The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts, For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates.

Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY)

1994-11-22

152

Review of the radioactive and thermal stability of low density polyethylene encapsulated nitrate salt waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low density polyethylene extrusion is under consideration as a stabilization technique for the treatment of several mixed waste streams produced at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). The main focus of this development is the nitrate sat waste stream; Rocky Flats' largest volume mixed waste stream. This waste stream is primarily composed of the nitrate sats of various metals, including some

A. M. Faucette; B. W. Logsdon; J. H. Oldham

1992-01-01

153

Review of the radioactive and thermal stability of low density polyethylene encapsulated nitrate salt waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low density polyethylene extrusion is under consideration as a stabilization technique for the treatment of several mixed waste streams produced at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). The main focus of this development is the nitrate sat waste stream; Rocky Flats` largest volume mixed waste stream. This waste stream is primarily composed of the nitrate sats of various metals, including some

A. M. Faucette; B. W. Logsdon; J. H. Oldham

1992-01-01

154

Emissions from energetic material waste during the Molten Salt Destruction process  

SciTech Connect

The Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) process is an alternative to open burn/open detonation for destroying energetic materials; MSD has inherently low gaseous emissions, and the salt bath can scrub both acidic gases and particulates. It was demonstrated that high explosives and a liquid propellant can be safely and completely destroyed using MSD. Gaseous emissions of NOx and CO are very low. Nitrate builds up in the salt bath when nitrate-rich materials are destroyed, but addition fuel reduces the nitrate to NO. A program has been begun to add catalytic materials to the bed to further reduce emissions; a small molten salt bath has been constructed for chemical kinetic studies.

Watkins, B.E.; Upadhye, R.S.; Pruneda, C.O.; Brummond, W.A.

1994-07-05

155

THE POLAROGRAPHY OF FUSED SALTS IN A MIXTURE OF LITHIUM AND POTASSIUM CHLORIDES WITH THE USE OF A STATIONARY ELECTRODE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrolytic cell consisted of two crucibles filled with a eutectic ; mixture of LiCl and KCl and connected by a salt bridge filled with the same salt. ; Electrical contact was made through a very thin glass diaphragm in the wall of ; the salt bridge. The anode was a pool of molten lead in contact with a carbon

I. I. Naryshkin; A. E. Bazhenov

1961-01-01

156

Results of screening activities in salt states prior to the enactment of the Nationall Waste Policy Act  

SciTech Connect

The identification of potential sites for a nuclear waste repository through screening procedures in the salt states is a well-established, deliberate process. This screening process has made it possible to carry out detailed studies of many of the most promising potential sites, and general studies of all the sites, in anticipation of the siting guidelines specified in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. The screening work completed prior to the passage of the Act allowed the Secretary of Energy to identify seven salt sites as potentially acceptable under the provisions of Section 116(a) of the Act. These sites were formally identified by letters from Secretary Hodel to the states of Texas, Utah, Mississippi, and Louisiana on February 2, 1983. The potentially acceptable salt sites were in Deaf Smith and Swisher Counties in Texas; Davis and Lavender Canyons in the Gibson Dome location in Utah; Richton and Cypress Creek Domes in Mississippi; and Vacherie Dome in Louisiana. Further screening will include comparison of each potentially acceptable site against disqualification factors and selection of a preferred site in each of the three geohydrologic settings from those remaining, in accordance with the siting guidelines. These steps will be documented in statutory Environmental Assessments prepared for each site to be nominated for detailed characterization. 9 references.

Carbiener, W.A.

1983-01-01

157

Review of the radioactive and thermal stability of low density polyethylene encapsulated nitrate salt waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Low density polyethylene extrusion is under consideration as a stabilization technique for the treatment of several mixed waste streams produced at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). The main focus of this development is the nitrate sat waste stream; Rocky Flat...

A. M. Faucette B. W. Logsdon J. H. Oldham

1992-01-01

158

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: Peer review of the Fluor Technology, Inc. , report and position paper concerning waste emplacement mode and its effect on repository conceptual design  

SciTech Connect

Recommendations for revising the Fluor Technology, Inc., draft position paper entitled Evaluation of Waste Emplacement Mode and the final report entitled Waste Package/Repository Impact Study include: reevaluate the relative rankings for the various emplacement modes; delete the following want objectives: maximize ability to locate the package horizon because sufficient flexibility exists to locate rooms in the relatively clean San Andres Unit 4 Salt and maximize far-field geologic integrity during retrieval because by definition the far field will be unaffected by thermal and stress perturbations caused by remining; give greater emphasis to want objectives regarding cost and use of present technology; delete the following statements from pages 1-1 and 1-2 of the draft position paper: ''No thought or study was given to the impacts of this configuration (vertical emplacement) on repository construction or short and long-term performance of the site'' and ''Subsequent salt repository designs adopted the vertical emplacement configuration as the accepted method without further evaluation.''; delete App. E and lines 8-17 of page 1-4 of the draft position paper because they are inappropriate; adopt a formal decision-analysis procedure for the 17 identified emplacement modes; revise App. F of the impact study to more accurately reflect current technology; consider designing the underground layout to take advantage of stress-relief techniques; consider eliminating reference to fuel assemblies <10 yr ''out-of-reactor''; model the temperature distribution, assuming that the repository is constructed in an infinitely large salt body; state that the results of creep analyses must be considered tentative until they can be validated by in situ measurements; and reevaluate the peak radial stresses on the waste package so that the calculated stress conditions more closely approximate expected in situ conditions.

Hambley, D.F.; Russell, J.E.; Whitfield, R.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Harrison, W.; Jacoby, C.H.; Bump, T.R.; Mraz, D.Z.; Busch, J.S.; Fischer, L.E.

1987-02-01

159

RESULTS OF THE EXTRACTION-SCRUB-STRIP TESTING USING AN IMPROVED SOLVENT FORMULATION AND SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY SIMULATED WASTE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent - also known as the next generation solvent (NGS) - for deployment at the Savannah River Site to remove cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is a collaborative effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah

T. Peters; S. Fink

2012-01-01

160

Projected Nitrate in Ground Water from Buried Salt-Concrete Waste Forms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three different, but interrelated, scenarios are proposed for buried DWPF salt cake incorporated in concrete. The scenarios and calculated maximum nitrate concentrations from each as a result of leaching are: (1) Buried monoliths are considered to be loca...

H. P. Holcomb R. W. Root

1979-01-01

161

Disposal of Soluble Coal-Gasification Wastes: Salts are encapsulated in a hard impermeable mass.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. A method has been proposed for the disposal of soluble salts fround in the wastewater from coal-gasification plants. The new process combines several different proce...

1982-01-01

162

Melting of the precipitated ice IV in LiCl aqueous solution and polyamorphism of water.  

PubMed

Melting of the precipitated ice IV in supercooled LiCl-H(2)O solution was studied in the range of 0-0.6 MPa and 160-270 K. Emulsified solution was used to detect this metastable transition. Ice IV was precipitated from the aqueous solution of 2.0 mol % LiCl (or 4.8 mol % LiCl) in each emulsion particle at low-temperature and high-pressure conditions, and the emulsion was decompressed at different temperatures. The melting of ice IV was detected from the temperature change of the emulsified sample during the decompression. There was an apparently sudden change in the slope of the ice IV melting curve (liquidus) in the pressure-temperature diagram. At the high-pressure and high-temperature side of the change, the solute-induced freezing point depression was observed. At the low-pressure and low-temperature side, ice IV transformed into ice Ih on the decompression, and the transition was almost unrelated to the concentration of LiCl. These experimental results were roughly explained by the presumed existence of two kinds of liquid water (low-density liquid water and high-density liquid water), or polyamorphism in water, and by the simple assumption that LiCl dissolved maily in high-density liquid water. PMID:21736291

Mishima, Osamu

2011-12-01

163

Regulatory Framework for Salt Waste Disposal and Tank Closure at the Savannah River Site - 13663  

SciTech Connect

The end of the Cold War has left a legacy of approximately 37 million gallons of radioactive waste in the aging waste tanks at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). A robust program is in place to remove waste from these tanks, treat the waste to separate into a relatively small volume of high-level waste and a large volume of low-level waste, and to actively dispose of the low-level waste on-site and close the waste tanks and associated ancillary structures. To support performance-based, risk-informed decision making and to ensure compliance with all regulatory requirements, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its current and past contractors have worked closely with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop and implement a framework for on-site low-level waste disposal and closure of the SRS waste tanks. The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, provides DOE the authority to manage defense-related radioactive waste. DOE Order 435.1 and its associated manual and guidance documents detail this radioactive waste management process. The DOE also has a requirement to consult with the NRC in determining that waste that formerly was classified as high-level waste can be safely managed as either low-level waste or transuranic waste. Once DOE makes a determination, NRC then has a responsibility to monitor DOE's actions in coordination with SCDHEC to ensure compliance with the Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 61 (10CFR61), Subpart C performance objectives. The management of hazardous waste substances or components at SRS is regulated by SCDHEC and the EPA. The foundation for the interactions between DOE, SCDHEC and EPA is the SRS Federal Facility Agreement (FFA). Managing this array of requirements and successfully interacting with regulators, consultants and stakeholders is a challenging task but ensures thorough and thoughtful processes for disposing of the SRS low-level waste and the closure of the tank farm facilities. (authors)

Thomas, Steve; Dickert, Ginger [Savannah River Remediation LLC, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River Remediation LLC, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01

164

IR spectroscopy of aqueous alkali halide solutions: Pure salt-solvated water spectra and hydration numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extrapolation techniques were used to obtain pure salt-solvated water spectra from the attenuated total reflection infrared spectra (ATR-IR) of aqueous solutions of the nine alkali halide salts LiCl, NaCl, KCl, CsCl, NaBr, KBr, NaI, KI, and CsI and the alkaline-earth chloride salt MgCl2. These salts ionize completely in water. The ions by themselves do not absorb in the IR, but

Jean-Joseph Max; Camille Chapados

2001-01-01

165

Polyethylene encapsulatin of nitrate salt wastes: Waste form stability, process scale-up, and economics. Technology Status Topical Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A polyethylene encapsulation system for treatment of low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Polyethylene has several advantages compared with conventional solidification/stabilization mater...

P. D. Kalb J. H. Heiser P. Colombo

1991-01-01

166

Geohydrology of the northern Louisiana salt-dome basin pertinent to the storage of radioactive wastes; a progress report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Salt domes in northern Louisiana are being considered as possible storage sites for nuclear wastes. The domes are in an area that received regional sedimentation through early Tertiary (Eocene) time with lesser amounts of Quaternary deposits. The Cretaceous-Tertiary accumulation is a few thousand feet thick; the major sands are regional aquifers that extend far beyond the boundaries of the salt-dome basin. Because of multiple aquifers, structural deformation, and variations in the hydraulic characteristics of cap rock, the ground-water hydrology around a salt dome may be highly complex. The Sparta Sand is the most productive and heavily used regional aquifer. It is either penetrated by or overlies most of the domes. A fluid entering the Sparta flow system would move toward one of the pumping centers, all at or near municipalities that pump from the Sparta. Movement could be toward surface drainage where local geologic and hydrologic conditions permit leakage to the surface or to a surficial aquifer. (Woodard-USGS)

Hosman, R. L.

1978-01-01

167

Thermal Properties of LiCl-KCl Molten Salt for Nuclear Waste Separation  

SciTech Connect

This project addresses both practical and fundamental scientific issues of direct relevance to operational challenges of the molten LiCl-KCl salt pyrochemical process, while providing avenues for improvements in the process. In order to understand the effects of the continually changing composition of the molten salt bath during the process, the project team will systematically vary the concentrations of rare earth surrogate elements, lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, and neodymium, which will be added to the molten LiCl-KCl salt. They will also perform a limited number of focused experiments by the dissolution of depleted uranium. All experiments will be performed at 500 deg C. The project consists of the following tasks. Researchers will measure density of the molten salts using an instrument specifically designed for this purpose, and will determine the melting points with a differential scanning calorimeter. Knowledge of these properties is essential for salt mass accounting and taking the necessary steps to prevent melt freezing. The team will use cyclic voltammetry studies to determine redox potentials of the rare earth cations, as well as their diffusion coefficients and activities in the molten LiCl-KCl salt. In addition, the team will perform anodic stripping voltammetry to determine the concentration of the rare earth elements and their solubilities, and to develop the scientific basis for an on-line diagnostic system for in situ monitoring of the cation species concentration (rare earths in this case). Solubility and activity of the cation species are critically important for the prediction of the salt's useful lifetime and disposal.

Sridharan, Kumar [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Allen, Todd [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Anderson, Mark [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Simpson, Mike [Idaho National Lab., (United States)

2012-11-30

168

Testing of Air Pulse Agitators to Support Design of Savannah River Site Highly Radioactive Processing at the Salt Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) is intended to concentrate the highly radioactive constituents from waste salt solutions at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Air Pulse Agitators (APAs) were selected for process mixing in high-radiation locations at the SWPF. This technology has the advantage of no moving parts within the hot cell, eliminating potential failure modes and the need for maintenance within the high-radiation environment. This paper describes the results of APA tests performed to gain operational and performance data for the SWPF design. (authors)

Gallego, R.M.; Stephens, A.B. [General Atomics, P. O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Wilkinson, R.H.; Dev, H. [Parsons Corporation, 2331 S. Centennial Avenue, Aiken, SC 29803 (United States); Suggs, P.C. [U.S. Department of Energy, Savannah River Operations Office, Box A, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States)

2006-07-01

169

Separation of CsCl from a Ternary CsCl-LiCl-KCl Salt via a Melt Crystallization Technique for Pyroprocessing Waste Minimization  

SciTech Connect

A parametric study has been conducted to identify the effects of several parameters on the separation of CsCl from molten LiCl-KCl salt via a melt crystallization process. A reverse vertical Bridgman technique was used to grow the salt crystals. The investigated parameters were: (1) the advancement rate, (2) the crucible lid configuration, (3) the amount of salt mixture, (4) the initial composition of CsCl, and (5) the temperature difference between the high and low furnace zones. From each grown crystal, samples were taken axially and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results show that CsCl concentrations at the top of the crystals were low and increased to a maximum at the bottom of the salt. Salt (LiCl-KCl) recycle percentages for the experiments ranged from 50% to 75% and the CsCl composition in the waste salt was low. To increase the recycle percentage and the concentration of CsCl in the waste form, the possibility of using multiple crystallization stages was explored to further optimize the process. Results show that multiple crystallization stages are practical and the optimal experimental conditions should be operated at 5.0 mm/hr rate with a lid configuration and temperature difference of 200 °C for a total of five crystallization stages. Under these conditions, up to 88% of the salt can be recycled.

Ammon Williams; Supathorn Phongikaroon; Michael Simpson

2013-02-01

170

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's reports on preferred repository sites within the Palo Duro Basin, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Documents are being submitted to the Salt Repository Project Office (SRPO) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) by Battelle Memorial Institute's Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) to satisfy milestones of the Salt Repository Project of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. Some of these documents are being reviewed by multidisciplinary groups of peers to ensure DOE of their adequacy and credibility. Adequacy of documents refers to their ability to meet the standards of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, as enunciated in 10 CFR 60, and the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Credibility of documents refers to the validity of the assumptions, methods, and conclusions, as well as to the completeness of coverage. This report summarizes Argonne's review of ONWI's two-volume draft report entitled Identification of Preferred Sites within the Palo Duro Basin: Vol. 1 - Palo Duro Location A, and Vol. 2 - Palo Duro Location B, dated January 1984. Argonne was requested by DOE to review these documents on January 17 and 24, 1984 (see App. A). The review procedure involved obtaining written comments on the reports from three members of Argonne's core peer review staff and three extramural experts in related research areas. The peer review panel met at Argonne on February 6, 1984, and reviewer comments were integrated into this report by the review session chairman, with the assistance of Argonne's core peer review staff. All of the peer review panelists concurred in the way in which their comments were represented in this report (see App. B). A letter report and a draft of this report were sent to SRPO on February 10, 1984, and April 17, 1984, respectively. 5 references.

Fenster, D.; Edgar, D.; Gonzales, S.; Domenico, P.; Harrison, W.; Engelder, T.; Tisue, M.

1984-04-01

171

Degraded TBP Solvent Regeneration Technology using Butylamine as a Solvent Washing to Reduce Solid Salt Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Normal butylamine compounds are studied as salt-free wash reagents for degraded solvent used in PUREX process in spent fuel reprocessing. The solvent wash tests were carried out with two types of butylamine compounds, n-butylamine oxalate and n-butylamine...

T. Asakura Y. Itoh S. Hotoku Y. Morita G. Uchiyama

2005-01-01

172

Multi physics modeling of a molten-salt electrolytic process for nuclear waste treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi physics electrochemical modeling in a framework of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code was proposed and dealt with in detail to simulate the electro-transport behaviour that appears in a molten-salt electrolytic system. The modeling approach in this study is focused on the mass transport and current arising due to the concentration and the surface overpotential based on a cell configuration

K. R. Kim; S. Y. Choi; J. G. Kim; S. Paek; D. H. Ahn; S. W. Kwon; J. B. Shim; S. H. Kim; H. S. Lee; B. G. Park; K. W. Yi; I. S. Hwang

2010-01-01

173

The buildup of confined pressure at salts in decaying radioactive waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports that whenever a volume expansion ÎV works against a confining pressure p, such as that which is generated by water of crystallization at encapsulated salts, it is appropriate to use Clapeyron's equation to estimate the temperature coefficient of that pressure.

Ashbee; K. H. G

1991-01-01

174

Technetium in alkaline, high-salt, radioactive tank waste supernate: Preliminary characterization and removal  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the initial work conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to study technetium (Tc) removal from Hanford tank waste supernates and Tc oxidation state in the supernates. Filtered supernate samples from four tanks were studied: a composite double shell slurry feed (DSSF) consisting of 70% from Tank AW-101, 20% from AP-106, and 10% from AP-102; and three complexant concentrate (CC) wastes (Tanks AN-107, SY-101, ANS SY-103) that are distinguished by having a high concentration of organic complexants. The work included batch contacts of these waste samples with Reillex{trademark}-HPQ (anion exchanger from Reilly Industries) and ABEC 5000 (a sorbent from Eichrom Industries), materials designed to effectively remove Tc as pertechnetate from tank wastes. A short study of Tc analysis methods was completed. A preliminary identification of the oxidation state of non-pertechnetate species in the supernates was made by analyzing the technetium x-ray absorption spectra of four CC waste samples. Molybdenum (Mo) and rhenium (Re) spiked test solutions and simulants were tested with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry to evaluate the feasibility of the technique for identifying Tc species in waste samples.

Blanchard, D.L. Jr.; Brown, G.N.; Conradson, S.D. [and others

1997-01-01

175

Hyponatremia in a child with tuberculous meningitis in PICU: Cerebral salt wasting syndrome Çocuk yo ?un bakõm ünitesinde tüberküloz menenjitli çocukta hiponatremi: Serebral tuz kaybõ sendromu  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSW) has been reported in cases with subarachnoid haemorrhage, infections, head injury, brain tumours, trans- sphenoidal pituitary surgery, and neurosurgery. It is characterized by extracellular fluid depletion and hyponatraemia caused by progressive natriuresis with concomitant diuresis. The relationship between tuberculous menengitis and CSW in children has been desciribed rarely. We describe a case of CSW in

Mehmet Bonak; Hakkõ Özdo; Servet Yel; Vuslat Bonak; Kenan Haspolat

176

Measurement of unsaturated hydraulic properties of salt cake simulant relevant to hanford and SRS high-level waste tanks using a pilot-scale setup  

SciTech Connect

Closure of the remaining tanks and final disposition of the radioactive waste is a high priority task at both Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford. The radioactive waste in the tanks are generally found in layers: supernate (on top) containing soluble fission products, and salt-cake and sludge (on the bottom of the tank) containing insoluble actinides. One strategy for minimizing the waste volume is to segregate the low curie salt waste from the high curie salt supernate by draining the supernate and interstitial salt solution from the salt-cake. The retrieval of the interstitial fluid will require knowledge of relevant properties of salt-cake waste including drainage parameters, more specifically, its hydraulic properties. The hydraulic parameters of the salt-cake have significance with respect to: 1) Kinetics of the retrieval process; and 2) Equilibrium conditions of the drainage. While the saturated hydraulic properties of the salt waste (hydraulic conductivity in the vertical and horizontal direction) can be used to determine the kinetics of the flow through the salt waste, the unsaturated properties are needed in order to assess not only the time frame of tank drainage but also the equilibrium conditions. How much and how fast fluid can be drained at given initial and boundary conditions (atmospheric pressure and temperature) can be analyzed. A series of dissolution and drainage experiments was conducted using S-112, S-109 and Tank 41 simulants in a pilot-scale column (1' diameter, 10' high). The major goal of these experiments was to determine the hydraulic parameters of flow through the column and the dissolution patterns upon addition of fresh water. The hydraulic experiments were conducted using interstitial fluid as well as fresh water. A series of one-step outflow experiments were used to evaluate the drainage patterns for salt-bed heights ranging from 1' to 8'. Measured data include bulk densities and saturated hydraulic conductivities as a function of temperature, and water retention characteristics for ambient temperature. Experiments in the range of 22-43 deg. C confirmed that the hydraulic conductivity in the vertical direction is strongly dependent on the temperature with variations most likely caused by physical-chemical changes in the salt-cake structure and the viscosity of the interstitial fluid. Evidence for the changes in salt-cake structure include: increased effluent specific gravity to 1.47, appearance of voids in the column, and a 10% reduction of the column height. A two-orders-of-magnitude difference in viscosity was observed when the temperature increased from 22 deg. C to 43 deg. C. The liquid retention parameters were determined using static retention points (derived from the multi-step outflow time series). Inverse analyses of the outflow data yielded additional unsaturated hydraulic conductivity parameters. The inverse analysis was performed by fixing saturated and residual water contents and the pore connectivity factor. Numerical simulations showed that the amount of drained fluid is directly related to van Genuchten's shape parameters n and {alpha} . On the other hand, the rate of drainage was directly related to saturated hydraulic conductivity. The recommended values for {alpha} and n with uncertainties in the parenthesis are respectively: 3.2(0.32) 1/m and 2.6(0.4). The recommended value for saturated hydraulic conductivity of salt-cake is 6.0E-06(3E-06). This work provides critical data about unsaturated hydraulic properties which can be used in numerical models to better predict removal of interstitial liquid from tanks that directly impact tank and site cleanup schedule and costs. (authors)

Tachiev, G.; Yaari, G.; Long, S.; Srivastava, R.; Roelant, D. [Florida International Univ., Miami (United States)

2007-07-01

177

Permeability and hydraulic diffusivity of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository salt inferred from small-scale brine inflow experiments  

SciTech Connect

Brine seepage to 17 boreholes in salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility horizon has been monitored for several years. A simple model for one-dimensional, radial, darcy flow due to relaxation of ambient pore-water pressure is applied to analyze the field data. Fits of the model response to the data yield estimates of two parameters that characterize the magnitude of the flow and the time scale over which it evolves. With further assumptions, these parameters are related to the permeability and the hydraulic diffusivity of the salt. For those data that are consistent with the model prediction, estimated permeabilities are typically 10{sup {minus}22} to 10{sup {minus}21} m{sup 2}. The relatively small range of inferred permeabilities reflects the observation that the measured seepage fluxes are fairly consistent from hole to hole, of the order of 10{sup {minus}10} m/s. Estimated diffusivities are typically 10{sup {minus}10} to 10{sup {minus}8} m{sup 2}/s. The greater scatter in inferred hydraulic diffusivities is due to the difficulty of matching the idealized model history to the observed evolution of the flows. The data obtained from several of the monitored holes are not consistent with the simple model adopted here; material properties could not be inferred in these cases.

McTigue, D.F.

1993-06-01

178

Solution properties of poly(amic acid)–NMP containing LiCl and their effects on membrane morphologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical properties of poly(amic acid) (PAA) casting solutions in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) containing lithium chloride (LiCl) were characterized by viscometry and dynamic light scattering (DLS) and were related to the morphological properties of asymmetric membranes prepared from these solutions. At a fixed polymer concentration, the increase in viscosity of the PAA solutions with increasing LiCl content is mainly determined by the

Hyuck Jai Lee; Jongok Won; Hoosung Lee; Yong Soo Kang

2002-01-01

179

Expedited demonstration of molten salt mixed waste treatment technology. Addendum 1  

SciTech Connect

The Final Forms portion (Section 4) of the TTP SF-2410-03 final report was incomplete. This was noted under the subsection ``Task Variances.`` The present report documents the work that was unfinished at that time, arranged in accord with the subsections of the Final Report. An assessment of the overall immobilization efficacy of polymer microencapsulation, as supported by this study, has been added. The study and demonstration of the polyethylene microencapsulation of salt residues is continuing under other auspices. A stand-alone report combining the results of the continuation with the contents of this memorandum and of Section 4 of the Final Report will be issued in later this year.

Holtz, E.H. von; Hopper, R.W.; Adamson, M.G.

1995-04-27

180

Solution-based approaches for making high-density sodalite waste forms to immobilize spent electrochemical salts  

SciTech Connect

Three different solution-based approaches were taken to make sodalite minerals as a host for a mixed salt simulating the waste generated during the electrochemical separations process of nuclear fuel reprocessing that contains alkali, alkaline earth, and lanthanide chlorides plus trace iodine and actinides. All of the approaches included an aqueous solution of mixed chlorides (simulated waste) but the other reactants varied: (1) Al(OH)3 + NaOH + CS, (2) NaAlO2 + CS, and (3) Al2Si2O7 + NaOH, (CS = colloidal silica). The products were dried, ground, pressed into pellets, fired (650–950 °C), and characterized. Both 5 and 10 mass% of a Si-Na-B glass binder were introduced at different stages in the process. Route (2) proved the most successful at producing high sodalite fractions (up to 100%) with minimal glass binder additions and showed high consolidation potential (up to 91.4% of theoretical density). Detailed comparisons are provided of the results.

Lepry, William C.; Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Pierce, David A.

2013-08-29

181

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's Geochemical Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

Describe the management program for coordinating subcontractors and their work, and integrating research results. Appropriate flowcharts should be included. Provide more information on the overall scope of the program. For each subcontractor, provide specific workscopes that indicate whether analytical activities are developmental or routine, approximate number of analyses to be made, and something of the adequacy of the analyses to meet program goals. Indicate interfaces with other earth-science disciplines like hydrology and with other groups doing relevant geochemical research and engineering design. Address the priorities for each activity or group of activities. High priority should be given to early development of a geochemical statement of what constitutes suitable salt for a repository. Reference standard procedures for sampling, sample preservation, and sample analysis wherever appropriate or, if not appropriate, indicate that any deviations from standard procedures will be documented. Ensure that appropriate quality assurance procedures will be followed for the procedures listed above. Include specific procedures for the choice, verification, validation, and documentation of computer codes related to the geochemical aspects of repository performance assessment. Include activities addressing regional hydrochemistry and make clear that each principal hydrogeologic unit at each site will be studied geochemically. Indicate that proposed plans for obtaining hydrogeochemical data will be included in each site characterization plan. Describe how site geochemical stability will be handled, especially with respect to dissolution, postemplacement geochemistry, human influences, and climatic variations. Minor recommendations and suggested improvements in the text of the plan are given in Sec. 5.

Harrison, W.; Seitz, M.; Fenster, D.; Lerman, A.; Brookins, D.; Tisue, M.

1984-02-01

182

Structure and Dynamics for LiBH4-LiCl Solid Solutions  

SciTech Connect

A surprisingly high degree of structural and compositional dynamics is observed in the system LiBH{sub 4}-LiCl as a function of temperature and time. Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) data reveals that Cl{sup -} readily substitutes for BH{sub 4}{sup -} in the structure of LiBH{sub 4}. Prolonged heating a sample of LiBH{sub 4}-LiCl (1:1 molar ratio) above the phase transition temperature and below the melting point (108 < T < 275 C) can produce highly chloride substituted hexagonal lithium borohydride, h-Li(BH{sub 4}){sub 1-x}Cl{sub x}, e.g., x {approx} 0.42, after heating from room temperature (RT) to 224 C at 2.5 C/min. LiCl has a higher solubility in h-LiBH{sub 4} as compared to orthorhombic lithium borohydride, o-LiBH{sub 4}, which is illustrated by a LiBH{sub 4}-LiCl (1:1) sample equilibrated at 245 C for 24 days and left at RT for another 13 months. Rietveld refinement reveals that this sample contains o-Li(BH{sub 4}){sub 0.91}Cl{sub 0.09} and LiCl. This illustrates a significantly faster dissolution of LiCl in h-LiBH{sub 4} as compared to a slower segregation of LiCl from o-LiBH{sub 4}, which is also demonstrated by in situ SR-PXD from three cycles of heating and cooling of the same Li(BH{sub 4}){sub 0.91}Cl{sub 0.09} sample. The substitution of the smaller Cl{sup -} for the larger BH{sub 4}{sup -} ion is clearly observed as a reduction in the unit cell volume as a function of time and temperature. A significant stabilization of h-LiBH{sub 4} is found to depend on the degree of anion substitution. Variable temperature solid-state magic-angle spinning (MAS) {sup 7}Li and {sup 11}B NMR experiments on pure LiBH{sub 4} show an increase in full width at half maximum (fwhm) when approaching the phase transition from o- to h-LiBH{sub 4}, which indicates an increase of the relaxation rate (i.e., T{sub 2} decreases). A less pronounced effect is observed for ion-substituted Li(BH{sub 4}){sub 1-x}Cl{sub x}, 0.09 < x < 0.42. The MAS NMR experiments also demonstrate a higher degree of motion in the hexagonal phase, i.e., fwhm is reduced by more than a factor of 10 at the o- to h-LiBH{sub 4} phase transition.

Arnbjerg, L.; Ravnsbak, D; Filinchuk, Y; Vang, R; Cerenius, Y; Besenbacher, F; Jorgensen, J; Jakobsen, H; Jensen, T

2009-01-01

183

Properties of salt-saturated concrete and grout after six years in situ at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

Samples of concrete and grout were recovered from short boreholes in the repository floor at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant more than six years after the concrete and grout were placed. Plugs from the Plug Test Matrix of the Plugging and Sealing Program of Sandia National Laboratories were overcored to include a shell of host rock. The cores were analyzed at the Waterways Experiment Station to assess their condition after six years of service, having potentially been exposed to those aspects of their service environment (salt, brine, fracturing, anhydrite, etc.) that could cause deterioration. Measured values of compressive strength and pulse velocity of both the grout and the concrete equaled or exceeded values from tests performed on laboratory-tested samples of the same mixtures at ages of one month to one year after casting. The phase assemblages had changed very little. Materials performed as intended and showed virtually no chemical or physical evidence of deterioration. The lowest values for strength and pulse velocity were measured for samples taken from the Disturbed Rock Zone, indicating the influence of cracking in this zone on the properties of enclosed seal materials. There was evidence of movement of brine in the system. Crystalline phases containing magnesium, potassium, sulfate, and other ions had been deposited on free surfaces in fractures and pilot holes. There was a reaction rim in the anhydrite immediately surrounding each recovered borehole plug, suggesting interaction between grout or concrete and host rock. However, the chemical changes apparent in this reaction rim were not reflected in the chemical composition of the adjacent concrete or grout. The grout and concrete studied here showed no signs of the deterioration found to have occurred in some parts of the concrete liner of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant waste handling shaft.

Wakeley, L.D.; Harrington, P.T.; Weiss, C.A. Jr. [Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS (United States). Structures Lab.

1993-06-01

184

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's reports on multifactor life testing of waste package materials  

SciTech Connect

Two documents that provide the approaches in designing a test program to investigate uniform corrosion of low-carbon cash steel in a salt repository environment were reviewed. Recommendations are made by the Peer Review Panel for improving the two reports.

McPheeters, C.C.; Harrison, W.; Ditmars, J.D.; Lerman, A.; Rote, D.M.; Edgar, D.E.; Hambley, D.F.

1984-09-01

185

On the importance of coupled THM processes to predict the long-term response of a generic salt repository for high-level nuclear waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salt is a potential medium for the underground disposal of nuclear waste because it has several assets, in particular its ability to creep and heal fractures generated by excavation and its water and gas tightness in the undisturbed state. In this research, we focus on disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste (such as spent fuel) and we consider a generic salt repository with in-drift emplacement of waste packages and subsequent backfill of the drifts with run-of-mine crushed salt. As the natural salt creeps, the crushed salt backfill gets progressively compacted and an engineered barrier system is subsequently created. In order to evaluate the integrity of the natural and engineered barriers over the long-term, it is important to consider the coupled effects of the thermal, hydraulic and mechanical processes that take place. In particular, the results obtained so far show how the porosity reduction of the crushed salt affects the saturation and pore pressure evolution throughout the repository, both in time and space. Such compaction is induced by the stress and temperature regime within the natural salt. Also, transport properties of the host rock are modified not only by thermo-mechanically and hydraulically-induced damaged processes, but also by healing/sealing of existing fractures. In addition, the THM properties of the backfill evolve towards those of the natural salt during the compaction process. All these changes are based on dedicated laboratory experiments and on theoretical considerations [1-3]. Different scenarios are modeled and compared to evaluate the relevance of different processes from the perspective of effective nuclear waste repositories. The sensitivity of the results to some parameters, such as capillarity, is also addressed. The simulations are conducted using an updated version of the TOUGH2-FLAC3D simulator, which is based on a sequential explicit method to couple flow and geomechanics [4]. A new capability for large strains and creep has been introduced and validated. The time-dependent geomechanical response of salt is determined using the Lux/Wolters constitutive model, developed at Clausthal University of Technology (Germany). References: [1] R. Wolters, and K.-H. Lux. Evaluation of Rock Salt Barriers with Respect to Tightness: Influence of Thermomechanical Damage, Fluid Infiltration and Sealing/Healing. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on the Mechanical Behavior of Salt (SaltMech7). Paris: Balkema, Rotterdam (2012). [2] W. Bechthold et al., Backfilling and Sealing of Underground Repositories for Radioactive Waste in Salt (BAMBUS Project), European Atomic Energy Community, Report EUR19124 EN (1999). [3] J. Kim, E.L Sonnenthal and J. Rutqvist, 'Formulation and sequential numerical algorithms of coupled fluid/heat flow and geomechanics for multiple porosity materials', Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng., 92, 425 (2012). [4] J. Rutqvist. Status of the TOUGH-FLAC simulator and recent applications related to coupled fluid flow and crustal deformations. Computational Geosciences, 37, 739-750 (2011).

Blanco Martin, L.; Rutqvist, J.; Birkholzer, J. T.

2013-12-01

186

Effect of biosolid waste compost on soil respiration in salt-affected soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A great part of mediterranean soils are affected by salinization. This is an important problem in semiarid areas increased by the use of low quality waters, the induced salinization due to high phreatic levels and adverse climatology. Salinization affects 25% of irrigated agriculture, producing important losses on the crops. In this situation, the application of organic matter to the soil is one of the possible solutions to improve their quality. The main objective of this research was to asses the relation between the salinity level (electrical conductivity, EC) in the soil and the response of microbial activity (soil respiration rate) after compost addition. The study was conducted for a year. Soil samples were collected near to an agricultural area in Crevillente and Elche, "El Hondo" Natural Park (Comunidad de Regantes from San Felipe Neri). The experiment was developed to determine and quantify the soil respiration rate in 8 different soils differing in salinity. The assay was done in close pots -in greenhouse conditions- containing soil mixed with different doses of sewage sludge compost (2, 4 and 6%) besides the control. They were maintained at 60% of water holding capacity (WHC). Soil samples were analyzed every four months for a year. The equipment used to estimate the soil respiration was a Bac-Trac and CO2 emitted by the soil biota was measured and quantified by electrical impedance changes. It was observed that the respiration rate increases as the proportion of compost added to each sample increases as well. The EC was incremented in each sampling period from the beginning of the experiment, probably due to the fact that soils were in pots and lixiviation was prevented, so the salts could?t be lost from soil. Over time the compost has been degraded and, it was more susceptible to be mineralized. Salts were accumulated in the soil. Also it was observed a decrease of microbial activity with the increase of salinity in the soil. Keywords: soil respiration, compost, electrical conductivity, salinization, Bac-Trac References: Abdelbasset Lakhdar, Mokded Rabhi, Tahar Ghnaya, Francesco Montemurro, Naceur Jedidi , Chedly Abdelly. Effectiveness of compost use in salt-affected soil. Journal of Hazardous Materials 171 (2009) pp 29-37. M. Tejada, C. Garcia, J.L. Gonzalez , M.T. Hernandez . Use of organic amendment as a strategy for saline soil remediation:Influence on the physical, chemical and biological properties of soil. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38 (2006) pp 1413-1421. I. Gomez; J.M. Disla Soriano; J. Navarro-Pedreño; F. García-Orenes; M.B. Almendro-Candel; M.M. Jordan. Quantification of soil respiration in different saline soil of Alicante (Spain). EGU General Assembly (2012). Viena. Ed. Geophysycal Research Abstracts. Vol 14 EGU2012-2399,(2012). (Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Spanish MICINN. Project Ref.: CGL2009-11194)

Raya, Silvia; Gómez, Ignacio; García, Fuensanta; Navarro, José; Jordán, Manuel Miguel; Belén Almendro, María; Martín Soriano, José

2013-04-01

187

Summary of four release consequence analyses for hypothetical nuclear waste repositories in salt and granite  

SciTech Connect

Release consequence methology developed under the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) program has now been applied to four hypothetical repository sites. This paper summarizes the results of these four studies in order to demonstrate that the far-field methodology developed under the AEGIS program offers a practical approach to the post-closure safety assessment of nuclear waste repositories sited in deep continental geologic formations. The four studies are briefly described and compared according to the following general categories: physical description of the repository (size, inventory, emplacement depth); geologic and hydrologic description of the site and the conceptual hydrologic model for the site; description of release scenario; hydrologic model implementation and results; engineered barriers and leach rate modeling; transport model implementation and results; and dose model implementation and results. These studies indicate the following: numerical modeling is a practical approach to post-closure safety assessment analysis for nuclear waste repositories; near-field modeling capability needs improvement to permit assessment of the consequences of human intrusion and pumping well scenarios; engineered barrier systems can be useful in mitigating consequences for postulated release scenarios that short-circuit the geohydrologic system; geohydrologic systems separating a repository from the natural biosphere discharge sites act to mitigate the consequences of postulated breaches in containment; and engineered barriers of types other than the containment or absorptive type may be useful.

Cole, C.R.; Bond, F.W.

1980-12-01

188

Repository environmental parameters and models/methodologies relevant to assessing the performance of high-level waste packages in basalt, tuff, and salt  

SciTech Connect

This document provides specifications for models/methodologies that could be employed in determining postclosure repository environmental parameters relevant to the performance of high-level waste packages for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) at Richland, Washington, the tuff at Yucca Mountain by the Nevada Test Site, and the bedded salt in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Guidance is provided on the identify of the relevant repository environmental parameters; the models/methodologies employed to determine the parameters, and the input data base for the models/methodologies. Supporting studies included are an analysis of potential waste package failure modes leading to identification of the relevant repository environmental parameters, an evaluation of the credible range of the repository environmental parameters, and a summary of the review of existing models/methodologies currently employed in determining repository environmental parameters relevant to waste package performance. 327 refs., 26 figs., 19 tabs.

Claiborne, H.C.; Croff, A.G.; Griess, J.C.; Smith, F.J.

1987-09-01

189

Stepwise Splitting of Ribosomal Proteins from Yeast Ribosomes by LiCl  

PubMed Central

Structural studies have revealed that the core of the ribosome structure is conserved among ribosomes of all kingdoms. Kingdom-specific ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) are located in peripheral parts of the ribosome. In this work, the interactions between rRNA and r-proteins of eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribosome were investigated applying LiCl induced splitting and quantitative mass spectrometry. R-proteins were divided into four groups according to their binding properties to the rRNA. Most yeast r-proteins are removed from rRNA by 0.5–1 M LiCl. Eukaryote-specific r-proteins are among the first to dissociate. The majority of the strong binders are known to be required for the early ribosome assembly events. As compared to the bacterial ribosome, yeast r-proteins are dissociated from rRNA at lower ionic strength. Our results demonstrate that the nature of protein-RNA interactions in the ribosome is not conserved between different kingdoms.

Piir, Kerli; Tamm, Tiina; Kisly, Ivan; Tammsalu, Triin; Remme, Jaanus

2014-01-01

190

Facile and Controlled Synthesis of 3D Nanorods-Based Urchinlike and Nanosheets-Based Flowerlike Cobalt Basic Salt Nanostructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the controlled synthesis of four kinds of cobalt basic salts with different morphologies and colors (pink, blue, green, and lavender) using urea as a hydrolysis agent in the presence of block copolymer P123. Li2SO4 and LiCl were used as salt additives to control the type of cobalt basic salts. It was found that the amount of urea plays

Zhigang Zhao; Fengxia Geng; Jinbo Bai; Hui-Ming Cheng

2007-01-01

191

Salt-wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia: detection of mutations in CYP21B gene in a Chilean population.  

PubMed

The steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD) is the most frequent cause of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. We have characterized the disease-causing mutations in the 21-hydroxylase genes of 63 patients with salt-wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia from a Chilean population of Hispanic origin, a group that has been scarcely evaluated. Using allele-specific PCR, lesions were identified in 97 chromosomes out of 126 tested (77%). The most frequent findings were the gene deletion or large gene conversion (LGC) = 22.9%, I2 splice = 19%, R357W = 12.7%, and Q319X = 10.5%. We did not find alleles with the mutation F308insT and we found three alleles with the cluster E6. The frequency of the point mutation R357W was at least two times more frequent than the one found in Caucasians populations, but similar to that communicated in Asian populations; this finding may be explained by the Asian ancestry of our South-Amerindian population. The frequency of Q319X was also high, similar only to those patients studied in Italy and in a neighboring Argentinian population. In summary, this is a genetic characterization of 21OHD made in an almost pure Hispanic population in Latin America. The high frequency of deletion of CYP21B gene, I2 splice, R357W, and Q319X mutations probably reflects the European-Caucasian-Spanish influence of the conquerors, mixed with Amerindians of Asian ancestry and modulated by other European immigrations. PMID:9745454

Fardella, C E; Poggi, H; Pineda, P; Soto, J; Torrealba, I; Cattani, A; Oestreicher, E; Foradori, A

1998-09-01

192

Comparative thermostability of glucose dehydrogenase from Haloferax mediterranei. Effects of salts and polyols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of temperature and pH on thermoinactivation kinetics of glucose dehydrogenase from Haloferax mediterranei has been studied in the presence of different monovalent salts (LiCl, LiBr, NaCl, NaBr, KCl, KBr, NH4Cl, and NH4Br) and polyols (glycerol, erythrytol, xylitol, and sorbitol) concentrations. The stabilization degree of salts followed the rank of the Hofmeister series, and the product of the Setchenov

JoséMaría Obón; Arturo Manjón; JoséLuis Iborra

1996-01-01

193

Characterisation of nanofiltration membranes for predictive purposes — use of salts, uncharged solutes and atomic force microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An asymmetric nanofiltration membrane (Hoechst, PES5) has been characterised by three different techniques: modelling of the rejection of simple salts, modelling of the rejection of uncharged solutes and atomic force microscopy. Interpretation of experimental data for the rejection of three salts having common co-ion (LiCl, NaCl, KCl) with model calculations allows a characterisation of the membrane in terms of three

W. Richard Bowen; A. Wahab Mohammad; Nidal Hilal

1997-01-01

194

LiCl Dehumidifier LiBr absorption chiller hybrid air conditioning system with energy recovery  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to a hybrid air conditioning system that combines a solar powered LiCl dehumidifier with a LiBr absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier removes the latent load by absorbing moisture from the air, and the sensible load is removed by the absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier is coupled to a regenerator and the desiccant in the regenerator is heated by solar heated hot water to drive the moisture therefrom before being fed back to the dehumidifier. The heat of vaporization expended in the desiccant regenerator is recovered and used to partially preheat the driving fluid of the absorption chiller, thus substantially improving the overall COP of the hybrid system.

Ko, Suk M. (Huntsville, AL)

1980-01-01

195

Clean Salt integrated flowsheet  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Salt Process (CSP) is a novel waste management scheme that removes sodium nitrate and aluminum nitrate nonahydrate as decontaminated (low specific activity) salts from Hanford`s high-level waste (HLW). The full scale process will separate the bulk of the waste that exists as sodium salts from the small portion of the waste that is by definition radioactive and dangerous. This report presents initial conceptual CSP flowsheets and demonstrates the benefit of integrating the process into the Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) Reference Flowsheet. Total HLW and low-level (LLW) volumes are reported for two different CSP integration options and are compared to the TWRS Reference Flowsheet values. The results for a single glass option eliminating LLW disposal are also reported.

Lunsford, T.R.

1994-09-27

196

Hyponatremia in traumatic brain injury patients: Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH) versus Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome(CSWS)  

PubMed Central

Abstract: Background: Two common dysfunctions among traumatic brain injury (TBI) are hyponatremia secondary to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) and cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS).The present study was aimed to define real incidence and most common cause of this problem. Differentiation between these two syndromes is difficult because of overlapping signs, symptoms and specially laboratory data. Distinction between the two syndromes is based on patient's volume state. The present study aims to develop an alternative diagnosis strategy for defining the type of post-TBI hyponatremia. Methods: This was a single-center retrospective study conducted on TBI diagnosed patients referred to intensive care unit (ICU) of Taleghani Hospital (Kermanshah, Iran). Hyponatremia condition is diagnosed when sodium level reaches the values of less than 135 meq/lit. Basic criterion for diagnosing the hyponatremia type was only urine volume. Urine volume was compared with previous days and fluid intake. If the volume showed a reduction, then the patient was classified in SIADH group, and the prescribed treatment was only fluid intake restriction. In cases of CSWS that have polyuric state and hyponatremia, treatment is sodium and fluid replacement. CBC, Na, K, FBS, BUN, Cr and urine 24-hour volume were measured daily, while during the treatment, it was performed twice or more. Results: A total of 881 patients were referred to ICU during January 2011 to March 2012, of them, 678 patients had head trauma with and/or without other body injury. Out of all patients, 216 (%32) showed hyponatremia. Based on our diagnosis and treatment strategies, all of patient had lower urine output than previous day and were classified in the SIADH group and treated with only fluid restriction. None of patients were classified in CSWS group. All patients well recovered from hyponatremia with simple fluid restriction. In a clinical examination after a follow up period, the outcomes of all patients were acceptable with no adverse effects. Conclusions: Although CSWS was reported in many previous studies, the findings of the present study demonstrate that this procedure can be questioned and presence of CSWS following TBI is a rare condition, since it is probably an unpredictable response of kidney to stressor hormones. Keywords: Hyponatremia, SIADH, CSWS, TBI

Sepehri, Parandoush; Abbasi, Zahra; Mohammadi, Najaf Seid; Bagheri, Seyedreza; Fattahian, Reza

2012-01-01

197

Mass transport in salt repositories: Steady-state transport through interbeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt has long been a candidate for geologic disposal of nuclear waste. Because salt is extremely soluble in water, the existence of rock salt in the ground atest to the long-term stability of the salt. Both bedded salt and salt domes have been considered for nuclear waste disposal in the United States and Europe. While the salt is known to

Y. Hwang; W. W.-L. Lee; P. L. Chambre; T. H. Pigford

1989-01-01

198

Rheology Of MonoSodium Titanate (MST) And Modified Mst (mMST) Mixtures Relevant To The Salt Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River National Laboratory performed measurements of the rheology of suspensions and settled layers of treated material applicable to the Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility. Suspended solids mixtures included monosodium titanate (MST) or modified MST (mMST) at various solid concentrations and soluble ion concentrations with and without the inclusion of kaolin clay or simulated sludge. Layers of settled solids were MST/sludge or mMST/sludge mixtures, either with or without sorbed strontium, over a range of initial solids concentrations, soluble ion concentrations, and settling times.

Koopman, D. C.; Martino, C. J.; Shehee, T. C.; Poirier, M. R.

2013-07-31

199

A previously undescribed mutation detected by sequence analysis of CYP21A2 gene in an infant with salt wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia.  

PubMed

The Human Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Allele Nomenclature Committee (http:www.imm.Ki.se/CYPalleles/cyp21.htm) has created a CYP21A2 database which include a list of all reported CYP21A2 mutations and the last update of this database was in 2006. The most up to date list of the CYP21A2 mutations reported over the last four years was published in a recent article by Concolino et al. We report a previously undescribed mutation detected by sequence analysis of CYP21A2 gene in an infant resulting in salt wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia. PMID:23907417

Girgis, Rose; Ajamian, Faria; Metcalfe, Peter

2013-01-01

200

Electrodialysis technology for salt recovery from aluminum salt cake  

SciTech Connect

Electrodialysis technology for recovering salt from aluminum salt cake is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. Salt cake, a slag-like aluminum-industry waste stream, contains aluminum metal, salt (NaCl and KCl), and nonmetallics (primarily aluminum oxide). Salt cake can be recycled by digesting with water and filtering to recover the metal and oxide values. A major obstacle to widespread salt cake recycling is the cost of recovering salt from the process brine. Electrodialysis technology developed at Argonne appears to be a cost-effective approach to handling the salt brines, compared to evaporation or disposal. In Argonne's technology, the salt brine is concentrated until salt crystals are precipitated in the electrodialysis stack; the crystals are recovered downstream. The technology is being evaluated on the pilot scale using Eurodia's EUR 40-76-5 stack.

Hryn, J. N.; Krumdick, G.; Graziano, D.; Sreenivasarao, K.

2000-02-02

201

Oxygen sparging of residue salts  

SciTech Connect

Oxygen sparge is a process for treating salt residues at Los Alamos National Laboratory by sparging oxygen through molten salts. Oxygen reacts with the plutonium trichloride in these salts to form plutonium dioxide. There is further reaction of the plutonium dioxide with plutonium metal and the molten salt to form plutonium oxychloride. Both of the oxide plutonium species are insoluble in the salt and collect atthe bottom of the crucible. This results in a decrease of a factor of 2--3 in the amount of salt that must be treated, and the amount of waste generated by aqueous treatment methods.

Garcia, E.; Griego, W.J.; Owens, S.D.; Thorn, C.W.; Vigil, R.A.

1993-03-01

202

Ontogenetic differences in sensitivity to LiCl- and amphetamine-induced taste avoidance in preweanling rats.  

PubMed

When amphetamine is associated with a tastant conditioned stimulus, rats learn to avoid the taste even when employing doses that promote conditioned place preference. One hypothesis raised to account for this effect proposes that taste avoidance induced by amphetamine may be motivated by fear. A sensitive period has been identified in the rat (until postnatal day 10) in which infants learn conditioned appetitive effects to stimuli to which aversions are conditioned after this period. Exogenous administration of corticosterone within this period reverses this effect, generating aversive conditioning. In the present study, we tested conditioning of aversions to amphetamine or LiCl, within and after the sensitive period (Experiments 1 and 2). A third experiment evaluated unconditioned rejection of an aversive quinine solution within the sensitive period. Finally, we tested whether corticosterone administration before conditioning modulates amphetamine-induced taste avoidance. After the sensitive period, infant rats rejected the solution paired with amphetamine or LiCl after 2 conditioning trials, but within the sensitive period, aversions were conditioned only by LiCl and after 4 conditioning trials. Amphetamine-induced taste avoidance was not observed even when corticosterone was administered before conditioning. Additionally, during the sensitive period, a low LiCl dose promoted conditioned taste preference. According to Experiment 3, parameters employed in this study were suitable to yield rejection of aversive solutions within the sensitive period. These results suggest that during the sensitive period, there is a notable resistance to the acquisition of taste avoidance induced by amphetamine. The present experimental framework may represent a useful tool for studying mechanisms underlying taste avoidance and aversion effects. PMID:21444932

Revillo, Damián Alejandro; Spear, Norman E; Arias, Carlos

2011-07-01

203

Ionic Molar Conductivities in Solutions of KCl, NaCl and LiCl in Glycerol at 25°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conductivities of solutions of KCl, NaCl and LiCl in glycerol at 25°C have been measured for concentrations in the range 0.0005 to 0.5 mol dm, and values of molar conductivity at infinite dilution obtained by extrapolation. Using previously measured transference numbers for KCl dissolved in glycerol, values of ionic molar conductivities at infinite dilution have been deducted for K, Na,

M. C. Blanco; D. C. Champeney; M. Kameche

1989-01-01

204

Vibrational-rotational dependence of molecular properties. Electric field gradients for HCl, LiCl, NaCl and KCl  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vibrational-rotational dependence of the nuclear quadrupole coupling constant (NQCC) for the isotopes 2H, 7Li, 23Na, 39K, and 35Cl is analysed in detail for the diatomic Group 1 chlorides HCl, LiCl, NaCl and KCl. The potential energy curves were calculated pointwise by using coupled cluster techniques. The electric field gradients (EFGs) and dipole moments were obtained analytically from a QCISD

Michael Seth; Markus Pernpointner; Graham A. Bowmaker; Peter Schwerdtfeger

1999-01-01

205

Investigation of the Utility of Gulf Coast Salt Domes for the Storage or Disposal of Radioactive Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study has the objective of determining tectonic and hydrologic stability of salt domes. Tectonic stability has been evaluated on the basis of studies focussed on three intervals of time. The Mesozoic and Tertiary record was examined for evidence of d...

J. D. Martinez R. L. Thoms C. R. Kolb M. B. Kumar R. E. Wilcox

1979-01-01

206

Performance evaluations of LiCl and LiBr for absorber design applications in the open-cycle absorption refrigeration system  

SciTech Connect

Both LiCl and LiBr solutions were considered for potential use in a solar-driven Open-Cycle Absorption Refrigeration (OCAR) system. A vertical falling film absorber was proposed and built to evaluate the performance of LiCl and LiBr as an absorbent. Absorption experiments were performed and the results are reported for typical operating conditions of nonabsorbable concentrations, solution concentration, solution temperature, cooling water temperature, absorber pressure, and solution flow rate, in terms of mass transfer rate. In general, LiBr outperformed LiCl in terms of effective absorption rate. Based upon experimental results, the required absorber area was estimated for both LiCl and LiBr. The small chemical potential of LiCl relative to LiBr leads to a larger absorber area. The cost for the required solution storage for three-ton cooling capacity of the present OCAR system was found to be high for both LiCl and LiBr. The pumping cost was estimated to be less than 0.1 kW for both.

Kim, K.J. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Ameel, T.A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Wood, B.D. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

1997-05-01

207

Effects of heating on salt-occluded zeolite.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel generates a waste stream of fission products in the electrolyte, LiCl-KCl eutectic salt. Argonne National Laboratory is developing a mineral waste form for this waste stream. The waste form consists...

M. A. Lewis M. C. Hash C. Pereira J. P. Ackerman

1996-01-01

208

Combined Utilization of Cation Exchanger and Neutral Receptor to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, novel approaches to the selective liquid-liquid extraction separation of sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from high-level alkaline tank waste will be discussed. Sodium hydroxide can be successfully separated from alkaline tank-waste supernatants by weakly acidic lipophilic hydroxy compounds via a cation-exchange mechanism referred to as pseudo hydroxide extraction. In a multi-cycle process, as sodium hydroxide in the

Tatiana G. Levitskaia; Gregg J. Lumetta; Bruce A. Moyer

2004-01-01

209

Water uptake by salts during the electrolyte processing for thermal batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water uptake of single salts and electrolytes were measured in industrial conditions (dry-room). The water uptake rate ? (g h -1 cm -2) was expressed with respect to the apparent area of contact of the salt with atmosphere of the dry room. The water uptake by potassium-based salts was very low. LiF and LiCl salts were found to behave similarly. For LiBr- and LiI-based salts and mixtures, we pointed out a linear relationship between the water uptake and the elapsed time. Water uptake by magnesium oxide reached a limit after 200 h. This work provides a set of data concerning the rate of water uptake by single salts, salt mixtures and magnesia used in thermal battery electrolytes.

Masset, Patrick; Poinso, Jean-Yves; Poignet, Jean-Claude

210

Metals removal from spent salts  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus for removing metal contaminants from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents may be added to precipitate the metal oxide and/or the metal as either metal oxide, metal hydroxide, or as a salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as waste or can be immobilized as ceramic pellets. More than about 90% of the metals and mineral residues (ashes) present are removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be spray-dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 1.0 ppm of contaminants.

Hsu, Peter C. (Pleasanton, CA); Von Holtz, Erica H. (Livermore, CA); Hipple, David L. (Livermore, CA); Summers, Leslie J. (Livermore, CA); Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Adamson, Martyn G. (Danville, CA)

2002-01-01

211

Actinide removal from spent salts  

DOEpatents

A method for removing actinide contaminants (uranium and thorium) from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents are added to precipitate the thorium as thorium oxide and/or the uranium as either uranium oxide or as a diuranate salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as radioactive waste. About 90% of the thorium and/or uranium present is removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 0.1 ppm of thorium or uranium.

Hsu, Peter C. (Pleasanton, CA) [Pleasanton, CA; von Holtz, Erica H. (Livermore, CA) [Livermore, CA; Hipple, David L. (Livermore, CA) [Livermore, CA; Summers, Leslie J. (Livermore, CA) [Livermore, CA; Adamson, Martyn G. (Danville, CA) [Danville, CA

2002-01-01

212

Synthesis and electrochemical properties of lithium cobalt oxides prepared by molten-salt synthesis using the eutectic mixture of LiCl–Li 2CO 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium cobalt oxide powders have been successfully prepared by a molten-salt synthesis (MSS) method using a eutectic mixture of LiCl and Li2CO3 salts. The physico-chemical properties of the lithium cobalt oxide powders are investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), particle-size analysis and charge–discharge cycling. A lower temperature and a shorter time (?700°C and 1h) in the

Chi-Hwan Han; Young-Sik Hong; Chang Moon Park; Keon Kim

2001-01-01

213

Core-exciton decay and change in the valence-band spectra of LiCl and LiBr  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The decay process of the Li 1s core exciton was investigated by measuring the photoelectron spectra of LiCl and LiBr. The drastic change in the shape of the valence-band spectra was observed in accordance with the enhancement of the intensity when photon energies are varied around the excitation energy of the Li 1s core exciton. This change is attributed to the nonuniform distribution of the lithium-derived states in the valence band. To interpret the broadening of the valence-band spectra, it is proposed that the core exciton relaxes during the decay transferring its energy to a valence electron.

Ichikawa, Kouichi; Kamada, Masao; Aita, Osamu; Tsutsumi, Kenjiro

1986-07-01

214

The effect of high salt concentration on the integrity of silica-fume blended cementitious matrices for waste immobilization applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silica Fume is a commonly used pozzolanic additive for cementitious matrices used for immobilization of Low Level Waste (LLW).\\u000a Cementitious systems containing silica-fume are used to reduce the leachability of various hazardous species. However, during\\u000a the last years several publications have shown that commercially available densified silica-fume (DSF) does not fully disperse\\u000a within cementitious pastes and concrete mixes, but rather

G. Bar-Nes; Y. Peled; M. Arbel-Haddad; Y. Zeiri; A. Katz

2011-01-01

215

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's report on the Organic Geochemistry of Deep Groundwaters from the Palo Duro Basin, Texas  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes Argonne's review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's (ONWI's) final report entitled The Organic Geochemistry of Deep Ground Waters from the Palo Duro Basin, Texas, dated September 1983. Recommendations are made for improving the ONWI report. The main recommendation is to make the text consistent with the title and with the objective of the project as stated in the introduction. Three alternatives are suggested to accomplish this.

Fenster, D.F.; Brookins, D.G.; Harrison, W.; Seitz, M.G.; Lerman, A.; Stamoudis, V.C.

1984-08-01

216

Recycling of aluminum salt cake  

SciTech Connect

The secondary aluminum industry generates more than 110 {times} 10{sup 3} tons of salt-cake waste every year. This waste stream contains about 3--5% aluminum, 15--30% aluminum oxide, 30--40% sodium chloride, and 20--30% potassium chloride. As much as 50% of the content of this waste is combined salt (sodium and potassium chlorides). Salt-cake waste is currently disposed of in conventional landfills. In addition, over 50 {times} 10{sup 3} tons of black dross that is not economical to reprocess a rotary furnace for aluminum recovery ends up in landfills. The composition of the dross is similar to that of salt cake, except that it contains higher concentrations of aluminum (up to 20%) and correspondingly lower amounts of salts. Because of the high solubility of the salts in water, these residues, when put in landfills, represent a potential source of pollution to surface-water and groundwater supplies. The increasing number of environmental regulations on the generation and disposal of industrial wastes are likely to restrict the disposal of these salt-containing wastes in conventional landfills. Processes exist that employ the dissolution and recovery of the salts from the waste stream. These wet-processing methods are economical only when the aluminum concentration in that waste exceeds about 10%. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a study in which existing technologies were reviewed and new concepts that are potentially more cost-effective than existing processes were developed and evaluated. These include freeze crystallization, solvent/antisolvent extraction, common-ion effect, high-pressure/high-temperature process, and capillary-effect systems. This paper presents some of the technical and economic results of the aforementioned ANL study.

Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Karvelas, D.E.

1991-12-01

217

Elevated yield of monacolin K in Monascus purpureus by fungal elicitor and mutagenesis of UV and LiCl.  

PubMed

In China, Monascus spp., a traditional fungus used in fermentation, is used as a natural food additive. Monascus spp. can produce a secondary metabolite, monacolin K namely, which is proven to be a cholesterol-lowering and hypotensive agent. Hence, recently, many researchers have begun focusing on how to increase the production of monacolin K by Monascus purpureus. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the fungal elicitor and the mutagenesis of UV & LiCl on the amount of monacolin K produced by Monascus purpureus. The fugal elicitor, Sporobolomyces huaxiensis, was isolated from tea leaves and its filtrate was added into the culture filtrate of Monascus purpureus during growth to induct the production of monacolin K. The results showed that the highest amount of monacolin K produced by the liquid fermentation was 446.92 mg/mL, which was produced after the fungal elicitor was added to the culture filtrate of Monascus purpureus on the day 4; this amount was approximately 6 times greater than that of the control culture filtrate, whereas the highest amount of monacolin K produced by the mutated strain was 3 times greater than the control culture after the irradiation of UV light in the presence of 1.0 % LiCl in the medium. PMID:22446602

Sun, Jia-Long; Zou, Xiao; Liu, Ai-Ying; Xiao, Tang-Fu

2011-01-01

218

Interaction of water with LiCl, LiBr, and LiI in the deeply supercooled region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydration mechanism of lithium halides was studied using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry as a function of temperature. The lithium halides embedded in thin films of amorphous solid water segregate to the surface at temperatures higher than 135-140 K, with efficiency increasing in the order of LiCl, LiBr, and LiI. A monolayer of LiCl and LiI adsorbed on the surface of amorphous solid water tends to diffuse into the bulk at 160 K. The infrared absorption band revealed that the aqueous lithium-halide solutions and crystals are formed simultaneously at 160 K these phenomena are explicable as a consequence of the evolution of supercooled liquid water. The strong surfactant effect is inferred to arise from hydration of a contact ion pair having hydrophilic (lithium) and hydrophobic (halide) moieties. Furthermore, bulk diffusion of lithium halides might result from the formation of a solvent-separated ion pair in supercooled liquid water. The presence of two liquid phases of water with different local structures is probably responsible for the formation of these two hydrates, consistent with the calculated result reported by Jungwirth and Tobias[J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 6361 (2002)].

Souda, Ryutaro

2007-12-01

219

Dielectric and conductivity relaxation in mixtures of glycerol with LiCl  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  We report a thorough dielectric characterization of the ? relaxation of glass-forming glycerol with varying additions of LiCl.\\u000a Nine salt concentrations from 0.1 to 20mol% are investigated in a frequency range of 20Hz-3GHz and analyzed in the dielectric\\u000a loss and modulus representation. Information on the dc conductivity, the dielectric relaxation time (from the loss) and the\\u000a conductivity relaxation time (from

M. Köhler; P. Lunkenheimer; A. Loidl

2008-01-01

220

Crushed Salt Constitutive Model  

SciTech Connect

The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well.

Callahan, G.D.

1999-02-01

221

Treatment of molten salt wastes by phosphate precipitation: removal of fission product elements after pyrochemical reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels in chloride melts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The removal of fission product elements from molten salt wastes arising from pyrochemical reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels has been investigated. The experiments were conducted in LiCl-KCl eutectic at 550 °C and NaCl-KCl equimolar mixture at 750 °C. The behavior of the following individual elements was investigated: Cs, Mg, Sr, Ba, lanthanides (La to Dy), Zr, Cr, Mo, Mn, Re (to simulate Tc), Fe, Ru, Ni, Cd, Bi and Te. Lithium and sodium phosphates were used as precipitants. The efficiency of the process and the composition of the solid phases formed depend on the melt composition. The distribution coefficients of these elements between chloride melts and precipitates were determined. Some volatile chlorides were produced and rhenium metal was formed by disproportionation. Lithium-free melts favor formation of double phosphates. Some experiments in melts containing several added fission product elements were also conducted to study possible co-precipitation reactions. Rare earth elements and zirconium can be removed from both the systems studied, but alkaline earth metal fission product elements (Sr and Ba) form precipitates only in NaCl-KCl based melts. Essentially the reverse behavior was found with magnesium. Some metals form oxide rather than phosphate precipitates and the behavior of certain elements is solvent dependent. Caesium cannot be removed completely from chloride melts by a phosphate precipitation technique.

Volkovich, Vladimir A.; Griffiths, Trevor R.; Thied, Robert C.

2003-11-01

222

Small-Column Ion-Exchange Alternative to Remove 137Cs from Low-Curie Salt Waste: Summary of Phase 1  

SciTech Connect

A Small-Column Ion-Exchange (SCIX) system is being evaluated for removing cesium from the Type 2 and/or Type 3 dissolved saltcake wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to ensure that the dissolved saltcake meets the waste acceptance criteria at the Saltstone Facility. Both crystalline silicotitanate (CST) and IONSIV{trademark} IE-96 zeolite were evaluated as the ion-exchange media. The accelerated alternative, using CST in the SCIX, could save as much as $3 billion in operating and storage costs and {approx}20 years in processing time compared to the current baseline. With its proven high cesium-loading capacity for the expected dissolved saltcake compositions and temperatures, CST is the preferred sorbent for SCIX. The low-cost alternative sorbent, zeolite, greatly increases the volume of sorbent required because of its much lower cesium-loading capacity. Thus, zeolite greatly increases the cost for the alternative, mainly because of the increased number of Defense Waste Processing Facility canisters required to dispose of the loaded sorbent (potentially over 7000 for zeolite, compared with <500 for CST). The models previously developed for predicting cesium loading on CST compared favorably with laboratory measurements of equilibrium distribution ratios and column loading performance using dissolved saltcake simulants. These models predict that a column of 432 gal of CST can operate at 25 gal/min and treat 100,000 to 900,000 gal of dissolved saltcake, depending on the solution composition. An average value of 300,000 gal per column was used for the cost benefit analysis. Predicted cesium loading on the CST is normally below 300 Ci/L; however, solutions with low salt concentrations could potentially load the CST to 630 Ci/L. Heat transfer calculations predict nonboiling temperatures for the small columns with loadings <100 Ci/L with only natural convection cooling. For the loadings up to the maximum calculated for the tank farm (630 Ci/L), a water cooling system is required to ensure that no boiling occurs in the column if the process flow is stopped. Dose rate calculations indicate that the maximum dose rate above the tank riser is expected to be {approx} 10{sup -2} mrem/h for a column loaded at 300 Ci/L in the riser. The risk analysis indicates a net beneficial impact with no major problems likely to prevent implementation or completion of saltcake treatment.

Walker, JR.,J.F.

2004-05-12

223

Theoretical study of salt effects on the Diels-Alder reaction of cyclopentadiene with methyl vinyl ketone using RISM-SCF theory.  

PubMed

Salt effects on the Diels-Alder reaction of cyclopentadiene with methyl vinyl ketone are investigated using reference interaction site model self-consistent field (RISM-SCF) theory. The rate of the reaction is accelerated by adding LiCl to the water solvent. The structures of four transition states, endo-cis, endo-trans, exo-cis, exo-trans, were found by geometry optimization of the cyclopentadiene and methyl vinyl ketone complexes. The endo-trans structure shows the lowest energy in both water and LiCl solution. The activation barrier of the reaction in LiCl solution is lower than that in water, and the difference is in good agreement with that from experiments. The decrease in the activation barrier arises from destabilization of the reactant species. The salt effect of LiCl makes all species concerning the reaction unstable by the hydrophobic effect; however, the increased hydrophobic effect in the TS complexes is suppressed by making the hydrogen bond, which is stronger compared with the reactant methyl vinyl ketone. PMID:24144235

Yoshida, Norio; Tanaka, Hidetsugu; Hirata, Fumio

2013-11-14

224

Role of cationic size in the optical properties of the LiCl crystal surface: theoretical study.  

PubMed

The size of the cations (either Ca(2+), Sr(2+), Ga(+), or Au(+)) at the F(A1)-type color centers on the (100) surface of LiCl crystal plays an important role in the optical properties of this surface. In this work, double-well potentials at this surface were investigated using ab initio quantum mechanical methods. Quantum clusters were embedded in simulated Coulomb fields that closely approximate the Madelung fields of the host surface, and the ions that were the nearest neighbors to the F(A1) site were allowed to relax to equilibrium. The calculated Stokes-shifted optical transition bands, optical-optical conversion efficiency, and relaxed excited states of the defect-containing surface, as well as the orientational destruction of the color centers, recording sensitivity, exciton (energy) transfer, and the Glasner-Tompkins empirical relation were all found to be sensitive to the size of the dopant cation. PMID:22033757

Abdel Halim, Wael Salah; Abdullah, Noha; Abdel-Aal, Safaa; Shalabi, A S

2012-06-01

225

Separation of plutonium from lanthanum by electrolysis in LiCl KCl onto molten bismuth electrode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents a study on the electroseparation of plutonium from lanthanum using molten bismuth electrodes in LiCl-KCl eutectic at 733 K. The reduction potentials of Pu 3+ and La 3+ ions were measured on a Bi thin film electrode using cyclic voltammetry (CV). A difference between the peak potentials for the formation of PuBi 2 and LaBi 2 of approximately 100 mV was found. Separation tests were then carried out using different current densities and salt phase compositions between a plutonium rod anode and an unstirred molten Bi cathode in order to evaluate the efficiency of an electrolytic separation process. At a current density of 12 mA/cm 2/wt% (Pu 3+), only Pu 3+ ions are reduced into the molten Bi electrode, leaving La 3+ ions in the salt melt. Similar results were found at two different Pu/La concentration ratios ([Pu]/[La] = 4 and 10). At a current density of 26 mA/cm 2/wt% (Pu 3+), co-reduction of Pu and La was observed as expected by the large negative potential of the Bi cathode during the separation test.

Serp, J.; Lefebvre, P.; Malmbeck, R.; Rebizant, J.; Vallet, P.; Glatz, J.-P.

2005-04-01

226

Ab initio MRSDCI study on the low-lying electronic states of the lithium chloride molecule (LiCl).  

PubMed

Potential energy curves (PECs) for the low-lying states of the lithium chloride molecule (LiCl) have been calculated using the internally contracted multireference single- and double-excitation configuration interaction (MRSDCI) method with the aug-cc-PVnZ (AVnZ) and aug-cc-PCVnZ (ACVnZ) basis sets, where n = T, Q, and 5. First, we calculate PECs for 7 spin-orbit (SO)-free ?-S states, X(1)?(+), A(1)?(+), (3)?(+), (1)?, and (3)?, and then obtain PECs for 13 SO ? states, X0(+), A0(+), B0(+), 0(-)(I), 0(-)(II), 1(I), 1(II), 1(III), and 2, by diagonalizing the matrix of the electronic Hamiltonian plus the Breit-Pauli SO Hamiltonian. The MRSDCI calculations not including core orbital correlation through the single and double excitations are also performed with the AV5Z and ACV5Z basis sets. The Davidson corrections (Q0) are added to both the ?-S and ? state energies. Vibrational eigenstates for the obtained X(1)?(+) and X0(+) PECs are calculated by solving the time-independent Schro?dinger equation with the grid method. Thus, the effects of basis set, core orbital correlation, and the Davidson correction on the X(1)?(+) and X0(+) PECs of LiCl are investigated by comparing the spectroscopic constants calculated from the PECs with one another and with experiment. It is confirmed that to accurately predict the spectroscopic constants we need to include core-electron correlation in the CI expansion and use the basis sets designed to describe core-valence correlation, i.e., ACVnZ. The SO PECs presented in this paper will be of help in the future study of diatomic alkali halide dynamics. PMID:22897271

Kurosaki, Yuzuru; Yokoyama, Keiichi

2012-08-14

227

Application of lithium in molten-salt reduction processes.  

SciTech Connect

Metallothermic reductions have been extensively studied in the field of extractive metallurgy. At Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), we have developed a molten-salt based reduction process using lithium. This process was originally developed to reduce actinide oxides present in spent nuclear fuel. Preliminary thermodynamic considerations indicate that this process has the potential to be adapted for the extraction of other metals. The reduction is carried out at 650 C in a molten-salt (LiCl) medium. Lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O), produced during the reduction of the actinide oxides, dissolves in the molten salt. At the end of the reduction step, the lithium is regenerated from the salt by an electrowinning process. The lithium and the salt from the electrowinning are then reused for reduction of the next batch of oxide fuel. The process cycle has been successfully demonstrated on an engineering scale in a specially designed pyroprocessing facility. This paper discusses the applicability of lithium in molten-salt reduction processes with specific reference to our process. Results are presented from our work on actinide oxides to highlight the role of lithium and its effect on process variables in these molten-salt based reduction processes.

Gourishankar, K. V.

1998-11-11

228

Processing of effluent salt from the direct oxide reduction process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of reactive metals by Direct Oxide Reduction (DOR) process using calcium in a molten calcium salt system generates significant amount of contaminated waste as calcium oxide saturated calcium chloride salt mix with calcium oxide content of up to 15 wt. pct. Fused salt electrolysis of a simulated salt mix has been carried out to electrowin calcium, which can

B. Mishra; D. L. Olson; W. A. Averill

1992-01-01

229

Petrofabric Changes in Heated and Irradiated Salt from Project Salt Vault, Lyons, Kansas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rock salt was heated and irradiated in situ by implanted radioactive wastes during the Project Salt Vault experiment which was carried out at Lyons, Kansas, in the abandoned Carey Salt mine between 1965 and 1967. It was found that irradiation results in c...

K. A. Holdoway

1972-01-01

230

Characterization of salt stress-enhanced phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase kinase activity in leaves of Sorghum vulgare: independence from osmotic stress, involvement of ion toxicity and significance of dark phosphorylation.  

PubMed

C(4) phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase: EC 4.1.1.31) is subjected to in vivo regulatory phosphorylation by a light up-regulated, calcium-independent protein kinase. Salt stress greatly enhanced phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase-kinase (PEPCase-k) activity in leaves of Sorghum. The increase in PEPCase-k anticipated the time course of proline accumulation thereby suggesting that water stress was not involved in the kinase response to salt. Moreover, osmotic stress seemed not to be the main factor implicated, as demonstrated by the lack of effect when water availability was restricted by mannitol. In contrast, LiCl (at a concentration of 10 mM in short-term treatment of both excised leaves and whole plants) mimicked the effects of 172 mM NaCl salt-acclimation, indicating that the rise in PEPCase-k activity resulted primarily from the ionic stress. Both NaCl and LiCl treatments increased the activity of a Ca(2+)-independent, 35 kDa kinase, as demonstrated by an in-gel phosphorylation experiment. Short-term treatment of excised leaves with NaCl or LiCl partially reproduces the effects of whole plant treatments. Finally, salinization also increased PEPCase-k activity and the phosphorylation state of PEPCase in darkened Sorghum leaves. This fact, together with increased malate production during the dark period, suggests a shift towards mixed C(4) and crassulacean acid metabolism types of photosynthesis in response to salt stress. PMID:12569407

García-Mauriño, Sofía; Monreal, José Antonio; Alvarez, Rosario; Vidal, Jean; Echevarría, Cristina

2003-02-01

231

Mixing of zeolite powders and molten salt  

SciTech Connect

Transuranics and fission products in a molten salt can be incorporated into zeolite A by an ion exchange process and by a batch mixing or blending process. The zeolite is then mixed with glass and consolidated into a monolithic waste form for geologic disposal. Both processes require mixing of zeolite powders with molten salt at elevated temperatures (>700 K). Complete occlusion of salt and a uniform distribution of chloride and fission products are desired for incorporation of the powders into the final waste form. The relative effectiveness of the blending process was studied over a series of temperature, time, and composition profiles. The major criteria for determining the effectiveness of the mixing operations were the level and uniformity of residual free salt in the mixtures. High operating temperatures (>775 K) improved salt occlusion. Reducing the chloride levels in the mixture to below 80% of the full salt capacity of the zeolite significantly reduced the free salt level in the final product.

Pereira, C.; Zyryanov, V.N.; Lewis, M.A.; Ackerman, J.P.

1996-05-01

232

Processing of effluent salt from the direct oxide reduction process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The production of reactive metals by Direct Oxide Reduction (DOR) process using calcium in a molten calcium salt system generates significant amount of contaminated waste as calcium oxide saturated calcium chloride salt mix with calcium oxide content of u...

B. Mishra D. L. Olson W. A. Averill

1992-01-01

233

Isopar L Release Rates from Saltstone Using Simulated Salt Solutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) and the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) will produce a Decontaminated Salt Solution (DSS) that will go to the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). Recent information indicates that solven...

A. Cozzi C. Nash J. Zamecnik M. Bronikowski R. Eibling

2008-01-01

234

Salt assault  

Microsoft Academic Search

If the offshore arena is the last great frontier for oil and gas exploration and development, then salt may very well be the last great barrier to exploring that frontier. In the game of seismic acquisition, salt refuses to follow the rules. Its relatively low density coupled with high velocity and structural complexity plays havoc with seismic imaging, rendering data

Duey

1999-01-01

235

Radioactive waste isolation in salt:  

SciTech Connect

The approach presumes that measurements are undertaken to support performance predictions. A quantitative performance objective like groundwater travel time is compared with performance predictions. The approach recognizes that such predictions are uncertain because the measurements upon which they are based are uncertain. The effectiveness of measurement activities is quantified by an index, ..beta.., that reflects the number of standard deviations separating the best estimate of performance from the performance objective. Measurements that reduce the uncertainty in predictions lead to increased values of ..beta... Evaluating ..beta.. for a particular measurement scheme requires identifying the measured quantities that significantly affect prediction uncertainty. Sources of uncertainty are spatial variation, noise, estimation error, and measurement bias. Changing the measurement scheme to increase ..beta.. increases the likelihood of a performance objective being achieved or exceeded. The application of the ..beta..-index method to the Richton dome site in Mississippi focuses on uncertainties in hydraulic conductivity data in relation to groundwater travel time predictions. The ..beta.. values for four different measurement schemes for hydraulic conductivity are determined. 44 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs.

Ditmars, J.D.; Baecher, G.B.; Edgar, D.E.; Dowding, C.H.

1988-03-01

236

Will salt repositories be dry?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Academy of Science committee that considered geologic disposal of nuclear waste in the mid-1950s recommended salt as a repository medium, partly because of its high thermal conductivity and because it was believed to be “dry” (perhaps the appropriate thought is “impermeable”). Certainly, the fact that Paleozoic salt deposits exist in many parts of t h e world is evidence for very low rates of dissolution by moving groundwater. The fact that the dissolution rates were so small led many scientists to the conclusion that the salt beds were nearly impermeable. The major source of brine within the salt beds was thought to be fluid inclusions within salt crystals, which could migrate through differential solution toward a source of high heat. The idea that salt was uniformly “dry” was revised when exploratory drilling in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico encountered brines within the Castile Formation, an evaporite deposit below the Salado Formation. The brine reservoirs were thought to be isolated pockets of brine in an otherwise “impermeable” salt section.

Bredehoeft, John D.

237

Examination of the effects of LiOH, LiCl, and LiNO 3 on alkali–silica reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium additives have been shown to reduce expansion associated with alkali–silica reaction (ASR), but the mechanism(s) by which they act have not been understood. The aim of this research is to assess the effectiveness of three lithium additives—LiOH, LiCl, and LiNO3—at various dosages, with a broader goal of improving the understanding of the means by which lithium acts. The effect

C. L Collins; J. H Ideker; G. S Willis; K. E Kurtis

2004-01-01

238

c-Fos induction in response to taste stimuli previously paired with amphetamine or LiCl during taste aversion learning.  

PubMed

Amphetamine and lithium chloride (LiCl) are both effective unconditioned stimuli (USs) in the establishment of conditioned taste aversions (CTA) in the rat. However, the mechanism of action of these drugs is quite different with the area postrema and related emetic circuitry critical to the response to LiCl but not amphetamine. c-Fos immunohistochemistry was used to define brain regions activated during drug administration and during expression of a CTA using either amphetamine or LiCl as the US drug. Administration of LiCl induced dense c-Fos-like immunoreactivity (c-FLI) in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) while amphetamine induced only light staining in this area. A conditioned stimulus (CS) saccharin solution paired with amphetamine, however, was associated with c-FLI in NTS in a pattern quite similar to that seen to a LiCl-paired CS. This suggests that the pattern of c-Fos expression to a taste CS after conditioning is characteristic of aversion conditioning, in general, and appears not to represent a matching of the conditioned response to specific unconditioned effects of the drug. To examine this conditioned response further, c-FLI to the aversive saccharin CS was compared to the response to quinine hydrochloride, which is innately aversive. Although behaviorally the animals' ingestive responses were quite similar, the saccharin CS induced significant elevations of c-FLI in NTS whereas the quinine did not. Thus, a taste which had become aversive by virtue of conditioning induced c-FLI expression in NTS while a taste which was inherently aversive did not. PMID:7606439

Swank, M W; Schafe, G E; Bernstein, I L

1995-03-01

239

Dechlorination of polychlorobiphenyls using NaBH(4) and NaBH(4)/LiCl at 120-310 degrees C in glyme solvents.  

PubMed

High temperature PCB dechlorination (Aroclor 1016) occurred using NaBH(4) alone in tetraglyme at 290-310 degrees C within 2h in a sealed tube. Aroclor 1016 dechlorination was also quantitatively achieved using NaBH(4)/LiCl/glyme solvents (di-, tri-, or tetraglyme) at 125-135 degrees C. The best results were obtained by prestirring NaBH(4), LiCl and the glyme solvent at room temperature before heating at 125-135 degrees C. At equivalent conditions, PCB dechlorination rates were found to depend on solvent in the order: tetraglyme>triglyme>diglyme. At 130 degrees C, Aroclor 1016 can be dechlorinated in NaBH(4)/LiCl/tetraglyme in 4h. 2-Chlorobiphenyl and 2,2'-dichlorobiphenyl were the least reactive congeners in dechlorinations with NaBH(4)/LiCl in diglyme. Competitive dechlorinations with NaBH(4)/LiCl in diglyme showed 3-chloro- and 4-chlorobiphenyl reacted faster than 2-chlorobiphenyl at 130 degrees C. The reactions were clean with no solvent decomposition in the range of 120-162 degrees C. PMID:11240070

Pittman, C U; Yang, C

2001-04-20

240

Analysis of the Salt Feed Tank Core Sample.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) immobilizes and disposes of low-level radioactive and hazardous liquid waste (salt solution) remaining from the processing of radioactive material at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Low-level waste (LLW) streams from...

M. M. Reigel W. Y. Cheng

2012-01-01

241

Salt Repository Project transportation program plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Salt Repository Project (SRP) has the responsibility to develop a comprehensive transportation program plan (TrPP) that treats the transportation of workers, supplies, and high-level radioactive waste to the site and the transportation of salt, low-level, and transuranic wastes from the site. The TrPP has developed a systematic approach to transportation which is directed towards satisfying statutes, regulations, and directives

R. L. Fisher; A. H. Greenberg; T. L. Anderson; K. R. Yates

1987-01-01

242

A BRIEF HISTORY OF SALT CAVERN USE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief history of salt cavern use is presented, beginning with the storage of liquid and gas hydrocarbons around five to six decades ago, and continuing to the present. Current main uses of salt caverns worldwide, including storage of hydrocarbons and disposal of wastes, are described. A number of unusual uses, both existing and proposed, are cited. Some problems that

R. L. Thoms; R. M. Gehle

243

238Pu recovery and salt disposition from the molten salt oxidation process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have begun designing and optimizing our recovery and recycling processes by experimenting with samples of ``spent salt'' produced by MSO treatment of surrogate waste in the reaction vessel at the Naval Surface Warfare Center-Indian Head. One salt was produced by treating surrogate waste containing pyrolysis ash spiked with cerium. The other salt contains residues from MSO treatment of materials similar to those used in 238Pu processing, e.g., Tygon tubing, PVC bagout bags, HDPE bottles. Using these two salt samples, we will present results from our investigations. .

Remerowski, M. L.; Stimmel, Jay J.; Wong, Amy S.; Ramsey, Kevin B.

2000-07-01

244

Rheological properties and molecular structure of tunicate cellulose in LiCl/1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone.  

PubMed

Solution properties and molecular structure of tunicate cellulose (TC), an animal cellulose from Halocynthia roretzi, were investigated in terms of rheological and dilute solution properties. The solvent used is 8 wt % LiCl/1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone (DMI). A solution of dissolving pulp (DP), derived from plant, was also used for comparison. The weight-average molecular weight, Mw, and the limiting viscosity number, [eta], of the TC were evaluated to be 413 x 10(6) and 2645 mL/g, respectively. The TC solution showed the same concentration dependence of GN (GN=5.49 x 10(6)phiw(2.1)4 Pa; phiw: weight fraction of cellulose in solution; GN: plateau modulus) as the DP solution and, moreover, also as the solution of cotton linter (CC) in 8 wt % LiCl/N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc). This exponent of 2.1(4) indicates that network structure by entanglements was formed in these solutions. According to the theory of Fetters et al., moreover, such identity means that all of these celluloses have the identical chain structure though their biological origins are far different. On the other hand, the phiw-dependence of eta0-etas (eta0=zero shear rate viscosity of solution; etas=solvent viscosity) was different between the TC and the DP solution in the semidilute regime: the TC solution exhibited eta0-etas proportional, variant phiw(7.5) and the DP solution eta0-etas proportional, variant phiw4. According to the theory of Doi-Edwards, this exponent of 4 (the DP solution) indicates that the DP behaves as flexible polymers in the solution. In contrast, the dependence for the TC solution seems unexplainable on the basis of molecular theories. This difference probably signifies the difference in the relaxation process or mechanism in entanglement systems. PMID:15003002

Tamai, Nobutake; Tatsumi, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Takayoshi

2004-01-01

245

Conceptual designs for waste packages for horizontal or vertical emplacement in a repository in salt for reference in the site characterization plan  

SciTech Connect

This report includes the options of horizontal and vertical emplacement, the addition of a phased repository, an additional waste form (intact spent fuel), revised geotechnical data appropriate for the Deaf Smith County site, new corrosion data for the container, and new repository design data. The waste package consists of waste form and canister within a thick-walled, low-carbon steel container surrounded by packing. The container is a hollow cylinder with a flat head welded to each end. The design concepts for the waste container or vertical and horizontal emplacement are identical. This report discusses the results of analyses of aspects of the reference waste package concept needing changes because of new data and information believed applicable to the Deaf Smith County site. Included are waste package conceptual designs or (1) the reference defense high-level waste form from the Savannah River Plant; (2) intact spent fuel with our pressurized-water-reactor or nine boiling-water-reactor assemblies per package for emplacement during Phase 1 of repository operation; and (3) spent fuel which has been disassembled and consolidated into a segmented cylindrical canister with rods from either 12 pressurized-water-reactor or 30 boiling-water-reactor assemblies per package for emplacement during Phase 2. 30 refs., 61 figs., 30 tabs.

Not Available

1987-06-01

246

Anomalous ion effects on rupture and lifetime of aqueous foam films formed from monovalent salt solutions up to saturation concentration.  

PubMed

We report the effects of ions on rupture and lifetime of aqueous foam films formed from sodium chloride (NaCl), lithium chloride (LiCl), sodium acetate (NaAc), and sodium chlorate (NaClO 3) using microinterferometry. In the case of NaCl and LiCl, the foam films prepared from the salt solutions below 0.1 M were unstable they thinned until rupturing. The film lifetime measured from the first interferogram (appearing at a film thickness on the order of 500 nm) until the film rupture was only a second or so. However, relatively long lasting and nondraining films prepared from salt solutions above 0.1 M were observed. The film lifetime was significantly longer by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude, i.e., from 10 to 100 s. Importantly, both the film lifetime and the (average) thickness of the nondraining films increased with increasing salt concentration. This effect has not been observed with foam films stabilized by surfactants. The film lifetime and thickness also increased with increasing film radius. The films exhibited significant surface corrugations. The films with large radii often contained standing dimples. There was a critical film radius below which the films thinned until rupturing. In the cases of NaAc and NaClO 3, the films were unstable at all radii and salt concentrations they thinned until rupturing, ruling out the effect of solution viscosity on stabilizing the films. PMID:18783259

Karakashev, Stoyan I; Nguyen, Phong T; Tsekov, Roumen; Hampton, Marc A; Nguyen, Anh V

2008-10-21

247

76 FR 47613 - Board Meeting: September 13-14, 2011-Salt Lake City, UT; the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...including research on transportation and long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF), studies of various geologic media that might be considered for disposing of SNF and high-level radioactive waste (HLW), and DOE's Used Fuel...

2011-08-05

248

Scaling-up experience of actinides partitioning from intermediate level high salted alkaline waste streams of Purex process using Versatic-10 extractant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partitioning of minor alpha-emitting actinides, especially U, Pu and Am from medium active alkaline waste is possible from intermediate level liquid wastes (ILLW) produced during spent fuel reprocessing following Purex process. This paper deals with the efficient removal of alpha-activity from ILLW by solvent extraction process. Counter current batch extraction with O\\/A ratio 2:1 as well as multistage mixer settler

A. Kumar; J. V. Sonawane; N. S. Rathore; H. N. Kapur; A. K. Venugopalan; D. D. Bajpai

2002-01-01

249

Nitrate Salt Immobilization Process Development and Implementation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The waste nitrate salts generated at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) were determined to be unacceptable in their present form for shipment to and storage at the Nevada Test Site, according to the recently implemented Waste Acceptance Criteria. A reduction in ...

R. D. Petersen A. J. Johnson K. G. Peter

1986-01-01

250

Fortuitous formation of [(LiCl) 6{(Me 2NCH 2C 8H 5N) 3P} 2]: an amine-ligated hexameric lithium chloride aggregate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deprotonation of gramine with nBuLi and subsequent reaction with PCl3 yielded [(LiCl)6{(Me2NCH2C8H5N)3P}2] (2). Compound 2 was characterized by NMR (1H, 13C, 31P) spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and X-ray crystallography. The molecular structure of 2 reveals a novel hexameric lithium chloride aggregate ligated on each of two hexagonal faces by three dimethylamino groups from the intended product, tris{(3-dimethylamino-methyl)indolyl}phosphine. Crystal data for 2·3CH2Cl2:

Mark R. Mason; Floyd A. Beckford; Kristin Kirschbaum; Bradford J. Gorecki

2005-01-01

251

Process to separate transuranic elements from nuclear waste  

DOEpatents

A process for removing transuranic elements from a waste chloride electrolytic salt containing transuranic elements in addition to rare earth and other fission product elements so the salt waste may be disposed of more easily and the valuable transuranic elements may be recovered for reuse. The salt is contacted with a cadmium-uranium alloy which selectively extracts the transuranic elements from the salt. The waste salt is generated during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel associated with the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR).

Johnson, Terry R. (Wheaton, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL); Tomczuk, Zygmunt (Orland Park, IL); Fischer, Donald F. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

1989-01-01

252

Modeling of anodic dissolution of U Pu Zr ternary alloy in the molten LiCl KCl electrolyte  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The metallic fuel anode in the molten salt electrorefining step for the pyrometallurgical reprocessing was modeled based on the findings from the anodic dissolution tests using a U Pu Zr ternary alloy. This anode model simulates selective dissolution of uranium and plutonium at lower anode potential, growth of a diffusion controlling layer consisting of a mixture of the molten salt electrolyte and the remaining zirconium metal, and simultaneous dissolution of all the constituents at higher anode potential. The calculation with this model reproduced well the actual anodic behavior of the U Pu Zr ternary alloy such as two-step rapid rise in the anode potential.

Iizuka, Masatoshi; Kinoshita, Kensuke; Koyama, Tadafumi

2005-02-01

253

Radiation induced F-center and colloid formation in synthetic NaCl and natural rock salt: Applications to radioactive waste repositories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation damage, particularly Na metal colloid formation, has been studied in synthetic NaCl and natural rock salt using unique equipment for making optical absorption, luminescence and other measurements during irradiation with 1-3 MeV electrons. Previous studies have established the F-center and colloid growth phenomenology. At temperatures where colloids form most rapidly, ~ 100 to ~ 250°C, F-centers appear when the

P. W. Levy; J. M. Loman; J. A. Kierstead

1984-01-01

254

Radiation damage studies on synthetic NaCl crystals and natural rock salt for waste disposal applications. [1. 5MeV electrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation damage studies are being made on synthetic NaCl and natural rock salt crystals from various localities, including potential repository sites. Measurements are being made with equipment for recording the radiation induced F-center and colloid particle absorption bands during irradiation with 1.5 MeV electrons at various temperatures. A technique has been developed to resolve the overlapping F-center and colloid bands.

R. W. Klaffky; K. J. Swyler; P. W. Levy

1979-01-01

255

A new compound heterozygous frameshift mutation in the type II 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3{beta}-HSD gene causes salt-wasting 3{beta}-HSD deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia  

SciTech Connect

We report a new compound heterozygous frameshift mutation in the type II 3{Beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3{beta}-HSD) gene in a Pakistanian female child with the salt-wasting form of 3{Beta}-HSD deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The etiology for her congenital adrenal hyperplasia was not defined. Although the family history suggested possible 3{beta}-HSd deficiency disorder, suppressed adrenal function caused by excess glucocorticoid therapy in this child at 7 yr of age did not allow hormonal diagnosis. To confirm 3{beta}-HSD deficiency, we sequenced the type II 3{beta}-HSD gene in the patient, her family, and the parents of her deceased paternal cousins. The type II 3{beta}-HSD gene region of a putative promotor, exons I, II, III, and IV, and exon-intron boundaries were amplified by PCR and sequenced in all subjects. The DNA sequence of the child revealed a single nucleotide deletion at codon 318 [ACA(Thr){r_arrow}AA] in exon IV in one allele, and two nucleotide deletions at codon 273 [AAA(Lys){r_arrow}A] in exon IV in the other allele. The remaining gene sequences were normal. The codon 318 mutation was found in one allele from the father, brother, and parents of the deceased paternal cousins. The codon 273 mutation was found in one allele of the mother and a sister. These findings confirmed inherited 3{beta}-HSD deficiency in the child caused by the compound heterozygous type II 3{beta}-HSD gene mutation. Both codons at codons 279 and 367, respectively, are predicted to result in an altered and truncated type II 3{beta}-HSD protein, thereby causing salt-wasting 3{beta}-HSD deficiency in the patient. 21 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Zhang, L.; Sakkal-Alkaddour, S.; Chang, Ying T.; Yang, Xiaojiang; Songya Pang [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)] [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

1996-01-01

256

Investigation on Phase Diagram of Ternary System CeCl3-BaCl2-LiCl.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A knowledge of the phase diagram of molten salts is of primary importance for investigating their physiocochemical properties and for electrolytic preparation of corresponding metals. Up to now, however, the phase diagram of ternary system Ce-Cl3-BaCl2-Li...

C. G. Zheng Y. Chen

1995-01-01

257

A bi-functional xyloglucan galactosyltransferase is an indispensable salt stress tolerance determinant in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Salinity is an abiotic stress that substantially limits crop production worldwide. To identify salt stress tolerance determinants, we screened for Arabidopsis mutants that are hypersensitive to salt stress and designated these mutants as short root in salt medium (rsa). One of these mutants, rsa3-1, is hypersensitive to NaCl and LiCl but not to CsCl or to general osmotic stress. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) over-accumulate in rsa3-1 plants under salt stress. Gene expression profiling with Affymetrix microarray analysis revealed that RSA3 controls expression of many genes including genes encoding proteins for ROS detoxification under salt stress. Map-based cloning showed that RSA3 encodes a xyloglucan galactosyltransferase, which is allelic to a gene previously named MUR3/KAM1. The RSA3/MUR3/KAM1-encoded xylogluscan galactosyltransferase regulates actin microfilament organization (and thereby contributes to endomembrane distribution) and is also involved in cell wall biosynthesis. In rsa3-1, actin cannot assemble and form bundles as it does in the wild-type but instead aggregates in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, addition of phalloidin, which prevents actin depolymerization, can rescue salt hypersensitivity of rsa3-1. Together, these results suggest that RSA3/MUR3/KAM1 along with other cell wall-associated proteins plays a critical role in salt stress tolerance by maintaining the proper organization of actin microfilaments in order to minimize damage caused by excessive ROS. PMID:23571490

Li, Wenbo; Guan, Qingmei; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Wang, Yingdian; Zhu, Jianhua

2013-07-01

258

Waste to energy by industrially integrated supercritical water gasification – Effects of alkali salts in residual by-products from the pulp and paper industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) is a method by which biomass can be converted into a hydrogen-rich gas product. Wet industrial waste streams, which contain both organic and inorganic material, are well suited for treatment by SCWG. In this study, the gasification of two streams of biomass resulting from the pulp and paper industry, black liquor and paper sludge, has been investigated.

I. Rönnlund; L. Myréen; K. Lundqvist; J. Ahlbeck; T. Westerlund

2011-01-01

259

Thermodynamic Properties of Magnesium Chloride Hydroxide Hydrate (Mg3Cl(OH)5:4H2O, Phase 5), and Its importance to Nuclear Waste Isolation in Geological Repositories in Salt Formations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MgO (bulk, pure MgO corresponding to the mineral periclase) is the only engineered barrier certified by the Environmental Protection Agency for emplacement in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the US, and an Mg(OH)2-based engineered barrier (bulk, pure Mg(OH)2 corresponding to brucite) is to be employed in the Asse repository in Germany. Both the WIPP and the Asse are located in salt formations. The WIPP is a U.S. Department of Energy geological repository being used for the permanent disposal of defense-related transuranic waste (TRU waste). The repository is 655 m below the surface, and is situated in the Salado Formation, a Permian salt bed mainly composed of halite, and of lesser amounts of polyhalite, anhydrite, gypsum, magnesite, clays and quartz. The WIPP Generic Weep Brine (GWB), a Na-Mg-Cl dominated brine, is associated with the Salado Formation. The previous vendor for MgO for the WIPP was Premier Chemicals and the current vendor is Martin Marietta Materials. Experimental studies of both Premier MgO and Martin Marietta MgO with the GWB at SNL indicate the formation of magnesium chloride hydroxide hydrate, Mg3Cl(OH)5:4H2O, termed as phase 5. However, this important phase is lacking in the existing thermodynamic database. In this study, the solubility constant of phase 5 is determined from a series of solubility experiments in MgCl2-NaCl solutions. The solubility constant at 25 oC for the following reaction, Mg3Cl(OH)5:4H2O + 5H+ = 3Mg2+ + 9H2O(l) + Cl- is recommended as 43.21±0.33 (2?) based on the Specific Interaction Theory (SIT) model for extrapolation to infinite dilution. The log K obtained via the Pitzer equations is identical to the above value within the quoted uncertainty. The Gibbs free energy and enthalpy of formation for phase 5 at 25 oC are derived as -3384±2 (2?) kJ mol-1 and -3896±6 (2?) kJ mol-1, respectively. The standard entropy and heat capacity of phase 5 at 25 oC are estimated as 393±20 J mol-1 K-1 and 374±19 J mol-1 K-1, respectively. Phase 5, and its similar phase, phase 3 (Mg2Cl(OH)3:4H2O), could have a significant role in influencing the geochemical conditions in geological repositories for nuclear waste in salt formations where MgO or brucite is employed as engineered barriers, when Na-Mg-Cl dominated brines react with MgO or brucite. Based on our solubility constant for phase 5 in combination with the literature value for phase 3, we predict that the composition for the invariant point of phase 5 and phase 3 would be mMg = 1.70 and pmH = 8.93 in the Mg-Cl binary system. The recent WIPP Compliance Recertification Application PA Baseline Calculations indicate that phase 5 instead of phase 3 is indeed a stable phase when GWB equilibrates with actinide-source-term phases, brucite, magnesium carbonates, halite and anhydrite. 1. This research is funded by WIPP programs administered by the U.S. Department of Energy. 2. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Xiong, Y.; Deng, H.; Nemer, M. B.; Johnsen, S.

2009-12-01

260

Subsidence and collapse at Texas Salt Domes  

SciTech Connect

This book provides a description of the mechanisms and extent of natural and man-induced subsidence and collapse at Texas salt domes. In the Houston diapir province, Frasch mining has caused subsidence bowls and collapse sinkholes at 12 of the 14 sulfur-productive domes. Understanding the structural and hydrologic instability that results at the surface and subsurface is crucial in evaluating the suitability of salt domes as repositories for waste disposal. Part of the Bureau's Coastal Salt Dome Program, this study used aerial photographs, remote-sensing methods, historical and modern topographic maps, and field checks to detect subsidence and collapse associated with natural salt diapiric processes and commercial resource recovery and to determine which processes are likely to reduce the stability and integrity of hydrologic and structural barriers around salt diapirs. Figures and tables illustrating the extent and evolution of subsidence and collapse, along with photographs showing their effects, highlight the text discussion of the salt domes detailed in this study-Boling, Orchard, Moss Bluff, Spindletop, Hoskins Mound, Fannett, Long Point, Nash, High Island, Bryan Mound, Clemens, and Gulf. The author concludes that Frasch sulfur mining from cap rocks causes the most catastrophic subsidence and collapse and that subsidence over salt domes includes processes ranging from trough subsidence to various types of subsurface caving. He concludes that salt domes characterized by subsidence and collapse are unfavorable sites for storage/disposal of hazardous wastes.

Mullican, W.F.

1989-01-01

261

Processes and parameters involved in modeling radionuclide transport from bedded salt repositories. Final report. Technical memorandum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parameters necessary to model radionuclide transport in salt beds are identified and described. A proposed plan for disposal of the radioactive wastes generated by nuclear power plants is to store waste canisters in repository sites contained in stable salt formations approximately 600 meters below the ground surface. Among the principal radioactive wastes contained in these canisters will be radioactive

D. E. Evenson; T. A. Prickett; P. A. Showalter

1979-01-01

262

Resistivity measurements of halide-salt/MgO separators for thermal cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resistivities of 20 compositions of halide-salt/MgO mixtures (various selections and percentages of LiF, LiCl, LiBr, KCl, KBr, CsBr, and MgO) to be used in Li-alloy/metal sulfide cells were measured at temperatures between the melting point of a particular mixture and 500 C. The resistivities were determined with cold pressed electrolyte-binder pellets by using a special cell and dc measuring technique. Temperature, salt composition, and MgO content were found to have a strong influence on resistivity. These factors are listed in decreasing order of the magnitude of the effect. The fabrication density (porosity) of the pellet also has some effect on resistivity. These measured resistivities provide a data base to select optimum compositions of electrolyte-binder pellets for LiSi/FeS2 thermal batteries and to calculate area-specific resistances of these components for battery modeling and optimization.

Redey, Lazlo; McParland, Margaret; Guidotti, Ron

1990-03-01

263

Pressure-Induced Brine Migration in Consolidated Salt in a Repository.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a mathematical model for brine migration through intact salt near a radioactive waste package emplaced in salt. Solutions indicate limited movement following ten years emplacement. (ERA citation 13:000339)

Y. Hwang P. L. Chambre W. W. L. Lee T. H. Pigford

1987-01-01

264

ISOPAR (TRADE NAME) L Release Rates From Saltstone Using Simulated Salt Solutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) and the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) will produce a Deactivated Salt Solution (DSS) that will go to the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). Recent information indicates that solvent e...

A. D. Cozzi A. R. Marinik C. A. Nash M. G. Bronikowski R. E. Eibling

2006-01-01

265

Polyethylene encapsulation of molten salt oxidation mixed low-level radioactive salt residues  

SciTech Connect

A limited scope treatability study was conducted for polyethylene encapsulation of salt residues generated by a Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) technology demonstration at the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), operated by Rockwell International for the US Department of Energy (DOE). During 1992 and 1993, ETEC performed a demonstration with a prototype MSO unit and treated approximately 50 gallons of mixed waste comprised of radioactively contaminated oils produced by hot cell operations. A sample of the mixed waste contaminated spent salt was used during the BNL polyethylene encapsulation treatability study. A nominal waste loading of 50 wt % was successfully processed and waste form test specimens were made for Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing. The encapsulated product was compared with base-line TCLP results for total chromium and was found to be well within allowable EPA guidelines.

Lageraaen, P.R.; Kalb, P.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Grimmett, D.L.; Gay, R.L.; Newman, C.D. [Energy Technology Engineering Center, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

1995-10-01

266

Understanding radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect

This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

Murray, R.L.

1981-12-01

267

BLENDING STUDY FOR SRR SALT DISPOSITION INTEGRATION: TANK 50H SCALE-MODELING AND COMPUTER-MODELING FOR BLENDING PUMP DESIGN, PHASE 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) portfolio of projects provides the infrastructure within existing Liquid Waste facilities to support the startup and long term operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Within SDI, the Blend and Feed Project will equip existing waste tanks in the Tank Farms to serve as Blend Tanks where 300,000-800,000 gallons of salt solution will be

R. Leishear; M. Poirier; M. Fowley

2011-01-01

268

Constitutive representation of damage development and healing in WIPP salt  

SciTech Connect

There has been considerable interest in characterizing and modeling the constitutive behavior of rock salt with particular reference to long-term creep and creep failure. The interest is motivated by the projected use of excavated rooms in salt rock formations as repositories for nuclear waste. It is presumed that closure of those rooms by creep ultimately would encapsulate the waste material, resulting in its effective isolation. A continuum mechanics approach for treating damage healing is formulated as part of a constitutive model for describing coupled creep, fracture, and healing in rock salt. Formulation of the healing term is, described and the constitutive model is evaluated against experimental data of rock salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. The results indicate that healing anistropy in WIPP salt can be modeled with an appropriate power-conjugate equivalent stress, kinetic equation, and evolution equation for damage healing.

Chan, K.S.; Bodner, S.R. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Fossum, A.F [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-12-31

269

Nuclear waste solutions  

DOEpatents

High efficiency removal of technetium values from a nuclear waste stream is achieved by addition to the waste stream of a precipitant contributing tetraphenylphosphonium cation, such that a substantial portion of the technetium values are precipitated as an insoluble pertechnetate salt.

Walker, Darrel D. (1684 Partridge Dr., Aiken, SC 29801); Ebra, Martha A. (129 Hasty Rd., Aiken, SC 29801)

1987-01-01

270

Hanford Waste Encapsulation: Strontium and Cesium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The strontium and cesium fractions separated from high radiation level wastes at Hanford are converted to the solid strontium fluoride and cesium chloride salts, doubly encapsulated, and stored underwater in the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (W...

R. R. Jackson

1976-01-01

271

Electrolyte salts for power sources  

DOEpatents

Electrolyte salts are disclosed for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts. 2 figs.

Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

1995-11-28

272

Crushed salt reconsolidation at elevated temperatures.  

SciTech Connect

There is a long history of testing crushed salt as backfill for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant program, but testing was typically done at 100 C or less. Future applications may involve backfilling crushed salt around heat-generating waste packages, where near-field temperatures could reach 250 C or hotter. A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of hydrostatic stress on run-of-mine salt at temperatures up to 250 C and pressures to 20 MPa. The results of these tests were compared with analogous modeling results. By comparing the modeling results at elevated temperatures to the experimental results, the adequacy of the current crushed salt reconsolidation model was evaluated. The model and experimental results both show an increase in the reconsolidation rate with temperature. The current crushed salt model predicts the experimental results well at a temperature of 100 C and matches the overall trends, but over-predicts the temperature dependence of the reconsolidation. Further development of the deformation mechanism activation energies would lead to a better prediction of the temperature dependence by the crushed salt reconsolidation model.

Holcomb, David Joseph; Clayton, Daniel James; Lee, Moo Yul; Bronowski, David R.

2010-06-01

273

Mixing of zeolite powders and molten salt.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Transuranics and fission products in a molten salt can be incorporated into zeolite A by an ion exchange process and by a batch mixing or blending process. The zeolite is then mixed with glass and consolidated into a monolithic waste form for geologic dis...

C. Pereira V. N. Zyryanov M. A. Lewis J. P. Ackerman

1996-01-01

274

Load diversion by embedding in crushed salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The semihydrostatic model permits the analytical calculation of the pressure distribution in a vertical cylindrical borehole filled with waste packages and crushed salt. The pressure components depend on the axial and radial coordinates. Two test stands of CFRP with different wall roughnesses were erected for the experimental verification of the model. The sensors manufactured for measuring the radial and axial

W. Feuser; H. Vijgen; E. Barnert

1999-01-01

275

SALT CORE SAMPLING EVOLUTION AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS), a Department of Energy (DOE) facility, has over 30 million gallons of legacy waste from its many years of processing nuclear materials. The majority of waste is stored in 49 buried tanks. Available underground piping is the primary and desired pathway to transfer waste from one tank to another until the waste is delivered to the glass plant, DWPF, or the grout plant, Saltstone. Prior to moving the material, the tank contents need to be evaluated to ensure the correct destination for the waste is chosen. Access ports are available in each tank top in a number of locations and sizes to be used to obtain samples of the waste for analysis. Material consistencies vary for each tank with the majority of waste to be processed being radioactive salts and sludge. The following paper describes the progression of equipment and techniques developed to obtain core samples of salt and solid sludge at SRS.

Nance, T; Daniel Krementz, D; William Cheng, W

2007-11-29

276

Characterization of the molten salt reactor experiment fuel and flush salts  

SciTech Connect

Wise decisions about the handling and disposition of spent fuel from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) must be based upon an understanding of the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of the frozen fuel and flush salts. These {open_quotes}static{close_quotes} properties can be inferred from the extensive documentation of process history maintained during reactor operation and the knowledge gained in laboratory development studies. Just as important as the description of the salt itself is an understanding of the dynamic processes which continue to transform the salt composition and govern its present and potential physicochemical behavior. A complete characterization must include a phenomenological characterization in addition to the typical summary of properties. This paper reports on the current state of characterization of the fuel and flush salts needed to support waste management decisions.

Williams, D.F.; Peretz, F.J.

1996-05-01

277

Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt  

DOEpatents

A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium for electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

Mullins, L.J.; Christensen, D.C.

1982-09-20

278

Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt  

DOEpatents

A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium from electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

Mullins, Lawrence J. (Los Alamos, NM); Christensen, Dana C. (Los Alamos, NM)

1984-01-01

279

Wetting behavior of imidazolium-containing, room-temperature molten salt. Technical report, 11 June 28-August 1984  

SciTech Connect

A room-temperature, molten-salt system composed of 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride plus aluminum chloride has been developed and extensively studied over the last few years. The most promising application of this liquid mixture is as a battery electrolyte, and for this reason a study was undertaken of the wettability of various candidate battery component materials by the molten salt. Advancing and receding contact angles were determined for the binary melt as a function of such variables as mixture composition, chlorination of the imidazolium ion, replacement of AlCl3 by LiCl, solid porosity, and solid surface cleaning procedure. Measurements were also made of the surface tension of the melt at one basic composition. Surface tension data was helpful in understanding the composition dependence of melt wetting behavior.

Eberhart, J.G.

1984-08-28

280

Removal of uranium from spent salt from the moltensalt oxidation process  

SciTech Connect

Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that has the capability of destroying organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials. In this process, combustible waste and air are introduced into the molten sodium carbonate salt. The organic constituents of the waste materials are oxidized to carbon dioxide and water, while most of the inorganic constituents, including toxic metals, minerals, and radioisotopes, are retained in the molten salt bath. As these impurities accumulate in the salt, the process efficiency drops and the salt must be replaced. An efficient process is needed to separate these toxic metals, minerals, and radioisotopes from the spent carbonate to avoid generating a large volume of secondary waste. Toxic metals such as cadmium, chromium, lead, and zinc etc. are removed by a method described elsewhere. This paper describes a separation strategy developed for radioisotope removal from the mixed spent salt, as well as experimental results, as part of the spent salt cleanup. As the MSO system operates, inorganic products resulting from the reaction of halides, sulfides, phosphates, metals and radionuclides with carbonate accumulate in the salt bath. These must be removed to prevent complete conversion of the sodium carbonate, which would result in eventual losses of destruction efficiency and acid scrubbing capability. There are two operational modes for salt removal: (1) during reactor operation a slip-stream of molten salt is continuously withdrawn with continuous replacement by carbonate, or (2) the spent salt melt is discharged completely and the reactor then refilled with carbonate in batch mode. Because many of the metals and/or radionuclides captured in the salt are hazardous and/or radioactive, spent salt removed from the reactor would create a large secondary waste stream without further treatment. A spent salt clean up/recovery system is necessary to segregate these materials and minimize the amount of secondary waste. These materials can then be encapsulated for final disposal.

Summers, L., Hsu, P.C., Holtz, E.V., Hipple, D., Wang, F., Adamson, M.

1997-03-01

281

ANNULUS CLOSURE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT INSPECTION\\/SALT DEPOSIT CLEANING MAGNETIC WALL CRAWLER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Liquid Waste Technology Development organization is investigating technologies to support closure of radioactive waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Tank closure includes removal of the wastes that have propagated to the tank annulus. Although amounts and types of residual waste materials in the annuli of SRS tanks vary, simple salt deposits are predominant on tanks with known

R. L. Minichan; R Russell Eibling; J James Elder; K Kevin Kane; D Daniel Krementz; R Rodney Vandekamp; N Nicholas Vrettos

2008-01-01

282

Solubility issues related to the performance of a high-level nuclear waste repository in bedded salt: A survey of data needs for solubilities and aqueous species of technetium, radium, and iodine: Nuclear and Chemical Waste Program  

SciTech Connect

A survey of the literature on the solubility and aqueous species of technetium, radium, and iodine was conducted, with special emphasis on salt repository brines. The elements reviewed here were three of a total of seventeen elements reviewed by participating laboratories. Comprehensive tables of solid compounds and aqueous species for each elements were screened according to a uniform set of procedures. Technetium solid compounds selected for further solubility studies in repository brines were TcO/sub 2//center dot/nH/sub 2/O, TcS/sub 2/, and Tc/sub 2/S/sub 7/. Aqueous species of interest were those associated with solubility measurements and complexing ligands such as phosphate and carbonate species. The least soluble compounds of radium are expected to be RaSO/sub 4/ and Ra/sub 3/(PO/sub 4/)/sub 2/, although thermodynamic estimates predict that RaF/sub 2/ and RaCO/sub 3/ may also be of some concern under particular circumstances. In cases where concentrations are too low to precipitate a pure radium phase, it appears probable that the concentration of Ra/sup 2 +/ in a brine may be limited by formation of solid solutions with insoluble compounds of other Group II A elements. The aqueous species of most concern are those associated with the least soluble solid compounds of radium, e.g., phosphate, sulfate, fluoride, and carbonate. No solid species of iodine were identified as important in repository brines. The species of iodine of major interest are those involved in the hydrolysis of I/sub 2/ to I/sup /minus// and IO/sub 3//sup /minus//, including trihalide ions and HOI. 40 refs., 5 figs., 21 tabs.

O'Kelley, G.D.

1987-07-01

283

MSO spent salt clean-up recovery process  

SciTech Connect

An effective process has been developed to separate metals, mineral residues, and radionuclides from spent salt, a secondary waste generated by Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO). This process includes salt dissolution, pH adjustment, chemical reduction and/or sulfiding, filtration, ion exchange, and drying. The process uses dithionite to reduce soluble chromate and/or sulfiding agent to suppress solubilities of metal compounds in water. This process is capable of reducing the secondary waste to less than 5% of its original weight. It is a low temperature, aqueous process and has been demonstrated in the laboratory [1].

Adamson, M G; Brummond, W A; Hipple, D L; Hsu, P C; Summers, L J; Von Holtz, E H; Wang, F T

1997-02-01

284

Salt tectonics on Venus  

SciTech Connect

The discovery of a surprisingly high deuterium/hydrogen ratio on Venus immediately led to the speculation that Venus may have once had a volume of surface water comparable to that of the terrestrial oceans. The authors propose that the evaporation of this putative ocean may have yielded residual salt deposits that formed various terrain features depicted in Venera 15 and 16 radar images. By analogy with models for the total evaporation of the terrestrial oceans, evaporite deposits on Venus should be at least tens to hundreds of meters thick. From photogeologic evidence and in-situ chemical analyses, it appears that the salt plains were later buried by lava flows. On Earth, salt diapirism leads to the formation of salt domes, anticlines, and elongated salt intrusions - features having dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 km. Due to the rapid erosion of salt by water, surface evaporite landforms are only common in dry regions such as the Zagros Mountains of Iran, where salt plugs and glaciers exist. Venus is far drier than Iran; extruded salt should be preserved, although the high surface temperature (470/sup 0/C) would probably stimulate rapid salt flow. Venus possesses a variety of circular landforms, tens to hundreds of kilometers wide, which could be either megasalt domes or salt intrusions colonizing impact craters. Additionally, arcurate bands seen in the Maxwell area of Venus could be salt intrusions formed in a region of tectonic stress. These large structures may not be salt features; nonetheless, salt features should exist on Venus.

Wood, C.A.; Amsbury, D.

1986-05-01

285

Computer Simulation Study of the Structure of LiCl Aqueous Solutions: Test of Non-Standard Mixing Rules in the Ion Interaction.  

PubMed

Aqueous solutions of LiCl have recently received much attention in connection with the study of the anomalies of supercooled water and its polyamorphism. From the point of view of computer simulation, there is need for a force field that can reproduce the structural and dynamical properties of this solution, and more importantly it is also simple enough to use in large scale simulations of supercooled states. We study by molecular dynamics the structure of the LiCl-water solutions with the force field proposed by Joung and Cheatham (J. Phys. Chem. B 2008, 112, 9020) appropriate for the water TIP4P-Ew model potential. We found that this force field does not reproduce the experimental ion pairing when the Lorentz-Berthelot (LB) rules are used. By incorporating deviations to the LB rules to obtain the crossed interactions between the ions, it is possible to get agreement with experiment. We have studied how the modification of the LB rule affects the structural and thermodynamic properties of the solution at increasing concentration of the solution from the low (around 2%) to medium (around 14%) concentration regimes. We also tested the transferability of the Joung and Cheatham force field to the water TIP4P/2005 model that works very well for supercooled water. PMID:24702562

Aragones, Juan L; Rovere, Mauro; Vega, Carlos; Gallo, Paola

2014-07-17

286

Control of Hes7 Expression by Tbx6, the Wnt Pathway and the Chemical Gsk3 Inhibitor LiCl in the Mouse Segmentation Clock  

PubMed Central

The mouse segmentation is established from somites, which are iteratively induced every two hours from the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) by a system known as the segmentation clock. A crucial component of the segmentation clock is the gene Hes7, which is regulated by the Notch and Fgf/Mapk pathways, but its relation to other pathways is unknown. In addition, chemical alteration of the Wnt pathway changes the segmentation clock period but the mechanism is unclear. To clarify these questions, we have carried out Hes7 promoter analysis in transgenic mouse embryos and have identified an essential 400 bp region, which contains binding sites of Tbx6 and the Wnt signaling effector Lef1. We have found that the Hes7 promoter is activated by Tbx6, and normal activity of the Hes7 promoter in the mouse PSM requires Tbx6 binding sites. Our results demonstrate that Wnt pathway molecules activate the Hes7 promoter cooperatively with Tbx6 in cell culture and are necessary for its proper expression in the mouse PSM. Furthermore, it is shown that the chemical Gsk3 inhibitor LiCl lengthens the oscillatory period of Hes7 promoter activity. Our data suggest that Tbx6 and the Wnt pathway cooperatively regulate proper Hes7 expression. Furthermore, proper Hes7 promoter activity and expression is important for the normal pace of oscillation.

Gonzalez, Aitor; Manosalva, Iris; Liu, Tianxiao; Kageyama, Ryoichiro

2013-01-01

287

Waste Acid Detoxification and Reclamation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Economically feasible processes that reduce the volume, quantity, and toxicity of metal-bearing waste acids by reclaiming, reusing, and recycling spent acids and metal salts are being developed and demonstrated. The acids used in the demonstrations are ge...

T. M. Brouns T. L. Stewart

1988-01-01

288

Waste management analysis for the nuclear fuel cycle: Parts I and II. Progress report, April 1September 30, 1977. [Actinide recovery from waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary evaluation of methods for the salt waste and waste water streams and recycle preparation problems was completed. A feasibility study for removing actinides from synthetic salt waste showed that a bidentate organophosphorus extractant is the most efficient for actinide removal. The evaluation of adsorbents for removing detergents and anions from waste water suggests the use of a combination

J. D. Navratil; L. L. Martella; C. M. Smith; G. H. Thompson; D. L. Cash; E. L. Childs; L. J. Meile

1978-01-01

289

Retrospective salt tectonics  

SciTech Connect

The conceptual breakthroughs in understanding salt tectonics can be recognized by reviewing the history of salt tectonics, which divides naturally into three parts: the pioneering era, the fluid era, and the brittle era. The pioneering era (1856-1933) featured the search for a general hypothesis of salt diapirism, initially dominated by bizarre, erroneous notions of igneous activity, residual islands, in situ crystallization, osmotic pressures, and expansive crystallization. Gradually data from oil exploration constrained speculation. The effects of buoyancy versus orogeny were debated, contact relations were characterized, salt glaciers were discovered, and the concepts of downbuilding and differential loading were proposed as diapiric mechanisms. The fluid era (1933-{approximately}1989) was dominated by the view that salt tectonics resulted from Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in which a dense fluid overburden having negligible yield strength sinks into a less dense fluid salt layer, displacing it upward. Density contrasts, viscosity contrasts, and dominant wavelengths were emphasized, whereas strength and faulting of the overburden were ignored. During this era, palinspastic reconstructions were attempted; salt upwelling below thin overburdens was recognized; internal structures of mined diapirs were discovered; peripheral sinks, turtle structures, and diapir families were comprehended; flow laws for dry salt were formulated; and contractional belts on divergent margins and allochthonous salt sheets were recognized. The 1970s revealed the basic driving force of salt allochthons, intrasalt minibasins, finite strains in diapirs, the possibility of thermal convection in salt, direct measurement of salt glacial flow stimulated by rainfall, and the internal structure of convecting evaporites and salt glaciers. The 1980`s revealed salt rollers, subtle traps, flow laws for damp salt, salt canopies, and mushroom diapirs.

Jackson, M.P.A. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

290

Retrospective salt tectonics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conceptual breakthroughs in understanding salt tectonics can be recognized by reviewing the history of salt tectonics, which divides naturally into three parts: the pioneering era, the fluid era, and the brittle era. The pioneering era (1856-1933) featured the search for a general hypothesis of salt diapirism, initially dominated by bizarre, erroneous notions of igneous activity, residual islands, in situ

1996-01-01

291

Sugar and Salt Solutions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What happens when sugar and salt are added to water? Pour in sugar, shake in salt, and evaporate water to see the effects on concentration and conductivity. Zoom in to see how different sugar and salt compounds dissolve. Zoom in again to explore the role of water.

Simulations, Phet I.; Lancaster, Kelly; Reid, Sam; Moore, Emily; Chamberlain, Julia; Loeblein, Trish

2011-10-12

292

Utah: Salt Lake Region  

article title:  Winter and Summer Views of the Salt Lake Region     ... Salt Lake City, Utah are captured in these winter and summer images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) ... the obvious difference in snow cover between the winter and summer views, water color changes in parts of the Great Salt Lake are apparent ...

2013-04-18

293

Plant salt tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil salinity adversely affects crop productivity and quality. The success of breeding programs aimed at salinity tolerant crop varieties is limited by the lack of a clear understanding of the molecular basis of salt tolerance. Recent advances in genetic analysis of Arabidopsis mutants defective in salt tolerance, and molecular cloning of these loci, have showed some insight into salt stress

Viswanathan Chinnusamy; Jian-Kang Zhu

294

Impulse radar scanning of intact salt at the Avery Island Mine  

SciTech Connect

A series of experiments was run in the Avery Island Mine to evaluate the capability of an impulse radar to locate anomalies and simulated waste targets in intact dome salt. Voids in salt were difficult to detect. On the positive side, metal targets and simulated waste (glass) were easily located in intact salt. Radar scanning at ranges of greater than 25 meters and short-range resolution of target positions to within a few centimeters were achieved.

Cook, C.W.

1980-05-01

295

Waste treatment for removed protective coatings  

SciTech Connect

A molten salt oxidation process is proposed for treatment of removed protective coatings along with the media used for removal. The treatment chemically reduces the waste, leaving any metals associated with the coating as a residue in the salt treatment media. The residue and the salt can be further treated for recycle of the metals, thus all but eliminating metal disposal as a waste problem. The process is expected to be simple and may be integrated into the coatings removal operations on location. Therefore, waste shipment and handling can be significantly reduced, and, as a secondary benefit, other waste can be treated in the same unit.

Gat, U.; Crosley, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Gay, R.L. [Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States)

1993-07-01

296

Process to separate transuranic elements from nuclear waste  

DOEpatents

A process is described for removing transuranic elements from a waste chloride electrolytic salt containing transuranic elements in addition to rare earth and other fission product elements so the salt waste may be disposed of more easily and the valuable transuranic elements may be recovered for reuse. The salt is contacted with a cadmium-uranium alloy which selectively extracts the transuranic elements from the salt. The waste salt is generated during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel associated with the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). 2 figs.

Johnson, T.R.; Ackerman, J.P.; Tomczuk, Z.; Fischer, D.F.

1989-03-21

297

Process to separate transuranic elements from nuclear waste  

DOEpatents

A process for removing transuranic elements from a waste chloride electrolytic salt containing transuranic elements in addition to rare earth and other fission product elements so the salt waste may be disposed of more easily and the valuable transuranic elements may be recovered for reuse. The salt is contacted with a cadmium-uranium alloy which selectively extracts the transuranic elements from the salt. The waste salt is generated during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel associated with the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). 2 figs.

Johnson, T.R.; Ackerman, J.P.; Tomczuk, Z.; Fischer, D.F.

1988-07-12

298

Modified carrageenan. 2. Hydrolyzed crosslinked kappa-carrageenan-g-PAAm as a novel smart superabsorbent hydrogel with low salt sensitivity.  

PubMed

A novel pH-responsive superabsorbing hydrogel based on K-carrageenan (kappaC) was prepared through polyacrylamide crosslinking grafting followed by alkaline hydrolysis. The hydrogel structure was confirmed using FT-IR spectroscopy. The hydrolysis conditions were systematically optimized to obtain a hydrogel with maximum swelling capacity. Thus, the reaction variables, including the hydrolysis time and temperature, concentration of sodium hydroxide, amount of hydrogel hydrolyzed and post-neutralization pH, were optimized. The swelling measurements of the hydrogels were conducted in 0.15 M aqueous solutions of LiCl, NaCl, KCI, CaCl2 and AlCl3. As observed for the hydrolyzed hydrogel (H-carragPAM), it was found that a 'charge screening' action of small cations and carboxylate anions affected the swelling in univalent salt solutions. In the case of the non-hydrolyzed hydrogel (carragPAM), however, a converse trend was observed. As a result, carragPAM and H-carragPAM superabsorbent hydrogels showed a maximum swelling of 45 and 135 g/g in LiCl and KCl solutions, respectively. Due to the high swelling capacity in salt solutions, the hydrogels may be referred to as anti-salt superabsrbents. The swelling of superabsorbing hydrogels was examined in buffer solutions with pH values ranging between 1 and 13. The H-carragPAM hydrogel exhibited a pH-responsie character so that a swelling-deswelling pulsatile behavior was recorded at pH 4 and 9. The swelling kinetics of H-carragPAM were preliminary investigated. PMID:15696795

Hosseinzadeh, H; Pourjavavdi, A; Zohuriaan-Mehr, M J

2004-01-01

299

Preconceptual design of a salt splitting process using ceramic membranes  

SciTech Connect

Inorganic ceramic membranes for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions are being developed for treating U. S. Department of Energy tank wastes. The process consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON) membranes. The primary NaSICON compositions being investigated are based on rare- earth ions (RE-NaSICON). Potential applications include: caustic recycling for sludge leaching, regenerating ion exchange resins, inhibiting corrosion in carbon-steel tanks, or retrieving tank wastes; reducing the volume of low-level wastes volume to be disposed of; adjusting pH and reducing competing cations to enhance cesium ion exchange processes; reducing sodium in high-level-waste sludges; and removing sodium from acidic wastes to facilitate calcining. These applications encompass wastes stored at the Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sites. The overall project objective is to supply a salt splitting process unit that impacts the waste treatment and disposal flowsheets and meets user requirements. The potential flowsheet impacts include improving the efficiency of the waste pretreatment processes, reducing volume, and increasing the quality of the final waste disposal forms. Meeting user requirements implies developing the technology to the point where it is available as standard equipment with predictable and reliable performance. This report presents two preconceptual designs for a full-scale salt splitting process based on the RE-NaSICON membranes to distinguish critical items for testing and to provide a vision that site users can evaluate.

Kurath, D.E.; Brooks, K.P.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Clemmer, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Balagopal, S.; Landro, T.; Sutija, D.P. [Ceramatec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1997-01-01

300

CRITICALITY SAFETY OF PROCESSING SALT SOLUTION AT SRS  

SciTech Connect

High level radioactive liquid waste generated as a result of the production of nuclear material for the United States defense program at the Savannah River Site has been stored as 36 million gallons in underground tanks. About ten percent of the waste volume is sludge, composed of insoluble metal hydroxides primarily hydroxides of Mn, Fe, Al, Hg, and most radionuclides including fission products. The remaining ninety percent of the waste volume is saltcake, composed of primarily sodium (nitrites, nitrates, and aluminates) and hydroxides. Saltcakes account for 30% of the radioactivity while the sludge accounts for 70% of the radioactivity. A pilot plant salt disposition processing system has been designed at the Savannah River Site for interim processing of salt solution and is composed of two facilities: the Actinide Removal Process Facility (ARPF) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Data from the pilot plant salt processing system will be used for future processing salt at a much higher rate in a new salt processing facility. Saltcake contains significant amounts of actinides, and other long-lived radioactive nuclides such as strontium and cesium that must be extracted prior to disposal as low level waste. The extracted radioactive nuclides will be mixed with the sludge from waste tanks and vitrified in another facility. Because of the presence of highly enriched uranium in the saltcake, there is a criticality concern associated with concentration and/or accumulation of fissionable material in the ARP and MCU.

Stephens, K; Davoud Eghbali, D; Michelle Abney, M

2008-01-15

301

Characterization of salt cake from secondary aluminum production.  

PubMed

Salt cake is a major waste component generated from the recycling of secondary aluminum processing (SAP) waste. Worldwide, the aluminum industry produces nearly 5 million tons of waste annually and the end-of-life management of these wastes is becoming a challenge in the U.S. and elsewhere. In this study, the mineral phases, metal content and metal leachability of 39 SAP waste salt cake samples collected from 10 different facilities across the U.S. were determined. The results showed that aluminum (Al), aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride and its oxides, spinel and elpasolite are the dominant aluminum mineral phases in salt cake. The average total Al content was 14% (w/w). The overall percentage of the total leachable Al in salt cake was 0.6% with approximately 80% of the samples leaching at a level less than 1% of the total aluminum content. The extracted trace metal concentrations in deionized water were relatively low (?gL(-1) level). The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was employed to further evaluate leachability and the results indicated that the leached concentrations of toxic metals from salt cake were much lower than the EPA toxicity limit set by USEPA. PMID:24747373

Huang, Xiao-Lan; Badawy, Amro El; Arambewela, Mahendranath; Ford, Robert; Barlaz, Morton; Tolaymat, Thabet

2014-05-30

302

Brine flow in heated geologic salt.  

SciTech Connect

This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes' governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

2013-03-01

303

Structure of molten salts  

SciTech Connect

A brief review of the structure of molten salts is given with special emphasis on structural features in reciprocal space. Selected diffraction results on halide salts containing monovalent and divalent cations are presented, along with recent results on salts containing trivalent cations. Different models and computational techniques, such as random packing of structural units, the reference interaction site model, and reverse Monte Carlo are used to derive structural information at the partial level. 15 refs., 3 figs.

Saboungi, M.L.; Howe, M.A.; Price, D.L.

1990-01-01

304

Catalytic oxidation of waste materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aqueous stream of human waste is mixed with soluble ruthenium salts and is introduced into reactor at temperature where ruthenium black catalyst forms on internal surfaces of reactor. This provides catalytically active surface to convert oxidizable wastes into breakdown products such as water and carbon dioxide.

Jagow, R. B.

1977-01-01

305

Dosimetry using silver salts  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a method for detecting ionizing radiation. Exposure of silver salt AgX to ionizing radiation results in the partial reduction of the salt to a mixture of silver salt and silver metal. The mixture is further reduced by a reducing agent, which causes the production of acid (HX) and the oxidized form of the reducing agent (R). Detection of HX indicates that the silver salt has been exposed to ionizing radiation. The oxidized form of the reducing agent (R) may also be detected. The invention also includes dosimeters employing the above method for detecting ionizing radiation.

Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM)

2003-06-24

306

Effect of salts on the electrospinning of poly(vinyl alcohol)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fibres with a diameter in the nanometer range were electrospun from aqueous poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH). In order to improve the mass deposition rate and decrease the final fibre diameter salts (NaCl, LiCl, LiBr and LiF) were added to the solution. The aim was to increase the charge density and hence increase the electrostatic forces on the fluid. It was found that with increasing salt concentration the charge density did increase. However the mass deposition rate was found to decrease and the final fibre diameter was found to increase. The decrease in mass deposition rate is explained by considering the concept of a virtual orifice. The increase in the final fibre diameter is explained by considering the charge distribution in the jet when it behaves like a conductor compared to when it behaves like an insulator. Both mechanisms result from the increase in conductivity of the PVOH solution without significantly modifying other solution properties when salt is added.

Stanger, Jonathan J.; Tucker, Nick; Staiger, Mark; Kirwan, Kerry; Coles, Stuart; Jacobs, Daniel; Larsen, Nigel

2009-07-01

307

Concept for Underground Disposal of Nuclear Waste  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Packaged waste placed in empty oil-shale mines. Concept for disposal of nuclear waste economically synergistic with earlier proposal concerning backfilling of oil-shale mines. New disposal concept superior to earlier schemes for disposal in hard-rock and salt mines because less uncertainty about ability of oil-shale mine to contain waste safely for millenium.

Bowyer, J. M.

1987-01-01

308

Laboratory investigation of crushed salt consolidation and fracture healing  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory test program was conducted to investigate the consolidation behavior of crushed salt and fracture healing in natural and artificial salt. Crushed salt is proposed for use as backfill in a nuclear waste repository in salt. Artificial block salt is proposed for use in sealing a repository. Four consolidation tests were conducted in a hydrostatic pressure vessel at a maximum pressure of 2500 psi (17.2 MPa) and at room temperature. Three 1-month tests were conducted on salt obtained from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and one 2-month test was conducted on salt from Avery Island. Permeability was obtained using argon and either a steady-state or transient method. Initial porosities ranged from 0.26 to 0.36 and initial permeabilities from 2000 to 50,000 md. Final porosities and permeabilities ranged from 0.05 to 0.19 and from <10/sup -5/ md to 110 md, respectively. The lowest final porosity (0.05) and permeability (<10/sup -5/ md) were obtained in a 1-month test in which 2.3% moisture was added to the salt at the beginning of the test. The consolidation rate was much more rapid than in any of the dry salt tests. The fracture healing program included 20 permeability tests conducted on fractured and unfractured samples. The tests were conducted in a Hoek cell at hydrostatic pressures up to 3000 psi (20.6 MPa) with durations up to 8 days. For the natural rock salt tested, permeability was strongly dependent on confining pressure and time. The effect of confining pressure was much weaker in the artificial salt. In most cases the combined effects of time and pressure were to reduce the permeability of fractured samples to the same order of magnitude (or less) as the permeability measured prior to fracturing.

Not Available

1987-01-01

309

Reference repository design concept for bedded salt  

SciTech Connect

A reference design concept is presented for the subsurface portions of a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. General geologic, geotechnical, hydrologic and geochemical data as well as descriptions of the physical systems are provided for use on generic analyses of the pre- and post-sealing performance of repositories in this geologic medium. The geology of bedded salt deposits and the regional and repository horizon stratigraphy are discussed. Structural features of salt beds including discontinuities and dissolution features are presented and their effect on repository performance is discussed. Seismic hazards and the potential effects of earthquakes on underground repositories are presented. The effect on structural stability and worker safety during construction from hydrocarbon and inorganic gases is described. Geohydrologic considerations including regional hydrology, repository scale hydrology and several hydrological failure modes are presented in detail as well as the hydrological considerations that effect repository design. Operational phase performance is discussed with respect to operations, ventilation system, shaft conveyances, waste handling and retrieval systems and receival rates of nuclear waste. Performance analysis of the post sealing period of a nuclear repository is discussed, and parameters to be used in such an analysis are presented along with regulatory constraints. Some judgements are made regarding hydrologic failure scenarios. Finally, the design and licensing process, consistent with the current licensing procedure is described in a format that can be easily understood.

Carpenter, D.W.; Martin, R.W.

1980-10-08

310

SALT for Language Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses Schuster's Suggestive-Accelerative Learning Techniques (SALT) Method, which combines Lozanov's Suggestopedia with such American methods as Asher's Total Physical Response and Galyean's Confluent Education. The article argues that students trained with the SALT Method have higher achievement scores and better attitudes than others. (14…

Bancroft, W. Jane

1996-01-01

311

Molten salt electrolyte separator  

DOEpatents

The patent describes a molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication. 5 figs.

Kaun, T.D.

1996-07-09

312

A History of Salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medical history of salt begins in ancient times and is closely related to different aspects of human history. Salt may be extracted from sea water, mineral deposits, surface encrustations, saline lakes and brine springs. In many inland areas, wood was used as a fuel source for evaporation of brine and this practice led to major deafforestation in central Europe.

Massimo Círillo; Giovambattista Capasso; Vito Andrea Di Leo; Natale Gaspare De Santo

1994-01-01

313

Acids and Salts (GCMP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acids and Salts: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". This problem will explore a few properties of common acids and their salts. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

314

Reduction of nitrate and nitrite salts under hydrothermal conditions  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of reducing nitrate/nitrite salts under hydrothermal conditions for the treatment of aqueous mixed wastes stored in the underground tanks at the Department of Energy site at Hanford, Washington was studied. The reduction of nitrate and nitrite salts by reaction with EDTA using a tank waste simulant was examined at temperatures between 623K and 800K and pressures between 0.6 and 1.2 kbar. Continuous flow reactors were used to determine kinetics and products of reactions. All reactions were studied under pressures high enough to produce single phase conditions. The reactions are rapid, go to completion in less than a minute, and produce simple products, such as carbonate, nitrogen, and nitrous oxide gases. The experimental results demonstrate the ability of chemical reactions under hydrothermal conditions to reduce the nitrate and nitrite salts and destroy organic compounds in the waste mixtures.

Foy, B.R.; Dell`Orco, P.C.; Wilmanns, E.; McInroy, R.; Ely, J.; Robinson, J.M.; Buelow, S.J.

1994-10-01

315

ISOPAR L Release Rates from Saltstone Using Simulated Salt Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) and the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) will produce a Deactivated Salt Solution (DSS) that will go to the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). Recent information indicates that solvent entrainment in the DSS is larger than expected. The main concern is with Isopar{reg_sign} L, the diluent in the solvent mixture, and its flammability

Bronikowski

2006-01-01

316

ISOPAR L RELEASE RATES FROM SALTSTONE USING SIMULATED SALT SOLUTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) and the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) will produce a Decontaminated Salt Solution (DSS) that will go to the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). Recent information indicates that solvent entrainment in the DSS is larger than expected. The main concern is with Isopar{reg_sign} L, the diluent in the solvent mixture, and its flammability

J Zamecnik; M Michael Bronikowski; A Alex Cozzi; R Russell Eibling; C Charles Nash

2008-01-01

317

Tank 37H Salt Removal Batch Process and Salt Dissolution Mixing Study  

SciTech Connect

Tank 30H is the receipt tank for concentrate from the 3H Evaporator. Tank 30H has had problems, such as cooling coil failure, which limit its ability to receive concentrate from the 3H Evaporator. SRS High Level Waste wishes to use Tank 37H as the receipt tank for the 3H Evaporator concentrate. Prior to using Tank 37H as the 3H Evaporator concentrate receipt tank, HLW must remove 50 inches of salt cake from the tank. They requested SRTC to evaluate various salt removal methods for Tank 37H. These methods include slurry pumps, Flygt mixers, the modified density gradient method, and molecular diffusion.

Kwon, K.C.

2001-09-18

318

Amine Salts as Bonding Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The polyamine compound, TEPAN, a partially cyanoethylated tetraethylene pentamine, is reacted with a selected ammonium salt to form an adduct of TEPAN and the selected ammonium salt. The ammonium salt is selected from ammonium perchlorate (AP), ammonium n...

M. E. Ducote H. C. Allen

1983-01-01

319

Recipe for Simulated Savannah River Site Waste for Testing of On-Line Alpha-Neutron Monitor  

SciTech Connect

The Salt Waste Processing Facility will treat High-Level Waste at the Savannah River Site to remove soluble strontium and selected actinides before removing radioactive cesium. This document provides guidance for preparing the simulated waste for use in testing the On-Line Alpha-Neutron Monitor under development for the Salt Waste Processing Project.

Fink, S.D.

2002-08-23

320

Fetal bile salt metabolism  

PubMed Central

Bile salt metabolism was studied in fetal dogs 1 wk before term. The size and distribution of the fetal bile salt pool were measured, and individual bile salts were identified. The hepatic excretion of endogenous bile salts was studied in bile fistula fetuses, and the capacity of this excretory mechanism was investigated by the i.v. infusion of a load of sodium taurocholate-14C up to 20 times the endogenous pool size. The total fetal bile salt pool was 30.9±2.7 ?moles, of which two-thirds was in the fetal gallbladder. Expressed on a body weight basis, this was equal to approximately one-half the estimated pool size in the adult dog (119.2±11.3 vs. 247.5±33.1 ?moles/kg body wt). Measurable quantities of bile salt were found in small bowel (6.0±1.8 ?moles), large bowel (1.1±0.3 ?moles), liver (1.2±0.5 ?moles), and plasma (0.1±0.03 ?moles). Plasma bile salt levels were significantly greater in fetal than in maternal plasma (1.01±0.24 ?g/ml vs. 0.36±0.06 ?g/ml; P < 0.05). Fetal hepatic bile salt excretion showed a fall over the period of study from 2.04±0.34 to 0.30±0.07 ?moles/hr. The maximal endogenous bile salt concentration in fetal hepatic bile was 18.7±1.5 ?moles/ml. The concentration in fetal gallbladder bile was 73.9±8.6 ?moles/ml; and, in those studies in which hepatic and gallbladder bile could be compared directly, the gallbladder appeared to concentrate bile four- to fivefold. Taurocholate, taurochenodeoxycholate, and taurodeoxycholate were present in fetal bile, but no free bile salts were identified. The presence of deoxycholate was confirmed by thin-layer chromatography and gas liquid chromatography, and the absence of microorganisms in fetal gut suggests that it was probably transferred from the maternal circulation. After infusion of a taurocholate load, fetal hepatic bile salt excretion increased 30-fold, so that 85-95% of the dose was excreted by the fetal liver during the period of observation. Placental transfer accounted for less than 5% of the dose. Fetal bile volume increased 15-fold on average, while bile salt concentrations increased two- to threefold. It is concluded that bile salt is taken up, conjugated, and excreted by the fetal liver with remarkable efficiency. The excreted material is either stored and concentrated in the fetal gallbladder or released into the intestine and reabsorbed to be reexcreted in bile.

Smallwood, R. A.; Lester, R.; Piasecki, G. J.; Klein, P. D.; Greco, R.; Jackson, B. T.

1972-01-01

321

Monte Carlo simulations of salt solutions: exploring the validity of primitive models.  

PubMed

An extensive series of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were performed in order to explore the validity of simple primitive models of electrolyte solutions and in particular the effect of ion size asymmetry on the bulk thermodynamic properties of real salt solutions. Ionic activity and osmotic coefficients were calculated for 1:1, 2:1, and 3:1 electrolytes by using the unrestricted primitive model (UPM); i.e., ions are considered as charged hard spheres of different sizes dissolved in a dielectric continuum. Mean ionic activity and osmotic coefficients calculated by the MC simulations were fitted simultaneously to the experimental data by adjusting only the cation radius while keeping the anion radius fixed at its crystallographic value. Ionic radii were further optimized by systematically varying the cation and anion radii at a fixed sum of ionic radii. The success of this approach is found to be highly salt specific. For example, experimental data (mean ionic activity and osmotic coefficients) of salts which are usually considered as dissociated such as HCl, HBr, LiCl, LiBr, LiClO(4), and KOH were successfully fitted up to 1.9, 2.5, 1.9, 3, 2.5, and 4.5 M concentrations, respectively. In the case of partially dissociated salts such as NaCl, the successful fits were only obtained in a more restricted concentration range. Consistent sets of the best fitted cation radii were obtained for acids, alkali, and alkaline earth halides. A list of recommended ionic radii is also provided. The reliability of the optimized ionic radii was further tested in simulations of the osmotic coefficients of LiCl-NaCl-KCl salt mixtures. A very good agreement between the simulated and experimental data was obtained up to ionic strength of 4.5 M. PMID:19341250

Abbas, Zareen; Ahlberg, Elisabet; Nordholm, Sture

2009-04-30

322

Ceramic waste form qualification using results from witness tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ceramic waste form has been developed to immobilize the salt waste stream from electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The ceramic waste form is prepared in a hot isostatic press (HIP). The use of small, easily fabricated HIP capsules called witness tubes has been proposed as a practical way to obtain representative samples of ceramic waste form material for

T. P. OHolleran; S. G. Johnson; K. J. Bateman

2002-01-01

323

Linking external and internal salt geometries - a key to understanding salt dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Considering the growing importance of salt in the energy, food and waste disposal industries, this paper reviews the status quo and major developments in salt research over the last decade. As a way forward in order to close identified gaps in knowledge, an integrated salt basin evaluation concept is proposed appreciating both external and internal geometries and properties. Examples of key studies in the Central European Basin and the South Oman Salt basin show that such a model may improve our understanding of the multi-scale processes operating in salt terrains. The workflow proposed allows to better asses (i) the initiation and maintenance of salt dynamics, (ii) the evolution of the internal structure of evaporites during halokinesis in salt giants, (iii) the coupling of processes in the evaporites and the salt's under- and overburden. It will lead to a better integration of the different data sets and resulting models, which will provide new insights into the structural evolution of salt giants. Finally it will also stimulate new concepts for (i) the initiation dynamics of halokinesis, (ii) the rheology and mechanics of the evaporites by brittle and ductile processes, (iii) the coupling of processes in the evaporites and the under- and overburden, and (iv) the impact of the layered evaporite rheology on the structural evolution. As an outlook for future research to be initiated in salt terrains we still need to improve our database on evaporite rocks especially the ones which take changes of properties in time into account. This includes for example the dependencies of thermal and mechanical properties on changes in strain, pressure and temperature or external and internal geometry changes relating to slow geological processes. Also geomechanical modelling efforts can be significantly improved by making full use of the data available on the effects of water, and some of the discrepancies seen in experimental data on different salts can probably be explained in terms of these effects. This all will contribute to the development of new integrated techniques for investigating and predicting salt structures from multiple data sets.

Kukla, Peter; Urai, Janos

2014-05-01

324

Bedded-salt repository analysis. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report contains a description of an analysis of generic nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. This analysis was performed by TASC for inclusion in a major Lawrence Livermore Laboratory report to NRC; this report therefore should be viewed as providing more complete and detailed information about this analysis than was possible to include in the LLL report. The analysis is performed with the NUTRAN computer codes which are described in the report. The model to be analyzed is defined, and the results of a series of possible waste migration scenarios are presented. Several of these scenarios are used as the basis for a sensitivity analysis, and an uncertainty analysis utilizing Monte Carlo techniques is also performed. A new method for defining the consequences to users of a well drilled near the repository is also described, and results are presented based on two of the waste migration scenarios.

Guiffre, M.S.; Kaplan, M.F.; Ensminger, D.A.; Oston, S.G.; Nalbandian, J.Y.

1980-03-31

325

Processes and parameters involved in modeling radionuclide transport from bedded salt repositories. Final report. Technical memorandum  

SciTech Connect

The parameters necessary to model radionuclide transport in salt beds are identified and described. A proposed plan for disposal of the radioactive wastes generated by nuclear power plants is to store waste canisters in repository sites contained in stable salt formations approximately 600 meters below the ground surface. Among the principal radioactive wastes contained in these canisters will be radioactive isotopes of neptunium, americium, uranium, and plutonium along with many highly radioactive fission products. A concern with this form of waste disposal is the possibility of ground-water flow occurring in the salt beds and endangering water supplies and the public health. Specifically, the research investigated the processes involved in the movement of radioactive wastes from the repository site by groundwater flow. Since the radioactive waste canisters also generate heat, temperature is an important factor. Among the processes affecting movement of radioactive wastes from a repository site in a salt bed are thermal conduction, groundwater movement, ion exchange, radioactive decay, dissolution and precipitation of salt, dispersion and diffusion, adsorption, and thermomigration. In addition, structural changes in the salt beds as a result of temperature changes are important. Based upon the half-lives of the radioactive wastes, he period of concern is on the order of a million years. As a result, major geologic phenomena that could affect both the salt bed and groundwater flow in the salt beds was considered. These phenomena include items such as volcanism, faulting, erosion, glaciation, and the impact of meteorites. CDM reviewed all of the critical processes involved in regional groundwater movement of radioactive wastes and identified and described the parameters that must be included to mathematically model their behavior. In addition, CDM briefly reviewed available echniques to measure these parameters.

Evenson, D.E.; Prickett, T.A.; Showalter, P.A.

1979-07-01

326

Comparison of mechanical properties of glass-bonded sodalite and borosilicate glass high-level waste forms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Argonne National Laboratory has developed a glass-bonded sodalite waste form to immobilize the salt waste stream from electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The waste form consists of 75 vol.% crystalline sodalite and 25 vol.% glass. Microi...

T. O'Holleran T. DiSanto S. Johnson K. Goff

2000-01-01

327

Amine salts of nitroazoles  

DOEpatents

Compositions of matter, a method of providing chemical energy by burning said compositions, and methods of making said compositions are described. These compositions are amine salts of nitroazoles. 1 figure.

Kienyin Lee; Stinecipher, M.M.

1993-10-26

328

Poor Teenage Salt Habits  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... MedlinePlus Pages Dietary Sodium Nutrition Obesity in Children Teen Health Transcript Open almost any kitchen cabinet and ... dietary fixture across all age groups with today's teens consuming as much salt as adults. After tracking ...

329

Modeling of Pilot-Scale Salt-cake Dissolution  

SciTech Connect

Large portions of the high-level waste present at the Hanford Site and Savannah River Site are comprised of porous salts with associated interstitial liquors. Various processes have been proposed wherein the aqueous phase is removed followed by dissolution of the salt with further mixing or blending of the resulting stream in a receiver tank. This leads to a large reduction in the radioactivity for the dissolved salt-cake; however, the interstitial retrieval process is hindered by capillary forces within the salt-cake pores and large aqueous phase fractions may remain. Thus, the interim stabilized or low-curie salt processes may have less separation effectiveness than desired. In addition, based on the initial extent of pretreatment of the waste, the salt-cake may be either unsaturated or hydraulically saturated. Different interactions are expected based on the contact of the diluent with the salt and/or on mixing the diluent with the salt and some fraction of interstitial liquid. The initial approximation is that the dissolution is governed by the associated thermodynamics of the system. This may be correct assuming sufficient time for contact between the salt and diluent has occurred. Pilot-scale simulant salt-cake dissolution experiments have been conducted by the Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University. As part of a companion program, these experiments have been modeled at the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL, Mississippi State University) using the Environmental Simulation Program (ESP, OLI Systems, Inc.). Hanford simulant compositions were examined under unsaturated and saturated conditions. To account for channeling that occurred during the unsaturated experiment, additional operations were required for the process flowsheet. Direct modeling of the saturated bed was possible without this consideration. The results have impacts on the salt-cake retrieval process. First, depending on the extent of interstitial liquid contained in the waste, recycling may be necessary; removal of the resulting aqueous stream at the largest specific gravity consistent with the operating safety basis ensures productive use of water. Secondly, direct modeling of a given waste dissolution must consider variations in the extent of channeling such that limits can be established on anticipated concentrations expected during the course of the retrieval. Finally, the ability to account for heterogeneous dissolution has been accounted for. Details regarding the development of the modeling strategy as well as knowledge gained regarding flowsheet development are provided. (authors)

Toghiani, R.K.; Smith, L.T.; Lindner, J.S. [Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory, Mississippi State University, 205 Research Blvd, Starkville, MS, 39759 (United States); Tachiev, G.I.; Yaari, G. [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler St, EC 2100, Miami, FL, 33174 (United States)

2006-07-01

330

Salt Lake City, Utah  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Salt Lake City, Utah, will host the 2002 Winter Olympic Games. The city is located on the southeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake and sits to the west of the Wasatch Mountains, which rise more than 3,500 meters (10,000 feet) above sea level. The city was first settled in 1847 by pioneers seeking relief from religious persecution. Today Salt Lake City, the capital of Utah, is home to more than 170,000 residents. This true-color image of Salt Lake City was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), flying aboard Landsat 7, on May 26, 2000. The southeastern tip of the Great Salt Lake is visible in the upper left of the image. The furrowed green and brown landscape running north-south is a portion of the Wasatch Mountains, some of which are snow-capped (white pixels). The greyish pixels in the center of the image show the developed areas of the city. A number of water reservoirs can be seen east of the mountain range. Salt Lake City International Airport is visible on the northwestern edge of the city. About 20 miles south of the airport is the Bingham Canyon Copper Mine (tan pixels), the world's largest open pit excavation. See also this MODIS image of Utah. Image courtesy NASA Landsat7 Science Team and USGS Eros Data Center

2002-01-01

331

Salt and hypertension  

PubMed Central

1 Studies comparing different communities have suggested that the amount of salt in the diet may play an important role in determining blood pressure levels within a particular community. Intervention studies have also suggested that salt intake may play an important role in determining blood pressure levels in man. 2 In animals, where more clearcut experiments can be done, an increase in salt intake both in inherited forms of hypertension and experimental hypertension causes a further rise in blood pressure. Recent work has suggested that this rise in blood pressure could be related to an inherited or imposed defect in the kidney's ability to excrete sodium, which will give rise to greater compensatory mechanisms to overcome the sodium retention. These compensatory mechanisms might eventually be responsible for the development of high blood pressure. 3 In patients who have already developed high blood pressure, restricting the amount of salt in the diet does cause a fall in blood pressure in many patients. However, short-term reduction of salt intake in normotensive subjects causes little, if any, fall in blood pressure. The effectiveness of short term salt restriction in lowering blood pressure in adults therefore appears to be related to the severity of the high blood pressure and, probably more directly, to the suppression of the renin system that occurs as blood pressure rises.

MacGregor, G. A.

1986-01-01

332

Lowering Salt in Your Diet  

MedlinePLUS

... or less for sodium, per serving. Q. Are salt substitutes safe? A. Many salt substitutes contain potassium chloride and can be used by ... heart disease. Check with your doctor before using salt substitutes. Q. What is FDA's role in regulating salt? ...

333

Electrical conductivity of melts in the system LiCl + NaCl (1:1)-AlCl/sub 3/  

SciTech Connect

This paper tests the temperature-dependent electrical conductivity of molten salts consisting of the mixed chlorides lithium, sodium, and aluminium in the 444-1004 K temperature range for the purpose of their possible utilization as electrolytes in galvanic batteries. The conductivities of all melts tested were found to increase with a rise in temperature. The dependence of the conductivities on aluminium chloride content was also tested.

Petrov, V.A.; Petrova, L.D.; Morachevskii, A.G.

1987-08-10

334

Physical Chemistry of Molten-Salt Batteries. Final Report, October 1, 1981-September 30, 1982. LiCl Precipitation from LiCl-KCl Anolyte in Porous Li-Al Electrodes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Composition gradients such as those predicted to occur during discharge of porous Li-Al negative electrodes of Li/S batteries with LiCl-KCl eutectic electrolyte were generated and measured in the LiCl-KCl anolyte of an electrolysis cell with Li-Al electro...

C. E. Vallet D. E. Heatherly L. Heatherly J. Braunstein

1983-01-01

335

Mass transport in salt repositories: Steady-state transport through interbeds  

SciTech Connect

Salt has long been a candidate for geologic disposal of nuclear waste. Because salt is extremely soluble in water, the existence of rock salt in the ground atest to the long-term stability of the salt. Both bedded salt and salt domes have been considered for nuclear waste disposal in the United States and Europe. While the salt is known to be quite pure in salt domes, bedded salt is interlaced with beds of sediments. Traditionally rock salt has not been considered water-conducting, but sediments layers would be classical porous media, capable of conducting water. Therefore there is interest in determining whether interbeds in bedded salt constitute pathway for radionuclide migration. In this report we consider steady-state migration of radionuclides from a single waste cylinder into a single interbed. Two approaches are used. In 1982 Neretnieks proposed an approach for calculating the steady-state transport of oxidants to a copper container. We have adapted that approach for calculating steady-state radionuclide migration away from the waste package, as a first approximation. We have also analyzed the problem of time-dependent radionuclide diffusion from a container through a backfill layer into a fracture, and we used the steady-state solution from that problem for comparison. Section 2 gives a brief summary of the geology of interbeds in bedded salt. Section 3 presents the mass transfer resistances approach of Neretnieks, summarizing the formulation and giving numerical illustrations of the steady-state two-dimensional diffusion analysis. Section 4 gives a brief statement of the steady-state result from a related analysis. Conclusions are stated in Section 5. 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Hwang, Y.; Lee, W.W.-L.; Chambre, P.L.; Pigford, T.H. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

1989-03-01

336

Effect of chorda tympani nerve transection on salt taste perception in mice.  

PubMed

Effects of gustatory nerve transection on salt taste have been studied extensively in rats and hamsters but have not been well explored in the mouse. We examined the effects of chorda tympani (CT) nerve transection on NaCl taste preferences and thresholds in outbred CD-1 mice using a high-throughput phenotyping method developed in our laboratory. To measure taste thresholds, mice were conditioned by oral self-administration of LiCl or NaCl and then presented with NaCl concentration series in 2-bottle preference tests. LiCl-conditioned and control NaCl-exposed mice were given bilateral transections of the CT nerve (LiCl-CTX, NaCl-CTX) or were left intact as controls (LiCl-CNT, NaCl-CNT). After recovery from surgery, mice received a concentration series of NaCl (0-300 mM) in 48-h 2-bottle tests. CT transection increased NaCl taste thresholds in LiCl-conditioned mice and eliminated avoidance of concentrated NaCl in control NaCl-exposed mice. This demonstrates that in mice, the CT nerve is important for detection and recognition of NaCl taste and is necessary for the normal avoidance of high concentrations of NaCl. The results of this experiment also show that the method of high-throughput phenotyping of salt taste thresholds is suitable for detecting changes in the taste periphery in mouse genetic studies. PMID:21743094

Golden, Glen J; Ishiwatari, Yutaka; Theodorides, Maria L; Bachmanov, Alexander A

2011-11-01

337

Effect of Chorda Tympani Nerve Transection on Salt Taste Perception in Mice  

PubMed Central

Effects of gustatory nerve transection on salt taste have been studied extensively in rats and hamsters but have not been well explored in the mouse. We examined the effects of chorda tympani (CT) nerve transection on NaCl taste preferences and thresholds in outbred CD-1 mice using a high-throughput phenotyping method developed in our laboratory. To measure taste thresholds, mice were conditioned by oral self-administration of LiCl or NaCl and then presented with NaCl concentration series in 2-bottle preference tests. LiCl-conditioned and control NaCl-exposed mice were given bilateral transections of the CT nerve (LiCl-CTX, NaCl-CTX) or were left intact as controls (LiCl-CNT, NaCl-CNT). After recovery from surgery, mice received a concentration series of NaCl (0–300 mM) in 48-h 2-bottle tests. CT transection increased NaCl taste thresholds in LiCl-conditioned mice and eliminated avoidance of concentrated NaCl in control NaCl-exposed mice. This demonstrates that in mice, the CT nerve is important for detection and recognition of NaCl taste and is necessary for the normal avoidance of high concentrations of NaCl. The results of this experiment also show that the method of high-throughput phenotyping of salt taste thresholds is suitable for detecting changes in the taste periphery in mouse genetic studies.

Ishiwatari, Yutaka; Theodorides, Maria L.; Bachmanov, Alexander A.

2011-01-01

338

Solubility of uranium in alkaline salt solutions  

SciTech Connect

The solubility of uranium in alkaline salt solutions was investigated to screen for significant factors and interactions among the major salt components and temperature. The components included in the study were the sodium salts of hydroxide, nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, sulfate, and carbonate. General findings from the study included: (1) uranium solubilities are very low (1-20 mg/L) for all solution compositions at hydroxide concentrations from 0.1 to 17 molar (2) carbonate, sulfate, and aluminate are not effective complexants for uranium at high hydroxide concentration, (3) uranium solubility decreases with increasing temperature for most alkaline salt solutions, and (4) uranium solubility increases with changes in solution chemistry that reflect aging of high level waste (increase in nitrite and carbonate concentrations, decrease in nitrate and hydroxide concentrations). A predictive model for the concentration of uranium as a function of component concentrations and temperature was fitted to the data. All of the solution components and temperature were found to be significant. There is a significant lack of fit for the model, which suggests that the dependence on the uranium solubility over the wide range of solution compositions is non-linear and/or that there are other uncontrolled parameters which are important to the uranium solubility.

Hobbs, D.T.; Edwards, T.B.

1994-03-29

339

Accelerators for Subcritical Molten-Salt Reactors  

ScienceCinema

Accelerator parameters for subcritical reactors have usually been based on using solid nuclear fuel much like that used in all operating critical reactors as well as the thorium burning accelerator-driven energy amplifier proposed by Rubbia et al. An attractive alternative reactor design that used molten salt fuel was experimentally studied at ORNL in the 1960s, where a critical molten salt reactor was successfully operated using enriched U235 or U233 tetrafluoride fuels. These experiments give confidence that an accelerator-driven subcritical molten salt reactor will work better than conventional reactors, having better efficiency due to their higher operating temperature, having the inherent safety of subcritical operation, and having constant purging of volatile radioactive elements to eliminate their accumulation and potential accidental release in dangerous amounts. Moreover, the requirements to drive a molten salt reactor can be considerably relaxed compared to a solid fuel reactor, especially regarding accelerator reliability and spallation neutron targetry, to the point that much of the required technology exists today. It is proposed that Project-X be developed into a prototype commercial machine to produce energy for the world by, for example, burning thorium in India and nuclear waste from conventional reactors in the USA.

340

Accelerators for Subcritical Molten-Salt Reactors  

SciTech Connect

Accelerator parameters for subcritical reactors have usually been based on using solid nuclear fuel much like that used in all operating critical reactors as well as the thorium burning accelerator-driven energy amplifier proposed by Rubbia et al. An attractive alternative reactor design that used molten salt fuel was experimentally studied at ORNL in the 1960s, where a critical molten salt reactor was successfully operated using enriched U235 or U233 tetrafluoride fuels. These experiments give confidence that an accelerator-driven subcritical molten salt reactor will work better than conventional reactors, having better efficiency due to their higher operating temperature, having the inherent safety of subcritical operation, and having constant purging of volatile radioactive elements to eliminate their accumulation and potential accidental release in dangerous amounts. Moreover, the requirements to drive a molten salt reactor can be considerably relaxed compared to a solid fuel reactor, especially regarding accelerator reliability and spallation neutron targetry, to the point that much of the required technology exists today. It is proposed that Project-X be developed into a prototype commercial machine to produce energy for the world by, for example, burning thorium in India and nuclear waste from conventional reactors in the USA.

Johnson, Roland (Muons, Inc.) [Muons, Inc.

2011-08-03

341

Densification of salt-occluded zeolite a powders to a leach-resistant monolith  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrochemical processing of spent fuel from the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) yields a salt waste of LiCl-KCl that contains approximately 6 wt% fission products, primarily as CsCl and SrClâ. Past work has shown that zeolite A will preferentially sorb cesium and strontium and will encapsulate the salt waste in a leach-resistant, radiation-resistant aluminosilicate matrix. However, a method is sill needed

M. A. Lewis; D. F. Fischer; C. D. Murhpy

1993-01-01

342

Radiation induced F-center and colloid formation in synthetic NaCl and natural rock salt: applications to radioactive waste repositories. [1 to 3 MeV electrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation damage, particularly Na metal colloid formation, has been studied in synthetic NaCl and natural rock salt using unique equipment for making optical absorption, luminescence and other measurements during irradiation with 1 to 3 MeV electrons. Previous studies have established the F-center and colloid growth phenomenology. At temperatures where colloids form most rapidly, 100 to 250 C, F-centers appear when

P. W. Levy; J. M. Loman; J. A. Kierstead

1983-01-01

343

Stability of SG1 nitroxide towards unprotected sugar and lithium salts: a preamble to cellulose modification by nitroxide-mediated graft polymerization  

PubMed Central

Summary The range of applications of cellulose, a glucose-based polysaccharide, is limited by its inherently poor mechanical properties. The grafting of synthetic polymer chains by, for example, a “grafting from” process may provide the means to broaden the range of applications. The nitroxide-mediated polymerization (NMP) method is a technique of choice to control the length, the composition and the architecture of the grafted copolymers. Nevertheless, cellulose is difficult to solubilize in organic media because of inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonds. One possibility to circumvent this limitation is to solubilize cellulose in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) or N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA) with 5 to 10 wt % of lithium salts (LiCl or LiBr), and carry out grafted polymerization in this medium. The stability of nitroxides such as SG1 has not been studied under these conditions yet, even though these parameters are of crucial importance to perform the graft modification of polysaccharide by NMP. The aim of this work is to offer a model study of the stability of the SG1 nitroxide in organic media in the presence of unprotected glucose or cellobiose (used as a model of cellulose) and in the presence of lithium salts (LiBr or LiCl) in DMF or DMA. Contrary to TEMPO, SG1 proved to be stable in the presence of unprotected sugar, even with an excess of 100 molar equivalents of glucose. On the other hand, lithium salts in DMF or DMA clearly degrade SG1 nitroxide as proven by electron-spin resonance measurements. The instability of SG1 in these lithium-containing solvents may be explained by the acidification of the medium by the hydrolysis of DMA in the presence of LiCl. This, in turn, enables the disproportionation of the SG1 nitroxide into an unstable hydroxylamine and an oxoammonium ion. Once the conditions to perform an SG1-based nitroxide-mediated graft polymerization from cellobiose have been established, the next stage of this work will be the modification of cellulose and cellulose derivatives by NMP.

Moreira, Guillaume; Charles, Laurence; Major, Mohamed; Vacandio, Florence; Guillaneuf, Yohann

2013-01-01

344

Stability of SG1 nitroxide towards unprotected sugar and lithium salts: a preamble to cellulose modification by nitroxide-mediated graft polymerization.  

PubMed

The range of applications of cellulose, a glucose-based polysaccharide, is limited by its inherently poor mechanical properties. The grafting of synthetic polymer chains by, for example, a "grafting from" process may provide the means to broaden the range of applications. The nitroxide-mediated polymerization (NMP) method is a technique of choice to control the length, the composition and the architecture of the grafted copolymers. Nevertheless, cellulose is difficult to solubilize in organic media because of inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonds. One possibility to circumvent this limitation is to solubilize cellulose in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) or N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA) with 5 to 10 wt % of lithium salts (LiCl or LiBr), and carry out grafted polymerization in this medium. The stability of nitroxides such as SG1 has not been studied under these conditions yet, even though these parameters are of crucial importance to perform the graft modification of polysaccharide by NMP. The aim of this work is to offer a model study of the stability of the SG1 nitroxide in organic media in the presence of unprotected glucose or cellobiose (used as a model of cellulose) and in the presence of lithium salts (LiBr or LiCl) in DMF or DMA. Contrary to TEMPO, SG1 proved to be stable in the presence of unprotected sugar, even with an excess of 100 molar equivalents of glucose. On the other hand, lithium salts in DMF or DMA clearly degrade SG1 nitroxide as proven by electron-spin resonance measurements. The instability of SG1 in these lithium-containing solvents may be explained by the acidification of the medium by the hydrolysis of DMA in the presence of LiCl. This, in turn, enables the disproportionation of the SG1 nitroxide into an unstable hydroxylamine and an oxoammonium ion. Once the conditions to perform an SG1-based nitroxide-mediated graft polymerization from cellobiose have been established, the next stage of this work will be the modification of cellulose and cellulose derivatives by NMP. PMID:23946859

Moreira, Guillaume; Charles, Laurence; Major, Mohamed; Vacandio, Florence; Guillaneuf, Yohann; Lefay, Catherine; Gigmes, Didier

2013-01-01

345

Salt Made the World Go Round: MRBLOCH Salt Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Don't you just love it when everything can be summed up with one simple explanantion? Created by David Bloch, this Website proves that life as we know depends upon salt. Sections of the site look at salt in relation to a wide range of areas of study, such as Physiology, Geology, Archaeology, Paleoclimatology, Religion, and Economics. For example, the Economics section provides information on the use of salt as money, the history of the control of salt by monopolies, and the influence of the salt trade on transportation. The Religion section points out the importance of salt in religious practices, such as Jewish koshering and Egyptian embalming. Also included are links to over fifty additional salt sites, an email list, and an announcement for Salt 2000, the 8th World Salt Symposium, to be held in the Hague in May 2000.

Bloch, David.

346

Study of Salt Wash Water Toxicity on Wastewater Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research effort focused on evaluating the toxicity of the saline waste water generated from washing of Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) deicing trucks and to study the feasibility of discharging it into wastewater treatment plants. Performance of activated sludge treating wastewater under varying levels of salt concentration was studied by measuring the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), activated sludge oxygen

Mostafa F. Hashad; Surabhi Sharma; Loring F. Nies; James E. Alleman

2006-01-01

347

Technology for treatment of salt residue stored at NPPs  

SciTech Connect

At Moscow SIA 'Radon', three (3) options for NPP salt residue treatment were developed and tested. Option 1 consists of dissolving the salt residue and subsequent treatment by ozonization, separation of the deposits formed from ozonization and selective cleaning by ferrocyanide sorbents. Option 2 consists of fusion of the salt residue, addition of glass-forming additives and melting of borosilicate glass in a melter such as a 'cold crucible'. Option 3 consists of dissolving the salt residue, oxidation of the solution obtained, removal of radionuclides by collectors and the separate handling of formed deposits and the solution. The deposits containing more than 99 % of the activity are directed to vitrification and the solution is directed either to a concentrates dryer or to cementation. The vitrified waste product is placed in repository for solid radioactive waste storage and the solidified product from the solution goes to an industrial waste disposal site or a repository specially developed at NPP sites for 'exempt waste' products by IAEA classification. (authors)

Kobelev, A.P.; Savkin, A.E.; Sinjakin, O.G.; Kachalova, E.A.; Sorokoletova, A.N.; Nechaev, V.R. [SUE Moscow SIA Radon (Russian Federation)

2007-07-01

348

HLW Salt Disposition Alternatives Preconceptual Phase II Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the report is to summarize the process used to identify the Short List alternatives that will be evaluated during Phase III and to document the results of the selection process. The Phase III evaluation will result in the determination of the preferred alternative(s) to be used for final disposition of the HLW salt to a permitted waste form.

Piccolo, S.F.

1999-07-09

349

Development of Polymeric Waste Forms for the Encapsulation of Toxic Wastes Using an Emulsion-Encapsulation Based Process  

SciTech Connect

Developed technologies in vitrification, cement, and polymeric materials manufactured using flammable organic solvents have been used to encapsulate solid wastes, including low-level radioactive materials, but are impractical for high salt-content waste streams (Maio, 1998). In this work, we investigate an emulsification process for producing an aqueous-based polymeric waste form as a preliminary step towards fabricating hybrid organic/inorganic polyceram matrices. The material developed incorporates epoxy resin and polystyrene-butadiene (PSB) latex to produce a waste form that is non-flammable, light weight, of relatively low cost, and that can be loaded to a relatively high weight content of waste materials. Sodium nitrate was used as a model for the salt waste. Small-scale samples were manufactured and analyzed using leach tests designed to measure the diffusion coefficient and leachability index for the fastest diffusing species in the waste form, the salt ions. The microstructure and composition of the samples were probed using SEM/EDS techniques. The results show that some portion of the salt migrates towards the exterior surfaces of the waste forms during the curing process. A portion of the salt in the interior of the sample is contained in polymer corpuscles or sacs. These sacs are embedded in a polymer matrix phase that contains fine, well-dispersed salt crystals. The diffusion behavior observed in sections of the waste forms indicates that samples prepared using this emulsion process meet or exceed the leachability criteria suggested for low level radioactivity waste forms.

Evans, R.; Quach, A.; Birnie, D. P.; Saez, A. E.; Ela, W. P.; Zeliniski, B. J. J.; Xia, G.; Smith, H.

2003-01-01

350

Gas releases from salt  

SciTech Connect

The occurrence of gas in salt mines and caverns has presented some serious problems to facility operators. Salt mines have long experienced sudden, usually unexpected expulsions of gas and salt from a production face, commonly known as outbursts. Outbursts can release over one million cubic feet of methane and fractured salt, and are responsible for the lives of numerous miners and explosions. Equipment, production time, and even entire mines have been lost due to outbursts. An outburst creates a cornucopian shaped hole that can reach heights of several hundred feet. The potential occurrence of outbursts must be factored into mine design and mining methods. In caverns, the occurrence of outbursts and steady infiltration of gas into stored product can effect the quality of the product, particularly over the long-term, and in some cases renders the product unusable as is or difficult to transport. Gas has also been known to collect in the roof traps of caverns resulting in safety and operational concerns. The intent of this paper is to summarize the existing knowledge on gas releases from salt. The compiled information can provide a better understanding of the phenomena and gain insight into the causative mechanisms that, once established, can help mitigate the variety of problems associated with gas releases from salt. Outbursts, as documented in mines, are discussed first. This is followed by a discussion of the relatively slow gas infiltration into stored crude oil, as observed and modeled in the caverns of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve. A model that predicts outburst pressure kicks in caverns is also discussed.

Ehgartner, B.; Neal, J.; Hinkebein, T.

1998-06-01

351

Physical Properties of Saltstone: A Savannah River Plant Waste Form  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cement-based waste form, ''saltstone'', has been designed for disposal of Savannah River Plant low-level radioactive salt waste. Laboratory and field tests indicate that this stabilization process greatly reduces the mobility of all of the waste constituents in the surface and near-surface environment. Bulk properties of this material have been tailored with respect to salt leach rate, permeability, and compressive

Langston

1984-01-01

352

The Nature of Salt  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a hands-on lab activity about the composition of salt. Learners will explain the general relationship between an element's Periodic Table Group Number and its tendency to gain or lose electron(s), and explain the difference between molecular compounds and ionic compounds. They will then use household materials to build a model to demonstrate sodium chloride's cubic form and describe the nature of the electrostatic attraction that holds the structure of salt together. Background information, common preconceptions, a glossary and more is included. This activity is part of the Aquarius Hands-on Laboratory Activities.

353

[Salt intake in children].  

PubMed

Very early in life, sodium intake correlates with blood pressure level. This warrants limiting the consumption of sodium by children. However, evidence regarding exact sodium requirements in that age range is lacking. This article focuses on the desirable sodium intake according to age as suggested by various groups of experts, on the levels of sodium intake recorded in consumption surveys, and on the public health strategies implemented to reduce salt consumption in the pediatric population. Practical recommendations are given by the Committee on nutrition of the French Society of Pediatrics in order to limit salt intake in children. PMID:24686038

Girardet, J-P; Rieu, D; Bocquet, A; Bresson, J-L; Briend, A; Chouraqui, J-P; Darmaun, D; Dupont, C; Frelut, M-L; Hankard, R; Goulet, O; Simeoni, U; Turck, D; Vidailhet, M

2014-05-01

354

Study of Salt Neutrino Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rock salt is studied as a radio wave transmission medium in an ultra high energy (UHE) cosmic neutrino detector. The radio wave would be generated by Askar'yan effect (coherent Chrenkov radiation from negative excess charges in the electromagnetic shower) in the UHE neutrino interaction in the rock salt. We collected the samples of the rock salts from various rock salt mines in order to investigate whether they have a possibility as a Salt Neutrino Detector (SND) sites or not. As a tentative result, the absorption length of the rock salt samples was measured to be between 40 m and400 m at 1 GHz. .

Chiba, Masami; Kamijo, Toshio; Kawaki, Miho; Husain, Athar; Inuzuka, Masahide; Ikeda, Maho; Yasuda, Osamu

2001-07-01

355

Analysis of Multistage and Other Creep Data for Domal Salts  

SciTech Connect

There have existed for some time relatively sparse creep databases for a number of domal salts. Although all of these data were analyzed at the time they were reported, to date there has not been a comprehensive, overall evaluation within the same analysis framework. Such an evaluation may prove of value. The analysis methodology is based on the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) description of salt creep and the corresponding model parameters determined from conventional creep tests. The constitutive model of creep wss formulated through application of principles involved in micromechanical modeling. It was possible, at minimum, to obtain the steady state parameters of the creep model from the data on the domal salts. When this was done, the creep of the domal salts, as compared to the well-defined Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) bedded clean salt, was either essentially identical to, or significantly harder (more creep resistant) than WIPP salt. Interestingly, the domal salts form two distinct groups, either sofl or hard, where the difference is roughly a factor often in creep rate between the twcl groups. As might be expected, this classification corresponds quite well to the differences in magnitude of effective creep volume losses of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) caverns as determined by the CAVEMAN cavern pressure history analysis, depending upon the specific dome or region within the dome. Creep response shoulcl also correlate to interior cavern conditions that produce salt falls. WMle, in general, the caverns in hard sah have a noticeably greater propensity for salt falls, a smaller number of similar events are exhibited even in the caverns in soft salt.

Munson, D.E.

1998-10-01

356

Diastereoselective synthesis of nitroso acetals from (S,E)-?-aminated nitroalkenes via multicomponent [4 + 2]/[3 + 2] cycloadditions promoted by LiCl or LiClO4.  

PubMed

Chiral nonracemic aminated nitroso acetals were synthesized via diastereoselective multicomponent [4 + 2]/[3 + 2] cycloadditions employing new (S,E)-?-nitrogenated nitroalkenes 5a-c as heterodienes, ethyl vinyl ether (EVE) as a dienophile, and selected electron-deficient alkenes as 1,3-dipolarophiles. The employment of different organic solutions of LiClO4 or LiCl as promoter systems provided the respective nitroso acetals with yields from 34-72% and good levels of diastereoselectivity. In addition, the nitroso acetal 9c was transformed to the pyrrolizidin-3-one derivative 14c, proving the usefulness of the route in the synthesis of an interesting chiral compound. The elucidation of the stereostructures was based on 2D COSY, NOESY and HSQC NMR experiments as well as an X-ray diffraction experiment. PMID:23766798

de Carvalho, Leandro Lara; Burrow, Robert Alan; Pereira, Vera Lúcia Patrocinio

2013-01-01

357

Processing of effluent salt from the direct oxide reduction process  

SciTech Connect

The production of reactive metals by Direct Oxide Reduction (DOR) process using calcium in a molten calcium salt system generates significant amount of contaminated waste as calcium oxide saturated calcium chloride salt mix with calcium oxide content of up to 15 wt. pct. Fused salt electrolysis of a simulated salt mix has been carried out to electrowin calcium, which can be recycled to the DOR reactor along with the calcium chloride salt or may be used in-situ in a combined DOR and electrowinning process. Many reactive metal oxides could thus be reduced in a one-step process without generating a significant amount of waste. The process has been optimized in terms of the calcium solubility, cell temperature, current density and the cell design to maximize the current efficiency. Based on the information available regarding the solubility of calcium in calcium chloride salt in the presence of calcium oxide, and the back reactions occurring in-situ between the electrowon calcium and other components present in the cell, e.g. carbon, oxygen, carbon dioxide and calcium oxide, it is difficult to recover elemental calcium within the system. However, a liquid cathode or a rising cathode has been used in the past to recover calcium. The solubility has also been found to depend on the use of graphite as the anode material as evidenced by the presence of calcium carbonate in the final salt. The rate of recovery for metallic calcium has to be enhanced to levels that overcome the back reactions in a system where quick removal of anodic gases is achieved. Calcium has been detected by the hydrogen evolution technique and the amount of calcia has been determined by titration. A porous ceramic sheath has been used in the cell to prevent the chemical reaction of electrowon calcium to produce oxide or carbonate and to prevent the contamination of salt by the anodic carbon.

Mishra, B.; Olson, D.L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Kroll Inst. for Extractive Metallurgy; Averill, W.A. [EG and G Rocky Flats, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)

1992-05-01

358

Processing of effluent salt from the direct oxide reduction process  

SciTech Connect

The production of reactive metals by Direct Oxide Reduction (DOR) process using calcium in a molten calcium salt system generates significant amount of contaminated waste as calcium oxide saturated calcium chloride salt mix with calcium oxide content of up to 15 wt. pct. Fused salt electrolysis of a simulated salt mix has been carried out to electrowin calcium, which can be recycled to the DOR reactor along with the calcium chloride salt or may be used in-situ in a combined DOR and electrowinning process. Many reactive metal oxides could thus be reduced in a one-step process without generating a significant amount of waste. The process has been optimized in terms of the calcium solubility, cell temperature, current density and the cell design to maximize the current efficiency. Based on the information available regarding the solubility of calcium in calcium chloride salt in the presence of calcium oxide, and the back reactions occurring in-situ between the electrowon calcium and other components present in the cell, e.g. carbon, oxygen, carbon dioxide and calcium oxide, it is difficult to recover elemental calcium within the system. However, a liquid cathode or a rising cathode has been used in the past to recover calcium. The solubility has also been found to depend on the use of graphite as the anode material as evidenced by the presence of calcium carbonate in the final salt. The rate of recovery for metallic calcium has to be enhanced to levels that overcome the back reactions in a system where quick removal of anodic gases is achieved. Calcium has been detected by the hydrogen evolution technique and the amount of calcia has been determined by titration. A porous ceramic sheath has been used in the cell to prevent the chemical reaction of electrowon calcium to produce oxide or carbonate and to prevent the contamination of salt by the anodic carbon.

Mishra, B.; Olson, D.L. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Kroll Inst. for Extractive Metallurgy); Averill, W.A. (EG and G Rocky Flats, Inc., Golden, CO (United States))

1992-01-01

359

The CF Salt Controversy  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is controversy over whether abnormalities in the salt concentration or volume of airway surface liquid (ASL) initiate cystic fibrosis (CF) airway disease. In vivo studies of CF mouse nasal epithelia revealed an increase in goblet cell number that was associated with decreased ASL volume rather than abnormal [Cl?]. Aerosolization of osmolytes in vivo failed to raise ASL volume. In

R Tarran; B. R Grubb; D Parsons; M Picher; A. J Hirsh; C. W Davis; R. C Boucher

2001-01-01

360

Properties of Rochelle Salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a qualitative way the anomalous properties of Rochelle salt can be explained on the basis of four different theories: (a) on the dipole theory, (b) by assuming polymorphic transitions at the Curie points, (c) by postulating an anomalous piezoelectric effect, and (d) with an inter-action theory which assumes that the structure and the fundamental properties of the crystal have

Hans Mueller

1940-01-01

361

Avi's Sensational Salt Dough  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 5 of the PDF, learners mimic the process for making bricks. Learners shape and bake creations from a dough that is made from flour, salt, and water. Use this activity to introduce learners to chemical changes. Safety notes: Follow Milli's safety notes (on page 2) and do this activity with an adult.

Society, American C.

2006-01-01

362

Unitized paramagnetic salt thermometer  

SciTech Connect

The details of construction and assembly of a cerous magnesium nitrate (CMN) paramagnetic thermometer are presented. The thermometer is a small unit consisting of a primary, two secondaries, the salt pill, and thermal links. The thermometer calibration changes very little on successive coolings and is reliable to 35 mK. A typical calibration curve is also presented.

Abraham, B.M.

1982-06-01

363

Salt River Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Humanity's resourcefulness inspired two attempts to draw life out of the desolation of Central Arizona's Salt River Valley over the past 1,500 years. Building over the remains of an irrigation culture left behind by lost Indian tribe, the Hohokam, federal...

R. Autobee

2011-01-01

364

SALT and Spelling Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

Nelson, Joan

365

The WIPP journey to waste receipt  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early 1970s the federal government selected an area in southeastern New Mexico containing large underground salt beds as potentially suitable for radioactive waste disposal. An extensive site characterization program was initiated by the federal government. This site became the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, better known as WIPP. It is now 1997, over two decades after the initial selection

G. J. Barnes; M. E. Whatley

1997-01-01

366

Safety at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a Department of Energy (DOE) project designed to demonstrate safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) wastes in the excavations of a salt bed situated 2,150 feet underground. The operational philosophy of the WIPP is th...

C. F. Wu

1992-01-01

367

ENGINEERING GEOLOGY OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three possible methods for future waste disposal are now being ; investigated: fixation in or as solids, disposal into salt, and disposal into ; deep porous formations. The fixation methods now under investigation all involve ; heating the waste, are expensive, and are dangerous to the operators, but the ; solid product once formed would probably be no further hazard.

de Laguna

1962-01-01

368

LITERATURE REVIEWS TO SUPPORT ION EXCHANGE TECHNOLOGY SELECTION FOR MODULAR SALT PROCESSING  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the results of literature reviews conducted to support the selection of a cesium removal technology for application in a small column ion exchange (SCIX) unit supported within a high level waste tank. SCIX is being considered as a technology for the treatment of radioactive salt solutions in order to accelerate closure of waste tanks at the Savannah

2007-01-01

369

Processing Macrobatch 2 at the Savannah River Site Integrated Salt Disposition Process (ISDP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently removing liquid radioactive waste from the tanks in its Tank Farm. To treat waste streams that are high in Cs, Sr, and\\/or actinides, SRS developed the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit. Collectively, these two processes make up the Integrated Salt Disposition Process (ISDP). The ARP

T. B. Peters; M. R. Poirier; S. D. Fink

2010-01-01

370

OPERATIONS REVIEW OF THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INTEGRATED SALT DISPOSITION PROCESS - 11327  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Savannah River Site (SRS) is removing liquid radioactive waste from its Tank Farm. To treat waste streams that are low in Cs-137, Sr-90, and actinides, SRS developed the Actinide Removal Process and implemented the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). The Actinide Removal Process contacts salt solution with monosodium titanate to sorb strontium and select actinides. After

T. Peters; M. Poirier; F. Fondeur; S. Fink; S. Brown; M. Geeting

2011-01-01

371

Solvent Extraction Batch Distribution Coefficients with Savannah River Site Dissolved Salt Cake  

SciTech Connect

Researchers characterized high-level waste derived from dissolved salt cake from the Savannah River Site (SRS) tank farm and measured the cesium distribution coefficients (DCs) for extraction, scrub, and stripping steps of the caustic-side solvent extraction (CSSX) flowsheet. The measurements used two SRS high-level waste samples derived entirely or in part from salt cake. The chemical compositions of both samples are reported. Dissolved salt cake waste contained less Cs-137 and more dianions than is typical of supernate samples. Extraction, scrub, and strip DCs values for both samples exceeded process requirements and agreed well with model predictions. The results indicate no significant problems processing dissolved salt cake compared to supernate. During the course of testing, researchers observed sorption of cesium on glass sample vials containing strip solutions. The problem was detected in the material balance calculated for each organic/aqueous contact. Methods and recommendations for avoiding this problem are discussed.

Walker, D.D.

2002-05-22

372

Preparation of board-like moldings from composites of isolated lignins and waste paper II: effect of inorganic salt addition on board performance and evaluation of practical use of MDF  

Microsoft Academic Search

Board-shaped composites with medium density (MDF) were prepared from isolated lignins and waste newspaper, in addition to\\u000a preparation of the composites with high density (HB). The board properties of both composites concerning bending strength\\u000a and water resistance were improved by the addition of hardwood acetic acid lignin (HAL). The internal bond strength and water\\u000a resistance of MDF, in particular the

Yasumitsu Uraki; Junji Nemoto; Kuniyoshi Yanaga; Akio Koizumi; Takuro Hirai

2005-01-01

373

Order of Magnitude Cost Appraisal for Selected Aspects of Clad Waste Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A simple formula, incorporating the fixed charge rate principle, is applied to a clad waste management exercise involving densification, canning, transportation and salt disposal. For the purpose of comparison with the bulk of published nuclear waste mana...

G. E. Zima

1977-01-01

374

Internal kinematics of salt diapirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The internal structure of intrusive and extrusive salt bodies elucidates their external shape and the mechanism and history of diapiric emplacement-information relevant to petroleum exploration. Trace amounts of brine can act like heat to weaken salt and promote geologic creep by solution-transfer mechanisms. They compare natural strain markers in salt with the artificial markers used by fluid dynamicists: stream lines

C. J. Talbot; M. P. A. Jackson

1987-01-01

375

Low-level tank waste simulant data base  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of defense wastes generated from reprocessing spent N- Reactor fuel at Hanford are stored in underground Double-shell Tanks (DST) and in older Single-Shell Tanks (SST) in the form of liquids, slurries, sludges, and salt cakes. The tank waste remediation System (TWRS) Program has the responsibility of safely managing and immobilizing these tank wastes for disposal. This report discusses

Lokken

1996-01-01

376

Feed Basis for Processing Relatively Low Radioactivity Waste Tanks  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the characterization of potential feed for processing relatively low radioactive waste tanks. The feed characterization is based on waste characterization data extracted from the waste characterization system. This data is compared to salt cake sample results from Tanks 37, 38 and 41.

Pike, J.A.

2002-07-09

377

Feed Basis for Processing Relatively Low Radioactivity Waste Tanks  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the characterization of potential feed for processing relatively low radioactive waste tanks. The feed characterization is based on waste characterization data extracted from the waste characterization system. This data is compared to salt cake sample results from Tanks 37, 38, and 41.

Jones (contact), R.T.

2003-02-18

378

Improving crop salt tolerance.  

PubMed

Salinity is an ever-present threat to crop yields, especially in countries where irrigation is an essential aid to agriculture. Although the tolerance of saline conditions by plants is variable, crop species are generally intolerant of one-third of the concentration of salts found in seawater. Attempts to improve the salt tolerance of crops through conventional breeding programmes have met with very limited success, due to the complexity of the trait: salt tolerance is complex genetically and physiologically. Tolerance often shows the characteristics of a multigenic trait, with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with tolerance identified in barley, citrus, rice, and tomato and with ion transport under saline conditions in barley, citrus and rice. Physiologically salt tolerance is also complex, with halophytes and less tolerant plants showing a wide range of adaptations. Attempts to enhance tolerance have involved conventional breeding programmes, the use of in vitro selection, pooling physiological traits, interspecific hybridization, using halophytes as alternative crops, the use of marker-aided selection, and the use of transgenic plants. It is surprising that, in spite of the complexity of salt tolerance, there are commonly claims in the literature that the transfer of a single or a few genes can increase the tolerance of plants to saline conditions. Evaluation of such claims reveals that, of the 68 papers produced between 1993 and early 2003, only 19 report quantitative estimates of plant growth. Of these, four papers contain quantitative data on the response of transformants and wild-type of six species without and with salinity applied in an appropriate manner. About half of all the papers report data on experiments conducted under conditions where there is little or no transpiration: such experiments may provide insights into components of tolerance, but are not grounds for claims of enhanced tolerance at the whole plant level. Whether enhanced tolerance, where properly established, is due to the chance alteration of a factor that is limiting in a complex chain or an effect on signalling remains to be elucidated. After ten years of research using transgenic plants to alter salt tolerance, the value of this approach has yet to be established in the field. PMID:14718494

Flowers, T J

2004-02-01

379

Advanced Central Receiver Molten Salts Materials Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A set of view graphs are presented which document the review. Topics covered include: advanced central receiver molten salt program overview; molten salt chemistry; molten salt test program; molten salt processing and industrial experience; materials test...

1978-01-01

380

Yeast plasma membrane Ena1p ATPase alters alkali-cation homeostasis and confers increased salt tolerance in tobacco cultured cells.  

PubMed

In plants, the plasma membrane Na(+)/H(+) antiporter is the only key enzyme that extrudes cytosolic Na(+) and contributes to salt tolerance. But in fungi, the plasma membrane Na(+)/H(+) antiporter and Na(+)-ATPase are known to be key enzymes for salt tolerance. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ena1p ATPase encoded by the ENA1/PMR2A gene is primarily responsible for Na(+) and Li(+) efflux across the plasma membrane during salt stress and for K(+) efflux at high pH and high K(+). To test if the yeast ATPase would improve salt tolerance in plants, we expressed a triple hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged Ena1p (Ena1p-3HA) in cultured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cv Bright Yellow 2 (BY2) cells. The Ena1p-3HA proteins were correctly localized to the plasma membrane of transgenic BY2 cells and conferred increased NaCl and LiCl tolerance to the cells. Under moderate salt stress conditions, the Ena1p-3HA-expressing BY2 clones accumulated lower levels of Na(+) and Li(+) than nonexpressing BY2 clones. Moreover, the Ena1p-3HA expressing BY2 clones accumulated lower levels of K(+) than nonexpressing cells under no-stress conditions. These results suggest that the yeast Ena1p can also function as an alkali-cation (Na(+), Li(+), and K(+)) ATPase and alter alkali-cation homeostasis in plant cells. We conclude that, even with K(+)-ATPase activity, Na(+)-ATPase activity of the yeast Ena1p confers increased salt tolerance to plant cells during salt stress. PMID:14991656

Nakayama, Hideki; Yoshida, Kazuya; Shinmyo, Atsuhiko

2004-03-30

381

Diferulic acids in the cell wall may contribute to the suppression of shoot growth in the first phase of salt stress in maize.  

PubMed

In the first phase of salt stress the elongation growth of maize shoots is severely affected. The fixation of shape at the end of the elongation phase in Poaceae leaves has frequently been attributed to the formation of phenolic cross-links in the cell wall. In the present work it was investigated whether this process is accelerated under salt stress in different maize hybrids. Plants were grown in nutrient solution in a growth chamber. Reduction of shoot fresh mass was 50% for two hybrids which have recently been developed for improved salt resistance (SR 03, SR 12) and 60% for their parental genotype (Pioneer 3906). For SR 12 and Pioneer 3906, the upper three leaves were divided into elongated and elongating tissue and cell walls were isolated from which phenolic substances and neutral sugars were determined. Furthermore, for the newly developed hybrids the activity of phenolic peroxidase in the cell wall was analysed in apoplastic washing fluids and after sequential extraction of cell-wall material with CaCl2 and LiCl. The concentration of ferulic acid, the predominant phenolic cross-linker in the grass cell wall, was about 5mgg(-1) dry cell wall in elongating and in elongated tissue. The concentration of diferulic acids (DFA) was 2-3mgg(-1) dry cell wall in both tissues. Salt stress increased the concentration of ferulic acid (FA) and DFA in the parental genotype Pioneer 3906, but not in SR 12. Both genotypes showed an increase in arabinose, which is the molecule at which FA and DFA are coupled to interlocking arabinoxylan polymers. In SR 12, the activity of phenolic peroxidase was not influenced by salt stress. However, in SR 03 salt stress clearly increased the phenolic peroxidase activity. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that accelerated oxidative fixation of shape contributes to growth suppression in the first phase of salt stress in a genotype-specific manner. PMID:24661612

Uddin, Md Nesar; Hanstein, Stefan; Faust, Franziska; Eitenmüller, Philipp T; Pitann, Britta; Schubert, Sven

2014-06-01

382

Fission product ion exchange between zeolite and a molten salt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and has been demonstrated through processing the sodium-bonded SNF from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II in Idaho. In this process, components of the SNF, including U and species more chemically active than U, are oxidized into a bath of lithium-potassium chloride (LiCl-KCl) eutectic molten salt. Uranium is removed from the salt solution by electrochemical reduction. The noble metals and inactive fission products from the SNF remain as solids and are melted into a metal waste form after removal from the molten salt bath. The remaining salt solution contains most of the fission products and transuranic elements from the SNF. One technique that has been identified for removing these fission products and extending the usable life of the molten salt is ion exchange with zeolite A. A model has been developed and tested for its ability to describe the ion exchange of fission product species between zeolite A and a molten salt bath used for pyroprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The model assumes (1) a system at equilibrium, (2) immobilization of species from the process salt solution via both ion exchange and occlusion in the zeolite cage structure, and (3) chemical independence of the process salt species. The first assumption simplifies the description of this physical system by eliminating the complications of including time-dependent variables. An equilibrium state between species concentrations in the two exchange phases is a common basis for ion exchange models found in the literature. Assumption two is non-simplifying with respect to the mathematical expression of the model. Two Langmuir-like fractional terms (one for each mode of immobilization) compose each equation describing each salt species. The third assumption offers great simplification over more traditional ion exchange modeling, in which interaction of solvent species with each other is considered. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Gougar, Mary Lou D.

383

Salt stress or salt shock: which genes are we studying?  

PubMed

Depending on the method of NaCl application, whether gradual or in a single step, plants may experience either salt stress or salt shock, respectively. The first phase of salt stress is osmotic stress. However, in the event of salt shock, plants suffer osmotic shock, leading to cell plasmolysis and leakage of osmolytes, phenomena that do not occur with osmotic stress. Patterns of gene expression are different in response to salt stress and salt shock. Salt stress initiates relatively smooth changes in gene expression in response to osmotic stress and a more pronounced change in expression of significant numbers of genes related to the ionic phase of salt stress. There is a considerable time delay between changes in expression of genes related to the osmotic and ionic phases of salt stress. In contrast, osmotic shock results in strong, rapid changes in the expression of genes with osmotic function, and fewer changes in ionic-responsive genes that occur earlier. There are very few studies in which the effects of salt stress and salt shock are described in parallel experiments. However, the patterns of changes in gene expression observed in these studies are consistently as described above, despite the use of diverse plant species. It is concluded that gene expression profiles are very different depending the method of salt application. Imposition of salt stress by gradual exposure to NaCl rather than salt shock with a single application of a high concentration of NaCl is recommended for genetic and molecular studies, because this more closely reflects natural incidences of salinity. PMID:23186621

Shavrukov, Yuri

2013-01-01

384

Trials on energy plantation on waste land  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a India has 93.6 million ha of waste land. Out of these 7.10 million ha of waste land is affected by salinity and alkalinity.\\u000a Thus waste land utilization and reclamation of salt affected soils can be affected by growing such hardy plants and using\\u000a them in an integrated way. Organic recycling is crucial for the maintenance of soil fertility, a key

Mira Madan; Satyawati Sharma; Rakesh Vimal

385

A Trail of Salts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This graph shows the relative abundances of sulfur (in the form of sulfur tri-oxide) and chlorine at three Meridiani Planum sites: soil measured in the small crater where Opportunity landed; the rock dubbed 'McKittrick' in the outcrop lining the inner edge of the crater; and the rock nicknamed 'Guadalupe,' also in the outcrop. The 'McKittrick' data shown here were taken both before and after the rover finished grinding the rock with its rock abrasion tool to expose fresh rock underneath. The 'Guadalupe' data were taken after the rover grounded the rock. After grinding both rocks, the sulfur abundance rose to high levels, nearly five times higher than that of the soil. This very high sulfur concentration reflects the heavy presence of sulfate salts (approximately 30 percent by weight) in the rocks. Chloride and bromide salts are also indicated. Such high levels of salts strongly suggest the rocks contain evaporite deposits, which form when water evaporates or ice sublimes into the atmosphere.

2004-01-01

386

Geohydrology of the Keechi, Mount Sylvan, Oakwood, and Palestine salt domes in the northeast Texas salt-dome basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Department of Energy is considering the feasibility of using salt domes in the northeast Texas salt-dome basin as repositories for radioactive wastes that may require complete confinement for as much as 250,000 years. Four of fourteen known shallow piercement salt domes within the basin--Keechi, Mount Sylvan, Oakwood, and Palestine Salt Domes--have been selected as candidate domes for further study and possible selection as storage sites. Dissolution may exist at all four candidate salt domes, possibly through contact with Cretaceous or Tertiary aquifers, or through fault systems in the vicinity of the domes. Strata overlying and surrounding Palestine and Keechi Salt Domes have been arched into steeply-dipping folds that are complexly faulted. Similar conditions exist at Oakwood and Mount Sylvan Domes, except that the Tertiary strata have been only moderately disturbed. Cap rock, which is generally accepted to be an indication of salt dissolution, is present in varying amounts over all four domes. Saline water has been reported at the surface at all candidate domes except Oakwood, but only two water wells near the domes yield water containing possible anomalous concentrations of dissolved chloride--one at Keechi and one at Oakwood. Possible subsurface plumes of saline water, which are indications of instability, exist at all four domes. Additional problems concerning the hydrologic stability of Oakwood and Palestine salt domes have resulted from the disposal of oil-field saline water in the cap rock at the Oakwood dome and previous solution mining of salt at the Palestine dome. Additional investigations are needed to determine if a selected dome is hydrologically stable. Needed investigations include (1) more complete comparative analysis of the regional and local geohydrologic system; (2) a site-specific drilling and sampling program to analyze the cap rock-aquifer boundary, sediment distribution, hydraulic-parameter variations, hydraulic-head relationships, and hydrochemical patterns; and (3) mass-transport computer modeling of groundwater flow at the domes. (USGS)

Carr, Jerry E.; Halasz, Stephen J.; Peters, Henry B.

1980-01-01

387

Results of Analyses of Tank 37H Criticality Salt Samples (HTK-493 and 494)  

SciTech Connect

High Level Waste Division (HLWD) personnel requested Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) support in analyzing samples of salt cake from Tank 37H as input to a Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation (NCSE) in support of dissolution of the salt in the tank. Two salt core samples (HTK-493 and 494) were pulled from Tank 37H and transferred to the SRTC Shielded Cells Facility on April 2, 2002 for analyses of species that may affect criticality as the salt is dissolved. The core samples were composited and prepared for analysis of the as-received sample and of insoluble solids separated from as-received sample. Results of the analyses are presented herein. Results are given for the as-received salt cake, for insoluble solids separated from the core sample both with and without a correction for soluble solids remaining after dissolution, and for wash water produced by dissolving the soluble salts in inhibited water.

Swingle, R.F.

2002-07-10

388

Concentration and precipitation of NaCl and KCl from salt cake leach solutions by electrodialysis  

SciTech Connect

Electrodialysis was investigated for cost-effective recovery of salt from salt cake leach solutions. (Salt cake is a waste stream generated by the aluminum industry during treatment of aluminum drosses and scrap.) We used a pilot-scale electrodialysis stack of 5 membrane pairs, each with an effective area of 0.02 m{sup 2}. The diluate stream contained synthetic NaCl, KCl,mixtures of NaCl and KCl, and actual salt cake leach solutions (mainly NaCl and KCl, with small amounts of MgCl{sub 2}). We concentrated and precipitated NaCl and KCl salts from the concentrate steam when the initial diluate stream concentration was 21.5 to 28.8 wt% NaCl and KCl. We found that water transferring through the membranes was a significant factor in overall efficiency of salt recovery by electrodialysis.

Sreenivasarao, K; Patsiogiannis, F.; Hryn, J.N.

1997-02-09

389

ENVIROCARE OF UTAH: EXPANDING WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA TO PROVIDE LOW-LEVEL AND MIXED WASTE DISPOSAL OPTIONS  

SciTech Connect

Envirocare of Utah operates a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility 80 miles west of Salt Lake City in Clive, Utah. Accepted waste types includes NORM, 11e2 byproduct material, Class A low-level waste, and mixed waste. Since 1988, Envirocare has offered disposal options for environmental restoration waste for both government and commercial remediation projects. Annual waste receipts exceed 12 million cubic feet. The waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for the Envirocare facility have significantly expanded to accommodate the changing needs of restoration projects and waste generators since its inception, including acceptable physical waste forms, radiological acceptance criteria, RCRA requirements and treatment capabilities, PCB acceptance, and liquids acceptance. Additionally, there are many packaging, transportation, and waste management options for waste streams acceptable at Envirocare. Many subcontracting vehicles are also available to waste generators for both government and commercial activities.

Rogers, B.; Loveland, K.

2003-02-27

390

Effect of different glass and zeolite A compositions on the leach resistance of ceramic waste forms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ceramic waste form is being developed for waste generated during electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The waste is generated when fission products are removed from the electrolyte, LiCl-KCl eutectic. The waste form is a composite fabricated by hot isostatic pressing a mixture of glass frit and zeolite occluded with fission products and salt. Normalized release rate is less

M. A. Lewis; M. Hash; D. Glandorf

1996-01-01

391

Development of a sampling method for qualification of a ceramic high-level waste form  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ceramic waste form has been developed to immobilize the salt waste stream from electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The ceramic waste form was originally prepared in a hot isostatic press (HIP). Small HIP capsules called witness tubes were used to obtain representative samples of material for process monitoring, waste form qualification, and archiving. Since installation of a full-scale

OHolleran

2002-01-01

392

Determination of Thermal Conductivity of Reconsolidated Crushed Salt to 200°C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal, mechanical, and fluid transport properties of reconsolidating granular salt are important for design, analysis and performance assessment of potential salt repositories for heat-generating nuclear waste. Properties such as thermal conductivity (?) and permeability (k) are functions of porosity. To inform salt repository evaluations, where salt creep at elevated pressures and temperatures will reduce the porosity of salt enclosures, we have undertaken an experimental program to determine ? of reconsolidated granular salt as a function of porosity, with the secondary intent of quantifying temperature dependence over a range of temperatures from 100-200°C. Mine-run salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Program (WIPP) was first dried at 100°C until weight loss ceased. The disaggregated salt was compacted at room temperature by quasistatic die compression into samples with porosities ranging from 40% (unconsolidated) to 5%. Thermal conductivity was also measured on intact domal salt, WIPP bedded salt, and commercially available salt licks in order to determine ? in salt with porosity as low as 1-8%. For every sample, measurements were made at 100, 125, 150, 175, and 200°C using a guarded heat flow meter. Thermal conductivity was found to decrease by a factor of about 4-5 for the porosity range studied. The ? versus porosity relationship is well represented by a simple mixture model. A temperature dependence is also observed, the effect of which increases at lower porosities. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Urquhart, A.; Bauer, S. J.; Hansen, F. D.

2012-12-01

393

Geohydrology of the Keechi, Mount Sylvan, Oakwood, and Palestine salt domes in the northeast Texas salt-dome basin  

SciTech Connect

The salt within these domes has penetrated as much as 20,000 feet of Mesozoic and Cenozoic strata, and presently extends to within 120 to 800 feet of the land surface. The salt penetrates or closely underlies major freshwater and salinewater aquifers within the basin. To provide a safe repository for radioactive wastes within one or more of these domes, a thorough understanding of the geohydrology needs to be obtained, and the hydrologic stability of the domes needs to be established for the expected life of the storage facility. Dissolution may exist at all four candidate salt domes, possibly through contact with Cretaceous or Tertiary aquifers, or through fault systems in the vicinity of the domes. Strata overlying and surrounding Palestine and Keechi Salt Domes have been arched into steeply-dipping folds that are complexly faulted. Similar conditions exist at Oakwood and Mount Sylvan Domes, except that the Tertiary strata have been only moderately disturbed. Additional problems concerning the hydrologic stability of Oakwood and Palestine Salt Domes have resulted from the disposal of oil-field salinewater in the cap rock at the Oakwood Dome and previous solution mining of salt at the Palestine Dome.

Carr, J.E.; Halasz, S.J.; Peters, H.B.

1980-01-01

394

Computer simulations of highly-concentrated aqueous solutions of ionic salts: modeling of the pre-crystallization phases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computer simulation method has been applied to study the structure of aqueous solutions of simple ionic salts in the region of very high concentrations. Most of the calculations were performed using different versions of the molecular dynamics method for sodium chloride, lithium chloride and sodium hydroxide solutions. The concentrations ranged from 0.5 M to saturated solutions, in some cases as much as 20 M. The structures of hydration shells of the ions were analyzed using such tools as radial distribution functions, Voronoi tessellations, O'Keeffe coordination numbers, etc. Particularly careful analysis was applied to the topological properties of the ionic structures in solution. Ruff's theory of ionic quasi-lattices in concentrated solutions was investigated for LiCl, NaCl, NaOH and MgCl2 solutions. The distributions of the number of faces of the Voronoi polyhedra were calculated for the ionic substructures in the configurations produced by the molecular dynamics simulation. The increase of the salt concentration causes evolution of these distributions towards appearance of predominant geometries of the Voronoi polyhedra, what is reflected by the appearance of the peaks at certain numbers of faces of the polyhedra. This provides a proof for existence of the ordered structures of ions in the solution.

Zapalowski, Michal; Bartczak, Witold M.

1997-07-01

395

Corrosion behavior of plasma-sprayed Al 2O 3-Cr 2O 3 coatings in hot lithium molten salt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, hot corrosion studies were performed on bare as well as coated superalloy specimens after exposure to molten lithium chloride environment at 675 °C for 216 h under an oxidizing atmosphere. The substrates of the IN713LC superalloy specimens were sprayed with an aluminized NiCrAlY bond coat and then with an Al 2O 3-Cr 2O 3 top coat. The as-coated and tested specimens were examined by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The bare superalloy reveals an obvious weight loss, and the scale formed on the surface of the bare superalloy was spalled due to the rapid scale growth and thermal stress. The top coatings showed a much better hot corrosion resistance in the presence of LiCl-3 wt.% Li 2O molten salt when compared with those of the uncoated superalloy and the aluminized bond coatings. These coatings have been found to be beneficial for increasing to the hot corrosion resistance of the structural materials for handling high temperature lithium molten salts.

Cho, Soo Haeng; Park, Sung Bin; Kang, Dae Seong; Jeong, Myeong Soo; Park, Heong; Hur, Jin Mok; Lee, Han Soo

396

Terephthalate salts: salts of monopositive cations  

PubMed

The crystal structures of dilithium, disodium and diammonium terephthalate (1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) have been solved ab initio using Monte Carlo simulated annealing techniques, and refined using synchrotron powder data. The structures of dipotassium terephthalate, potassium hydrogen terephthalate and ammonium hydrogen terephthalate have been refined using single-crystal techniques. Li2C8H4O4 crystallizes in P2(1)/c, with a = 8.35921 (5), b = 5.13208 (2), c = 8.48490 (5) A, beta = 93.1552 (4) degrees, V = 363.451 (3) A3, Z = 2. The Li anions are tetrahedrally coordinated and the packing of the terephthalate anions resembles the gamma-packing of aromatic hydrocarbons. Na2C8H4O4 crystallizes in Pbc2(1), with a = 3.54804 (5), b = 10.81604 (16), c = 18.99430 (20) A, V = 728.92 (2) A3, Z = 4. The coordination of the two independent Na is trigonal prismatic and the terephthalate packing resembles the beta packing of hydrocarbons. (NH4)2C8H4O4 also crystallizes in Pbc2(1), with a = 4.0053 (5), b = 11.8136 (21), c = 20.1857 (24) A, V = 955.1 (2) A3, Z = 4. The cations and planar anions are linked by hydrogen bonds and the packing is a looser version of the beta packing. K2C8H4O2 crystallizes in P2(1)/c, with a = 10.561 (4), b = 3.9440 (12), c = 11.535 (5) A, beta = 113.08 (3) degrees, V = 442.0 (3) A3, Z = 2. The K is trigonal prismatic and the packing is also beta. Both KHC8H4O4 and (NH4)HC8H4O4 crystallize in C2/c, with a = 18.825 (4) and 18.924 (4), b = 3.770 (2) and 3.7967 (9), c = 11.179 (2) and 11.481 (2) A, beta = 98.04 (3) and 94.56 (5) degrees, V = 816.8 (3) and 790.9 (3) A3, respectively, and Z = 4. The packing in the hydrogen-bonded acid salts is also beta. Electrostatic interactions among the terephthalate anions appear to be important in determining the crystal packing. PMID:10877356

Kaduk

2000-06-01

397

Radioactive air emissions notice of construction use of a portable exhauster on single shell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping  

SciTech Connect

This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.07, portable exhausters for use on single-shell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping. Table 1-1 lists 18 SSTs covered by this NOC. This NOC also addresses other activities that are performed in support of salt well pumping but do not require the application of a portable exhauster. Specifically this NOC analyzes the following three activities that have the potential for emissions. (1) Salt well pumping (i.e., the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) under nominal tank operating conditions. Nominal tank operating conditions include existing passive breathing rates. (2) Salt well pumping (the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) with use of a portable exhauster. (3) Use of a water lance on the waste to facilitate salt well screen and salt well jet pump installation into the waste. This activity is to be performed under nominal (existing passive breathing rates) tank operating conditions. The use of portable exhausters represents a cost savings because one portable exhauster can be moved back and forth between SSTs as schedules for salt well pumping dictate. A portable exhauster also could be used to simultaneously exhaust more than one SST during salt well pumping.

GRANDO, C.J.

1999-11-18

398

Thermal-hydraulics of internally heated molten salts and application to the Molten Salt Fast Reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Molten Salt Reactors (MSR) are an innovative kind of nuclear reactors and are presently considered in the framework of the Generation IV International Forum (GIF-IV) for their promising performances in terms of low resource utilization, waste minimization and enhanced safety. A unique feature of MSRs is that molten fluoride salts play the distinctive role of both fuel (heat source) and coolant. The presence of an internal heat generation perturbs the temperature field and consequences are to be expected on the heat transfer characteristics of the molten salts. In this paper, the problem of heat transfer for internally heated fluids in a straight circular channel is first faced on a theoretical ground. The effect of internal heat generation is demonstrated to be described by a corrective factor applied to traditional correlations for the Nusselt number. It is shown that the corrective factor can be fully characterized by making explicit the dependency on Reynolds and Prandtl numbers. On this basis, a preliminary correlation is proposed for the case of molten fluoride salts by interpolating the results provided by an analytic approach previously developed at the Politecnico di Milano. The experimental facility and the related measuring procedure for testing the proposed correlation are then presented. Finally, the developed correlation is used to carry out a parametric investigation on the effect of internal heat generation on the main out-of-core components of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR), the reference circulating-fuel MSR design in the GIF-IV. The volumetric power determines higher temperatures at the channel wall, but the effect is significant only in case of large diameters and/or low velocities.

Fiorina, Carlo; Cammi, Antonio; Luzzi, Lelio; Mikityuk, Konstantin; Ninokata, Hisashi; Ricotti, Marco E.

2014-04-01

399

Molten salt lithium cells  

DOEpatents

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

1983-01-01

400

Molten salt lithium cells  

DOEpatents

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

1982-02-09

401

SALT steady state systems code  

SciTech Connect

A steady state system code has been developed at ANL and has been used to analyze or evaluate the following technologies: open cycle magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), liquid metal MHD, fuel cells, combined cycle coal gasification plants, pulverized coal fired power plants with flue gas desulfurization, pressurized and atmospheric fluidized bed combustion plants, municipal solid waste disposal systems, geothermal systems, fusion reactor coolant systems, nuclear power plants, and ocean thermal energy conversion power plants. The SALT systems code contains many unique and state-of-the-art features that have promoted its use in the many extensive systems. These features are: (1) a language translator, which allows free format and unsorted input; (2) a preprocessor, which allows great flexibility in defining a system and permitting the user to generate his own labels; (3) a state-of-the-art hybrid nonlinear N-dimensional equation solver that is extremely fast and robust (this algorithm has been incorporated in the latest version of the EPRI dynamic systems code (MMS) to find the steady-state solution), (4) a state-of-the-art optimizer; (5) a chemical-equilibrium subroutine for calculating thermodynamic gas properties for specific chemical compositions; (6) off-design analysis capability; (7) economic modeling subroutines; (8) extensive use of splines for accurate and quick numerical evaluations (e.g., steam tables are represented by cubic splines); (9) precompiled models, so that only one set of generic instructions is loaded into core for each unique model type; (10) total modularity; and (11) compactness (an abridged version has fit on a 64K microprocessor).

Berry, G.; Geyer, H.

1983-01-01

402

Examples of technical innovations in rock property measurements prompted by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) planned repository for transuranic waste generated by defense programs. The WIPP repository 660 meters underground in bedded salt. Bedded salt was chosen for the repository be...

T. L. Christian-Frear

1997-01-01

403

Electrolyte salts for nonaqueous electrolytes  

DOEpatents

Metal complex salts may be used in lithium ion batteries. Such metal complex salts not only perform as an electrolyte salt in a lithium ion batteries with high solubility and conductivity, but also can act as redox shuttles that provide overcharge protection of individual cells in a battery pack and/or as electrolyte additives to provide other mechanisms to provide overcharge protection to lithium ion batteries. The metal complex salts have at least one aromatic ring. The aromatic moiety may be reversibly oxidized/reduced at a potential slightly higher than the working potential of the positive electrode in the lithium ion battery. The metal complex salts may also be known as overcharge protection salts.

Amine, Khalil; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Chen, Zonghai

2012-10-09

404

Contribution of the TRPV1 channel to salt taste quality in mice as assessed by conditioned taste aversion generalization and chorda tympani nerve responses.  

PubMed

In rodents, at least two transduction mechanisms are involved in salt taste: 1) the sodium-selective epithelial sodium channel, blocked by topical amiloride administration, and 2) one or more amiloride-insensitive cation-nonselective pathways. Whereas electrophysiological evidence from the chorda tympani nerve (CT) has implicated the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channel as a major component of amiloride-insensitive salt taste transduction, behavioral results have provided only equivocal support. Using a brief-access taste test, we examined generalization profiles of water-deprived C57BL/6J (WT) and TRPV1 knockout (KO) mice conditioned (via LiCl injection) to avoid 100 ?M amiloride-prepared 0.25 M NaCl and tested with 0.25 M NaCl, sodium gluconate, KCl, NH(4)Cl, 6.625 mM citric acid, 0.15 mM quinine, and 0.5 M sucrose. Both LiCl-injected WT and TRPV1 KO groups learned to avoid NaCl+amiloride relative to controls, but their generalization profiles did not differ; LiCl-injected mice avoided the nonsodium salts and quinine suggesting that a TRPV1-independent pathway contributes to the taste quality of the amiloride-insensitive portion of the NaCl signal. Repeating the experiment but doubling all stimulus concentrations revealed a difference in generalization profiles between genotypes. While both LiCl-injected groups avoided the nonsodium salts and quinine, only WT mice avoided the sodium salts and citric acid. CT responses to these stimuli and a concentration series of NaCl and KCl with and without amiloride did not differ between genotypes. Thus, in our study, TRPV1 did not appear to contribute to sodium salt perception based on gustatory signals, at least in the CT, but may have contributed to the oral somatosensory features of sodium. PMID:23054171

Smith, Kimberly R; Treesukosol, Yada; Paedae, A Brennan; Contreras, Robert J; Spector, Alan C

2012-12-01

405

Contribution of the TRPV1 channel to salt taste quality in mice as assessed by conditioned taste aversion generalization and chorda tympani nerve responses  

PubMed Central

In rodents, at least two transduction mechanisms are involved in salt taste: 1) the sodium-selective epithelial sodium channel, blocked by topical amiloride administration, and 2) one or more amiloride-insensitive cation-nonselective pathways. Whereas electrophysiological evidence from the chorda tympani nerve (CT) has implicated the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channel as a major component of amiloride-insensitive salt taste transduction, behavioral results have provided only equivocal support. Using a brief-access taste test, we examined generalization profiles of water-deprived C57BL/6J (WT) and TRPV1 knockout (KO) mice conditioned (via LiCl injection) to avoid 100 ?M amiloride-prepared 0.25 M NaCl and tested with 0.25 M NaCl, sodium gluconate, KCl, NH4Cl, 6.625 mM citric acid, 0.15 mM quinine, and 0.5 M sucrose. Both LiCl-injected WT and TRPV1 KO groups learned to avoid NaCl+amiloride relative to controls, but their generalization profiles did not differ; LiCl-injected mice avoided the nonsodium salts and quinine suggesting that a TRPV1-independent pathway contributes to the taste quality of the amiloride-insensitive portion of the NaCl signal. Repeating the experiment but doubling all stimulus concentrations revealed a difference in generalization profiles between genotypes. While both LiCl-injected groups avoided the nonsodium salts and quinine, only WT mice avoided the sodium salts and citric acid. CT responses to these stimuli and a concentration series of NaCl and KCl with and without amiloride did not differ between genotypes. Thus, in our study, TRPV1 did not appear to contribute to sodium salt perception based on gustatory signals, at least in the CT, but may have contributed to the oral somatosensory features of sodium.

Smith, Kimberly R.; Treesukosol, Yada; Paedae, A. Brennan; Contreras, Robert J.

2012-01-01

406

Hazardous solid waste from agriculture.  

PubMed Central

Large quantities of food processing, crop, forestry, and animal solid wastes are generated in the United States each year. The major components of these wastes are biodegradable. However, they also contain components such as nitrogen, human and animal pathogens, medicinals, feed additives, salts, and certain metals, that under uncontrolled conditions can be detrimental to aquatic, plant, animal, or human life. The most common method of disposal of these wastes is application to the land. Thus the major pathways for transmission of hazards are from and through the soil. Use of these wastes as animal feed also can be a pathway. While at this time there are no crises associated with hazardous materials in agricultural solid wastes, the potential for problems should not be underestimated. Manpower and financial support should be provided to obtain more detailed information in this area, esepcially to better delineate transport and dispersal and to determine and evaluate risks.

Loehr, R C

1978-01-01

407

Hanford defense waste separation options  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site, located in south-central Washington, is a Department of Energy (DOE) installation that began production of nuclear materials for national defense during World War II. Since that time, Hanford has dedicated its resources to defense nuclear materials production, research, and defense nuclear waste management. These activities have generated tank wastes in the form of liquid, slurry, sludge, and salt cake; encapsulated cesium and strontium; dry solid waste; and contaminated soil. Five years later the ROD, resulting from DOE/EIS-0113, defined the disposal requirements for DST waste and strontium-cesium capsules: (1) completion and operation of waste pretreatment facilities, (2) vitrification of HLW into a borosilicate glass form for ultimate disposal in a geological repository, (3) solidification of LLW as grout for permanent disposal in near-surface vaults at the Hanford Site, and (4) continued storage of encapsulated strontium and cesium until a geologic repository is ready to receive them.

Wolfe, B.A.; Barton, W.B.; Sutherland, D.G.

1991-12-01

408

From science to compliance: Geomechanics studies of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

Mechanical and hydrological properties of salt provide excellent bases for geological isolation of hazardous materials. Regulatory certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) testifies to the nearly ideal characteristics of bedded salt deposits in southeast New Mexico. The WIPP history includes decades of testing and scientific investigations, which have resulted in a comprehensive understanding of salt's mechanical deformational and hydrological properties over an applicable range of stresses and temperatures. Comprehensive evaluation of salt's favorable characteristics helped demonstrate regulatory compliance and ensure isolation of radioactive waste placed in a salt geological setting.

HANSEN,FRANCIS D.

2000-06-05

409

Tests of prototype salt stripper system for IFR fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect

One of the waste treatment steps for the on-site reprocessing of spent fuel from the Integral Fast Reactor fuel cycles is stripping of the electrolyte salt used in the electrorefining process. This involves the chemical reduction of the actinides and rare earth chlorides forming metals which then dissolve in a cadmium pool. To develop the equipment for this step, a prototype salt stripper system has been installed in an engineering scale argon-filled glovebox. Pumping trails were successful in transferring 90 kg of LiCl-KCl salt containing uranium and rare earth metal chlorides at 500{degree}C from an electrorefiner to the stripper vessel at a pumping rate of about 5 L/min. The freeze seal solder connectors which were used to join sections of the pump and transfer line performed well. Stripping tests have commenced employing an inverted cup charging device to introduce a Cd-15 wt % Li alloy reductant to the stripper vessel.

Carls, E.L.; Blaskovitz, R.J.; Johnson, T.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Ogata, T. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

1993-09-01

410

Bacterial degradation of bile salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bile salts are surface-active steroid compounds. Their main physiological function is aiding the digestion of lipophilic nutrients\\u000a in intestinal tracts of vertebrates. Many bacteria are capable of transforming and degrading bile salts in the digestive tract\\u000a and in the environment. Bacterial bile salt transformation and degradation is of high ecological relevance and also essential\\u000a for the biotechnological production of steroid

Bodo Philipp

2011-01-01

411

Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices  

DOEpatents

Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

2008-11-11

412

Electrochromic salts, solutions, and devices  

SciTech Connect

Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky,7,064,212 T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

2006-06-20

413

Salt sensitivity in chickpea.  

PubMed

The growth of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is very sensitive to salinity, with the most susceptible genotypes dying in just 25 mm NaCl and resistant genotypes unlikely to survive 100 mm NaCl in hydroponics; germination is more tolerant with some genotypes tolerating 320 mm NaCl. When growing in a saline medium, Cl(-), which is secreted from glandular hairs on leaves, stems and pods, is present in higher concentrations in shoots than Na(+). Salinity reduces the amount of water extractable from soil by a chickpea crop and induces osmotic adjustment, which is greater in nodules than in leaves or roots. Chickpea rhizobia show a higher 'free-living' salt resistance than chickpea plants, and salinity can cause large reductions in nodulation, nodule size and N(2)-fixation capacity. Recent screenings of diverse germplasm suggest significant variation of seed yield under saline conditions. Both dominance and additive gene effects have been identified in the effects of salinity on chickpea and there appears to be sufficient genetic variation to enable improvement in yield under saline conditions via breeding. Selections are required across the entire life cycle with a range of rhizobial strains under salt-affected, preferably field, conditions. PMID:19843257

Flowers, Timothy J; Gaur, Pooran M; Gowda, C L Laxmipathi; Krishnamurthy, L; Samineni, Srinivasan; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Turner, Neil C; Vadez, Vincent; Varshney, Rajeev K; Colmer, Timothy D

2010-04-01

414

Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda.

2014-01-01

415

Dietary salt intake and hypertension.  

PubMed

Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

Ha, Sung Kyu

2014-06-01

416

The Mixed Waste Management Facility. Preliminary design review  

SciTech Connect

This document presents information about the Mixed Waste Management Facility. Topics discussed include: cost and schedule baseline for the completion of the project; evaluation of alternative options; transportation of radioactive wastes to the facility; capital risk associated with incineration; radioactive waste processing; scaling of the pilot-scale system; waste streams to be processed; molten salt oxidation; feed preparation; initial operation to demonstrate selected technologies; floorplans; baseline revisions; preliminary design baseline; cost reduction; and project mission and milestones.

NONE

1995-12-31

417

Large-Scale Demonstration of Waste Solidification in Saltstone.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The saltstone lysimeters are a large scale demonstration of a disposal concept for decontaminated salt solution resulting from in-tank processing of defense waste. The lysimeter experiment has provided data on the leaching behavior of large saltstone mono...

P. F. McIntyre S. B. Oblath E. L. Wilhite

1988-01-01

418

Preparation of Simulated Waste Solutions for Solvent Extraction Testing  

SciTech Connect

Personnel will need to routinely prepare 0.5 to 10 L batches of salt solutions simulating Savannah River Site (SRS) soluble waste for solvent extraction testing. This report describes the compositions and preparation methods.

Peterson, R.A.

2000-06-27

419

TOTAL RECYCLE SYSTEMS FOR PETROCHEMICAL WASTE BRINES CONTAINING REFRACTORY CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Petrochemical wastewaters containing relatively high concentrations of salt and refractory organics were selected to study their feasibility for total recycle. A combination of reverse osmosis and electrodialysis was operated as a hybrid system using the pretreated wastes to prod...

420

Comparison of Innovative Technology for Thermal Destruction of Hazardous Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper briefly summaries and compares six technologies which are considered to be innovative to the thermal destruction of hazardous wastes. The six technologies are: Fluidized Bed, Molten Salt, High Temperature Fluid Wall, Plasma Arc, Wet Air Oxidati...

C. C. Lee

1984-01-01

421

Recent advances in the molten salt destruction of energetic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have demonstrated the use of the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process for destroying explosives, liquid gun propellant, and explosives-contaminated materials on a 1.5 kg of explosive\\/hr bench- scale unit (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). In our recently constructed 5 kg\\/hr pilot- scale unit we have also demonstrated the destruction of a liquid gun propellant and simulated wastes containing HMX

Pruneda

1996-01-01

422

Water, Vapor, and Salt Dynamics in a Hot Repository  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a new model study examining the high temperature nuclear waste disposal concept at Yucca Mountain using MULTIFLUX, an integrated in-drift- and mountain-scale thermal-hydrologic model. The results show that a large amount of vapor flow into the drift is expected during the period of above-boiling temperatures. This phenomenon makes the emplacement drift a water/moisture attractor during the above-boiling temperature operation. The evaporation of the percolation water into the drift gives rise to salt accumulation in the rock wall, especially in the crown of the drift for about 1500 years in the example. The deposited salts over the drift footprint, almost entirely present in the fractures, may enter the drift either by rock fall or by water drippage. During the high temperature operation mode, the barometric pressure variation creates fluctuating relative humidity in the emplacement drift with a time period of approximately 10 days. Potentially wet and dry conditions and condensation on salt-laden drift wall sections may adversely affect the storage environment. Salt accumulations during the above-boiling temperature operation must be sufficiently addressed to fully understand the waste package environment during the thermal period. Until the questions are resolved, a below-boiling repository design is favored where the Alloy-22 will be less susceptible to localized corrosion. (authors)

Bahrami, Davood; Danko, George [Department of Mining Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno, 1664 N. Virginia St., Reno, NV, 89557 (United States); Walton, John [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W. University, El Paso, TX, 79968 (United States)

2007-07-01

423

Developments in Molten Salt and Liquid-Salt-Cooled Reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last 5 years, there has been a rapid growth in interest in the use of high-temperature (700 to 1000 deg C) molten and liquid fluoride salts as coolants in nuclear systems. This renewed interest is a consequence of new applications for high-temperature heat and the development of new reactor concepts. Fluoride salts have melting points between 350 and

Charles W. Forsberg; Charles W

2006-01-01

424

Plutonium Solubility in Simulated Savannah River Site Waste Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

To address the accelerated disposition of the supernate and salt portions of Savannah River Site (SRS) high level waste (HLW), solubility experiments were performed to develop a predictive capability for plutonium (Pu) solubility. A statistically designed experiment was used to measure the solubility of Pu in simulated solutions with salt concentrations and temperatures which bounded those observed in SRS HLW

Tracy S. Rudisill; David T. Hobbs; Thomas B. Edwards

2010-01-01

425

Determination of Waste Groupings for Safety Analyses  

SciTech Connect

Two workshops were held in May and July 1999 to review data analysis methodologies associated with the analysis of flammable gas behavior. The workshop participants decided that missing data could he estimated by using a distribution of values that encompassed tanks with wastes that behaved in a similar fashion. It was also determined that because of the limited amount of tank data pertaining to flammable gas generation and retention, it was not justified to divide the tanks into many small waste groupings. The purpose for grouping tanks is so that limited gas retention and release data, which may be available for some tanks within a group, can be applied to other tanks containing the same waste form. This is necessary when estimating waste properties for tanks with missing or incomplete information. Following the workshop, a preliminary tank grouping was prepared based on content of solids, liquids, sludge, saltcake, or salt slurry The saltcake and salt slurry were then grouped together and referred to as saltcake/salt slurry. Initial tank classifications were based on waste forms from the Rest Basis Inventory, the Hanford Defined Waste (HDW) (''Agnew'') Model, or the Waste Tank Summary (''Hanlon'') Report The results of this grouping arc presented in ''Flamable Gas Safety Analysis Data Review'', SNL-000 198 (Barker, et al., 1999). At the time of the release of SNL-000198, tank waste inventories were not consistent between published sources, such as the ''Best Basis Inventory'' and the ''Waste Tank Summary Report for Month Ending August 31, 1999'' (Hanlon l999). This calculation note documents the process and basis used when revising the waste groupings following the release of SNL-000198. The waste layer volume information is compared between the various databases, including information obtained from process measurements. Differences are then resolved based on tank characterization information and waste behavior.

BARKER, S.A.

2000-04-27

426

DEVELOPMENT OF AN INSOLUBLE SALT SIMULANT TO SUPPORT ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING TESTS  

SciTech Connect

The closure process for high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site will require dissolution of the crystallized salts that are currently stored in many of the tanks. The insoluble residue from salt dissolution is planned to be removed by an Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process. Development of a chemical cleaning process requires an insoluble salt simulant to support evaluation tests of different cleaning methods. The Process Science and Engineering section of SRNL has been asked to develop an insoluble salt simulant for use in testing potential ECC processes (HLE-TTR-2007-017). An insoluble salt simulant has been developed based upon the residues from salt dissolution of saltcake core samples from Tank 28F. The simulant was developed for use in testing SRS waste tank chemical cleaning methods. Based on the results of the simulant development process, the following observations were developed: (1) A composition based on the presence of 10.35 grams oxalate and 4.68 grams carbonate per 100 grams solids produces a sufficiently insoluble solids simulant. (2) Aluminum observed in the solids remaining from actual waste salt</