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1

Study on LiCl waste salt treatment process by layer melt crystallization  

SciTech Connect

Layer melt crystallization operated in a static mode has been applied to separate Group I and II chlorides from surrogate LiCl waste salt. The effects of operating conditions such as crystal growing rate(or flux) and initial impurity concentration on separation (or concentration) of cesium, strontium and barium involved in a LiCl melts were analyzed. In a layer crystallization process, separation was impaired by occlusion of impurities and by residual melt adhering to LiCl crystal after at the end of the process. The crystal growth rate strongly affects the crystal structure, therefore the separation efficiency, while the effect of the initial Cs and Sr concentration in LiCl molten salt was nearly negligible. (authors)

Cho, Yung-Zun; Lee, Tae-Kyo; Choi, Jung-Hoon; Eun, Hee-Chul; Park, Hwan-Seo; Kim, In-Tae; Park, Geun-Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01

2

Production and engineering methods for Carb-Tek (trade name) batteries in fork lift trucks. Interim report Sep 1974Feb 1975. [Molten salt Li\\/Cl  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this program is to develop the manufacturing technology of the Carb Tek molten salt Li\\/Cl battery to the prototype level. This purpose is being accomplished by actually constructing cells on a pilot line, optimizing process steps, establishing quality control procedures, and engineering appropriate changes. The majority of the cell work is performed in a controlled argon atmosphere.

1975-01-01

3

High-performance LiCoO 2 by molten salt (LiNO 3:LiCl) synthesis for Li-ion batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to increase and sustain the reversible capacity of LiCoO2 on cycling, LiCoO2 is prepared by using the molten-salt of the eutectic LiNO3LiCl at temperatures 650850C with or without KOH as an oxidizing flux. The compounds are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), chemical analysis, surface area and density techniques. Cathodic behaviour was examined by

K. S. Tan; M. V. Reddy; G. V. Subba Rao; B. V. R. Chowdari

2005-01-01

4

Distillation and condensation of LiCl-KCl eutectic salts for a separation of pure salts from salt wastes from an electrorefining process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salt separation and recovery from the salt wastes generated from a pyrochemical process is necessary to minimize the high-level waste volumes and to stabilize a final waste form. In this study, the thermal behavior of the LiCl-KCl eutectic salts containing rare earth oxychlorides or oxides was investigated during a vacuum distillation and condensation process. LiCl was more easily vaporized than the other salts (KCl and LiCl-KCl eutectic salt). Vaporization characteristics of LiCl-KCl eutectic salts were similar to that of KCl. The temperature to obtain the vaporization flux (0.1 g min -1 cm -2) was decreased by much as 150 C by a reduction of the ambient pressure from 5 Torr to 0.5 Torr. Condensation behavior of the salt vapors was different with the ambient pressure. Almost all of the salt vapors were condensed and were formed into salt lumps during a salt distillation at the ambient pressure of 0.5 Torr and they were collected in the condensed salt storage. However, fine salt particles were formed when the salt distillation was performed at 10 Torr and it is difficult for them to be recovered. Therefore, it is thought that a salt vacuum distillation and condensation should be performed to recover almost all of the vaporized salts at a pressure below 0.5 Torr.

Eun, Hee Chul; Yang, Hee Chul; Lee, Han Soo; Kim, In Tae

2009-12-01

5

Management of salt waste from electrochemical processing of used nuclear fuel  

SciTech Connect

Electrochemical processing of used nuclear fuel involves operation of one or more cells containing molten salt electrolyte. Processing of the fuel results in contamination of the salt via accumulation of fission products and transuranic (TRU) actinides. Upon reaching contamination limits, the salt must be removed and either disposed or treated to remove the contaminants and recycled back to the process. During development of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II spent fuel treatment process, waste salt from the electro-refiner was to be stabilized in a ceramic waste form and disposed of in a high-level waste repository. With the cancellation of the Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository, other options are now being considered. One approach that involves direct disposal of the salt in a geologic salt formation has been evaluated. While waste forms such as the ceramic provide near-term resistance to corrosion, they may not be necessary to ensure adequate performance of the repository. To improve the feasibility of direct disposal, recycling a substantial fraction of the useful salt back to the process equipment could minimize the volume of the waste. Experiments have been run in which a cold finger is used for this purpose to crystallize LiCl from LiCl/CsCl. If it is found to be unsuitable for transportation, the salt waste could also be immobilized in zeolite without conversion to the ceramic waste form. (authors)

Simpson, M.F.; Patterson, M.N. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 (United States); Lee, J.; Wang, Y. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Versey, J.; Phongikaroon, S. [University of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

2013-07-01

6

Management of Salt Waste from Electrochemical Processing of Used Nuclear Fuel  

SciTech Connect

Electrochemical processing of used nuclear fuel involves operation of one or more cells containing molten salt electrolyte. Processing of the fuel results in contamination of the salt via accumulation of fission products and transuranic (TRU) actinides. Upon reaching contamination limits, the salt must be removed and either disposed or treated to remove the contaminants and recycled back to the process. During development of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II spent fuel treatment process, waste salt from the electrorefiner was to be stabilized in a ceramic waste form and disposed of in a high-level waste repository. With the cancellation of the Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository, other options are now being considered. One approach that involves direct disposal of the salt in a geologic salt formation has been evaluated. While waste forms such as the ceramic provide near-term resistance to corrosion, they may not be necessary to ensure adequate performance of the repository. To improve the feasibility of direct disposal, recycling a substantial fraction of the useful salt back to the process equipment could minimize the volume of the waste. Experiments have been run in which a cold finger is used for this purpose to crystallize LiCl from LiCl/CsCl. If it is found to be unsuitable for transportation, the salt waste could also be immobilized in zeolite without conversion to the ceramic waste form.

Michael F. Simpson; Michael N. Patterson; Joon Lee; Yifeng Wang; Joshua Versey; Ammon Williams; Supathorn Phongikaroon; James Allensworth; Man-Sung Yim

2013-10-01

7

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container  

E-print Network

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan Prepared of Energy (DOE) and Nuclear Waste Partnership LLC (NWP), collectively referred to as the Permittees. The Order, at paragraph 22, requires the Permittees to submit a WIPP Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container

Napp, Nils

8

High-performance LiCoO 2 by molten salt (LiNO 3:LiCl) synthesis for Li-ion batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an effort to increase and sustain the reversible capacity of LiCoO 2 on cycling, LiCoO 2 is prepared by using the molten-salt of the eutectic LiNO 3-LiCl at temperatures 650-850 C with or without KOH as an oxidizing flux. The compounds are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), chemical analysis, surface area and density techniques. Cathodic behaviour was examined by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and charge-discharge cycling. The 850 C-synthesized LiCoO 2, which has excess lithium incorporated in to it, shows a reversible capacity, with 98% coulombic efficiency, of 167 (2) mAh g -1 at a specific current of 30 mAg -1 in the range 2.5-4.4 V up to 80 cycles with no capacity-fading. When cycled to a higher cut-off voltage (4.5 V), a capacity of 192 (2) mAh g -1 versus Li is obtained at the fifth cycle, but capacity-fading is observed, viz., 6% after 60 cycles. On the basis of the CV and capacity-voltage profiles, this is attributed to the non-suppression of the hexagonal (H1) ? (H1-3) structural transition. A similar capacity-fading, i.e., 5-6%, during 5-40 cycles, is also observed in the LiCoO 2 prepared at 650 and 750 C when cycled up to only 4.3 V and this is ascribed to the non-suppression of the H1 ? M ? H1 phase transitions (M = monoclinic).

Tan, K. S.; Reddy, M. V.; Rao, G. V. Subba; Chowdari, B. V. R.

9

Alternative Waste Forms for Electro-Chemical Salt Waste  

SciTech Connect

This study was undertaken to examine alternate crystalline (ceramic/mineral) and glass waste forms for immobilizing spent salt from the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) electrochemical separations process. The AFCI is a program sponsored by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and demonstrate a process for recycling spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The electrochemical process is a molten salt process for the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel in an electrorefiner and generates spent salt that is contaminated with alkali, alkaline earths, and lanthanide fission products (FP) that must either be cleaned of fission products or eventually replaced with new salt to maintain separations efficiency. Currently, these spent salts are mixed with zeolite to form sodalite in a glass-bonded waste form. The focus of this study was to investigate alternate waste forms to immobilize spent salt. On a mole basis, the spent salt is dominated by alkali and Cl with minor amounts of alkaline earth and lanthanides. In the study reported here, we made an effort to explore glass systems that are more compatible with Cl and have not been previously considered for use as waste forms. In addition, alternate methods were explored with the hope of finding a way to produce a sodalite that is more accepting of as many FP present in the spent salt as possible. This study was done to investigate two different options: (1) alternate glass families that incorporate increased concentrations of Cl; and (2) alternate methods to produce a mineral waste form.

Crum, Jarrod V.; Sundaram, S. K.; Riley, Brian J.; Matyas, Josef; Arreguin, Shelly A.; Vienna, John D.

2009-10-28

10

Disposal of NORM waste in salt caverns  

SciTech Connect

Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approving cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

1998-07-01

11

Effects of Heat Generation on Nuclear Waste Disposal in Salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disposal of nuclear waste in salt is an established technology, as evidenced by the successful operations of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) since 1999. The WIPP is located in bedded salt in southeastern New Mexico and is a deep underground facility for transuranic (TRU) nuclear waste disposal. There are many advantages for placing radioactive wastes in a geologic bedded-salt

D. J. Clayton

2008-01-01

12

Molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials  

DOEpatents

A molten salt destruction process is used to treat and destroy energetic waste materials such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels. The energetic material is pre-blended with a solid or fluid diluent in safe proportions to form a fluid fuel mixture. The fuel mixture is rapidly introduced into a high temperature molten salt bath. A stream of molten salt is removed from the vessel and may be recycled as diluent. Additionally, the molten salt stream may be pumped from the reactor, circulated outside the reactor for further processing, and delivered back into the reactor or cooled and circulated to the feed delivery system to further dilute the fuel mixture entering the reactor. 4 figs.

Brummond, W.A.; Upadhye, R.S.; Pruneda, C.O.

1995-07-18

13

Cementitious Stabilization of Mixed Wastes with High Salt Loadings  

SciTech Connect

Salt loadings approaching 50 wt % were tolerated in cementitious waste forms that still met leach and strength criteria, addressing a Technology Deficiency of low salt loadings previously identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area. A statistical design quantified the effect of different stabilizing ingredients and salt loading on performance at lower loadings, allowing selection of the more effective ingredients for studying the higher salt loadings. In general, the final waste form needed to consist of 25 wt % of the dry stabilizing ingredients to meet the criteria used and 25 wt % water to form a workable paste, leaving 50 wt % for waste solids. The salt loading depends on the salt content of the waste solids but could be as high as 50 wt % if all the waste solids are salt.

Spence, R.D.; Burgess, M.W.; Fedorov, V.V.; Downing, D.J.

1999-04-01

14

Containment of solidified liquid hazardous waste in domal salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the solidification of hazardous liquid waste has become a viable option in waste management. The solidification process results in an increased volume but more stable waste form that must be disposed of or stored in a dry environment. An environment of choice in south central Texas is domal salt. The salt dome currently under investigation has a

P. A. Domenico; A. Lerman

1992-01-01

15

Delivery system for molten salt oxidation of solid waste  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a delivery system for safety injecting solid waste particles, including mixed wastes, into a molten salt bath for destruction by the process of molten salt oxidation. The delivery system includes a feeder system and an injector that allow the solid waste stream to be accurately metered, evenly dispersed in the oxidant gas, and maintained at a temperature below incineration temperature while entering the molten salt reactor.

Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Squire, Dwight V. (Livermore, CA); Robinson, Jeffrey A. (Manteca, CA); House, Palmer A. (Walnut Creek, CA)

2002-01-01

16

Modeling Solute Thermokinetics in LiCI-KCI Molten Salt for Nuclear Waste Separation  

SciTech Connect

Recovery of actinides is an integral part of a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Pyrometallurgical nuclear fuel recycling processes have been developed in the past for recovering actinides from spent metallic and nitride fuels. The process is essentially to dissolve the spent fuel in a molten salt and then extract just the actinides for reuse in a reactor. Extraction is typically done through electrorefining, which involves electrochemical reduction of the dissolved actinides and plating onto a cathode. Knowledge of a number of basic thermokinetic properties of salts and salt-fuel mixtures is necessary for optimizing present and developing new approaches for pyrometallurgical waste processing. The properties of salt-fuel mixtures are presently being studied, but there are so many solutes and varying concentrations that direct experimental investigation is prohibitively time consuming and expensive (particularly for radioactive elements like Pu). Therefore, there is a need to reduce the number of required experiments through modeling of salt and salt-fuel mixture properties. This project will develop first-principles-based molecular modeling and simulation approaches to predict fundamental thermokinetic properties of dissolved actinides and fission products in molten salts. The focus of the proposed work is on property changes with higher concentrations (up to 5 mol%) of dissolved fuel components, where there is still very limited experimental data. The properties predicted with the modeling will be density, which is used to assess the amount of dissolved material in the salt; diffusion coefficients, which can control rates of material transport during separation; and solute activity, which determines total solubility and reduction potentials used during electrorefining. The work will focus on La, Sr, and U, which are chosen to include the important distinct categories of lanthanides, alkali earths, and actinides, respectively. Studies will be performed using LiCl-KCl salt at the eutectic composition (58 mol% LiCl, 42 mol% KCl), which is used for treating spent EBR-II fuel. The same process being used for EBRII fuel is currently being studied for widespread international implementation. The methods will focus on first-principles and first- principles derived interatomic potential based simulations, primarily using molecular dynamics. Results will be validated against existing literature and parallel ongoing experimental efforts. The simulation results will be of value for interpreting experimental results, validating analytical models, and for optimizing waste separation by potentially developing new salt configurations and operating conditions.

Morgan, Dane; Eapen, Jacob

2013-10-01

17

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Salt Decontamination Testing  

SciTech Connect

On February 14, 2014, americium and plutonium contamination was released in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) salt caverns. At the request of WIPPs operations contractor, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) personnel developed several methods of decontaminating WIPP salt, using surrogate contaminants and also americium (241Am). The effectiveness of the methods is evaluated qualitatively, and to the extent possible, quantitatively. One of the requirements of this effort was delivering initial results and recommendations within a few weeks. That requirement, in combination with the limited scope of the project, made in-depth analysis impractical in some instances. Of the methods tested (dry brushing, vacuum cleaning, water washing, strippable coatings, and mechanical grinding), the most practical seems to be water washing. Effectiveness is very high, and it is very easy and rapid to deploy. The amount of wastewater produced (2 L/m2) would be substantial and may not be easy to manage, but the method is the clear winner from a usability perspective. Removable surface contamination levels (smear results) from the strippable coating and water washing coupons found no residual removable contamination. Thus, whatever is left is likely adhered to (or trapped within) the salt. The other option that shows promise is the use of a fixative barrier. Bartlett Nuclear, Inc.s Polymeric Barrier System (PBS) proved the most durable of the coatings tested. The coatings were not tested for contaminant entrapment, only for coating integrity and durability.

Rick Demmer; Stephen Reese

2014-09-01

18

Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from United States repository development, such as seal system design, coupled process simulation, and application of performance assessment methodology, helps define a clear strategy for a heat-generating nuclear waste repository in salt.

Leigh, Christi D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Hansen, Francis D.

2011-01-01

19

Effects of Heat Generation on Nuclear Waste Disposal in Salt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disposal of nuclear waste in salt is an established technology, as evidenced by the successful operations of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) since 1999. The WIPP is located in bedded salt in southeastern New Mexico and is a deep underground facility for transuranic (TRU) nuclear waste disposal. There are many advantages for placing radioactive wastes in a geologic bedded-salt environment. One desirable mechanical characteristic of salt is that it flows plastically with time ("creeps"). The rate of salt creep is a strong function of temperature and stress differences. Higher temperatures and deviatoric stresses increase the creep rate. As the salt creeps, induced fractures may be closed and eventually healed, which then effectively seals the waste in place. With a backfill of crushed salt emplaced around the waste, the salt creep can cause the crushed salt to reconsolidate and heal to a state similar to intact salt, serving as an efficient seal. Experiments in the WIPP were conducted to investigate the effects of heat generation on the important phenomena and processes in and around the repository (Munson et al. 1987; 1990; 1992a; 1992b). Brine migration towards the heaters was induced from the thermal gradient, while salt creep rates showed an exponential dependence on temperature. The project "Backfill and Material Behavior in Underground Salt Repositories, Phase II" (BAMBUS II) studied the crushed salt backfill and material behavior with heat generation at the Asse mine located near Remlingen, Germany (Bechthold et al. 2004). Increased salt creep rates and significant reconsolidation of the crushed salt were observed at the termination of the experiment. Using the data provided from both projects, exploratory modeling of the thermal-mechanical response of salt has been conducted with varying thermal loading and waste spacing. Increased thermal loading and decreased waste spacing drive the system to higher temperatures, while both factors are desired to reduce costs, as well as decrease the overall footprint of the repository. Higher temperatures increase the rate of salt creep which then effectively seals the waste quicker. Data of the thermal-mechanical response of salt at these higher temperatures is needed to further validate the exploratory modeling and provide meaningful constraints on the repository design. Sandia is a multi program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04- 94AL85000.

Clayton, D. J.

2008-12-01

20

Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration

Christi D. Leigh; Francis D. Hansen

2011-01-01

21

HyponatremiaWhat Is Cerebral Salt Wasting?  

PubMed Central

Background: Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte imbalance in hospitalized patients. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, especially if the underlying cause is incorrectly diagnosed and not treated appropriately. Often, the hospitalist is faced with a clinical dilemma when a patient presents with hyponatremia of an unclear etiology and with uncertain volume status. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is frequently diagnosed in this clinical setting, but cerebral salt wasting (CSW) is an important diagnosis to consider. Objective: We wanted to describe the diagnosis, treatment, and history of CSW to provide clinicians with a better understanding of the differential diagnosis for hyponatremia. Conclusion: CSW is a process of extracellular volume depletion due to a tubular defect in sodium transport. Two postulated mechanisms for CSW are the excess secretion of natriuretic peptides and the loss of sympathetic stimulation to the kidney. Making the distinction between CSW and SIADH is important because the treatment for the two conditions is very different. PMID:20740122

Momi, Jasminder; Tang, Christopher M; Abcar, Antoine C; Kujubu, Dean A; Sim, John J

2010-01-01

22

Vitrification of IFR and MSBR halide salt reprocessing wastes  

SciTech Connect

Both of the genuinely sustainable (breeder) nuclear fuel cycles (IFR - Integral Fast Reactor - and MSBR - Molten Salt Breeder Reactor -) studied by the USA's national laboratories would generate high level reprocessing waste (HLRW) streams consisting of a relatively small amount ( about 4 mole %) of fission product halide (chloride or fluoride) salts in a matrix comprised primarily (about 95 mole %) of non radioactive alkali metal halide salts. Because leach resistant glasses cannot accommodate much of any of the halides, most of the treatment scenarios previously envisioned for such HLRW have assumed a monolithic waste form comprised of a synthetic analog of an insoluble crystalline halide mineral. In practice, this translates to making a 'substituted' sodalite ('Ceramic Waste Form') of the IFR's chloride salt-based wastes and fluoroapatite of the MSBR's fluoride salt-based wastes. This paper discusses my experimental studies of an alternative waste management scenario for both fuel cycles that would separate/recycle the waste's halide and immobilize everything else in iron phosphate (Fe-P) glass. It will describe both how the work was done and what its results indicate about how a treatment process for both of those wastes should be implemented (fluoride and chloride behave differently). In either case, this scenario's primary advantages include much higher waste loadings, much lower overall cost, and the generation of a product (glass) that is more consistent with current waste management practices. (author)

Siemer, D.D. [Idaho National Laboratory, 12N 3167E, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)

2013-07-01

23

Alternative methods of salt disposal at the seven salt sites for a nuclear waste repository  

SciTech Connect

This study discusses the various alternative salt management techniques for the disposal of excess mined salt at seven potentially acceptable nuclear waste repository sites: Deaf Smith and Swisher Counties, Texas; Richton and Cypress Creek Domes, Mississippi; Vacherie Dome, Louisiana; and Davis and Lavender Canyons, Utah. Because the repository development involves the underground excavation of corridors and waste emplacement rooms, in either bedded or domed salt formations, excess salt will be mined and must be disposed of offsite. The salt disposal alternatives examined for all the sites include commercial use, ocean disposal, deep well injection, landfill disposal, and underground mine disposal. These alternatives (and other site-specific disposal methods) are reviewed, using estimated amounts of excavated, backfilled, and excess salt. Methods of transporting the excess salt are discussed, along with possible impacts of each disposal method and potential regulatory requirements. A preferred method of disposal is recommended for each potentially acceptable repository site. 14 refs., 5 tabs.

Not Available

1987-02-01

24

Method for immobilizing mixed waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and other hazardous wastes  

DOEpatents

The invention is a method for the encapsulation of soluble radioactive waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as strontium, cesium and hazardous wastes such as barium so that they may be permanently stored without future threat to the environment. The process consists of contacting the salts containing the radionuclides and hazardous wastes with certain zeolites which have been found to ion exchange with the radionuclides and to occlude the chloride salts so that the resulting product is leach resistant.

Lewis, Michele A. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Terry R. (Wheaton, IL)

1993-01-01

25

Disposition of salt-waste from pyrochemical nuclear fuel processing  

SciTech Connect

Waste salts from pyrochemical processing of nuclear fuel can be immobilised in sodalite if consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at {approx}750 deg. C/100 MPa in thick stainless steel 316 cans. Other canning materials for this purpose also look possible. Spodiosite-based waste forms do not look promising in terms of leach resistance and their incorporation of alkali ions and compatibility with other phases which could potentially accommodate fission products, such as NaZr{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} or alumino-phosphate glass. Chloro- or fluor-apatite-based waste forms however have been reported to successfully accommodate fission products and alkalis which would be derived from either chloride- or fluoride-based waste pyro-processing salts. The presence of 10 or 20 wt% of additional Whitlockite, Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}, should allow chemical flexibility to maintain the same qualitative phase assemblage when there are variations in the waste feed and in the waste/precursor ratios. Experimental verification of incorporation of the full complement of waste salts and fission products is not yet complete however. Apatite-rich samples could likely be HIPed in Inconel 600 cans. Other candidate HIP canning materials such as Alloy 22 or Inconel 625 are under study by encapsulating them in the candidate waste form and studying their interaction or otherwise with the waste form. (author)

Vance, E.R. [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)

2007-07-01

26

Physical chemistry of molten-salt batteries. Final report, October 1, 1981September 30, 1982. LiCl precipitation from LiCl-KCl anolyte in porous Li-Al electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composition gradients such as those predicted to occur during discharge of porous Li-Al negative electrodes of Li\\/S batteries with LiCl-KCl eutectic electrolyte were generated and measured in the LiCl-KCl anolyte of an electrolysis cell with Li-Al electrodes. LiCl precipitation during electrolysis was observed by two-dimensional scanning of electrolyte composition in the front part of quenched porous Li-Al anode sections using

C. E. Vallet; D. E. Heatherly; L. Jr. Heatherly; J. Braunstein

1983-01-01

27

MIXING MODELING ANALYSIS FOR SRS SALT WASTE DISPOSITION  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear waste at Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks consists of three different types of waste forms. They are the lighter salt solutions referred to as supernate, the precipitated salts as salt cake, and heavier fine solids as sludge. The sludge is settled on the tank floor. About half of the residual waste radioactivity is contained in the sludge, which is only about 8 percentage of the total waste volume. Mixing study to be evaluated here for the Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) project focuses on supernate preparations in waste tanks prior to transfer to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) feed tank. The methods to mix and blend the contents of the SRS blend tanks were evalutaed to ensure that the contents are properly blended before they are transferred from the blend tank such as Tank 50H to the SWPF feed tank. The work consists of two principal objectives to investigate two different pumps. One objective is to identify a suitable pumping arrangement that will adequately blend/mix two miscible liquids to obtain a uniform composition in the tank with a minimum level of sludge solid particulate in suspension. The other is to estimate the elevation in the tank at which the transfer pump inlet should be located where the solid concentration of the entrained fluid remains below the acceptance criterion (0.09 wt% or 1200 mg/liter) during transfer operation to the SWPF. Tank 50H is a Waste Tank that will be used to prepare batches of salt feed for SWPF. The salt feed must be a homogeneous solution satisfying the acceptance criterion of the solids entrainment during transfer operation. The work described here consists of two modeling areas. They are the mixing modeling analysis during miscible liquid blending operation, and the flow pattern analysis during transfer operation of the blended liquid. The modeling results will provide quantitative design and operation information during the mixing/blending process and the transfer operation of the blended liquid in the Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) facility. The results will also help validate the anticipated performance of the pump vendor's design.

Lee, S.

2011-01-18

28

Laboratory simulation of salt dissolution during waste removal  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory experiments were performed to support the field demonstration of improved techniques for salt dissolution in waste tanks at the Savannah River Site. The tests were designed to investigate three density driven techniques for salt dissolution: (1) Drain-Add-Sit-Remove, (2) Modified Density Gradient, and (3) Continuous Salt Mining. Salt dissolution was observed to be a very rapid process as salt solutions with densities between 1.38-1.4 were frequently removed. Slower addition and removal rates and locating the outlet line at deeper levels below the top of the saltcake provided the best contact between the dissolution water and the saltcake. It was observed that dissolution with 1 M sodium hydroxide solution resulted in salt solutions that were within the current inhibitor requirements for the prevention of stress corrosion cracking. This result was independent of the density driven technique. However, if inhibited water (0.01 M sodium hydroxide and 0.011 M sodium nitrite) was utilized, the salt solutions were frequently outside the inhibitor requirements. Corrosion testing at conditions similar to the environments expected during waste removal was recommended.

Wiersma, B.J.; Parish, W.R.

1997-01-01

29

Characteristics of solidified products containing radioactive molten salt waste.  

PubMed

The molten salt waste from a pyroprocess to recover uranium and transuranic elements is one of the problematic radioactive wastes to be solidified into a durable wasteform for its final disposal. By using a novel method, named as the GRSS (gel-route stabilization/solidification) method, a molten salt waste was treated to produce a unique wasteform. A borosilicate glass as a chemical binder dissolves the silicate compounds in the gel products to produce one amorphous phase while most of the phosphates are encapsulated by the vitrified phase. Also, Cs in the gel product is preferentially situated in the silicate phase, and it is vitrified into a glassy phase after a heat treatment. The Sr-containing phase is mainly phosphate compounds and encapsulated by the glassy phase. These phenomena could be identified by the static and dynamic leaching test that revealed a high leach resistance of radionuclides. The leach rates were about 10(-3) - 10(-2) g/m2 x day for Cs and 10(-4) - 10(-3) g/m2 x day for Sr, and the leached fractions of them were predicted to be 0.89% and 0.39% at 900 days, respectively. This paper describes the characteristics of a unique wasteform containing a molten salt waste and provides important information on a newly developed immobilization technology for salt wastes, the GRSS method. PMID:18044538

Park, Hwan-Seo; Kim, In-Tae; Cho, Yong-Zun; Eun, Hee-Chul; Kim, Joon-Hyung

2007-11-01

30

Cerebral salt wasting after pituitary exploration and biopsy: case report.  

PubMed

We report a case of hyponatremia associated with volume depletion after pituitary exploration and biopsy. The presence of clinical dehydration precluded diagnosis of the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. The absence of a hypoadrenal state and the patient's response to volume reexpansion were consistent with a diagnosis of primary cerebral salt wasting. PMID:3703220

Andrews, B T; Fitzgerald, P A; Tyrell, J B; Wilson, C B

1986-04-01

31

Injector nozzle for molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials  

DOEpatents

An injector nozzle has been designed for safely injecting energetic waste materials, such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels, into a molten salt reactor in a molten salt destruction process without premature detonation or back burn in the injection system. The energetic waste material is typically diluted to form a fluid fuel mixture that is injected rapidly into the reactor. A carrier gas used in the nozzle serves as a carrier for the fuel mixture, and further dilutes the energetic material and increases its injection velocity into the reactor. The injector nozzle is cooled to keep the fuel mixture below the decomposition temperature to prevent spontaneous detonation of the explosive materials before contact with the high-temperature molten salt bath.

Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA)

1996-01-01

32

Injector nozzle for molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials  

DOEpatents

An injector nozzle has been designed for safely injecting energetic waste materials, such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels, into a molten salt reactor in a molten salt destruction process without premature detonation or back burn in the injection system. The energetic waste material is typically diluted to form a fluid fuel mixture that is injected rapidly into the reactor. A carrier gas used in the nozzle serves as a carrier for the fuel mixture, and further dilutes the energetic material and increases its injection velocity into the reactor. The injector nozzle is cooled to keep the fuel mixture below the decomposition temperature to prevent spontaneous detonation of the explosive materials before contact with the high-temperature molten salt bath. 2 figs.

Brummond, W.A.; Upadhye, R.S.

1996-02-13

33

Mechanical analyses of WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) disposal rooms backfilled with either crushed salt or crushed salt-bentonite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical calculations of disposal room configurations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM are presented. Specifically, the behavior of either crushed salt or a crushed salt-bentonite mixture, when used as a backfill material in disposal rooms, is modeled in conjunction with the creep behavior of the surrounding intact salt. The backfill consolidation model developed at Sandia National

R. A. Wagner; G. D. Callahan; B. M. Butcher

1990-01-01

34

BLENDING ANALYSIS FOR RADIOACTIVE SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated methods to mix and blend the contents of the blend tanks to ensure the contents are properly blended before they are transferred from the blend tank such as Tank 21 and Tank 24 to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) feed tank. The tank contents consist of three forms: dissolved salt solution, other waste salt solutions, and sludge containing settled solids. This paper focuses on developing the computational model and estimating the operation time of submersible slurry pump when the tank contents are adequately blended prior to their transfer to the SWPF facility. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics approach was taken by using the full scale configuration of SRS Type-IV tank, Tank 21H. Major solid obstructions such as the tank wall boundary, the transfer pump column, and three slurry pump housings including one active and two inactive pumps were included in the mixing performance model. Basic flow pattern results predicted by the computational model were benchmarked against the SRNL test results and literature data. Tank 21 is a waste tank that is used to prepare batches of salt feed for SWPF. The salt feed must be a homogeneous solution satisfying the acceptance criterion of the solids entrainment during transfer operation. The work scope described here consists of two modeling areas. They are the steady state flow pattern calculations before the addition of acid solution for tank blending operation and the transient mixing analysis during miscible liquid blending operation. The transient blending calculations were performed by using the 95% homogeneity criterion for the entire liquid domain of the tank. The initial conditions for the entire modeling domain were based on the steady-state flow pattern results with zero second phase concentration. The performance model was also benchmarked against the SRNL test results and literature data.

Lee, S.

2012-05-10

35

Deformation of rock salt in openings mined for the disposal of radioactive wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the storage of high-level radioaetive waste in salt struetures, unique mine stability problems will oeeur as a result of the elevated temperatures. To prediet flow in rock salt, seale models of salt pillars and their surrounding rooms were fabrieated from eores taken in the Carey salt mine, Lyons, Kansas. Tests were eondueted at temperatures of 22.5 e, 60 o

T. F. Lomenick; R. L. Bradshaw

1969-01-01

36

Pyrolytic conversion of plastic and rubber waste to hydrocarbons with basic salt catalysts  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to a process for improving the pyrolytic conversion of waste selected from rubber and plastic to low molecular weight olefinic materials by employing basis salt catalysts in the waste mixture. The salts comprise alkali or alkaline earth compounds, particularly sodium carbonate, in an amount of greater than about 1 weight percent based on the waste feed.

Wingfield, Jr., Robert C. (Southfield, MI); Braslaw, Jacob (Southfield, MI); Gealer, Roy L. (West Bloomfield, MI)

1985-01-01

37

Overview of Fiscal Year 2002 Research and Development for Savannah River Site's Salt Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste program is responsible for storage, treatment, and immobilization of high-level waste for disposal. The Salt Processing Program (SPP) is the salt (soluble) waste treatment portion of the SRS high-level waste effort. The overall SPP encompasses the selection, design, construction and operation of treatment technologies to prepare the salt waste feed material for the site's grout facility (Saltstone) and vitrification facility (Defense Waste Processing Facility). Major constituents that must be removed from the salt waste and sent as feed to Defense Waste Processing Facility include actinides, strontium, cesium, and entrained sludge. In fiscal year 2002 (FY02), research and development (R&D) on the actinide and strontium removal and Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) processes transitioned from technology development for baseline process selection to providing input for conceptual design of the Salt Waste Processing Facility. The SPP R&D focused on advancing the technical maturity, risk reduction, engineering development, and design support for DOE's engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) contractors for the Salt Waste Processing Facility. Thus, R&D in FY02 addressed the areas of actual waste performance, process chemistry, engineering tests of equipment, and chemical and physical properties relevant to safety. All of the testing, studies, and reports were summarized and provided to the DOE to support the Salt Waste Processing Facility, which began conceptual design in September 2002.

H. D. Harmon, R. Leugemors, PNNL; S. Fink, M. Thompson, D. Walker, WSRC; P. Suggs, W. D. Clark, Jr

2003-02-26

38

Cerebral salt wasting: a report of three cases.  

PubMed

Hyponatremia secondary to the Syndrome of Inappropriate Anti-Diuretic Hormone (SIADH) secretion is commonly observed in patients with various neurological disorders. Cerebral Salt Wasting (CSW) resulting in hyponatremia is also an infrequent occurrence in some patients with neurological disorders. Confusion in differentiating CSW from SIADH may arise since both results in similar electrolyte disturbances. Herein, we report three cases of CSW with intracranial afflictions. CSW was diagnosed on the basis of fractional excretion of urinary sodium and uric acid along with extremely low serum uric acid. Improvements in serum sodium levels after saline hydration and fludrocortisone administration further supported the diagnosis. PMID:25604375

Younas, Haroon; Sabir, Omer; Baig, Ilyas; Tarif, Nauman

2015-01-01

39

Identifying suitable "piercement" salt domes for nuclear waste storage sites  

SciTech Connect

Piercement salt domes of the northern interior salt basins of the Gulf of Mexico are being considered as permanent storage sites for both nuclear and chemically toxic wastes. The suitable domes are stable and inactive, having reached their final evolutionary configuration at least 30 million years ago. They are buried to depths far below the level to which erosion will penetrate during the prescribed storage period and are not subject to possible future reactivation. The salt cores of these domes are themselves impermeable, permitting neither the entry nor exit of ground water or other unwanted materials. In part, a stable dome may be recognized by its present geometric configuration, but conclusive proof depends on establishing its evolutionary state. The evolutionary state of a dome is obtained by reconstructing the growth history of the dome as revealed by the configuration of sedimentary strata in a large area (commonly 3,000 square miles or more) surrounding the dome. A high quality, multifold CDP reflection seismic profile across a candidate dome will provide much of the necessary information when integrated with available subsurface control. Additional seismic profiles may be required to confirm an apparent configuration of the surrounding strata and an interpreted evolutionary history. High frequency seismic data collected in the near vicinity of a dome are also needed as a supplement to the CDP data to permit accurate depiction of the configuration of shallow strata. Such data must be tied to shallow drill hole control to confirm the geologic age at which dome growth ceased. If it is determined that a dome reached a terminal configuration many millions of years ago, such a dome is incapable of reactivation and thus constitutes a stable storage site for nuclear wastes.

Kehle, R.

1980-08-01

40

Process for separating ammonia and acid gases from waste waters containing fixed ammonia salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water purification process is described for the removal of ammonia and optionally one or more acid gases from waste waters such as coke-plant or coal conversion waste waters. The process involves adding lime to these waste waters in amounts sufficient to react with fixed ammonia salts present in the waste water and to enable substantial amounts of the ammonia

W. J. Didycz; D. Glassman; E. E. Maier; G. T. Saniga

1978-01-01

41

Candidate waste forms for immobilisation of waste chloride salt from pyroprocessing of spent nuclear fuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodalite/glass bodies prepared by hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) at 850 C/100 MPa are candidates for immobilising fission product-bearing waste KCl-LiCl pyroprocessing salts. To study the capacity of sodalite to structurally incorporate such pyroprocessing salts, K, Li, Cs, Sr, Ba and La were individually targeted for substitution in a Na site in sodalite (Na vacancies targeted as charge compensators for alkaline and rare earths) and studied by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy after sintering in the range of 800-1000 C. K and Li appeared to enter the sodalite, but Cs, Sr and Ba formed aluminosilicate phases and La formed an oxyapatite phase. However these non-sodalite phases have reasonable resistance to water leaching. Pure chlorapatite gives superior leach resistance to sodalite, and alkalis, alkaline and rare earth ions are generally known to enter chlorapatite, but attempts to incorporate simulated waste salt formulations into HIPed chlorapatite-based preparations or to substitute Cs alone into the structure of Ca-based chlorapatite were not successful on the basis of scanning electron microscopy. The materials exhibited severe water leachability, mainly in regard to Cs release. Attempts to substitute Cs into Ba- and Sr-based chlorapatites also did not look encouraging. Consequently the use of apatite alone to retain fission product-bearing waste pyroprocessing salts from electrolytic nuclear fuel reprocessing is problematical, but chlorapatite glass-ceramics may be feasible, albeit with reduced waste loadings. Spodiosite, Ca 2(PO 4)Cl, does not appear to be suitable for incorporation of Cl-bearing waste containing fission products.

Vance, E. R.; Davis, J.; Olufson, K.; Chironi, I.; Karatchevtseva, I.; Farnan, I.

2012-01-01

42

Equipment evaluation for low density polyethylene encapsulated nitrate salt waste at the Rocky Flats Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) are subject to regulation by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Polymer solidification is being developed as a final treatment technology for several of these mixed wastes, including nitrate salts. Encapsulation nitrate salts with low density polyethylene (LDPE) has been the preliminary focus of the RFP polymer solidification effort. Literature reviews,

W. I. Yamada; A. M. Faucette; R. C. Jantzen; B. W. Logsdon; J. H. Oldham; D. M. Saiki; R. J. Yudnich

1993-01-01

43

Method to synthesize dense crystallized sodalite pellet for immobilizing halide salt radioactive waste  

DOEpatents

A method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as cesium and strontium and hazardous materials such as barium. A sodalite intermediate is prepared by mixing appropriate amounts of silica, alumina and sodium hydroxide with respect to sodalite and heating the mixture to form the sodalite intermediate and water. Heating is continued to drive off the water to form a water-free intermediate. The water-free intermediate is mixed with either waste salt or waste salt which has been contacted with zeolite to concentrate the radionuclides and hazardous material. The waste salt-intermediate mixture is then compacted and heated under conditions of heat and pressure to form sodalite with the waste salt, radionuclides and hazardous material trapped within the sodalite cage structure. This provides a final product having excellent leach resistant capabilities.

Koyama, Tadafumi (Tokyo, JP)

1994-01-01

44

Method to synthesize dense crystallized sodalite pellet for immobilizing halide salt radioactive waste  

DOEpatents

This report describes a method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as cesium and strontium and hazardous materials such as barium. A sodalite intermediate is prepared by mixing appropriate amounts of silica, alumina and sodium hydroxide with respect to sodalite and heating the mixture to form the sodalite intermediate and water. Heating is continued to drive off the water to form a water-free intermediate. The water-free intermediate is mixed with either waste salt or waste salt which has been contacted with zeolite to concentrate the radionuclides and hazardous material. The waste salt-intermediate mixture is then compacted and heated under conditions of heat and pressure to form sodalite with the waste salt, radionuclides and hazardous material trapped within the sodalite cage structure. This provides a final product having excellent leach resistant capabilities.

Koyama, T.

1992-01-01

45

Electrodialysis-based separation process for salt recovery and recycling from waste water  

DOEpatents

A method for recovering salt from a process stream containing organic contaminants is provided, comprising directing the waste stream to a desalting electrodialysis unit so as to create a concentrated and purified salt permeate and an organic contaminants-containing stream, and contacting said concentrated salt permeate to a water-splitting electrodialysis unit so as to convert the salt to its corresponding base and acid. 6 figs.

Tsai, S.P.

1997-07-08

46

Container materials for isolation of radioactive waste in salt  

SciTech Connect

The workshop reviewed the extensive data on the corrosion resistance of low-carbon steel in simulated salt repository environments, determined whether these data were sufficient to recommend low-carbon steel for fabrication of the container, and assessed the suitability of other materials under consideration in the SRP. The panelists determined the need for testing and research programs, recommended experimental approaches, and recommended materials based on existing technology. On the first day of the workshop, presentations were made on waste package requirements; the expected corrosion environment; degradation processes, including a review of data from corrosion tests on carbon steel; and rationales for container design and materials, modeling studies, and planned future work. The second day was devoted to a panel caucus, presentation of workshop findings, and open discussion. 76 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Streicher, M.A.; Andrews, A. (eds.)

1987-10-01

47

Polyethylene encapsulatin of nitrate salt wastes: Waste form stability, process scale-up, and economics  

SciTech Connect

A polyethylene encapsulation system for treatment of low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Polyethylene has several advantages compared with conventional solidification/stabilization materials such as hydraulic cements. Waste can be encapsulated with greater efficiency and with better waste form performance than is possible with hydraulic cement. The properties of polyethylene relevant to its long-term durability in storage and disposal environments are reviewed. Response to specific potential failure mechanisms including biodegradation, radiation, chemical attack, flammability, environmental stress cracking, and photodegradation are examined. These data are supported by results from extensive waste form performance testing including compressive yield strength, water immersion, thermal cycling, leachability of radioactive and hazardous species, irradiation, biodegradation, and flammability. The bench-scale process has been successfully tested for application with a number of specific problem'' waste streams. Quality assurance and performance testing of the resulting waste form confirmed scale-up feasibility. Use of this system at Rocky Flats Plant can result in over 70% fewer drums processed and shipped for disposal, compared with optimal cement formulations. Based on the current Rocky Flats production of nitrate salt per year, polyethylene encapsulation can yield an estimated annual savings between $1.5 million and $2.7 million, compared with conventional hydraulic cement systems. 72 refs., 23 figs., 16 tabs.

Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

1991-07-01

48

Terahertz Reflection Spectroscopy of Aqueous NaCl and LiCl Solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present spectroscopic measurements of the full dielectric function of aqueous solutions of sodium chloride and lithium chloride at concentrations approaching their solubility limits at room temperature. We find that the dielectric properties of the two salts are rather different at THz frequencies. Whereas both the real and imaginary part of the permittivity of NaCl increases with concentration, we see that the imaginary part of the permittivity of LiCl (related to the absorption) decreases with increasing salt concentration. We relate these changes to the behavior of slow and fast Debye relaxation processes in the solutions.

Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Merbold, Hannes

2010-04-01

49

Analyses of SRS waste glass buried in granite in Sweden and salt in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) waste glass forms have been buried in the granite geology of the Stirpa mine in Sweden for two years. Analyses of glass surfaces provided a measure of the performance of the waste glasses as a function of time. Similar SRS waste glass compositions have also been buried in salt at the WIPP facility in Carlsbad, New Mexico for a similar time period. Analyses of the SRS waste glasses buried in-situ in granite will be presented and compared to the performance of these same compositions buried in salt at WIPP.

Williams, J.P. [Tuskegee Inst., AL (United States); Wicks, G.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Clark, D.E. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States); Lodding, A.R. [Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola, Goeteborg (Sweden)

1991-12-31

50

Analyses of SRS waste glass buried in granite in Sweden and salt in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) waste glass forms have been buried in the granite geology of the Stirpa mine in Sweden for two years. Analyses of glass surfaces provided a measure of the performance of the waste glasses as a function of time. Similar SRS waste glass compositions have also been buried in salt at the WIPP facility in Carlsbad, New Mexico for a similar time period. Analyses of the SRS waste glasses buried in-situ in granite will be presented and compared to the performance of these same compositions buried in salt at WIPP.

Williams, J.P. (Tuskegee Inst., AL (United States)); Wicks, G.G. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Clark, D.E. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States)); Lodding, A.R. (Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola, Goeteborg (Sweden))

1991-01-01

51

Regulatory Requirements for Pollution Prevention for the Salt Waste Processing Facility at Savannah River Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy facility for production of nuclear materials located near Aiken, South Carolina that is operated by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. Waste sludges and salts generated from the processing of nuclear materials have been stored in underground storage tanks since operations began in the 1950s. These sludges and salts contain high levels

Malik

1999-01-01

52

Modified phosphate ceramics for stabilization and solidification of salt mixed wastes.  

SciTech Connect

Novel chemically bonded phosphate ceramics have been investigated for stabilization and solidification of chloride and nitrate salt wastes. Using low-temperature processing, we stabilized and solidified chloride and nitrate surrogate salts (with hazardous metals) in magnesium potassium phosphate ceramics up to waste loadings of 70-80 wt.%. A variety of characterizations, including strength, microstructure, and leaching, were then conducted on the waste forms. Leaching tests show that all heavy metals in the leachant are well below the EPAs universal treatment standard limits. Long-term leaching tests, per ANS 16. 1 procedure, yields leachability index for nitrate ions > 12. Chloride ions are expected to have an even higher (i.e., better) leachability index. Structural performance of these final waste forms, as indicated by compression strength and durability in aqueous environments, satisfies the regulatory criteria. Thus, based on the results of this study, it seems that phosphate ceramics are viable option for containment of salt wastes.

Singh, D.

1998-06-26

53

Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.  

SciTech Connect

Salt caverns can be formed in underground salt formations incidentally as a result of mining or intentionally to create underground chambers for product storage or waste disposal. For more than 50 years, salt caverns have been used to store hydrocarbon products. Recently, concerns over the costs and environmental effects of land disposal and incineration have sparked interest in using salt caverns for waste disposal. Countries using or considering using salt caverns for waste disposal include Canada (oil-production wastes), Mexico (purged sulfates from salt evaporators), Germany (contaminated soils and ashes), the United Kingdom (organic residues), and the Netherlands (brine purification wastes). In the US, industry and the regulatory community are pursuing the use of salt caverns for disposal of oil-field wastes. In 1988, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a regulatory determination exempting wastes generated during oil and gas exploration and production (oil-field wastes) from federal hazardous waste regulations--even though such wastes may contain hazardous constituents. At the same time, EPA urged states to tighten their oil-field waste management regulations. The resulting restrictions have generated industry interest in the use of salt caverns for potentially economical and environmentally safe oil-field waste disposal. Before the practice can be implemented commercially, however, regulators need assurance that disposing of oil-field wastes in salt caverns is technically and legally feasible and that potential health effects associated with the practice are acceptable. In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. It investigated regulatory issues; the types of oil-field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location considerations; and disposal operations, closure and remediation issues. It determined that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could, from technical and legal perspectives, be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, ANL subsequently conducted a preliminary risk assessment on the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in salt caverns. The methodology for the risk assessment included the following steps: identifying potential contaminants of concern; determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants; assessing contaminant toxicities; estimating contaminant intakes; and estimating human cancer and noncancer risks. To estimate exposure routes and pathways, four postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (for noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the EPA target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results lead to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes.

Elcock, D.

1998-03-10

54

Study on a regeneration process of LiCl-KCl eutectic based waste salt generated from the pyrochemical process  

SciTech Connect

A regeneration process of LiCl-KCl eutectic waste salt generated from the pyrochemical process of spent nuclear fuel has been studied. This regeneration process is composed of a chemical conversion process and a vacuum distillation process. Through the regeneration process, a high efficiency of renewable salt recovery can be obtained from the waste salt and rare earth nuclides in the waste salt can be separated as oxide or phosphate forms. Thus, the regeneration process can contribute greatly to a reduction of the waste volume and a creation of durable final waste forms. (authors)

Eun, H.C.; Cho, Y.Z.; Choi, J.H.; Kim, J.H.; Lee, T.K.; Park, H.S.; Kim, I.T.; Park, G.I. [Nuclear Fuel Cycle Waste Treatment Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-Daero, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 3054-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01

55

Brine migration in salt and its implications in the geologic disposal of nuclear waste  

SciTech Connect

This report respresents a comprehensive review and analysis of available information relating to brine migration in salt surrounding radioactive waste in a salt repository. The topics covered relate to (1) the characteristics of salt formations and waste packages pertinent to considerations of rates, amounts, and effects of brine migration, (2) experimental and theoretical information on brine migration, and (3) means of designing to minimize any adverse effects of brine migration. Flooding, brine pockets, and other topics were not considered, since these features will presumably be eliminated by appropriate site selection and repository design. 115 references.

Jenks, G.H.; Claiborne, H.C.

1981-12-01

56

Salt Disposal Investigations to Study Thermally Hot Radioactive Waste In A Deep Geologic Repository in Bedded Rock Salt - 12488  

SciTech Connect

A research program is proposed to investigate the behavior of salt when subjected to thermal loads like those that would be present in a high-level waste repository. This research would build upon results of decades of previous salt repository program efforts in the US and Germany and the successful licensing and operation of a repository in salt for disposal of defense transuranic waste. The proposal includes a combination of laboratory-scale investigations, numerical simulations conducted to develop validated models that could be used for future repository design and safety case development, and a thermal field test in an underground salt formation with a configuration that replicates a small portion of a conceptual repository design. Laboratory tests are proposed to measure salt and brine properties across and beyond the range of possible repository conditions. Coupled numerical models will seek to describe phenomenology (thermal, mechanical, and hydrological) observed in the laboratory tests. Finally, the field test will investigate many phenomena that have been variously cited as potential issues for disposal of thermally hot waste in salt, including buoyancy effects and migration of pre-existing trapped brine up the thermal gradient (including vapor phase migration). These studies are proposed to be coordinated and managed by the Carlsbad Field Office of DOE, which is also responsible for the operation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) within the Office of Environmental Management. The field test portion of the proposed research would be conducted in experimental areas of the WIPP underground, far from disposal operations. It is believed that such tests may be accomplished using the existing infrastructure of the WIPP repository at a lower cost than if such research were conducted at a commercial salt mine at another location. The phased field test is proposed to be performed over almost a decade, including instrumentation development, several years of measurements during heating and then subsequent cooling periods, and the eventual forensic mining back of the test bed to determine the multi-year behavior of the simulated waste/rock environment. Funding possibilities are described, and prospects for near term start-up are discussed. Mining of the access drifts required to create the test area in the WIPP underground began in November 2011. Because this mining uses existing WIPP infrastructure and labor, it is estimated to take about two years to complete the access drifts. WIPP disposal operations and facility maintenance activities will take priority over the SDI field test area mining. Funding of the SDI proposal was still being considered by DOE's Offices of Environmental Management and Nuclear Energy at the time this paper was written, so no specific estimates of the progress in 2012 have been included. (authors)

Nelson, Roger A. [DOE, Carlsbad Field Office, Carlsbad NM (United States); Buschman, Nancy [DOE, Office of Environmental Management, Washington DC (United States)

2012-07-01

57

Alternative Electrochemical Salt Waste Forms, Summary of FY/CY2011 Results  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the 2011 fiscal+calendar year efforts for developing waste forms for a spent salt generated in reprocessing nuclear fuel with an electrochemical separations process. The two waste forms are tellurite (TeO2-based) glasses and sol-gel-derived high-halide mineral analogs to stable minerals found in nature.

Riley, Brian J.; McCloy, John S.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Windisch, Charles F.; Lepry, William C.; Matyas, Josef; Westman, Matthew P.; Rieck, Bennett T.; Lang, Jesse B.; Pierce, David A.

2011-12-01

58

Effect of added electrolytes, NaCl and LiCl, on the palisade layer water structure of Triton X-100 micelle: A fluorescence anisotropy study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rotational relaxation times of coumarin 151 dye in Triton X-100 micelle gradually increase with added NaCl, and is interpreted as the increased microviscosity due to strong hydration of Na+ ions in the Palisade layer, causing the entrapped water molecules to form clusters around the ions. Contrary to this, with added LiCl, rotational relaxation times initially decrease and then show a sudden increase beyond about 1 M salt. This is attributed to the complexation of Li+ ions with surfactant oxoethylene groups at lower LiCl concentrations. At higher LiCl concentrations, the above complexation apparently gets saturated, and the excess Li+ ions in the Palisade layer cause a sudden increase in the microviscosity via the strong hydration of these ions, as it happens with Na+ ions at all the salt concentrations.

Kumbhakar, Manoj; Mukherjee, Tulsi; Pal, Haridas

2005-09-01

59

Stabilization/Solidification of radioactive molten salt waste via gel-route pretreatment.  

PubMed

The volatilization of radionuclides during the stabilization/solidification of radioactive wastes at high temperatures is one of the major problems to be considered in choosing suitable wasteforms, process, material systems, etc. This paper reports a novel method to convert volatile wastes into nonvolatile compounds via a sol-gel process, which is different from the conventional method using metal-alkoxides and organic solvents. The material system was designed with sodium silicate (Si) as a gelling agent, phosphoric acid (P) as a catalyst/stabilizer, aluminum nitrate (Al) as a property promoter, and H20 as a solvent. A novel structural model for the chemical conversion of molten salt waste, named RPRM (Reaction Product in Reaction Module), was established, and the waste could be solidified with glass matrix via a simple procedure. The leached fraction of Cs and Sr by a PCT leaching method was 0.72% and 0.014%, respectively. In conclusion, the RPRM model isto converttargetwastes into stable and manageable products, not to obtain a specific crystalline product for each radionuclide. This paper suggested a new stabilization/solidification method for salt wastes by establishing the gel-forming material system and showing a practical example, not a new synthesis method of stable crystalline phase. This process, named "gel-route stabilization/solidification (GRSS)", will be a prospective alternative with stable chemical process on the immobilization of salt wastes and various mixed radioactive waste for final disposal. PMID:17593740

Park, Hwan-Seo; Kim, In-Tae; Kim, Hwan-Young; Ryu, Seung-Kon; Kim, Joon-Hyung

2007-02-15

60

Concurrence of Meningomyelocele and Salt-Wasting Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of inherited defects of cortisol biosynthesis. A case of classical CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) with early onset of salt waste and concurrence of meningomyelocele (MMC) was presented here. The management of salt-wasting crisis which is complicated by a postrenal dysfunction due to neurogenic bladder was described. Possible reasons of growth retardation in the one-year follow-up period were discussed. A significant regression of the phallus with proper medical treatment was also mentioned.

K?rm?z?bekmez, Heves; Yesiltepe Mutlu, Rahime Gl; Moral?o?lu, Serdar; Tellio?lu, Ahmet; Cerrah Celayir, Ay?enur

2015-01-01

61

Mechanical analyses of WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) disposal rooms backfilled with either crushed salt or crushed salt-bentonite  

SciTech Connect

Numerical calculations of disposal room configurations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM are presented. Specifically, the behavior of either crushed salt or a crushed salt-bentonite mixture, when used as a backfill material in disposal rooms, is modeled in conjunction with the creep behavior of the surrounding intact salt. The backfill consolidation model developed at Sandia National Laboratories was implemented into the SPECTROM-32 finite element program. This model includes nonlinear elastic as well as deviatoric and volumetric creep components. Parameters for the models were determined from laboratory tests with deviatoric and hydrostatic loadings. The performance of the intact salt creep model previously implemented into SPECTROM-32 is well documented. Results from the SPECTROM-32 analyses were compared to a similar study conducted by Sandia National Laboratories using the SANCHO finite element program. The calculated deformations and stresses from the SPECTROM-32 and SANCHO analyses agree reasonably well despite differences in constitutive models and modeling methodology. These results provide estimates of the backfill consolidation through time. The trends in the backfill consolidation can then be used to estimate the permeability of the backfill and subsequent radionuclide transport. 4 figs.

Wagner, R.A.; Callahan, G.D. (RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (USA)); Butcher, B.M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1990-01-01

62

Caustic Recycle from Hanford Tank Waste Using NaSICON Ceramic Membrane Salt Splitting Process  

SciTech Connect

A family of inorganic ceramic materials, called sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON), has been studied at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to investigate their ability to separate sodium from radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions for treating U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tank wastes. Ceramatec Inc. developed and fabricated a membrane containing a proprietary NAS-GY material formulation that was electrochemically tested in a bench-scale apparatus with both a simulant and a radioactive tank-waste solution to determine the membrane performance when removing sodium from DOE tank wastes. Implementing this sodium separation process can result in significant cost savings by reducing the disposal volume of low-activity wastes and by producing a NaOH feedstock product for recycle into waste treatment processes such as sludge leaching, regenerating ion exchange resins, inhibiting corrosion in carbon-steel tanks, or retrieving tank wastes.

Fountain, Matthew S.; Kurath, Dean E.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Pendleton, J.; Balagopal, S.; Quist, M.; Clay, D.

2009-02-20

63

Molten salt destruction as an alternative to open burning of energetic material wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

LLNL has built a small-scale (about 1 kg\\/hr throughput unit to test the destruction of energetic materials using the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) process. We have modified the unit described in the earlier references to inject energetic waste material continuously into the unit. In addition to the HMX, other explosives we have destroyed include RDX, PETN, ammonium picrate, TNT, nitroguanadine,

R. S. Upadhye; B. E. Watkins; C. O. Pruneda; W. A. Brummond

1994-01-01

64

Method to synthesize dense crystallized sodalite pellet for immobilizing halide salt radioactive waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as cesium and strontium and hazardous materials such as barium. A sodalite intermediate is prepared by mixing appropriate amounts of silica, alumina and sodium hydroxide with respect to sodalite and heating the mixture to form the sodalite intermediate and water. Heating is continued to drive off the water to form

Koyama; Tadafumi

1994-01-01

65

Method to synthesize dense crystallized sodalite pellet for immobilizing halide salt radioactive waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes a method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as cesium and strontium and hazardous materials such as barium. A sodalite intermediate is prepared by mixing appropriate amounts of silica, alumina and sodium hydroxide with respect to sodalite and heating the mixture to form the sodalite intermediate and water. Heating is continued to drive off the

Koyama

1992-01-01

66

Method to synthesize dense crystallized sodalite pellet for immobilizing halide salt radioactive waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as cesium and strontium and hazardous materials such as barium. A sodalite intermediate is prepared by mixing appropriate amounts of silica, alumina and sodium hydroxide with respect to sodalite and heating the mixture to form the sodalite intermediate and water. Heating is continued to drive off the water

Koyama; Tadafumi

1994-01-01

67

Fluid Transport Driven by Heat-Generating Nuclear Waste in Bedded Salt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The question of where to safely dispose high-level nuclear waste (HLW) provides ample motivation for scientific research on deep geologic disposal options. The goal of this study is to model the dominant heat and mass transport processes that would be driven by heat generating nuclear waste buried in bedded salt. The interaction between liquid brine flow towards the heat source, establishment of a heat pipe in the mine-run salt backfill, boiling, and vapor condensation leads to changes in porosity, permeability, saturation, thermal conductivity, and rheology of the salt surrounding potential waste canisters. The Finite Element Heat and Mass transfer code (FEHM) was used to simulate these highly coupled thermal, hydrological, and chemical processes. The numerical model has been tested against recent and historical experimental data to develop and improve the salt material model. We used the validated numerical model to make predictions of temperature gradients, porosity changes, and tracer behavior that will be testable in a future 2-year field-scale heater experiment to be carried out in an experimental test bed at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site near Carlsbad, NM.

Jordan, A.; Harp, D. R.; Stauffer, P. H.; Ten Cate, J. A.; Labyed, Y.; Boukhalfa, H.; Lu, Z.; Person, M. A.; Robinson, B. A.

2013-12-01

68

Preliminary Technical and Legal Evaluation of Disposing of Nonhazardous Oil Field Waste into Salt Caverns  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an initial evaluation of the suitability, feasibility, and legality of using salt caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes. Given the preliminary and general nature of this report, we recognize that some of our findings and conclusions maybe speculative and subject to change upon further research on this topic.

Ayers, Robert C.; Caudle, Dan; Elcock, Deborah; Raivel, Mary; Veil, John; and Grunewald, Ben

1999-01-21

69

Disposal of NORM-Contaminated Oil Field Wastes in Salt Caverns  

SciTech Connect

In 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) into salt caverns. That study concluded that disposal of NOW into salt caverns is feasible and legal. If caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they can be a suitable means of disposing of NOW (Veil et al. 1996). Considering these findings and the increased U.S. interest in using salt caverns for NOW disposal, the Office of Fossil Energy asked Argonne to conduct further research on the cost of cavern disposal compared with the cost of more traditional NOW disposal methods and on preliminary identification and investigation of the risks associated with such disposal. The cost study (Veil 1997) found that disposal costs at the four permitted disposal caverns in the United States were comparable to or lower than the costs of other disposal facilities in the same geographic area. The risk study (Tomasko et al. 1997) estimated that both cancer and noncancer human health risks from drinking water that had been contaminated by releases of cavern contents were significantly lower than the accepted risk thresholds. Since 1992, DOE has funded Argonne to conduct a series of studies evaluating issues related to management and disposal of oil field wastes contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Included among these studies were radiological dose assessments of several different NORM disposal options (Smith et al. 1996). In 1997, DOE asked Argonne to conduct additional analyses on waste disposal in salt caverns, except that this time the wastes to be evaluated would be those types of oil field wastes that are contaminated by NORM. This report describes these analyses. Throughout the remainder of this report, the term ''NORM waste'' is used to mean ''oil field waste contaminated by NORM''.

Blunt, D.L.; Elcock, D.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Viel, J.A.; and Williams, G.P.

1999-01-21

70

Testing of low-temperature stabilization alternatives for salt containing mixed wastes -- Approach and results to date  

SciTech Connect

Through its annual process of identifying technology deficiencies associated with waste treatment, the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) determined that the former DOE weapons complex lacks efficient mixed waste stabilization technologies for salt containing wastes. These wastes were generated as sludge and solid effluents from various primary nuclear processes involving acids and metal finishing; and well over 10,000 cubic meters exist at 6 sites. In addition, future volumes of these problematic wastes will be produced as other mixed waste treatment methods such as incineration and melting are deployed. The current method used to stabilize salt waste for compliant disposal is grouting with Portland cement. This method is inefficient since the highly soluble and reactive chloride, nitrate, and sulfate salts interfere with the hydration and setting processes associated with grouting. The inefficiency results from having to use low waste loadings to ensure a durable and leach resistant final waste form. The following five alternatives were selected for MWFA development funding in FY97 and FY98: phosphate bonded ceramics; sol-gel process; polysiloxane; polyester resin; and enhanced concrete. Comparable evaluations were planned for the stabilization development efforts. Under these evaluations each technology stabilized the same type of salt waste surrogates. Final waste form performance data such as compressive strength, waste loading, and leachability could then be equally compared. Selected preliminary test results are provided in this paper.

Maio, V.; Loomis, G. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spence, R.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Smith, G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Biyani, R.K. [SGN Eurisys Services Corp., Richland, WA (United States); Wagh, A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1998-05-01

71

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: geochemistry of brine in rock salt in temperature gradients and gamma-radiation fields - a selective annotated bibliography  

SciTech Connect

Evaluation of the extensive research concerning brine geochemistry and transport is critically important to successful exploitation of a salt formation for isolating high-level radioactive waste. This annotated bibliography has been compiled from documents considered to provide classic background material on the interactions between brine and rock salt, as well as the most important results from more recent research. Each summary elucidates the information or data most pertinent to situations encountered in siting, constructing, and operating a mined repository in salt for high-level radioactive waste. The research topics covered include the basic geology, depositional environment, mineralogy, and structure of evaporite and domal salts, as well as fluid inclusions, brine chemistry, thermal and gamma-radiation effects, radionuclide migration, and thermodynamic properties of salts and brines. 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Hull, A.B.; Williams, L.B.

1985-07-01

72

The advantages of a salt/bentonite backfill for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal rooms  

SciTech Connect

A 70/30 wt% salt/bentonite mixture is shown to be preferable to pure crushed salt as backfill for disposal rooms in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report discusses several selection criteria used to arrive at this conclusion: the need for low permeability and porosity after closure, chemical stability with the surroundings, adequate strength to avoid shear erosion from human intrusion, ease of emplacement, and sorption potential for brine and radionuclides. Both salt and salt/bentonite are expected to consolidate to a final state of impermeability (i.e., {le} 10{sup {minus}18}m{sup 2}) adequate for satisfying federal nuclear regulations. Any advantage of the salt/bentonite mixture is dependent upon bentonite's potential for sorbing brine and radionuclides. Estimates suggest that bentonite's sorption potential for water in brine is much less than for pure water. While no credit is presently taken for brine sorption in salt/bentonite backfill, the possibility that some amount of inflowing brine would be chemically bound is considered likely. Bentonite may also sorb much of the plutonium, americium, and neptunium within the disposal room inventory. Sorption would be effective only if a major portion of the backfill is in contact with radioactive brine. Brine flow from the waste out through highly localized channels in the backfill would negate sorption effectiveness. Although the sorption potentials of bentonite for both brine and radionuclides are not ideal, they are distinctly beneficial. Furthermore, no detrimental aspects of adding bentonite to the salt as a backfill have been identified. These two observations are the major reasons for selecting salt/bentonite as a backfill within the WIPP. 39 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

Butcher, B.M.; Novak, C.F. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Jercinovic, M. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1991-04-01

73

Molten salt destruction of energetic material wastes as an alternative to open burning. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

As a result of the end of the Cold War and the shift in emphasis to a smaller stockpile, many munitions, both conventional and nuclear, are scheduled for retirement and rapid dismantlement and demilitarization. Major components of these munitions are the explosives and propellants, or energetic materials. The Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process has been demonstrated for the destruction of HE and HE-containing wastes. MSD converts the organic constituents of the waste into non-hazardous substances such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water. Any inorganic constituents of the waste, such as binders and metallic particles, are retained in the molten salt. LLNL has built a small-scale (about 1 kg/hr throughput) unit to test the destruction of HE using the MSD process. The authors have demonstrated that HE`s and liquid propellants can be safely and fully destroyed using the molten salt destruction process. The authors are currently working on a number of improvements to the process. They are modifying the design of unit to obtain more throughput without any increase in salt entrainment. They are implementing an advanced nozzle design for injection of larger particles. They are defining operating envelopes for a number of high explosives and formulations. They are developing models to study the temperature profile of a top-feed nozzle for feeding larger particles into the unit.

Upadhye, R.S.; Brummond, W.A.; Pruneda, C.O.; Watkins, B.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Energetic Materials Center

1994-11-02

74

Effect of dissolved LiCl on the ionic liquid-Au(111) interface: an in situ STM study.  

PubMed

The structure of the electrolyte/electrode interface plays a significant role in electrochemical processes. To date, most studies are focusing on understanding the interfacial structure in pure ionic liquids. In this paper in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) has been employed to elucidate the structure of the charged Au(111)-ionic liquid (1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate, [Py1,4]FAP) interface in the presence of 0.1 M LiCl. The addition of the Li salt to the ionic liquid has a strong influence on the interfacial structure. In the first STM scan in situ measurements reveal that Au(111) undergoes the (22 x ?3) 'herringbone' reconstruction in a certain potential regime, and there is strong evidence that the gold surface dissolves at negative electrode potentials in [Py1,4]FAP containing LiCl. Bulk deposition of Li is obtained at -2.9 V in the second STM scan. PMID:24919647

Borisenko, Natalia; Atkin, Rob; Lahiri, Abhishek; El Abedin, Sherif Zein; Endres, Frank

2014-07-16

75

Testing of low temperature stabilization alternatives for salt-containing mixed wastes -- approach and results to date  

SciTech Connect

Through its annual process of identifying technology deficiencies associated with waste treatment, the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) determined that the former DOE weapons complex lacks efficient mixed waste stabilization technologies for salt containing wastes. The current method used to stabilize salt waste for compliant disposal is grouting with Portland cement. This method is inefficient since the highly soluble and reactive chloride, nitrate, and sulfate salts interfere with the hydration and setting processes associated with grouting. The following five alternative salt waste stabilization technologies were selected for MWFA development funding in FY97 and FY98: (1) Phosphate Bonded Ceramics, (2) Sol-gel, (3) Polysiloxane, (4) Polyester Resin, and (5) Enhanced Concrete. Comparable evaluations were planned for the stabilization development efforts. Under these evaluations each technology stabilized the same type of salt waste surrogates as specified by the MWFA. Final waste form performance data such as compressive strength, waste loading, and leachability can then be equally compared to the requirements originally specified. In addition to the selected test results provided in this paper, the performance of each alternative stabilization technology, will be documented in formal MWFA Innovative Technology Summary Reports (ITSRs).

Maio, V.; Loomis, G. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Biyani, R.K. [SGN Eurisys Services Corp., Richland, WA (United States)] [SGN Eurisys Services Corp., Richland, WA (United States); Smith, G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Spence, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wagh, A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1998-07-01

76

Conditioning matrices from high level waste resulting from pyrochemical processing in fluorine salt  

SciTech Connect

Separating the actinides from the fission products through reductive extraction by aluminium in a LiF/AlF{sub 3} medium is a process investigated for pyrometallurgical reprocessing of spent fuel. The process involves separation by reductive salt-metal extraction. After dissolving the fuel or the transmutation target in a salt bath, the noble metal fission products are first extracted by contacting them with a slightly reducing metal. After extracting the metal fission products, then the actinides are selectively separated from the remaining fission products. In this hypothesis, all the unrecoverable fission products would be conditioned as fluorides. Therefore, this process will generate first a metallic waste containing the 'reducible' fission products (Pd, Mo, Ru, Rh, Tc, etc.) and a fluorine waste containing alkali-metal, alkaline-earth and rare earth fission products. Immobilization of these wastes in classical borosilicate glasses is not feasible due to the very low solubility of noble metals, and of fluoride in these hosts. Alternative candidates have therefore been developed including silicate glass/ceramic system for fluoride fission products and metallic ones for noble metal fission products. These waste-forms were evaluated for their confinement properties like homogeneity, waste loading, volatility during the elaboration process, chemical durability, etc. using appropriate techniques. (authors)

Grandjean, Agnes; Advocat, Thierry; Bousquet, Nicolas [SCDV - Service de Confinement des Dechets et Vitrification - Laboratoire d'Etudes de Base sur les Verres, CEA Valrho, Centre de Marcoule, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Jegou, Christophe [SECM - Service d'Etude du Confinement et Materiaux - Laboratoire des Materiaux et Procedes Actifs - CEA Valrho, Centre de Marcoule, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

2007-07-01

77

Prenatal programming of renal salt wasting resets postnatal salt appetite, which drives food intake in the rat.  

PubMed

Sodium retention has been proposed as the cause of hypertension in the LP rat (offspring exposed to a maternal low-protein diet in utero) model of developmental programming because of increased renal NKCC2 (Na+/K+/2Cl- co-transporter 2) expression. However, we have shown that LP rats excrete more rather than less sodium than controls, leading us to hypothesize that LP rats ingest more salt in order to maintain sodium balance. Rats were fed on either a 9% (low) or 18% (control) protein diet during pregnancy; male and female offspring were studied at 4 weeks of age. LP rats of both sexes held in metabolism cages excreted more sodium and urine than controls. When given water to drink, LP rats drank more and ate more food than controls, hence sodium intake matched excretion. However, when given a choice between saline and water to drink, the total volume of fluid ingested by LP rats fell to control levels, but the volume of saline taken was significantly larger [3.80.1 compared with 8.81.3 ml/24 h per 100 g of body weight in control and LP rats respectively; P<0.001]. Interestingly food intake also fell to control levels. Total body sodium content and ECF (extracellular fluid) volumes were greater in LP rats. These results show that prenatal programming of renal sodium wasting leads to a compensatory increase in salt appetite in LP rats. We speculate that the need to maintain salt homoeostasis following malnutrition in utero stimulates greater food intake, leading to accelerated growth and raised BP (blood pressure). PMID:21966935

Alwasel, Saleh H; Barker, David J P; Ashton, Nick

2012-03-01

78

Hyponatraemia in children with acute CNS disease: SIADH or cerebral salt wasting?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyponatraemia in patients with an acute central nervous system disease can be caused by two different mechanisms: (1) excretion\\u000a of free water, i.e. the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) and (2) excessive sodium excretion,\\u000a i.e., the cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSW). Although the concept of CSW is well known in adult medicine, it is still not\\u000a established

C. Bussmann; T. Bast; D. Rating

2001-01-01

79

Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.  

SciTech Connect

In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. Argonne determined that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, Argonne subsequently conducted a preliminary evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in domal salt caverns. Steps used in this evaluation included the following: identifying potential contaminants of concern, determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing contaminant toxicities, estimating contaminant intakes, and calculating human cancer and noncancer risk estimates. Five postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (referring to noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results led to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes.

Elcock, D.

1998-03-05

80

Aspects of the thermal and transport properties of crystalline salt in designing radioactive waste storages in halogen formations  

SciTech Connect

Some of the properties of natural rock salt are described. This rock is of great practical interest, because, along with its conventional applications in the chemical and food industries, it is promising for use in engineering underground radioactive waste storages and natural gas reservoirs. The results of structural and texture studies of rock salt by neutron diffraction are discussed. The nature of the salt permeability under temperature and stress gradients is theoretically estimated.

Nikitin, A. N., E-mail: nikitin@nf.jinr.ru; Pocheptsova, O. A.; Matthies, S. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Frank Laboratory of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

2010-05-15

81

Strain related radiation damage measurements in rock salt for waste disposal applications. Quarterly report, July 1September 30, 1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation damage in natural rock salt, synthetic NaCl crystals, and other minerals of interest for radioactive waste disposal application was studied. The following topics were covered: (1) the role of strain applied prior to irradiation on the radiation-induced defect formation in natural rock salt from Drill Hole AEC-8, (2) studies to determine why synthetic and natural rock salt exhibit different

K. J. Swyler; L. J. Teutonico; P. W. Levy

1979-01-01

82

Aspects of the thermal and transport properties of crystalline salt in designing radioactive waste storages in halogen formations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some of the properties of natural rock salt are described. This rock is of great practical interest, because, along with its conventional applications in the chemical and food industries, it is promising for use in engineering underground radioactive waste storages and natural gas reservoirs. The results of structural and texture studies of rock salt by neutron diffraction are discussed. The nature of the salt permeability under temperature and stress gradients is theoretically estimated.

Nikitin, A. N.; Pocheptsova, O. A.; Matthies, S.

2010-05-01

83

USING MINED SPACE FOR LONG-TERM RETENTION OF NONRADIOACTIVE HAZARDOUS WASTE. VOLUME 2. SOLUTION MINED SALT CAVERNS  

EPA Science Inventory

This two-volume report assesses the current status of using mined-space for long-term retention of nonradioactive hazardous waste. Volume 2 expands the definition of mined space to include that created by solution mining of salt. This report examines the extent of salt deposits i...

84

Demonstration of Cesium Removal Technologies Using High-Level Waste in Support of the Salt Processing Project at the Savannah River Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Energy established the Salt Processing Program (SPP) at the Savannah River Site to develop and implement technologies for the treatment of the stored salt (i.e., soluble) portion of the High Level Waste (HLW) at that site. The SPP encompasses the selection, design, construction and operation of treatment technologies to prepare the salt waste feed material for the

S. D. Fink; T. B. Peters; D. D. Walker; M. J. Barnes; R. A. Pierce; M. A. Norato; W. R. Wilmarth

2002-01-01

85

Crystallization of rhenium salts in a simulated low-activity waste borosilicate glass  

SciTech Connect

This study presents a new method for looking at the solubility of volatile species in simulated low-activity waste glass. The present study looking at rhenium salts is also applicable to real applications involving radioactive technetium salts. In this synthesis method, oxide glass powder is mixed with the volatiles species, vacuum-sealed in a fused quartz ampoule, and then heat-treated under vacuum in a furnace. This technique restricts the volatile species to the headspace above the melt but still within the sealed ampoule, thus maximizing the volatile concentration in contact with the glass. Various techniques were used to measure the solubility of rhenium in glass and include energy dispersive spectroscopy, wavelength dispersive spectroscopy, laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectroscopy, and inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The Re-solubility in this glass was determined to be ~3004 parts per million Re atoms. Above this concentration, the salts separated out of the melt as inclusions and as a low viscosity molten salt phase on top of the melt observed during and after cooling. This salt phase was analyzed with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy as well as some of the other aforementioned techniques and identified to be composed of alkali perrhenate and alkali sulfate.

Riley, Brian J.; McCloy, John S.; Goel, Ashutosh; Liezers, Martin; Schweiger, Michael J.; Liu, Juan; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Kim, Dong-Sang

2013-04-01

86

Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), Modular CSSX Unit (CSSX), and Waste Transfer Line System of Salt Processing Program (U)  

SciTech Connect

All of the waste streams from ARP, MCU, and SWPF processes will be sent to DWPF for vitrification. The impact these new waste streams will have on DWPF's ability to meet its canister production goal and its ability to support the Salt Processing Program (ARP, MCU, and SWPF) throughput needed to be evaluated. DWPF Engineering and Operations requested OBU Systems Engineering to evaluate DWPF operations and determine how the process could be optimized. The ultimate goal will be to evaluate all of the Liquid Radioactive Waste (LRW) System by developing process modules to cover all facilities/projects which are relevant to the LRW Program and to link the modules together to: (1) study the interfaces issues, (2) identify bottlenecks, and (3) determine the most cost effective way to eliminate them. The results from the evaluation can be used to assist DWPF in identifying improvement opportunities, to assist CBU in LRW strategic planning/tank space management, and to determine the project completion date for the Salt Processing Program.

CHANG, ROBERT

2006-02-02

87

Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste with High Salt Content by Colloidal Adsorbents - 13274  

SciTech Connect

Treatment processes have been fully developed for most of the liquid radioactive wastes generated during the operation of nuclear power plants. However, a process for radioactive liquid waste with high salt content, such as waste seawater generated from the unexpected accident at nuclear power station, has not been studied extensively. In this study, the adsorption efficiencies of cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) in radioactive liquid waste with high salt content were investigated using several types of zeolite with different particle sizes. Synthesized and commercial zeolites were used for the treatment of simulated seawater containing Cs and Sr, and the reaction kinetics and adsorption capacities of colloidal zeolites were compared with those of bulk zeolites. The experimental results demonstrated that the colloidal adsorbents showed fast adsorption kinetic and high binding capacity for Cs and Sr. Also, the colloidal zeolites could be successfully applied to the static adsorption condition, therefore, an economical benefit might be expected in an actual processes where stirring is not achievable. (authors)

Lee, Keun-Young; Chung, Dong-Yong; Kim, Kwang-Wook; Lee, Eil-Hee; Moon, Jei-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute - KAERI, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)] [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute - KAERI, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01

88

NRC Monitoring of Salt Waste Disposal at the Savannah River Site - 13147  

SciTech Connect

As part of monitoring required under Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 (NDAA), the NRC staff reviewed an updated DOE performance assessment (PA) for salt waste disposal at the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The NRC staff concluded that it has reasonable assurance that waste disposal at the SDF meets the 10 CFR 61 performance objectives for protection of individuals against intrusion (chap.61.42), protection of individuals during operations (chap.61.43), and site stability (chap.61.44). However, based on its evaluation of DOE's results and independent sensitivity analyses conducted with DOE's models, the NRC staff concluded that it did not have reasonable assurance that DOE's disposal activities at the SDF meet the performance objective for protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity (chap.61.41) evaluated at a dose limit of 0.25 mSv/yr (25 mrem/yr) total effective dose equivalent (TEDE). NRC staff also concluded that the potential dose to a member of the public is expected to be limited (i.e., is expected to be similar to or less than the public dose limit in chap.20.1301 of 1 mSv/yr [100 mrem/yr] TEDE) and is expected to occur many years after site closure. The NRC staff used risk insights gained from review of the SDF PA, its experience monitoring DOE disposal actions at the SDF over the last 5 years, as well as independent analysis and modeling to identify factors that are important to assessing whether DOE's disposal actions meet the performance objectives. Many of these factors are similar to factors identified in the NRC staff's 2005 review of salt waste disposal at the SDF. Key areas of interest continue to be waste form and disposal unit degradation, the effectiveness of infiltration and erosion controls, and estimation of the radiological inventory. Based on these factors, NRC is revising its plan for monitoring salt waste disposal at the SDF in coordination with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). DOE has completed or begun additional work related to salt waste disposal to address these factors. NRC staff continues to evaluate information related to the performance of the SDF and has been working with DOE and SCDHEC to resolve NRC staff's technical concerns. (authors)

Pinkston, Karen E.; Ridge, A. Christianne; Alexander, George W.; Barr, Cynthia S.; Devaser, Nishka J.; Felsher, Harry D. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (United States)] [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (United States)

2013-07-01

89

Harvesting capacitive carbon by carbonization of waste biomass in molten salts.  

PubMed

Conversion of waste biomass to value-added carbon is an environmentally benign utilization of waste biomass to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution caused by open burning. In this study, various waste biomasses are converted to capacitive carbon by a single-step molten salt carbonization (MSC) process. The as-prepared carbon materials are amorphous with oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface. For the same type of waste biomass, the carbon materials obtained in Na2CO3-K2CO3 melt have the highest Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and specific capacitance. The carbon yield decreases with increasing reaction temperature, while the surface area increases with increasing carbonization temperature. A working temperature above 700 C is required for producing capacitive carbon. The good dissolving ability of alkaline carbonate molten decreases the yield of carbon from waste biomasses, but helps to produce high surface area carbon. The specific capacitance data confirm that Na2CO3-K2CO3 melt is the best for producing capacitive carbon. The specific capacitance of carbon derived from peanut shell is as high as 160 F g(-1) and 40 ?F cm(-2), and retains 95% after 10,000 cycles at a rate of 1 A g(-1). MSC offers a simple and environmentally sound way for transforming waste biomass to highly capacitive carbon as well as an effective carbon sequestration method. PMID:24983414

Yin, Huayi; Lu, Beihu; Xu, Yin; Tang, Diyong; Mao, Xuhui; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Dihua; Alshawabkeh, Akram N

2014-07-15

90

THERMAL DESTRUCTION OF HIGHLY CHLORINATED MIXED WASTES WITHOUT GENERATING CORROSIVE OFF-GASES USING MOLTEN SALT OXIDATION (1,2)  

SciTech Connect

A pilot-scale MSO (Molten Salt Oxidation) system was used to process 45-gallons of a halogenated mixed waste that is difficult to treat with other thermal systems. The mixed waste was a halogenated solvent that consisted mostly of methylchloroform. The 80 weight percent of waste consisting of highly corrosive chlorine was captured in the first process vessel as sodium chloride. The sodium chloride leached chrome from that process vessel and the solidified salt exhibited the toxicity characteristic for chrome as measured by TCLP (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure) testing. The operating ranges for parameters such as salt bed temperature, off-gas temperature, and feed rate that enable sustained operation were identified. At feed rates below the sustainable limit, both processing capacity and maintenance requirements increased with feed rate. Design and operational modifications to increase the sustainable feed rate limit and reduce maintenance requirements reduced both salt carryover and volumetric gas flows.

Smith, W.; Feizollahi, F.

2002-02-25

91

Disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns -- Legality, technical feasibility, economics, and risk  

SciTech Connect

Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approaching cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

1998-07-01

92

Electrochemistry and Spectroelectrochemistry of Europium(III) chloride in 3 LiCl 2KCl from 643 to 1123 K  

SciTech Connect

The electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical behavior of Europium(III) chloride in a molten salt eutectic, 3 LiCl 2 KCl, over a temperature range of 643 1123 K using differential pulse voltammetry, cyclic voltammetry, potential step chronoabsorptometry, and thin-layer spectroelectrochemistry is reported. The electrochemical reaction was determined to be the one electron reduction of Eu3+ to Eu2+ at all temperatures. The redox potential of Eu3+/2+ shifts to more positive potentials and the diffusion coefficient for Eu3+ increases as temperature increases. The results for the number of electrons transferred, redox potential and diffusion coefficient are in good agreement between the electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical techniques.

Schroll, Cynthia A.; Chatterjee, Sayandev; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Heineman, William R.; Bryan, Samuel A.

2013-09-09

93

Hydrostatic and shear consolidation tests with permeability measurements on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant crushed salt  

SciTech Connect

Crushed natural rock salt is a primary candidate for use as backfill and barrier material at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and therefore Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been pursuing a laboratory program designed to quantify its consolidation properties and permeability. Variables that influence consolidation rate that have been examined include stress state and moisture content. The experimental results presented in this report complement existing studies and work in progress conducted by SNL. The experiments described in this report were designed to (1) measure permeabilities of consolidated specimens of crushed salt, (2) determine the influence of brine saturation on consolidation under hydrostatic loads, and 3) measure the effects of small applied shear stresses on consolidation properties. The laboratory effort consisted of 18 individual tests: three permeability tests conducted on specimens that had been consolidated at Sandia, six hydrostatic consolidation and permeability tests conducted on specimens of brine-saturated crushed WIPP salt, and nine shear consolidation and permeability tests performed on crushed WIPP salt specimens containing 3 percent brine by weight. For hydrostatic consolidation tests, pressures ranged from 1.72 MPa to 6.90 MPa. For the shear consolidation tests, confining pressures were between 3.45 MPa and 6.90 MPa and applied axial stress differences were between 0.69 and 4.14 MPa. All tests were run under drained conditions at 25{degrees}C.

Brodsky, N.S. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States)

1994-03-01

94

Defense Waste Glass Studies Program: FY 1986 annual report: Salt repository project  

SciTech Connect

DWGS is developing the necessary data and models to predict the radionuclide release behavior of defense waste glasses in a salt repository environment. In FY 1986, contributions toward achieving this goal were made under the following four subtasks: static testing; flow testing; colloid studies; and modeling. Static leach tests were performed with Savannah River Laboratory defense waste glass (SRL-165) in a high-magnesium salt brine (PBB3) at a temperature of 90/degree/C. The flow testing subtask was formed in FY 1986. A leach test procedure was developed, 'Flow-Through Waste Glass Testing,' which may be used in future work to study glass leaching mechanisms. Objective of the colloid studies subtask is to develop a submodel describing radionuclide release associated with colloids, provided such a submodel is needed. Under the modeling subtask, a simple glass dissolution model was formulated that balances the consumption and production of silicic acid to control the rate of glass dissolution. A more comprehensive model is under preparation. 23 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

McGrail, B.P.; Reimus, M.A.

1987-12-01

95

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of vitrification. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudo hydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Synthesis efforts are being directed toward enhanced sodium binding by crown ethers, both neutral and proton-ionizable. Studies with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent compositions that have promising properties.

Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Custelcean, Radu; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Engle, Nancy L.; Kang, Hyun-Ah; Keever, Tamara J.; Marchand, Alan P.; Gadthula, Srinivas; Gore, Vinayak K.; Huang, Zilin; Sivappa, Rasapalli; Tirunahari, Pavan K.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

2005-09-26

96

Review of geochemical measurement techniques for a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt  

SciTech Connect

A broad, general review is presented of geochemical measurement techniques that can provide data necessary for site selection and repository effectiveness assessment for a radioactive waste repository in bedded salt. The available measurement techniques are organized according to the parameter measured. The list of geochemical parameters include all those measurable geochemical properties of a sample whole values determine the geochemical characteristics or behavior of the system. For each technique, remarks are made pertaining to the operating principles of the measurement instrument and the purpose for which the technique is used. Attention is drawn to areas where further research and development are needed.

Knauss, K.G.; Steinborn, T.L.

1980-05-22

97

DEGRADED TBP SOLVENT REGENERATION TECHNOLOGY USING BUTYLAMINE AS A SOLVENT WASHING TO REDUCE SOLID SALT WASTE  

SciTech Connect

Normal butylamine compounds are studied as salt-free wash reagents for degraded solvent used in PUREX process in spent fuel reprocessing. The solvent wash tests were carried out with two types of butylamine compounds, n-butylamine oxalate and n-butylamine bicarbonate, by counter-current mode using a small size mixer-settler composed of two 4-stage wash steps. Di-n-butyl phosphoric acid (HDBP), the main degradation product from TBP, was removed from real degraded solvent with decontamination factor of 2.5 {approx} 7.9. The study on electrolytic decomposition of butylamine compounds was also conducted for waste treatment.

Asakura, T.; Itoh, Y.; Hotoku, S.; Morita, Y.; Uchiyama, G.

2003-02-27

98

Independent Assessment of the Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Salt Disposition Alternatives Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the Independent Project Evaluation (IPE) Team assessment of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company High-Level Waste Salt Disposition Systems Engineering (SE) Team's deliberations, evaluations, and selections. The Westinghouse Savannah River Company concluded in early 1998 that production goals and safety requirements for processing SRS HLW salt to remove Cs-137 could not be met in the existing In-Tank Precipitation Facility as currently configured for precipitation of cesium tetraphenylborate. The SE Team was chartered to evaluate and recommend an alternative(s) for processing the existing HLW salt to remove Cs-137. To replace the In-Tank Precipitation process, the Savannah River Site HLW Salt Disposition SE Team downselected (October 1998) 140 candidate separation technologies to two alternatives: Small-Tank Tetraphenylborate (TPB) Precipitation (primary alternative) and Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Nonelutable Ion Exchange (backup alternative). The IPE Team, commissioned by the Department of Energy, concurs that both alternatives are technically feasible and should meet all salt disposition requirements. But the IPE Team judges that the SE Team's qualitative criteria and judgments used in their downselection to a primary and a backup alternative do not clearly discriminate between the two alternatives. To properly choose between Small-Tank TPB and CST Ion Exchange for the primary alternative, the IPE Team suggests the following path forward: Complete all essential R and D activities for both alternatives and formulate an appropriate set of quantitative decision criteria that will be rigorously applied at the end of the R and D activities. Concurrent conceptual design activities should be limited to common elements of the alternatives.

J. T. Case (DOE-ID); M. L. Renfro (INEEL)

1998-12-01

99

Salt tectonics  

SciTech Connect

Salt deposits have economic significance because of their importance as oil and gas traps and their potential as radioactive waste disposal sites. This article reviews the formation of salt domes, beginning with a description of the formation of salt deposits as evaporites and a discussion of early attempts to model the development of salt domes. Current work on tectonics of salt dome formation and related tectonics is then discussed in detail.

Talbot, C.J.; Jackson, M.P.A.

1988-01-01

100

Expected environments in high-level nuclear waste and spent fuel repositories in salt  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to describe the expected environments associated with high-level waste (HLW) and spent fuel (SF) repositories in salt formations. These environments include the thermal, fluid, pressure, brine chemistry, and radiation fields predicted for the repository conceptual designs. In this study, it is assumed that the repository will be a room and pillar mine in a rock-salt formation, with the disposal horizon located approx. 2000 ft (610 m) below the surface of the earth. Canistered waste packages containing HLW in a solid matrix or SF elements are emplaced in vertical holes in the floor of the rooms. The emplacement holes are backfilled with crushed salt or other material and sealed at some later time. Sensitivity studies are presented to show the effect of changing the areal heat load, the canister heat load, the barrier material and thickness, ventilation of the storage room, and adding a second row to the emplacement configuration. The calculated thermal environment is used as input for brine migration calculations. The vapor and gas pressure will gradually attain the lithostatic pressure in a sealed repository. In the unlikely event that an emplacement hole will become sealed in relatively early years, the vapor space pressure was calculated for three scenarios (i.e., no hole closure - no backfill, no hole closure - backfill, and hole closure - no backfill). It was assumed that the gas in the system consisted of air and water vapor in equilibrium with brine. A computer code (REPRESS) was developed assuming that these changes occur slowly (equilibrium conditions). The brine chemical environment is outlined in terms of brine chemistry, corrosion, and compositions. The nuclear radiation environment emphasized in this report is the stored energy that can be released as a result of radiation damage or crystal dislocations within crystal lattices.

Claiborne, H.C.; Rickertsen, L.D., Graham, R.F.

1980-08-01

101

Removal of salt from high-level waste tanks by density-driven circulation or mechanical agitation  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-two high-level waste storage tanks at the Savannah River Plant are to be retired in the tank replacement/waste transfer program. The salt-removal portion of this program requires dissolution of about 19 million liters of salt cake. Steam circulation jets were originally proposed to dissolve the salt cake. However, the jets heated the waste tank to 80 to 90/sup 0/C. This high temperature required a long cooldown period before transfer of the supernate by jet, and increased the risk of stress-corrosion cracking in these older tanks. A bench-scale investigation at the Savannah River Laboratory developed two alternatives to steam-jet circulation. One technique was density-driven circulation, which in bench tests dissolved salt at the same rate as a simulated steam circulation jet but at a lower temperature. The other technique was mechanical agitation, which dissolved the salt cake faster and required less fresh water than either density-driven circulation or the simulated steam circulation jet. Tests in an actual waste tank verified bench-scale results and demonstrated the superiority of mechanical agitation.

Kiser, D.L.

1981-01-01

102

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: Peer review of the Golder Associates draft test plan for in situ testing in an exploratory shaft in salt  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the peer review conducted by Argonne National Laboratory of a document entitled ''Draft Test Plan for In Situ Testing in an Exploratory Shaft in Salt,'' prepared for Battelle Memorial Institute's Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation by Golder Associates, Inc. In general, the peer review panelists found the test plan to be technically sound, although some deficiencies were identified. Recommendations for improving the test plan are presented in this review report. A microfiche copy of the following unpublished report is attached to the inside back cover of this report: ''Draft Test Plan for In Situ Testing in an Exploratory Shaft in Salt,'' prepared by Golder Associates, Inc., for Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation, Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, Ohio (March 1985).

Hambley, D.F.; Mraz, D.Z.; Unterberter, R.R.; Stormont, J.C.; Neuman, S.P.; Russell, J.E.; Jacoby, C.H.; Hull, A.B.; Brady, B.H.G.; Ditmars, J.D.

1987-01-01

103

76 FR 47613 - Board Meeting: September 13-14, 2011-Salt Lake City, UT; the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Meeting: September 13-14, 2011--Salt Lake City, UT; the U.S. Nuclear Waste...Review Board will hold a public meeting in Salt Lake City, Utah, on Tuesday, September...America Hotel; 500 South Main Street; Salt Lake City, Utah 84101; [[Page...

2011-08-05

104

Problems in determination of the water content of rock-salt samples and its significance in nuclear-waste storage siting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in situ water content of rock salt in beds or domes and the exact nature of its occurrence are of considerable importance for the safe design and operation of nuclear-waste storage facilities in salt deposits. Most published determinations of the ``water content'' of salt are not comparable. Many determinations contain serious, and in part systematic, errors. The multiplicity of

Edwin Roedder; R. L. Bassett

1981-01-01

105

Molten salt oxidation of mixed wastes: Separation of radioactive materials and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) materials  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is involved in a program to apply a molten salt oxidation (MSO) process to the treatment of mixed wastes at Oak Ridge and other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Mixed wastes are defined as those wastes that contain both radioactive components, which are regulated by the atomic energy legislation, and hazardous waste components, which are regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). A major part of our ORNL program involves the development of separation technologies that are necessary for the complete treatment of mixed wastes. The residues from the MSO treatment of the mixed wastes must be processed further to separate the radioactive components, to concentrate and recycle residues, or to convert the residues into forms acceptable for final disposal. This paper is a review of the MSO requirements for separation technologies, the information now available, and the concepts for our development studies.

Bell, J.T.; Haas, P.A.; Rudolph, J.C.

1993-12-01

106

Molten salt synthesis of YAlO3 powders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the molten salt synthesis technique was applied to the synthesis of YAlO3 powder using LiCl, NaCl or KCl salt as the flux. YAlO3 powder was synthesized by reacting equimolar amounts of Y2O3 and Al2O3 powders in LiCl salt. The synthesis temperature for YAlO3 using LiCl salt was 1300 C which is by about 500 C lower than that in the conventional mixed-oxide method. The synthesized powders have been characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The effect of the salt type on the formation of YAlO3 has also been investigated.

Lee, Joo-Sin

2013-04-01

107

Progress in validation of structural codes for radioactive waste repository applications in bedded salt  

SciTech Connect

Over the last nine years, coordinated activities in laboratory database generation, constitutive model formulation, and numerical code capability development have led to an improved ability of thermal/structural codes to predict the creep deformation of underground rooms in bedded salt deposits. In the last year, these codes have been undergoing preliminary validation against an extensive database collected from the large scale underground structural in situ tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Southeastern New Mexico. This validation exercise has allowed prediction capabilities to be evaluated for accuracy. We present here a summary of the predictive capability and the nature of the in situ database involved in the validation exercise. The WIPP validation exercise has proven to be especially productive. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Munson, D.E. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); DeVries, K.L. (RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (USA))

1990-08-01

108

Radioactive Waste Isolation in Salt: Peer review of documents dealing with geophysical investigations  

SciTech Connect

The Salt Repository Project, a US Department of Energy program to develop a mined repository in salt for high-level radioactive waste, is governed by a complex and sometimes inconsistent array of laws, administrative regulations, guidelines, and position papers. In conducting multidisciplinary peer reviews of contractor documents in support of this project, Argonne National Laboratory has needed to inform its expert reviewers of these governmental mandates, with particular emphasis on the relationship between issues and the technical work undertaken. This report acquaints peer review panelists with the regulatory framework as it affects their reviews of site characterization plans and related documents, including surface-based and underground test plans. Panelists will be asked to consider repository performance objectives and issues as they judge the adequacy of proposed geophysical testing. All site-specific discussions relate to the Deaf Smith County site in Texas, which was approved for site characterization by the President in May 1986. Natural processes active at the Deaf Smith County site and the status of geophysical testing near the site are reviewed briefly. 25 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

McGinnis, L.D.; Bowen, R.H.

1987-03-01

109

Creep tests on clean and argillaceous salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

Fifteen triaxial compression creep tests were performed on clean and argillaceous salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The temperatures in the tests were either 25{degrees}C or 100{degrees}C while the stress difference ranged from 3.5 MPa to 21.0 MPa. In all tests, the confining pressure was 15 MPa. Test duration ranged from 23 to 613 days with an average duration of 300 days. The results of the creep tests supplemented earlier testing and were used to estimate two parameters in the Modified Munson-Dawson constitutive law for the creep behavior of salt. The two parameters determined from each test were the steady-state strain rate and the transient strain limit. These estimates were combined with parameter estimates determined from previous testing to study the dependence of both transient and steady-state creep deformation on stress difference. The exponents on stress difference determined in this study were found to be consistent with revised estimates of the exponents reported by other investigators.

Mellegard, K.D.; Pfeifle, T.W. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (US)

1993-05-01

110

Molten salt destruction as an alternative to open burning of energetic material wastes  

SciTech Connect

LLNL has built a small-scale (about 1 kg/hr throughput unit to test the destruction of energetic materials using the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) process. We have modified the unit described in the earlier references to inject energetic waste material continuously into the unit. In addition to the HMX, other explosives we have destroyed include RDX, PETN, ammonium picrate, TNT, nitroguanadine, and TATB. We have also destroyed a liquid gun propellant comprising hydroxyl ammonium nitrate, triethanolammonium nitrate and water. In addition to these pure components, we have destroyed a number of commonly used formulations, such as LX-10 (HMX/Viton), LX-16 (PETN/FPC461, LX-17 (TATB/Kel F), and PBX-9404 (HMX)/CEF/Nitro cellulose). Our experiments have demonstrated that energetic materials can be safely and effectively treated by MSD.We have also investigated the issue of steam explosions in molten salt units, both experimentally and theoretically, and concluded that steam explosions can be avoided under proper design and operating conditions. We are currently building a larger unit (nominal capacity 5 kg/hr,) to investigate the relationship between residence time, temperature, feed concentration and throughputs, avoidance of back-burn, a;nd determination of the products of combustion under different operating conditions.

Upadhye, R.S.; Watkins, B.E.; Pruneda, C.O.; Brummond, W.A.

1994-07-05

111

Conceptual design of retrieval systems for emplaced transuranic waste containers in a salt bed depository. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission have jurisdiction over the nuclear waste management program. Design studies were previously made of proposed repository site configurations for the receiving, processing, and storage of nuclear wastes. However, these studies did not provide operational designs that were suitable for highly reliable TRU retrieval in the deep geologic salt environment for the required 60-year period. The purpose of this report is to develop a conceptual design of a baseline retrieval system for emplaced transuranic waste containers in a salt bed depository. The conceptual design is to serve as a working model for the analysis of the performance available from the current state-of-the-art equipment and systems. Suggested regulations would be based upon the results of the performance analyses.

Fogleman, S.F.

1980-04-01

112

Electrokinetic stabilization as a reclamation tool for waste materials polluted by both salts and heavy metals.  

PubMed

A method for detoxifying industrial wastes is presented, aiming at a safer management and reuse. Focusing, in particular, on bottom ashes from a municipal solid waste incinerator, the proposed "ElectroKinetic Stabilization" (EKS) technique requires a relatively short treatment time and improves the remediation of ashes by combining a fast extraction of chlorides by electromigration, together with a stabilization of metals through their reaction with phosphate anions, which migrate through the ash under the influence of the electric field. Heavy metals react with the phosphate anions, leading to the precipitation of metal hydroxy-apatite or chloro-apatite (for Pb and Ba), or to their trapping in a calcium-apatite mineral, that formed during the process. Along with precipitation, metal immobilization is allowed by the decrease of ash pH to 9-11 by means of H(+) produced at the anode from the electrolysis of water. The migration of salts through the wet ashes is very fast and the treatment time could be decreased to 24h. After EKS, Ba, Pb and F(-) leaching was reduced by 97%, 92% and 92%, respectively, below the allowed limits. In contrast, the final leaching of Cu and chlorides was reduced by 90% and 80%, respectively, still above the allowed limits. PMID:19201011

Traina, G; Ferro, S; De Battisti, A

2009-05-01

113

Efficacy of backfilling and other engineered barriers in a radioactive waste repository in salt  

SciTech Connect

In the United States, investigation of potential host geologic formations was expanded in 1975 to include hard rocks. Potential groundwater intrusion is leading to very conservative and expensive waste package designs. Recent studies have concluded that incentives for engineered barriers and 1000-year canisters probably do not exist for reasonable breach scenarios. The assumption that multibarriers will significantly increase the safety margin is also questioned. Use of a bentonite backfill for surrounding a canister of exotic materials was developed in Sweden and is being considered in the US. The expectation that bentonite will remain essentially unchanged for hundreds of years for US repository designs may be unrealistic. In addition, thick bentonite backfills will increase the canister surface temperature and add much more water around the canister. The use of desiccant materials, such as CaO or MgO, for backfilling seems to be a better method of protecting the canister. An argument can also be made for not using backfill material in salt repositories since the 30-cm-thick space will provide for hole closure for many years and will promote heat transfer via natural convection. It is concluded that expensive safety systems are being considered for repository designs that do not necessarily increase the safety margin. It is recommended that the safety systems for waste repositories in different geologic media be addressed individually and that cost-benefit analyses be performed.

Claiborne, H.C.

1982-09-01

114

SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INCIPIENT SLUDGE MIXING IN RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE STORAGE TANKS DURING SALT SOLUTION BLENDING  

SciTech Connect

This paper is the second in a series of four publications to document ongoing pilot scale testing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of mixing processes in 85 foot diameter, 1.3 million gallon, radioactive liquid waste, storage tanks at Savannah River Site (SRS). Homogeneous blending of salt solutions is required in waste tanks. Settled solids (i.e., sludge) are required to remain undisturbed on the bottom of waste tanks during blending. Suspension of sludge during blending may potentially release radiolytically generated hydrogen trapped in the sludge, which is a safety concern. The first paper (Leishear, et. al. [1]) presented pilot scale blending experiments of miscible fluids to provide initial design requirements for a full scale blending pump. Scaling techniques for an 8 foot diameter pilot scale tank were also justified in that work. This second paper describes the overall reasons to perform tests, and documents pilot scale experiments performed to investigate disturbance of sludge, using non-radioactive sludge simulants. A third paper will document pilot scale CFD modeling for comparison to experimental pilot scale test results for both blending tests and sludge disturbance tests. That paper will also describe full scale CFD results. The final paper will document additional blending test results for stratified layers in salt solutions, scale up techniques, final full scale pump design recommendations, and operational recommendations. Specifically, this paper documents a series of pilot scale tests, where sludge simulant disturbance due to a blending pump or transfer pump are investigated. A principle design requirement for a blending pump is UoD, where Uo is the pump discharge nozzle velocity, and D is the nozzle diameter. Pilot scale test results showed that sludge was undisturbed below UoD = 0.47 ft{sup 2}/s, and that below UoD = 0.58 ft{sup 2}/s minimal sludge disturbance was observed. If sludge is minimally disturbed, hydrogen will not be released. Installation requirements were also determined for a transfer pump which will remove tank contents, and which is also required to not disturb sludge. Testing techniques and test results for both types of pumps are presented.

Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Lee, S.; Steeper, T.; Fowley, M.; Parkinson, K.

2011-01-12

115

Development of Technology for Immobilization of Waste Salt from Electrorefining Spent Nuclear Fuel in Zeolite-A for Eventual Disposition in a Ceramic Waste Form  

SciTech Connect

The results of process development for the blending of waste salt from the electrorefining of spent fuel with zeolite-A are presented. This blending is a key step in the ceramic waste process being used for treatment of EBR-II spent fuel and is accomplished using a high-temperature v-blender. A labscale system was used with non-radioactive surrogate salts to determine optimal particle size distributions and time at temperature. An engineering-scale system was then installed in the Hot Fuel Examination Facility hot cell and used to demonstrate blending of actual electrorefiner salt with zeolite. In those tests, it was shown that the results are still favorable with actinide-loaded salt and that batch size of this v-blender could be increased to a level consistent with efficient production operations for EBR-II spent fuel treatment. One technical challenge that remains for this technology is to mitigate the problem of material retention in the v-blender due to formation of caked patches of salt/zeolite on the inner v-blender walls.

Michael F. Simpson; Prateek Sachdev

2008-04-01

116

Costs for off-site disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes: Salt caverns versus other disposal methods  

SciTech Connect

According to an American Petroleum Institute production waste survey reported on by P.G. Wakim in 1987 and 1988, the exploration and production segment of the US oil and gas industry generated more than 360 million barrels (bbl) of drilling wastes, more than 20 billion bbl of produced water, and nearly 12 million bbl of associated wastes in 1985. Current exploration and production activities are believed to be generating comparable quantities of these oil field wastes. Wakim estimates that 28% of drilling wastes, less than 2% of produced water, and 52% of associated wastes are disposed of in off-site commercial facilities. In recent years, interest in disposing of oil field wastes in solution-mined salt caverns has been growing. This report provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in oil-and gas-producing states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and the amounts they charge. It also compares cavern disposal costs with the costs of other forms of waste disposal.

Veil, J.A.

1997-09-01

117

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: Peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's draft report on an issues hierarchy and data needs for site characterization  

SciTech Connect

At the request of the Salt Repository Project (SRPO), Argonne National Laboratory conducted an independent peer review of a report by the Battelle Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation entitled ''Salt Repository Project Issues Hierarchy and Data Needs for Site Characterization (Draft).'' This report provided a logical structure for evaluating the outstanding questions (issues) related to selection and licensing of a site as a high-level waste repository. It also provided a first estimate of the information and data necessary to answer or resolve those questions. As such, this report is the first step in developing a strategy for site characterization. Microfiche copies of ''Draft Issues Hierarchy, Resolution Strategy, and Information Needs for Site Characterization and Environmental/Socioeconomic Evaluation - July, 1986'' and ''Issues Hierarchy and Data Needs for Site Characterization - February, 1985'' are included in the back pocket of this report.

Harrison, W.; Fenster, D.F.; Ditmars, J.D.; Paddock, R.A.; Rote, D.M.; Hambley, D.F.; Seitz, M.G.; Hull, A.B.

1986-12-01

118

Solubility in the ternary system LiCl + MgCl2 + H2O at 60 and 75C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solubility of ternary system of lithium, magnesium and chloride and refractive indexes have been determined at 60 and 75C, respectively. Using the experimental results, the phase diagrams of the ternary system were plotted. The single-salt Pitzer parameters of LiCl and MgCl2 ?(0), ?(1) and C ? were calculated by using the equations reported by Li Y-H and de Lima at different temperatures, respectively. On the basis of Pitzer ion-interaction model and solubility product equation for mixed electrolytes, the mixing parameters ?Li, Mg, ?Li, Mg, Cl and equilibrium constant K sp were evaluated in this system, which were not reported in literature. A complete phase diagram of the ternary system was predicted at 60 and 75C. The prediction of solubilities in ternary system was then demonstrated. The calculated solubilities agreed well with the experimental values.

Yang, Ji-Min; Ji, Jun

2010-07-01

119

Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion and Cerebral/Renal Salt Wasting Syndrome: Similarities and Differences  

PubMed Central

Hyponatremia (sodium levels of <135?mEq/L) is one of the most common electrolyte imbalances in clinical practice, especially in patients with neurologic diseases. Hyponatremia can cause cerebral edema and brain herniation; therefore, prompt diagnosis and proper treatment is important in preventing morbidity and mortality. Among various causes of hyponatremia, diagnosing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) and cerebral/renal salt wasting syndrome (C/RSW) is difficult due to many similarities. SIADH is caused by excess of renal water reabsorption through inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, and fluid restriction is the treatment of choice. On the other hand, C/RSW is caused by natriuresis, which is followed by volume depletion and negative sodium balance and replacement of water and sodium is the mainstay of treatment. Determinating volume status in hyponatremic patients is the key point in differential between SIADH and C/RSW. However, in most situations, differential diagnosis of these two diseases is difficult because they overlap in many clinical and laboratory aspects, especially to assess differences in volume status of these patients. Although distinction between the SIADH and C/RSW is difficult, improvement of hypouricemia and an increased fractional excretion of uric acid after the correction of hyponatremia in SIADH, not in C/RSW, may be one of the helpful points in discriminating the two diseases. In this review, we compare these two diseases regarding the pathophysiologic mechanisms, diagnosis, and therapeutic point of view. PMID:25657991

Oh, Ji Young; Shin, Jae Il

2015-01-01

120

Influence of soil properties on trace element availability and plant accumulation in a Mediterranean salt marsh polluted by mining wastes: Implications for phytomanagement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study were to determine the factors which control metal and As phytoavailability in the different microenvironments (Sand Dunes, Salt Flat, Dry River and Shrubs) present at a Mediterranean salt marsh polluted by mining wastes. We performed a field study following a plot sampling survey. The analyses of soil parameters (pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon contents,

H. M. Conesa; A. Mara-Cervantes; J. lvarez-Rogel; M. N. Gonzlez-Alcaraz

2011-01-01

121

Treatment of a waste salt delivered from an electrorefining process by an oxidative precipitation of the rare earth elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the reuse of a waste salt from an electrorefining process of a spent oxide fuel, a separation of rare earth elements by an oxidative precipitation in a LiCl-KCl molten salt was tested without using precipitate agents. From the results obtained from the thermochemical calculations by HSC Chemistry software, the most stable rare earth compounds in the oxygen-used rare earth chlorides system were oxychlorides (EuOCl, NdOCl, PrOCl) and oxides (CeO 2, PrO 2), which coincide well with results of the Gibbs free energy of the reaction. In this study, similar to the thermochemical results, regardless of the sparging time and molten salt temperature, oxychlorides and oxides were formed as a precipitant by a reaction with oxygen. The structure of the rare earth precipitates was divided into two shapes: small cubic (oxide) and large plate-like (tetragonal) structures. The conversion efficiencies of the rare earth elements to their molten salt-insoluble precipitates were increased with the sparging time and temperature, and Ce showed the best reactivity. In the conditions of 650 C of the molten salt temperature and 420 min of the sparging time, the final conversion efficiencies were over 99.9% for all the investigated rare earth chlorides.

Cho, Yung-Zun; Yang, Hee-Chul; Park, Gil-Ho; Lee, Han-Soo; Kim, In-Tae

2009-02-01

122

Alternative methods to manage waste salt from repository excavation in the Deaf Smith County and Swisher County locations, Texas: A scoping study: Technical report. [Salt and salt-laden material  

SciTech Connect

This report describes and qualitatively evaluates eight options for managing the large volumes of salt and salt-laden rock that would result from the excavation of a high-level radioactive waste repository in Deaf Smith County or Swisher County, Texas. The options are: distribution for commercial use; ocean disposal; deep-well injection; disposal in multilevel mines on the site; disposal in abandoned salt mines off the site; disposal off the site in abandoned mines developed for minerals other than salt; disposal in excavated landfills; and surface disposal on alkali flats. The main features of each option are described, as well as the associated environmental and economic impacts, and regulatory constraints. The options are evaluated in terms of 11 factors that jointly constitute a test of relative suitability. The results of the evaluation and implications for further study are indicated. This document does not consider or include the actual numbers, findings, or conclusions contained in the final Deaf Smith County Environmental Assessment (DOE, 1986). 43 refs., 8 tabs.

Not Available

1987-01-01

123

Waste Stream Generated and Waste Disposal Plans for Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) site is located in Tennessee, on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), south of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) main plant across Haw Ridge in Melton Valley. The MSRE was run by ORNL to demonstrate the desirable features of the molten-salt concept in a practical reactor that could be operated safely and reliably. It introduced the idea of a homogeneous reactor using fuel salt media and graphite moderation for power and breeder reactors. The MSRE reactor and associated components are located in cells beneath the floor in the high-bay area of Building 7503 (Figure 1). The reactor was operated from June 1965 to December 1969. When the reactor was shut down, fuel salt was drained from the reactor circuit to two drain tanks. A ''clean'' salt was then circulated through the reactor as a decontamination measure and drained to a third drain tank. When operations ceased, the fuel and flush salts were allowed t o cool and solidify in the drain tanks. At shutdown, the MSRE facility complex was placed in a surveillance and maintenance program. As a result of the S&M program, it was discovered in 1994 that gaseous uranium (233U/232U) hexafluoride (UF6) had moved throughout the MSRE process systems. The UF6 was generated when radiolysis of the fluorine salts caused the individual constituents to dissociate to their component atoms, including free fluorine.Some of the free fluorine combined with uranium fluorides (UF4) in the salt to form UF6. UF6 is gaseous at slightly above ambient temperatures; thus, periodic heating of the fuel salts (which was intended to remedy the radiolysis problems) and simple diffusion had allowed the UF6 to move out of the salt and into the process systems of MSRE.

Haghighi, M. H.; Szozda, R. M.; Jugan, M. R.

2002-02-26

124

Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters  

DOEpatents

A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed. The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts. For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates. 54 figs.

Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

1994-11-22

125

Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters  

DOEpatents

A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed, The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts, For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates.

Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY)

1994-11-22

126

Results of screening activities in salt states prior to the enactment of the Nationall Waste Policy Act  

SciTech Connect

The identification of potential sites for a nuclear waste repository through screening procedures in the salt states is a well-established, deliberate process. This screening process has made it possible to carry out detailed studies of many of the most promising potential sites, and general studies of all the sites, in anticipation of the siting guidelines specified in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. The screening work completed prior to the passage of the Act allowed the Secretary of Energy to identify seven salt sites as potentially acceptable under the provisions of Section 116(a) of the Act. These sites were formally identified by letters from Secretary Hodel to the states of Texas, Utah, Mississippi, and Louisiana on February 2, 1983. The potentially acceptable salt sites were in Deaf Smith and Swisher Counties in Texas; Davis and Lavender Canyons in the Gibson Dome location in Utah; Richton and Cypress Creek Domes in Mississippi; and Vacherie Dome in Louisiana. Further screening will include comparison of each potentially acceptable site against disqualification factors and selection of a preferred site in each of the three geohydrologic settings from those remaining, in accordance with the siting guidelines. These steps will be documented in statutory Environmental Assessments prepared for each site to be nominated for detailed characterization. 9 references.

Carbiener, W.A.

1983-01-01

127

Preservation of artifacts in salt mines as a natural analog for the storage of transuranic wastes at the WIPP repository  

SciTech Connect

Use of nature`s laboratory for scientific analysis of complex systems is a largely untapped resource for understanding long-term disposal of hazardous materials. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the US is a facility designed and approved for storage of transuranic waste in a salt medium. Isolation from the biosphere must be ensured for 10,000 years. Natural analogs provide a means to interpret the evolution of the underground disposal setting. Investigations of ancient sites where manmade materials have experienced mechanical and chemical processes over millennia provide scientific information unattainable by conventional laboratory methods. This paper presents examples of these pertinent natural analogs, provides examples of features relating to the WIPP application, and identifies potential avenues of future investigations. This paper cites examples of analogical information pertaining to the Hallstatt salt mine in Austria and Wieliczka salt mine in Poland. This paper intends to develop an appreciation for the applicability of natural analogs to the science and engineering of a long-term disposal facility in geomedia.

Martell, M.A.; Hansen, F.; Weiner, R.

1998-10-01

128

Recovery of soluble chloride salts from the wastewater generated during the washing process of municipal solid wastes incineration fly ash.  

PubMed

Water washing is widely used as the pretreatment method to treat municipal solid waste incineration fly ash, which facilitates the further solidification/stabilization treatment or resource recovery of the fly ash. The wastewater generated during the washing process is a kind of hydrosaline solution, usually containing high concentrations of alkali chlorides and sulphates, which cause serious pollution to environment. However, these salts can be recycled as resources instead of discharge. This paper explored an effective and practical recovery method to separate sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and calcium chloride salts individually from the hydrosaline water. In laboratory experiments, a simulating hydrosaline solution was prepared according to composition of the waste washing water. First, in the three-step evaporation-crystallization process, pure sodium chloride and solid mixture of sodium and potassium chlorides were obtained separately, and the remaining solution contained potassium and calcium chlorides (solution A). And then, the solid mixture was fully dissolved into water (solution B obtained). Finally, ethanol was added into solutions A and B to change the solubility of sodium, potassium, and calcium chlorides within the mixed solvent of water and ethanol. During the ethanol-adding precipitation process, each salt was separated individually, and the purity of the raw production in laboratory experiments reached about 90%. The ethanol can be recycled by distillation and reused as the solvent. Therefore, this technology may bring both environmental and economic benefits. PMID:25176491

Tang, Hailong; Erzat, Aris; Liu, Yangsheng

2014-01-01

129

Emissions from energetic material waste during the Molten Salt Destruction process  

SciTech Connect

The Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) process is an alternative to open burn/open detonation for destroying energetic materials; MSD has inherently low gaseous emissions, and the salt bath can scrub both acidic gases and particulates. It was demonstrated that high explosives and a liquid propellant can be safely and completely destroyed using MSD. Gaseous emissions of NOx and CO are very low. Nitrate builds up in the salt bath when nitrate-rich materials are destroyed, but addition fuel reduces the nitrate to NO. A program has been begun to add catalytic materials to the bed to further reduce emissions; a small molten salt bath has been constructed for chemical kinetic studies.

Watkins, B.E.; Upadhye, R.S.; Pruneda, C.O.; Brummond, W.A.

1994-07-05

130

The potential for using slags activated with near neutral salts as immobilisation matrices for nuclear wastes containing reactive metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The UK currently uses composite blends of Portland cement and other inorganic cementitious material such as blastfurnace slag and pulverised fuel ash to encapsulate or immobilise intermediate and low level radioactive wastes. Typically levels up 9:1 blast furnace slag:Portland cement or 4:1 pulverised fuel ash:Portland cement are used. Whilst these systems offer many advantages, their high pH causes corrosion of various metallic intermediate level radioactive wastes. To address this issue, lower pH/weakly alkaline cementitious systems have to be explored. While the blast furnace slag:Portland cement system is referred to as a composite cement system, the underlying reaction is actually an indirect activation of the slag hydration by the calcium hydroxide generated by the cement hydration, and by the alkali ions and gypsum present in the cement. However, the slag also can be activated directly with activators, creating a system known as alkali-activated slag. Whilst these activators used are usually strongly alkaline, weakly alkaline and near neutral salts can also be used. In this paper, the potential for using weakly alkaline and near neutral salts to activate slag in this manner is reviewed and discussed, with particular emphasis placed on the immobilisation of reactive metallic nuclear wastes.

Bai, Y.; Collier, N. C.; Milestone, N. B.; Yang, C. H.

2011-06-01

131

Rock salt the mechanical properties of the host rock material for a radioactive waste repository  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the long-term prediction of deformation, stress and permeability of a repository in a salt formation, one needs a reliable extrapolation of the mechanical behaviour of rock salt. This is only possible by means of material laws with a physical basis. A detailed description of the so-called composite model for transient and steady state creep is given, which is based

Udo Hunsche; Andreas Hampel

1999-01-01

132

Regulatory Framework for Salt Waste Disposal and Tank Closure at the Savannah River Site - 13663  

SciTech Connect

The end of the Cold War has left a legacy of approximately 37 million gallons of radioactive waste in the aging waste tanks at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). A robust program is in place to remove waste from these tanks, treat the waste to separate into a relatively small volume of high-level waste and a large volume of low-level waste, and to actively dispose of the low-level waste on-site and close the waste tanks and associated ancillary structures. To support performance-based, risk-informed decision making and to ensure compliance with all regulatory requirements, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its current and past contractors have worked closely with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop and implement a framework for on-site low-level waste disposal and closure of the SRS waste tanks. The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, provides DOE the authority to manage defense-related radioactive waste. DOE Order 435.1 and its associated manual and guidance documents detail this radioactive waste management process. The DOE also has a requirement to consult with the NRC in determining that waste that formerly was classified as high-level waste can be safely managed as either low-level waste or transuranic waste. Once DOE makes a determination, NRC then has a responsibility to monitor DOE's actions in coordination with SCDHEC to ensure compliance with the Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 61 (10CFR61), Subpart C performance objectives. The management of hazardous waste substances or components at SRS is regulated by SCDHEC and the EPA. The foundation for the interactions between DOE, SCDHEC and EPA is the SRS Federal Facility Agreement (FFA). Managing this array of requirements and successfully interacting with regulators, consultants and stakeholders is a challenging task but ensures thorough and thoughtful processes for disposing of the SRS low-level waste and the closure of the tank farm facilities. (authors)

Thomas, Steve; Dickert, Ginger [Savannah River Remediation LLC, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River Remediation LLC, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01

133

Geohydrology of the northern Louisiana salt-dome basin pertinent to the storage of radioactive wastes; a progress report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Salt domes in northern Louisiana are being considered as possible storage sites for nuclear wastes. The domes are in an area that received regional sedimentation through early Tertiary (Eocene) time with lesser amounts of Quaternary deposits. The Cretaceous-Tertiary accumulation is a few thousand feet thick; the major sands are regional aquifers that extend far beyond the boundaries of the salt-dome basin. Because of multiple aquifers, structural deformation, and variations in the hydraulic characteristics of cap rock, the ground-water hydrology around a salt dome may be highly complex. The Sparta Sand is the most productive and heavily used regional aquifer. It is either penetrated by or overlies most of the domes. A fluid entering the Sparta flow system would move toward one of the pumping centers, all at or near municipalities that pump from the Sparta. Movement could be toward surface drainage where local geologic and hydrologic conditions permit leakage to the surface or to a surficial aquifer. (Woodard-USGS)

Hosman, R.L.

1978-01-01

134

Salton Sea Geothermal Field, California, as a near-field natural analog of a radioactive waste repository in salt  

SciTech Connect

Since high concentrations of radionuclides and high temperatures are not normally encountered in salt domes or beds, finding an exact geologic analog of expected near-field conditions in a mined nuclear waste repository in salt will be difficult. The Salton Sea Geothermal Field, however, provides an opportunity to investigate the migration and retardation of naturally occurring U, Th, Ra, Cs, Sr and other elements in hot brines which have been moving through clay-rich sedimentary rocks for up to 100,000 years. The more than thirty deep wells drilled in this field to produce steam for electrical generation penetrate sedimentary rocks containing concentrated brines where temperatures reach 365/sup 0/C at only 2 km depth. The brines are primarily Na, K, Ca chlorides with up to 25% of total dissolved solids; they also contain high concentrations of metals such as Fe, Mn, Li, Zn, and Pb. This report describes the geology, geophysics and geochemistry of this system as a prelude to a study of the mobility of naturally occurring radionuclides and radionuclide analogs within it. The aim of this study is to provide data to assist in validating quantitative models of repository behavior and to use in designing and evaluating waste packages and engineered barriers. 128 references, 33 figures, 13 tables.

Elders, W.A.; Cohen, L.H.

1983-11-01

135

Thermal Properties of LiCl-KCl Molten Salt for Nuclear Waste Separation  

SciTech Connect

This project addresses both practical and fundamental scientific issues of direct relevance to operational challenges of the molten LiCl-KCl salt pyrochemical process, while providing avenues for improvements in the process. In order to understand the effects of the continually changing composition of the molten salt bath during the process, the project team will systematically vary the concentrations of rare earth surrogate elements, lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, and neodymium, which will be added to the molten LiCl-KCl salt. They will also perform a limited number of focused experiments by the dissolution of depleted uranium. All experiments will be performed at 500 deg C. The project consists of the following tasks. Researchers will measure density of the molten salts using an instrument specifically designed for this purpose, and will determine the melting points with a differential scanning calorimeter. Knowledge of these properties is essential for salt mass accounting and taking the necessary steps to prevent melt freezing. The team will use cyclic voltammetry studies to determine redox potentials of the rare earth cations, as well as their diffusion coefficients and activities in the molten LiCl-KCl salt. In addition, the team will perform anodic stripping voltammetry to determine the concentration of the rare earth elements and their solubilities, and to develop the scientific basis for an on-line diagnostic system for in situ monitoring of the cation species concentration (rare earths in this case). Solubility and activity of the cation species are critically important for the prediction of the salt's useful lifetime and disposal.

Sridharan, Kumar [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Allen, Todd [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Anderson, Mark [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Simpson, Mike [Idaho National Lab., (United States)

2012-11-30

136

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's reports on preferred repository sites within the Palo Duro Basin, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Documents are being submitted to the Salt Repository Project Office (SRPO) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) by Battelle Memorial Institute's Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) to satisfy milestones of the Salt Repository Project of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. Some of these documents are being reviewed by multidisciplinary groups of peers to ensure DOE of their adequacy and credibility. Adequacy of documents refers to their ability to meet the standards of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, as enunciated in 10 CFR 60, and the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Credibility of documents refers to the validity of the assumptions, methods, and conclusions, as well as to the completeness of coverage. This report summarizes Argonne's review of ONWI's two-volume draft report entitled Identification of Preferred Sites within the Palo Duro Basin: Vol. 1 - Palo Duro Location A, and Vol. 2 - Palo Duro Location B, dated January 1984. Argonne was requested by DOE to review these documents on January 17 and 24, 1984 (see App. A). The review procedure involved obtaining written comments on the reports from three members of Argonne's core peer review staff and three extramural experts in related research areas. The peer review panel met at Argonne on February 6, 1984, and reviewer comments were integrated into this report by the review session chairman, with the assistance of Argonne's core peer review staff. All of the peer review panelists concurred in the way in which their comments were represented in this report (see App. B). A letter report and a draft of this report were sent to SRPO on February 10, 1984, and April 17, 1984, respectively. 5 references.

Fenster, D.; Edgar, D.; Gonzales, S.; Domenico, P.; Harrison, W.; Engelder, T.; Tisue, M.

1984-04-01

137

Separation of CsCl from a Ternary CsCl-LiCl-KCl Salt via a Melt Crystallization Technique for Pyroprocessing Waste Minimization  

SciTech Connect

A parametric study has been conducted to identify the effects of several parameters on the separation of CsCl from molten LiCl-KCl salt via a melt crystallization process. A reverse vertical Bridgman technique was used to grow the salt crystals. The investigated parameters were: (1) the advancement rate, (2) the crucible lid configuration, (3) the amount of salt mixture, (4) the initial composition of CsCl, and (5) the temperature difference between the high and low furnace zones. From each grown crystal, samples were taken axially and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results show that CsCl concentrations at the top of the crystals were low and increased to a maximum at the bottom of the salt. Salt (LiCl-KCl) recycle percentages for the experiments ranged from 50% to 75% and the CsCl composition in the waste salt was low. To increase the recycle percentage and the concentration of CsCl in the waste form, the possibility of using multiple crystallization stages was explored to further optimize the process. Results show that multiple crystallization stages are practical and the optimal experimental conditions should be operated at 5.0 mm/hr rate with a lid configuration and temperature difference of 200 C for a total of five crystallization stages. Under these conditions, up to 88% of the salt can be recycled.

Ammon Williams; Supathorn Phongikaroon; Michael Simpson

2013-02-01

138

Salt deposits in the United States and regional geologic characteristics important for storage of radioactive waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

A repository for radioactive waste must isolate radionuclides from the biosphere for long periods of geologic time, during which time the radionuclides would decay to the point where they no longer represent a hazard to man and his ecosystem. Burial of waste in a solidified form in subsurface geologic formations has been considered the most effective and most practical means

K. S. Johnson; S. Gonzales

1978-01-01

139

Radiation damage measurements on rock salt and other minerals for waste disposal applications. Quarterly report, January 1, 1980March 31, 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different aspects of radiation damage in both synthetic NaCl crystals and various natural rock salt samples as well as granite, basalt and other minerals which will be important for radioactive waste disposal applications are being investigated. The principal means of measuring radiation damage is the determination of F-center concentrations, and the concentration and size of sodium metal colloid particles. Formation

K. J. Swyler; J. M. Loman; L. J. Teutonico; G. E. Elgort; P. W. Levy

1980-01-01

140

Measurement of unsaturated hydraulic properties of salt cake simulant relevant to hanford and SRS high-level waste tanks using a pilot-scale setup  

SciTech Connect

Closure of the remaining tanks and final disposition of the radioactive waste is a high priority task at both Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford. The radioactive waste in the tanks are generally found in layers: supernate (on top) containing soluble fission products, and salt-cake and sludge (on the bottom of the tank) containing insoluble actinides. One strategy for minimizing the waste volume is to segregate the low curie salt waste from the high curie salt supernate by draining the supernate and interstitial salt solution from the salt-cake. The retrieval of the interstitial fluid will require knowledge of relevant properties of salt-cake waste including drainage parameters, more specifically, its hydraulic properties. The hydraulic parameters of the salt-cake have significance with respect to: 1) Kinetics of the retrieval process; and 2) Equilibrium conditions of the drainage. While the saturated hydraulic properties of the salt waste (hydraulic conductivity in the vertical and horizontal direction) can be used to determine the kinetics of the flow through the salt waste, the unsaturated properties are needed in order to assess not only the time frame of tank drainage but also the equilibrium conditions. How much and how fast fluid can be drained at given initial and boundary conditions (atmospheric pressure and temperature) can be analyzed. A series of dissolution and drainage experiments was conducted using S-112, S-109 and Tank 41 simulants in a pilot-scale column (1' diameter, 10' high). The major goal of these experiments was to determine the hydraulic parameters of flow through the column and the dissolution patterns upon addition of fresh water. The hydraulic experiments were conducted using interstitial fluid as well as fresh water. A series of one-step outflow experiments were used to evaluate the drainage patterns for salt-bed heights ranging from 1' to 8'. Measured data include bulk densities and saturated hydraulic conductivities as a function of temperature, and water retention characteristics for ambient temperature. Experiments in the range of 22-43 deg. C confirmed that the hydraulic conductivity in the vertical direction is strongly dependent on the temperature with variations most likely caused by physical-chemical changes in the salt-cake structure and the viscosity of the interstitial fluid. Evidence for the changes in salt-cake structure include: increased effluent specific gravity to 1.47, appearance of voids in the column, and a 10% reduction of the column height. A two-orders-of-magnitude difference in viscosity was observed when the temperature increased from 22 deg. C to 43 deg. C. The liquid retention parameters were determined using static retention points (derived from the multi-step outflow time series). Inverse analyses of the outflow data yielded additional unsaturated hydraulic conductivity parameters. The inverse analysis was performed by fixing saturated and residual water contents and the pore connectivity factor. Numerical simulations showed that the amount of drained fluid is directly related to van Genuchten's shape parameters n and {alpha} . On the other hand, the rate of drainage was directly related to saturated hydraulic conductivity. The recommended values for {alpha} and n with uncertainties in the parenthesis are respectively: 3.2(0.32) 1/m and 2.6(0.4). The recommended value for saturated hydraulic conductivity of salt-cake is 6.0E-06(3E-06). This work provides critical data about unsaturated hydraulic properties which can be used in numerical models to better predict removal of interstitial liquid from tanks that directly impact tank and site cleanup schedule and costs. (authors)

Tachiev, G.; Yaari, G.; Long, S.; Srivastava, R.; Roelant, D. [Florida International Univ., Miami (United States)

2007-07-01

141

Permeability and hydraulic diffusivity of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository salt inferred from small-scale brine inflow experiments  

SciTech Connect

Brine seepage to 17 boreholes in salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility horizon has been monitored for several years. A simple model for one-dimensional, radial, darcy flow due to relaxation of ambient pore-water pressure is applied to analyze the field data. Fits of the model response to the data yield estimates of two parameters that characterize the magnitude of the flow and the time scale over which it evolves. With further assumptions, these parameters are related to the permeability and the hydraulic diffusivity of the salt. For those data that are consistent with the model prediction, estimated permeabilities are typically 10{sup {minus}22} to 10{sup {minus}21} m{sup 2}. The relatively small range of inferred permeabilities reflects the observation that the measured seepage fluxes are fairly consistent from hole to hole, of the order of 10{sup {minus}10} m/s. Estimated diffusivities are typically 10{sup {minus}10} to 10{sup {minus}8} m{sup 2}/s. The greater scatter in inferred hydraulic diffusivities is due to the difficulty of matching the idealized model history to the observed evolution of the flows. The data obtained from several of the monitored holes are not consistent with the simple model adopted here; material properties could not be inferred in these cases.

McTigue, D.F.

1993-06-01

142

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: rationale and methodology for Argonne-conducted reviews of site characterization programs  

SciTech Connect

Both regulatory and technical concerns must be addressed in Argonne-conducted peer reviews of site characterization programs for individual sites for a high-level radioactive waste repository in salt. This report describes the regulatory framework within which reviews must be conducted and presents background information on the structure and purpose of site characterization programs as found in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 4.17 and Title 10, Part 60, of the Code of Federal Regulations. It also presents a methodology to assist reviewers in addressing technical concerns relating to their respective areas of expertise. The methodology concentrates on elements of prime importance to the US Department of Energy's advocacy of a given salt repository system during the NRC licensing process. Instructions are given for reviewing 12 site characterization program elements, starting with performance objectives, performance issues, and levels of performance of repository subsystem components; progressing through performance assessment; and ending with plans for data acquisition and evaluation. The success of a site characterization program in resolving repository performance issues will be determined by judging the likelihood that the proposed data acquisition activities will reduce uncertainties in the performance predictions. 8 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

Harrison, W.; Ditmars, J.D.; Tisue, M.W.; Hambley, D.F.; Fenster, D.F.; Rote, D.M.

1985-07-01

143

Geoelectric exploration and monitoring in rock salt for the safety assessment of underground waste disposal sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety of an underground waste disposal site depends to a large extent on the presence and migration of the water in the rock. Geoelectrics is the most suitable method particularly in underground mining conditions to explore and monitor the moist zones in many different rocks. Recent developments in hardware, inversion schemes and petrophysical interpretation of the resistivity enable reliable

Ugur Yaramanci

2000-01-01

144

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's Geochemical Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

Describe the management program for coordinating subcontractors and their work, and integrating research results. Appropriate flowcharts should be included. Provide more information on the overall scope of the program. For each subcontractor, provide specific workscopes that indicate whether analytical activities are developmental or routine, approximate number of analyses to be made, and something of the adequacy of the analyses to meet program goals. Indicate interfaces with other earth-science disciplines like hydrology and with other groups doing relevant geochemical research and engineering design. Address the priorities for each activity or group of activities. High priority should be given to early development of a geochemical statement of what constitutes suitable salt for a repository. Reference standard procedures for sampling, sample preservation, and sample analysis wherever appropriate or, if not appropriate, indicate that any deviations from standard procedures will be documented. Ensure that appropriate quality assurance procedures will be followed for the procedures listed above. Include specific procedures for the choice, verification, validation, and documentation of computer codes related to the geochemical aspects of repository performance assessment. Include activities addressing regional hydrochemistry and make clear that each principal hydrogeologic unit at each site will be studied geochemically. Indicate that proposed plans for obtaining hydrogeochemical data will be included in each site characterization plan. Describe how site geochemical stability will be handled, especially with respect to dissolution, postemplacement geochemistry, human influences, and climatic variations. Minor recommendations and suggested improvements in the text of the plan are given in Sec. 5.

Harrison, W.; Seitz, M.; Fenster, D.; Lerman, A.; Brookins, D.; Tisue, M.

1984-02-01

145

Properties of salt-saturated concrete and grout after six years in situ at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

Samples of concrete and grout were recovered from short boreholes in the repository floor at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant more than six years after the concrete and grout were placed. Plugs from the Plug Test Matrix of the Plugging and Sealing Program of Sandia National Laboratories were overcored to include a shell of host rock. The cores were analyzed at the Waterways Experiment Station to assess their condition after six years of service, having potentially been exposed to those aspects of their service environment (salt, brine, fracturing, anhydrite, etc.) that could cause deterioration. Measured values of compressive strength and pulse velocity of both the grout and the concrete equaled or exceeded values from tests performed on laboratory-tested samples of the same mixtures at ages of one month to one year after casting. The phase assemblages had changed very little. Materials performed as intended and showed virtually no chemical or physical evidence of deterioration. The lowest values for strength and pulse velocity were measured for samples taken from the Disturbed Rock Zone, indicating the influence of cracking in this zone on the properties of enclosed seal materials. There was evidence of movement of brine in the system. Crystalline phases containing magnesium, potassium, sulfate, and other ions had been deposited on free surfaces in fractures and pilot holes. There was a reaction rim in the anhydrite immediately surrounding each recovered borehole plug, suggesting interaction between grout or concrete and host rock. However, the chemical changes apparent in this reaction rim were not reflected in the chemical composition of the adjacent concrete or grout. The grout and concrete studied here showed no signs of the deterioration found to have occurred in some parts of the concrete liner of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant waste handling shaft.

Wakeley, L.D.; Harrington, P.T.; Weiss, C.A. Jr. [Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS (United States). Structures Lab.

1993-06-01

146

On the importance of coupled THM processes to predict the long-term response of a generic salt repository for high-level nuclear waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salt is a potential medium for the underground disposal of nuclear waste because it has several assets, in particular its ability to creep and heal fractures generated by excavation and its water and gas tightness in the undisturbed state. In this research, we focus on disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste (such as spent fuel) and we consider a generic salt repository with in-drift emplacement of waste packages and subsequent backfill of the drifts with run-of-mine crushed salt. As the natural salt creeps, the crushed salt backfill gets progressively compacted and an engineered barrier system is subsequently created. In order to evaluate the integrity of the natural and engineered barriers over the long-term, it is important to consider the coupled effects of the thermal, hydraulic and mechanical processes that take place. In particular, the results obtained so far show how the porosity reduction of the crushed salt affects the saturation and pore pressure evolution throughout the repository, both in time and space. Such compaction is induced by the stress and temperature regime within the natural salt. Also, transport properties of the host rock are modified not only by thermo-mechanically and hydraulically-induced damaged processes, but also by healing/sealing of existing fractures. In addition, the THM properties of the backfill evolve towards those of the natural salt during the compaction process. All these changes are based on dedicated laboratory experiments and on theoretical considerations [1-3]. Different scenarios are modeled and compared to evaluate the relevance of different processes from the perspective of effective nuclear waste repositories. The sensitivity of the results to some parameters, such as capillarity, is also addressed. The simulations are conducted using an updated version of the TOUGH2-FLAC3D simulator, which is based on a sequential explicit method to couple flow and geomechanics [4]. A new capability for large strains and creep has been introduced and validated. The time-dependent geomechanical response of salt is determined using the Lux/Wolters constitutive model, developed at Clausthal University of Technology (Germany). References: [1] R. Wolters, and K.-H. Lux. Evaluation of Rock Salt Barriers with Respect to Tightness: Influence of Thermomechanical Damage, Fluid Infiltration and Sealing/Healing. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on the Mechanical Behavior of Salt (SaltMech7). Paris: Balkema, Rotterdam (2012). [2] W. Bechthold et al., Backfilling and Sealing of Underground Repositories for Radioactive Waste in Salt (BAMBUS Project), European Atomic Energy Community, Report EUR19124 EN (1999). [3] J. Kim, E.L Sonnenthal and J. Rutqvist, 'Formulation and sequential numerical algorithms of coupled fluid/heat flow and geomechanics for multiple porosity materials', Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng., 92, 425 (2012). [4] J. Rutqvist. Status of the TOUGH-FLAC simulator and recent applications related to coupled fluid flow and crustal deformations. Computational Geosciences, 37, 739-750 (2011).

Blanco Martin, L.; Rutqvist, J.; Birkholzer, J. T.

2013-12-01

147

Postsynthesis modification of a porous coordination polymer by LiCl To enhance H+ transport.  

PubMed

A Ca(2+) porous coordination polymer with 1D channels was functionalized by the postsynthesis addition of LiCl to enhance the H(+) conductivity. The compound showed over 10(-2) S cm(-1) at 25 C and 20% relative humidity. Pulse-field gradient NMR elucidated that the fast H(+) conductivity was achieved by the support of Li(+) ion movements in the channel. PMID:23485151

Horike, Satoshi; Kamitsubo, Yusuke; Inukai, Munehiro; Fukushima, Tomohiro; Umeyama, Daiki; Itakura, Tomoya; Kitagawa, Susumu

2013-03-27

148

[Hyponatremia with high plasma ANP level--report of two cases with emphasis on the pathophysiology of cerebral salt wasting].  

PubMed

Two cases of hyponatremia with intracranial lesions are reported with emphasis on diagnostic value of measurement of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and atrial natriuretic polypeptide (ANP). Case 1. A 77-year-old female was transferred to our hospital for further care of vegetative state after subarachnoid bleeding on May 23, 1986. She was operated by neck clipping of rt-IC bifurcation aneurysm and lt-internal carotid-posterior communicating aneurysm at another hospital. On admission, computed tomography showed diffuse low density at bilateral thalamus and centrum semiovale. Biochemical analysis revealed hyponatremia (120 mEq/t) with increased natriuresis. Endocrinological date revealed normal plasma ADH and high plasma ANP levels. Patient was treated with infusion of 1% NaCl. Case 2. A 65-year-old male was admitted to our department because of gradual impairment of consciousness and generalized convulsion. Computed tomography showed small low density area at rt-thalamus and lt-cerebellar hemisphere. Biochemical date revealed severe hyponatremia (91 mEq/t) with normal plasma level of ADH and high plasma ANP. He was treated with infusion of 3% NaCl and hyponatremia was improved. The hyponatremia is frequently associated with intracranial disorders such as brain tumor, subarachnoid hemorrhage and head injury. Originally, hyponatremia with natriuresis was thought to be caused by salt wasting. This syndrome was defined as the inability to prevent salt loss in the urine due to undefined natriuretic factor in the brain. However, since 1957, because of introduction of concept of SIADH, it has generally become accepted that patients with natriuresis had SIADH. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2962007

Yamamoto, N; Miyamoto, N; Seo, H; Matsui, N; Kuwayama, A; Terashima, K

1987-09-01

149

Effects of resource activities upon repository siting and waste containment with reference to bedded salt  

SciTech Connect

The primary consideration for the suitability of a nuclear waste repository site is the overall ability of the repository to safely contain radioactive waste. This report is a discussion of the past, present, and future effects of resource activities on waste containment. Past and present resource activities which provide release pathways (i.e., leaky boreholes, adjacent mines) will receive initial evaluation during the early stages of any repository site study. However, other resource activities which may have subtle effects on containment (e.g., long-term pumping causing increased groundwater gradients, invasion of saline water causing lower retardation) and all potential future resource activities must also be considered during the site evaluation process. Resource activities will affect both the siting and the designing of repositories. Ideally, sites should be located in areas of low resource activity and low potential for future activity, and repository design should seek to eliminate or minimize the adverse effects of any resource activity. Buffer zones should be created to provide areas in which resource activities that might adversely affect containment can be restricted or curtailed. This could mean removing large areas of land from resource development. The impact of these frozen assets should be assessed in terms of their economic value and of their effect upon resource reserves. This step could require a major effort in data acquisition and analysis followed by extensive numerical modeling of regional fluid flow and mass transport. Numerical models should be used to assess the effects of resource activity upon containment and should include the cumulative effects of different resource activities. Analysis by other methods is probably not possible except for relatively simple cases.

Ashby, J.; Rowe, J.

1980-02-01

150

Summary of four release consequence analyses for hypothetical nuclear waste repositories in salt and granite  

SciTech Connect

Release consequence methology developed under the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) program has now been applied to four hypothetical repository sites. This paper summarizes the results of these four studies in order to demonstrate that the far-field methodology developed under the AEGIS program offers a practical approach to the post-closure safety assessment of nuclear waste repositories sited in deep continental geologic formations. The four studies are briefly described and compared according to the following general categories: physical description of the repository (size, inventory, emplacement depth); geologic and hydrologic description of the site and the conceptual hydrologic model for the site; description of release scenario; hydrologic model implementation and results; engineered barriers and leach rate modeling; transport model implementation and results; and dose model implementation and results. These studies indicate the following: numerical modeling is a practical approach to post-closure safety assessment analysis for nuclear waste repositories; near-field modeling capability needs improvement to permit assessment of the consequences of human intrusion and pumping well scenarios; engineered barrier systems can be useful in mitigating consequences for postulated release scenarios that short-circuit the geohydrologic system; geohydrologic systems separating a repository from the natural biosphere discharge sites act to mitigate the consequences of postulated breaches in containment; and engineered barriers of types other than the containment or absorptive type may be useful.

Cole, C.R.; Bond, F.W.

1980-12-01

151

Site characterization plan conceptual design report for a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt, vertical emplacement mode: Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This Conceptual Design Report describes the conceptual design of a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt at a proposed site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Waste receipt, processing, packing, and other surface facility operations are described. Operations in the shafts underground are described, including waste hoisting, transfer, and vertical emplacement. This report specifically addresses the vertical emplacement mode, the reference design for the repository. Waste retrieval capability is described. The report includes a description of the layout of the surface, shafts, and underground. Major equipment items are identified. The report includes plans for decommissioning and sealing of the facility. The report discusses how the repository will satisfy performance objectives. Chapters are included on basis for design, design analyses, and data requirements for completion of future design efforts. 105 figs., 52 tabs.

Not Available

1987-12-01

152

Ceramicrete stabilization of radioactive-salt-containing liquid waste and sludge water. Final CRADA report.  

SciTech Connect

It was found that the Ceramicrete Specimens incorporated the Streams 1 and 2 sludges with the adjusted loading about 41.6 and 31.6%, respectively, have a high solidity. The visible cracks in the matrix materials and around the anionite AV-17 granules included could not obtain. The granules mentioned above fixed by Ceramicrete matrix very strongly. Consequently, we can conclude that irradiation of Ceramecrete matrix, goes from the high radioactive elements, not result the structural degradation. Based on the chemical analysis of specimens No.462 and No.461 used it was shown that these matrix included the formation elements (P, K, Mg, O), but in the different samples their correlations are different. These ratios of the content of elements included are about {+-} 10%. This information shows a great homogeneity of matrix prepared. In the list of the elements founded, expect the matrix formation elements, we detected also Ca and Si (from the wollastonite - the necessary for Ceramicrete compound); Na, Al, S, O, Cl, Fe, Ni also have been detected in the Specimen No.642 from the waste forms: NaCl, Al(OH){sub 3}, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Fe(OH){sub 3}, nickel ferrocyanide and Ni(NO{sub 3})2. The unintelligible results also were found from analysis of an AV-17 granules, in which we obtain the great amount of K. The X-ray radiographs of the Ceramicrete specimens with loading 41.4 % of Stream 1 and 31.6% of Stream 2, respectively showed that the realization of the advance technology, created at GEOHKI, leads to formation of excellent ceramic matrix with high amount of radioactive streams up to 40% and more. Really, during the interaction with start compounds MgO and KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} with the present of H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} and Wollastonite this process run with high speed under the controlled regimes. That fact that the Ceramicrete matrix with 30-40% of Streams 1 and 2 have a crystalline form, not amorphous matter, allows to permit that these matrix should be very stable, reliable for incorporation of a radionuclides.

Ehst, D.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2010-08-04

153

Chemistry of brines in salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), southeastern New Mexico: a preliminary investigation  

SciTech Connect

We present here analyses of macro- and microscopic (intracrystalline) brines observed within the WIPP facility and in the surrounding halite, with interpretations regarding the origin and history of these fluids and their potential effect(s) on long-term waste storage. During excavation, several large fluid inclusions were recovered from an area of highly recrystallized halite in a thick salt bed at the repository horizon (2150 ft below ground level). In addition, 52 samples of brine ''weeps'' were collected from walls of recently excavated drifts at the same stratigraphic horizon from which the fluid inclusion samples are assumed to have been taken. Analyses of these fluids show that they differ substantially in composition from the inclusion fluids and cannot be explained by mixing of the fluid inclusion populations. Finally, holes in the facility floor that filled with brine were sampled but with no stratographic control; therefore it is not possible to interpret the compositions of these brines with any accuracy, except insofar as they resemble the weep compositions but with greater variation in both K/Mg and Na/Cl ratios. However, the Ca and SO/sub 4/ values for the floor holes are relatively close to the gypsum saturation curve, suggesting that brines filling floor holes have been modified by the presence of gypsum or anhydrite, possibly even originating in one or more of the laterally continuous anhydrite units referred to in the WIPP literature as marker beds. In conclusion, the wide compositional variety of fluids found in the WIPP workings suggest that (1) an interconnected hydrologic system which could effectively transport radonuclides away from the repository does not exist; (2) brine migration studies and experiments must consider the mobility of intergranular fluids as well as those in inclusions; and (3) near- and far-field radionuclide migration testing programs need to consider a wide range of brine compositions rather than a few reference brines.

Stein, C.L.; Krumhansl, J.L.

1986-03-01

154

A feasibility study of scaling-up the electrolytic production of carbon nanotubes in molten salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of scaling-up the electrolytic production of carbon nanotubes in molten salts has been investigated with the aid of electron microscopy (TEM and SEM). Using molten LiCl as the electrolyte and commercial graphite as both cathode and anode materials, carbon nanomaterials, including nanotubes, were prepared by constant voltage electrolysis. The cell was more than 20 times as large as

Aleksandar T Dimitrov; George Z Chen; Ian A Kinloch; Derek J Fray

2002-01-01

155

Results of brine flow testing and disassembly of a crushed salt/bentonite block seal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Small-Scale Seal Performance Tests, Series C, a set of in situ experiments conducted at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, are designed to evaluate the performance of various seal materials emplaced in large (0.9-m-diameter) boreholes. This report documents the results of fluid (brine) flow testing and water and clay content analyses performed on one emplaced seal comprised of 100% salt blocks and 50%/50% crushed salt/bentonite blocks and disassembled after nearly three years of brine injection testing. Results from the water content analyses of 212 samples taken from within this seal show uniform water content throughout the 50%/50% salt/bentonite blocks with saturations about 100%. Clay content analyses from the 100% salt endcaps of the seal show a background clay content of about 1% by weight uniformly distributed, with the exception of samples taken at the base of the seal at the borehole wall interface. These samples show clay contents up to 3% by weight, which suggests some bentonite may have migrated under pressure to that interface. Results of the brine-flow testing show that the permeability to brine for this seal was about 2 to 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} darcy (2 to 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}16} m{sup 2}).

Finley, R.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, R.L. [Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-03-01

156

Structural, Spectroscopic and Vibrational Properties for Low-Lying Electronic States of LiCl  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) study has been carried out on the LiCl molecule. The potential energy has been calculated over a wide range of internuclear separation for the 21 low-lying electronic states of the LiCl molecule dissociating into Li (2S, 2P, 3S)+Cl (2P). The (4)1?+, (3)1?, 1-33?+, 1-33?, 1,3?, 1,3?-, (5)1?+, (4)3?+, (4)1?, (4)3? excited states are studied for the first time in theory. Molecular spectroscopic constants (Re,De, ?e, ?e?e, Be and ?e) have been derived for the 9 bound states (X1?+, (3)1?+, (2)3?+, 1,3?, 1,3?-, (4)1?, (4)3?) with a regular shape, and the spectroscopic constants of ground states X1?+ are in good agreement with available experimental and theoretical values. The relative differences between experimental values and our values for Re, De,?e, ?e?e, Be and ?e are 1.02%, 0.60%, 1.72%, 9.46%, 2.0%, and 0.75%, respectively. Moreover, vibrational levels of 9 bound states, which have not been investigated experimentally, are computed.

Cao, Yao-Feng; Gao, Yu-Feng; Gao, Tao

2013-11-01

157

Stepwise Splitting of Ribosomal Proteins from Yeast Ribosomes by LiCl  

PubMed Central

Structural studies have revealed that the core of the ribosome structure is conserved among ribosomes of all kingdoms. Kingdom-specific ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) are located in peripheral parts of the ribosome. In this work, the interactions between rRNA and r-proteins of eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribosome were investigated applying LiCl induced splitting and quantitative mass spectrometry. R-proteins were divided into four groups according to their binding properties to the rRNA. Most yeast r-proteins are removed from rRNA by 0.51 M LiCl. Eukaryote-specific r-proteins are among the first to dissociate. The majority of the strong binders are known to be required for the early ribosome assembly events. As compared to the bacterial ribosome, yeast r-proteins are dissociated from rRNA at lower ionic strength. Our results demonstrate that the nature of protein-RNA interactions in the ribosome is not conserved between different kingdoms. PMID:24991888

Piir, Kerli; Tamm, Tiina; Kisly, Ivan; Tammsalu, Triin; Remme, Jaanus

2014-01-01

158

Electrolytic LiCl precipitation from LiCl-KCl melt in porous Li-Al anodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Composition gradients such as those predicted to occur during discharge of porous Li-Al negative electrodes of Li/S batteries with LiCl-KCl eutectic electrolyte were generated and measured in the LiCl-KCl anolyte of an electrolysis cell with Li-Al electrodes. Precipitation of lithium chloride during electrolysis was observed by two-dimensional scanning of electrolyte composition in the front part of quenched porous Li-Al anode sections using SEM/EDX. The distribution of sites of increased or decreased LiCl concentration, LiCl saturation and precipitation was mapped. Cathodic regions were observed near the cell walls. Preliminary results of analysis by Auger spectroscopy confirm LiCl precipitation in the porous anode.

Vallet, C. E.; Heatherly, D. E.; Heatherly, L., Jr.; Braunstein, J.

1983-12-01

159

Expected near-field thermal environments in a sequentially loaded spent-fuel or high-level waste repository in salt  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the effect of realistic waste emplacement schedules on repository thermal environments. Virtually all estimates to date have been based on instantaneous loading of wastes having uniform properties throughout the repository. However, more realistic scenarios involving sequential emplacement of wastes reflect the gradual filling of the repository over its lifetime. These cases provide temperatures that can be less extreme than with the simple approximation. At isolated locations in the repository, the temperatures approach the instantaneous-loading limit. However, for most of the repository, temperature rises in the near-field are 10 to 40 years behind the conservative estimates depending on the waste type and the location in the repository. Results are presented for both spent-fuel and high-level reprocessing waste repositories in salt, for a regional repository concept, and for a single national repository concept. The national repository is filled sooner and therefore more closely approximates the instantaneously loaded repository. However, temperatures in the near-field are still 20/sup 0/C or more below the values in the simple model for 40 years after startup of repository emplacement operations. The results suggest that current repository design concepts based on the instantaneous-loading predictions are very conservative. Therefore, experiments to monitor temperatures in a test and evaluation facility, for example, will need to take into account the reduced temperatures in order to provide data used in predicting repository performance.

Rickertsen, L.D.; Arbital, J.G.; Claiborne, H.C.

1982-01-01

160

Numerical simulation of hydrothermal salt separation process and analysis and cost estimating of shipboard liquid waste disposal  

E-print Network

Due to environmental regulations, waste water disposal for US Navy ships has become a requirement which impacts both operations and the US Navy's budget. In 2006, the cost for waste water disposal Navy-wide was 54 million ...

Hunt, Andrew Robert

2007-01-01

161

Rheology Of MonoSodium Titanate (MST) And Modified Mst (mMST) Mixtures Relevant To The Salt Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River National Laboratory performed measurements of the rheology of suspensions and settled layers of treated material applicable to the Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility. Suspended solids mixtures included monosodium titanate (MST) or modified MST (mMST) at various solid concentrations and soluble ion concentrations with and without the inclusion of kaolin clay or simulated sludge. Layers of settled solids were MST/sludge or mMST/sludge mixtures, either with or without sorbed strontium, over a range of initial solids concentrations, soluble ion concentrations, and settling times.

Koopman, D. C.; Martino, C. J.; Shehee, T. C.; Poirier, M. R.

2013-07-31

162

Molten salt synthesis of LiNi 0.5Mn 1.5O 4 spinel for 5 V class cathode material of Li-ion secondary battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Well-ordered high crystalline LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 spinel has been readily synthesized by a molten salt method using a mixture of LiCl and LiOH salts. Synthetic variables on the synthesis of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, such as synthetic atmosphere, LiCl salt amount, synthetic temperature, and synthetic time, were intensively investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images showed that LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 synthesized at 900

J.-H. Kim; S.-T. Myung; Y.-K. Sun

2004-01-01

163

Electronic excitations of bulk LiCl from many-body perturbation theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the quasiparticle band structure and the optical excitation spectrum of bulk LiCl, using many-body perturbation theory. Density-functional theory is used to calculate the ground-state geometry of the system. The quasiparticle band structure is calculated within the GW approximation. Taking the electron-hole interaction into consideration, electron-hole pair states and optical excitations are obtained by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the electron-hole two-particle Green function. The calculated band gap is 9.5 eV, which is in good agreement with the experimental result of 9.4 eV. And the calculated optical absorption spectrum, which contains an exciton peak at 8.8 eV and a resonant-exciton peak at 9.8 eV, is also in good agreement with experimental data.

Jiang, Yun-Feng; Wang, Neng-Ping; Rohlfing, Michael

2013-12-01

164

Electronic excitations of bulk LiCl from many-body perturbation theory.  

PubMed

We present the quasiparticle band structure and the optical excitation spectrum of bulk LiCl, using many-body perturbation theory. Density-functional theory is used to calculate the ground-state geometry of the system. The quasiparticle band structure is calculated within the GW approximation. Taking the electron-hole interaction into consideration, electron-hole pair states and optical excitations are obtained by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the electron-hole two-particle Green function. The calculated band gap is 9.5 eV, which is in good agreement with the experimental result of 9.4 eV. And the calculated optical absorption spectrum, which contains an exciton peak at 8.8 eV and a resonant-exciton peak at 9.8 eV, is also in good agreement with experimental data. PMID:24320397

Jiang, Yun-Feng; Wang, Neng-Ping; Rohlfing, Michael

2013-12-01

165

The low frequency phonons dynamics in supercooled LiCl, 6 H2O.  

PubMed

We report the results of a series of ultrasound, Brillouin scattering, and optical heterodyne detected transient grating experiments performed on a LiCl, 6H(2)O solution from room temperature down to the vicinity of its liquid-glass transition, T(g) approximately 138 K. Down to T approximately 215 K, the supercooled liquid has a behavior similar to what is expected for supercooled water: its zero frequency sound velocity, C(0), continuously decreases while the corresponding infinite frequency velocity, C(infinity), sharply increases, reflecting the increasing importance of H bonding when temperature is lowered. Below 215 K, specific aspects of the solution, presumably related to the role of the Li(+) and Cl(-) ions, modify the thermal behavior of C(0), while a beta relaxation process also appears and couples to the sound propagation. The origin of those two effects is briefly discussed. PMID:19791891

Gallina, M E; Bove, L; Dreyfus, C; Polian, A; Bonello, B; Cucini, R; Taschin, A; Torre, R; Pick, R M

2009-09-28

166

LiCl Dehumidifier LiBr absorption chiller hybrid air conditioning system with energy recovery  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to a hybrid air conditioning system that combines a solar powered LiCl dehumidifier with a LiBr absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier removes the latent load by absorbing moisture from the air, and the sensible load is removed by the absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier is coupled to a regenerator and the desiccant in the regenerator is heated by solar heated hot water to drive the moisture therefrom before being fed back to the dehumidifier. The heat of vaporization expended in the desiccant regenerator is recovered and used to partially preheat the driving fluid of the absorption chiller, thus substantially improving the overall COP of the hybrid system.

Ko, Suk M. (Huntsville, AL)

1980-01-01

167

Long-term cement corrosion in chloride-rich solutions relevant to radioactive waste disposal in rock salt - Leaching experiments and thermodynamic simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes are frequently solidified in a cement matrix. In a potential repository for nuclear wastes, the cementitious matrix is altered upon contact with solution and the resulting secondary phases may provide for significant retention of the radionuclides incorporated in the wastes. In order to assess the secondary phases formed upon corrosion in chloride-rich solutions, which are relevant for nuclear waste disposal in rock salt, leaching experiments were performed. Conventional laboratory batch experiments using powdered hardened cement paste in MgCl2-rich solutions were left to equilibrate for up to three years and full-scale cemented waste products were exposed to NaCl-rich and MgCl2-rich solutions for more than twenty years, respectively. Solid phase analyses revealed that corrosion of hardened cement in MgCl2-rich solutions advanced faster than in NaCl-rich solutions due to the extensive exchange of Mg from solution against Ca from the cementitious solid. Thermodynamic equilibrium simulations compared well to results at the final stages of the respective experiments indicating that close to equilibrium conditions were reached. At high cement product to brine ratios (>0.65 g mL-1), the solution composition in the laboratory-scale experiments was close to that of the full-scale experiments (cement to brine ratio of 2.5 g mL-1) in the MgCl2 systems. The present study demonstrates the applicability of thermodynamic methods used in this approach to adequately describe full-scale long-term experiments with cemented waste simulates.

Bube, C.; Metz, V.; Bohnert, E.; Garbev, K.; Schild, D.; Kienzler, B.

168

Electrodialysis technology for salt recovery from aluminum salt cake  

SciTech Connect

Electrodialysis technology for recovering salt from aluminum salt cake is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. Salt cake, a slag-like aluminum-industry waste stream, contains aluminum metal, salt (NaCl and KCl), and nonmetallics (primarily aluminum oxide). Salt cake can be recycled by digesting with water and filtering to recover the metal and oxide values. A major obstacle to widespread salt cake recycling is the cost of recovering salt from the process brine. Electrodialysis technology developed at Argonne appears to be a cost-effective approach to handling the salt brines, compared to evaporation or disposal. In Argonne's technology, the salt brine is concentrated until salt crystals are precipitated in the electrodialysis stack; the crystals are recovered downstream. The technology is being evaluated on the pilot scale using Eurodia's EUR 40-76-5 stack.

Hryn, J. N.; Krumdick, G.; Graziano, D.; Sreenivasarao, K.

2000-02-02

169

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: Peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's draft report on a multifactor test design to investigate uniform corrosion of low-carbon steel  

SciTech Connect

This report documents Argonne National Laboratory's review of an internal technical memorandum prepared by Battelle Memorial Institute's Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) entitled Multifactor Test Design to Investigate Uniform Corrosion of Low-Carbon Steel in a Nuclear Waste Salt Repository Environment. The several major areas of concern identified by peer review panelists are important to the credibility of the test design proposed in the memorandum and are to adequately addressed there. These areas of concern, along with specific recommendations to improve their treatment, are discussed in detail in Sec. 2 of this report. The twenty recommendations, which were abstracted from those discussions, are presented essentially in the order in which they are introduced in Sec. 2.

Paddock, R.A.; Lerman, A.; Ditmars, J.D.; Macdonald, D.D.; Peerenboom, J.P.; Was, G.S.; Harrison, W.

1987-01-01

170

Influence of soil properties on trace element availability and plant accumulation in a Mediterranean salt marsh polluted by mining wastes: implications for phytomanagement.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to determine the factors which control metal and As phytoavailability in the different microenvironments (Sand Dunes, Salt Flat, Dry River and Shrubs) present at a Mediterranean salt marsh polluted by mining wastes. We performed a field study following a plot sampling survey. The analyses of soil parameters (pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon contents, etc.), total metal and As concentrations and their phytoavailability assessed with EDTA were related to each microenvironment and the corresponding plant species uptake. The averages of pH and EC were slightly alkaline (pH ? 7.5) and saline (? 2.2 to 17.1 dS m(-1)) respectively. The soil samples from the Salt Flat subzone showed the highest metal concentrations (e.g. 51 mg kg(-1) Cd, 11,600 mg kg(-1) Pb) while for As, the highest concentrations occurred in the Dry River (380 mg kg(-1) As). The total metal and EDTA-extractable concentrations occurred as it follows: Salt Flat>Dry River>Degraded Dunes>Shrubs. In relation to plant metal and As accumulation, the highest root concentrations were obtained in the species from the Salt Flat subzone: ~17 mg kg(-1) As, ~620 mg kg(-1) Pb, for both, Juncus maritimus and Arthrocnemum macrostachyum. However the highest metal and As shoot concentrations occurred in species from the Sand Dunes: ~23 mg kg(-1) As ~270 mg kg(-1) Pb for Dittrichia viscosa; ~23 mg kg(-1) As, ~390 mg kg(-1) Zn for Crucianella maritima. The occurrence of edaphic gradients including salinity and texture determined the vegetation distribution. However, it cannot be concluded that there was a disturbance due to metal(loid)s soil concentrations in terms of vegetation composition except in the Degraded Dunes and Dry River. The higher EDTA-extractable concentrations were coincidental with the most saline soils but this did not result in higher metal(loid)s plant accumulation. PMID:21851964

Conesa, H M; Mara-Cervantes, A; Alvarez-Rogel, J; Gonzlez-Alcaraz, M N

2011-09-15

171

Effect of Salts and Organic Solvents on the Activity of Halobacterium cutirubrum Catalase  

PubMed Central

Catalase in extracts of the extreme halophile Halobacterium cutirubrum exhibits up to threefold stimulation by 0.5 to 1.5 m monovalent salts and by 0.1 m divalent salts. Above these concentrations, inhibition of enzyme activity is observed. The inhibitory effect, and to some extent the stimulation, is salt-specific; the effectiveness of a salt in inhibiting enzyme activity depends on both cation and anion. Thus, the order of effectiveness is MgCl2 > LiCl > NaCl > KCl > NH4Cl, and LiCl > LiNO3 > Li2SO4. The magnitude of enzyme inhibition for the salts tested is positively correlated with their molar vapor pressure depression in aqueous solution. Stimulation of enzyme activity was observed when one salt was added at its optimal concentration in the presence of inhibiting concentrations of another salt, indicating that the effect on the enzyme is not due to changing water activity but probably to enzyme-salt interaction. Aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol, glycerol, and dimethyl sulfoxide containing no ions influence enzyme activity in the same manner as do salts. PMID:5784214

Lanyi, Janos K.; Stevenson, Joann

1969-01-01

172

Stabilization of lithium superionic conduction phase and enhancement of conductivity of LiBH4 by LiCl addition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LiBH4 exhibits lithium superionic conduction accompanied by structural transition at around 390 K. Addition of LiCl to LiBH4 drastically affects both the transition and electrical conductivity: Transition from low-temperature (LT) to high-temperature (HT) phases in LiBH4 is observed at 370 K upon heating and the HT phase can be retained at 350-330 K upon cooling. Further, the conductivity in the LT phase is more than one or two orders of magnitude higher than that of pure LiBH4. These properties could be attributed to the dissolution of LiCl into LiBH4, suggested by in situ x-ray diffraction measurement.

Matsuo, Motoaki; Takamura, Hitoshi; Maekawa, Hideki; Li, Hai-Wen; Orimo, Shin-ichi

2009-02-01

173

Purification of used eutectic (LiCl-KCl) salt electrolyte from pyroprocessing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The separation characteristics of surrogate rare-earth fission products in a eutectic (LiCl-KCl) molten salt were investigated. This system is based on the eutectic salt used for the pyroprocessing treatment of used nuclear fuel (UNF). The investigation was performed using an integrated rare-earth separation apparatus comprising a precipitation reactor, a solid detachment device, and a layer separation device. To separate rare-earth fission products, a phosphate precipitation method using both Li3PO4 and K3PO4 as a precipitant was performed. The use of an equivalent phosphate precipitant composed of 0.408 molar ratio-K3PO4 and 0.592 molar ratio-Li3PO4 can preserve the original eutectic ratio, LiCl-0.592 molar ratio (or 45.2 wt%), as well as provide a high separation efficiency of over 99.5% under conditions of 550 C and Ar sparging when using La, Nd, Ce, and Pr chlorides. The mixture of La, Nd, Ce, and Pr phosphate had a typical monoclinic (or monazite) structure, which has been proposed as a reliable host matrix for the permanent disposal of a high-level waste form. To maximize the reusability of purified eutectic waste salt after rare-earth separation, the successive rare-earth separation process, which uses both phosphate precipitation and an oxygen sparging method, were introduced and tested with eight rare-earth (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd) chlorides. In the successive rare-earth separation process, the phosphate reaction was terminated within 1 h at 550 C, and a 4-8 h oxygen sparging time were required to obtain over a 99% separation efficiency at 700-750 C. The mixture of rare-earth precipitates separated by the successive rare-earth separation process was found to be phosphate, oxychloride, and oxide. Through the successive rare-earth separation process, the eutectic ratio of purified salt maintained its original value, and impurity content including the residual precipitant of purified salt can be minimized.

Cho, Yung-Zun; Lee, Tae-Kyo; Eun, Hee-Chul; Choi, Jung-Hoon; Kim, In-Tae; Park, Geun-Il

2013-06-01

174

Removal of alkaline-earth elements by a carbonate precipitation in a chloride molten salt  

SciTech Connect

Separation of some alkaline-earth chlorides (Sr, Ba) was investigated by using carbonate injection method in LiCl-KCl eutectic and LiCl molten salts. The effects of the injected molar ratio of carbonate([K{sub 2}(or Li{sub 2})CO{sub 3}/Sr(or Ba)Cl{sub 2}]) and the temperature(450-750 deg.) on the conversion ratio of the Sr or Ba carbonate were determined. In addition, the form of the Sr and Ba carbonate resulting from the carbonation reaction with carbonates was identified via XRD and SEM-EDS analysis. In these experiments, the carbonate injection method can remove Sr and Ba chlorides effectively over 99% in both LiCl-KCl eutectic and LiCl molten salt conditions. When Sr and Ba were co-presented in the eutectic molten salt, they were carbonated in a form of Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.3}CO{sub 3}. And when Sr was present in LiCl molten salt, it was carbonated in the form of SrCO{sub 3}. Carbonation ratio increased with a decreasing temperature and it was more favorable in the case of a K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} injection than that of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Based on this experiment, it is postulated that carbonate precipitation method has the potential for removing alkali-earth chlorides from LiCl-KCl eutectic and LiCl molten salts. (authors)

Yung-Zun Cho; In-Tae Kim; Hee-Chui Yang; Hee-Chui Eun; Hwan-Seo Park; Eung-Ho Kim [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2007-07-01

175

Metals removal from spent salts  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for removing metal contaminants from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents may be added to precipitate the metal oxide and/or the metal as either metal oxide, metal hydroxide, or as a salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as waste or can be immobilized as ceramic pellets. More than about 90% of the metals and mineral residues (ashes) present are removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be spray-dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 1.0 ppm of contaminants.

Hsu, Peter C. (Pleasanton, CA); Von Holtz, Erica H. (Livermore, CA); Hipple, David L. (Livermore, CA); Summers, Leslie J. (Livermore, CA); Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Adamson, Martyn G. (Danville, CA)

2002-01-01

176

Actinide removal from spent salts  

DOEpatents

A method for removing actinide contaminants (uranium and thorium) from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents are added to precipitate the thorium as thorium oxide and/or the uranium as either uranium oxide or as a diuranate salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as radioactive waste. About 90% of the thorium and/or uranium present is removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 0.1 ppm of thorium or uranium.

Hsu, Peter C. (Pleasanton, CA); von Holtz, Erica H. (Livermore, CA); Hipple, David L. (Livermore, CA); Summers, Leslie J. (Livermore, CA); Adamson, Martyn G. (Danville, CA)

2002-01-01

177

Phosphate salts  

MedlinePLUS

Phosphate salts refers to many different combinations of the chemical phosphate with salts and minerals. Foods high in phosphate include dairy ... much phosphate in the blood. People use phosphate salts for medicine. Be careful not to confuse phosphate ...

178

Enhanced tolerance to NaCl and LiCl stresses by over-expressing Caragana korshinskii sodium/proton exchanger 1 (CkNHX1) and the hydrophilic C terminus is required for the activity of CkNHX1 in Atsos3-1 mutant and yeast  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CkNHX1 was isolated from Caragana korshinskii. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CkNHX1 was expressed mainly in roots, and significantly induced by NaCl in stems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of CkNHX1 enhanced the resistance to NaCl and LiCl in yeast and Atsos3-1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of CkNHX1-{Delta}C had little effect on NaCl/LiCl tolerance in Atsos3-1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C-terminal region of CkNHX1 is required for its Na{sup +} and Li{sup +} transporting activity. -- Abstract: Sodium/proton exchangers (NHX antiporters) play important roles in plant responses to salt stress. Previous research showed that hydrophilic C-terminal region of Arabidopsis AtNHX1 negatively regulates the Na{sup +}/H{sup +} transporting activity. In this study, CkNHX1 were isolated from Caragana korshinskii, a pea shrub with high tolerance to salt, drought, and cold stresses. Transcripts of CkNHX1 were detected predominantly in roots, and were significantly induced by NaCl stress in stems. Transgenic yeast and Arabidopsisthalianasos3-1 (Atsos3-1) mutant over-expressing CkNHX1 and its hydrophilic C terminus-truncated derivative, CkNHX1-{Delta}C, were generated and subjected to NaCl and LiCl stresses. Expression of CkNHX1 significantly enhanced the resistance to NaCl and LiCl stresses in yeast and Atsos3-1 mutant. Whereas, compared with expression of CkNHX1, the expression of CkNHX1-{Delta}C had much less effect on NaCl tolerance in Atsos3-1 and LiCl tolerance in yeast and Atsos3-1. All together, these results suggest that the predominant expression of CkNHX1 in roots might contribute to keep C. korshinskii adapting to the high salt condition in this plant's living environment; CkNHX1 could recover the phenotype of Atsos3-1 mutant; and the hydrophilic C-terminal region of CkNHX1 should be required for Na{sup +}/H{sup +} and Li{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanging activity of CkNHX1.

Yang, Da-Hai, E-mail: gresea_young@hotmail.com [Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China) [Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Department of Plant Physiology, Institute of General Botany and Plant Physiology, Friedrich-Schiller-University, Dornburger Strasse 159, 07743 Jena (Germany); Song, Li-Ying, E-mail: lysong@genetics.ac.cn [Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)] [Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Hu, Jun, E-mail: jhu@genetics.ac.cn [Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)] [Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Yin, Wei-Bo, E-mail: wbyin@genetics.ac.cn [Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)] [Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Li, Zhi-Guo, E-mail: gzhi@genetics.ac.cn [Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)] [Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Chen, Yu-Hong, E-mail: yhchen@genetics.ac.cn [Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)] [Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Su, Xiao-Hua, E-mail: suxh@caf.ac.cn [Research Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091 (China)] [Research Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091 (China); Wang, Richard R.-C., E-mail: Richard.Wang@ARS.USDA.GOV [USDA-ARS, FRRL, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322-6300 (United States); Hu, Zan-Min, E-mail: zmhu@genetics.ac.cn [Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)] [Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

2012-01-13

179

Preliminary petrological and geochemical results from the Salton Sea Geothermal Field, California: A near-field natural analog of a radioactive waste repository in salt: Topical report No. 2  

SciTech Connect

High concentrations of radionuclides and high temperatures are not naturally encountered in salt beds. For this reason, the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF) may be the best available geologic analog of some of the processes expected to occur in high level nuclear waste repositories in salt. Subsurface temperatures and brine concentrations in the SSGF span most of the temperature range and fluid inclusion brine range expected in a salt repository, and the clay-rich sedimentary rocks are similar to those which host bedded or domal salts. As many of the chemical processes observed in the SSGF are similar to those expected to occur in or near a salt repository, data derived from it can be used in the validation of geochemical models of the near-field of a repository in salt. This report describes preliminary data on petrology and geochemistry, emphasizing the distribution of rare earth elements and U and Th, of cores and cuttings from several deep wells chosen to span a range of temperature gradients and salinities. Subsurface temperature logs have been augmented by fluid inclusion studies, to reveal the effects of brines of varying temperature and salinity. The presence of brines with different oxygen isotopic signatures also indicate lack of mixing. Whole rock major, minor and trace element analyses and data on brine compositions are being used to study chemical migration in these sediments. 65 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

Elders, W.A.; Cohen, L.H.; Williams, A.E.; Neville, S.; Collier, P.; Oakes, C.

1986-03-01

180

Recycling of aluminum salt cake  

SciTech Connect

The secondary aluminum industry generates more than 110 {times} 10{sup 3} tons of salt-cake waste every year. This waste stream contains about 3--5% aluminum, 15--30% aluminum oxide, 30--40% sodium chloride, and 20--30% potassium chloride. As much as 50% of the content of this waste is combined salt (sodium and potassium chlorides). Salt-cake waste is currently disposed of in conventional landfills. In addition, over 50 {times} 10{sup 3} tons of black dross that is not economical to reprocess a rotary furnace for aluminum recovery ends up in landfills. The composition of the dross is similar to that of salt cake, except that it contains higher concentrations of aluminum (up to 20%) and correspondingly lower amounts of salts. Because of the high solubility of the salts in water, these residues, when put in landfills, represent a potential source of pollution to surface-water and groundwater supplies. The increasing number of environmental regulations on the generation and disposal of industrial wastes are likely to restrict the disposal of these salt-containing wastes in conventional landfills. Processes exist that employ the dissolution and recovery of the salts from the waste stream. These wet-processing methods are economical only when the aluminum concentration in that waste exceeds about 10%. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a study in which existing technologies were reviewed and new concepts that are potentially more cost-effective than existing processes were developed and evaluated. These include freeze crystallization, solvent/antisolvent extraction, common-ion effect, high-pressure/high-temperature process, and capillary-effect systems. This paper presents some of the technical and economic results of the aforementioned ANL study.

Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Karvelas, D.E.

1991-12-01

181

Electrodeposition and stripping of lithium and sodium on inert electrodes in room temperature chloroaluminate molten salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demonstration of a stable, reversible alkali metal anode is an important step in the development of practical secondary batteries using room temperature chloroaluminate molten salts as electrolytes. Such melts are made by mixing 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMICI) with aluminum chloride, and can be Lewis buffered by adding LiCl or NaCl. It has been shown previously that protons added to a

Bernard J. Piersma; D. M. Ryan; E. R. Schumacher; T. L. Riechel

1996-01-01

182

Modeling and Field Test Planning Activities in Support of Disposal of Heat-Generating Waste in Salt  

SciTech Connect

The modeling efforts in support of the field test planning conducted at LBNL leverage on recent developments of tools for modeling coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in salt and their effect on brine migration at high temperatures. This work includes development related to, and implementation of, essential capabilities, as well as testing the model against relevant information and published experimental data related to the fate and transport of water. These are modeling capabilities that will be suitable for assisting in the design of field experiment, especially related to multiphase flow processes coupled with mechanical deformations, at high temperature. In this report, we first examine previous generic repository modeling results, focusing on the first 20 years to investigate the expected evolution of the different processes that could be monitored in a full-scale heater experiment, and then present new results from ongoing modeling of the Thermal Simulation for Drift Emplacement (TSDE) experiment, a heater experiment on the in-drift emplacement concept at the Asse Mine, Germany, and provide an update on the ongoing model developments for modeling brine migration. LBNL also supported field test planning activities via contributions to and technical review of framework documents and test plans, as well as participation in workshops associated with field test planning.

Rutqvist, Jonny; Blanco Martin, Laura; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

2014-09-26

183

The role of salt melts on the corrosion of steels and nickel-based alloys in waste incineration plants  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory experiments were carried out to study the corrosion behavior of steels and nickel-based alloys beneath heavy-metal-rich chloride and sulfate melts. Exposure tests on low- and high alloy steels in (Ca, K, Na, Pb, Zn)-sulfate mixtures in N{sub 2} - 5 vol.% O{sub 2} at 600 C have shown accelerated corrosion after addition of PbSO{sub 4} and ZnSO{sub 4}. The corrosion products were identified as (Fe, Ni)-oxide precipitates in contact with the gas phase and chromium-rich corrosion products close to the metal. Thermogravimetric investigations in He-5 vol.% O{sub 2} with the 2.25Cr-1Mo steel and also Alloy 625 have shown that severe corrosion occurred in the presence of a 50 wt.% ZnCl{sub 2}-50wt.% KCl salt mixture in the temperature range from 300 to 500 C. The corrosion products on 2.25Cr-1Mo were found to be Zn-rich iron-oxide precipitates in contact with the gas phase and a Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer underneath. In contact with the metal, a mixture of iron-chlorides and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was detected, together with variable amounts of K and Zn. A thick scale has formed on Alloy 625, consisting of nickel- and chromium-oxides with some dissolved Mo.

Spiegel, M. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

1999-11-01

184

Increased Lifetime for Biomass and Waste to Energy Power Plant Boilers with HVOF Coatings: High Temperature Corrosion Testing Under Chlorine-Containing Molten Salt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat exchanger surfaces of waste to energy and biomass power plant boilers experience often severe corrosion due to very aggressive components in the used fuels. High velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) coatings offer excellent protection for boiler tubes against high temperature corrosion due to their high density and good adherence to the substrate material. Several thermal spray coatings with high chromium content were sprayed with HVOF technique. Their mechanical properties and high temperature corrosion resistance were tested and analyzed. The coating materials included NiCr, IN625, Ni-21Cr-10W-9Mo-4Cu, and iron-based partly amorphous alloy SHS9172 (Fe-25Cr-15W-12Nb-6Mo). High temperature corrosion testing was performed in NaCl-KCl-Na2SO4 salt with controlled H2O atmosphere at 575 and 625 C. The corrosion test results of the coatings were compared to corrosion resistance of tube materials (X20, Alloy 263 and Sanicro 25).

Oksa, Maria; Tuurna, Satu; Varis, Tommi

2013-06-01

185

Mitigation of the inhibitory effect of soap by magnesium salt treatment of crude glycerol--a novel approach for enhanced biohydrogen production from the biodiesel industry waste.  

PubMed

Owing to its inhibitory effect on microbial growth, soap present in crude glycerol (CG) is a concern in biological valorization of the biodiesel manufacturing waste. By salting out strategy, up to 42% of the soap has been removed and the approach has beneficial effect on H2 production; however, removal of more than 7% of the soap was found to be inhibitory. Actually, soap is utilized as a co-substrate and due to removal; the carbon-nitrogen ratio of the medium might have decreased to reduce the production. Alternatively, without changing the carbon-nitrogen ratio of CG, MgSO4 treatment can convert the soap to its inactive form (scum). The approach was found to increase the H2 production rate (33.82%), cumulative H2 production (34.70%) as well as glycerol utilization (nearly 2.5-folds). Additionally, the treatment can increase the Mg (a nutrient) content of the medium from 0.57 ppm to 201.92 ppm. PMID:24189384

Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Le Bihan, Yann; Buelna, Gerardo; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

2014-01-01

186

Variations of organic matters and microbial community in thermophilic anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge with the addition of ferric salts.  

PubMed

Ferric salts will influence the thermophilic anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS). FeCl3 was found to contribute to the anaerobic digestion process with a cumulative biogas production of 357mL/gVS, 79.6% higher than that in the control group, and Fe2(SO4)3 had no distinct impact, while Fe(NO3)3 inhibited the methanogenesis process. A favorable balance between the release of organic matters from WAS and consumption rate was established after dosing FeCl3 from the perspective of variations of soluble COD, volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and the dissolved organic matters (DOM) assessed by EEM fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence regional integration (FRI) technique. Conversely, the system with Fe(NO3)3 achieved an unsuitable substrates environment. Pyrosequencing revealed that the anaerobic digestion system with FeCl3 enriched Coprothermobacter for proteins fermentation and Methanosarcina for methanogenesis with the values of 18.7% and 63.2%, respectively, while that with the supplementation of Fe(NO3)3 obtained the lowest relative abundance. PMID:25545098

Yu, Bao; Lou, Ziyang; Zhang, Dongling; Shan, Aidang; Yuan, Haiping; Zhu, Nanwen; Zhang, Kanghan

2015-03-01

187

Small-Column Ion-Exchange Alternative to Remove 137Cs from Low-Curie Salt Waste: Summary of Phase 1  

SciTech Connect

A Small-Column Ion-Exchange (SCIX) system is being evaluated for removing cesium from the Type 2 and/or Type 3 dissolved saltcake wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to ensure that the dissolved saltcake meets the waste acceptance criteria at the Saltstone Facility. Both crystalline silicotitanate (CST) and IONSIV{trademark} IE-96 zeolite were evaluated as the ion-exchange media. The accelerated alternative, using CST in the SCIX, could save as much as $3 billion in operating and storage costs and {approx}20 years in processing time compared to the current baseline. With its proven high cesium-loading capacity for the expected dissolved saltcake compositions and temperatures, CST is the preferred sorbent for SCIX. The low-cost alternative sorbent, zeolite, greatly increases the volume of sorbent required because of its much lower cesium-loading capacity. Thus, zeolite greatly increases the cost for the alternative, mainly because of the increased number of Defense Waste Processing Facility canisters required to dispose of the loaded sorbent (potentially over 7000 for zeolite, compared with <500 for CST). The models previously developed for predicting cesium loading on CST compared favorably with laboratory measurements of equilibrium distribution ratios and column loading performance using dissolved saltcake simulants. These models predict that a column of 432 gal of CST can operate at 25 gal/min and treat 100,000 to 900,000 gal of dissolved saltcake, depending on the solution composition. An average value of 300,000 gal per column was used for the cost benefit analysis. Predicted cesium loading on the CST is normally below 300 Ci/L; however, solutions with low salt concentrations could potentially load the CST to 630 Ci/L. Heat transfer calculations predict nonboiling temperatures for the small columns with loadings <100 Ci/L with only natural convection cooling. For the loadings up to the maximum calculated for the tank farm (630 Ci/L), a water cooling system is required to ensure that no boiling occurs in the column if the process flow is stopped. Dose rate calculations indicate that the maximum dose rate above the tank riser is expected to be {approx} 10{sup -2} mrem/h for a column loaded at 300 Ci/L in the riser. The risk analysis indicates a net beneficial impact with no major problems likely to prevent implementation or completion of saltcake treatment.

Walker, JR.,J.F.

2004-05-12

188

Crushed Salt Constitutive Model  

SciTech Connect

The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well.

Callahan, G.D.

1999-02-01

189

Selective solid-liquid extraction of lithium halide salts using a ditopic macrobicyclic receptor.  

PubMed

A ditopic salt receptor that is known to bind and extract solid NaCl, KCl, NaBr, and KBr into organic solution as their contact ion pairs is now shown by NMR and X-ray crystallography to bind and extract solid LiCl and LiBr as water-separated ion pairs. The receptor can transport these salts from an aqueous phase through a liquid organic membrane with a cation selectivity of K+ > Na+ > Li+. However, the selectivity order is strongly reversed when the receptor extracts solid alkali metal chlorides and bromides into organic solution. For a three-component mixture of solid LiCl, NaCl, and KCl, the ratio of salts extracted and complexed to the receptor in CDCl3 was 94:4:2, respectively. The same strong lithium selectivity was also observed in the case of a three-component mixture of solid LiBr, NaBr, and KBr where the ratio of extracted salts was 92:5:3. This observation is attributed to the unusually high solubility of lithium salts in organic solvents. The study suggests that ditopic receptors with an ability to extract solid salts as associated ion pairs may have application in separation processes. PMID:15554626

Mahoney, Joseph M; Beatty, Alicia M; Smith, Bradley D

2004-11-29

190

[Bio-oil production from biomass pyrolysis in molten salt].  

PubMed

In order to investigate the effects of pyrolysis conditions on bio-oil production from biomass in molten salt, experiments of biomass pyrolysis were carried out in a self-designed reactor in which the molten salt ZnCl2-KCl (with mole ratio 7/6) was selected as heat carrier, catalyst and dispersion agent. The effects of metal salt added into ZnCl2-KCl and biomass material on biomass pyrolysis were discussed, and the main compositions of bio-oil were determined by GC-MS. Metal salt added into molten salt could affect pyrolysis production yields remarkably. Lanthanon salt could enhance bio-oil yield and decrease water content in bio-oil, when mole fraction of 5.0% LaCl3 was added, bio-oil yield could reach up to 32.0%, and water content of bio-oil could reduce to 61.5%. The bio-oil and char yields were higher when rice straw was pyrolysed, while gas yield was higher when rice husk was used. Metal salts showed great selectivity on compositions of bio-oil. LiCl and FeCl2 promoted biomass to pyrolyse into smaller molecular weight compounds. CrCl3, CaCl2 and LaCl3 could restrain second pyrolysis of bio-oil. The research provided a scientific reference for production of bio-oil from biomass pyrolysis in molten salt. PMID:21650030

Ji, Dengxiang; Cai, Tengyue; Ai, Ning; Yu, Fengwen; Jiang, Hongtao; Ji, Jianbing

2011-03-01

191

Vitrification in the presence of salts  

SciTech Connect

Glass is an advantageous material for the immobilization of nuclear wastes because of the simplicity of processing and its unique ability to accept a wide variety of waste elements into its network structure. Unfortunately, some anionic species which are present in the nuclear waste streams have only limited solubility in oxide glasses. This can result in either vitrification concerns or it can affect the integrity, of the final vitrified waste form. The presence of immiscible salts can also corrode metals and refractories in the vitrification unit as well as degrade components in the off-gas system. The presence of a molten salt layer on the melt may alter the batch melting rate and increase operational safety concerns. These safety concerns relate to the interaction of the molten salt and the melter cooling fluids. Some preliminary data from ongoing experimental efforts examining the solubility of molten salts in glasses and the interaction of salts with melter component materials is included.

Marra, J.C.; Andrews, M.K.; Schumacher, R.F.

1994-07-01

192

Ab initio configuration interaction study of the low-lying 1Sigma+ electronic states of LiCl.  

PubMed

Ab initio configuration interaction calculations have been performed for the X 1Sigma+ and B 1Sigma+ electronic states of LiCl. Potential energy curves, dipole moment functions, and dipole transition moments have been computed for internuclear distances between R = 2.5a0 and 50a0. Single- and double-excitation configuration interaction wave functions were constructed using molecular orbitals obtained from a two-state averaged multiconfiguration self-consistent-field calculation. This procedure yielded an accurate energy splitting between the covalent and ionic separated-atom limits. The calculated avoided crossing of the X and B state curves occurs at R = 16.2a0, in close agreement with previous calculations using a semiempirical covalent-ionic resonance model. X 1Sigma+ state spectroscopic constants are in excellent agreement with experimental values. PMID:15268588

Weck, P F; Kirby, K; Stancil, P C

2004-03-01

193

Substitution effects on the formation of T-shaped palladium carbene and thioketone complexes from Li/Cl carbenoids.  

PubMed

The preparation of palladium thioketone and T-shaped carbene complexes by treatment of thiophosphoryl substituted Li/Cl carbenoids with a Pd(0) precursor is reported. Depending on the steric demand, the anion-stabilizing ability of the silyl moiety (by negative hyperconjugation effects) and the remaining negative charge at the carbenic carbon atom, isolation of a three-coordinate, T-shaped palladium carbene complex is possible. In contrast, insufficient charge stabilization results in the transfer of the sulfur of the thiophosphoryl moiety and thus in the formation of a thioketone complex. While the thioketones are stable compounds the carbene complexes are revealed to be highly reactive and decompose under elimination of Pd metal. Computational studies revealed that both complexes are formed by a substitution mechanism. While the ketone turned out to be the thermodynamically favored product, the carbene is kinetically favored and thus preferentially formed at low reaction temperatures. PMID:24664573

Molitor, Sebastian; Feichtner, Kai-Stephan; Kupper, Claudia; Gessner, Viktoria H

2014-08-18

194

IR spectroscopy of aqueous alkali halide solutions: Pure salt-solvated water spectra and hydration numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extrapolation techniques were used to obtain pure salt-solvated water spectra from the attenuated total reflection infrared spectra (ATR-IR) of aqueous solutions of the nine alkali halide salts LiCl, NaCl, KCl, CsCl, NaBr, KBr, NaI, KI, and CsI and the alkaline-earth chloride salt MgCl2. These salts ionize completely in water. The ions by themselves do not absorb in the IR, but their interactions with water can be observed and analyzed. A pure salt-solvated water spectrum is easier to analyze than that of a combined solution of pure water and salt-solvated water. Although the salt-solvated water spectra examined have distinctive signatures, they can be classified in three categories: those similar to NaCl; those not similar to NaCl; and MgCl2, in a class by itself. Each of the pure salt-solvated water spectra differs from that of liquid water, though the number of bands is the same. From the Gaussian band fitting, we found that the positions of the bands were fairly constant, whereas their intensities differed. The salt hydration numbers were determined: for NaCl, KCl, NaBr, KBr, and CsI solutions it is 5; for KI and MgCL2 it is 4; for NaI it is 3.5; for CsCl it is 3; and for LiCl it is 2. From these results we found that each pair of ions (monoatomic ions) of the ten salt solutions studied are close bound and form a complex in a cluster organization with a fixed number of water molecules.

Max, Jean-Joseph; Chapados, Camille

2001-08-01

195

Application of lithium in molten-salt reduction processes.  

SciTech Connect

Metallothermic reductions have been extensively studied in the field of extractive metallurgy. At Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), we have developed a molten-salt based reduction process using lithium. This process was originally developed to reduce actinide oxides present in spent nuclear fuel. Preliminary thermodynamic considerations indicate that this process has the potential to be adapted for the extraction of other metals. The reduction is carried out at 650 C in a molten-salt (LiCl) medium. Lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O), produced during the reduction of the actinide oxides, dissolves in the molten salt. At the end of the reduction step, the lithium is regenerated from the salt by an electrowinning process. The lithium and the salt from the electrowinning are then reused for reduction of the next batch of oxide fuel. The process cycle has been successfully demonstrated on an engineering scale in a specially designed pyroprocessing facility. This paper discusses the applicability of lithium in molten-salt reduction processes with specific reference to our process. Results are presented from our work on actinide oxides to highlight the role of lithium and its effect on process variables in these molten-salt based reduction processes.

Gourishankar, K. V.

1998-11-11

196

Insulin and LiCl synergistically rescue myogenic differentiation of FoxO1 over-expressed myoblasts.  

PubMed

Most recent studies reported that FoxO1 transcription factor was a negative regulator of myogenesis under serum withdrawal condition, a situation not actually found in vivo. Therefore, the role of FoxO1 in myogenesis should be re-examined under more physiologically relevant conditions. Here we found that FoxO1 was preferentially localized to nucleus in proliferating (PMB) and confluent myoblasts (CMB) and its nuclear exclusion was a prerequisite for formation of multinucleated myotubes (MT). The nuclear shuttling of FoxO1 in PMB could be prevented by leptomycin B and we further found that cytoplasmic accumulation of FoxO1 in myotubes was caused by the blockade of its nuclear import. Although over-expression of wildtype FoxO1 in C2C12 myoblasts significantly blocked their myogenic differentiation under serum withdrawal condition, application of insulin and LiCl, an activator of Wnt signaling pathway, to these cells successfully rescued their myogenic differentiation and generated myotubes with larger diameters. Interestingly, insulin treatment significantly reduced FoxO1 level and also delayed nuclear re-accumulation of FoxO1 triggered by mitogen deprivation. We further found that FoxO1 directly repressed the promoter activity of myogenic genes and this repression can be relieved by insulin and LiCl treatment. These results suggest that FoxO1 inhibits myogenesis in serum withdrawal condition but turns into a hypertrophy potentiator when other myogenic signals, such as Wnt and insulin, are available. PMID:24551104

Wu, Yi Ju; Fang, Yen Hsin; Chi, Hsiang Cheng; Chang, Li Chiung; Chung, Shih Ying; Huang, Wei Chieh; Wang, Xiao Wen; Lee, Kuan Wei; Chen, Shen Liang

2014-01-01

197

Comparative study of electron stimulated positive-ion desorption from LiCl and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[trifluoromethylsulfonyl]imide.  

PubMed

The mechanism of electron stimulated desorption (ESD) from LiCl has been investigated in comparison with that from a room-temperature ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[trifluoromethylsulfonyl]imide, [emim][Tf(2)N]. The bonding natures of these materials are discussed based on the matrix effect in positive-ion yields. The [emim](+) and fragment ions are emitted from the [emim][Tf(2)N] molecule unless it is in direct contact with a metal surface, suggesting that the ions are emitted provided that the electronic excitation can be localized in each molecule. In contrast, the electronic excitation tends to be delocalized over the LiCl film, as evidenced by a monotonic increase of a Li(+) yield in the multilayer regime. The Li(+) ion is created via gas-phase ionization of desorbed neutrals or emitted directly from the surface, in which self-trapped excitons or hot carriers created in the bulk play a role. The Li(+) and Li(+)(LiCl) ions are emitted efficiently from LiCl nanoclusters formed on a rare-gas solid film via Coulombic fission. The delocalized nature of hot holes is also manifested by steep decay of the ion yields with increasing LiCl coverage. The structural transformation of [emim][Tf(2)N] during the phase transition is also revealed based on ESD positive-ion yields as a function of temperature. PMID:19725616

Souda, Ryutaro

2009-08-28

198

Bath Salts  

MedlinePLUS

Synthetic cathinones, often called bath salts, are powerful, illegal, and can cause hallucinations and violent behavior, among other dangerous effects. Twitter Facebook RSS 544 Exposures Jan. 1, ...

199

Salt Tolerance  

PubMed Central

Studying salt stress is an important means to the understanding of plant ion homeostasis and osmo-balance. Salt stress research also benefits agriculture because soil salinity significantly limits plant productivity on agricultural lands. Decades of physiological and molecular studies have generated a large body of literature regarding potential salt tolerance determinants. Recent advances in applying molecular genetic analysis and genomics tools in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana are shading light on the molecular nature of salt tolerance effectors and regulatory pathways. PMID:22303210

Xiong, Liming; Zhu, Jian-Kang

2002-01-01

200

Salts & Solubility  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online interactive simulation, learners will add different salts to water and then watch the salts dissolve and achieve a dynamic equilibrium with solid precipitate. Learners will also compare the number of ions in NaCl to other slightly soluble salts, and they will relate the charges on ions to the number of ions in the formula of a salt. Learners will also learn how to calculate Ksp values. This activity includes an online simulation, sample learning goals, a teacher's guide, and translations in over 20 languages.

2012-12-27

201

Salt Painting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this art meets chemistry activity, early learners discover the almost magical absorbent properties of salt while creating ethereal watercolor paintings. Learners first use watercolor to paint an image. Then, they sprinkle salt on the wet paint and observe. Use the provided discussion questions to encourage reflection.

Omsi

2004-01-01

202

Geotechnical investigation methods for rock salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryThe need for storage caverns (oil, gas.) and depositories (radioactive waste, toxic waste) is rising world-wide. Rock salt\\u000a (halite) formations are exceptionally suitable for the construction of such cavities. However, accurate dimensioning can only\\u000a be carried out if the mechanical behaviour of rock salt is known with sufficient accurary.\\u000a \\u000a A survey of some theoretical and experimental investigations of the mechanical

M. Langer

1982-01-01

203

The combination effects of licl and the active leflunomide metabolite, A771726, on viral-induced interleukin 6 production and EV-A71 replication.  

PubMed

Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) is a neurotropic virus that can cause severe complications involving the central nervous system. No effective antiviral therapeutics are available for treating EV-A71 infection and drug discovery efforts are rarely focused to target this disease. Thus, the main goal of this study was to discover existing drugs with novel indications that may effectively inhibit EV-A71 replication and the inflammatory cytokines elevation. In this study, we showed that LiCl, a GSK3? inhibitor, effectively suppressed EV-A71 replication, apoptosis and inflammatory cytokines production (Interleukin 6, Interleukin-1?) in infected cells. Furthermore, LiCl and an immunomodular agent were shown to strongly synergize with each other in suppressing EV-A71 replication. The results highlighted potential new treatment regimens in suppressing sequelae caused by EV-A71 replication. PMID:25412347

Hung, Hui-Chen; Shih, Shin-Ru; Chang, Teng-Yuan; Fang, Ming-Yu; Hsu, John T-A

2014-01-01

204

The Combination Effects of LiCl and the Active Leflunomide Metabolite, A771726, on Viral-Induced Interleukin 6 Production and EV-A71 Replication  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) is a neurotropic virus that can cause severe complications involving the central nervous system. No effective antiviral therapeutics are available for treating EV-A71 infection and drug discovery efforts are rarely focused to target this disease. Thus, the main goal of this study was to discover existing drugs with novel indications that may effectively inhibit EV-A71 replication and the inflammatory cytokines elevation. In this study, we showed that LiCl, a GSK3? inhibitor, effectively suppressed EV-A71 replication, apoptosis and inflammatory cytokines production (Interleukin 6, Interleukin-1?) in infected cells. Furthermore, LiCl and an immunomodular agent were shown to strongly synergize with each other in suppressing EV-A71 replication. The results highlighted potential new treatment regimens in suppressing sequelae caused by EV-A71 replication. PMID:25412347

Hung, Hui-Chen; Shih, Shin-Ru; Chang, Teng-Yuan; Fang, Ming-Yu; Hsu, John T.-A.

2014-01-01

205

Salt-specific effects observed in calorimetric studies of alkali and tetraalkylammonium salt solutions of poly(thiophen-3-ylacetic acid).  

PubMed

The enthalpies of dilution ?Hdil of aqueous solutions of a conjugated polyelectrolyte, poly(thiophen-3-ylacetic acid), neutralized by lithium, sodium, cesium, tetramethyl-, tetraethyl-, tetrapropyl-, and tetrabutylammonium hydroxides, were determined in the concentration range from cp = 2 10(-3) to 1 10(-1) monomol dm(-3) and for T = 278.15, 298.15, and 318.15 K. At low concentrations the dilution of the alkali PTAA salts yields an endothermic effect, which is in part a consequence of the hydrolysis. An exception is PTALi at 278.15 K, where ?Hdil < 0. In the case of tetraalkylammonium salts the enthalpies of dilution increase in the order TBA < TPA < TEA < TMA. Only the TBA salt of PTAA yields an exothermic effect upon dilution in the whole temperature range. In the second part of the study we measured the enthalpies of mixing, ?Hmix, of various salts of poly(thiophen-3-ylacetic acid) with LiCl, NaCl, KCl, and CsCl solutions in water. When lithium salt of PTAA is mixed with LiCl ?Hmix is positive. For mixing experiments with other alkali chlorides the effect is exothermic. In addition, the enthalpies of mixing of PTALi with tetramethyl-, tetraethyl-, tetrapropyl-, and tetrabutylammonium chloride were measured at T = 278.15 K, 298.15 K, and 318.15 K. Popular polyelectrolyte theories, such as Manning's limiting law, predict for the heat to be released upon dilution, and consumed upon mixing; the agreement between this purely electrostatic theory and experiments is at best qualitative. The ?Hmix values are correlated with the enthalpies of hydration of the cations of the low molecular mass salts added to the solution. PMID:25491322

Hostnik, Gregor; Vlachy, Vojko; Bondarev, Dmitrij; Vohldal, Jir Combining Breve ; Cerar, Janez

2015-01-28

206

Effect of hygroscopicity of the metal salt on the formation and air stability of lyotropic liquid crystalline mesophases in hydrated salt-surfactant systems.  

PubMed

It is known that alkali, transition metal and lanthanide salts can form lyotropic liquid crystalline (LLC) mesophases with non-ionic surfactants (such as CiH2i+1(OCH2CH2)jOH, denoted as CiEj). Here we combine several salt systems and show that the percent deliquescence relative humidity (%DRH) value of a salt is the determining parameter in the formation and stability of the mesophases and that the other parameters are secondary and less significant. Accordingly, salts can be divided into 3 categories: Type I salts (such as LiCl, LiBr, LiI, LiNO3, LiClO4, CaCl2, Ca(NO3)2, MgCl2, and some transition metal nitrates) have low %DRH and form stable salt-surfactant LLC mesophases in the presence of a small amount of water, type II salts (such as some sodium and potassium salts) that are moderately hygroscopic form disordered stable mesophases, and type III salts that have high %DRH values, do not form stable LLC mesophases and leach out salt crystals. To illustrate this effect, a large group of salts from alkali and alkaline earth metals were investigated using XRD, POM, FTIR, and Raman techniques. Among the different salts investigated in this study, the LiX (where X is Cl(-), Br(-), I(-), NO3(-), and ClO4(-)) and CaX2 (X is Cl(-), and NO3(-)) salts were more prone to establish LLC mesophases because of their lower %DRH values. The phase behavior with respect to concentration, stability, and thermal behavior of Li(I) systems were investigated further. It is seen that the phase transitions among different anions in the Li(I) systems follow the Hofmeister series. PMID:25112909

Albayrak, Cemal; Bar?m, Gzde; Dag, mer

2014-11-01

207

SOLUTION MINING IN SALT DOMES OF THE GULF COAST EMBAYMENT  

SciTech Connect

Following a description of salt resources in the salt domes of the gulf coast embayment, mining, particularly solution mining, is described. A scenario is constructed which could lead to release of radioactive waste stored in a salt dome via inadvertent solution mining and the consequences of this scenario are analyzed.

Griswold, G. B.

1981-02-01

208

Small-Column Ion-Exchange Alternative to Remove 137Cs from Low-Curie Salt Waste: Summary of Phase 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Small-Column Ion-Exchange (SCIX) system is being evaluated for removing cesium from the Type 2 and\\/or Type 3 dissolved saltcake wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to ensure that the dissolved saltcake meets the waste acceptance criteria at the Saltstone Facility. Both crystalline silicotitanate (CST) and IONSIV{trademark} IE-96 zeolite were evaluated as the ion-exchange media. The accelerated alternative, using

J. F. Walker; Jr. P. A. Taylor; R. D. Spence; C. O. Slater; D. D. Walker; D. F. Bickford; S. Y. Lee; S. E. Aleman; L. L. Hamm

2004-01-01

209

Infrared spectroscopy of HCN-salt complexes formed in liquid-helium nanodroplets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rotationally resolved infrared spectra are reported for the binary complexes of HCN and LiF, LiCl, NaF, and NaCl, formed in helium nanodroplets. Stark spectroscopy is used to determine the dipole moments for these complexes. Ab initio calculations are also reported for these complexes, revealing the existence of several different isomers of these binary systems. In the frequency region examined in this experimental study we only observe one of these, corresponding to the salt binding to the nitrogen end of the HCN molecule. The experimental rotational constants, dipole moments, and vibrational frequency shifts are all compared with the results from ab initio calculations for this isomer.

Lewis, William K.; Miller, Roger E.

2006-02-01

210

Electrochemical synthesis of superconductive MgB 2 from molten salts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have found that superconductive MgB2 can be electrochemically synthesized from molten salts. The electrolysis was performed in an Ar flow at 600 C on fused mixtures composed of MgCl2, MgB2O4, Na2B2O4 and alkali halides such as KCl, NaCl, and LiCl. Superconductivity was observed for a wide variety of electrolytes. It was also found that the magnetic and electrical transport properties are the most improved for samples prepared from MgCl2-NaCl-KCl-MgB2O4 electrolytes.

Yoshii, Kenji; Abe, Hideki

2003-05-01

211

Properties of dynamically compacted WIPP salt  

SciTech Connect

Dynamic compaction of mine-run salt is being investigated for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), where compacted salt is being considered for repository sealing applications. One large-scale and two intermediate-scale dynamic compaction demonstrations were conducted. Initial fractional densities of the compacted salt range form 0.85 to 0.90, and permeabilities vary. Dynamically-compacted specimens were further consolidated in the laboratory by application of hydrostatic pressure. Permeability as a function of density was determined, and consolidation microprocesses were studied. Experimental results, in conjunction with modeling results, indicate that the compacted salt will function as a viable seal material.

Brodsky, N.S.; Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pfeifle, T.W. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States)

1996-07-01

212

A new compound heterozygous frameshift mutation in the type II 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3{beta}-HSD gene causes salt-wasting 3{beta}-HSD deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia  

SciTech Connect

We report a new compound heterozygous frameshift mutation in the type II 3{Beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3{beta}-HSD) gene in a Pakistanian female child with the salt-wasting form of 3{Beta}-HSD deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The etiology for her congenital adrenal hyperplasia was not defined. Although the family history suggested possible 3{beta}-HSd deficiency disorder, suppressed adrenal function caused by excess glucocorticoid therapy in this child at 7 yr of age did not allow hormonal diagnosis. To confirm 3{beta}-HSD deficiency, we sequenced the type II 3{beta}-HSD gene in the patient, her family, and the parents of her deceased paternal cousins. The type II 3{beta}-HSD gene region of a putative promotor, exons I, II, III, and IV, and exon-intron boundaries were amplified by PCR and sequenced in all subjects. The DNA sequence of the child revealed a single nucleotide deletion at codon 318 [ACA(Thr){r_arrow}AA] in exon IV in one allele, and two nucleotide deletions at codon 273 [AAA(Lys){r_arrow}A] in exon IV in the other allele. The remaining gene sequences were normal. The codon 318 mutation was found in one allele from the father, brother, and parents of the deceased paternal cousins. The codon 273 mutation was found in one allele of the mother and a sister. These findings confirmed inherited 3{beta}-HSD deficiency in the child caused by the compound heterozygous type II 3{beta}-HSD gene mutation. Both codons at codons 279 and 367, respectively, are predicted to result in an altered and truncated type II 3{beta}-HSD protein, thereby causing salt-wasting 3{beta}-HSD deficiency in the patient. 21 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Zhang, L.; Sakkal-Alkaddour, S.; Chang, Ying T.; Yang, Xiaojiang; Songya Pang [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)] [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

1996-01-01

213

Salt Marsh  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

High school level and higher description of Spartina salt marshes with pictures. Page is full of fantastic photographs most featuring a descriptive caption. Topics discussed include zonation, succession, and the intertidal zone. The habitat's associated flora and fauna are discussed. Organisms of particular interest include: Spartina alterniflora, Spartina patens, Geukenzia demissa, Mytilus edulis, Distichlis spicata, Salicornia, Melampus bidentatus, Ilyanassa obsoleta, and Hydrobia totteni.

214

Bases, Assumptions, and Results of the Flowsheet Calculations for the Decision Phase Salt Disposition Alternatives  

SciTech Connect

The HLW salt waste (salt cake and supernate) now stored at the SRS must be treated to remove insoluble sludge solids and reduce the soluble concentration of radioactive cesium radioactive strontium and transuranic contaminants (principally Pu and Np). These treatments will enable the salt solution to be processed for disposal as saltstone, a solid low-level waste.

Elder, H.H.

2001-07-11

215

Development of damage and permeability in deforming rock salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permeability of undisturbed rock salt, or of rock salt which has been sufficiently compacted during laboratory testing, is very low (less than 10?20m2). Therefore, rock salt structures are used as host rocks for storage caverns (oil, hydrocarbons) and are considered for the long-term storage of radioactive waste. Rock salt deforms plastically without the formation and propagation of dilating cracks as

Otto Schulze; Till Popp; Hartmut Kern

2001-01-01

216

Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts")  

MedlinePLUS

... Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) DrugFacts: Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Email Facebook Twitter Revised November 2012 The term ... Sky," "White Lightning," and Scarface. How Are Bath Salts Abused? Bath salts are typically taken orally, inhaled, ...

217

Anomalous ion effects on rupture and lifetime of aqueous foam films from monovalent salt solutions up to saturation concentration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the effects of ions on rupture and lifetime of aqueous foam films formed from sodium chloride (NaCl), lithium chloride (LiCl), sodium acetate (NaAc), and sodium chlorate (NaClO 3) using microinterferometry. In the case of NaCl and LiCl, the foam films prepared from the salt solutions below 0.1 M were unstable they thinned until rupturing. The film lifetime measured from the first interferogram (appearing at a film thickness on the order of 500 nm) until the film rupture was only a second or so. However, relatively long lasting and nondraining films prepared from salt solutions above 0.1 M were observed. The film lifetime was significantly longer by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude, i.e., from 10 to 100 s. Importantly, both the film lifetime and the (average) thickness of the nondraining films increased with increasing salt concentration. This effect has not been observed with foam films stabilized by surfactants. The film lifetime and thickness also increased with increasing film radius. The films exhibited significant surface corrugations. The films with large radii often contained standing dimples. There was a critical film radius below which the films thinned until rupturing. In the cases of NaAc and NaClO 3, the films were unstable at all radii and salt concentrations they thinned until rupturing, ruling out the effect of solution viscosity on stabilizing the films.

Karakashev, S. I.; Nguyen, P. T.; Tsekov, R.; Hampton, M. A.; Nguyen, A. V.

2008-09-01

218

Modeling of anodic dissolution of U Pu Zr ternary alloy in the molten LiCl KCl electrolyte  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The metallic fuel anode in the molten salt electrorefining step for the pyrometallurgical reprocessing was modeled based on the findings from the anodic dissolution tests using a U Pu Zr ternary alloy. This anode model simulates selective dissolution of uranium and plutonium at lower anode potential, growth of a diffusion controlling layer consisting of a mixture of the molten salt electrolyte and the remaining zirconium metal, and simultaneous dissolution of all the constituents at higher anode potential. The calculation with this model reproduced well the actual anodic behavior of the U Pu Zr ternary alloy such as two-step rapid rise in the anode potential.

Iizuka, Masatoshi; Kinoshita, Kensuke; Koyama, Tadafumi

2005-02-01

219

The effect of ferrocyanide ions on sodium chloride crystallization in salt mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of crystallization inhibitors has been proposed as a potential preventive treatment method against damage and is extensively tested for crystallization of single salts. However, in practice salt mixtures are present. Therefore, before using inhibitors in practice there is a strong need to explore their effect on salt mixtures. In this research, we studied the effect of ferrocyanide ions ([Fe(CN)6]4-) on NaCl crystallization in single salt and in salt mixtures of NaCl-KCl and NaCl-LiCl. A series of micro droplet drying experiments were undertaken. Time lapse microscopy of the crystallization was performed along with NMR measurements of hydrogen, sodium and lithium ions. This gives the possibility to visualize the drying of the droplet while simultaneously obtaining information of both NaCl and LiCl concentration in the droplet. For a NaCl solution droplet, in the presence of inhibitor, a significantly higher supersaturation prior to the onset of crystallization and a change in crystal morphology were observed. On the other hand, for salt mixtures, lower supersaturation compared to single salt and dendritic crystal morphology was seen in the presence of inhibitor. In a porous material, such a type of morphology can promote the formation of efflorescence that causes only little structural damage.

Gupta, Sonia; Pel, Leo; Steiger, Michael; Kopinga, Klaas

2015-01-01

220

Consolidation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant crushed salt/bentonite mixtures as a function of confining pressure and moisture content as compared with constitutive model predictions  

SciTech Connect

Four hydrostatic consolidation tests were performed on crushed salt/bentonite mixtures to evaluate the influence of moisture on consolidation rate, permeability, and compressive strength. Specimens comprised 30 percent bentonite and 70 percent salt based on total dry weight. Brine was added to each specimen to adjust its total moisture content to between 3.5 and 10 percent (nominal) of the total dry weight. In the consolidation tests, each specimen was subjected to two stages of hydrostatic stress: 0.5 MPa and 3.45 MPa. During each stage, the pressure was maintained at a constant level and volumetric strain data were continuously logged. By using multiple stages, consolidation data were obtained at two pressures and the time required to consolidate the specimens to full saturation was reduced. Once full saturation was achieved, specimens were subjected to a final test stage in which the hydrostatic stress was reduced and a permeability test was performed. A steady flow permeability test was performed successfully on only one specimen and its permeability was determined to be 1.12 {times} 10{sup {minus}19} m{sup 2}. An unconfined compressive strength test was conducted on one of the consolidated specimens and was found to be 1.66 MPa. A density model proposed by Sjaardema and Krieg was compared to the dry density data using parameter values established by Callahan and DeVries. The model fit the data best at intermediate moisture contents and low pressures. The model was also fitted to the data obtained in this study to determine additional parameter values.

Brodsky, N.S.; Pfeifle, T.W. (RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States))

1992-07-01

221

Nuclear waste solutions  

DOEpatents

High efficiency removal of technetium values from a nuclear waste stream is achieved by addition to the waste stream of a precipitant contributing tetraphenylphosphonium cation, such that a substantial portion of the technetium values are precipitated as an insoluble pertechnetate salt.

Walker, Darrel D. (1684 Partridge Dr., Aiken, SC 29801); Ebra, Martha A. (129 Hasty Rd., Aiken, SC 29801)

1987-01-01

222

Coupled Hydromechanical Processes In Rock Salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt structures are widely used as host rocks for the storage of oil and hydrocarbons and, probably, for the long-term storage of radioactive waste, due to their very low in-situ permeability (less than 10-20 m2). The low permeability is basically attributed to the ductility of the halite minerals ensuring healing processes. Nevertheless, rock salt shows all aspects of brittle-ductile deformation.

T. Popp; H. Kern; O. Schulze

2002-01-01

223

GEOTECHNICAL ASSESSMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION NEEDS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE ISOLATION IN CRYSTALLINE AND ARGILLACEOUS ROCKS SYMPOSIUM  

E-print Network

mechanical cycle result in increased rock mass permeability?rock units (International symposium on Management of Waste from the LWR Fuel Cycle,Cycle and Waste Management (1978) emphasizes the need to evaluate both salt and non-salt rocks

Authors, Various

2011-01-01

224

Conceptual design and performance analysis of absorption heat pumps for waste-heat utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study is to explore the potential of the absorption cycle for recovering low-temperature waste heat (60 C) as a first step toward the construction of a working system to provide process heat. The system is considered with lithium chloride (LiCl-) and lithium bromide(LiBr-) water solutions as working fluids. The benefits of multistaging for achieving large temperature

G. Grossman; H. Perez-Blanco

1982-01-01

225

Low-salt diet  

MedlinePLUS

... you cook, replace salt with other seasonings. Pepper, garlic, herbs, and lemon are good choices. Avoid packaged spice blends. They often contain salt. Use garlic and onion powder, not garlic and onion salt. ...

226

Geochemistry and petrology of surface samples, six boreholes and brines from the Salton Sea geothermal field: A natural analog of a nuclear waste repository in salt: Report No. 3  

SciTech Connect

Cuttings from six wells in the Salton Sea geothermal field, and rocks at outcrop that are correlative in age with those encountered at depth in the wells were analyzed in detail. Mineralogy, petrography, x-ray diffraction, electron microprobe, instrumental neutron activation analysis, fission track radiography, oxygen and stable carbon isotopic, uranium-thorium series disequilibrium, and fluid inclusion analyses are reported. Where fluids were being produced from wells, brine chemistry as well as stable isotope and uranium-thorium series analyses are reported. Particular attention has been paid to defining zones of fluid-rock interaction in which analyses of coexisting geothermal reservoir brine and hydrothermally altered sediments could be acquired. A wide span of temperatures, from surficial to greater than 300/degree/C, and salinities ranging from relatively dilute ground waters up to brines of 25 wt% total dissolved solids, span a range of environments that might be encountered in a waste repository in salt. Progressive hydrothermal alteration, mineral formation and element mobility are documented in the data presented. 52 refs., 25 figs., 49 tabs.

Not Available

1987-05-01

227

Technical review of Molten Salt Oxidation  

SciTech Connect

The process was reviewed for destruction of mixed low-level radioactive waste. Results: extensive development work and scaleup has been documented on coal gasification and hazardous waste which forms a strong experience base for this MSO process; it is clearly applicable to DOE wastes such as organic liquids and low-ash wastes. It also has potential for processing difficult-to-treat wastes such as nuclear grade graphite and TBP, and it may be suitable for other problem waste streams such as sodium metal. MSO operating systems may be constructed in relatively small units for small quantity generators. Public perceptions could be favorable if acceptable performance data are presented fairly; MSO will likely require compliance with regulations for incineration. Use of MSO for offgas treatment may be complicated by salt carryover. Figs, tabs, refs.

Not Available

1993-12-01

228

Determination of uranium and rare-earth metals separation coefficients in LiCl KCl melt by electrochemical transient techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main step in the pyrometallurgical process of spent nuclear fuel recycling is a molten salt electrorefining. The knowledge of separation coefficients of actinides (U, Np, Pu and Am) and rare-earth metals (Y, La, Ce, Nd and Gd) is very important for this step. Usually the separation coefficients are evaluated from the formal standard potentials of metals in melts containing their own ions, values obtained by potentiometric method. Electrochemical experiments were carried out at 723-823 K in order to estimate separation coefficients in LiCl-KCl eutectic melt containing uranium and lanthanum trichlorides. It was shown that for the calculation of uranium and lanthanum separation coefficients it is necessary to determine the voltammetric peak potentials of U(III) and La(III), their concentration in the melt and the kinetic parameters relating to U(III) discharge such as transfer and diffusion coefficients, and standard rate constants of charge transfer.

Kuznetsov, S. A.; Hayashi, H.; Minato, K.; Gaune-Escard, M.

2005-09-01

229

Ammonia Solubility in High Concentration Salt Solutions  

SciTech Connect

Solubility data for ammonia in water and various dilute solutions are abundant in the literature. However, there is a noticeable lack of ammonia solubility data for high salt, basic solutions of various mixtures of salts including those found in many of the Hanford Washington underground waste tanks. As a result, models based on solubility data for dilute salt solutions have been used to extrapolate to high salt solutions. These significant extrapolations need to be checked against actual laboratory data. Some indirect vapor measurements have been made. A more direct approach is to determine the ratio of solubility of ammonia in water to its solubility in high salt solutions. In various experiments, pairs of solutions, one of which is water and the other a high salt solution, are allowed to come to equilibrium with a common ammonia vapor pressure. The ratio of concentrations of ammonia in the two solutions is equal to the ratio of the respective ammonia solubilities (Henry's Law constants) at a given temperature. This information can then be used to refine the models that predict vapor space compositions of ammonia. Ammonia at Hanford is of concern because of its toxicity in the environment and its contribution to the flammability of vapor space gas mixtures in waste tanks.

HEDENGREN, D.C.

2000-02-01

230

Crushed salt reconsolidation at elevated temperatures.  

SciTech Connect

There is a long history of testing crushed salt as backfill for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant program, but testing was typically done at 100 C or less. Future applications may involve backfilling crushed salt around heat-generating waste packages, where near-field temperatures could reach 250 C or hotter. A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of hydrostatic stress on run-of-mine salt at temperatures up to 250 C and pressures to 20 MPa. The results of these tests were compared with analogous modeling results. By comparing the modeling results at elevated temperatures to the experimental results, the adequacy of the current crushed salt reconsolidation model was evaluated. The model and experimental results both show an increase in the reconsolidation rate with temperature. The current crushed salt model predicts the experimental results well at a temperature of 100 C and matches the overall trends, but over-predicts the temperature dependence of the reconsolidation. Further development of the deformation mechanism activation energies would lead to a better prediction of the temperature dependence by the crushed salt reconsolidation model.

Holcomb, David Joseph; Clayton, Daniel James; Lee, Moo Yul; Bronowski, David R.

2010-06-01

231

Salt repository project closeout status report  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an overview of the scope and status of the US Department of Energy (DOE`s) Salt Repository Project (SRP) at the time when the project was terminated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The report reviews the 10-year program of siting a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste in rock salt formations. Its purpose is to aid persons interested in the information developed during the course of this effort. Each area is briefly described and the major items of information are noted. This report, the three salt Environmental Assessments, and the Site Characterization Plan are the suggested starting points for any search of the literature and information developed by the program participants. Prior to termination, DOE was preparing to characterize three candidate sites for the first mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The sites were in Nevada, a site in volcanic tuff; Texas, a site in bedded salt (halite); and Washington, a site in basalt. These sites, identified by the screening process described in Chapter 3, were selected from the nine potentially acceptable sites shown on Figure I-1. These sites were identified in accordance with provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. 196 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs.

NONE

1988-06-01

232

Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt  

DOEpatents

A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium from electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

Mullins, Lawrence J. (Los Alamos, NM); Christensen, Dana C. (Los Alamos, NM)

1984-01-01

233

Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt  

DOEpatents

A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium for electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

Mullins, L.J.; Christensen, D.C.

1982-09-20

234

Calculation of density and permeability of compacted crushed salt within an engineered shaft sealing system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crushed salt from the host Salado Formation is proposed as a sealing material in one component of a multicomponent seal system design for the shafts of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a mined geological repository for storage and disposal of transuranic radioactive wastes located near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The crushed salt will be compacted and placed at a density

M. Loken; W. Statham

1997-01-01

235

Process to separate transuranic elements from nuclear waste  

DOEpatents

A process is described for removing transuranic elements from a waste chloride electrolytic salt containing transuranic elements in addition to rare earth and other fission product elements so the salt waste may be disposed of more easily and the valuable transuranic elements may be recovered for reuse. The salt is contacted with a cadmium-uranium alloy which selectively extracts the transuranic elements from the salt. The waste salt is generated during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel associated with the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). 2 figs.

Johnson, T.R.; Ackerman, J.P.; Tomczuk, Z.; Fischer, D.F.

1989-03-21

236

Process to separate transuranic elements from nuclear waste  

DOEpatents

A process for removing transuranic elements from a waste chloride electrolytic salt containing transuranic elements in addition to rare earth and other fission product elements so the salt waste may be disposed of more easily and the valuable transuranic elements may be recovered for reuse. The salt is contacted with a cadmium-uranium alloy which selectively extracts the transuranic elements from the salt. The waste salt is generated during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel associated with the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). 2 figs.

Johnson, T.R.; Ackerman, J.P.; Tomczuk, Z.; Fischer, D.F.

1988-07-12

237

Synthesis of hollandite-type Li x MnO 2 by Li + ion-exchange in molten salt and lithium insertion characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Li+ ion-exchange reaction of K+-type ?-K0.14MnO1.93nH2O containing different amounts of water molecules (n=00.15) with a large (22) tunnel structure has been investigated in a LiNO3LiCl molten salt at 300C. The Li+ ion-exchanged products were examined by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy measurements. The K+ ions and the hydrogens of the water molecules in the (22) tunnels

Yoshihiro Kadoma; Satoru Oshitari; Koichi Ui; Naoaki Kumagai

2007-01-01

238

Hyper-Rayleigh scattering and continuum generation of salt induced aggregates of Silver nanoparticles: The effect of cation size (Li +, Na + and K +)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of cation size (Li +, Na + and K +, counterion Cl -) on the hyper-Rayleigh scattering (HRS) and continuum generation capability of salt induced aggregates of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was studied using femtosecond laser pulses. It was observed that while on addition of NaCl and KCl, HRS intensities of AgNPs were greatly enhanced (50), upon addition of LiCl this enhancement was rather modest (4). Continuum generation was also observed only from NaCl and KCl induced aggregates. These observations suggest that smaller size and hence higher ionic charge density of the Li + ion is not conducive to the formation of aggregates.

Das, K.; Uppal, A.; Gupta, P. K.

2006-07-01

239

Salt tectonics on Venus  

SciTech Connect

The discovery of a surprisingly high deuterium/hydrogen ratio on Venus immediately led to the speculation that Venus may have once had a volume of surface water comparable to that of the terrestrial oceans. The authors propose that the evaporation of this putative ocean may have yielded residual salt deposits that formed various terrain features depicted in Venera 15 and 16 radar images. By analogy with models for the total evaporation of the terrestrial oceans, evaporite deposits on Venus should be at least tens to hundreds of meters thick. From photogeologic evidence and in-situ chemical analyses, it appears that the salt plains were later buried by lava flows. On Earth, salt diapirism leads to the formation of salt domes, anticlines, and elongated salt intrusions - features having dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 km. Due to the rapid erosion of salt by water, surface evaporite landforms are only common in dry regions such as the Zagros Mountains of Iran, where salt plugs and glaciers exist. Venus is far drier than Iran; extruded salt should be preserved, although the high surface temperature (470/sup 0/C) would probably stimulate rapid salt flow. Venus possesses a variety of circular landforms, tens to hundreds of kilometers wide, which could be either megasalt domes or salt intrusions colonizing impact craters. Additionally, arcurate bands seen in the Maxwell area of Venus could be salt intrusions formed in a region of tectonic stress. These large structures may not be salt features; nonetheless, salt features should exist on Venus.

Wood, C.A.; Amsbury, D.

1986-05-01

240

Wetting behavior of imidazolium-containing, room-temperature molten salt. Technical report, 11 June 28-August 1984  

SciTech Connect

A room-temperature, molten-salt system composed of 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride plus aluminum chloride has been developed and extensively studied over the last few years. The most promising application of this liquid mixture is as a battery electrolyte, and for this reason a study was undertaken of the wettability of various candidate battery component materials by the molten salt. Advancing and receding contact angles were determined for the binary melt as a function of such variables as mixture composition, chlorination of the imidazolium ion, replacement of AlCl3 by LiCl, solid porosity, and solid surface cleaning procedure. Measurements were also made of the surface tension of the melt at one basic composition. Surface tension data was helpful in understanding the composition dependence of melt wetting behavior.

Eberhart, J.G.

1984-08-28

241

Catalytic oxidation of waste materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aqueous stream of human waste is mixed with soluble ruthenium salts and is introduced into reactor at temperature where ruthenium black catalyst forms on internal surfaces of reactor. This provides catalytically active surface to convert oxidizable wastes into breakdown products such as water and carbon dioxide.

Jagow, R. B.

1977-01-01

242

Molten salt electrolyte separator  

DOEpatents

A molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication.

Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

1996-01-01

243

Utah: Salt Lake Region  

article title: Winter and Summer Views of the Salt Lake Region View Larger Image Magnificent views of the region surrounding Salt Lake City, Utah are captured in these winter and summer images from the ...

2014-05-15

244

Thermal-gradient migration of brine inclusions in salt crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High level nuclear waste disposal in a geologic repository was proposed. Natural salt deposits which are considered contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms which is undesirable. In this work, thermal gradient migration of both all liquid and gas liquid inclusions was experimentally studied in synthetic single crystals of NaCl and KCl using a hot stage attachment to an optical microscope which was capable of imposing temperature gradients and axial compressive loads on the crystals. The migration velocities of the inclusion shape and size are discussed.

Yagnik, S. K.

1982-09-01

245

Retrospective salt tectonics  

SciTech Connect

The conceptual breakthroughs in understanding salt tectonics can be recognized by reviewing the history of salt tectonics, which divides naturally into three parts: the pioneering era, the fluid era, and the brittle era. The pioneering era (1856-1933) featured the search for a general hypothesis of salt diapirism, initially dominated by bizarre, erroneous notions of igneous activity, residual islands, in situ crystallization, osmotic pressures, and expansive crystallization. Gradually data from oil exploration constrained speculation. The effects of buoyancy versus orogeny were debated, contact relations were characterized, salt glaciers were discovered, and the concepts of downbuilding and differential loading were proposed as diapiric mechanisms. The fluid era (1933-{approximately}1989) was dominated by the view that salt tectonics resulted from Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in which a dense fluid overburden having negligible yield strength sinks into a less dense fluid salt layer, displacing it upward. Density contrasts, viscosity contrasts, and dominant wavelengths were emphasized, whereas strength and faulting of the overburden were ignored. During this era, palinspastic reconstructions were attempted; salt upwelling below thin overburdens was recognized; internal structures of mined diapirs were discovered; peripheral sinks, turtle structures, and diapir families were comprehended; flow laws for dry salt were formulated; and contractional belts on divergent margins and allochthonous salt sheets were recognized. The 1970s revealed the basic driving force of salt allochthons, intrasalt minibasins, finite strains in diapirs, the possibility of thermal convection in salt, direct measurement of salt glacial flow stimulated by rainfall, and the internal structure of convecting evaporites and salt glaciers. The 1980`s revealed salt rollers, subtle traps, flow laws for damp salt, salt canopies, and mushroom diapirs.

Jackson, M.P.A. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

246

Correlation of Creep Behavior of Domal Salts  

SciTech Connect

The experimentally determined creep responses of a number of domal salts have been reported in, the literature. Some of these creep results were obtained using standard (conventional) creep tests. However, more typically, the creep data have come from multistage creep tests, where the number of specimens available for testing was small. An incremental test uses abrupt changes in stress and temperature to produce several time increments (stages) of different creep conditions. Clearly, the ability to analyze these limited data and to correlate them with each other could be of considerable potential value in establishing the mechanical characteristics of salt domes, both generally and specifically. In any analysis, it is necessary to have a framework of rules to provide consistency. The basis for the framework is the Multimechanism-Deformation (M-D) constitutive model. This model utilizes considerable general knowledge of material creep deformation to supplement specific knowledge of the material response of salt. Because the creep of salt is controlled by just a few micromechanical mechanisms, regardless of the origin of the salt, certain of the material parameters are values that can be considered universal to salt. Actual data analysis utilizes the methodology developed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) program, and the response of a bedded pure WIPP salt as the baseline for comparison of the domal salts. Creep data from Weeks Island, Bryan Mound, West Hackberry, Bayou Choctaw, and Big Hill salt domes, which are all sites of Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) storage caverns, were analyzed, as were data from the Avery Island, Moss Bluff, and Jennings salt domes. The analysis permits the parameter value sets for the domal salts to be determined in terms of the M-D model with various degrees of completeness. In turn this permits detailed numerical calculations simulating cavern response. Where the set is incomplete because of the sparse database, reasonable assumptions permit the set to be completed. From the analysis, two distinct response groups were evident, with the salts of one group measurably more creep resistant than the other group. Interestingly, these groups correspond well with the indirectly determined creep closure of the SPR storage caverns, a correlation that probably should be expected. Certainly, the results suggest a simple laboratory determination of the creep characteristics of a salt material from a dome site can indicate the relative behavior of any potential cavern placed within that dome.

Munson, D.E.

1999-02-16

247

Sugar and Salt Solutions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What happens when sugar and salt are added to water? Pour in sugar, shake in salt, and evaporate water to see the effects on concentration and conductivity. Zoom in to see how different sugar and salt compounds dissolve. Zoom in again to explore the role of water.

Simulations, Phet I.; Lancaster, Kelly; Reid, Sam; Moore, Emily; Chamberlain, Julia; Loeblein, Trish

2011-10-12

248

Plant salt tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress in plant agriculture worldwide. This has led to research into salt tolerance with the aim of improving crop plants. However, salt tolerance might have much wider implications because transgenic salt-tolerant plants often also tolerate other stresses including chilling, freezing, heat and drought. Unfortunately, suitable genetic model systems have been hard to find. A

Jian-Kang Zhu

2001-01-01

249

Waste immobilization process development at the Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect

Processes to immobilize various wasteforms, including waste salt solution, transuranic waste, and low-level incinerator ash, are being developed. Wasteform characteristics, process and equipment details, and results from field/pilot tests and mathematical modeling studies are discussed.

Charlesworth, D L

1986-01-01

250

Concept for Underground Disposal of Nuclear Waste  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Packaged waste placed in empty oil-shale mines. Concept for disposal of nuclear waste economically synergistic with earlier proposal concerning backfilling of oil-shale mines. New disposal concept superior to earlier schemes for disposal in hard-rock and salt mines because less uncertainty about ability of oil-shale mine to contain waste safely for millenium.

Bowyer, J. M.

1987-01-01

251

INSPECTIONS OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT.  

EPA Science Inventory

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a disposal system for radioactive wastes. Developed by the Department of Energy (DOE), the WIPP is located near Carlsbad in southeastern New Mexico. The DOE is burying radioactive waste 2150 feet underground in an ancient layer of salt ...

252

Novel Ternary Molten Salt Electrolytes for intermediate-temperature sodium/nickel chloride batteries  

SciTech Connect

The sodium-nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery is typically operated at relatively high temperature (250~350C) to achieve adequate electrochemical performance. Reducing the operating temperature in the range of 150 to 200C can lead to enhanced cycle life by suppressing temperature related degradation mechanisms. The reduced temperature range also allows for lower cost materials of construction such as elastomeric sealants and gaskets. To achieve adequate electrochemical performance at lower operating temperatures requires an overall reduction in ohmic losses associated with temperature. This includes reducing the ohmic resistance of ?-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) and the incorporation of low melting point molten salt as the secondary electrolyte. In present work, planar-type Na/NiCl2 cells with a thin flat plate BASE (600 ?m) and low melting point secondary electrolyte were evaluated at reduced temperatures. Molten salt formulation for use as secondary electrolytes were fabricated by the partial replace of NaCl in the standard secondary electrolyte (NaAlCl4) with other lower melting point alkali metal salts such as NaBr, LiCl, and LiBr. Electrochemical characterization of the ternary molten salts demonstrated , improved ionic conductivity, and sufficient electrochemical window at reduced temperatures. Furthermore, Na/NiCl2 cells with 50 mol% NaBr-containing secondary electrolyte exhibited reduced polarizations at 175C compared to the cell with the standard NaAlCl4 catholyte. The cells also exhibited stable cycling performance even at 150oC.

Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Coyle, Christopher A.; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

2012-12-15

253

Distribution and diversity of halophilic bacteria in a subsurface salt formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a salt mine constructed 650 meters below the ground surface by the United States\\u000a Department of Energy. The facility will be used for permanent disposal of transuranic wastes. This underground repository\\u000a has been constructed in the geologically stable Permian age Salado salt formation. Of the wastes to be placed into the facility,\\u000a 85%

Russell H. Vreeland; Anthony F. Piselli Jr; S. McDonnough; S. S. Meyers

1998-01-01

254

Molten salts and nuclear energy production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molten salts (fluorides or chlorides) were considered near the beginning of research into nuclear energy production. This was initially due to their advantageous physical and chemical properties: good heat transfer capacity, radiation insensitivity, high boiling point, wide range solubility for actinides. In addition it was realised that molten salts could be used in numerous situations: high temperature heat transfer, core coolants with solid fuels, liquid fuel in a molten salt reactor, solvents for spent nuclear solid fuel in the case of pyro-reprocessing and coolant and tritium production in the case of fusion. Molten salt reactors, one of the six innovative concepts chosen by the Generation IV international forum, are particularly interesting for use as either waste incinerators or thorium cycle systems. As the neutron balance in the thorium cycle is very tight, the possibility to perform online extraction of some fission product poisons from the salt is very attractive. In this article the most important questions that must be addressed to demonstrate the feasibility of molten salt reactor will be reviewed.

Le Brun, Christian

2007-01-01

255

The Effect of Hydrostatic Pressure and Temperature on Sonoluminescence of Metal Atoms from Aqueous Salt Solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured the spectra of multi-bubble sonoluminescence from aqueous LiCl, NaCl, MgCl2, CaCl2, CuSO4 solutions, saturated with argon, at the frequency 22 kHz. The spectra were collected at different hydrostatic pressures for all salts and in the ambient temperature range of 1-20 C for NaCl solutions. Total absorbed ultrasonic power was 41 W. The results show that line emission from exited state metal atoms grows rapidly with the increase of hydrostatic pressure and at low ambient temperature. In all cases the increase of the intensity of underlying continuum and OH-radical emission was much lower than that of atomic emission at the same experimental conditions. The observed effects can be explained assuming higher temperature inside the cavitation bubbles during collapse in case of increased static pressure or decreased vapor pressure.

Gordeychuk, Tatyana V.; Kazachek, Mikhail V.

2008-06-01

256

Radioactive Waste Radioactive Waste  

E-print Network

#12;Radioactive Waste at UF Bldg 831 392-8400 #12;Radioactive Waste · Program is designed to;Radioactive Waste · Program requires · Generator support · Proper segregation · Packaging · labeling #12;Radioactive Waste · What is radioactive waste? · Anything that · Contains · or is contaminated

Slatton, Clint

257

CRITICALITY SAFETY OF PROCESSING SALT SOLUTION AT SRS  

SciTech Connect

High level radioactive liquid waste generated as a result of the production of nuclear material for the United States defense program at the Savannah River Site has been stored as 36 million gallons in underground tanks. About ten percent of the waste volume is sludge, composed of insoluble metal hydroxides primarily hydroxides of Mn, Fe, Al, Hg, and most radionuclides including fission products. The remaining ninety percent of the waste volume is saltcake, composed of primarily sodium (nitrites, nitrates, and aluminates) and hydroxides. Saltcakes account for 30% of the radioactivity while the sludge accounts for 70% of the radioactivity. A pilot plant salt disposition processing system has been designed at the Savannah River Site for interim processing of salt solution and is composed of two facilities: the Actinide Removal Process Facility (ARPF) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Data from the pilot plant salt processing system will be used for future processing salt at a much higher rate in a new salt processing facility. Saltcake contains significant amounts of actinides, and other long-lived radioactive nuclides such as strontium and cesium that must be extracted prior to disposal as low level waste. The extracted radioactive nuclides will be mixed with the sludge from waste tanks and vitrified in another facility. Because of the presence of highly enriched uranium in the saltcake, there is a criticality concern associated with concentration and/or accumulation of fissionable material in the ARP and MCU.

Stephens, K; Davoud Eghbali, D; Michelle Abney, M

2008-01-15

258

Criticality analysis of TRU waste storage arrays at the waste isolation pilot plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility built to demonstrate the safe storage of defense-generated transuranic (TRU) waste in an underground salt mine. The waste will consist mainly of surface-contaminated clothing, wipes, wrappings, tools, as well as sludges and other waste forms. The radioactive material in the waste is predominately ²³⁹Pu; however, other fissile materials may be contained

W. A. Boyd; M. W. Fecteau

1989-01-01

259

Salt-thermal zeolitization of fly ash.  

PubMed

The molten-salt method has been recently proposed as a new approach to zeolitization of fly ash. Unlike the hydrothermal method, this method employs salt mixtures as the reaction medium without any addition of water. In this study, systematic investigation has been conducted on zeolitization of fly ash in a NaOH-NaNO3 system in order to elucidate the mechanism of zeolite formation and to achieve its optimization. Zeolitization of fly ash was conducted by thermally treating a powder mixture of fly ash, NaOH, and NaNO3. Zeolitization of fly ash took place above 200 degrees C, a temperature lower than the melting points of salt and base in the NaOH-NaNO3 system. However, it was uncertain whether the reactions took place in a local molten state or in a solid state. Therefore, the proposed method is renamed the "salt-thermal" method rather than the "molten-salt" method. Mainly because of difficulty in mobility of components in salt mixtures, zeolitization seems to occur within a local reaction system. In situ rearrangement of activated components seems to lead to zeolite formation. Particle growth, rather than crystal growth through agglomeration, resulted in no distinct morphologies of zeolite phases. Following are the optimal zeolitization conditions of the salt-thermal method: temperature, 250-350 degrees C; time, 3-12 h; weight ratio of NaOH/NaNO3, 0.3-0.5; weight ratio of NaNO3/fly ash, 0.7-1.4. Therefore, it is clear from this work that the salt-thermal method could be applied to massive zeolitization of fly ash as a new alternative method for recycling this waste. PMID:11452614

Choi, C L; Park, M; Lee, D H; Kim, I E; Park, B Y; Choi, J

2001-07-01

260

Repository Sealing Program Plan: repository in salt  

SciTech Connect

The isolation of nuclear wastes in deep, mined repositories will require the sealing of all penetrations such as shafts, tunnels, or boreholes into or nearby the repository. This Repository Sealing Program Plan describes the technical programs required to complete seal designs for a repository in salt prior to license application in 1988. The plan examines the current schematic seal designs for a repository in salt and identifies seven major technical programs which are required to advance the designs to the status required for licensing: (1) update designs to incorporate site-specific geologic and hydrologic characteristics; (2) reference designs to site-specific repository designs; (3) develop site-specific performance requirements; (4) salt consolidation testing and modeling; (5) materials development; (6) design analyses; (7) verification testing. Scedules for each of these programs are keyed to governing seal design and ONWI milestones. Conceptual seal designs will be completed in FY 84 and preliminary seal designs in FY 87.

Kelsall, P.C.; Coons, W.E.; Meyer, D.

1983-01-01

261

A spectrophotometric study of aqueous copper(I)-chloride complexes in LiCl solutions between 100 C and 250 C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copper transport and deposition in highly saline hydrothermal fluids are controlled by the stability of copper(I) complexes with ligands such as chloride and hydrosulphide. However, our understanding of the behavior of copper(I)-chloride complexes at elevated temperatures and in highly saline brines is limited by the conditions of existing experimental studies where the maximum chloride concentration is 2 m. This paper presents the results of a study of copper(I)-chloride complexes at much higher chloride concentrations, 1.5 m to 9.1 m, using a UV spectrophotometric method. The UV spectra of copper(I)-bearing LiCl solutions were measured at temperatures between 100 C and 250 C at vapor-saturated pressures and quantitative interpretation of the spectra shows that CuCl 2-, CuCl 32-, and CuCl 43- were present in the experimental solutions. The fitted logarithms of formation constants (log K) for CuCl 2- are in good agreement with the previous results of solubility experiments reported by Xiao et al. (1998) and Liu et al. (2001). The log K values for CuCl 32- also agree with those of Liu et al. (2001) and theoretical estimates of Sverjensky et al. (1997). This study presents the first experimentally determined formation constants for CuCl 43-, at temperatures greater than 25 C, and indicates that this complex predominates at chloride concentrations greater than 5 m. Based on the new log K values generated from this study, the calculated chalcopyrite solubility in NaCl solutions indicates that in addition to cooling, fluid mixing (dilution of saline fluids) may be an important factor controlling the deposition of copper minerals from hydrothermal solutions.

Liu, Weihua; Brugger, Jol; McPhail, D. C.; Spiccia, Leone

2002-10-01

262

Deformation of underground deep cavities in rock salts at their long-term operations  

SciTech Connect

The underground deep cavities are created in rock salts of various morphological types with the purpose of storage of petroleum, gas and nuclear wastes. It is well known that the rock salt has rheological properties, which can result in closure of caverns and loss of their stability. In the evaporitic rocks, especially those containing halite, time-dependent deformation is pronounced even at comparatively low stress levels. At high stress levels this creep becomes a dominant feature of the mechanical behavior of salt rocks. So the knowledge of creep behavior of rock salt is of paramount importance in underground storage application of gas, petroleum products and nuclear wastes.

Zhuravleva, T.; Shafarenko, E. [Podzemgasprom, STC, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-12-01

263

Laboratory investigation of crushed salt consolidation and fracture healing  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory test program was conducted to investigate the consolidation behavior of crushed salt and fracture healing in natural and artificial salt. Crushed salt is proposed for use as backfill in a nuclear waste repository in salt. Artificial block salt is proposed for use in sealing a repository. Four consolidation tests were conducted in a hydrostatic pressure vessel at a maximum pressure of 2500 psi (17.2 MPa) and at room temperature. Three 1-month tests were conducted on salt obtained from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and one 2-month test was conducted on salt from Avery Island. Permeability was obtained using argon and either a steady-state or transient method. Initial porosities ranged from 0.26 to 0.36 and initial permeabilities from 2000 to 50,000 md. Final porosities and permeabilities ranged from 0.05 to 0.19 and from <10/sup -5/ md to 110 md, respectively. The lowest final porosity (0.05) and permeability (<10/sup -5/ md) were obtained in a 1-month test in which 2.3% moisture was added to the salt at the beginning of the test. The consolidation rate was much more rapid than in any of the dry salt tests. The fracture healing program included 20 permeability tests conducted on fractured and unfractured samples. The tests were conducted in a Hoek cell at hydrostatic pressures up to 3000 psi (20.6 MPa) with durations up to 8 days. For the natural rock salt tested, permeability was strongly dependent on confining pressure and time. The effect of confining pressure was much weaker in the artificial salt. In most cases the combined effects of time and pressure were to reduce the permeability of fractured samples to the same order of magnitude (or less) as the permeability measured prior to fracturing.

Not Available

1987-01-01

264

24. VIEW SHOWING WASTE GATES ON GRAND CANAL AT JUNCTION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. VIEW SHOWING WASTE GATES ON GRAND CANAL AT JUNCTION WITH OLD CROSSCUT NE/4, Sec. 7, TIN, R4E; LOOKING WEST. OLD CROSSCUT CANAL ENTERS FROM RIGHT. WASTE GATE ON LEFT EMPTIES INTO SALT RIVER BED Photographer: Kevin Kreisel-Coons, May 1990 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

265

Criticality considerations for saltcake disolution in DOE waste tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large amount of high-level waste is being stored in the form of salt cake at the Savannah River site (SRS) in large (1.3 x 106 gal) underground tanks awaiting startup of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This salt cake will be dissolved with water, and the solution will be fed to DWPF for immobilization in borosilicate glass. Some

E. F. Trumble; K. A. Niemer

1995-01-01

266

Reference repository design concept for bedded salt  

SciTech Connect

A reference design concept is presented for the subsurface portions of a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. General geologic, geotechnical, hydrologic and geochemical data as well as descriptions of the physical systems are provided for use on generic analyses of the pre- and post-sealing performance of repositories in this geologic medium. The geology of bedded salt deposits and the regional and repository horizon stratigraphy are discussed. Structural features of salt beds including discontinuities and dissolution features are presented and their effect on repository performance is discussed. Seismic hazards and the potential effects of earthquakes on underground repositories are presented. The effect on structural stability and worker safety during construction from hydrocarbon and inorganic gases is described. Geohydrologic considerations including regional hydrology, repository scale hydrology and several hydrological failure modes are presented in detail as well as the hydrological considerations that effect repository design. Operational phase performance is discussed with respect to operations, ventilation system, shaft conveyances, waste handling and retrieval systems and receival rates of nuclear waste. Performance analysis of the post sealing period of a nuclear repository is discussed, and parameters to be used in such an analysis are presented along with regulatory constraints. Some judgements are made regarding hydrologic failure scenarios. Finally, the design and licensing process, consistent with the current licensing procedure is described in a format that can be easily understood.

Carpenter, D.W.; Martin, R.W.

1980-10-08

267

Separation of actinides from rare earth elements by means of molten salt electrorefining with anodic dissolution of U Pu Zr alloy fuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrorefining is the main process for pyro-reprocessing of the fuel of a metallic fuel FBR. To obtain a basic knowledge of electrorefining technology, a series of experiments was carried out with unirradiated fuel alloy. The alloy, 71U 19Pu 10Zr (wt.%), was dissolved anodically into a molten LiCl KCl bath at 753 K. Simultaneously, Pu and U were recovered into the Cd cathode with small amounts of minor actinides, Zr and rare earth elements (REs). The separation factors of U, Np, Am, Cm and Ce against Pu, derived from the composition of recovered deposits and of the salt bath, were about 2.04, 0.949, 0.597, 0.534 and 0.0393, respectively, which are similar to the equilibrium values observed in a distribution experiment in a LiCl KCl/Cd system. This demonstrates that electrorefining achieves the separation of actinides from REs. The anodic dissolution of the alloy was found to progress from the outside, leaving a dense layer containing salt and Zr metal around the alloy surface. It was found that more than 99.9% of both U and Pu could be dissolved from the alloy and about 55% of Zr remained in this layer.

Kinoshita, Kensuke; Koyama, Tadafumi; Inoue, Tadashi; Ougier, Michel; Glatz, Jean-Paul

2005-02-01

268

Novel ternary molten salt electrolytes for intermediate-temperature sodium/nickel chloride batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sodium-nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery is operated at relatively high temperature (250-350C) to achieve adequate electrochemical performance. Reducing the operating temperature in the range of 150200C can not only lead to enhanced cycle life by suppressing temperature-related degradations, but also allow the use of lower cost materials for construction. To achieve adequate electrochemical performance at lower operating temperatures, reduction in ohmic losses is required, including the reduced ohmic resistance of ??-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) and the incorporation of low melting point secondary electrolytes. In present work, planar-type Na/NiCl2 cells with a thin BASE (600?m) and low melting point secondary electrolyte were evaluated at reduced temperatures. Molten salts used as secondary electrolytes were fabricated by the partial replacement of NaCl in the standard secondary electrolyte (NaAlCl4) with other lower melting point alkali metal salts such as NaBr, LiCl, and LiBr. Electrochemical characterization of these ternary molten salts demonstrated improved ionic conductivity and sufficient electrochemical window at reduced temperatures. Furthermore, Na/NiCl2 cells with 50mol% NaBr-containing secondary electrolyte exhibited reduced polarizations at 175C compared to the cell with the standard NaAlCl4 catholyte. The cells also exhibited stable cycling performance even at 150C.

Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Coyle, Christopher A.; Kim, Jin Y.; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

2012-12-01

269

Effect of salts on the electrospinning of poly(vinyl alcohol)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fibres with a diameter in the nanometer range were electrospun from aqueous poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH). In order to improve the mass deposition rate and decrease the final fibre diameter salts (NaCl, LiCl, LiBr and LiF) were added to the solution. The aim was to increase the charge density and hence increase the electrostatic forces on the fluid. It was found that with increasing salt concentration the charge density did increase. However the mass deposition rate was found to decrease and the final fibre diameter was found to increase. The decrease in mass deposition rate is explained by considering the concept of a virtual orifice. The increase in the final fibre diameter is explained by considering the charge distribution in the jet when it behaves like a conductor compared to when it behaves like an insulator. Both mechanisms result from the increase in conductivity of the PVOH solution without significantly modifying other solution properties when salt is added.

Stanger, Jonathan J.; Tucker, Nick; Staiger, Mark; Kirwan, Kerry; Coles, Stuart; Jacobs, Daniel; Larsen, Nigel

2009-07-01

270

Tank 41H Salt-Well Sample Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The High Level Waste (HLW) division plans to dissolve at least 100,000 gallons of salt in Tank 41H for use as a feed to the Low Curie Salt process. The planned dissolution and removal methods are not covered by the existing Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation (NCSE) for Tank 41H. This sample analysis provides results to support the NCSE needed to qualify the entire contents of the tank for dissolution and removal. This report provides results of the analysis of the Tank 41H salt-well criticality sample TK-41-HTF-E-173.

Martino, C.J.

2002-09-24

271

Nuclear waste: our radioactive hot potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear industry inevitably produces nuclear waste, whose prudent, prompt and economic disposal is important to the national welfare. Technological problems of containment and isolation have apparently been solved. Underground or geologic disposal sites have the potential form permanent isolation, with salt, basalt, granite, shale, and tuff currently receiving principal attention as repository host rocks. Bedded salt deposits may offer the

Conselman

1984-01-01

272

Hanford's Simulated Low Activity Waste Cast Stone Processing  

SciTech Connect

Cast Stone is undergoing evaluation as the supplemental treatment technology for Hanfords (Washington) high activity waste (HAW) and low activity waste (LAW). This report will only cover the LAW Cast Stone. The programs used for this simulated Cast Stone were gradient density change, compressive strength, and salt waste form phase identification. Gradient density changes show a favorable outcome by showing uniformity even though it was hypothesized differently. Compressive strength exceeded the minimum strength required by Hanford and greater compressive strength increase seen between the uses of different salt solution The salt waste form phase is still an ongoing process as this time and could not be concluded.

Kim, Young

2013-08-20

273

Mountain of Salt  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This photo shows a road salt storage stockpile that is awaiting use for pavement deicing, Port of Milwaukee, WI. The use of salt to deice pavement can be harmful to aquatic life in urban streams. The USGS is involved in studies that focus on the influence of winter runoff on aquatic ecosystems....

274

Molten salt electrolyte separator  

SciTech Connect

The patent describes a molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication. 5 figs.

Kaun, T.D.

1996-07-09

275

Improving crop salt tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity is an ever-present threat to crop yields, especially in countries where irrigation is an essential aid to agriculture. Although the tolerance of saline conditions by plants is variable, crop species are generally intolerant of one-third of the concentration of salts found in seawater. Attempts to improve the salt tolerance of crops through conventional breeding programmes have met with very

T. J. Flowers

2004-01-01

276

Acids and Salts (GCMP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acids and Salts: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". This problem will explore a few properties of common acids and their salts. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

277

Utah: Salt Lake City  

... for the 2002 Winter Olympics, to be held in Salt Lake City, Utah. The mountains surrounding Salt Lake City are renowned for the dry, ... view. The Uinta Mountains contain the highest peaks in Utah and are notable as the most prominent east-west trending range in the ...

2014-05-15

278

Physical chemistry of molten-salt batteries. Final report, 1 October 1980-September 1981. Current-induced composition gradients in molten LiCl-KCl  

SciTech Connect

Current-induced composition gradients have been predicted in mixed molten salt battery electrolytes. Composition shifts, if large enough, can produce significant deleterious effects, such as solid phase precipitation in or near the electrodes of molten salt batteries, including the LiAl/LiCl-KCl/FeS/sub x/ battery. Quantitative measurements are needed to determine the extent of the gradients and to find means to reduce them. This report presents the first quantitative SEM/EDX measurements with high distance resolution (<50 ..mu..m) of the shape of the composition profile in LiCl-KCl electrolyzed between LiAl electrodes. Also, current-induced precipitation of LiCl in a porous LiAl anode is indicated by SEM/EDX examination. The measured compositions are consistent with predictions from mass transport models based on the electrode reactions, migrational and diffusional mobilities. 5 figures, 4 tables.

Vallet, C.E.; Heatherly, D.E.; Braunstein, J.

1982-10-01

279

Clinical salt deficits.  

PubMed

Salt retention or salt deficit has a bearing on the body fluid volume. Both states are clinically difficult to recognize and quantitate. Salt deficit is particularly cumbersome in that regard since orthostatic blood pressure, heart rate changes, and simple physical inspection are inaccurate and unreliable. Salt deficit can be acute such as after hemorrhage or massive diarrhea, or more chronic as observed in Addison's disease, failure of renal sodium chloride transporters, drug-related effects, or distal nephron disease. Molecular genetics has given us important new insights into salt deficit syndromes. Recent recognition of a novel sodium storage compartment involving sodium binding to proteoglycans adds to the overall complexity of these syndromes. PMID:25471347

Luft, Friedrich C

2014-12-01

280

Lowering Salt in Your Diet  

MedlinePLUS

... Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Lowering Salt in Your Diet Search the Consumer Updates Section ... mail Consumer Updates RSS Feed Everyone needs some salt to function. Also known as sodium chloride, salt ...

281

Waste package/repository impact study: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Package/Repository Impact Study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using the current reference salt waste package in the salt repository conceptual design. All elements of the repository that may impact waste package parameters, i.e., (size, weight, heat load) were evaluated. The repository elements considered included waste hoist feasibility, transporter and emplacement machine feasibility, subsurface entry dimensions, feasibility of emplacement configuration, and temperature limits. The evaluations are discussed in detail with supplemental technical data included in Appendices to this report, as appropriate. Results and conclusions of the evaluations are discussed in light of the acceptability of the current reference waste package as the basis for salt conceptual design. Finally, recommendations are made relative to the salt project position on the application of the reference waste package as a basis for future design activities. 31 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs.

Not Available

1985-09-01

282

Linking external and internal salt geometries - a key to understanding salt dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Considering the growing importance of salt in the energy, food and waste disposal industries, this paper reviews the status quo and major developments in salt research over the last decade. As a way forward in order to close identified gaps in knowledge, an integrated salt basin evaluation concept is proposed appreciating both external and internal geometries and properties. Examples of key studies in the Central European Basin and the South Oman Salt basin show that such a model may improve our understanding of the multi-scale processes operating in salt terrains. The workflow proposed allows to better asses (i) the initiation and maintenance of salt dynamics, (ii) the evolution of the internal structure of evaporites during halokinesis in salt giants, (iii) the coupling of processes in the evaporites and the salt's under- and overburden. It will lead to a better integration of the different data sets and resulting models, which will provide new insights into the structural evolution of salt giants. Finally it will also stimulate new concepts for (i) the initiation dynamics of halokinesis, (ii) the rheology and mechanics of the evaporites by brittle and ductile processes, (iii) the coupling of processes in the evaporites and the under- and overburden, and (iv) the impact of the layered evaporite rheology on the structural evolution. As an outlook for future research to be initiated in salt terrains we still need to improve our database on evaporite rocks especially the ones which take changes of properties in time into account. This includes for example the dependencies of thermal and mechanical properties on changes in strain, pressure and temperature or external and internal geometry changes relating to slow geological processes. Also geomechanical modelling efforts can be significantly improved by making full use of the data available on the effects of water, and some of the discrepancies seen in experimental data on different salts can probably be explained in terms of these effects. This all will contribute to the development of new integrated techniques for investigating and predicting salt structures from multiple data sets.

Kukla, Peter; Urai, Janos

2014-05-01

283

Results of water quality sampling near Richton, Cypress Creek and Lampton Salt Domes, Mississippi  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the Mississippi salt basin in southern Mississippi, chemical quality studies of surface water and ground water have been made to determine present water-quality conditions near three salt domes being studied by the Department of Energy as potential repositories for radioactive wastes. Chloride concentrations in excess of 60 milligrams per liter in surface water and ground water in Perry County indicate that contamination could be occurring from industrial wastes, oil test wells, or dissolution of Richton or Cypress Creek domes. (USGS)

Gandl, L.A.; Spiers, C.A.

1980-01-01

284

Creep behaviour of natural rock salt and its description with the composite model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural rock salt in deep underground structures is planned to act as the host material for the permanent storage of radioactive and toxic wastes. Dimensioning and safety analysis of such repositories require a model which allows to predict the creep behaviour of rock salt on the basis of the microstructure and the physical mechanisms of deformation. Already before testing natural

P. Weidinger; A. Hampel; W. Blum; U. Hunsche

1997-01-01

285

Mechanical behavior of New Mexico rock salt in triaxial compression up to 200 °C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to determine the 'quasi-static' mechanical behavior of rock salt in support of the structural design of a waste isolation pilot plant. The salt studied was from the Salado formation in the Delaware Basin, southeastern New Mexico. Three groups of tests are discussed to identify the relative and site-specific importance of deviator stress, confining pressure (mean stress), temperature,

W. R. Wawersik; D. W. Hannum

1980-01-01

286

Amine salts of nitroazoles  

DOEpatents

Compositions of matter, a method of providing chemical energy by burning said compositions, and methods of making said compositions are described. These compositions are amine salts of nitroazoles. 1 figure.

Kienyin Lee; Stinecipher, M.M.

1993-10-26

287

Purification of lithium salts by CSA continuous countercurrent ion exchange  

SciTech Connect

A Continuous Countercurrent Ion Exchange (CCIX) process was developed for extraction of low levels of sodium, potassium, iron, and nickel from strong solutions of lithium chloride and lithium hydroxide. This study was done on a two-inch diameter CSA, Inc. CCIX pilot unit. A standard 8% cross-linked cation exchange resin was used. The feed was either 2[und M] LiCl or 2[und M] LiOH. The trace levels of contaminants had a slightly higher affinity for the resin than lithium and extracted 90% or better. Residual lithium on the resin was scrubbed of with KOH to render a lithium loss of less than 1% in the waste. Contaminants were stripped from the resin with 3[und M] HCl. Zinc was one metal that was not extracted because it formed an anionic chloride complex. However zinc and certain other metals were extracted with high efficiency using strong-base type resin. Other resins are available for efficient extraction of many other metal contaminants, but the alkali metals, Na and K, were dependent on the CCIX common cation exchange system.

Higgins, I.R. (CSA, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States))

1986-12-01

288

Salt Plains Microbial Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is home of the Salt Plains Microbial Observatory, located in the Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge in northern Oklahoma. This area has permitted the first extensive study of a non-marine, terrestrial, hypersaline environment. The web site offers information about the extreme environment, images and video clips of its microbial inhabitants, an image-rich summary of research activities, information about summer courses and research opportunities, a list of publications, and links to other informative resources pertaining to hypersaline environments.

Buchheim, Mark; University Of Tulsa, Biological S.

289

A Dash of Salt  

E-print Network

tx H2O | pg. 18 A Texas A&M researcher is assessing the impact of using moderately saline water for irrigating urban landscapes in West Texas and southern New Mexico. A DASH OF SALT Researcher assesses salinity impacts on grasses, trees... and shrubs A Dash of Salt Story by Danielle Supercinski { } tx H2O | pg. 19 ?The primary purpose of using moderately saline water for irrigation, including reclaimed water, is to conserve potable [drinkable] water,? said Dr. Seiichi Miyamoto, a...

Supercinski, Danielle

2006-01-01

290

Not salt taste perception but self-reported salt eating habit predicts actual salt intake.  

PubMed

Excessive dietary salt intake is related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although dietary salt restriction is essential, it is difficult to achieve because of salt palatability. However, the association between salt perception or salt eating habit and actual salt intake remains uncertain. In this study, we recruited 74 healthy young individuals. We investigated their salt-eating habits by questionnaire and salt taste threshold through a rating scale that used serial dilution of a sodium chloride solution. Predicted 24-hr urinary salt excretions using Kawasaki's and Tanaka's equations estimated dietary salt intake. Participants' mean age was 35 yr, and 59.5% were male. Salt sense threshold did not show any relationship with actual salt intake and a salt-eating habit. However, those eating "salty" foods showed higher blood pressure (P for trend=0.048) and higher body mass index (BMI; P for trend=0.043). Moreover, a salty eating habit was a significant predictor for actual salt intake (regression coefficient [?] for Kawasaki's equation 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 10-2.69, P=0.048; ? for Tanaka's equation 0.66, 95% CI 0.01-1.31, P=0.047). In conclusion, a self-reported salt-eating habit, not salt taste threshold predicts actual salt intake. PMID:25317023

Lee, Hajeong; Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Bae, Eunjin; Kim, Yong Chul; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun

2014-09-01

291

Radioactive waste isolation: a national problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal aim of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program is to develop repositories in several different rock formations in various parts of the country. Rocks such as salt, shale, limestone, and granite may qualify as host media for the disposition of radioactive wastes in the proper environments. In general, the only requirement for any rock formation or storage

Lomenick

1977-01-01

292

Accelerators for Subcritical Molten-Salt Reactors  

SciTech Connect

Accelerator parameters for subcritical reactors have usually been based on using solid nuclear fuel much like that used in all operating critical reactors as well as the thorium burning accelerator-driven energy amplifier proposed by Rubbia et al. An attractive alternative reactor design that used molten salt fuel was experimentally studied at ORNL in the 1960s, where a critical molten salt reactor was successfully operated using enriched U235 or U233 tetrafluoride fuels. These experiments give confidence that an accelerator-driven subcritical molten salt reactor will work better than conventional reactors, having better efficiency due to their higher operating temperature, having the inherent safety of subcritical operation, and having constant purging of volatile radioactive elements to eliminate their accumulation and potential accidental release in dangerous amounts. Moreover, the requirements to drive a molten salt reactor can be considerably relaxed compared to a solid fuel reactor, especially regarding accelerator reliability and spallation neutron targetry, to the point that much of the required technology exists today. It is proposed that Project-X be developed into a prototype commercial machine to produce energy for the world by, for example, burning thorium in India and nuclear waste from conventional reactors in the USA.

Johnson, Roland (Muons, Inc.) [Muons, Inc.

2011-08-03

293

Crystalline Silicotitanate Ion Exchange Support for Salt-Alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current version of crystalline silicotitanate (TAM5) is commercially available from UOP under the trade name IONSIV IE-911. TAM5 was extensively tested by several researchers and was determined as the best currently available material for removing radioisotopes from various types of nuclear wastes salt solutions stored at various DOE sites. The studies at Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) indicated that

Fondeur

2001-01-01

294

HLW Salt Disposition Alternatives Preconceptual Phase II Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the report is to summarize the process used to identify the Short List alternatives that will be evaluated during Phase III and to document the results of the selection process. The Phase III evaluation will result in the determination of the preferred alternative(s) to be used for final disposition of the HLW salt to a permitted waste form.

Piccolo, S.F.

1999-07-09

295

Technology for treatment of salt residue stored at NPPs  

SciTech Connect

At Moscow SIA 'Radon', three (3) options for NPP salt residue treatment were developed and tested. Option 1 consists of dissolving the salt residue and subsequent treatment by ozonization, separation of the deposits formed from ozonization and selective cleaning by ferrocyanide sorbents. Option 2 consists of fusion of the salt residue, addition of glass-forming additives and melting of borosilicate glass in a melter such as a 'cold crucible'. Option 3 consists of dissolving the salt residue, oxidation of the solution obtained, removal of radionuclides by collectors and the separate handling of formed deposits and the solution. The deposits containing more than 99 % of the activity are directed to vitrification and the solution is directed either to a concentrates dryer or to cementation. The vitrified waste product is placed in repository for solid radioactive waste storage and the solidified product from the solution goes to an industrial waste disposal site or a repository specially developed at NPP sites for 'exempt waste' products by IAEA classification. (authors)

Kobelev, A.P.; Savkin, A.E.; Sinjakin, O.G.; Kachalova, E.A.; Sorokoletova, A.N.; Nechaev, V.R. [SUE Moscow SIA Radon (Russian Federation)

2007-07-01

296

Turning geothermal waste into glasses and glass ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers investigating the waste on the pipes at the Cerro Prieto geothermal plant in Mexico found that it contained high amounts of silica. Initial tests showed that this waste silica had a high specific surface area, contained salts that could easily be eliminated, and resisted high temperatures effectively. Further research was done to see if this waste material could be

C. Diaz; L. M. Torres-Martinez; L. Garza; M. Avalos-Borja; J. M. Rincon

1993-01-01

297

Treatment for hydrazine-containing waste water solution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The treatment for waste solutions containing hydrazine is presented. The invention attempts oxidation and decomposition of hydrazine in waste water in a simple and effective processing. The method adds activated charcoal to waste solutions containing hydrazine while maintaining a pH value higher than 8, and adding iron salts if necessary. Then, the solution is aerated.

Yade, N.

1986-01-01

298

Salt Made the World Go Round: MRBLOCH Salt Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Don't you just love it when everything can be summed up with one simple explanantion? Created by David Bloch, this Website proves that life as we know depends upon salt. Sections of the site look at salt in relation to a wide range of areas of study, such as Physiology, Geology, Archaeology, Paleoclimatology, Religion, and Economics. For example, the Economics section provides information on the use of salt as money, the history of the control of salt by monopolies, and the influence of the salt trade on transportation. The Religion section points out the importance of salt in religious practices, such as Jewish koshering and Egyptian embalming. Also included are links to over fifty additional salt sites, an email list, and an announcement for Salt 2000, the 8th World Salt Symposium, to be held in the Hague in May 2000.

Bloch, David.

299

Development of iron phosphate ceramic waste form to immobilize radioactive waste solution  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research was to develop an iron phosphate ceramic (IPC) waste form using converter slag obtained as a by-product of the steel industry as a source of iron instead of conventional iron oxide. Both synthetic off-gas scrubber solution containing technetium-99 (or Re as a surrogate) and LiCl-KCl eutectic salt, a final waste solution from pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuel, were used as radioactive waste streams. The IPC waste form was characterized for compressive strength, reduction capacity, chemical durability, and contaminant leachability. Compressive strengths of the IPC waste form prepared with different types of waste solutions were 16 MPa and 19 MPa for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and the off-gas scrubber simulant, respectively, which meet the minimum compressive strength of 3.45 MPa (500 psi) for waste forms to be accepted into the radioactive waste repository. The reduction capacity of converter slag, a main dry ingredient used to prepare the IPC waste form, was 4,136 meq/kg by the Ce(IV) method, which is much higher than those of the conventional Fe oxides used for the IPC waste form and the blast furnace slag materials. Average leachability indexes of Tc, Li, and K for the IPC waste form were higher than 6.0, and the IPC waste form demonstrated stable durability even after 63-day leaching. In addition, the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure measurements of converter slag and the IPC waste form with LiCl-KCl eutectic salt met the universal treatment standard of the leachability limit for metals regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This study confirms the possibility of development of the IPC waste form using converter slag, showing its immobilization capability for radionuclides in both LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and off-gas scrubber solutions with significant cost savings.

Choi, Jongkwon; Um, Wooyong; Choung, Sungwook

2014-05-09

300

Development of iron phosphate ceramic waste form to immobilize radioactive waste solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this research was to develop an iron phosphate ceramic (IPC) waste form using converter slag obtained as a by-product of the steel industry as a source of iron instead of conventional iron oxide. Both synthetic off-gas scrubber solution containing technetium-99 (or Re as a surrogate) and LiCl-KCl eutectic salt, a final waste solution from pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuel, were used as radioactive waste streams. The IPC waste form was characterized for compressive strength, reduction capacity, chemical durability, and contaminant leachability. Compressive strengths of the IPC waste form prepared with different types of waste solutions were 16 MPa and 19 MPa for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and the off-gas scrubber simulant, respectively, which meet the minimum compressive strength of 3.45 MPa (500 psi) for waste forms to be accepted into the radioactive waste repository. The reduction capacity of converter slag, a main dry ingredient used to prepare the IPC waste form, was 4136 meq/kg by the Ce(IV) method, which is much higher than those of the conventional Fe oxides used for the IPC waste form and the blast furnace slag materials. Average leachability indexes of Tc, Li, and K for the IPC waste form were higher than 6.0, and the IPC waste form demonstrated stable durability even after 63-day leaching. In addition, the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure measurements of converter slag and the IPC waste form with LiCl-KCl eutectic salt met the universal treatment standard of the leachability limit for metals regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This study confirms the possibility of development of the IPC waste form using converter slag, showing its immobilization capability for radionuclides in both LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and off-gas scrubber solutions with significant cost savings.

Choi, Jongkwon; Um, Wooyong; Choung, Sungwook

2014-09-01

301

Rcommended waste handling operations and equipment  

SciTech Connect

Recommended waste handling operations and equipment were developed for the National Waste Terminal Storage geologic repositories. Detailed reviews of the conceptual designs for repositories in bedded and dome salt formations were performed to establish and characterize the waste flow paths through the repositories; identify the systems, subsystems, and components of the flow paths; and identify waste handling system similarities and differences. The results of this study are recommended operations and equipment for canistered and low-level waste handling systems. These results may be used as design bases and criteria for future repository design activities. Numerous advantages over existing designs have resulted from this study. Volume III has appendix C - operational flow diagrams.

Kingsbury, R.J.; Monaghan, D.A.

1980-09-01

302

Engineered waste-package-system design specification  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the waste package performance requirements and geologic and waste form data bases used in developing the conceptual designs for waste packages for salt, tuff, and basalt geologies. The data base reflects the latest geotechnical information on the geologic media of interest. The parameters or characteristics specified primarily cover spent fuel, defense high-level waste, and commercial high-level waste forms. The specification documents the direction taken during the conceptual design activity. A separate design specification will be developed prior to the start of the preliminary design activity.

Not Available

1983-05-01

303

Studies on lithium salts to mitigate ASR-induced expansion in new concrete: a critical review  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a critical review of the research work conducted so far on the suppressive effects of lithium compounds on expansion due to alkali-silica reaction (ASR) in concrete and on the mechanism or mechanisms by which lithium inhibits the expansion. After a thorough examination of the existing literature regarding lithium salts in controlling ASR expansion, a summary of research findings is provided. It shows that all the lithium salts studied, including LiF, LiCl, LiBr, LiOH, LiOH.H{sub 2}O, LiNO{sub 3}, LiNO{sub 2}, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Li{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}, and Li{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}, are effective in suppressing ASR expansion in new concrete, provided they are used at the appropriate dosages. Among these compounds, LiNO{sub 3} appears to be the most promising one. Although the mechanism(s) for the suppressive effects of lithium are not well understood, several mechanisms have been proposed. A detailed discussion about these existing mechanisms is provided in the paper. Finally, some recommendations for future studies are identified.

Feng, X. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Brunswick, PO Box 4400, Fredericton, NB E3B 5A3 (Canada)]. E-mail: k488i@unb.ca; Thomas, M.D.A. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Brunswick, PO Box 4400, Fredericton, NB E3B 5A3 (Canada); Bremner, T.W. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Brunswick, PO Box 4400, Fredericton, NB E3B 5A3 (Canada); Balcom, B.J. [MRI Center, University of New Brunswick, PO Box 4400, Fredericton, NB E3B 5A3 (Canada); Folliard, K.J. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

2005-09-01

304

Effect of the graphite electrode material on the characteristics of molten salt electrolytically produced carbon nanomaterials  

SciTech Connect

The electrochemical erosion of a graphite cathode during the electrolysis of molten lithium chloride salt may be used for the preparation of nano-structured carbon materials. It has been found that the structures and morphologies of these carbon nanomaterials are dependent on those of the graphite cathodes employed. A combination of tubular and spherical carbon nanostructures has been produced from a graphite with a microstructure of predominantly planar micro-sized grains and a minor fraction of more irregular nano-sized grains, whilst only spherical carbon nanostructures have been produced from a graphite with a microstructure of primarily nano-sized grains. Based on the experimental results, a best-fit regression equation is proposed that relates the crystalline domain size of the graphite reactants and the carbon products. The carbon nanomaterials prepared possess a fairly uniform mesoporosity with a sharp peak in pore size distribution at around 4 nm. The results are of crucial importance to the production of carbon nanomaterials by way of the molten salt electrolytic method. - Highlights: {yields} Carbon nanomaterials are synthesised by LiCl electrolysis with graphite electrodes. {yields} The degree of crystallinity of graphite reactant and carbon product are related. {yields} A graphite reactant is identified that enables the preparation of carbon nanotubes. {yields} The carbon products possess uniform mesoporosity with narrow pore size distribution.

Kamali, Ali Reza, E-mail: ark42@cam.ac.uk; Schwandt, Carsten; Fray, Derek J.

2011-10-15

305

Electrochemistry of LiCl-Li2O-H2O Molten Salt Systems  

SciTech Connect

Uranium can be recovered from uranium oxide (UO2) spent fuel through the combination of the oxide reduction and electrorefining processes. During oxide reduction, the spent fuel is introduced to molten LiCl-Li2O salt at 650 degrees C and the UO2 is reduced to uranium metal via two routes: (1) electrochemically, and (2) chemically by lithium metal (Li0) that is produced electrochemically. However, the hygroscopic nature of both LiCl and Li2O leads to the formation of LiOH, contributing hydroxyl anions (OH-), the reduction of which interferes with the Li0 generation required for the chemical reduction of UO2. In order for the oxide reduction process to be an effective method for the treatment of uranium oxide fuel, the role of moisture in the LiCl-Li2O system must be understood. The behavior of moisture in the LiCl-Li2O molten salt system was studied using cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry and chronoamperometry, while reduction to hydrogen was confirmed with gas chromatography.

Natalie J. Gese; Batric Pesic

2013-03-01

306

Analysis of Multistage and Other Creep Data for Domal Salts  

SciTech Connect

There have existed for some time relatively sparse creep databases for a number of domal salts. Although all of these data were analyzed at the time they were reported, to date there has not been a comprehensive, overall evaluation within the same analysis framework. Such an evaluation may prove of value. The analysis methodology is based on the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) description of salt creep and the corresponding model parameters determined from conventional creep tests. The constitutive model of creep wss formulated through application of principles involved in micromechanical modeling. It was possible, at minimum, to obtain the steady state parameters of the creep model from the data on the domal salts. When this was done, the creep of the domal salts, as compared to the well-defined Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) bedded clean salt, was either essentially identical to, or significantly harder (more creep resistant) than WIPP salt. Interestingly, the domal salts form two distinct groups, either sofl or hard, where the difference is roughly a factor often in creep rate between the twcl groups. As might be expected, this classification corresponds quite well to the differences in magnitude of effective creep volume losses of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) caverns as determined by the CAVEMAN cavern pressure history analysis, depending upon the specific dome or region within the dome. Creep response shoulcl also correlate to interior cavern conditions that produce salt falls. WMle, in general, the caverns in hard sah have a noticeably greater propensity for salt falls, a smaller number of similar events are exhibited even in the caverns in soft salt.

Munson, D.E.

1998-10-01

307

Laboratory scale vitrification of low-level radioactive nitrate salts and soils from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

INEL has radiologically contaminated nitrate salt and soil waste stored above and below ground in Pad A and the Acid Pit at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Pad A contain uranium and transuranic contaminated potassium and sodium nitrate salts generated from dewatered waste solutions at the Rocky Flats Plant. The Acid Pit was used to dispose of liquids containing waste mineral acids, uranium, nitrate, chlorinated solvents, and some mercury. Ex situ vitrification is a high temperature destruction of nitrates and organics and immobilizes hazardous and radioactive metals. Laboratory scale melting of actual radionuclides containing INEL Pad A nitrate salts and Acid Pit soils was performed. The salt/soil/additive ratios were varied to determine the range of glass compositions (resulted from melting different wastes); maximize mass and volume reduction, durability, and immobilization of hazardous and radioactive metals; and minimize viscosity and offgas generation for wastes prevalent at INEL and other DOE sites. Some mixtures were spiked with additional hazardous and radioactive metals. Representative glasses were leach tested and showed none. Samples spiked with transuranic showed low nuclide leaching. Wasteforms were two to three times bulk densities of the salt and soil. Thermally co-processing soils and salts is an effective remediation method for destroying nitrate salts while stabilizing the radiological and hazardous metals they contain. The measured durability of these low-level waste glasses approached those of high-level waste glasses. Lab scale vitrification of actual INEL contaminated salts and soils was performed at General Atomics Laboratory as part of the INEL Waste Technology Development and Environmental Restoration within the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program.

Shaw, P. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Anderson, B. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States). NRT Div.; Davis, D. [Envitco Inc., Toledo, OH (United States)

1993-07-01

308

Fundamental Properties of Salts  

SciTech Connect

Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

2012-11-01

309

Testing of stripping columns for the removal of benzene from aqueous radioactive salt solution  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive high level wastes (HLW) generated from production of special nuclear materials at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are held in interim storage in 51 underground, million gallon tanks. Radioactive cesium ({sup 137}Cs) is segregated by evaporation of aqueous waste solution for interim storage in a salt matrix comprised of Na and K salts or in concentrated salt solution. The saltcake will be dissolved and {sup 137}Cs will be separated from the nonradioactive salts in solution in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) Process. The cesium will be combined with other radioactive species and glass formers to be melted and poured into stainless steel canisters in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The salt solution remaining after decontamination in the ITP process will be incorporated into grout for disposal at the site`s Saltstone facility. In the ITP facility, sodium tetraphenylborate (STPB) will be added to precipitate the cesium. Potassium in the waste solution also reacts with STPB and precipitates. Due to radiolytic and chemical degradation of the tetraphenylborate (TPB) precipitate, benzene is generated. The benzene dissolves into the decontaminated salt solution (DSS) and into water (WW) used to {open_quotes}wash{close_quotes} the precipitate to lower the soluble salt content of the slurry. Safety and processing requirements for disposal of the DSS and for temporary storage of the WW dictate that the benzene concentration be reduced.

Georgeton, G.K.; Taylor, G.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Gaughan, T.P. [Elf Atochem North America, Inc., King of Prussia, PA (United States)] [and others

1995-06-27

310

An evaluation of the bioconversion of woody biomass to calcium acetate deicing salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

A competitive process is described using local woody biomass residues, which may also include associated pulp and paper wastes, or municipal solid waste, as potential feedstocks for bioconversion to calcium acetate, an alternative deicing salt. The process first involves suppressed methane fermentation of these woody biomass residues in a packed bed fermentor for the production of acetic acid. In earlier

D. L. Wise; D. Augenstein

1988-01-01

311

Stability of SG1 nitroxide towards unprotected sugar and lithium salts: a preamble to cellulose modification by nitroxide-mediated graft polymerization  

PubMed Central

Summary The range of applications of cellulose, a glucose-based polysaccharide, is limited by its inherently poor mechanical properties. The grafting of synthetic polymer chains by, for example, a grafting from process may provide the means to broaden the range of applications. The nitroxide-mediated polymerization (NMP) method is a technique of choice to control the length, the composition and the architecture of the grafted copolymers. Nevertheless, cellulose is difficult to solubilize in organic media because of inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonds. One possibility to circumvent this limitation is to solubilize cellulose in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) or N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA) with 5 to 10 wt % of lithium salts (LiCl or LiBr), and carry out grafted polymerization in this medium. The stability of nitroxides such as SG1 has not been studied under these conditions yet, even though these parameters are of crucial importance to perform the graft modification of polysaccharide by NMP. The aim of this work is to offer a model study of the stability of the SG1 nitroxide in organic media in the presence of unprotected glucose or cellobiose (used as a model of cellulose) and in the presence of lithium salts (LiBr or LiCl) in DMF or DMA. Contrary to TEMPO, SG1 proved to be stable in the presence of unprotected sugar, even with an excess of 100 molar equivalents of glucose. On the other hand, lithium salts in DMF or DMA clearly degrade SG1 nitroxide as proven by electron-spin resonance measurements. The instability of SG1 in these lithium-containing solvents may be explained by the acidification of the medium by the hydrolysis of DMA in the presence of LiCl. This, in turn, enables the disproportionation of the SG1 nitroxide into an unstable hydroxylamine and an oxoammonium ion. Once the conditions to perform an SG1-based nitroxide-mediated graft polymerization from cellobiose have been established, the next stage of this work will be the modification of cellulose and cellulose derivatives by NMP. PMID:23946859

Moreira, Guillaume; Charles, Laurence; Major, Mohamed; Vacandio, Florence; Guillaneuf, Yohann

2013-01-01

312

The Nature of Salt  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a hands-on lab activity about the composition of salt. Learners will explain the general relationship between an element's Periodic Table Group Number and its tendency to gain or lose electron(s), and explain the difference between molecular compounds and ionic compounds. They will then use household materials to build a model to demonstrate sodium chloride's cubic form and describe the nature of the electrostatic attraction that holds the structure of salt together. Background information, common preconceptions, a glossary and more is included. This activity is part of the Aquarius Hands-on Laboratory Activities.

313

Avi's Sensational Salt Dough  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 5 of the PDF, learners mimic the process for making bricks. Learners shape and bake creations from a dough that is made from flour, salt, and water. Use this activity to introduce learners to chemical changes. Safety notes: Follow Milli's safety notes (on page 2) and do this activity with an adult.

Society, American C.

2006-01-01

314

Occlusion and ion exchange in the molten (lithium chloride-potassium chloride-alkali metal chloride) salt + zeolite 4A system with alkali metal chlorides of sodium, rubidium, and cesium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interaction between molten salts of the type LiCl-KCl-MeCl (Me = Na, Rb, Cs, x MeCl = 0 to 0.5, x KCl/ x LiCl = 0.69) and zeolite 4A have been studied at 823 K. The main interactions between these salts and zeolite are molten salt occlusion to form salt-loaded zeolite and ion exchange between the molten salt and salt-loaded zeolite. No chemical reaction has been observed. The extent of occlusion is a function of the concentration of MeCl in the zeolite and is equal to 111 Cl- per zeolite unit cell, (AlSiO4)12, at infinite MeCl dilution. The ion-exchange mole fraction equilibrium constants (separation factors) with respect to Li are decreasing functions of concentration of MeCl in the zeolite. At infinite MeCl dilution, they are equal to 0.84, 0.87, and 2.31 for NaCl, RbCl, and CsCl, respectively, and increase in the order Na

Lexa, Dusan; Johnson, Irving

2001-06-01

315

Salt Marshes at Chincoteague Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Salt marshes at Chincoteague Island. The salt marshes that make up Chincoteague Island are important habitat for migrating waterfowl. In addition, they serve an important role in protecting inland ecosystems and communities from oceanic storms....

316

Fission product ion exchange between zeolite and a molten salt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and has been demonstrated through processing the sodium-bonded SNF from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II in Idaho. In this process, components of the SNF, including U and species more chemically active than U, are oxidized into a bath of lithium-potassium chloride (LiCl-KCl) eutectic molten salt. Uranium is removed from the salt solution by electrochemical reduction. The noble metals and inactive fission products from the SNF remain as solids and are melted into a metal waste form after removal from the molten salt bath. The remaining salt solution contains most of the fission products and transuranic elements from the SNF. One technique that has been identified for removing these fission products and extending the usable life of the molten salt is ion exchange with zeolite A. A model has been developed and tested for its ability to describe the ion exchange of fission product species between zeolite A and a molten salt bath used for pyroprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The model assumes (1) a system at equilibrium, (2) immobilization of species from the process salt solution via both ion exchange and occlusion in the zeolite cage structure, and (3) chemical independence of the process salt species. The first assumption simplifies the description of this physical system by eliminating the complications of including time-dependent variables. An equilibrium state between species concentrations in the two exchange phases is a common basis for ion exchange models found in the literature. Assumption two is non-simplifying with respect to the mathematical expression of the model. Two Langmuir-like fractional terms (one for each mode of immobilization) compose each equation describing each salt species. The third assumption offers great simplification over more traditional ion exchange modeling, in which interaction of solvent species with each other is considered. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Gougar, Mary Lou D.

317

Batteries using molten salt electrolyte  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electrolyte system suitable for a molten salt electrolyte battery is described where the electrolyte system is a molten nitrate compound, an organic compound containing dissolved lithium salts, or a 1-ethyl-3-methlyimidazolium salt with a melting temperature between approximately room temperature and approximately 250.degree. C. With a compatible anode and cathode, the electrolyte system is utilized in a battery as a

Guidotti; Ronald A

2003-01-01

318

APPLICATIONS OF SALT IN ELECTROFISHING  

E-print Network

APPLICATIONS OF SALT IN ELECTROFISHING iNlarine Biological Laboratory LIB55.A.K.Y WOODS HOLE, MASS OF SALT IN ELECTROFISHING By Robert E . Lennon and Phillip S . Parker Fishery Research Biologists Leetown. Electric fisliliiK. 2. Salt. i. Farker, Phillip Slieridaii, 192t>- .joiut author, ii. Title. ( Series : IT

319

Update on cavern disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes.  

SciTech Connect

Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. Argonne National Laboratory has previously evaluated the feasibility, legality, risk and economics of disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes, other than NORM waste, in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste, other than NORM waste, is occurring at four Texas facilities, in several Canadian facilities, and reportedly in Europe. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns as well. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, a review of federal regulations and regulations from several states indicated that there are no outright prohibitions against NORM disposal in salt caverns or other Class II wells, except for Louisiana which prohibits disposal of radioactive wastes or other radioactive materials in salt domes. Currently, however, only Texas and New Mexico are working on disposal cavern regulations, and no states have issued permits to allow cavern disposal of NORM waste. On the basis of the costs currently charged for cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal in caverns is likely to be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

Veil, J. A.

1998-09-22

320

Porcine proximal tubular cells (LLC-PK1) are able to tolerate high levels of lithium chloride in vitro: assessment of the influence of 1-20 mM LiCl on cell death and alterations in cell biology and biochemistry.  

PubMed

Lithium, a prophylactic drug for the treatment of bipolar disorder, is prescribed with caution due to its side effects, including renal damage. In this study porcine LLC-PK1 renal tubular cells were used to establish the direct toxicity of lithium on proximal cells and gain insights into the molecular mechanisms involved. In the presence of LiCl, cell proliferation exhibited insignificant decreases in a concentration-dependent manner, but once confluent, constant cell numbers were observed. Cell cycle studies indicated a small dose-dependent accumulation of cells in the G2/M stage after 24 h, as well as an increase in cells in the G0/G1 phase after treatment with 1-10 mM LiCl, but not at 20 mM LiCl. No evidence of apoptosis was observed based on cell morphology or DNA fragmentation studies, or evidence of protein expression changes for Bax, Bcl-2, and p53 proteins using immunocytochemistry. In addition caspases 3, 8 and 9 activity remained unaltered between control and lithium-treated cultures. To conclude, exposure to high concentrations of lithium did not result in overt toxic effects to LLC-PK1 renal cells, although LiCl did alter some aspects of cell behaviour, which could potentially influence function over time. PMID:19947924

Lucas, Kirsten C; Hart, David A; Becker, Rolf W

2010-02-01

321

Brine Inclusions Migration in Intact Salt Crystals under Thermal Gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behavior of water contained in rock salt under the influence of thermal gradients is critical to the performance of salt as a medium for the disposal of nuclear waste. Water contained in salt can be present as discrete inclusions within intact salt crystals, at the interface between salt crystals and aggregates, and also as hydration water and structural water present in accessory minerals present in salt. Water content in pure halite salt usually rages from 0.1 to 0.5 wt. % but is significantly higher in clay rich salt, for which water content can be up to several wt. %. Under the influence of thermal gradients brine inclusions and water associated to the accessory mineral is mobilized. Previous investigations have shown brine inclusions tend to move towards the heat source through a mechanism that involves the dissolution of salt at the hot face of the brine inclusion and its precipitation at the colder side of the inclusion. Uncertainties remain on the exact parameters that define the rate of brine migration and whether it truly migrates to towards the heat source. We performed studies under controlled thermal gradients to examine the behavior of brine inclusions in single salt crystals obtained from the underground salt mine at the Waste Isolation Power Plant (WIPP). We found that the behavior of the brine inclusions under thermal gradients is dependent on the thermal gradient magnitude and the nature of the inclusion. Full inclusions (liquid only) migrate predominantly towards the heat source, but when the inclusions are large and close to the surface they fracture the salt and release water near the surface. Inclusions that migrate towards the heat source migrate through a mechanism that involves the dissolution of salt at the hot side of the inclusion and its deposition along the migration path. SEM analysis of the migration pathways shows that brine migrates through the creation of a network of square shaped hollow channels of about 10 micron diameter. The behavior of two phase inclusions (liquid and gas) in a temperature gradient is distinctly different from that of full inclusions. The brine in the two phase inclusions still migrates towards the heat source; however, the vapor phase moves away from the heat source through narrow square shaped channels. The resulting salt crystals are much more fractured and have a distinct appearance compared to salt crystals with full inclusion. The composition of the salt deposited along the migration channels changes along migration pathway. At the start of the inclusion migration pathway the deposited salt is composed of a mixture of NaCl, MgCl2, and CaCl2, with minor other elements. However, as the brine migrates towards the heat source its composition changes and it gets enriched in NaCl. SEM images and migration channels

Caporuscio, F.; Boukhalfa, H.

2013-12-01

322

Concentration and precipitation of NaCl and KCl from salt cake leach solutions by electrodialysis  

SciTech Connect

Electrodialysis was investigated for cost-effective recovery of salt from salt cake leach solutions. (Salt cake is a waste stream generated by the aluminum industry during treatment of aluminum drosses and scrap.) We used a pilot-scale electrodialysis stack of 5 membrane pairs, each with an effective area of 0.02 m{sup 2}. The diluate stream contained synthetic NaCl, KCl,mixtures of NaCl and KCl, and actual salt cake leach solutions (mainly NaCl and KCl, with small amounts of MgCl{sub 2}). We concentrated and precipitated NaCl and KCl salts from the concentrate steam when the initial diluate stream concentration was 21.5 to 28.8 wt% NaCl and KCl. We found that water transferring through the membranes was a significant factor in overall efficiency of salt recovery by electrodialysis.

Sreenivasarao, K; Patsiogiannis, F.; Hryn, J.N.

1997-02-09

323

Salt stress or salt shock: which genes are we studying?  

PubMed

Depending on the method of NaCl application, whether gradual or in a single step, plants may experience either salt stress or salt shock, respectively. The first phase of salt stress is osmotic stress. However, in the event of salt shock, plants suffer osmotic shock, leading to cell plasmolysis and leakage of osmolytes, phenomena that do not occur with osmotic stress. Patterns of gene expression are different in response to salt stress and salt shock. Salt stress initiates relatively smooth changes in gene expression in response to osmotic stress and a more pronounced change in expression of significant numbers of genes related to the ionic phase of salt stress. There is a considerable time delay between changes in expression of genes related to the osmotic and ionic phases of salt stress. In contrast, osmotic shock results in strong, rapid changes in the expression of genes with osmotic function, and fewer changes in ionic-responsive genes that occur earlier. There are very few studies in which the effects of salt stress and salt shock are described in parallel experiments. However, the patterns of changes in gene expression observed in these studies are consistently as described above, despite the use of diverse plant species. It is concluded that gene expression profiles are very different depending the method of salt application. Imposition of salt stress by gradual exposure to NaCl rather than salt shock with a single application of a high concentration of NaCl is recommended for genetic and molecular studies, because this more closely reflects natural incidences of salinity. PMID:23186621

Shavrukov, Yuri

2013-01-01

324

Diferulic acids in the cell wall may contribute to the suppression of shoot growth in the first phase of salt stress in maize.  

PubMed

In the first phase of salt stress the elongation growth of maize shoots is severely affected. The fixation of shape at the end of the elongation phase in Poaceae leaves has frequently been attributed to the formation of phenolic cross-links in the cell wall. In the present work it was investigated whether this process is accelerated under salt stress in different maize hybrids. Plants were grown in nutrient solution in a growth chamber. Reduction of shoot fresh mass was 50% for two hybrids which have recently been developed for improved salt resistance (SR 03, SR 12) and 60% for their parental genotype (Pioneer 3906). For SR 12 and Pioneer 3906, the upper three leaves were divided into elongated and elongating tissue and cell walls were isolated from which phenolic substances and neutral sugars were determined. Furthermore, for the newly developed hybrids the activity of phenolic peroxidase in the cell wall was analysed in apoplastic washing fluids and after sequential extraction of cell-wall material with CaCl2 and LiCl. The concentration of ferulic acid, the predominant phenolic cross-linker in the grass cell wall, was about 5mgg(-1) dry cell wall in elongating and in elongated tissue. The concentration of diferulic acids (DFA) was 2-3mgg(-1) dry cell wall in both tissues. Salt stress increased the concentration of ferulic acid (FA) and DFA in the parental genotype Pioneer 3906, but not in SR 12. Both genotypes showed an increase in arabinose, which is the molecule at which FA and DFA are coupled to interlocking arabinoxylan polymers. In SR 12, the activity of phenolic peroxidase was not influenced by salt stress. However, in SR 03 salt stress clearly increased the phenolic peroxidase activity. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that accelerated oxidative fixation of shape contributes to growth suppression in the first phase of salt stress in a genotype-specific manner. PMID:24661612

Uddin, Md Nesar; Hanstein, Stefan; Faust, Franziska; Eitenmller, Philipp T; Pitann, Britta; Schubert, Sven

2014-06-01

325

Reduction of perchlorate and nitrate by salt tolerant bacteria.  

PubMed

Spent regenerant brine from ion-exchange technology for the removal of perchlorate and nitrate produces a high salt waste stream, which requires remediation before disposal. Bioremediation is an attractive treatment option. In this study, we enriched for salt tolerant bacteria from sediments from Cargill salt evaporation facility (California, USA), the Salton Sea (California, USA), and a high density hydrocarbon oxidizing bacterial cocktail. The bacterial cocktail enrichment culture reduced ClO4- from 500 to 260 mg 1 in 4 weeks. Salt tolerant bacterial isolates from the enrichment cultures and two denitrifying salt tolerant bacteria, Haloferax denitrificans and Parococcus halodenitricans, substantially reduced perchlorate. The highest rate of perchlorate removal was recorded with the isolate, Citrobacter sp.: 32% reduction in 1 week. This bacterium substantially reduced perchlorate in 0-5% NaCl solutions and maximally at 30 degrees C and at an initial pH 7.5. In simulated brines containing 7.5% total solids, the Citrobacter sp. significantly reduced both perchlorate and nitrate with 34.9 and 15.6% reduction, respectively, in 1 week. Coculture of a potent perchlorate reducing, non-salt tolerant (non-saline) bacterium, perclace and the Citrobacter sp. proved most effective for perchlorate removal in the brine (46.4% in 1 week). This study demonstrates that both anions can be reduced in treatment of brines from ion exchange systems. PMID:12009133

Okeke, Benedict C; Giblin, Tara; Frankenberger, William T

2002-01-01

326

Determination of Thermal Conductivity of Reconsolidated Crushed Salt to 200C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal, mechanical, and fluid transport properties of reconsolidating granular salt are important for design, analysis and performance assessment of potential salt repositories for heat-generating nuclear waste. Properties such as thermal conductivity (?) and permeability (k) are functions of porosity. To inform salt repository evaluations, where salt creep at elevated pressures and temperatures will reduce the porosity of salt enclosures, we have undertaken an experimental program to determine ? of reconsolidated granular salt as a function of porosity, with the secondary intent of quantifying temperature dependence over a range of temperatures from 100-200C. Mine-run salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Program (WIPP) was first dried at 100C until weight loss ceased. The disaggregated salt was compacted at room temperature by quasistatic die compression into samples with porosities ranging from 40% (unconsolidated) to 5%. Thermal conductivity was also measured on intact domal salt, WIPP bedded salt, and commercially available salt licks in order to determine ? in salt with porosity as low as 1-8%. For every sample, measurements were made at 100, 125, 150, 175, and 200C using a guarded heat flow meter. Thermal conductivity was found to decrease by a factor of about 4-5 for the porosity range studied. The ? versus porosity relationship is well represented by a simple mixture model. A temperature dependence is also observed, the effect of which increases at lower porosities. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Urquhart, A.; Bauer, S. J.; Hansen, F. D.

2012-12-01

327

Hazardous Waste  

MedlinePLUS

... you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint ...

328

SALT IN AYURVEDA I  

PubMed Central

In basic Ayurveda texts, Susruta, Caraka and Vagbhata, some quite specific Salts (Lavanam) have been described and their properties and actions are enumerated. By comparing those accounts with the present methods of preparation, conclusions have been made and evidently spurious methods are pointed out. The reported properties of Saindhava, Samudra, Vida, Sauvarcha, Romaka, Audbhida, Gutika, the Katu Group, Krsna and Pamsuja Lavanas are discussed in terms of their chemical constituents here and, thus, the authors establish its inter-connections. PMID:22557573

Mooss, N S

1987-01-01

329

Molten salt battery advances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in molten-salt battery cells which have resulted in significantly improved performance, cycle-life stability, and prospects for low cost are described. Developments in the lithium-alloy electrode and the metal-disulfide electrode are reviewed, and improvements in the lithium-limited FeS cell and the dense U.P. FeS2 cell are considered. Cell hardware development is discussed.

T. D. Kaun; L. Redey; P. A. Nelson

1987-01-01

330

A Trail of Salts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This graph shows the relative abundances of sulfur (in the form of sulfur tri-oxide) and chlorine at three Meridiani Planum sites: soil measured in the small crater where Opportunity landed; the rock dubbed 'McKittrick' in the outcrop lining the inner edge of the crater; and the rock nicknamed 'Guadalupe,' also in the outcrop. The 'McKittrick' data shown here were taken both before and after the rover finished grinding the rock with its rock abrasion tool to expose fresh rock underneath. The 'Guadalupe' data were taken after the rover grounded the rock. After grinding both rocks, the sulfur abundance rose to high levels, nearly five times higher than that of the soil. This very high sulfur concentration reflects the heavy presence of sulfate salts (approximately 30 percent by weight) in the rocks. Chloride and bromide salts are also indicated. Such high levels of salts strongly suggest the rocks contain evaporite deposits, which form when water evaporates or ice sublimes into the atmosphere.

2004-01-01

331

Waste treatment evaluation for aqueous secondary waste from mixed waste incineration  

SciTech Connect

The Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) is a rotary kiln incinerator that processes low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The incinerator offgases are cleaned by a wet offgas system that generates a secondary aqueous waste stream (blowdown). This waste is mixed waste that requires treatment prior to disposal. The blowdown contains approximately 80 wt% water and 20 wt% chloride salts, ash, and radioactive and hazardous contaminants. A study was conducted to evaluate the various technologies that are commercially used or being developed to treat secondary liquid waste. Both wastewater treatment and evaporation were considered in the evaluation as potential de-watering technologies to reduce the volume of waste, and therefore, reduce disposal costs. The residue from the de-watering process must be stabilized in a binding agent before disposal as mixed waste. There is no precedent to follow for stabilization of mixed wastes. Radioactive wastes have been stabilized with cement for years. However, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has concern over the longevity of cement, while Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) requirements have been implemented giving rise to concern for leaching of hazardous constituents from cement. The various binders that were considered include glass, cement, bitumen, sulphur cement, polyethylene, epoxy, and vinyl ester resin.

Burns, H.H.

1992-01-01

332

Thermal-hydraulics of internally heated molten salts and application to the Molten Salt Fast Reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Molten Salt Reactors (MSR) are an innovative kind of nuclear reactors and are presently considered in the framework of the Generation IV International Forum (GIF-IV) for their promising performances in terms of low resource utilization, waste minimization and enhanced safety. A unique feature of MSRs is that molten fluoride salts play the distinctive role of both fuel (heat source) and coolant. The presence of an internal heat generation perturbs the temperature field and consequences are to be expected on the heat transfer characteristics of the molten salts. In this paper, the problem of heat transfer for internally heated fluids in a straight circular channel is first faced on a theoretical ground. The effect of internal heat generation is demonstrated to be described by a corrective factor applied to traditional correlations for the Nusselt number. It is shown that the corrective factor can be fully characterized by making explicit the dependency on Reynolds and Prandtl numbers. On this basis, a preliminary correlation is proposed for the case of molten fluoride salts by interpolating the results provided by an analytic approach previously developed at the Politecnico di Milano. The experimental facility and the related measuring procedure for testing the proposed correlation are then presented. Finally, the developed correlation is used to carry out a parametric investigation on the effect of internal heat generation on the main out-of-core components of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR), the reference circulating-fuel MSR design in the GIF-IV. The volumetric power determines higher temperatures at the channel wall, but the effect is significant only in case of large diameters and/or low velocities.

Fiorina, Carlo; Cammi, Antonio; Luzzi, Lelio; Mikityuk, Konstantin; Ninokata, Hisashi; Ricotti, Marco E.

2014-04-01

333

Monitoring system specifications: retrieval of surf from a salt repository  

SciTech Connect

The task of developing specifications for a reference monitoring system determined by repository environmental conditions, retrieval operations, and federal regulatory criteria is discussed. The monitoring system specified in this report is capable of measuring (1) package position and orientation, (2) vault deformation, (3) brine accumulation, (4) spent fuel dissolution, (5) temperature, (6) nuclear radiation, and (7) package condition with sufficient accuracy to provide data input to a general risk assessment model. In order to define a monitoring system which can provide probabilistic data on radiological risk to operating personnel and the general public for a salt mine repository, the following information is required: (1) a complete design of the salt SURF repository including inventory, density and waste package design details; (2) probalistic failure rate data on containment integrity of the SURF waste package; (3) probabilistic failure rate data on the monitoring system components (i.e., monitoring procedure, instrumentation, data acquisition, data processing and data interpretation).

Not Available

1980-01-01

334

Recent advances in the molten salt destruction of energetic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have demonstrated the use of the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process for destroying explosives, liquid gun propellant, and explosives-contaminated materials on a 1.5 kg of explosive\\/hr bench- scale unit (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). In our recently constructed 5 kg\\/hr pilot- scale unit we have also demonstrated the destruction of a liquid gun propellant and simulated wastes containing HMX

Pruneda

1996-01-01

335

Water, Vapor, and Salt Dynamics in a Hot Repository  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a new model study examining the high temperature nuclear waste disposal concept at Yucca Mountain using MULTIFLUX, an integrated in-drift- and mountain-scale thermal-hydrologic model. The results show that a large amount of vapor flow into the drift is expected during the period of above-boiling temperatures. This phenomenon makes the emplacement drift a water/moisture attractor during the above-boiling temperature operation. The evaporation of the percolation water into the drift gives rise to salt accumulation in the rock wall, especially in the crown of the drift for about 1500 years in the example. The deposited salts over the drift footprint, almost entirely present in the fractures, may enter the drift either by rock fall or by water drippage. During the high temperature operation mode, the barometric pressure variation creates fluctuating relative humidity in the emplacement drift with a time period of approximately 10 days. Potentially wet and dry conditions and condensation on salt-laden drift wall sections may adversely affect the storage environment. Salt accumulations during the above-boiling temperature operation must be sufficiently addressed to fully understand the waste package environment during the thermal period. Until the questions are resolved, a below-boiling repository design is favored where the Alloy-22 will be less susceptible to localized corrosion. (authors)

Bahrami, Davood; Danko, George [Department of Mining Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno, 1664 N. Virginia St., Reno, NV, 89557 (United States); Walton, John [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W. University, El Paso, TX, 79968 (United States)

2007-07-01

336

Electrolyte salts for nonaqueous electrolytes  

DOEpatents

Metal complex salts may be used in lithium ion batteries. Such metal complex salts not only perform as an electrolyte salt in a lithium ion batteries with high solubility and conductivity, but also can act as redox shuttles that provide overcharge protection of individual cells in a battery pack and/or as electrolyte additives to provide other mechanisms to provide overcharge protection to lithium ion batteries. The metal complex salts have at least one aromatic ring. The aromatic moiety may be reversibly oxidized/reduced at a potential slightly higher than the working potential of the positive electrode in the lithium ion battery. The metal complex salts may also be known as overcharge protection salts.

Amine, Khalil; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Chen, Zonghai

2012-10-09

337

Primary aldosteronism and salt.  

PubMed

For many years, primary aldosteronism was thought (and taught) to be a relatively rare (<1%) and benign form of high blood pressure: now we know that neither is the case. Currently, the prevalence is considered to be 5-10% of hypertensives, on the basis of more or less stringent cutoffs for the aldosterone/renin ratio and plasma aldosterone concentration: increasingly, evidence is mounting that the true prevalence of (relatively) autonomous aldosterone secretion may be ?30% of hypertensives. There is, in addition, a consensus that the risk profile for patients with primary aldosteronism is substantially higher than in age-, sex-, and blood pressure-matched essential hypertensives; the cardiovascular/renal damage in primary aldosteronism is thus not a primary effect of raised blood pressure. The nexus between salt and primary aldosteronism is clear, as equivalently raised or even higher levels of plasma aldosterone in chronic sodium deficiency are homeostatic and do not cause cardiovascular damage, thus ruling out deleterious effects of aldosterone acting alone. In primary aldosteronism the normal homeostatic feedback loops between sodium status and aldosterone levels are disturbed, so that cardiovascular/renal damage reflects inappropriate aldosterone levels for sodium status. One possible actor in such a scenario is endogenous ouabain (or similar compounds), which is elevated in the sodium-loaded state and a vasoconstrictor, and thus potentially be able both to raise blood pressure and to cause cardiovascular/renal damage. A second consideration is that of the epidemiologic data linking a chronically high salt intake to a raised blood pressure. If autonomous aldosterone secretion is in fact present in ?30% of hypertensives, this may be the group sensitive to the pressor effects of high salt, with the remainder much less affected. Finally, at a practical level given even the currently accepted prevalence of primary aldosteronism, a radical reconsideration of first-line antihypertensive therapy is proposed. PMID:25502114

Funder, John W

2015-03-01

338

DEVELOPMENT OF AN INSOLUBLE SALT SIMULANT TO SUPPORT ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING TESTS  

SciTech Connect

The closure process for high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site will require dissolution of the crystallized salts that are currently stored in many of the tanks. The insoluble residue from salt dissolution is planned to be removed by an Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process. Development of a chemical cleaning process requires an insoluble salt simulant to support evaluation tests of different cleaning methods. The Process Science and Engineering section of SRNL has been asked to develop an insoluble salt simulant for use in testing potential ECC processes (HLE-TTR-2007-017). An insoluble salt simulant has been developed based upon the residues from salt dissolution of saltcake core samples from Tank 28F. The simulant was developed for use in testing SRS waste tank chemical cleaning methods. Based on the results of the simulant development process, the following observations were developed: (1) A composition based on the presence of 10.35 grams oxalate and 4.68 grams carbonate per 100 grams solids produces a sufficiently insoluble solids simulant. (2) Aluminum observed in the solids remaining from actual waste salt dissolution tests is probably precipitated from sodium aluminate due to the low hydroxide content of the saltcake. (3) In-situ generation of aluminum hydroxide (by use of aluminate as the Al source) appears to trap additional salts in the simulant in a manner similar to that expected for actual waste samples. (4) Alternative compositions are possible with higher oxalate levels and lower carbonate levels. (5) The maximum oxalate level is limited by the required Na content of the insoluble solids. (6) Periodic mixing may help to limit crystal growth in this type of salt simulant. (7) Long term storage of an insoluble salt simulant is likely to produce a material that can not be easily removed from the storage container. Production of a relatively fresh simulant is best if pumping the simulant is necessary for testing purposes. The insoluble salt simulant described in this report represents the initial attempt to represent the material which may be encountered during final waste removal and tank cleaning. The final selected simulant was produced by heating and evaporation of a salt slurry sample to remove excess water and promote formation and precipitation of solids with solubility characteristics which are consistent with actual tank insoluble salt samples. The exact anion composition of the final product solids is not explicitly known since the chemical components in the final product are distributed between the solid and liquid phases. By combining the liquid phase analyses and total solids analysis with mass balance requirements a calculated composition of assumed simple compounds was obtained and is shown in Table 0-1. Additional improvements to and further characterization of the insoluble salt simulant are possible. During the development of these simulants it was recognized that: (1) Additional waste characterization on the residues from salt dissolution tests with actual waste samples to determine the amount of species such as carbonate, oxalate and aluminosilicate would allow fewer assumptions to be made in constructing an insoluble salt simulant. (2) The tank history will impact the amount and type of insoluble solids that exist in the salt dissolution solids. Varying the method of simulant production (elevated temperature processing time, degree of evaporation, amount of mixing (shear) during preparation, etc.) should be tested.

Eibling, R

2008-05-23

339

Molten salt lithium cells  

DOEpatents

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

1982-02-09

340

Molten salt lithium cells  

DOEpatents

Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

1983-01-01

341

Bacterial degradation of bile salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bile salts are surface-active steroid compounds. Their main physiological function is aiding the digestion of lipophilic nutrients\\u000a in intestinal tracts of vertebrates. Many bacteria are capable of transforming and degrading bile salts in the digestive tract\\u000a and in the environment. Bacterial bile salt transformation and degradation is of high ecological relevance and also essential\\u000a for the biotechnological production of steroid

Bodo Philipp

2011-01-01

342

Salt corrosion of titanium alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The long-term strength (1000 h) of commercial titanium alloys does not decrease under the influence of a film of NaCl at temperatures of 250 or lower.2.With increasing testing temperatures the susceptibility of the alloys to salt increases.3.Natural sea salt is more corrosive than NaCl at temperatures of 250 and higher.4.The corrosion resistance of titanium alloys in contact with salt depends

V. P. Batrakov; L. N. Pivovarova; L. V. Zakharova

1974-01-01

343

The bile salt export pump  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canalicular secretion of bile salts mediated by the bile salt export pump Bsep constitutes the major driving force for the\\u000a generation of bile flow. Bsep is a member of the B-family of the super family of ATP-binding cassette transporters and is\\u000a classified as ABCB11. Bsep has a narrow substrate specificity, which is largely restricted to bile salts. Bsep is extensively

Bruno Stieger; Yvonne Meier; Peter J. Meier

2007-01-01

344

Salt appetite in the elderly.  

PubMed

The present study investigated whether salt appetite in the elderly is impaired similar to thirst because of the commonality of their physiological substrates and whether alterations in salt appetite are related to mood. Elderly (65-85 years, n 30) and middle-aged (45-58 years, n 30) men and women were compared in two test sessions. Thirst, psychophysical ratings of taste solutions, dietary Na and energy intakes, seasoning with salt and sugar, number of salty and sweet snacks consumed, preferred amounts of salt in soup and sugar in tea, and an overall measure of salt appetite and its relationship with mood, nocturia and sleep were measured. Elderly participants were found to be less thirsty and respond less to thirst. In contrast, no impairment of salt appetite was found in them, and although they had a reduced dietary Na intake, it dissipated when corrected for their reduced dietary energy intake. Diet composition and Na intake were found to be similar in middle-aged and elderly participants, despite the lesser intake in elderly participants. There were no age-related differences in the intensity of taste or hedonic profile of Na, in salting habits, in tests of salting soup, or number of salty snacks consumed. No relationship of any measure of salt appetite with mood measured by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, frequency of nocturia, or sleep duration was observed. The age-related impairment of the physiology of mineralofluid regulation, while compromising thirst and fluid intake, spares salt appetite, suggesting that salt appetite in humans is not regulated physiologically. Intact salt appetite in the elderly might be utilised judiciously to prevent hyponatraemia, increase thirst and improve appetite. PMID:25287294

Hendi, Khadeja; Leshem, Micah

2014-11-28

345

Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices  

DOEpatents

Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

2008-11-11

346

Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices  

DOEpatents

Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

2008-10-14

347

Electrochromic salts, solutions, and devices  

DOEpatents

Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky,7,064,212 T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

2006-06-20

348

Corrosion behavior of plasma-sprayed Al 2O 3-Cr 2O 3 coatings in hot lithium molten salt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, hot corrosion studies were performed on bare as well as coated superalloy specimens after exposure to molten lithium chloride environment at 675 C for 216 h under an oxidizing atmosphere. The substrates of the IN713LC superalloy specimens were sprayed with an aluminized NiCrAlY bond coat and then with an Al 2O 3-Cr 2O 3 top coat. The as-coated and tested specimens were examined by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The bare superalloy reveals an obvious weight loss, and the scale formed on the surface of the bare superalloy was spalled due to the rapid scale growth and thermal stress. The top coatings showed a much better hot corrosion resistance in the presence of LiCl-3 wt.% Li 2O molten salt when compared with those of the uncoated superalloy and the aluminized bond coatings. These coatings have been found to be beneficial for increasing to the hot corrosion resistance of the structural materials for handling high temperature lithium molten salts.

Cho, Soo Haeng; Park, Sung Bin; Kang, Dae Seong; Jeong, Myeong Soo; Park, Heong; Hur, Jin Mok; Lee, Han Soo

2010-04-01

349

Gas release during salt well pumping: model predictions and comparisons to laboratory experiments  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site has 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) containing radioactive wastes that are complex mixes of radioactive and chemical products. Some of these wastes are known to generate mixtures of flammable gases, including hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and ammonia. Nineteen of these SSTs have been placed on the Flammable Gas Watch List (FGWL) because they are known or suspected, in all but one case, to retain these flammable gases. Salt well pumping to remove the interstitial liquid from SSTs is expected to cause the release of much of the retained gas, posing a number of safety concerns. Research at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has sought to quantify the release of flammable gases during salt well pumping operations. This study is being conducted for Westinghouse Hanford Company as part of the PNNL Flammable Gas Project. Understanding and quantifying the physical mechanisms and waste properties that govern gas release during salt well pumping will help to resolve the associated safety issues.

Peurrung, L.M.; Caley, S.M.; Bian, E.Y.; Gauglitz, P.A.

1996-09-01

350

Effects of aqueous environment on long-term durability of phosphate-bonded ceramic waste forms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last few years, Argonne National Laboratory has been developing room-temperature-setting chemically-bonded phosphate ceramics for solidifying and stabilizing low-level mixed wastes. This technology is crucial for stabilizing waste streams that contain volatile species and off-gas secondary waste streams generated by high-temperature treatment of such wastes. Magnesium phosphate ceramic has been developed to treat mixed wastes such as ash, salts,

D. Singh; A. S. Wagh; S. Y. Jeong

1996-01-01

351

Contribution of the TRPV1 channel to salt taste quality in mice as assessed by conditioned taste aversion generalization and chorda tympani nerve responses  

PubMed Central

In rodents, at least two transduction mechanisms are involved in salt taste: 1) the sodium-selective epithelial sodium channel, blocked by topical amiloride administration, and 2) one or more amiloride-insensitive cation-nonselective pathways. Whereas electrophysiological evidence from the chorda tympani nerve (CT) has implicated the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channel as a major component of amiloride-insensitive salt taste transduction, behavioral results have provided only equivocal support. Using a brief-access taste test, we examined generalization profiles of water-deprived C57BL/6J (WT) and TRPV1 knockout (KO) mice conditioned (via LiCl injection) to avoid 100 ?M amiloride-prepared 0.25 M NaCl and tested with 0.25 M NaCl, sodium gluconate, KCl, NH4Cl, 6.625 mM citric acid, 0.15 mM quinine, and 0.5 M sucrose. Both LiCl-injected WT and TRPV1 KO groups learned to avoid NaCl+amiloride relative to controls, but their generalization profiles did not differ; LiCl-injected mice avoided the nonsodium salts and quinine suggesting that a TRPV1-independent pathway contributes to the taste quality of the amiloride-insensitive portion of the NaCl signal. Repeating the experiment but doubling all stimulus concentrations revealed a difference in generalization profiles between genotypes. While both LiCl-injected groups avoided the nonsodium salts and quinine, only WT mice avoided the sodium salts and citric acid. CT responses to these stimuli and a concentration series of NaCl and KCl with and without amiloride did not differ between genotypes. Thus, in our study, TRPV1 did not appear to contribute to sodium salt perception based on gustatory signals, at least in the CT, but may have contributed to the oral somatosensory features of sodium. PMID:23054171

Smith, Kimberly R.; Treesukosol, Yada; Paedae, A. Brennan; Contreras, Robert J.

2012-01-01

352

Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

2014-01-01

353

The detection of water-wetting in salt-rock by impedance measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical impedance measurement is shown to detect water-wetting in salt at elevated temperature and pressure. The critical wetting temperature (and pressure) is detected by a characteristic fall of in-phase resistivity. Wetting temperatures and pressures obtained by this method are (i) in close agreement with static capsule wetting studies and (ii) sufficiently low to be of concern if nuclear waste is to be stored long-term in salt-rock.

Skelton, Alasdair D. L.; Elphick, Stephen C.

1999-12-01

354

Resistivity of Rock-Salt in Asse (germany) and Petrophysical ASPECTS1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports that in the Asses salt-mine (Germany), where extensive research is carried out on various aspects of nuclear waste disposal in rock-salt formations, the resistivity of a future construction site for a test seal at a depth of 945 m has been investigated. Measurements have been conducted, using various types of the four-point electrode configuration, on a network

U. Yaramanci; D. Flach

1992-01-01

355

HydroMechanical Coupling in rock salt at Different States of Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rock salt shows all aspects of brittle-ductile deformation and is, therefore, an ideal analogue material for petrophysical studies. In addition, salt structures are used as host rocks for the storage of oil and hydrocarbons and, probably, for the long-term storage of radioactive waste due to their very low in-situ permeability (less than 10-20 m2). The low permeability is basically attributed

T. Popp; H. Kern; O. Schulze

2001-01-01

356

Disruption of RCI2A leads to over-accumulation of Na+ and increased salt sensitivity in Arabidopsis thaliana plants.  

PubMed

For plant salt tolerance, it is important to regulate the uptake and accumulation of Na+ ions. The yeast pmp3 mutant which lacks PMP3 gene accumulates excess Na+ ions in the cell and shows increased Na+ sensitivity. Although the function of PMP3 is not fully understood, it is proposed that PMP3 contributes to the restriction of Na+ uptake and consequently salt tolerance in yeasts. In this paper, we have investigated whether the lack of RCI2A gene, homologous to PMP3 gene, causes a salt sensitive phenotype in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.) plants; and to thereby indicate the physiological role of RCI2A in higher plants. Two T-DNA insertional mutants of RCI2A were identified. Although the growth of rci2a mutants was comparable with that of wild type under normal conditions, high NaCl treatment caused increased accumulation of Na+ and more reduction of the growth of roots and shoots of rci2a mutants than that of wild type. Undifferentiated callus cultures regenerated from rci2a mutants also accumulated more Na+ than that from wild type under high NaCl treatment. Furthermore, when wild-type and rci2a plants were treated with NaCl, NaNO3, Na2SO4, KCl, KNO3, K2SO4 or LiCl, the rci2a mutants showed more reduction of shoot growth than wild type. Under treatments of tetramethylammonium chloride, CaCl2, MgCl2, mannitol or sorbitol, the growth reduction was comparable between wild-type and rci2a plants. These results suggested that RCI2A plays a role directly or indirectly for avoiding over-accumulation of excess Na+ and K+ ions in plants, and contributes to salt tolerance. PMID:16034593

Mitsuya, Shiro; Taniguchi, Mitsutaka; Miyake, Hiroshi; Takabe, Tetsuko

2005-12-01

357

The structure and terahertz dynamics of water confined in nanoscale pools in salt solutions.  

PubMed

The behaviour of liquid water below its melting point is of great interest as it may hold clues to the properties of normal liquid water and of water in and on the surfaces of biomolecules. A second critical point, giving rise to a polyamorphic transition between high and low density water, may be hidden in the supercooled region but cannot be observed directly. Here it is shown that water can be locked up in nano-pools or worm-like structures using aqueous LiCl salt solutions and can be studied with terahertz spectroscopies. Very high dynamic range ultrafast femtosecond optical Kerr effect (OKE) spectroscopy is used to study the temperature-dependent behaviour of water in these nano-pools on timescales from 10 fs to 4 ns. These experiments are complemented by temperature-dependent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) diffusion measurements, concentration-dependent Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) measurements, and temperature-dependent rheology. It is found that liquid water in the nanoscale pools undergoes a fragile-to-strong transition at about 220 K associated with a sharp increase in the inhomogeneity of translational dynamics. PMID:22457964

Turton, David A; Corsaro, Carmelo; Candelaresi, Marco; Brownlie, Angela; Seddon, Ken R; Mallamace, Francesco; Wynne, Klaas

2011-01-01

358

Biological production of products from waste gases  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are designed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, and carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various products, such as organic acids, alcohols, hydrogen, single cell protein, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

2002-01-22

359

Overview of mineral waste form development for the electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel  

SciTech Connect

Argonne is developing a method to treat spent nuclear fuel in a molten salt electrorefiner. Wastes from this treatment will be converted into metal and mineral forms for geologic disposal. A glass-bonded zeolite is being developed to serve as the mineral waste form that will contain the fission products that accumulate in the electrorefiner salt. Fission products are ion exchanged from the salt into the zeolite A structure. The crystal structure of the zeolite after ion exchange is filled with salt ions. The salt-loaded zeolite A is mixed with glass frit and hot pressed. During hot pressing, the zeolite A may be converted to sodalite which also retains the waste salt. The glass-bonded zeolite is leach resistant. MCC-1 testing has shown that it has a release rate below 1 g/(m{sup 2}day) for all elements.

Pereira, C.; Lewis, M.A.; Ackerman, J.P.

1996-05-01

360

Modified sulfur cement solidification of low-level wastes  

SciTech Connect

This topical report describes the results of an investigation on the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes in modified sulfur cement. The work was performed as part of the Waste Form Evaluation Program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program. Modified sulfur cement is a thermoplastic material developed by the US Bureau of Mines. Processing of waste and binder was accomplished by means of both a single-screw extruder and a dual-action mixing vessel. Waste types selected for this study included those resulting from advanced volume reduction technologies (dry evaporator concentrate salts and incinerator ash) and those which remain problematic for solidification using contemporary agents (ion exchange resins). Process development studies were conducted to ascertain optimal process control parameters for successful solidification. Maximum waste loadings were determined for each waste type and method of processing. Property evaluation testing was carried out on laboratory scale specimens in order to compare with waste form performance for other potential matrix materials. Waste form property testing included compressive strength, water immersion, thermal cycling and radionuclide leachability. Recommended waste loadings of 40 wt. % sodium sulfate and boric acid salts and 43 wt. % incinerator ash, which are based on processing and performance considerations, are reported. Solidification efficiencies for these waste types represent significant improvements over those of hydraulic cements. Due to poor waste form performance, incorporation of ion exchange resin waste in modified sulfur cement is not recommended.

Not Available

1985-10-01

361

Conversion of waste rubber to fuel and other useful products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heretofore waste rubber, a substantial amount of it in the form of used automobile tires, has been buried, burned, or otherwise disposed of in manners and by means totally inconsistent with good ecological practices and considerations. Now, such waste or scrap rubber, both natural and synthetic, can readily be converted in the presence of molten acidic halide Lewis salt catalysts

1976-01-01

362

Sodium aluminate from alumina-bearing intermediates and wastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been ascertained from theoretical premises and commercial practice that sodium aluminate may be produced using alumina-bearing industrial intermediates and wastes, including spent potliner and salt cake resulting from aluminum-dross recycling. The utilization of these unused waste materials can provide a supply for the worlds demand for sodium aluminate and improve environmental conditions.

Rayzman, Victor; Filipovich, Igor; Nisse, Leonid; Vlasenko, Yuri

1998-11-01

363

ANIMAL WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE NORTHERN GREAT PLAINS  

EPA Science Inventory

The effect of salt level of the ration for beef steers upon salinity of the waste and the effects of the applied waste upon the soil and upon crop production was investigated. In addition, the study was conducted in both covered and open feedlot pens to study the effect of shelte...

364

The electrochemical investigation of salts partition with ion exchange membranes.  

PubMed

The regenaration of acid and base from the solutions containing metallic salts was achieved by salt splitting method (SSM) using not only anion-exchange membranes (AEM) but also cation-exchange membrane (CEM). In these experiments, while the ion exchange membrane was anion-exchange membrane, acid solutions were used as an anolyte and different salts of potassium were used as a catholyte. In addition to these experiments, while the ion exchange membrane was cation-exchange membrane, base solutions were used as a catholyte and different salts of potassium were used as an anolyte. The effects of current density, initial concentrations of anolyte and catholyte solutions, the type of salt solution and the type of the ion-exchange membranes on the recovery ratio of bases and acids were investigated. The results of the experiments were investigated with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) program. The obtained results show that this technique can be used not only for recovering the acid and base wastes of industry but also for removing the impurities in order to obtain pure acids and bases in laboratory conditions. PMID:18417288

Ata, Nejla; Yazicigil, Zafer; Oztekin, Yasemin

2008-12-15

365

Aluminium salt slag characterization and utilization--a review.  

PubMed

Aluminium salt slag (also known as aluminium salt cake), which is produced by the secondary aluminium industry, is formed during aluminium scrap/dross melting and contains 15-30% aluminium oxide, 30-55% sodium chloride, 15-30% potassium chloride, 5-7% metallic aluminium and impurities (carbides, nitrides, sulphides and phosphides). Depending on the raw mix the amount of salt slag produced per tonne of secondary aluminium ranges from 200 to 500 kg. As salt slag has been classified as toxic and hazardous waste, it should be managed in compliance with the current legislation. Its landfill disposal is forbidden in most of the European countries and it should be recycled and processed in a proper way by taking the environmental impact into consideration. This paper presents a review of the aluminium salt slag chemical and mineralogical characteristics, as well as various processes for metal recovery, recycling of sodium and potassium chlorides content back to the smelting process and preparation of value added products from the final non metallic residue. PMID:22480708

Tsakiridis, P E

2012-05-30

366

Salt Marshes at Chincoteague Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Salt marshes at Chincoteague Island. The salt marshes that make up Chincoteague Island are important habitat for migrating waterfowl. In addition, they serve an important role in protecting inland ecosystems and communities from oceanic storms. Mosquito point can be seen in the background where the ...

367

Computer Simulations of Salt Solubility  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Computer Simulations of Salt Solubility provides an animated, visual interpretation of the different solubilities of related salts based on simple entropy changes associated with dissolution: configurational disorder and thermal disorder. This animation can also help improve students conceptual understanding of chemical equilibrium before any quantitative interpretation of equilibrium constants is attempted.

368

Art with Salt and Ice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This open-ended art project allows learners to create their own colorful ice sculpture by using rock salt and food coloring on a solid block of ice. The entire activity is like a mini-science lesson because it teaches learners the physical reaction of salt on ice.

Kcet

2007-01-01

369

Evaluation of ISDP Batch 2 Qualification Compliance to 512-S, DWPF, Tank Farm, and Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to document the acceptability of the second macrobatch (Salt Batch 2) of Tank 49H waste to H Tank Farm, DWPF, and Saltstone for operation of the Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP). Tank 49 feed meets the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) requirements specified by References 11, 12, and 13. Salt Batch 2 material is qualified and ready to be processed through ARP/MCU to the final disposal facilities.

Shafer, A.

2010-05-05

370

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) We are applying our unique capabilities in actinide and repository  

E-print Network

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) We are applying our unique capabilities in actinide and repository science to help develop and manage salt repositories. 8 08 FACT SHEET Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for geologic formations stable enough to contain radioactive waste for thousands of years. They discovered

371

LIFE Materails: Molten-Salt Fuels Volume 8  

SciTech Connect

The goals of the Laser Inertial Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) is to use fusion neutrons to fission materials with no enrichment and minimum processing and have greatly reduced wastes that are not of interest to making weapons. Fusion yields expected to be achieved in NIF a few times per day are called for with a high reliable shot rate of about 15 per second. We have found that the version of LIFE using TRISO fuel discussed in other volumes of this series can be modified by replacing the molten-flibe-cooled TRISO fuel zone with a molten salt in which the same actinides present in the TRISO particles are dissolved in the molten salt. Molten salts have the advantage that they are not subject to radiation damage, and hence overcome the radiation damage effects that may limit the lifetime of solid fuels such as TRISO-containing pebbles. This molten salt is pumped through the LIFE blanket, out to a heat exchanger and back into the blanket. To mitigate corrosion, steel structures in contact with the molten salt would be plated with tungsten or nickel. The salt will be processed during operation to remove certain fission products (volatile and noble and semi-noble fission products), impurities and corrosion products. In this way neutron absorbers (fission products) are removed and neutronics performance of the molten salt is somewhat better than that of the TRISO fuel case owing to the reduced parasitic absorption. In addition, the production of Pu and rare-earth elements (REE) causes these elements to build up in the salt, and leads to a requirement for a process to remove the REE during operation to insure that the solubility of a mixed (Pu,REE)F3 solid solution is not exceeded anywhere in the molten salt system. Removal of the REE will further enhance the neutronics performance. With molten salt fuels, the plant would need to be safeguarded because materials of interest for weapons are produced and could potentially be removed.

Moir, R; Brown, N; Caro, A; Farmer, J; Halsey, W; Kaufman, L; Kramer, K; Latkowski, J; Powers, J; Shaw, H; Turchi, P

2008-12-11

372

Plant salt-tolerance mechanisms  

Crop performance is severely affected by high salt concentrations in soils. To engineer more salt-tolerant plants it is crucial to unravel the key components of the plant salt-tolerance network. Here we review our understanding of the core salt-tolerance mechanisms in plants. Recent studies have shown that stress sensing and signaling components can play important roles in regulating the plant salinity stress response. We also review key Na+ transport and detoxification pathways and the impact of epigenetic chromatin modifications on salinity tolerance. In addition, we discuss the progress that has been made towards engineering salt tolerance in crops, including marker-assisted selection and gene stacking techniques. We also identify key open questions that remain to be addressed in the future.

Deinlein, Ulrich; Stephan, Aaron B.; Horie, Tomoaki; Luo, Wei; Xu, Guohua; Schroeder, Julian I.

2014-06-01

373

Plant salt-tolerance mechanisms.  

PubMed

Crop performance is severely affected by high salt concentrations in soils. To engineer more salt-tolerant plants it is crucial to unravel the key components of the plant salt-tolerance network. Here we review our understanding of the core salt-tolerance mechanisms in plants. Recent studies have shown that stress sensing and signaling components can play important roles in regulating the plant salinity stress response. We also review key Na+ transport and detoxification pathways and the impact of epigenetic chromatin modifications on salinity tolerance. In addition, we discuss the progress that has been made towards engineering salt tolerance in crops, including marker-assisted selection and gene stacking techniques. We also identify key open questions that remain to be addressed in the future. PMID:24630845

Deinlein, Ulrich; Stephan, Aaron B; Horie, Tomoaki; Luo, Wei; Xu, Guohua; Schroeder, Julian I

2014-06-01

374

Salt resistant crop plants.  

PubMed

Soil salinity is a major constraint to agriculture. To improve salinity tolerance of crops, various traits can be incorporated, including ion exclusion, osmotic tolerance and tissue tolerance. We review the roles of a range of genes involved in salt tolerance traits. Different tissues and cells are adapted for specific and often diverse function, so it is important to express the genes in specific cell-types and to pyramid a range of traits. Modern biotechnology (marker-assisted selection or genetic engineering) needs to be increasingly used to introduce the correct combination of genes into elite crop cultivars. Importantly, the effects of introduced genes need to be evaluated in the field to determine their effect on salinity tolerance and yield improvement. PMID:24679267

Roy, Stuart J; Negro, Snia; Tester, Mark

2014-04-01

375

History Leaves Salts Behind  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These plots, or spectra, show that a rock dubbed 'McKittrick' near the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site at Meridiani Planum, Mars, has higher concentrations of sulfur and bromine than a nearby patch of soil nicknamed 'Tarmac.' These data were taken by Opportunity's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer, which uses curium-244 to assess the elemental composition of rocks and soil. Only portions of the targets' full spectra are shown to highlight the significant differences in elemental concentrations between 'McKittrick' and 'Tarmac.' Intensities are plotted on a logarithmic scale.

A nearby rock named Guadalupe similarly has extremely high concentrations of sulfur, but very little bromine. This 'element fractionation' typically occurs when a watery brine slowly evaporates and various salt compounds are precipitated in sequence.

2004-01-01

376

Freezing in Halide Salts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The static criterion that the amplitude of the principal peak of the liquid structure factor has a constant value along the freezing line and the onset of freezing are studied from the structure factors and the static dielectric functions of halide salts interacting via the effective pair potentials through the hypernetted-chain approximation. It is observed that the criterion above is restricted to the effective charge difference. The critical value of plasma parameter at freezing is affected by the mobility and number concentration of anions and cations. The distribution of the value of the static dielectric function closest to the wave number axis in the negative region is also determined by the charge difference and the ordering of ions and related to the onset of freezing.

Akdere, ?.; Y?lmaz, M.; Kavanoz, H. B.; Ta?seven, .

2008-06-01

377

Analysis of early creep closures in geomechanically connected underground rooms in salt  

SciTech Connect

The waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project is chartered to develop a technology base for the safe disposal of the radioactive Transuranic (TRU) waste forms generated by the US defense programs. The WIPP facility has been constructed in the bedded geologic salt deposits of southeastern New Mexico and is in preliminary operation in anticipation of receipt of small quantities of radioactive waste for experimental purposes. In accord with existing regulations, the requirement is to assure that any proposed repository isolates the radioactive waste from the accessible environment and mankind for a long period of time. As a part of this requirement, the creep closure of the salt and waste encapsulation must be predicted far into the future. This necessitates significant developments in the predictive technology of the structural response of underground excavations in salt. To provide a database for the validation of the predictive technology, a series of large scale in situ experiments were fielded at the WIPP under the auspices of the Thermal/Structural Interactions (TSI) Program. One of these experiments was a three room mine-by test. In this paper, we present the results of the early time (unheated) response of this test, showing the influence of adjacent excavations on each other and of multiple rooms on the closure rates. Also, the in situ results are compared with analyses making use of the most recent numerical predictive capability developed for describing the structural response of salt. 7 refs, 6 figs.

Munson, D.E. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Jones, R.L. (Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); DeVries, K.L. (RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States))

1991-07-01

378

40 CFR 721.6085 - Phosphonocarboxylate salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Phosphonocarboxylate salts. 721.6085 Section 721.6085 ...Substances 721.6085 Phosphonocarboxylate salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant...identified generically as phosphonocarboxylate salts (PMNs P-93-722,...

2011-07-01

379

40 CFR 721.7655 - Alkylsulfonium salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Alkylsulfonium salt. 721.7655 Section 721.7655 ...Substances 721.7655 Alkylsulfonium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...identified generically as alkylsulfonium salt (PMN P-93-1166) is subject to...

2013-07-01

380

40 CFR 721.6085 - Phosphonocarboxylate salts.  

...2014-07-01 false Phosphonocarboxylate salts. 721.6085 Section 721.6085 ...Substances 721.6085 Phosphonocarboxylate salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant...identified generically as phosphonocarboxylate salts (PMNs P-93-722,...

2014-07-01

381

7 CFR 58.721 - Salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salt. 58.721 Section 58.721 Agriculture Regulations...Quality Specifications for Raw Material 58.721 Salt. Salt shall be free flowing, white refined sodium chloride...

2010-01-01

382

7 CFR 58.721 - Salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Salt. 58.721 Section 58.721 Agriculture Regulations...Quality Specifications for Raw Material 58.721 Salt. Salt shall be free flowing, white refined sodium chloride...

2012-01-01

383

7 CFR 58.721 - Salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Salt. 58.721 Section 58.721 Agriculture Regulations...Quality Specifications for Raw Material 58.721 Salt. Salt shall be free flowing, white refined sodium chloride...

2011-01-01

384

7 CFR 58.721 - Salt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Salt. 58.721 Section 58.721 Agriculture Regulations...Quality Specifications for Raw Material 58.721 Salt. Salt shall be free flowing, white refined sodium chloride...

2013-01-01

385

Assessment of selected furnace technologies for RWMC waste  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a description and initial evaluation of five selected thermal treatment (furnace) technologies, in support of earlier thermal technologies scoping work for application to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) buried wastes. The cyclone furnace, molten salt processor, microwave melter, ausmelt (fuel fired lance) furnace, and molten metal processor technologies are evaluated. A system description and brief development history are provided. The state of development of each technology is assessed, relative to treatment of RWMC buried waste.

Batdorf, J.; Gillins, R. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Anderson, G.L. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1992-03-01

386

Dutch geologic radioactive waste disposal project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geologic disposal of radioactive waste is reviewed. The radionuclide release consequences of an accidental flooding of the underground excavations was studied. The results of the quantitative examples made for different effective cross sections of the permeable layer connecting the mine excavations with the boundary of the salt dome are that under all circumstances the concentration of the waste nuclides in drinking water will remain well within the ICRP maximum permissible concentrations. Further analysis work was done on what minima can be achieved for both the maximum local rock salt temperatures at the disposal borehole walls and the maximum global rock salt temperatures halfway between a square of disposal boreholes. Different multilayer disposal configurations were analyzed and compared.

Hamstra, J.; Verkerk, B.

387

Textile Wastes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of wastes from textile industry, covering publications of 1977. This review covers studies such as removing heavy metals in textile wastes, and the biodegradability of six dyes. A list of references is also presented. (HM)

Talbot, R. S.

1978-01-01

388

Waste product profile: Yard waste  

SciTech Connect

Yard waste includes grass, leaves, and tree and brush trimmings. Grass is the biggest component of yard waste by weight, while leaves are the biggest component by volume. Local yard waste generation varies dramatically based on a number of factors, including climate, yard size, and the percentage of the population in single-family housing. Yard waste can be the largest component of municipal solid waste (MSW) streams during the summer and fall months, with grass predominating in the summer, and leaves in the fall. Yard waste is the largest individual component of generated MSW by weight and of landfilled MSW by volume.

Miller, C. [Environmental Industry Associations, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-08-01

389

U.S. Space Station Freedom waste fluid disposal system with consideration of hydrazine waste gas injection thrusters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results are reported of a study of various methods for propulsively disposing of waste gases. The options considered include hydrazine waste gas injection, resistojets, and eutectic salt phase change heat beds. An overview is given of the waste gas disposal system and how hydrozine waste gas injector thruster is implemented within it. Thruster performance for various gases are given and comparisons with currently available thruster models are made. The impact of disposal on station propellant requirements and electrical power usage are addressed. Contamination effects, reliability and maintainability assessments, safety issues, and operational scenarios of the waste gas thruster and disposal system are considered.

Winters, Brian A.

1990-01-01

390

Preparation techniques for ceramic waste form powder  

SciTech Connect

The electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuels result in a chloride waste salt requiring geologic disposal. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing ceramic waste forms which can incorporate this waste. Currently, zeolite- or sodalite-glass composites are produced by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) techniques. Powder preparations include dehydration of the raw zeolite powders, hot blending of these zeolite powders and secondary additives. Various approaches are being pursued to achieve adequate mixing, and the resulting powders have been HIPed and characterized for leach resistance, phase equilibria, and physical integrity.

Hash, M.C.; Pereira, C.; Lewis, M.A. [and others

1997-08-01

391

Radioactive Waste.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

Blaylock, B. G.

1978-01-01

392

Actinide Speciation and Solubility in a Salt Repository (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of bedded salt deposits for the permanent disposal of nuclear waste continues to receive much attention in the United States and internationally. This is largely based on the highly successful Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) transuranic waste repository that was opened in 1999 in Southeastern New Mexico. A bedded salt formation, such as the one in which the WIPP is located, has many advantages that make it an ideal geology for permanent disposal of nuclear waste. This includes well established mining techniques, self-sealing that lead to a naturally-induced geologic isolation, a relatively dry environment, and a favorable chemistry. Herein we report on recent progress in our investigations, as part of ongoing recertification effort for the operating WIPP repository, to establish the redox distribution and overall solubility of actinides in brine. The overall ranking of actinides, from the perspective of potential contribution to release from the WIPP, is: Pu ~ Am >>U > Th >> Np, Cm. Our recent research emphasis has centered on the redox chemistry of multivalent actinides (e.g., U, Pu and Np) with the use of oxidation-state-invariant analogs (Th and Nd) to establish the solubilities. Under a wide range of conditions investigated, the predominant oxidation states established are Pu(III) and Pu(IV) for plutonium, U(IV) and U(VI) for uranium, and Am (III) for americium. Reduction pathways for plutonium include reaction with organics, reaction with reduced iron, and bioreduction by halophiles under anaerobic conditions. Uranium(VI) can also be reduced to U(IV) by reduced iron and microbial processes. Solubility data for neodymium (+3 analog), Uranium (+6 analog) and thorium (+4 analog) in brine are also reported. These data extend our past understanding of WIPP-specific actinide chemistry and show the WIPP, and salt-based repositories in general, to be a robust repository design from the perspective of actinide containment and immobilization.

Reed, D.; Borkowski, M.; Richmann, M.; Lucchini, J.; Khaing, H.; Swanson, J.

2009-12-01

393

Salt Lake City, Utah  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This simulated natural color image presents a late spring view of north central Utah that includes all of the Olympic sites. The image extends from Ogden in the north, to Provo in the south; and includes the snow-capped Wasatch Mountains and the eastern part of the Great Salt Lake.

This image was acquired on May 28, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

Size: 63.5 x 123.3 km (38.1 x 74 miles) Location: 40.7 deg. North lat., 111.9 deg. West long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1,2, and 3. Original Data Resolution: 15 m Date Acquired: May 28, 2000

2001-01-01

394

What You Always Wanted to Know About Salt  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The What You Always Wanted to Know About Salt Web site is maintained by the nonprofit organization the Salt Institute. Information on nearly every aspect of salt can be found here, including salt facts, properties of sodium chloride, salt deposits in the US, the various uses of salt, salt in the winter, the history of salt, and much more.

395

Does salt increase thirst?  

PubMed

Our diet is believed to be overly rich in sodium, and it is commonly believed that sodium intake increases drinking. Hence the concern of a possible contribution of dietary sodium to beverage intake which in turn may contribute to obesity and ill health. Here we examine whether voluntary, acute intake of a sodium load, as occurs in routine eating and snacking, increases thirst and drinking. We find that after ingesting 3.5 or 4.4?g NaCl (men) and 1.9 or 3.7?g (women) on nuts during 15 minutes, there is no increase in thirst or drinking of freely available water in the following 2?h compared with eating similar amounts of sugared or unflavored nuts. This suggests that routine ingestion of boluses of salt (~30-40% of daily intake for men,?~?20-40% for women) does not increase drinking. Methodological concerns such as about nuts as vehicle for sodium suggest further research to establish the generalizability of this unexpected result. PMID:25447020

Leshem, Micah

2015-02-01

396

Synthesis of hollandite-type Li y Mn 1? x Co x O 2 ( x = 00.15) by Li + ion-exchange in molten salt and the electrochemical property for rechargeable lithium battery electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Li+ ion-exchange reaction of K+-type ?-K0.14MnO1.930.18H2O and its Co-doped ?-K0.14(Mn0.85Co0.15)O1.960.21H2O with a large (22) tunnel structure has been investigated in a LiNO3\\/LiCl molten salt at 300C. The Li+ ion-exchanged products were examined by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, and scanning and transmission electron microscopic measurements. Almost all the K+ ions and the hydrogens of water molecules in the (22) tunnel

Naoaki Kumagai; Satoru Oshitari; Shinichi Komaba; Yoshihiro Kadoma

2007-01-01

397

Chemical species of plutonium in Hanford radioactive tank waste  

SciTech Connect

Large quantities of radioactive wastes have been generated at the Hanford Site over its operating life. The wastes with the highest activities are stored underground in 177 large (mostly one million gallon volume) concrete tanks with steel liners. The wastes contain processing chemicals, cladding chemicals, fission products, and actinides that were neutralized to a basic pH before addition to the tanks to prevent corrosion of the steel liners. Because the mission of the Hanford Site was to provide plutonium for defense purposes, the amount of plutonium lost to the wastes was relatively small. The best estimate of the amount of plutonium lost to all the waste tanks is about 500 kg. Given uncertainties in the measurements, some estimates are as high as 1,000 kg (Roetman et al. 1994). The wastes generally consist of (1) a sludge layer generated by precipitation of dissolved metals from aqueous wastes solutions during neutralization with sodium hydroxide, (2) a salt cake layer formed by crystallization of salts after evaporation of the supernate solution, and (3) an aqueous supernate solution that exists as a separate layer or as liquid contained in cavities between sludge or salt cake particles. The identity of chemical species of plutonium in these wastes will allow a better understanding of the behavior of the plutonium during storage in tanks, retrieval of the wastes, and processing of the wastes. Plutonium chemistry in the wastes is important to criticality and environmental concerns, and in processing the wastes for final disposal. Plutonium has been found to exist mainly in the sludge layers of the tanks along with other precipitated metal hydrous oxides. This is expected due to its low solubility in basic aqueous solutions. Tank supernate solutions do not contain high concentrations of plutonium even though some tanks contain high concentrations of complexing agents. The solutions also contain significant concentrations of hydroxide which competes with other potential complexants. The sodium nitrate and sodium phosphate salts that form most of the salt cake layers have little interaction with plutonium in the wastes and contain relatively small plutonium concentrations. For these reasons the authors consider plutonium species in the sludges and supernate solutions only. The low concentrations of plutonium in waste tank supernate solutions and in the solid sludges prevent identification of chemical species of plutonium by ordinary analytical techniques. Spectrophotometric measurements are not sensitive enough to identify plutons oxidation states or complexes in these waste solutions. Identification of solid phases containing plutonium in sludge solids by x-ray diffraction or by microscopic techniques would be extremely difficult. Because of these technical problems, plutonium speciation was extrapolated from known behavior observed in laboratory studies of synthetic waste or of more chemically simple systems.

Barney, G.S.

1997-10-22

398

Sodium (Salt or Sodium Chloride)  

MedlinePLUS

... for Physical Activity in Children My Family Health Tree What's that you're drinking? Get Active with ... salt coming from? Reducing Sodium in a Salty World The Salty Six Surprising Foods that Add the ...

399

Synthesis of Quaternary Heterocyclic Salts  

PubMed Central

The microwave synthesis of twenty quaternary ammonium salts is described. The syntheses feature comparable yields to conventional synthetic methods reported in the current literature with reduced reaction times and the absence of solvent or minimal solvent. PMID:24256924

Winstead, Angela J.; Nyambura, Grace; Matthews, Rachael; Toney, Deveine; Oyaghire, Stanley

2014-01-01

400

Purification of lithium salts by CSA continuous countercurrent ion exchange. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A Continuous Countercurrent Ion Exchange (CCIX) process was developed for extraction of low levels of sodium, potassium, iron, and nickel from strong solutions of lithium chloride and lithium hydroxide. This study was done on a two-inch diameter CSA, Inc. CCIX pilot unit. A standard 8% cross-linked cation exchange resin was used. The feed was either 2{und M} LiCl or 2{und M} LiOH. The trace levels of contaminants had a slightly higher affinity for the resin than lithium and extracted 90% or better. Residual lithium on the resin was scrubbed of with KOH to render a lithium loss of less than 1% in the waste. Contaminants were stripped from the resin with 3{und M} HCl. Zinc was one metal that was not extracted because it formed an anionic chloride complex. However zinc and certain other metals were extracted with high efficiency using strong-base type resin. Other resins are available for efficient extraction of many other metal contaminants, but the alkali metals, Na and K, were dependent on the CCIX common cation exchange system.

Higgins, I.R. [CSA, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1986-12-01

401

Response report from US Department of Energy Hearings on proposed salt site nominations  

SciTech Connect

As required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (US Congress, 1983, Pub. L. 97-425, Section 112(b) (2)), the US Department of Energy (DOE) conducted a series of nine formal public hearings during April and May 1983, in Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas, and Utah and in the state capitals of Mississippi, Texas, and Utah. The hearings were held in local communities in the vicinity of sites identified as potentially suitable for further study in the program to select a site for the nation's first repository for high-level nuclear waste. The public hearings for potential sites in salt focused on the proposed nomination of the Vacherie salt dome site in Louisiana; the Richton and Cypress Creek salt dome sites in Mississippi; the Deaf Smith County and Swisher County bedded salt sites in Texas; and the Davis and Lavender Canyon bedded salt sites in Utah. The oral and written comments made during the course of the nine formal public hearings were analyzed, paraphrased into almost 1100 comments, and grouped into 62 issues or subjects within the following nine major topical areas: National Waste Terminal Storage Program Planning Process, Consultation and Cooperation, Engineering/Repository Design, Geology, Hydrology, Transportation, Public Health and Safety, Environmental Quality, and Socioeconomics. This document provides general responses to each of the 62 major issues raised during the hearings. 137 references, 7 figures, 12 tables.

Not Available

1983-11-01

402

Response report from US Department of Energy hearings on proposed salt site nominations  

SciTech Connect

As required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (US Congress, 1983, Pub. L. 97-425, Section 112(b)(2)), the US Department of Energy (DOE) conducted a series of nine formal public hearings during April and May 1983, in Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas, and Utah and in the state capitals of Mississippi, Texas, and Utah. The hearings were held in local communities in the vicinity of sites identified as potentially suitable for further study in the program to select a site for the nation's first repository for high-level nuclear waste. The public hearings for potential sites in salt focused on the proposed nomination of the Vacherie salt dome site in Louisiana; the Richton and Cypress Creek salt dome sites in Mississippi; the Deaf Smith County and Swisher County bedded salt sites in Texas; and the Davis and Lavender Canyon bedded salt sites in Utah. The oral and written comments made during the course of the nine formal public hearings were analyzed, paraphrased into almost 1100 comments, and grouped into 62 issues or subjects within the following nine major topical areas: National Waste Terminal Storage program Planning Process, Consultation and Cooperation, Engineering/Repository Design, Geology, Hydrology, Transportation, Public Health and Safety, Environmental Quality, and Socioeconomics. This document provides general responses to each of the 62 major issues raised during the hearings.

Not Available

1983-11-01

403

SALT: South African Large Telescope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The South African Astronomical Observatory, near Sutherland in Northern Cape, has developed an extensive internet site devoted to SALT; a $30-million project to develop the largest telescope in the southern hemisphere. Visitors with a general interest in the project can follow its progress, scheduled for completion in December of 2004. Astronomers and students will find descriptions of SALT's optical and near-infrared telescopic capabilities. All can enjoy the latest images of the skies above Sutherland gathered by the telescope.

Observatory, South A.

404

BYU Salt Lake Center Financial Aid Program  

E-print Network

BYU Salt Lake Center Financial Aid Program 2011 A financial aid program of the Brigham Young University Division of Continuing Education BYU Salt Lake Center 345 West North Temple Street 3 Triad Center Salt Lake City, UT 84180 Fax: (801) 933­9456 Email: slc@byu.edu #12;BYU Salt Lake Center Financial Aid

Martinez, Tony R.

405

BYU Salt Lake Center Financial Aid Program  

E-print Network

BYU Salt Lake Center Financial Aid Program 2013 A financial aid program of the Brigham Young University Division of Continuing Education BYU Salt Lake Center 345 West North Temple Street 3 Triad Center Salt Lake City, UT 84180 Fax: (801) 933­9456 Email: slc@byu.edu #12;BYU Salt Lake Center Financial Aid

Olsen Jr., Dan R.

406

BYU Salt Lake Center Financial Aid Program  

E-print Network

BYU Salt Lake Center Financial Aid Program 2012 A financial aid program of the Brigham Young University Division of Continuing Education BYU Salt Lake Center 345 West North Temple Street 3 Triad Center Salt Lake City, UT 84180 Fax: (801) 933­9456 Email: slc@byu.edu #12;BYU Salt Lake Center Financial Aid

Hart, Gus

407

BYU Salt Lake Center Financial Aid Program  

E-print Network

BYU Salt Lake Center Financial Aid Program 2014 A financial aid program of the Brigham Young University Division of Continuing Education BYU Salt Lake Center 345 West North Temple Street 3 Triad Center Salt Lake City, UT 84180 Fax: (801) 933­9456 Email: slc@byu.edu #12;BYU Salt Lake Center Financial Aid

Hart, Gus

408

Synthesis and characterization of salt scrub alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium and calcium gallides have been synthesized in stoichiometries that can be used as reduction alloys for the Rocky Flats Plant salt-scrub process. The salt scrub process is performed to recover valuable metals from salts generated in the electrorefining and the molten salt extraction processes. Combustion synthesis in the thermal explosion mode has been accomplished successfully with suitable reactants to

S. R. Pritchett; J. J. Moore; B. Mishra; D. L. Olson

1992-01-01

409

Recommended waste handling operations and equipment  

SciTech Connect

Recommended waste handling operations and equipment were developed for the National Waste Terminal Storage geologic repositories. Detailed reviews of the conceptual designs for repositories in bedded and dome salt formations were performed to establish and characterize the waste flow paths through the repositories; identify the systems, subsystems, and components of the flow paths; and identify waste handling system similarities and differences. The results of this study are recommended operations and equipment for canistered and low-level waste handling systems. These results may be used as design bases and criteria for future repository design activities. Numerous advantages over existing designs have resulted from this study. Volume II consists of appendix B - conceptual design report review data.

Kingsbury, R.J.; Monaghan, D.A.

1980-09-01

410

Recommended waste handling operations and equipment  

SciTech Connect

Recommended waste handling operations and equipment were developed for the National Waste Terminal Storage geologic repositories. Detailed reviews of the conceptual designs for repositories in bedded and dome salt formations were performed to establish and characterize the waste flow paths through the repositories; identify the systems, subsystems, and components of the flow paths; and identify waste handling system similarities and differences. The results of this study are recommended operations and equipment for canistered and low-level waste handling systems. These results may be used as design bases and criteria for future repository design activities. Numerous advantages over existing designs have resulted from this study. Volume IV contains appendices on operations comparisons, alternative selection, alternatives evaluation parameters, alternatives evaluation and consequence of failure analysis.

Kingsbury, R.J.; Monaghan, D.A.

1980-09-01

411

A preliminary report of the geohydrology of the Mississippi Salt-Dome Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Department of Energy is investigating the suitability of salt domes in the Mississippi salt-dome basin as repositories for storing radioactive wastes. The Department of Energy has requested that the U.S. Geological Survey describe the groundwater hydrology of the Mississippi salt-dome basin, giving special attention to direction and rate of movement of water. In this first part of a continuing investigation the data obtained from one year of extensive literature search and data compilation are summarized. The regional groundwater hydrology in the salt-dome basin is defined with respect to (1) groundwater flow, (2) facies changes, (3) geological structure, (4) recharge and discharge, (5) freshwater-saltwater relations, and (6) identification of localities where additional data are needed. From the 50 piercement-type salt domes in the Mississippi salt-dome basin three domes (Richton, Cypress Creek, and Lampton) were selected for more intensive study. To further evaluate the geohydrology of Richton, Lampton, and Cypress Creek domes as possible sites for storage of radioactive waste, an intensive geohydrologic study based on a comprehensive test drilling program near the domes is planned. (USGS)

Spiers, C.A.; Gandl, L.A.

1980-01-01

412

US/German Collaboration in Salt Repository Research, Design and Operation - 13243  

SciTech Connect

Recent developments in the US and Germany [1-3] have precipitated renewed efforts in salt repository investigations and related studies. Both the German rock salt repository activities and the US waste management programs currently face challenges that may adversely affect their respective current and future state-of-the-art core capabilities in rock salt repository science and technology. The research agenda being pursued by our respective countries leverages collective efforts for the benefit of both programs. The topics addressed by the US/German salt repository collaborations align well with the findings and recommendations summarized in the January 2012 US Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (BRC) report [4] and are consistent with the aspirations of the key topics of the Strategic Research Agenda of the Implementing Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste Technology Platform (IGD-TP) [5]. Against this background, a revival of joint efforts in salt repository investigations after some years of hibernation has been undertaken to leverage collective efforts in salt repository research, design, operations, and related issues for the benefit of respective programs and to form a basis for providing an attractive, cost-effective insurance against the premature loss of virtually irreplaceable scientific expertise and institutional memory. (authors)

Steininger, Walter [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Project Management Agency Karlsruhe - (PTKA-WTE) Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)] [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Project Management Agency Karlsruhe - (PTKA-WTE) Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Hansen, Frank [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque NM USA 87111 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque NM USA 87111 (United States); Biurrun, Enrique; Bollingerfehr, Wilhelm [DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH, Eschenstr. 55, 31224 Peine (Germany)] [DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH, Eschenstr. 55, 31224 Peine (Germany)

2013-07-01

413

Experimental and modeling results for reconsolidation of crushed natural rock salt under varying physical conditions  

SciTech Connect

Mined salt from the underground facility at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project is a candidate material for use as backfill around the waste packages and in the underground openings during and after the operational phase. We have conducted a series of hydrostatic and triaxial compression experiments on the time-dependent compaction behavior of crushed salt under nominally dry, ``damp,`` (0.5-3 wt % added water), and brine-saturated conditions. Though the compaction of dry crushed salt is very show in the laboratory, damp salt is likely to compact as rapidly as the mine walls can converge. Drained tests on brine-saturated crushed salt indicate that, though effects associated with saturation do retard consolidation rates slightly, high fractional densities ({ge} 0.95) can still be obtained on laboratory time scales at pressures below lithostatic at the WIPP. Triaxial compression experiments indicate that small deviatoric stresses have little impact on consolidation rates. Micromechanical models for the compaction of dry and damp crushed salt, based on isostatic hot-pressing models, are discussed.

Zeuch, D.H.; Holcomb, D.J.

1991-11-01

414

Recent advances in the molten salt technology for the destruction of energetic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DOE has thousands of pounds of energetic materials which result from dismantlement operations at the Pantex Plant. The authors have demonstrated the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process for the treatment of explosives and explosive-containing wastes on a 1.5 kilogram of explosive per hour scale and are currently building a 5 kilogram per hour unit. MSD converts the organic constituents

R. S. Upadhye; B. E. Watkins; C. O. Pruneda

1995-01-01

415

The detection of water-wetting in salt-rock by impedance measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical impedance measurement is shown to detect water-wetting in salt at elevated temperature and pressure. The critical wetting temperature (and pressure) is detected by a characteristic fall of in-phase resistivity. Wetting temperatures and pressures obtained by this method are (i) in close agreement with static capsule wetting studies and (ii) sufficiently low to be of concern if nuclear waste is

Alasdair D. L. Skelton; Stephen C. Elphick

1999-01-01

416

Argon gas permeability of New Mexico rock salt under hydrostatic compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory measurements of the argon gas permeability for rock salt specimens from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in Southeast New Mexico (SENM) are obtained by using a transient, pressure step technique. Permeabilities of seven specimens are investigated as a function of hydrostatic compression and time. These data, when evaluated with the results of other authors, lead to the

H. J. Sutherland; S. P. Cave

1980-01-01

417

Nuclear criticality safety evaluation -- DWPF Late Wash Facility, Salt Process Cell and Chemical Process Cell  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Nuclear Waste will be vitrified in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for long term storage and disposal. This is a nuclear criticality safety evaluation for the Late Wash Facility (LWF), the Salt Processing Cell (SPC) and the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC). of the DWPF. Waste salt solution is processed in the Tank Farm In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process and is then further washed in the DWPF Late Wash Facility (LWF) before it is fed to the DWPF Salt Processing Cell. In the Salt Processing Cell the precipitate slurry is processed in the Precipitate Reactor (PR) and the resultant Precipitate Hydrolysis Aqueous (PHA) produce is combined with the sludge feed and frit in the DWPF Chemical Process Cell to produce a melter feed. The waste is finally immobilized in the Melt Cell. Material in the Tank Farm and the ITP and Extended Sludge processes have been shown to be safe against a nuclear criticality by others. The precipitate slurry feed from ITP and the first six batches of sludge feed are safe against a nuclear criticality and this evaluation demonstrates that the processes in the LWF, the SPC and the CPC do not alter the characteristics of the materials to compromise safety.

Williamson, T.G.

1994-10-17

418

Common Waste and Materials  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Wastes Resource Conservation Common Wastes & Materials Common Waste and Materials Related Links Universal Waste Comprehensive Procurement Guidelines (CPG) Environmentally Preferable Purchasing (EPP) ...

419

PLAT X41601 EAST (SALT LAKE CITY CEMETERY LOCATER), SALT LAKE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

PLAT X-4-160-1 EAST (SALT LAKE CITY CEMETERY LOCATER), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH AT CEMETERY BETWEEN OLIVE STREET (1020 EAST) AND 1000 EAST STREET, REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 12049, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

420

NAME: Salt Creek Estuary Restoration LOCATION: Salt Creek Watershed, Clallam County, Washington  

E-print Network

NAME: Salt Creek Estuary Restoration LOCATION: Salt Creek Watershed, Clallam County, Washington Federal funds $0 PROJECT DESCRIPTION: The Salt Creek Estuary Reconnection project will significantly enhance tidal and fluvial hydrology to 22.5 acres of salt marsh, which will return the salt marsh to its

US Army Corps of Engineers

421

Stainless steel-zirconium alloy waste forms  

SciTech Connect

An electrometallurgical treatment process has been developed by Argonne National Laboratory to convert various types of spent nuclear fuels into stable storage forms and waste forms for repository disposal. The first application of this process will be to treat spent fuel alloys from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II. Three distinct product streams emanate from the electrorefining process: (1) refined uranium; (2) fission products and actinides extracted from the electrolyte salt that are processed into a mineral waste form; and (3) metallic wastes left behind at the completion of the electrorefining step. The third product stream (i.e., the metal waste stream) is the subject of this paper. The metal waste stream contains components of the chopped spent fuel that are unaffected by the electrorefining process because of their electrochemically ``noble`` nature; this includes the cladding hulls, noble metal fission products (NMFP), and, in specific cases, zirconium from metal fuel alloys. The selected method for the consolidation and stabilization of the metal waste stream is melting and casting into a uniform, corrosion-resistant alloy. The waste form casting process will be carried out in a controlled-atmosphere furnace at high temperatures with a molten salt flux. Spent fuels with both stainless steel and Zircaloy cladding are being evaluated for treatment; thus, stainless steel-rich and Zircaloy-rich waste forms are being developed. Although the primary disposition option for the actinides is the mineral waste form, the concept of incorporating the TRU-bearing product into the metal waste form has enough potential to warrant investigation.

McDeavitt, S.M.; Abraham, D.P.; Keiser, D.D. Jr.; Park, J.Y.

1996-07-01

422

IMPACT OF THE SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS ON THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY - 12112  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) is investigating the deployment of a parallel technology to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF, presently under construction) to accelerate high activity salt waste processing. The proposed technology combines large waste tank strikes of monosodium titanate (MST) to sorb strontium and actinides with two ion exchange columns packed with crystalline silicotitanate (CST) resin to sorb cesium. The new process was designated Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX), since the ion exchange columns were sized to fit within a waste storage tank riser. Loaded resins are to be combined with high activity sludge waste and fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for incorporation into the current glass waste form. Decontaminated salt solution produced by SCIX will be fed to the SRS Saltstone Facility for on-site immobilization as a grout waste form. Determining the potential impact of SCIX resins on DWPF processing was the basis for this study. Accelerated salt waste treatment is projected to produce a significant savings in the overall life cycle cost of waste treatment at SRS.

Koopman, D.; Lambert, D.; Fox, K.; Stone, M.

2011-11-07

423

Results from simulated contact-handled transuranic waste experiments at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

We conducted in situ experiments with nonradioactive, contact-handled transuranic (CH TRU) waste drums at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility for about four years. We performed these tests in two rooms in rock salt, at WIPP, with drums surrounded by crushed salt or 70 wt % salt/30 wt % bentonite clay backfills, or partially submerged in a NaCl brine pool. Air and brine temperatures were maintained at {approximately}40C. These full-scale (210-L drum) experiments provided in situ data on: backfill material moisture-sorption and physical properties in the presence of brine; waste container corrosion adequacy; and, migration of chemical tracers (nonradioactive actinide and fission product simulants) in the near-field vicinity, all as a function of time. Individual drums, backfill, and brine samples were removed periodically for laboratory evaluations. Waste container testing in the presence of brine and brine-moistened backfill materials served as a severe overtest of long-term conditions that could be anticipated in an actual salt waste repository. We also obtained relevant operational-test emplacement and retrieval experience. All test results are intended to support both the acceptance of actual TRU wastes at the WIPP and performance assessment data needs. We provide an overview and technical data summary focusing on the WIPP CH TRU envirorunental overtests involving 174 waste drums in the presence of backfill materials and the brine pool, with posttest laboratory materials analyses of backfill sorbed-moisture content, CH TRU drum corrosion, tracer migration, and associated test observations.

Molecke, M.A.; Sorensen, N.R.; Krumhansl, J.L.

1993-12-31

424

Retrieval of Hanford Single Shell Nuclear Waste Tanks using Technologies Foreign and Domestic  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site is accelerating its SST retrieval mission. One aspect of this acceleration is the identification of new baseline retrieval technologies that can be applied to all tank conditions for salt & sludge wastes in both sound & leaking tanks.

EACKER, J.A.; GIBBONS, P.W.

2003-01-01

425

Leaching behavior of phosphate-bonded ceramic waste forms  

SciTech Connect

Over the last few years, Argonne National Laboratory has been developing room-temperature-setting chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for solidifying and stabilizing low-level mixed wastes. This technology is crucial for stabilizing waste streams that contain volatile species and off-gas secondary waste streams generated by high-temperature treatment of such wastes. We have developed a magnesium phosphate ceramic to treat mixed wastes such as ash, salts, and cement sludges. Waste forms of surrogate waste streams were fabricated by acid-base reactions between the mixtures of magnesium oxide powders and the wastes, and phosphoric acid or acid phosphate solutions. Dense and hard ceramic waste forms are produced in this process. The principal advantage of this technology is that the contaminants are immobilized by both chemical stabilization and subsequent microencapsulation of the reaction products. This paper reports the results of durability studies conducted on waste forms made with ash waste streams spiked with hazardous and radioactive surrogates. Standard leaching tests such as ANS 16.1 and TCLP were conducted on the final waste forms. Fates of the contaminants in the final waste forms were established by electron microscopy. In addition, stability of the waste forms in aqueous environments was evaluated with long-term water-immersion tests.

Singh, D.; Wagh, A.S.; Jeong, S.Y.; Dorf, M.

1996-04-01

426

Mass Wasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mass Wasting is a course handout designed to initiate discussion on the factors involved in mass wasting (eg. creep, solifluction, falls, slides, and flows) and the methods used to prevent mass wasting. Definitions are given for key terms such as angle of repose and lahars. Photographs illustrate the effects of rockslides and slumps. Links are provided to the online Physical Geology resources at Georgia Perimeter College.

Pamela Gore

1998-11-28

427

Base of fresh ground water, northern Louisiana Salt-Dome Basin and vicinity, northern Louisiana and southern Arkansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The National Waste Terminal Storage Program is an effort by the U.S. Department of Energy to locate and develop sites for disposal or storage of commercially produced radioactive wastes. As part of this program, salt domes in the northern Louisiana salt-dome basin are being studied to determine their suitability as repositories. Part of the U.S. Geological Survey 's participation in the program has been to describe the regional geohydrology of the northern Louisiana salt-dome basin. A map based on a compilation of published data and the interpretation of electrical logs shows the altitude of the base of freshwater in aquifers in the northern Louisiana salt-dome basin. (USGS)

Ryals, G.N.

1980-01-01

428

Fluid inclusions in salt from the Rayburn and Vacherie domes, Louisiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Core samples from the Rayburn and Vacherie salt domes in Louisiana were examined for fluid inclusions, in connection with the possible use of such domes for nuclear waste storage sites. Three types of fluid inclusions were found, brine, compressed gas, and oil (in decreasing volume percent abundance). The total amount of such fluids is small, certainly < 0.1 vol. % and probably in the range 0.01 to 0.001 volume %, but the inclusions are highly erratic in distribution. Unlike many bedded salt deposits, the brine inclusions in this salt contain fluids that are not far from simple NaCl-H2O solutions, with very little of other ions. One of three possible explanations for such fluids is that fresh water penetrated the salt at some unknown time in the past and was trapped; if such entry of fresh water has occurred in the past, it might also occur again in the future.

Roedder, Edwin; Belkin, H.E.

1979-01-01

429

Molten salt extraction of transuranic and reactive fission products from used uranium oxide fuel  

DOEpatents

Used uranium oxide fuel is detoxified by extracting transuranic and reactive fission products into molten salt. By contacting declad and crushed used uranium oxide fuel with a molten halide salt containing a minor fraction of the respective uranium trihalide, transuranic and reactive fission products partition from the fuel to the molten salt phase, while uranium oxide and non-reactive, or noble metal, fission products remain in an insoluble solid phase. The salt is then separated from the fuel via draining and distillation. By this method, the bulk of the decay heat, fission poisoning capacity, and radiotoxicity are removed from the used fuel. The remaining radioactivity from the noble metal fission products in the detoxified fuel is primarily limited to soft beta emitters. The extracted transuranic and reactive fission products are amenable to existing technologies for group uranium/transuranic product recovery and fission product immobilization in engineered waste forms.

Herrmann, Steven Douglas

2014-05-27

430

A salt-free treatment of aluminum dross using plasma heating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plasma dross treatment process is similar in operation and equipment to the conventional RSF process, but its elimination of salt fluxes solves the problem of corrosive gas evolution, and also results in salt-free by-products (NMP), which are recyclable and are a marketable raw material for other industries. Labor and equipment demands are about the same for both processes, but the new process dispenses with the costs of salt purchase and landfilling or recycling of salt cake. The new process is the first industrial application of plasma heating technology in the aluminum industry, and greatly reduces environmental risks, while providing a closed-loop, pollution-and waste-free dross treatment method.

Lavoie, S.; Dub, G.

1991-02-01

431

Development and testing of a wet oxidation waste processing system. [for waste treatment aboard manned spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The wet oxidation process is considered as a potential treatment method for wastes aboard manned spacecraft for these reasons: (1) Fecal and urine wastes are processed to sterile water and CO2 gas. However, the water requires post-treatment to remove salts and odor; (2) the residual ash is negligible in quantity, sterile and easily collected; and (3) the product CO2 gas can be processed through a reduction step to aid in material balance if needed. Reaction of waste materials with oxygen at elevated temperature and pressure also produces some nitrous oxide, as well as trace amounts of a few other gases.

Weitzmann, A. L.

1977-01-01

432

IMPACT OF NOBLE METALS AND MERCURY ON HYDROGEN GENERATION DURING HIGH LEVEL WASTE PRETREATMENT AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site vitrifies radioactive High Level Waste (HLW) for repository internment. The process consists of three major steps: waste pretreatment, vitrification, and canister decontamination\\/sealing. HLW consists of insoluble metal hydroxides (primarily iron, aluminum, calcium, magnesium, manganese, and uranium) and soluble sodium salts (carbonate, hydroxide, nitrite, nitrate, and sulfate). The pretreatment process

M Stone; T Tommy Edwards; D David Koopman

2009-01-01

433

Hanford Waste Physical and Rheological Properties: Data and Gaps  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site in Washington State manages 177 underground storage tanks containing approximately 250,000 m3 of waste generated during past defense reprocessing and waste management operations. These tanks contain a mixture of sludge, saltcake and supernatant liquids. The insoluble sludge fraction of the waste consists of metal oxides and hydroxides and contains the bulk of many radionuclides such as the transuranic components and 90Sr. The saltcake, generated by extensive evaporation of aqueous solutions, consists primarily of dried sodium salts. The supernates consist of concentrated (5-15 M) aqueous solutions of sodium and potassium salts. The 177 storage tanks include 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) and 28 double -hell tanks (DSTs). Ultimately the wastes need to be retrieved from the tanks for treatment and disposal. The SSTs contain minimal amounts of liquid wastes, and the Tank Operations Contractor is continuing a program of moving solid wastes from SSTs to interim storage in the DSTs. The Hanford DST system provides the staging location for waste feed delivery to the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protections (ORP) Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP is being designed and constructed to pretreat and then vitrify a large portion of the wastes in Hanfords 177 underground waste storage tanks.

Wells, Beric E.; Kurath, Dean E.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Onishi, Yasuo; Huckaby, James L.; Cooley, Scott K.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Buck, Edgar C.; Tingey, Joel M.; Daniel, Richard C.; Anderson, K. K.

2011-08-01

434

Hanford Supplemental Treatment: Literature and Modeling Review of SRS HLW Salt Dissolution and Fractional Crystallization  

SciTech Connect

In order to accelerate waste treatment and disposal of Hanford tank waste by 2028, the Department of Energy (DOE) and CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CHG), Inc. are evaluating alternative technologies which will be used in conjunction with the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) to safely pretreat and immobilize the tank waste. Several technologies (Bulk Vitrification and Steam Reforming) are currently being evaluated for immobilizing the pretreated waste. Since the WTP does not have sufficient capacity to pretreat all the waste going to supplemental treatment by the 2028 milestone, two technologies (Selective Dissolution and Fractional Crystallization) are being considered for pretreatment of salt waste. The scope of this task was to: (1) evaluate the recent Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 41 dissolution campaign and other literature to provide a more complete understanding of selective dissolution, (2) provide an update on the progress of salt dissolution and modeling activities at SRS, (3) investigate SRS experience and outside literature sources on industrial equipment and experimental results of previous fractional crystallization processes, and (4) evaluate recent Hanford AP104 boildown experiments and modeling results and recommend enhancements to the Environmental Simulation Program (ESP) to improve its pre