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Sample records for waste licl salt

  1. Study on LiCl waste salt treatment process by layer melt crystallization

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Yung-Zun; Lee, Tae-Kyo; Choi, Jung-Hoon; Eun, Hee-Chul; Park, Hwan-Seo; Kim, In-Tae; Park, Geun-Il

    2013-07-01

    Layer melt crystallization operated in a static mode has been applied to separate Group I and II chlorides from surrogate LiCl waste salt. The effects of operating conditions such as crystal growing rate(or flux) and initial impurity concentration on separation (or concentration) of cesium, strontium and barium involved in a LiCl melts were analyzed. In a layer crystallization process, separation was impaired by occlusion of impurities and by residual melt adhering to LiCl crystal after at the end of the process. The crystal growth rate strongly affects the crystal structure, therefore the separation efficiency, while the effect of the initial Cs and Sr concentration in LiCl molten salt was nearly negligible. (authors)

  2. Distillation and condensation of LiCl-KCl eutectic salts for a separation of pure salts from salt wastes from an electrorefining process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eun, Hee Chul; Yang, Hee Chul; Lee, Han Soo; Kim, In Tae

    2009-12-01

    Salt separation and recovery from the salt wastes generated from a pyrochemical process is necessary to minimize the high-level waste volumes and to stabilize a final waste form. In this study, the thermal behavior of the LiCl-KCl eutectic salts containing rare earth oxychlorides or oxides was investigated during a vacuum distillation and condensation process. LiCl was more easily vaporized than the other salts (KCl and LiCl-KCl eutectic salt). Vaporization characteristics of LiCl-KCl eutectic salts were similar to that of KCl. The temperature to obtain the vaporization flux (0.1 g min -1 cm -2) was decreased by much as 150 °C by a reduction of the ambient pressure from 5 Torr to 0.5 Torr. Condensation behavior of the salt vapors was different with the ambient pressure. Almost all of the salt vapors were condensed and were formed into salt lumps during a salt distillation at the ambient pressure of 0.5 Torr and they were collected in the condensed salt storage. However, fine salt particles were formed when the salt distillation was performed at 10 Torr and it is difficult for them to be recovered. Therefore, it is thought that a salt vacuum distillation and condensation should be performed to recover almost all of the vaporized salts at a pressure below 0.5 Torr.

  3. Management of Salt Waste from Electrochemical Processing of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Michael F. Simpson; Michael N. Patterson; Joon Lee; Yifeng Wang; Joshua Versey; Ammon Williams; Supathorn Phongikaroon; James Allensworth; Man-Sung Yim

    2013-10-01

    Electrochemical processing of used nuclear fuel involves operation of one or more cells containing molten salt electrolyte. Processing of the fuel results in contamination of the salt via accumulation of fission products and transuranic (TRU) actinides. Upon reaching contamination limits, the salt must be removed and either disposed or treated to remove the contaminants and recycled back to the process. During development of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II spent fuel treatment process, waste salt from the electrorefiner was to be stabilized in a ceramic waste form and disposed of in a high-level waste repository. With the cancellation of the Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository, other options are now being considered. One approach that involves direct disposal of the salt in a geologic salt formation has been evaluated. While waste forms such as the ceramic provide near-term resistance to corrosion, they may not be necessary to ensure adequate performance of the repository. To improve the feasibility of direct disposal, recycling a substantial fraction of the useful salt back to the process equipment could minimize the volume of the waste. Experiments have been run in which a cold finger is used for this purpose to crystallize LiCl from LiCl/CsCl. If it is found to be unsuitable for transportation, the salt waste could also be immobilized in zeolite without conversion to the ceramic waste form.

  4. Management of salt waste from electrochemical processing of used nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, M.F.; Patterson, M.N.; Lee, J.; Wang, Y.; Versey, J.; Phongikaroon, S.

    2013-07-01

    Electrochemical processing of used nuclear fuel involves operation of one or more cells containing molten salt electrolyte. Processing of the fuel results in contamination of the salt via accumulation of fission products and transuranic (TRU) actinides. Upon reaching contamination limits, the salt must be removed and either disposed or treated to remove the contaminants and recycled back to the process. During development of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II spent fuel treatment process, waste salt from the electro-refiner was to be stabilized in a ceramic waste form and disposed of in a high-level waste repository. With the cancellation of the Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository, other options are now being considered. One approach that involves direct disposal of the salt in a geologic salt formation has been evaluated. While waste forms such as the ceramic provide near-term resistance to corrosion, they may not be necessary to ensure adequate performance of the repository. To improve the feasibility of direct disposal, recycling a substantial fraction of the useful salt back to the process equipment could minimize the volume of the waste. Experiments have been run in which a cold finger is used for this purpose to crystallize LiCl from LiCl/CsCl. If it is found to be unsuitable for transportation, the salt waste could also be immobilized in zeolite without conversion to the ceramic waste form. (authors)

  5. Inclusion property of Cs, Sr, and Ba impurities in LiCl crystal formed by layer-melt crystallization

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jung-Hoon; Cho, Yung-Zun; Lee, Tae-Kyo; Eun, Hee-Chul; Kim, Jun-Hong; Park, Hwan-Seo; Kim, In-Tae; Park, Geun-Il

    2013-07-01

    Pyroprocessing is one of the promising technologies enabling the recycling of spent nuclear fuels from a commercial light water reactor (LWR). In general, pyroprocessing uses dry molten salts as electrolytes. In particular, LiCl waste salt after pyroprocessing contains highly radioactive I/II group fission products mainly composed of Cs, Sr, and Ba impurities. Therefore, it is beneficial to reuse LiCl salt in the pyroprocessing as an electrolyte for economic and environmental issues. Herein, to understand the inclusion property of impurities within LiCl crystal, the physical properties such as lattice parameter change, bulk modulus, and substitution enthalpy of a LiCl crystal having 0-6 at% Cs{sup +} or Ba{sup 2+} impurities under existence of 1 at% Sr{sup 2+} impurity were calculated via the first-principles density functional theory. The substitution enthalpy of LiCl crystals having 1 at% Sr{sup 2+} showed slightly decreased value than those without Sr{sup 2+} impurity. Therefore, through the substitution enthalpy calculation, it is expected that impurities will be incorporated within LiCl crystal as co-existed form rather than as a single component form. (authors)

  6. Organic waste processing using molten salt oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, M. G., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal means of oxidizing (destroying) the organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials while retaining inorganic and radioactive constituents in the salt. For this reason, MSO is considered a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. The U. S. Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (DOE/EM) is currently funding research that will identify alternatives to incineration for the treatment of organic-based mixed wastes. (Mixed wastes are defined as waste streams which have both hazardous and radioactive properties.) One such project is Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Expedited Technology Demonstration of Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO). The goal of this project is to conduct an integrated demonstration of MSO, including off-gas and spent salt treatment, and the preparation of robust solid final forms. Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has constructed an integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system in which tests and demonstrations are presently being performed under carefully controlled (experimental) conditions. The system consists of a MSO process vessel with dedicated off-gas treatment, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and equipment for preparing ceramic final waste forms. In this paper we describe the integrated system and discuss its capabilities as well as preliminary process demonstration data. A primary purpose of these demonstrations is to identify the most suitable waste streams and waste types for MSO treatment.

  7. Alternative Waste Forms for Electro-Chemical Salt Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Sundaram, S. K.; Riley, Brian J.; Matyas, Josef; Arreguin, Shelly A.; Vienna, John D.

    2009-10-28

    This study was undertaken to examine alternate crystalline (ceramic/mineral) and glass waste forms for immobilizing spent salt from the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) electrochemical separations process. The AFCI is a program sponsored by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and demonstrate a process for recycling spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The electrochemical process is a molten salt process for the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel in an electrorefiner and generates spent salt that is contaminated with alkali, alkaline earths, and lanthanide fission products (FP) that must either be cleaned of fission products or eventually replaced with new salt to maintain separations efficiency. Currently, these spent salts are mixed with zeolite to form sodalite in a glass-bonded waste form. The focus of this study was to investigate alternate waste forms to immobilize spent salt. On a mole basis, the spent salt is dominated by alkali and Cl with minor amounts of alkaline earth and lanthanides. In the study reported here, we made an effort to explore glass systems that are more compatible with Cl and have not been previously considered for use as waste forms. In addition, alternate methods were explored with the hope of finding a way to produce a sodalite that is more accepting of as many FP present in the spent salt as possible. This study was done to investigate two different options: (1) alternate glass families that incorporate increased concentrations of Cl; and (2) alternate methods to produce a mineral waste form.

  8. Supplemental Cooling for Nitrate Salt Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, Mitchell S.

    2015-08-19

    In July 2015, Los Alamos National Laboratory completed installation of a supplemental cooling system in the structure where remediated nitrate salt waste drums are stored. Although the waste currently is in a safe configuration and is monitored daily,controlling the temperature inside the structure adds another layer of protection for workers, the public,and the environment.This effort is among several layers of precautions designed to secure the waste.

  9. Simulation of salt waste evaporation/crystallization

    SciTech Connect

    Orebaugh, E.G.

    1993-01-22

    The database of ProChem software has been enhanced to account for the formation of the mineral, Burkite which can form in alkaline tank wastes during evaporation. This mineral was not suspected until recent evaporation/crystallization studies suggested its presence. The enhanced data base will predict its occurrence and realm of existence. If salt cake temperatures drop below 30{degrees}C the Burkite phase is unstable toward hydrated sodium carbonates and sulfates. ProChem will not predict if this phase is more or less rapidly dissolved than its component salts. The enhanced database improves our ability to simulate waste chemistry.

  10. Simulation of salt waste evaporation/crystallization

    SciTech Connect

    Orebaugh, E.G.

    1993-01-22

    The database of ProChem software has been enhanced to account for the formation of the mineral, Burkite which can form in alkaline tank wastes during evaporation. This mineral was not suspected until recent evaporation/crystallization studies suggested its presence. The enhanced data base will predict its occurrence and realm of existence. If salt cake temperatures drop below 30[degrees]C the Burkite phase is unstable toward hydrated sodium carbonates and sulfates. ProChem will not predict if this phase is more or less rapidly dissolved than its component salts. The enhanced database improves our ability to simulate waste chemistry.

  11. Molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Brummond, W.A.; Upadhye, R.S.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1995-07-18

    A molten salt destruction process is used to treat and destroy energetic waste materials such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels. The energetic material is pre-blended with a solid or fluid diluent in safe proportions to form a fluid fuel mixture. The fuel mixture is rapidly introduced into a high temperature molten salt bath. A stream of molten salt is removed from the vessel and may be recycled as diluent. Additionally, the molten salt stream may be pumped from the reactor, circulated outside the reactor for further processing, and delivered back into the reactor or cooled and circulated to the feed delivery system to further dilute the fuel mixture entering the reactor. 4 figs.

  12. Molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA); Pruneda, Cesar O. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A molten salt destruction process is used to treat and destroy energetic waste materials such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels. The energetic material is pre-blended with a solid or fluid diluent in safe proportions to form a fluid fuel mixture. The fuel mixture is rapidly introduced into a high temperature molten salt bath. A stream of molten salt is removed from the vessel and may be recycled as diluent. Additionally, the molten salt stream may be pumped from the reactor, circulated outside the reactor for further processing, and delivered back into the reactor or cooled and circulated to the feed delivery system to further dilute the fuel mixture entering the reactor.

  13. Cementitious Stabilization of Mixed Wastes with High Salt Loadings

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, R.D.; Burgess, M.W.; Fedorov, V.V.; Downing, D.J.

    1999-04-01

    Salt loadings approaching 50 wt % were tolerated in cementitious waste forms that still met leach and strength criteria, addressing a Technology Deficiency of low salt loadings previously identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area. A statistical design quantified the effect of different stabilizing ingredients and salt loading on performance at lower loadings, allowing selection of the more effective ingredients for studying the higher salt loadings. In general, the final waste form needed to consist of 25 wt % of the dry stabilizing ingredients to meet the criteria used and 25 wt % water to form a workable paste, leaving 50 wt % for waste solids. The salt loading depends on the salt content of the waste solids but could be as high as 50 wt % if all the waste solids are salt.

  14. Modeling Solute Thermokinetics in LiCI-KCI Molten Salt for Nuclear Waste Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Dane; Eapen, Jacob

    2013-10-01

    Recovery of actinides is an integral part of a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Pyrometallurgical nuclear fuel recycling processes have been developed in the past for recovering actinides from spent metallic and nitride fuels. The process is essentially to dissolve the spent fuel in a molten salt and then extract just the actinides for reuse in a reactor. Extraction is typically done through electrorefining, which involves electrochemical reduction of the dissolved actinides and plating onto a cathode. Knowledge of a number of basic thermokinetic properties of salts and salt-fuel mixtures is necessary for optimizing present and developing new approaches for pyrometallurgical waste processing. The properties of salt-fuel mixtures are presently being studied, but there are so many solutes and varying concentrations that direct experimental investigation is prohibitively time consuming and expensive (particularly for radioactive elements like Pu). Therefore, there is a need to reduce the number of required experiments through modeling of salt and salt-fuel mixture properties. This project will develop first-principles-based molecular modeling and simulation approaches to predict fundamental thermokinetic properties of dissolved actinides and fission products in molten salts. The focus of the proposed work is on property changes with higher concentrations (up to 5 mol%) of dissolved fuel components, where there is still very limited experimental data. The properties predicted with the modeling will be density, which is used to assess the amount of dissolved material in the salt; diffusion coefficients, which can control rates of material transport during separation; and solute activity, which determines total solubility and reduction potentials used during electrorefining. The work will focus on La, Sr, and U, which are chosen to include the important distinct categories of lanthanides, alkali earths, and actinides, respectively. Studies will be performed using LiCl-KCl salt at the eutectic composition (58 mol% LiCl, 42 mol% KCl), which is used for treating spent EBR-II fuel. The same process being used for EBRII fuel is currently being studied for widespread international implementation. The methods will focus on first-principles and first- principles derived interatomic potential based simulations, primarily using molecular dynamics. Results will be validated against existing literature and parallel ongoing experimental efforts. The simulation results will be of value for interpreting experimental results, validating analytical models, and for optimizing waste separation by potentially developing new salt configurations and operating conditions.

  15. Delivery system for molten salt oxidation of solid waste

    DOEpatents

    Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Squire, Dwight V. (Livermore, CA); Robinson, Jeffrey A. (Manteca, CA); House, Palmer A. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is a delivery system for safety injecting solid waste particles, including mixed wastes, into a molten salt bath for destruction by the process of molten salt oxidation. The delivery system includes a feeder system and an injector that allow the solid waste stream to be accurately metered, evenly dispersed in the oxidant gas, and maintained at a temperature below incineration temperature while entering the molten salt reactor.

  16. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Salt Decontamination Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Rick Demmer; Stephen Reese

    2014-09-01

    On February 14, 2014, americium and plutonium contamination was released in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) salt caverns. At the request of WIPP’s operations contractor, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) personnel developed several methods of decontaminating WIPP salt, using surrogate contaminants and also americium (241Am). The effectiveness of the methods is evaluated qualitatively, and to the extent possible, quantitatively. One of the requirements of this effort was delivering initial results and recommendations within a few weeks. That requirement, in combination with the limited scope of the project, made in-depth analysis impractical in some instances. Of the methods tested (dry brushing, vacuum cleaning, water washing, strippable coatings, and mechanical grinding), the most practical seems to be water washing. Effectiveness is very high, and it is very easy and rapid to deploy. The amount of wastewater produced (2 L/m2) would be substantial and may not be easy to manage, but the method is the clear winner from a usability perspective. Removable surface contamination levels (smear results) from the strippable coating and water washing coupons found no residual removable contamination. Thus, whatever is left is likely adhered to (or trapped within) the salt. The other option that shows promise is the use of a fixative barrier. Bartlett Nuclear, Inc.’s Polymeric Barrier System (PBS) proved the most durable of the coatings tested. The coatings were not tested for contaminant entrapment, only for coating integrity and durability.

  17. Mixed Waste Salt Encapsulation Using Polysiloxane - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.M.; Loomis, G.G.; Prewett, S.W.

    1997-11-01

    A proof-of-concept experimental study was performed to investigate the use of Orbit Technologies polysiloxane grouting material for encapsulation of U.S. Department of Energy mixed waste salts leading to a final waste form for disposal. Evaporator pond salt residues and other salt-like material contaminated with both radioactive isotopes and hazardous components are ubiquitous in the DOE complex and may exceed 250,000,000 kg of material. Current treatment involves mixing low waste percentages (less than 10% by mass salt) with cement or costly thermal treatment followed by cementation to the ash residue. The proposed technology involves simple mixing of the granular salt material (with relatively high waste loadings-greater than 50%) in a polysiloxane-based system that polymerizes to form a silicon-based polymer material. This study involved a mixing study to determine optimum waste loadings and compressive strengths of the resultant monoliths. Following the mixing study, durability testing was performed on promising waste forms. Leaching studies including the accelerated leach test and the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure were also performed on a high nitrate salt waste form. In addition to this testing, the waste form was examined by scanning electron microscope. Preliminary cost estimates for applying this technology to the DOE complex mixed waste salt problem is also given.

  18. Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh, Christi D.; Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from United States repository development, such as seal system design, coupled process simulation, and application of performance assessment methodology, helps define a clear strategy for a heat-generating nuclear waste repository in salt.

  19. Effects of Heat Generation on Nuclear Waste Disposal in Salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, D. J.

    2008-12-01

    Disposal of nuclear waste in salt is an established technology, as evidenced by the successful operations of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) since 1999. The WIPP is located in bedded salt in southeastern New Mexico and is a deep underground facility for transuranic (TRU) nuclear waste disposal. There are many advantages for placing radioactive wastes in a geologic bedded-salt environment. One desirable mechanical characteristic of salt is that it flows plastically with time ("creeps"). The rate of salt creep is a strong function of temperature and stress differences. Higher temperatures and deviatoric stresses increase the creep rate. As the salt creeps, induced fractures may be closed and eventually healed, which then effectively seals the waste in place. With a backfill of crushed salt emplaced around the waste, the salt creep can cause the crushed salt to reconsolidate and heal to a state similar to intact salt, serving as an efficient seal. Experiments in the WIPP were conducted to investigate the effects of heat generation on the important phenomena and processes in and around the repository (Munson et al. 1987; 1990; 1992a; 1992b). Brine migration towards the heaters was induced from the thermal gradient, while salt creep rates showed an exponential dependence on temperature. The project "Backfill and Material Behavior in Underground Salt Repositories, Phase II" (BAMBUS II) studied the crushed salt backfill and material behavior with heat generation at the Asse mine located near Remlingen, Germany (Bechthold et al. 2004). Increased salt creep rates and significant reconsolidation of the crushed salt were observed at the termination of the experiment. Using the data provided from both projects, exploratory modeling of the thermal-mechanical response of salt has been conducted with varying thermal loading and waste spacing. Increased thermal loading and decreased waste spacing drive the system to higher temperatures, while both factors are desired to reduce costs, as well as decrease the overall footprint of the repository. Higher temperatures increase the rate of salt creep which then effectively seals the waste quicker. Data of the thermal-mechanical response of salt at these higher temperatures is needed to further validate the exploratory modeling and provide meaningful constraints on the repository design. Sandia is a multi program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04- 94AL85000.

  20. Hyponatremia—What Is Cerebral Salt Wasting?

    PubMed Central

    Momi, Jasminder; Tang, Christopher M; Abcar, Antoine C; Kujubu, Dean A; Sim, John J

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte imbalance in hospitalized patients. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, especially if the underlying cause is incorrectly diagnosed and not treated appropriately. Often, the hospitalist is faced with a clinical dilemma when a patient presents with hyponatremia of an unclear etiology and with uncertain volume status. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is frequently diagnosed in this clinical setting, but cerebral salt wasting (CSW) is an important diagnosis to consider. Objective: We wanted to describe the diagnosis, treatment, and history of CSW to provide clinicians with a better understanding of the differential diagnosis for hyponatremia. Conclusion: CSW is a process of extracellular volume depletion due to a tubular defect in sodium transport. Two postulated mechanisms for CSW are the excess secretion of natriuretic peptides and the loss of sympathetic stimulation to the kidney. Making the distinction between CSW and SIADH is important because the treatment for the two conditions is very different. PMID:20740122

  1. Vitrification of IFR and MSBR halide salt reprocessing wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Siemer, D.D.

    2013-07-01

    Both of the genuinely sustainable (breeder) nuclear fuel cycles (IFR - Integral Fast Reactor - and MSBR - Molten Salt Breeder Reactor -) studied by the USA's national laboratories would generate high level reprocessing waste (HLRW) streams consisting of a relatively small amount ( about 4 mole %) of fission product halide (chloride or fluoride) salts in a matrix comprised primarily (about 95 mole %) of non radioactive alkali metal halide salts. Because leach resistant glasses cannot accommodate much of any of the halides, most of the treatment scenarios previously envisioned for such HLRW have assumed a monolithic waste form comprised of a synthetic analog of an insoluble crystalline halide mineral. In practice, this translates to making a 'substituted' sodalite ('Ceramic Waste Form') of the IFR's chloride salt-based wastes and fluoroapatite of the MSBR's fluoride salt-based wastes. This paper discusses my experimental studies of an alternative waste management scenario for both fuel cycles that would separate/recycle the waste's halide and immobilize everything else in iron phosphate (Fe-P) glass. It will describe both how the work was done and what its results indicate about how a treatment process for both of those wastes should be implemented (fluoride and chloride behave differently). In either case, this scenario's primary advantages include much higher waste loadings, much lower overall cost, and the generation of a product (glass) that is more consistent with current waste management practices. (author)

  2. Expected brine movement at potential nuclear waste repository salt sites

    SciTech Connect

    McCauley, V.S.; Raines, G.E.

    1987-08-01

    The BRINEMIG brine migration code predicts rates and quantities of brine migration to a waste package emplaced in a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The BRINEMIG code is an explicit time-marching finite-difference code that solves a mass balance equation and uses the Jenks equation to predict velocities of brine migration. Predictions were made for the seven potentially acceptable salt sites under consideration as locations for the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Predicted total quantities of accumulated brine were on the order of 1 m/sup 3/ brine per waste package or less. Less brine accumulation is expected at domal salt sites because of the lower initial moisture contents relative to bedded salt sites. Less total accumulation of brine is predicted for spent fuel than for commercial high-level waste because of the lower temperatures generated by spent fuel. 11 refs., 36 figs., 29 tabs.

  3. Method for immobilizing mixed waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and other hazardous wastes

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Michele A.; Johnson, Terry R.

    1993-09-07

    The invention is a method for the encapsulation of soluble radioactive waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as strontium, cesium and hazardous wastes such as barium so that they may be permanently stored without future threat to the environment. The process consists of contacting the salts containing the radionuclides and hazardous wastes with certain zeolites which have been found to ion exchange with the radionuclides and to occlude the chloride salts so that the resulting product is leach resistant.

  4. Method for immobilizing mixed waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and other hazardous wastes

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Michele A. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Terry R. (Wheaton, IL)

    1993-01-01

    The invention is a method for the encapsulation of soluble radioactive waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as strontium, cesium and hazardous wastes such as barium so that they may be permanently stored without future threat to the environment. The process consists of contacting the salts containing the radionuclides and hazardous wastes with certain zeolites which have been found to ion exchange with the radionuclides and to occlude the chloride salts so that the resulting product is leach resistant.

  5. Characterization of a ceramic waste form encapsulating radioactive electrorefiner salt

    SciTech Connect

    Moschetti, T. L.; Sinkler, W.; DiSanto, T.; Noy, M.; Warren, A. R.; Cummings, D. G.; Johnson, S. G.; Goff, K. M.; Bateman, K. J.; Frank, S. M.

    1999-11-11

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a ceramic waste form to immobilize radioactive waste salt produced during the electrometallurgical treatment of spent fuel. This study presents the first results from electron microscopy and durability testing of a ceramic waste form produced from that radioactive electrorefiner salt. The waste form consists of two primary phases: sodalite and glass. The sodalite phase appears to incorporate most of the alkali and alkaline earth fission products. Other fission products (rare earths and yttrium) tend to form a separate phase and are frequently associated with the actinides, which form mixed oxides. Seven-day leach test results are also presented.

  6. Membrane Treatment of Liquid Salt Bearing Radioactive Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitriev, S. A.; Adamovich, D. V.; Demkin, V. I.; Timofeev, E. M.

    2003-02-25

    The main fields of introduction and application of membrane methods for preliminary treatment and processing salt liquid radioactive waste (SLRW) can be nuclear power stations (NPP) and enterprises on atomic submarines (AS) utilization. Unlike the earlier developed technology for the liquid salt bearing radioactive waste decontamination and concentrating this report presents the new enhanced membrane technology for the liquid salt bearing radioactive waste processing based on the state-of-the-art membrane unit design, namely, the filtering units equipped with the metal-ceramic membranes of ''TruMem'' brand, as well as the electrodialysis and electroosmosis concentrators. Application of the above mentioned units in conjunction with the pulse pole changer will allow the marked increase of the radioactive waste concentrating factor and the significant reduction of the waste volume intended for conversion into monolith and disposal. Besides, the application of the electrodialysis units loaded with an ion exchange material at the end polishing stage of the radioactive waste decontamination process will allow the reagent-free radioactive waste treatment that meets the standards set for the release of the decontaminated liquid radioactive waste effluents into the natural reservoirs of fish-farming value.

  7. Integrated demonstration of molten salt oxidation with salt recycle for mixed waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, P.C.

    1997-11-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal, nonflame process that has the inherent capability of completely destroying organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials while retaining inorganic and radioactive constituents in the salt. For this reason, MSO is considered a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has prepared a facility and constructed an integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system in which tests and demonstrations are performed under carefully controlled (experimental) conditions. The system consists of a MSO processor with dedicated off-gas treatment, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and equipment for preparing ceramic final waste forms. This integrated system was designed and engineered based on laboratory experience with a smaller engineering-scale reactor unit and extensive laboratory development on salt recycle and final forms preparation. In this paper we present design and engineering details of the system and discuss its capabilities as well as preliminary process demonstration data. A primary purpose of these demonstrations is identification of the most suitable waste streams and waste types for MSO treatment.

  8. Oil field waste disposal in salt caverns: An information website

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasko, D.; Veil, J. A.

    1999-12-10

    Argonne National Laboratory has completed the construction of a Website for the US Department of Energy (DOE) that provides detailed information on salt caverns and their use for disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Specific topics in the Website include the following: descriptions of salt deposits and salt caverns within the US, salt cavern construction methods, potential types of wastes, waste emplacement, regulatory issues, costs, carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic human health risks associated with postulated cavern release scenarios, new information on cavern disposal (e.g., upcoming meetings, regulatory issues, etc.), other studies supported by the National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) (e.g., considerations of site location, cavern stability, development issues, and bedded salt characterization in the Midland Basin), and links to other associated Web sites. In addition, the Website allows downloadable access to reports prepared on the topic that were funded by DOE. Because of the large quantities of NOW and NORM wastes generated annually by the oil industry, information presented on this Website is particularly interesting and valuable to project managers, regulators, and concerned citizens.

  9. Engineering Options Assessment Report. Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Anast, Kurt Roy

    2015-11-13

    This report examines and assesses the available systems and facilities considered for carrying out remediation activities on remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The assessment includes a review of the waste streams consisting of 60 RNS, 29 above-ground UNS, and 79 candidate below-ground UNS containers that may need remediation. The waste stream characteristics were examined along with the proposed treatment options identified in the Options Assessment Report . Two primary approaches were identified in the five candidate treatment options discussed in the Options Assessment Report: zeolite blending and cementation. Systems that could be used at LANL were examined for housing processing operations to remediate the RNS and UNS containers and for their viability to provide repackaging support for remaining LANL legacy waste.

  10. Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Anast, Kurt Roy

    2015-11-18

    This report examines and assesses the available systems and facilities considered for carrying out remediation activities on remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The assessment includes a review of the waste streams consisting of 60 RNS, 29 aboveground UNS, and 79 candidate belowground UNS containers that may need remediation. The waste stream characteristics were examined along with the proposed treatment options identified in the Options Assessment Report . Two primary approaches were identified in the five candidate treatment options discussed in the Options Assessment Report: zeolite blending and cementation. Systems that could be used at LANL were examined for housing processing operations to remediate the RNS and UNS containers and for their viability to provide repackaging support for remaining LANL legacy waste.

  11. Injector nozzle for molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Brummond, W.A.; Upadhye, R.S.

    1996-02-13

    An injector nozzle has been designed for safely injecting energetic waste materials, such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels, into a molten salt reactor in a molten salt destruction process without premature detonation or back burn in the injection system. The energetic waste material is typically diluted to form a fluid fuel mixture that is injected rapidly into the reactor. A carrier gas used in the nozzle serves as a carrier for the fuel mixture, and further dilutes the energetic material and increases its injection velocity into the reactor. The injector nozzle is cooled to keep the fuel mixture below the decomposition temperature to prevent spontaneous detonation of the explosive materials before contact with the high-temperature molten salt bath. 2 figs.

  12. Injector nozzle for molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1996-01-01

    An injector nozzle has been designed for safely injecting energetic waste materials, such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels, into a molten salt reactor in a molten salt destruction process without premature detonation or back burn in the injection system. The energetic waste material is typically diluted to form a fluid fuel mixture that is injected rapidly into the reactor. A carrier gas used in the nozzle serves as a carrier for the fuel mixture, and further dilutes the energetic material and increases its injection velocity into the reactor. The injector nozzle is cooled to keep the fuel mixture below the decomposition temperature to prevent spontaneous detonation of the explosive materials before contact with the high-temperature molten salt bath.

  13. Novel waste printed circuit board recycling process with molten salt.

    PubMed

    Riedewald, Frank; Sousa-Gallagher, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the method was to prove the concept of a novel waste PCBs recycling process which uses inert, stable molten salts as the direct heat transfer fluid and, simultaneously, uses this molten salt to separate the metal products in either liquid (solder, zinc, tin, lead, etc.) or solid (copper, gold, steel, palladium, etc.) form at the operating temperatures of 450-470 °C. The PCB recovery reactor is essentially a U-shaped reactor with the molten salt providing a continuous fluid, allowing molten salt access from different depths for metal recovery. A laboratory scale batch reactor was constructed using 316L as suitable construction material. For safety reasons, the inert, stable LiCl-KCl molten salts were used as direct heat transfer fluid. Recovered materials were washed with hot water to remove residual salt before metal recovery assessment. The impact of this work was to show metal separation using molten salts in one single unit, by using this novel reactor methodology. •The reactor is a U-shaped reactor filled with a continuous liquid with a sloped bottom representing a novel reactor concept.•This method uses large PCB pieces instead of shredded PCBs as the reactor volume is 2.2 L.•The treated PCBs can be removed via leg B while the process is on-going. PMID:26150977

  14. Novel waste printed circuit board recycling process with molten salt

    PubMed Central

    Riedewald, Frank; Sousa-Gallagher, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the method was to prove the concept of a novel waste PCBs recycling process which uses inert, stable molten salts as the direct heat transfer fluid and, simultaneously, uses this molten salt to separate the metal products in either liquid (solder, zinc, tin, lead, etc.) or solid (copper, gold, steel, palladium, etc.) form at the operating temperatures of 450–470 °C. The PCB recovery reactor is essentially a U-shaped reactor with the molten salt providing a continuous fluid, allowing molten salt access from different depths for metal recovery. A laboratory scale batch reactor was constructed using 316L as suitable construction material. For safety reasons, the inert, stable LiCl–KCl molten salts were used as direct heat transfer fluid. Recovered materials were washed with hot water to remove residual salt before metal recovery assessment. The impact of this work was to show metal separation using molten salts in one single unit, by using this novel reactor methodology. • The reactor is a U-shaped reactor filled with a continuous liquid with a sloped bottom representing a novel reactor concept. • This method uses large PCB pieces instead of shredded PCBs as the reactor volume is 2.2 L. • The treated PCBs can be removed via leg B while the process is on-going. PMID:26150977

  15. Salt-occluded zeolite waste forms: Crystal structures and transformability

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J.W. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    Neutron diffraction studies of salt-occluded zeolite and zeolite/glass composite samples, simulating nuclear waste forms loaded with fission products, have revealed complex structures, with cations assuming the dual roles of charge compensation and occlusion (cluster formation). These clusters roughly fill the 6--8 {angstrom} diameter pores of the zeolites. Samples are prepared by equilibrating zeolite-A with complex molten Li, K, Cs, Sr, Ba, Y chloride salts, with compositions representative of anticipated waste systems. Samples prepared using zeolite 4A (which contains exclusively sodium cations) as starting material are observed to transform to sodalite, a denser aluminosilicate framework structure, while those prepared using zeolite 5A (sodium and calcium ions) more readily retain the zeolite-A structure. Because the sodalite framework pores are much smaller than those of zeolite-A, clusters are smaller and more rigorously confined, with a correspondingly lower capacity for waste containment. Details of the sodalite structures resulting from transformation of zeolite-A depend upon the precise composition of the original mixture. The enhanced resistance of salt-occluded zeolites prepared from zeolite 5A to sodalite transformation is thought to be related to differences in the complex chloride clusters present in these zeolite mixtures. Data relating processing conditions to resulting zeolite composition and structure can be used in the selection of processing parameters which lead to optimal waste forms.

  16. Hydrometallurgical treatment of plutonium bearing salt baths waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bros, P.; Gozlan, J.P.; Lecomte, M.; Bourges, J.

    1993-12-31

    The salt flux issuing from the electrofining of plutonium metal or alloy in salt baths (KCl + NaCl) poses a difficult problem of the back-end alpha waste management. An alternative to the salt processes promoted by Los Alamos Laboratory is to develop a hydrometallurgical treatment. A new process based on an electrochemistry technique in aqueous solution has been defined and tested successfully in CEA. The diagram of the process exhibits two principal steps: in the head-end, a dissolution in HNO3 medium accompanied with an electrolytic dechlorination leading to a quantitative elimination of chloride as Cl2 gas followed by its trapping on soda lime cartridge; a complete oxidative dissolution of refractory Pu residues by electrogenerated Ag(II), in the backend: the Pu and Am recoveries by chromatographic extractions.

  17. BLENDING ANALYSIS FOR RADIOACTIVE SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.

    2012-05-10

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated methods to mix and blend the contents of the blend tanks to ensure the contents are properly blended before they are transferred from the blend tank such as Tank 21 and Tank 24 to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) feed tank. The tank contents consist of three forms: dissolved salt solution, other waste salt solutions, and sludge containing settled solids. This paper focuses on developing the computational model and estimating the operation time of submersible slurry pump when the tank contents are adequately blended prior to their transfer to the SWPF facility. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics approach was taken by using the full scale configuration of SRS Type-IV tank, Tank 21H. Major solid obstructions such as the tank wall boundary, the transfer pump column, and three slurry pump housings including one active and two inactive pumps were included in the mixing performance model. Basic flow pattern results predicted by the computational model were benchmarked against the SRNL test results and literature data. Tank 21 is a waste tank that is used to prepare batches of salt feed for SWPF. The salt feed must be a homogeneous solution satisfying the acceptance criterion of the solids entrainment during transfer operation. The work scope described here consists of two modeling areas. They are the steady state flow pattern calculations before the addition of acid solution for tank blending operation and the transient mixing analysis during miscible liquid blending operation. The transient blending calculations were performed by using the 95% homogeneity criterion for the entire liquid domain of the tank. The initial conditions for the entire modeling domain were based on the steady-state flow pattern results with zero second phase concentration. The performance model was also benchmarked against the SRNL test results and literature data.

  18. Stable and efficient colour enrichment powders of nonpolar nanocrystals in LiCl.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Talha; Soran-Erdem, Zeliha; Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Kelestemur, Yusuf; Adam, Marcus; Gaponik, Nikolai; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2015-10-22

    In this work, we propose and develop the inorganic salt encapsulation of semiconductor nanocrystal (NC) dispersion in a nonpolar phase to make a highly stable and highly efficient colour converting powder for colour enrichment in light-emitting diode backlighting. Here the wrapping of the as-synthesized green-emitting CdSe/CdZnSeS/ZnS nanocrystals into a salt matrix without ligand exchange is uniquely enabled by using a LiCl ionic host dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (THF), which simultaneously disperses these nonpolar nanocrystals. We studied the emission stability of the solid films prepared using NCs with and without LiCl encapsulation on blue LEDs driven at high current levels. The encapsulated NC powder in epoxy preserved 95.5% of the initial emission intensity and stabilized at this level while the emission intensity of NCs without salt encapsulation continuously decreased to 34.7% of its initial value after 96 h of operation. In addition, we investigated the effect of ionic salt encapsulation on the quantum efficiency of nonpolar NCs and found the quantum efficiency of the NCs-in-LiCl to be 75.1% while that of the NCs in dispersion was 73.0% and that in a film without LiCl encapsulation was 67.9%. We believe that such ionic salt encapsulated powders of nonpolar NCs presented here will find ubiquitous use for colour enrichment in display backlighting. PMID:26238664

  19. Modeling of Sulfate Double-salts in Nuclear Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Toghiani, B.

    2000-10-30

    Due to limited tank space at Hanford and Savannah River, the liquid nuclear wastes or supernatants have been concentrated in evaporators to remove excess water prior to the hot solutions being transferred to underground storage tanks. As the waste solutions cooled, the salts in the waste exceeded the associated solubility limits and precipitated in the form of saltcakes. The initial step in the remediation of these saltcakes is a rehydration process called saltcake dissolution. At Hanford, dissolution experiments have been conducted on small saltcake samples from five tanks. Modeling of these experimental results, using the Environmental Simulation Program (ESP), are being performed at the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at Mississippi State University. The River Protection Project (RPP) at Hanford will use these experimental and theoretical results to determine the amount of water that will be needed for its dissolution and retrieval operations. A comprehensive effort by the RPP and the Tank Focus Area continues to validate and improve the ESP and its databases for this application. The initial effort focused on the sodium, fluoride, and phosphate system due to its role in the formation of pipeline plugs. In FY 1999, an evaluation of the ESP predictions for sodium fluoride, trisodium phosphate dodecahydrate, and natrophosphate clearly indicated that improvements to the Public database of the ESP were needed. One of the improvements identified was double salts. The inability of any equilibrium thermodynamic model to properly account for double salts in the system can result in errors in the predicted solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) of species in the system. The ESP code is evaluated by comparison with experimental data where possible. However, data does not cover the range of component concentrations and temperatures found in many tank wastes. Therefore, comparison of ESP with another code is desirable, and may illuminate problems with both. For this purpose, the SOLGASMIX code was used in conjunction with a small private database developed at ORNL. This code calculates thermodynamic equilibria through minimization of Gibbs Energy, and utilizes the Pitzer model for activity coefficients. The sodium nitrate-sulfate double salt and the sodium fluoride-sulfate double salt were selected for the FY 2000 validation study of ESP. Even though ESP does not include the sulfate-nitrate double salt, this study found that this omission does not appear to be a major consequence. In this case, the solubility predictions with and without the sulfate-nitrate double salt are comparable. In contrast, even though the sulfate-fluoride double salt is included within the ESP databank, comparison to previous experimental results indicates that ESP underestimates solubility. Thus, the prediction for the sulfate-fluoride system needs to be improved. A main consequence of the inability to accurately predict the SLE of double salts is its impact on the predicted ionic strength of the solution. The ionic strength has been observed to be an important factor in the formation of pipeline plugs. To improve the ESP prediction, solubility tests on the sulfate-fluoride system are underway at DIAL, and these experimental results will be incorporated into the Public database by OLI System, Inc. Preliminary ESP simulations also indicated difficulties with the SLE prediction for anhydrous sodium sulfate. The Public database for the ESP does not include fundamental parameters for this solid in mixed solutions below 32.4 C. The limitation, in the range of anhydrous sodium sulfate, leads to convergence problems in ESP and to inaccurate predictions of solubility near the invariant point when sodium sulfate decahydrate and other salts, such as sodium nitrate, were present. These difficulties were partially corrected through the use of an additional database. In conclusion, these results indicate the need for experimental data at temperatures above 25 C and in solutions containing both nitrate and hydroxide. Furthermore, the validation and do

  20. Pyrolytic conversion of plastic and rubber waste to hydrocarbons with basic salt catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Wingfield, Jr., Robert C. (Southfield, MI); Braslaw, Jacob (Southfield, MI); Gealer, Roy L. (West Bloomfield, MI)

    1985-01-01

    The invention relates to a process for improving the pyrolytic conversion of waste selected from rubber and plastic to low molecular weight olefinic materials by employing basis salt catalysts in the waste mixture. The salts comprise alkali or alkaline earth compounds, particularly sodium carbonate, in an amount of greater than about 1 weight percent based on the waste feed.

  1. Overview of Fiscal Year 2002 Research and Development for Savannah River Site's Salt Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    H. D. Harmon, R. Leugemors, PNNL; S. Fink, M. Thompson, D. Walker, WSRC; P. Suggs, W. D. Clark, Jr

    2003-02-26

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste program is responsible for storage, treatment, and immobilization of high-level waste for disposal. The Salt Processing Program (SPP) is the salt (soluble) waste treatment portion of the SRS high-level waste effort. The overall SPP encompasses the selection, design, construction and operation of treatment technologies to prepare the salt waste feed material for the site's grout facility (Saltstone) and vitrification facility (Defense Waste Processing Facility). Major constituents that must be removed from the salt waste and sent as feed to Defense Waste Processing Facility include actinides, strontium, cesium, and entrained sludge. In fiscal year 2002 (FY02), research and development (R&D) on the actinide and strontium removal and Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) processes transitioned from technology development for baseline process selection to providing input for conceptual design of the Salt Waste Processing Facility. The SPP R&D focused on advancing the technical maturity, risk reduction, engineering development, and design support for DOE's engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) contractors for the Salt Waste Processing Facility. Thus, R&D in FY02 addressed the areas of actual waste performance, process chemistry, engineering tests of equipment, and chemical and physical properties relevant to safety. All of the testing, studies, and reports were summarized and provided to the DOE to support the Salt Waste Processing Facility, which began conceptual design in September 2002.

  2. Identifying suitable "piercement" salt domes for nuclear waste storage sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kehle, R.

    1980-08-01

    Piercement salt domes of the northern interior salt basins of the Gulf of Mexico are being considered as permanent storage sites for both nuclear and chemically toxic wastes. The suitable domes are stable and inactive, having reached their final evolutionary configuration at least 30 million years ago. They are buried to depths far below the level to which erosion will penetrate during the prescribed storage period and are not subject to possible future reactivation. The salt cores of these domes are themselves impermeable, permitting neither the entry nor exit of ground water or other unwanted materials. In part, a stable dome may be recognized by its present geometric configuration, but conclusive proof depends on establishing its evolutionary state. The evolutionary state of a dome is obtained by reconstructing the growth history of the dome as revealed by the configuration of sedimentary strata in a large area (commonly 3,000 square miles or more) surrounding the dome. A high quality, multifold CDP reflection seismic profile across a candidate dome will provide much of the necessary information when integrated with available subsurface control. Additional seismic profiles may be required to confirm an apparent configuration of the surrounding strata and an interpreted evolutionary history. High frequency seismic data collected in the near vicinity of a dome are also needed as a supplement to the CDP data to permit accurate depiction of the configuration of shallow strata. Such data must be tied to shallow drill hole control to confirm the geologic age at which dome growth ceased. If it is determined that a dome reached a terminal configuration many millions of years ago, such a dome is incapable of reactivation and thus constitutes a stable storage site for nuclear wastes.

  3. Method to synthesize dense crystallized sodalite pellet for immobilizing halide salt radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Koyama, T.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes a method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as cesium and strontium and hazardous materials such as barium. A sodalite intermediate is prepared by mixing appropriate amounts of silica, alumina and sodium hydroxide with respect to sodalite and heating the mixture to form the sodalite intermediate and water. Heating is continued to drive off the water to form a water-free intermediate. The water-free intermediate is mixed with either waste salt or waste salt which has been contacted with zeolite to concentrate the radionuclides and hazardous material. The waste salt-intermediate mixture is then compacted and heated under conditions of heat and pressure to form sodalite with the waste salt, radionuclides and hazardous material trapped within the sodalite cage structure. This provides a final product having excellent leach resistant capabilities.

  4. Method to synthesize dense crystallized sodalite pellet for immobilizing halide salt radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Koyama, Tadafumi.

    1994-08-23

    A method is described for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as cesium and strontium and hazardous materials such as barium. A sodalite intermediate is prepared by mixing appropriate amounts of silica, alumina and sodium hydroxide with respect to sodalite and heating the mixture to form the sodalite intermediate and water. Heating is continued to drive off the water to form a water-free intermediate. The water-free intermediate is mixed with either waste salt or waste salt which has been contacted with zeolite to concentrate the radionuclides and hazardous material. The waste salt-intermediate mixture is then compacted and heated under conditions of heat and pressure to form sodalite with the waste salt, radionuclides and hazardous material trapped within the sodalite cage structure. This provides a final product having excellent leach resistant capabilities.

  5. Method to synthesize dense crystallized sodalite pellet for immobilizing halide salt radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Koyama, Tadafumi (Tokyo, JP)

    1994-01-01

    A method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as cesium and strontium and hazardous materials such as barium. A sodalite intermediate is prepared by mixing appropriate amounts of silica, alumina and sodium hydroxide with respect to sodalite and heating the mixture to form the sodalite intermediate and water. Heating is continued to drive off the water to form a water-free intermediate. The water-free intermediate is mixed with either waste salt or waste salt which has been contacted with zeolite to concentrate the radionuclides and hazardous material. The waste salt-intermediate mixture is then compacted and heated under conditions of heat and pressure to form sodalite with the waste salt, radionuclides and hazardous material trapped within the sodalite cage structure. This provides a final product having excellent leach resistant capabilities.

  6. Electrodialysis-based separation process for salt recovery and recycling from waste water

    DOEpatents

    Tsai, Shih-Perng (Naperville, IL)

    1997-01-01

    A method for recovering salt from a process stream containing organic contaminants is provided, comprising directing the waste stream to a desalting electrodialysis unit so as to create a concentrated and purified salt permeate and an organic contaminants containing stream, and contacting said concentrated salt permeate to a water-splitting electrodialysis unit so as to convert the salt to its corresponding base and acid.

  7. Electrodialysis-based separation process for salt recovery and recycling from waste water

    DOEpatents

    Tsai, S.P.

    1997-07-08

    A method for recovering salt from a process stream containing organic contaminants is provided, comprising directing the waste stream to a desalting electrodialysis unit so as to create a concentrated and purified salt permeate and an organic contaminants-containing stream, and contacting said concentrated salt permeate to a water-splitting electrodialysis unit so as to convert the salt to its corresponding base and acid. 6 figs.

  8. Stable and efficient colour enrichment powders of nonpolar nanocrystals in LiCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdem, Talha; Soran-Erdem, Zeliha; Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Kelestemur, Yusuf; Adam, Marcus; Gaponik, Nikolai; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we propose and develop the inorganic salt encapsulation of semiconductor nanocrystal (NC) dispersion in a nonpolar phase to make a highly stable and highly efficient colour converting powder for colour enrichment in light-emitting diode backlighting. Here the wrapping of the as-synthesized green-emitting CdSe/CdZnSeS/ZnS nanocrystals into a salt matrix without ligand exchange is uniquely enabled by using a LiCl ionic host dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (THF), which simultaneously disperses these nonpolar nanocrystals. We studied the emission stability of the solid films prepared using NCs with and without LiCl encapsulation on blue LEDs driven at high current levels. The encapsulated NC powder in epoxy preserved 95.5% of the initial emission intensity and stabilized at this level while the emission intensity of NCs without salt encapsulation continuously decreased to 34.7% of its initial value after 96 h of operation. In addition, we investigated the effect of ionic salt encapsulation on the quantum efficiency of nonpolar NCs and found the quantum efficiency of the NCs-in-LiCl to be 75.1% while that of the NCs in dispersion was 73.0% and that in a film without LiCl encapsulation was 67.9%. We believe that such ionic salt encapsulated powders of nonpolar NCs presented here will find ubiquitous use for colour enrichment in display backlighting.In this work, we propose and develop the inorganic salt encapsulation of semiconductor nanocrystal (NC) dispersion in a nonpolar phase to make a highly stable and highly efficient colour converting powder for colour enrichment in light-emitting diode backlighting. Here the wrapping of the as-synthesized green-emitting CdSe/CdZnSeS/ZnS nanocrystals into a salt matrix without ligand exchange is uniquely enabled by using a LiCl ionic host dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (THF), which simultaneously disperses these nonpolar nanocrystals. We studied the emission stability of the solid films prepared using NCs with and without LiCl encapsulation on blue LEDs driven at high current levels. The encapsulated NC powder in epoxy preserved 95.5% of the initial emission intensity and stabilized at this level while the emission intensity of NCs without salt encapsulation continuously decreased to 34.7% of its initial value after 96 h of operation. In addition, we investigated the effect of ionic salt encapsulation on the quantum efficiency of nonpolar NCs and found the quantum efficiency of the NCs-in-LiCl to be 75.1% while that of the NCs in dispersion was 73.0% and that in a film without LiCl encapsulation was 67.9%. We believe that such ionic salt encapsulated powders of nonpolar NCs presented here will find ubiquitous use for colour enrichment in display backlighting. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02696b

  9. Test plan for immobilization of salt-containing surrogate mixed wastes using polyester resins

    SciTech Connect

    Biyani, R.K.; Douglas, J.C.; Hendrickson, D.W.

    1997-07-07

    Past operations at many Department of Energy (DOE) sites have resulted in the generation of several waste streams with high salt content. These wastes contain listed and characteristic hazardous constituents and are radioactive. The salts contained in the wastes are primarily chloride, sulfate, nitrate, metal oxides, and hydroxides. DOE has placed these types of wastes under the purview of the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). The MWFA has been tasked with developing and facilitating the implementation of technologies to treat these wastes in support of customer needs and requirements. The MWFA has developed a Technology Development Requirements Document (TDRD), which specifies performance requirements for technology owners and developers to use as a framework in developing effective waste treatment solutions. This project will demonstrate the use of polyester resins in encapsulating and solidifying DOE`s mixed wastes containing salts, as an alternative to conventional and other emerging immobilization technologies.

  10. Container materials for isolation of radioactive waste in salt

    SciTech Connect

    Streicher, M.A.; Andrews, A.

    1987-10-01

    The workshop reviewed the extensive data on the corrosion resistance of low-carbon steel in simulated salt repository environments, determined whether these data were sufficient to recommend low-carbon steel for fabrication of the container, and assessed the suitability of other materials under consideration in the SRP. The panelists determined the need for testing and research programs, recommended experimental approaches, and recommended materials based on existing technology. On the first day of the workshop, presentations were made on waste package requirements; the expected corrosion environment; degradation processes, including a review of data from corrosion tests on carbon steel; and rationales for container design and materials, modeling studies, and planned future work. The second day was devoted to a panel caucus, presentation of workshop findings, and open discussion. 76 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Expedited demonstration of molten salt mixed waste treatment technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-02

    This final report discusses the molten salt mixed waste project in terms of the various subtasks established. Subtask 1: Carbon monoxide emissions; Establish a salt recycle schedule and/or a strategy for off-gas control for MWMF that keeps carbon monoxide emission below 100 ppm on an hourly averaged basis. Subtask 2: Salt melt viscosity; Experiments are conducted to determine salt viscosity as a function of ash composition, ash concentration, temperature, and time. Subtask 3: Determine that the amount of sodium carbonate entrained in the off-gas is minimal, and that any deposited salt can easily be removed form the piping using a soot blower or other means. Subtask 4: The provision of at least one final waste form that meets the waste acceptance criteria of a landfill that will take the waste. This report discusses the progress made in each of these areas.

  12. Recovery of salt wastes in the production of propylene oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Zyablitseva, M.P.; Tyurin, B.K.; Kudinov, V.I.; Bukbulatov, I.K.; Mazanko, A.F.

    1983-02-01

    In the production of propylene oxide as much as 40 t dilute calcium chloride solution forms per ton of product in the step of saponification of propylene chlorhydrine with milk of lime. To create a zero-waste technology for production of propylene oxide, there is practical interest in saponification of propylene chlorhydrine with electrolysis brines with recovery of the resultant solution of sodium chloride after purification to remove organic impurities. The possibility of using an electrochemical method to purify wastewater from production of propylene oxide in using the purified solution as starting material for production of electrolysis brines was investigated. Experimental testing of processes of purification and recovery of wastewaters in a regime of industrial electrolysis confirmed the possibility of using purified wastewater from production of propylene oxide as brine for electrolysis. Incorporation of the developed method into industry will permit zero-waste production of propylene oxide with a closed salt cycle. The cost of purification of 1 m/sup 3/ wastewater is 1-1.5 rubles.

  13. Polyethylene encapsulatin of nitrate salt wastes: Waste form stability, process scale-up, and economics

    SciTech Connect

    Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1991-07-01

    A polyethylene encapsulation system for treatment of low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Polyethylene has several advantages compared with conventional solidification/stabilization materials such as hydraulic cements. Waste can be encapsulated with greater efficiency and with better waste form performance than is possible with hydraulic cement. The properties of polyethylene relevant to its long-term durability in storage and disposal environments are reviewed. Response to specific potential failure mechanisms including biodegradation, radiation, chemical attack, flammability, environmental stress cracking, and photodegradation are examined. These data are supported by results from extensive waste form performance testing including compressive yield strength, water immersion, thermal cycling, leachability of radioactive and hazardous species, irradiation, biodegradation, and flammability. The bench-scale process has been successfully tested for application with a number of specific problem'' waste streams. Quality assurance and performance testing of the resulting waste form confirmed scale-up feasibility. Use of this system at Rocky Flats Plant can result in over 70% fewer drums processed and shipped for disposal, compared with optimal cement formulations. Based on the current Rocky Flats production of nitrate salt per year, polyethylene encapsulation can yield an estimated annual savings between $1.5 million and $2.7 million, compared with conventional hydraulic cement systems. 72 refs., 23 figs., 16 tabs.

  14. Application of molten salt oxidation for the minimization and recovery of plutonium-238 contaminated wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents the technical and economic feasibility of molten salt oxidation technology as a volume reduction and recovery process for {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste. Combustible low-level waste material contaminated with {sup 238}Pu residue is destroyed by oxidation in a 900 C molten salt reaction vessel. The combustible waste is destroyed creating carbon dioxide and steam and a small amount of ash and insoluble {sup 2328}Pu in the spent salt. The valuable {sup 238}Pu is recycled using aqueous recovery techniques. Experimental test results for this technology indicate a plutonium recovery efficiency of 99%. Molten salt oxidation stabilizes the waste converting it to a non-combustible waste. Thus installation and use of molten salt oxidation technology will substantially reduce the volume of {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste. Cost-effectiveness evaluations of molten salt oxidation indicate a significant cost savings when compared to the present plans to package, or re-package, certify and transport these wastes to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for permanent disposal. Clear and distinct cost advantages exist for MSO when the monetary value of the recovered {sup 238}Pu is considered.

  15. Recycling of LiCl-KCl eutectic based salt wastes containing radioactive rare earth oxychlorides or oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eun, H. C.; Cho, Y. Z.; Son, S. M.; Lee, T. K.; Yang, H. C.; Kim, I. T.; Lee, H. S.

    2012-01-01

    Recycling of LiCl-KCl eutectic salt wastes containing radioactive rare earth oxychlorides or oxides was studied to recover renewable salts from the salt wastes and to minimize the radioactive wastes by using a vacuum distillation method. Vaporization of the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt was effective above 900 °C and at 5 Torr. The condensations of the vaporized salt were largely dependent on temperature gradient. Based on these results, a recycling system of the salt wastes as a closed loop type was developed to obtain a high efficiency of the salt recovery condition. In this system, it was confirmed that renewable salt was recovered at more than 99 wt.% from the salt wastes, and the changes in temperature and pressure in the system could be utilized to understand the present condition of the system operation.

  16. Alternative Electrochemical Salt Waste Forms, Summary of FY2010 Results

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; Rieck, Bennett T.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Matyas, Josef; McCloy, John S.; Sundaram, S. K.; Vienna, John D.

    2010-08-01

    In FY2009, PNNL performed scoping studies to qualify two waste form candidates, tellurite (TeO2-based) glasses and halide minerals, for the electrochemical waste stream for further investigation. Both candidates showed promise with acceptable PCT release rates and effective incorporation of the 10% fission product waste stream. Both candidates received reprisal for FY2010 and were further investigated. At the beginning of FY2010, an in-depth literature review kicked off the tellurite glasses study. The review was aimed at ascertaining the state-of-the-art for chemical durability testing and mixed chloride incorporation for tellurite glasses. The literature review led the authors to 4 unique binary and 1 unique ternary systems for further investigation which include TeO2 plus the following: PbO, Al2O3-B2O3, WO3, P2O5, and ZnO. Each system was studied with and without a mixed chloride simulated electrochemical waste stream and the literature review provided the starting points for the baseline compositions as well as starting points for melting temperature, compatible crucible types, etc. The most promising glasses in each system were scaled up in production and were analyzed with the Product Consistency Test, a chemical durability test. Baseline and PCT glasses were analyzed to determine their state, i.e., amorphous, crystalline, phase separated, had undissolved material within the bulk, etc. Conclusions were made as well as the proposed direction for FY2011 plans. Sodalite was successfully synthesized by the sol-gel method. The vast majority of the dried sol-gel consisted of sodalite with small amounts of alumino-silicates and unreacted salt. Upon firing the powders made by sol-gel, the primary phase observed was sodalite with the addition of varying amounts of nepheline, carnegieite, lithium silicate, and lanthanide oxide. The amount of sodalite, nepheline, and carnegieite as well as the bulk density of the fired pellets varied with firing temperature, sol-gel process chemistry, and the amount of glass sintering aid added to the batch. As the firing temperature was increased from 850 C to 950 C, chloride volatility increased, the fraction of sodalite decreased, and the fractions nepheline and carnegieite increased. This indicates that the sodalite structure is not stable and begins to convert to nepheline and carnegieite under these conditions at 950 C. Density has opposite relationship with relation to firing temperature. The addition of a NBS-1, a glass sintering aid, had a positive effect on bulk density and increased the stability of the sodalite structure in a minimal way.

  17. Study of lithium borosilicotitanate glasses with LiCl

    SciTech Connect

    Deshpande, A. V.; Paighan, N. S.

    2012-06-05

    The effect of LiCl addition on the properties of Li{sub 2}O: B{sub 2}O{sub 3}: SiO{sub 2}: TiO{sub 2} glasses has been studied. It has been observed that the ionic conductivity increases by about half an order with LiCl addition. The decrease in glass transition temperature T{sub g} and increase in the molar volume with LiCl addition have good correlation with conductivity results. The observed increase in density of glasses has been explained on the basis of heavier Cl{sup -} ion which is accommodated in the interstices in the glass network.

  18. Destruction of high explosives and wastes containing high explosives using the Molten Salt Destruction Process

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhye, R.S.; Brummond, W.A.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1992-05-01

    The current method of disposal of large quantities of high explosives (HE), or other energetic materials, by open-pit burning, or detonation is becoming an environmentally unacceptable form of bulk destruction of these materials because of the products of incomplete combustion of HE. The Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process has been demonstrated for the destruction of HE and HE-containing wastes. MSD converts the organic constituents (including the HE) of the waste into non-hazardous substances such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water. In the case of HE-containing mixed wastes, any actinides in the waste are retained in the molten salt, thus converting the mixed wastes into low-level wastes. The destruction of HE is accomplished by introducing it, together with oxidant gases, into a crucible containing a molten salt, such as sodium carbonate, or a suitable mixture of the carbonates of sodium, potassium, lithium and calcium. The temperature of the molten salt can be between 400 to 900[degree]C. The combustible organic components of the waste react with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, nitrogen and steam. The inorganic components, in the form of ash,'' are captured in the molten salt bed as a result of wetting and dissolution of the ash. Halogenated hydrocarbons in the waste generate acid gases such as hydrogen chloride during the pyrolysis and combustion processes occurring in the melt. These are scrubbed by the alkaline carbonates, producing steam and the from the process are sent through standard off-gas clean-up processing before being, released to the atmosphere. At the end of the process runs, the salt is separated into carbonates, non-carbonate salts, and ash. The carbonates are recycled to the process, the stable salts are disposal of appropriately.

  19. Application of molten salt oxidation for the minimization and recovery of plutonium-238 contaminated wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wishau, R.

    1998-05-01

    Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is proposed as a {sup 238}Pu waste treatment technology that should be developed for volume reduction and recovery of {sup 238}Pu and as an alternative to the transport and permanent disposal of {sup 238}Pu waste to the WIPP repository. In MSO technology, molten sodium carbonate salt at 800--900 C in a reaction vessel acts as a reaction media for wastes. The waste material is destroyed when injected into the molten salt, creating harmless carbon dioxide and steam and a small amount of ash in the spent salt. The spent salt can be treated using aqueous separation methods to reuse the salt and to recover 99.9% of the precious {sup 238}Pu that was in the waste. Tests of MSO technology have shown that the volume of combustible TRU waste can be reduced by a factor of at least twenty. Using this factor the present inventory of 574 TRU drums of {sup 238}Pu contaminated wastes is reduced to 30 drums. Further {sup 238}Pu waste costs of $22 million are avoided from not having to repackage 312 of the 574 drums to a drum total of more than 4,600 drums. MSO combined with aqueous processing of salts will recover approximately 1.7 kilograms of precious {sup 238}Pu valued at 4 million dollars (at $2,500/gram). Thus, installation and use of MSO technology at LANL will result in significant cost savings compared to present plans to transport and dispose {sup 238}Pu TRU waste to the WIPP site. Using a total net present value cost for the MSO project as $4.09 million over a five-year lifetime, the project can pay for itself after either recovery of 1.6 kg of Pu or through volume reduction of 818 drums or a combination of the two. These savings show a positive return on investment.

  20. Modified phosphate ceramics for stabilization and solidification of salt mixed wastes.

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.

    1998-06-26

    Novel chemically bonded phosphate ceramics have been investigated for stabilization and solidification of chloride and nitrate salt wastes. Using low-temperature processing, we stabilized and solidified chloride and nitrate surrogate salts (with hazardous metals) in magnesium potassium phosphate ceramics up to waste loadings of 70-80 wt.%. A variety of characterizations, including strength, microstructure, and leaching, were then conducted on the waste forms. Leaching tests show that all heavy metals in the leachant are well below the EPAs universal treatment standard limits. Long-term leaching tests, per ANS 16. 1 procedure, yields leachability index for nitrate ions > 12. Chloride ions are expected to have an even higher (i.e., better) leachability index. Structural performance of these final waste forms, as indicated by compression strength and durability in aqueous environments, satisfies the regulatory criteria. Thus, based on the results of this study, it seems that phosphate ceramics are viable option for containment of salt wastes.

  1. Options assessment report: Treatment of nitrate salt waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Bruce Alan; Stevens, Patrice Ann

    2015-09-16

    This report documents the methodology used to select a method of treatment for the remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The method selected should treat the containerized waste in a manner that renders the waste safe and suitable for transport and final disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository, under specifications listed in the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (DOE/CBFO, 2013). LANL recognized that the results must be thoroughly vetted with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and the a modification to the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit is a necessary step before implementation of this or any treatment option. Likewise, facility readiness and safety basis approvals must be received from the Department of Energy (DOE). This report presents LANL's preferred option, and the documentation of the process for reaching the recommended treatment option for RNS and UNS waste, and is presented for consideration by NMED and DOE.

  2. Study on a regeneration process of LiCl-KCl eutectic based waste salt generated from the pyrochemical process

    SciTech Connect

    Eun, H.C.; Cho, Y.Z.; Choi, J.H.; Kim, J.H.; Lee, T.K.; Park, H.S.; Kim, I.T.; Park, G.I.

    2013-07-01

    A regeneration process of LiCl-KCl eutectic waste salt generated from the pyrochemical process of spent nuclear fuel has been studied. This regeneration process is composed of a chemical conversion process and a vacuum distillation process. Through the regeneration process, a high efficiency of renewable salt recovery can be obtained from the waste salt and rare earth nuclides in the waste salt can be separated as oxide or phosphate forms. Thus, the regeneration process can contribute greatly to a reduction of the waste volume and a creation of durable final waste forms. (authors)

  3. Brine migration in salt and its implications in the geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Jenks, G.H.; Claiborne, H.C.

    1981-12-01

    This report respresents a comprehensive review and analysis of available information relating to brine migration in salt surrounding radioactive waste in a salt repository. The topics covered relate to (1) the characteristics of salt formations and waste packages pertinent to considerations of rates, amounts, and effects of brine migration, (2) experimental and theoretical information on brine migration, and (3) means of designing to minimize any adverse effects of brine migration. Flooding, brine pockets, and other topics were not considered, since these features will presumably be eliminated by appropriate site selection and repository design. 115 references.

  4. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome: postoperative complication in tumours of the cerebellopontine angle.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Juretschke, Fernando; Arístegui, Miguel; García-Leal, Roberto; Fernández-Carballal, Carlos; Lowy, Alejandro; Martin-Oviedo, Carlos; Panadero, Teresa

    2012-02-01

    Cerebral salt wasting (CSW) is a rare complication in posterior fossa tumour surgery. We present two patients with cerebellopontine angle (CPA) tumours who developed cerebral salt wasting postoperatively. Both patients deteriorated in spite of intensive fluid and salt replacement. On CT scan the patients presented mild to moderate ventricular dilation, which was treated with an external ventricular drainage. After the resolution of hydrocephalus, fluid balance rapidly returned to normal in both patients and the clinical status improved. Identification and treatment of secondary obstructive hydrocephalus may contribute to the management of CSW associated to posterior fossa tumour surgery. PMID:22520103

  5. Salt Disposal Investigations to Study Thermally Hot Radioactive Waste In A Deep Geologic Repository in Bedded Rock Salt - 12488

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Roger A.; Buschman, Nancy

    2012-07-01

    A research program is proposed to investigate the behavior of salt when subjected to thermal loads like those that would be present in a high-level waste repository. This research would build upon results of decades of previous salt repository program efforts in the US and Germany and the successful licensing and operation of a repository in salt for disposal of defense transuranic waste. The proposal includes a combination of laboratory-scale investigations, numerical simulations conducted to develop validated models that could be used for future repository design and safety case development, and a thermal field test in an underground salt formation with a configuration that replicates a small portion of a conceptual repository design. Laboratory tests are proposed to measure salt and brine properties across and beyond the range of possible repository conditions. Coupled numerical models will seek to describe phenomenology (thermal, mechanical, and hydrological) observed in the laboratory tests. Finally, the field test will investigate many phenomena that have been variously cited as potential issues for disposal of thermally hot waste in salt, including buoyancy effects and migration of pre-existing trapped brine up the thermal gradient (including vapor phase migration). These studies are proposed to be coordinated and managed by the Carlsbad Field Office of DOE, which is also responsible for the operation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) within the Office of Environmental Management. The field test portion of the proposed research would be conducted in experimental areas of the WIPP underground, far from disposal operations. It is believed that such tests may be accomplished using the existing infrastructure of the WIPP repository at a lower cost than if such research were conducted at a commercial salt mine at another location. The phased field test is proposed to be performed over almost a decade, including instrumentation development, several years of measurements during heating and then subsequent cooling periods, and the eventual forensic mining back of the test bed to determine the multi-year behavior of the simulated waste/rock environment. Funding possibilities are described, and prospects for near term start-up are discussed. Mining of the access drifts required to create the test area in the WIPP underground began in November 2011. Because this mining uses existing WIPP infrastructure and labor, it is estimated to take about two years to complete the access drifts. WIPP disposal operations and facility maintenance activities will take priority over the SDI field test area mining. Funding of the SDI proposal was still being considered by DOE's Offices of Environmental Management and Nuclear Energy at the time this paper was written, so no specific estimates of the progress in 2012 have been included. (authors)

  6. Using Aspen simulation package to determine solubility of mixed salts in TRU waste evaporator bottoms

    SciTech Connect

    Hatchell, J.L.

    1998-03-01

    Nitric acid from plutonium process waste is a candidate for waste minimization by recycling. Process simulation software packages, such as Aspen, are valuable tools to estimate how effective recovery processes can be, however, constants in equations of state for many ionic components are not in their data libraries. One option is to combine single salt solubility`s in the Aspen model for mixed salt system. Single salt solubilities were regressed in Aspen within 0.82 weight percent of literature values. These were combined into a single Aspen model and used in the mixed salt studies. A simulated nitric acid waste containing mixed aluminum, calcium, iron, magnesium and sodium nitrate was tested to determine points of solubility between 25 and 100 C. Only four of the modeled experimental conditions, at 50 C and 75 C, produced a saturated solution. While experimental results indicate that sodium nitrate is the first salt to crystallize out, the Aspen computer model shows that the most insoluble salt, magnesium nitrate, the first salt to crystallize. Possible double salt formation is actually taking place under experimental conditions, which is not captured by the Aspen model.

  7. Alternative Electrochemical Salt Waste Forms, Summary of FY/CY2011 Results

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; McCloy, John S.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Windisch, Charles F.; Lepry, William C.; Matyas, Josef; Westman, Matthew P.; Rieck, Bennett T.; Lang, Jesse B.; Pierce, David A.

    2011-12-01

    This report summarizes the 2011 fiscal+calendar year efforts for developing waste forms for a spent salt generated in reprocessing nuclear fuel with an electrochemical separations process. The two waste forms are tellurite (TeO2-based) glasses and sol-gel-derived high-halide mineral analogs to stable minerals found in nature.

  8. Test procedures for polyester immobilized salt-containing surrogate mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Biyani, R.K.; Hendrickson, D.W.

    1997-07-18

    These test procedures are written to meet the procedural needs of the Test Plan for immobilization of salt containing surrogate mixed waste using polymer resins, HNF-SD-RE-TP-026 and to ensure adequacy of conduct and collection of samples and data. This testing will demonstrate the use of four different polyester vinyl ester resins in the solidification of surrogate liquid and dry wastes, similar to some mixed wastes generated by DOE operations.

  9. Conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements for disposal of borosilicate glass defense high-level waste forms in salt geologic repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    The conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements presented are applicable specifically to the normal borosilicate glass product of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). They provide preliminary numerical values for the defense high-level waste form parameters and properties identified in the waste form performance specification for geologic isolation in salt repositories. Subject areas treated include containment and isolation, operational period safety, criticality control, waste form/production canister identification, and waste package performance testing requirements. This document was generated for use in the development of conceptual waste package designs in salt. It will be revised as additional data, analyses, and regulatory requirements become available.

  10. Potential vertical movement of large heat-generating waste packages in salt.

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Daniel James; Martinez, Mario J.; Hardin, Ernest L.

    2013-05-01

    With renewed interest in disposal of heat-generating waste in bedded or domal salt formations, scoping analyses were conducted to estimate rates of waste package vertical movement. Vertical movement is found to result from thermal expansion, from upward creep or heave of the near-field salt, and from downward buoyant forces on the waste package. A two-pronged analysis approach was used, with thermal-mechanical creep modeling, and coupled thermal-viscous flow modeling. The thermal-mechanical approach used well-studied salt constitutive models, while the thermal-viscous approach represented the salt as a highly viscous fluid. The Sierra suite of coupled simulation codes was used for both approaches. The waste package in all simulations was a right-circular cylinder with the density of steel, in horizontal orientation. A time-decaying heat generation function was used to represent commercial spent fuel with typical burnup and 50-year age. Results from the thermal-mechanical base case showed approximately 27 cm initial uplift of the package, followed by gradual relaxation closely following the calculated temperature history. A similar displacement history was obtained with the package density set equal to that of salt. The slight difference in these runs is attributable to buoyant displacement (sinking) and is on the order of 1 mm in 2,000 years. Without heat generation the displacement stabilizes at a fraction of millimeter after a few hundred years. Results from thermal-viscous model were similar, except that the rate of sinking was constant after cooldown, at approximately 0.15 mm per 1,000 yr. In summary, all calculations showed vertical movement on the order of 1 mm or less in 2,000 yr, including calculations using well-established constitutive models for temperature-dependent salt deformation. Based on this finding, displacement of waste packages in a salt repository is not a significant repository performance issue.

  11. Glovebox design requirements for molten salt oxidation processing of transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, K.B.; Acosta, S.V.; Wernly, K.D.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of potential technologies for stabilization of {sup 238}Pu-contaminated combustible waste. Molten salt oxidation (MSO) provides a method for removing greater than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible waste. Implementation of MSO processing at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Plutonium Facility will eliminate the combustible matrix from {sup 238}Pu-contaminated waste and consequently reduce the cost of TRU waste disposal operations at LANL. The glovebox design requirements for unit operations including size reduction and MSO processing will be presented.

  12. Alternative Electrochemical Salt Waste Forms, Summary of FY11-FY12 Results

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; Mccloy, John S.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Lepry, William C.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Windisch, Charles F.; Matyas, Josef; Westman, Matthew P.; Rieck, Bennett T.; Lang, Jesse B.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Pierce, David A.

    2014-03-26

    The Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, is currently investigating alternative waste forms for wastes generated from nuclear fuel processing. One such waste results from an electrochemical separations process, called the “Echem” process. The Echem process utilizes a molten KCl-LiCl salt to dissolve the fuel. This process results in a spent salt containing alkali, alkaline earth, lanthanide halides and small quantities of actinide halides, where the primary halide is chloride with a minor iodide fraction. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is concurrently investigating two candidate waste forms for the Echem spent-salt: high-halide minerals (i.e., sodalite and cancrinite) and tellurite (TeO2)-based glasses. Both of these candidates showed promise in fiscal year (FY) 2009 and FY2010 with a simplified nonradioactive simulant of the Echem waste. Further testing was performed on these waste forms in FY2011 and FY2012 to assess the possibility of their use in a sustainable fuel cycle. This report summarizes the combined results from FY2011 and FY2012 efforts.

  13. Caustic Recycle from Hanford Tank Waste Using NaSICON Ceramic Membrane Salt Splitting Process

    SciTech Connect

    Fountain, Matthew S.; Kurath, Dean E.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Pendleton, J.; Balagopal, S.; Quist, M.; Clay, D.

    2009-02-20

    A family of inorganic ceramic materials, called sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON), has been studied at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to investigate their ability to separate sodium from radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions for treating U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tank wastes. Ceramatec Inc. developed and fabricated a membrane containing a proprietary NAS-GY material formulation that was electrochemically tested in a bench-scale apparatus with both a simulant and a radioactive tank-waste solution to determine the membrane performance when removing sodium from DOE tank wastes. Implementing this sodium separation process can result in significant cost savings by reducing the disposal volume of low-activity wastes and by producing a NaOH feedstock product for recycle into waste treatment processes such as sludge leaching, regenerating ion exchange resins, inhibiting corrosion in carbon-steel tanks, or retrieving tank wastes.

  14. Preliminary Technical and Legal Evaluation of Disposing of Nonhazardous Oil Field Waste into Salt Caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, Robert C.; Caudle, Dan; Elcock, Deborah; Raivel, Mary; Veil, John; and Grunewald, Ben

    1999-01-21

    This report presents an initial evaluation of the suitability, feasibility, and legality of using salt caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes. Given the preliminary and general nature of this report, we recognize that some of our findings and conclusions maybe speculative and subject to change upon further research on this topic.

  15. Disposal of NORM-Contaminated Oil Field Wastes in Salt Caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Blunt, D.L.; Elcock, D.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Viel, J.A.; and Williams, G.P.

    1999-01-21

    In 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) into salt caverns. That study concluded that disposal of NOW into salt caverns is feasible and legal. If caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they can be a suitable means of disposing of NOW (Veil et al. 1996). Considering these findings and the increased U.S. interest in using salt caverns for NOW disposal, the Office of Fossil Energy asked Argonne to conduct further research on the cost of cavern disposal compared with the cost of more traditional NOW disposal methods and on preliminary identification and investigation of the risks associated with such disposal. The cost study (Veil 1997) found that disposal costs at the four permitted disposal caverns in the United States were comparable to or lower than the costs of other disposal facilities in the same geographic area. The risk study (Tomasko et al. 1997) estimated that both cancer and noncancer human health risks from drinking water that had been contaminated by releases of cavern contents were significantly lower than the accepted risk thresholds. Since 1992, DOE has funded Argonne to conduct a series of studies evaluating issues related to management and disposal of oil field wastes contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Included among these studies were radiological dose assessments of several different NORM disposal options (Smith et al. 1996). In 1997, DOE asked Argonne to conduct additional analyses on waste disposal in salt caverns, except that this time the wastes to be evaluated would be those types of oil field wastes that are contaminated by NORM. This report describes these analyses. Throughout the remainder of this report, the term ''NORM waste'' is used to mean ''oil field waste contaminated by NORM''.

  16. Engineering study of the potential uses of salts from selective crystallization of Hanford tank wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, D.W.

    1996-04-30

    The Clean Salt Process (CSP) is the fractional crystallization of nitrate salts from tank waste stored on the Hanford Site. This study reviews disposition options for a CSP product made from Hanford Site tank waste. These options range from public release to onsite low-level waste disposal to no action. Process, production, safety, environment, cost, schedule, and the amount of CSP material which may be used are factors considered in each option. The preferred alternative is offsite release of clean salt. Savings all be generated by excluding the material from low-level waste stabilization. Income would be received from sales of salt products. Savings and income from this alternative amount to $1,027 million, excluding the cost of CSP operations. Unless public sale of CSP products is approved, the material should be calcined. The carbonate form of the CSP could then be used as ballast in tank closure and stabilization efforts. Not including the cost of CSP operations, savings of $632 million would be realized. These savings would result from excluding the material from low-level waste stabilization and reducing purchases of chemicals for caustic recycle and stabilization and closure. Dose considerations for either alternative are favorable. No other cost-effective alternatives that were considered had the capacity to handle significant quantities of the CSP products. If CSP occurs, full-scale tank-waste stabilization could be done without building additional treatment facilities after Phase 1 (DOE 1996). Savings in capital and operating cost from this reduction in waste stabilization would be in addition to the other gains described.

  17. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: geochemistry of brine in rock salt in temperature gradients and gamma-radiation fields - a selective annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, A.B.; Williams, L.B.

    1985-07-01

    Evaluation of the extensive research concerning brine geochemistry and transport is critically important to successful exploitation of a salt formation for isolating high-level radioactive waste. This annotated bibliography has been compiled from documents considered to provide classic background material on the interactions between brine and rock salt, as well as the most important results from more recent research. Each summary elucidates the information or data most pertinent to situations encountered in siting, constructing, and operating a mined repository in salt for high-level radioactive waste. The research topics covered include the basic geology, depositional environment, mineralogy, and structure of evaporite and domal salts, as well as fluid inclusions, brine chemistry, thermal and gamma-radiation effects, radionuclide migration, and thermodynamic properties of salts and brines. 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. The advantages of a salt/bentonite backfill for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal rooms

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, B.M.; Novak, C.F. ); Jercinovic, M. )

    1991-04-01

    A 70/30 wt% salt/bentonite mixture is shown to be preferable to pure crushed salt as backfill for disposal rooms in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report discusses several selection criteria used to arrive at this conclusion: the need for low permeability and porosity after closure, chemical stability with the surroundings, adequate strength to avoid shear erosion from human intrusion, ease of emplacement, and sorption potential for brine and radionuclides. Both salt and salt/bentonite are expected to consolidate to a final state of impermeability (i.e., {le} 10{sup {minus}18}m{sup 2}) adequate for satisfying federal nuclear regulations. Any advantage of the salt/bentonite mixture is dependent upon bentonite's potential for sorbing brine and radionuclides. Estimates suggest that bentonite's sorption potential for water in brine is much less than for pure water. While no credit is presently taken for brine sorption in salt/bentonite backfill, the possibility that some amount of inflowing brine would be chemically bound is considered likely. Bentonite may also sorb much of the plutonium, americium, and neptunium within the disposal room inventory. Sorption would be effective only if a major portion of the backfill is in contact with radioactive brine. Brine flow from the waste out through highly localized channels in the backfill would negate sorption effectiveness. Although the sorption potentials of bentonite for both brine and radionuclides are not ideal, they are distinctly beneficial. Furthermore, no detrimental aspects of adding bentonite to the salt as a backfill have been identified. These two observations are the major reasons for selecting salt/bentonite as a backfill within the WIPP. 39 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Options Assessment Report: Treatment of Nitrate Salt Waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Bruce Alan; Stevens, Patrice Ann

    2015-12-17

    This report documents the methodology used to select a method of treatment for the remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The method selected should treat the containerized waste in a manner that renders the waste safe and suitable for transport and final disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository, under specifications listed in the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (DOE/CBFO, 2013). LANL recognizes that the results must be thoroughly vetted with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and that a modification to the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit is a necessary step before implementation of this or any treatment option. Likewise, facility readiness and safety basis approvals must be received from the Department of Energy (DOE). This report presents LANL’s preferred option, and the documentation of the process for reaching the recommended treatment option for RNS and UNS waste, and is presented for consideration by NMED and DOE.

  20. Molten salt oxidation of mixed waste: Preliminary bench-scale experiments without radioactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, P.A.; Rudolph, J.C.; Bell, J.T.

    1994-06-01

    Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is a process in which organic wastes are oxidized by sparging them with air through a bed of molten sodium carbonate (bp 851 {degrees}C) at {ge} 900{degrees}C. This process is readily applicable to the mixed waste because acidic products from Cl, S, P, etc., in the waste, along with most metals and most radionuclides, are retained within the melt as oxides or salts. Rockwell International has studied the application of MSO to various wastes, including some mixed waste. A unit used by Rockwell to study the mixed waste treatment is presently in use at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL`s studies to date have concentrated on chemical flowsheet questions. Concerns that were studied included carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, NO{sub x}, emissions, and metal retention under a variety of conditions. Initial experiments show that CO emissions increase with increasing NaCl content in the melt, increasing temperature, and increasing airflow. Carbon monoxide content is especially high (> 2000 ppm) with high chlorine content (> 10%). Thermal NO{sub x}, emissions are relatively low ( < 5 ppm) at temperatures < 1000{degrees}C. However, most (85--100%) of the nitrogen in the feed as organic nitrate or amine was released as NO{sub x}, The metal contents of the melt and of knockout pot samples of condensed salt show high volatilities of Cs as CsCl. Average condensed salt concentrations were 60% for barium and 100% for strontium and cobalt. The cerium disappeared -- perhaps from deposition on the alumina reactor walls.

  1. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of low-activity waste immobilization. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudohydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Studies at PNNL are directed toward new solvent formulation for the practical sodium pseudohydroxide extraction systems.

  2. Subsurface geology of a potential waste emplacement site, Salt Valley Anticline, Grand County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hite, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    The Salt Valley anticline, which is located about 32 km northeast of Moab, Utah, is perhaps one of the most favorable waste emplacement sites in the Paradox basin. The site, which includes about 7.8 km 2, is highly accessible and is adjacent to a railroad. The anticline is one of a series of northwest-trending salt anticlines lying along the northeast edge of the Paradox basin. These anticlines are cored by evaporites of the Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation of Middle Pennsylvanian age. The central core of the Salt Valley anticline forms a ridgelike mass of evaporites that has an estimated amplitude of 3,600 m. The evaporite core consists of about 87 percent halite rock, which includes some potash deposits; the remainder is black shale, silty dolomite, and anhydrite. The latter three lithologies are referred to as 'marker beds.' Using geophysical logs from drill holes on the anticline, it is possible to demonstrate that the marker beds are complexly folded and faulted. Available data concerning the geothermal gradient and heatflow at the site indicate that heat from emplaced wastes should be rapidly dissipated. Potentially exploitable resources of potash and petroleum are present at Salt Valley. Development of these resources may conflict with use of the site for waste emplacement.

  3. Characteristics of wasteform composing of phosphate and silicate to immobilize radioactive waste salts.

    PubMed

    Park, Hwan-Seo; Cho, In-Hak; Eun, Hee Chul; Kim, In-Tae; Cho, Yong Zun; Lee, Han-Soo

    2011-03-01

    In the radioactive waste management, metal chloride wastes from a pyrochemical process is one of problematic wastes not directly applicable to a conventional solidification process. Different from a use of minerals or a specific phosphate glass for immobilizing radioactive waste salts, our research group applied an inorganic composite, SAP (SiO(2)-Al(2)O(3)-P(2)O(5)), to stabilize them by dechlorination. From this method, a unique wasteform composing of phosphate and silicate could be fabricated. This study described the characteristic of the wasteform on the morphology, chemical durability, and some physical properties. The wasteform has a unique "domain-matrix" structure which would be attributed to the incompatibility between silicate and phosphate glass. At higher amounts of chemical binder, "P-rich phase encapsulated by Si-rich phase" was a dominant morphology, but it was changed to be Si-rich phase encapsulated by P-rich phase at a lower amount of binder. The domain and subdomain size in the wasteform was about 0.5-2 ?m and hundreds of nm, respectively. The chemical durability of wasteform was confirmed by various leaching test methods (PCT-A, ISO dynamic leaching test, and MCC-1). From the leaching tests, it was found that the P-rich phase had ten times lower leach-resistance than the Si-rich phase. The leach rates of Cs and Sr in the wasteform were about 10(-3)g/m(2)· day, and the leached fractions of them were about 0.04% and 0.06% at 357 days, respectively. Using this method, we could stabilize and solidify the waste salt to form a monolithic wasteform with good leach-resistance. Also, the decrease of waste volume by the dechlorination approach would be beneficial in the final disposal cost, compared with the present immobilization methods for waste salt. PMID:21288037

  4. Waste segregation analysis for salt well pumping in the 200 W Area -- Task 3.4

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, D.A.

    1995-04-28

    There is an estimated 7 million liters (1.9 million gallons) of potentially complexed waste that need to be pumped from single-shell tanks (SST) in the 200 West Area. This represents up to 40% of the salt well liquor that needs to be pumped in the 200 West Area. There are three double-shell (DST) tanks in the 241-SY tank farm in the 200 West Area. Tank 241-SY-101 is full and not usable. Tank 241-SY-102 has a transuranic (TRU) sludge in the bottom. Current rules prohibit mixing complexed waste with TRU waste. Tank 241-SY-103 has three major problems. First, 241-SY-103 is on the Flammable Watch list. Second, adding waste to tank 241-SY-103 has the potential for an episodic release of hydrogen gas. Third, 241-SY-103 will not hold all of the potentially complexed waste from the SSTs. This document looks at more details regarding the salt well pumping of the 200 West Area tank farm. Some options are considered but it is beyond the scope of this document to provide an in-depth study necessary to provide a defensible solution to the complexed waste problem.

  5. Non-Radiological Air Quality Modeling for the High-Level Waste Salt Disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, C.H.

    1999-11-29

    Dispersion modeling of non-radiological airborne emissions associated with the construction and operation of three alternatives for high-level waste salt disposition at the Savannah River Site has been completed. The results will be used by Department of Energy-Savannah River in the preparation of the salt disposition supplemental environmental impact statement. Estimated maximum ground-level concentrations of applicable regulated air pollutants of the site boundary and at the distance to a hypothetical, co-located onsite worker are summarized in tables. In all cases, model estimated ambient concentrations are less than regulatory standards.

  6. Hydrous mineral dehydration around heat-generating nuclear waste in bedded salt formations.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Amy B; Boukhalfa, Hakim; Caporuscio, Florie A; Robinson, Bruce A; Stauffer, Philip H

    2015-06-01

    Heat-generating nuclear waste disposal in bedded salt during the first two years after waste emplacement is explored using numerical simulations tied to experiments of hydrous mineral dehydration. Heating impure salt samples to temperatures of 265 °C can release over 20% by mass of hydrous minerals as water. Three steps in a series of dehydration reactions are measured (65, 110, and 265 °C), and water loss associated with each step is averaged from experimental data into a water source model. Simulations using this dehydration model are used to predict temperature, moisture, and porosity after heating by 750-W waste canisters, assuming hydrous mineral mass fractions from 0 to 10%. The formation of a three-phase heat pipe (with counter-circulation of vapor and brine) occurs as water vapor is driven away from the heat source, condenses, and flows back toward the heat source, leading to changes in porosity, permeability, temperature, saturation, and thermal conductivity of the backfill salt surrounding the waste canisters. Heat pipe formation depends on temperature, moisture availability, and mobility. In certain cases, dehydration of hydrous minerals provides sufficient extra moisture to push the system into a sustained heat pipe, where simulations neglecting this process do not. PMID:25965632

  7. Equipment evaluation for low density polyethylene encapsulated nitrate salt waste at the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, W.I.; Faucette, A.M.; Jantzen, R.C.; Logsdon, B.W.; Oldham, J.H.; Saiki, D.M.; Yudnich, R.J.

    1993-08-30

    Mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) are subject to regulation by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Polymer solidification is being developed as a final treatment technology for several of these mixed wastes, including nitrate salts. Encapsulation nitrate salts with low density polyethylene (LDPE) has been the preliminary focus of the RFP polymer solidification effort. Literature reviews, industry surveys, and lab-scale and pilot-scale tests have been conducted to evaluate several options for encapsulating nitrate salts with LDPE. Most of the effort has focused on identifying compatible drying and extrusion technologies. Other processing options, specifically meltration and non-heated compounding machines, were also investigated. The best approach appears to be pretreatment of the nitrate salt waste brine in either a vertical or horizontal thin film evaporator followed by compounding of the dried waste with LDPE in an intermeshing, co-rotating, twin-screw extruder. Additional pilot-scale tests planned for the fall of 1993 should further support this recommendation. Preliminary evaluation work indicates that meltration is not possible at atmospheric pressure with the LDPE (Chevron PE-1409) provided by RFP. However, meltration should be possible at atmospheric pressure using another LDPE formulation with altered physical and rheological properties: Lower molecular weight and lower viscosity (Epoline C-15). Contract modifications are now in process to allow a follow-on pilot scale demonstration. Questions regarding changed safety and physical properties of the resultant LDPE waste form due to use of the Epoline C-15 will be addressed. No additional work with non-heated mixer compounder machines is planned at this time.

  8. Electrochemistry and Spectroelectrochemistry of Europium(III) chloride in 3 LiCl – 2KCl from 643 to 1123 K

    SciTech Connect

    Schroll, Cynthia A.; Chatterjee, Sayandev; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Heineman, William R.; Bryan, Samuel A.

    2013-09-09

    The electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical behavior of Europium(III) chloride in a molten salt eutectic, 3 LiCl – 2 KCl, over a temperature range of 643 – 1123 K using differential pulse voltammetry, cyclic voltammetry, potential step chronoabsorptometry, and thin-layer spectroelectrochemistry is reported. The electrochemical reaction was determined to be the one electron reduction of Eu3+ to Eu2+ at all temperatures. The redox potential of Eu3+/2+ shifts to more positive potentials and the diffusion coefficient for Eu3+ increases as temperature increases. The results for the number of electrons transferred, redox potential and diffusion coefficient are in good agreement between the electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical techniques.

  9. Conditioning matrices from high level waste resulting from pyrochemical processing in fluorine salt

    SciTech Connect

    Grandjean, Agnes; Advocat, Thierry; Bousquet, Nicolas; Jegou, Christophe

    2007-07-01

    Separating the actinides from the fission products through reductive extraction by aluminium in a LiF/AlF{sub 3} medium is a process investigated for pyrometallurgical reprocessing of spent fuel. The process involves separation by reductive salt-metal extraction. After dissolving the fuel or the transmutation target in a salt bath, the noble metal fission products are first extracted by contacting them with a slightly reducing metal. After extracting the metal fission products, then the actinides are selectively separated from the remaining fission products. In this hypothesis, all the unrecoverable fission products would be conditioned as fluorides. Therefore, this process will generate first a metallic waste containing the 'reducible' fission products (Pd, Mo, Ru, Rh, Tc, etc.) and a fluorine waste containing alkali-metal, alkaline-earth and rare earth fission products. Immobilization of these wastes in classical borosilicate glasses is not feasible due to the very low solubility of noble metals, and of fluoride in these hosts. Alternative candidates have therefore been developed including silicate glass/ceramic system for fluoride fission products and metallic ones for noble metal fission products. These waste-forms were evaluated for their confinement properties like homogeneity, waste loading, volatility during the elaboration process, chemical durability, etc. using appropriate techniques. (authors)

  10. Metals recovering from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) using molten salts.

    PubMed

    Flandinet, L; Tedjar, F; Ghetta, V; Fouletier, J

    2012-04-30

    Recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEE) has been taken into consideration in the literature due to the large quantity of concerned wastes and their hazardous contents. The situation is so critical that EU published European Directives imposing collection and recycling with a minimum of material recovery [1]. Moreover, WEEEs contain precious metals, making the recycling of these wastes economically interesting, but also some critical metals and their recycling leads to resource conservation. This paper reports on a new approach for recycling waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). Molten salts and specifically molten KOH-NaOH eutectic is used to dissolve glasses, oxides and to destruct plastics present in wastes without oxidizing the most valuable metals. This method is efficient for recovering a copper-rich metallic fraction, which is, moreover, cleared of plastics and glasses. In addition, analyses of gaseous emission show that this method is environmentally friendly since most of the process gases, such as carbon monoxide and dioxide and halogens, are trapped in the highly basic molten salt. In other respects, under operation without oxygen, a large quantity of hydrogen is produced and might be used as fuel gas or as synthesis gas, leading to a favourable energy balance for this new process. PMID:22398030

  11. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.

    1998-03-05

    In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. Argonne determined that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, Argonne subsequently conducted a preliminary evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in domal salt caverns. Steps used in this evaluation included the following: identifying potential contaminants of concern, determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing contaminant toxicities, estimating contaminant intakes, and calculating human cancer and noncancer risk estimates. Five postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (referring to noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results led to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes.

  12. Aspects of the thermal and transport properties of crystalline salt in designing radioactive waste storages in halogen formations

    SciTech Connect

    Nikitin, A. N. Pocheptsova, O. A.; Matthies, S.

    2010-05-15

    Some of the properties of natural rock salt are described. This rock is of great practical interest, because, along with its conventional applications in the chemical and food industries, it is promising for use in engineering underground radioactive waste storages and natural gas reservoirs. The results of structural and texture studies of rock salt by neutron diffraction are discussed. The nature of the salt permeability under temperature and stress gradients is theoretically estimated.

  13. Risk analyses for disposing nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.; Caudle, D.

    1997-12-01

    Salt caverns have been used for several decades to store various hydrocarbon products. In the past few years, four facilities in the US have been permitted to dispose nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns. Several other disposal caverns have been permitted in Canada and Europe. This report evaluates the possibility that adverse human health effects could result from exposure to contaminants released from the caverns in domal salt formations used for nonhazardous oil field waste disposal. The evaluation assumes normal operations but considers the possibility of leaks in cavern seals and cavern walls during the post-closure phase of operation. In this assessment, several steps were followed to identify possible human health risks. At the broadest level, these steps include identifying a reasonable set of contaminants of possible concern, identifying how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing the toxicities of these contaminants, estimating their intakes, and characterizing their associated human health risks. The contaminants of concern for the assessment are benzene, cadmium, arsenic, and chromium. These were selected as being components of oil field waste and having a likelihood to remain in solution for a long enough time to reach a human receptor.

  14. Crystallization of rhenium salts in a simulated low-activity waste borosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; McCloy, John S.; Goel, Ashutosh; Liezers, Martin; Schweiger, Michael J.; Liu, Juan; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Kim, Dong-Sang

    2013-04-01

    This study presents a new method for looking at the solubility of volatile species in simulated low-activity waste glass. The present study looking at rhenium salts is also applicable to real applications involving radioactive technetium salts. In this synthesis method, oxide glass powder is mixed with the volatiles species, vacuum-sealed in a fused quartz ampoule, and then heat-treated under vacuum in a furnace. This technique restricts the volatile species to the headspace above the melt but still within the sealed ampoule, thus maximizing the volatile concentration in contact with the glass. Various techniques were used to measure the solubility of rhenium in glass and include energy dispersive spectroscopy, wavelength dispersive spectroscopy, laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectroscopy, and inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The Re-solubility in this glass was determined to be ~3004 parts per million Re atoms. Above this concentration, the salts separated out of the melt as inclusions and as a low viscosity molten salt phase on top of the melt observed during and after cooling. This salt phase was analyzed with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy as well as some of the other aforementioned techniques and identified to be composed of alkali perrhenate and alkali sulfate.

  15. RESULTS OF THE EXTRACTION-SCRUB-STRIP TESTING USING AN IMPROVED SOLVENT FORMULATION AND SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY SIMULATED WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Fink, S.

    2012-01-09

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent - also known as the next generation solvent (NGS) - for deployment at the Savannah River Site to remove cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is a collaborative effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). As part of the program, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has performed a number of Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests. These batch contact tests serve as first indicators of the cesium mass transfer solvent performance with actual or simulated waste. The test detailed in this report used simulated Tank 49H material, with the addition of extra potassium. The potassium was added at 1677 mg/L, the maximum projected (i.e., a worst case feed scenario) value for the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The results of the test gave favorable results given that the potassium concentration was elevated (1677 mg/L compared to the current 513 mg/L). The cesium distribution value, DCs, for extraction was 57.1. As a comparison, a typical D{sub Cs} in an ESS test, using the baseline solvent formulation and the typical waste feed, is {approx}15. The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) uses the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process to remove cesium (Cs) from alkaline waste. This process involves the use of an organic extractant, BoBCalixC6, in an organic matrix to selectively remove cesium from the caustic waste. The organic solvent mixture flows counter-current to the caustic aqueous waste stream within centrifugal contactors. After extracting the cesium, the loaded solvent is stripped of cesium by contact with dilute nitric acid and the cesium concentrate is transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), while the organic solvent is cleaned and recycled for further use. The Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), under construction, will use the same process chemistry. The Office of Waste Processing (EM-31) expressed an interest in investigating the further optimization of the organic solvent by replacing the BoBCalixC6 extractant with a more efficient extractant. This replacement should yield dividends in improving cesium removal from the caustic waste stream, and in the rate at which the caustic waste can be processed. To that end, EM-31 provided funding for both the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). SRNL wrote a Task Technical Quality and Assurance Plan for this work. As part of the envisioned testing regime, it was decided to perform an ESS test using a simulated waste that simulated a typical envisioned SWPF feed, but with added potassium to make the waste more challenging. Potassium interferes in the cesium removal, and its concentration is limited in the feed to <1950 mg/L. The feed to MCU has typically contained <500 mg/L of potassium.

  16. Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste with High Salt Content by Colloidal Adsorbents - 13274

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Keun-Young; Chung, Dong-Yong; Kim, Kwang-Wook; Lee, Eil-Hee; Moon, Jei-Kwon

    2013-07-01

    Treatment processes have been fully developed for most of the liquid radioactive wastes generated during the operation of nuclear power plants. However, a process for radioactive liquid waste with high salt content, such as waste seawater generated from the unexpected accident at nuclear power station, has not been studied extensively. In this study, the adsorption efficiencies of cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) in radioactive liquid waste with high salt content were investigated using several types of zeolite with different particle sizes. Synthesized and commercial zeolites were used for the treatment of simulated seawater containing Cs and Sr, and the reaction kinetics and adsorption capacities of colloidal zeolites were compared with those of bulk zeolites. The experimental results demonstrated that the colloidal adsorbents showed fast adsorption kinetic and high binding capacity for Cs and Sr. Also, the colloidal zeolites could be successfully applied to the static adsorption condition, therefore, an economical benefit might be expected in an actual processes where stirring is not achievable. (authors)

  17. Transport of contaminants in geologic media: Radioactive waste in salt, corrosion of copper, and colloid migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Yong Soo

    Analytical and numerical models on mass transfer of radionuclides from a waste package to surrounding rock are analyzed. Based on developed models corresponding computer programs are developed. These models would be used to evaluate possible hazardous radionuclide release rates into the surrounding rock/biosphere. Specifically the following fields are studied. (1) Analysis on the possible copper canister pitting corrosion by sulfide intrusion is performed to predict the canister lifetime. The study includes both steady-state and time-dependent cases. (2) Analysis on the brine migration in a salt repository is studied. Brine was traditionally thought to be the major factor on radionuclide migration in salt. But results given in this dissertation provide that the brine migration velocity is small enough to be neglected. Two analyses are developed for open bore hole as well as consolidated salt cases. (3) Analysis on the radionuclide migration in a salt repository is carried out. After proving that the diffusion is a dominant migration mechanism, the time-dependent diffusive mass transfer theory is used to predict fractional release rates of low-soluble as well as highly-soluble nuclides. Also the steady-state radionuclide migration through interbeds is analyzed based on the potential flow theory. Finally assuming no advective flow inside interbeds the transient radionuclide migration into interbeds is studied. Results show that salt is a good host rock for a future high-level waste repository. (4) Analysis on the radiocolloid migration through the porous media with filtration effect is performed. Results show that due to the strong filtration radiocolloid would not migrate significant distance in geologic media. Cylindrical geometry is used. For this analysis due to the complexity of the prescribed problem the numerical analysis based on upwind scheme is developed. (5) Analysis on the radiocolloid migration through fractures with solute matrix diffusion into surrounding rock matrix is studied with and without filtration. Interaction between colloid and solute accelerates the radiocolloid migration in fractures.

  18. NRC Monitoring of Salt Waste Disposal at the Savannah River Site - 13147

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkston, Karen E.; Ridge, A. Christianne; Alexander, George W.; Barr, Cynthia S.; Devaser, Nishka J.; Felsher, Harry D.

    2013-07-01

    As part of monitoring required under Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 (NDAA), the NRC staff reviewed an updated DOE performance assessment (PA) for salt waste disposal at the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The NRC staff concluded that it has reasonable assurance that waste disposal at the SDF meets the 10 CFR 61 performance objectives for protection of individuals against intrusion (chap.61.42), protection of individuals during operations (chap.61.43), and site stability (chap.61.44). However, based on its evaluation of DOE's results and independent sensitivity analyses conducted with DOE's models, the NRC staff concluded that it did not have reasonable assurance that DOE's disposal activities at the SDF meet the performance objective for protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity (chap.61.41) evaluated at a dose limit of 0.25 mSv/yr (25 mrem/yr) total effective dose equivalent (TEDE). NRC staff also concluded that the potential dose to a member of the public is expected to be limited (i.e., is expected to be similar to or less than the public dose limit in chap.20.1301 of 1 mSv/yr [100 mrem/yr] TEDE) and is expected to occur many years after site closure. The NRC staff used risk insights gained from review of the SDF PA, its experience monitoring DOE disposal actions at the SDF over the last 5 years, as well as independent analysis and modeling to identify factors that are important to assessing whether DOE's disposal actions meet the performance objectives. Many of these factors are similar to factors identified in the NRC staff's 2005 review of salt waste disposal at the SDF. Key areas of interest continue to be waste form and disposal unit degradation, the effectiveness of infiltration and erosion controls, and estimation of the radiological inventory. Based on these factors, NRC is revising its plan for monitoring salt waste disposal at the SDF in coordination with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). DOE has completed or begun additional work related to salt waste disposal to address these factors. NRC staff continues to evaluate information related to the performance of the SDF and has been working with DOE and SCDHEC to resolve NRC staff's technical concerns. (authors)

  19. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of low-activity waste immobilization. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudohydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Synthesis efforts are being directed toward enhanced sodium binding by crown ethers, both neutral and proton-ionizable. Studies with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent compositions that have promising properties.

  20. Harvesting capacitive carbon by carbonization of waste biomass in molten salts.

    PubMed

    Yin, Huayi; Lu, Beihu; Xu, Yin; Tang, Diyong; Mao, Xuhui; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Dihua; Alshawabkeh, Akram N

    2014-07-15

    Conversion of waste biomass to value-added carbon is an environmentally benign utilization of waste biomass to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution caused by open burning. In this study, various waste biomasses are converted to capacitive carbon by a single-step molten salt carbonization (MSC) process. The as-prepared carbon materials are amorphous with oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface. For the same type of waste biomass, the carbon materials obtained in Na2CO3-K2CO3 melt have the highest Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and specific capacitance. The carbon yield decreases with increasing reaction temperature, while the surface area increases with increasing carbonization temperature. A working temperature above 700 °C is required for producing capacitive carbon. The good dissolving ability of alkaline carbonate molten decreases the yield of carbon from waste biomasses, but helps to produce high surface area carbon. The specific capacitance data confirm that Na2CO3-K2CO3 melt is the best for producing capacitive carbon. The specific capacitance of carbon derived from peanut shell is as high as 160 F g(-1) and 40 ?F cm(-2), and retains 95% after 10,000 cycles at a rate of 1 A g(-1). MSC offers a simple and environmentally sound way for transforming waste biomass to highly capacitive carbon as well as an effective carbon sequestration method. PMID:24983414

  1. THERMAL DESTRUCTION OF HIGHLY CHLORINATED MIXED WASTES WITHOUT GENERATING CORROSIVE OFF-GASES USING MOLTEN SALT OXIDATION (1,2)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.; Feizollahi, F.

    2002-02-25

    A pilot-scale MSO (Molten Salt Oxidation) system was used to process 45-gallons of a halogenated mixed waste that is difficult to treat with other thermal systems. The mixed waste was a halogenated solvent that consisted mostly of methylchloroform. The 80 weight percent of waste consisting of highly corrosive chlorine was captured in the first process vessel as sodium chloride. The sodium chloride leached chrome from that process vessel and the solidified salt exhibited the toxicity characteristic for chrome as measured by TCLP (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure) testing. The operating ranges for parameters such as salt bed temperature, off-gas temperature, and feed rate that enable sustained operation were identified. At feed rates below the sustainable limit, both processing capacity and maintenance requirements increased with feed rate. Design and operational modifications to increase the sustainable feed rate limit and reduce maintenance requirements reduced both salt carryover and volumetric gas flows.

  2. Analytical Chemistry and Materials Characterization Results for Debris Recovered from Nitrate Salt Waste Drum S855793

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Patrick Thomas; Chamberlin, Rebecca M.; Schwartz, Daniel S.; Worley, Christopher Gordon; Garduno, Katherine; Lujan, Elmer J. W.; Borrego, Andres Patricio; Castro, Alonso; Colletti, Lisa Michelle; Fulwyler, James Brent; Holland, Charlotte S.; Keller, Russell C.; Klundt, Dylan James; Martinez, Alexander; Martin, Frances Louise; Montoya, Dennis Patrick; Myers, Steven Charles; Porterfield, Donivan R.; Schake, Ann Rene; Schappert, Michael Francis; Soderberg, Constance B.; Spencer, Khalil J.; Stanley, Floyd E.; Thomas, Mariam R.; Townsend, Lisa Ellen; Xu, Ning

    2015-09-16

    Solid debris was recovered from the previously-emptied nitrate salt waste drum S855793. The bulk sample was nondestructively assayed for radionuclides in its as-received condition. Three monoliths were selected for further characterization. Two of the monoliths, designated Specimen 1 and 3, consisted primarily of sodium nitrate and lead nitrate, with smaller amounts of lead nitrate oxalate and lead oxide by powder x-ray diffraction. The third monolith, Specimen 2, had a complex composition; lead carbonate was identified as the predominant component, and smaller amounts of nitrate, nitrite and carbonate salts of lead, magnesium and sodium were also identified. Microfocused x-ray fluorescence (MXRF) mapping showed that lead was ubiquitous throughout the cross-sections of Specimens 1 and 2, while heteroelements such as potassium, calcium, chromium, iron, and nickel were found in localized deposits. MXRF examination and destructive analysis of fragments of Specimen 3 showed elevated concentrations of iron, which were broadly distributed through the sample. With the exception of its high iron content and low carbon content, the chemical composition of Specimen 3 was within the ranges of values previously observed in four other nitrate salt samples recovered from emptied waste drums.

  3. [A Case of Severe Hyponatremia Caused by Renal Salt Wasting Syndrome in Oropharyngeal Cancer].

    PubMed

    Fujikawa, Taro; Shirakura, Satoru; Hatanaka, Akio; Okano, Wataru; Tokumaru, Takao; Yamada, Masato; Saito, Yoshihiro; Beppu, Takeshi

    2015-08-01

    Hyponatremia is one of the electrolyte abnormalities frequently encountered in cancer therapy. Cisplatin is a well-known drug which can raise various adverse events, including hyponatremia. A male with advanced oropharyngeal cancer is presented in the present report, who was treated with radiotherapy with concurrent administration of cisplatin and who underwent a total of three episodes of severe hyponatremia in the course of therapy. The first two attacks of hyponatremia following cisplatin administration were accompanied by dehydration and excessive urination, and the patient recovered in one week with rehydration and salt supplementation. Excessive loss of salt in urine confirmed that these events were caused by renal salt wasting syndrome after cisplatin administration. On the other hand, the third attack was due to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion after surgery for a bone fracture. Estimation of the extracellular fluid volume and salt intake/output balance is always believed to be necessary for the diagnosis and proper management of severe hyponatremia after chemotherapy-based treatment with cisplatin. PMID:26548098

  4. Suitability of Palestine salt dome, Anderson Co. , Texas for disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Patchick, P.F.

    1980-01-01

    The suitability of Palestine salt dome, in Anderson County, Texas, is in serious doubt for a repository to isolate high-level nuclear waste because of abandoned salt brining operations. The random geographic and spatial occurrence of 15 collapse sinks over the dome may prevent safe construction of the necessary surface installations for a repository. The dissolution of salt between the caprock and dome, from at least 15 brine wells up to 500 feet deep, may permit increased rates of salt dissolution long into future geologic time. The subsurface dissolution is occurring at a rate difficult, if not impossible, to assess or to calculate. It cannot be shown that this dissolution rate is insignificant to the integrity of a future repository or to ancillary features. The most recent significant collapse was 36 feet in diameter and took place in 1972. The other collapses ranged from 27 to 105 feet in diameter and from 1.5 to more than 15 feet in depth. ONWI recommends that this dome be removed from consideration as a candidate site.

  5. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Custelcean, Radu; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Engle, Nancy L.; Kang, Hyun-Ah; Keever, Tamara J.; Marchand, Alan P.; Gadthula, Srinivas; Gore, Vinayak K.; Huang, Zilin; Sivappa, Rasapalli; Tirunahari, Pavan K.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2005-09-26

    The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of vitrification. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudo hydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Synthesis efforts are being directed toward enhanced sodium binding by crown ethers, both neutral and proton-ionizable. Studies with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent compositions that have promising properties.

  6. Review of geochemical measurement techniques for a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt

    SciTech Connect

    Knauss, K.G.; Steinborn, T.L.

    1980-05-22

    A broad, general review is presented of geochemical measurement techniques that can provide data necessary for site selection and repository effectiveness assessment for a radioactive waste repository in bedded salt. The available measurement techniques are organized according to the parameter measured. The list of geochemical parameters include all those measurable geochemical properties of a sample whole values determine the geochemical characteristics or behavior of the system. For each technique, remarks are made pertaining to the operating principles of the measurement instrument and the purpose for which the technique is used. Attention is drawn to areas where further research and development are needed.

  7. DEGRADED TBP SOLVENT REGENERATION TECHNOLOGY USING BUTYLAMINE AS A SOLVENT WASHING TO REDUCE SOLID SALT WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Asakura, T.; Itoh, Y.; Hotoku, S.; Morita, Y.; Uchiyama, G.

    2003-02-27

    Normal butylamine compounds are studied as salt-free wash reagents for degraded solvent used in PUREX process in spent fuel reprocessing. The solvent wash tests were carried out with two types of butylamine compounds, n-butylamine oxalate and n-butylamine bicarbonate, by counter-current mode using a small size mixer-settler composed of two 4-stage wash steps. Di-n-butyl phosphoric acid (HDBP), the main degradation product from TBP, was removed from real degraded solvent with decontamination factor of 2.5 {approx} 7.9. The study on electrolytic decomposition of butylamine compounds was also conducted for waste treatment.

  8. Independent Assessment of the Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Salt Disposition Alternatives Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    J. T. Case; M. L. Renfro

    1998-12-01

    This report presents the results of the Independent Project Evaluation (IPE) Team assessment of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company High-Level Waste Salt Disposition Systems Engineering (SE) Team's deliberations, evaluations, and selections. The Westinghouse Savannah River Company concluded in early 1998 that production goals and safety requirements for processing SRS HLW salt to remove Cs-137 could not be met in the existing In-Tank Precipitation Facility as currently configured for precipitation of cesium tetraphenylborate. The SE Team was chartered to evaluate and recommend an alternative(s) for processing the existing HLW salt to remove Cs-137. To replace the In-Tank Precipitation process, the Savannah River Site HLW Salt Disposition SE Team downselected (October 1998) 140 candidate separation technologies to two alternatives: Small-Tank Tetraphenylborate (TPB) Precipitation (primary alternative) and Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Nonelutable Ion Exchange (backup alternative). The IPE Team, commissioned by the Department of Energy, concurs that both alternatives are technically feasible and should meet all salt disposition requirements. But the IPE Team judges that the SE Team's qualitative criteria and judgments used in their downselection to a primary and a backup alternative do not clearly discriminate between the two alternatives. To properly choose between Small-Tank TPB and CST Ion Exchange for the primary alternative, the IPE Team suggests the following path forward: Complete all essential R and D activities for both alternatives and formulate an appropriate set of quantitative decision criteria that will be rigorously applied at the end of the R and D activities. Concurrent conceptual design activities should be limited to common elements of the alternatives.

  9. An analysis of salt and moisture deposition on the air sampling probes in the exhaust shaft of the waste isolation pilot plant 

    E-print Network

    Weaver, Gregg Shelton

    1996-01-01

    A study was performed to determine the source of moist salt formations on air sampling , probes at the top of the exhaust shaft used in ventilating the waste repository at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). An earlier ...

  10. Salt tectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Talbot, C.J.; Jackson, M.P.A.

    1988-01-01

    Salt deposits have economic significance because of their importance as oil and gas traps and their potential as radioactive waste disposal sites. This article reviews the formation of salt domes, beginning with a description of the formation of salt deposits as evaporites and a discussion of early attempts to model the development of salt domes. Current work on tectonics of salt dome formation and related tectonics is then discussed in detail.

  11. A Retrospective Analysis of the Growth Pattern in Patients with Salt-wasting 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kawano, Atsuko; Kohno, Hitoshi; Miyako, Kenichi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate the growth pattern of children with the salt-wasting form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD). We reviewed the medical records of 13 patients in whom salt-wasting 21-OHD was diagnosed during the first 2 mo of life at our hospital from 1980 through 2008. Six reached adult height. Growth patterns, bone age, biochemical data, and the hydrocortisone dose at each growth stage were analyzed retrospectively. The mean adult height was 155.1 ± 6.5 cm (mean ± SD) in females and 158.1 ± 7.1 cm in males. Although length at birth was normal or longer than the national mean in almost all patients, the mean height SD score of both boys and girls decreased to below 0 SD during infancy. Subsequently, both boys and girls transiently showed growth acceleration and reached their peak growth velocity at 3–10 yr of age. In conclusion, in addition to suppression of growth during infancy, there was inappropriate growth acceleration during childhood. Especially from 3 mo to 3 yr of age, decreasing the hydrocortisone dose in patients who exhibit slower growth may lead to satisfactory height outcomes. Also, strict adjustment of the hydrocortisone dose to avoid accelerated growth from childhood to adolescence might improve adult height outcomes of patients with 21-OHD. PMID:24790384

  12. Expected environments in high-level nuclear waste and spent fuel repositories in salt

    SciTech Connect

    Claiborne, H.C.; Rickertsen, L.D., Graham, R.F.

    1980-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the expected environments associated with high-level waste (HLW) and spent fuel (SF) repositories in salt formations. These environments include the thermal, fluid, pressure, brine chemistry, and radiation fields predicted for the repository conceptual designs. In this study, it is assumed that the repository will be a room and pillar mine in a rock-salt formation, with the disposal horizon located approx. 2000 ft (610 m) below the surface of the earth. Canistered waste packages containing HLW in a solid matrix or SF elements are emplaced in vertical holes in the floor of the rooms. The emplacement holes are backfilled with crushed salt or other material and sealed at some later time. Sensitivity studies are presented to show the effect of changing the areal heat load, the canister heat load, the barrier material and thickness, ventilation of the storage room, and adding a second row to the emplacement configuration. The calculated thermal environment is used as input for brine migration calculations. The vapor and gas pressure will gradually attain the lithostatic pressure in a sealed repository. In the unlikely event that an emplacement hole will become sealed in relatively early years, the vapor space pressure was calculated for three scenarios (i.e., no hole closure - no backfill, no hole closure - backfill, and hole closure - no backfill). It was assumed that the gas in the system consisted of air and water vapor in equilibrium with brine. A computer code (REPRESS) was developed assuming that these changes occur slowly (equilibrium conditions). The brine chemical environment is outlined in terms of brine chemistry, corrosion, and compositions. The nuclear radiation environment emphasized in this report is the stored energy that can be released as a result of radiation damage or crystal dislocations within crystal lattices.

  13. A woman with salt-wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia presenting with a mucinous ovarian cystadenoma during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kamata, Yuji; Hayashi, Akinori; Ogawa, Akifumi; Ichikawa, Raishi; Moriya, Tatsumi; Shichiri, Masayoshi

    2011-01-01

    Women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) caused by steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency show reduced fertility, especially with the salt-wasting form. A 27-year-old pregnant woman with this disease underwent laparotomy and oophorectomy to remove a multilocular ovarian tumor at 14 weeks of pregnancy. This proved to be a mucinous cystadenoma. Toward the third trimester, she presented with marked elevations of 17?-hydroxyprogesterone and plasma renin activity. Careful management of endocrine and body fluid homeostasis allowed her to give birth to a healthy female infant with normal external genitalia. This case illustrates endocrinological parameters during pregnancy in a woman with classical salt-wasting CAH. PMID:21921381

  14. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: Peer review of the Golder Associates draft test plan for in situ testing in an exploratory shaft in salt

    SciTech Connect

    Hambley, D.F.; Mraz, D.Z.; Unterberter, R.R.; Stormont, J.C.; Neuman, S.P.; Russell, J.E.; Jacoby, C.H.; Hull, A.B.; Brady, B.H.G.; Ditmars, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    This report documents the peer review conducted by Argonne National Laboratory of a document entitled ''Draft Test Plan for In Situ Testing in an Exploratory Shaft in Salt,'' prepared for Battelle Memorial Institute's Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation by Golder Associates, Inc. In general, the peer review panelists found the test plan to be technically sound, although some deficiencies were identified. Recommendations for improving the test plan are presented in this review report. A microfiche copy of the following unpublished report is attached to the inside back cover of this report: ''Draft Test Plan for In Situ Testing in an Exploratory Shaft in Salt,'' prepared by Golder Associates, Inc., for Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation, Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, Ohio (March 1985).

  15. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's Socioeconomic Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, R.; Fenster, D.; O'Hare, M.; Zillman, D.; Harrison, W.; Tisue, M.

    1984-07-01

    The following recommendations have been abstracted from the body of this report. The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's Socioeconomic Program Plan for the Establishment of Mined Geologic Repositories to Isolate Nuclear Waste should be modified to: (1) encourage active public participation in the decision-making processes leading to repository site selection; (2) clearly define mechanisms for incorporating the concerns of local residents, state and local governments, and other potentially interested parties into the early stages of the site selection process. In addition, the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation should carefully review the overall role that these persons and groups, including local pressure groups organized in the face of potential repository development, will play in the siting process; (3) place significantly greater emphasis on using primary socioeconomic data during the site selection process, reversing the current overemphasis on secondary data collection, description of socioeconomic conditions at potential locations, and development of analytical methodologies; (4) include additional approaches to solving socioeconomic problems. For example, a reluctance to acknowledge that solutions to socioeconomic problems need to be found jointly with interested parties is evident in the plan; (5) recognize that mitigation mechanisms other than compensation and incentives may be effective; (6) as soon as potential sites are identified, the US Department of Energy (DOE) should begin discussing impact mitigation agreements with local officials and other interested parties; and (7) comply fully with the pertinent provisions of NWPA.

  16. Dynamics of water clusters in solution with LiCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsaro, Carmelo; Mallamace, Domenico; Cicero, Nicola; Vasi, Sebastiano; Dugo, Giacomo; Mallamace, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In this work we study by means of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy the dynamics of the different water clusters that form within a solution with LiCl at eutectic concentration in the temperature range 320-205 K. This solution is considered a model system allowing the investigation of water properties in the deep supercooled regime in its bulk phase. Our data reveal two important dynamical changes occurring at two relevant temperatures for water: the highest temperature coincides with that of the water density maximum (277 K) and the lowest with that of the so-called dynamical crossover (? 225 K). We interpret our data in terms of the different influence that the ions exert on water by lowering the temperature and of the tendency that water displays to develop its characteristic hydrogen bond network.

  17. Dechlorination and stabilization of radioactive chloride salt waste in a molten state

    SciTech Connect

    In-Tae Kim; Hwan-Seo Park; Yong-Jun Cho; Hwan-Young Kim; Seong-Won Park; Eung-Ho Kim

    2007-07-01

    This study suggests a new method to stabilize the molten salt wastes generated from he pyro-processing of a LWR spent fuel. Using a conventional sol-gel process, an inorganic material (SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, SAP) reactive to metal chlorides was prepared. In this paper, the reactivity of the SAP on the metal chlorides at 650-850 deg. C, the thermal stability of the reaction products and their leach-resistance under the PCT-A leach test were investigated. In the SAP, three different kinds of chains are available; Si-O-Si (main chain), Si-O-Al (side chain) and Al-O-P/P-O-P (reactive chain). Alkali metal chlorides were converted into metal aluminosilicate (Li{sub x}Al{sub x}Si{sub 1-x}O{sub 2-x}) and metal phosphate(Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and Cs{sub 2}AlP{sub 3}O{sub 10}) while the alkaline earth and rare earth chlorides were changed into only metal phosphates (Sr{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}Cl and CePO{sub 4}). The conversion rate was about 96% at a salt waste/SAP weight ratio of 0.5 and a weight loss up to 1100 deg. C measured by the thermo-gravimetric analysis was below 1 Wt%. The leach rates of Cs and Sr under the PCT-A leaching condition were about 10{sup -2} and 10{sup -4} g/m{sup 3}.day, respectively. From these results, it could be concluded that the SAP developed in this study can be considered as an effective stabilizer for metal chlorides and the method of using the SAP could provide a chance to minimize the final waste volume to be disposed off. (authors)

  18. Permeability of natural rock salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during damage evolution and healing

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeifle, T.W.

    1998-06-01

    The US Department of Energy has developed the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the bedded salt of southeastern New Mexico to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive transuranic wastes. Four vertical shafts provide access to the underground workings located at a depth of about 660 meters. These shafts connect the underground facility to the surface and potentially provide communication between lithologic units, so they will be sealed to limit both the release of hazardous waste from and fluid flow into the repository. The seal design must consider the potential for fluid flow through a disturbed rock zone (DRZ) that develops in the salt near the shafts. The DRZ, which forms initially during excavation and then evolves with time, is expected to have higher permeability than the native salt. The closure of the shaft openings (i.e., through salt creep) will compress the seals, thereby inducing a compressive back-stress on the DRZ. This back-stress is expected to arrest the evolution of the DRZ, and with time will promote healing of damage. This paper presents laboratory data from tertiary creep and hydrostatic compression tests designed to characterize damage evolution and healing in WIPP salt. Healing is quantified in terms of permanent reduction in permeability, and the data are used to estimate healing times based on considerations of first-order kinetics.

  19. More on Renal Salt Wasting Without Cerebral Disease: Response to Saline Infusion

    PubMed Central

    Bitew, Solomon; Imbriano, Louis; Miyawaki, Nobuyuki; Fishbane, Steven; Maesaka, John K.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: The existence and prevalence of cerebral salt wasting (CSW) or the preferred term, renal salt wasting (RSW), and its differentiation from syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) have been controversial. This controversy stems from overlapping clinical and laboratory findings and an inability to assess the volume status of these patients. The authors report another case of RSW without clinical cerebral disease and contrast it to SIADH. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Three patients with hyponatremia, hypouricemia, increased fractional excretion (FE) of urate, urine sodium >20 mmol/L, and concentrated urines were infused with isotonic saline after collection of baseline data. Results: One patient with RSW had pneumonia without cerebral disease and showed increased plasma aldosterone and FEphosphate, and two patients with SIADH had increased blood volume, low plasma renin and aldosterone, and normal FEphosphate. The patient with RSW responded to isotonic saline by excretion of dilute urines, prompt correction of hyponatremia, and normal water loading test after volume repletion. Hypouricemia and increased FEurate persisted after correction of hyponatremia. Two patients with SIADH failed to dilute their urines and remained hyponatremic during 48 and 110 h of saline infusion. Conclusions: The authors demonstrate appropriate stimulation of ADH in RSW. Differences in plasma renin and aldosterone levels and FEphosphate can differentiate RSW from SIADH, as will persistent hypouricemia and increased FEurate after correction of hyponatremia in RSW. FEphosphate was the only contrasting variable at baseline. The authors suggest an approach to treat the hyponatremic patient meeting criteria for SIADH and RSW and changing CSW to the more appropriate term, RSW. PMID:19201917

  20. Splicing mutation in CYP21 associated with delayed presentation of salt-wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, B.; Patel, S.V.; Pelczar, J.V.

    1995-07-03

    Patients with salt-wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia (SW-CAH) most commonly carry an A-G transition at nucleotide 656 (nt 656 A{r_arrow}G), causing abnormal splicing of exons 2 and 3 in CYP21, the gene encoding active steroid 21-hydroxylase. Affected infants are severely deficient in cortisol and aldosterone, and usually come to medical attention during the neonatal period. We report on 2 affected boys, homozygous for the nt 656 mutation, who thrived in early infancy, but suffered salt-wasting crises unusually late in infancy, at 3.5 and 5.5 months, respectively. Laboratory studies at presentation showed hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, dehydration, and acidosis; serum aldosterone was low in spite of markedly elevated plasma renin activity. Basal 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels were only moderately elevated, yet the stimulated levels were more typical of severe, classic CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Genomic DNA from the patients was analyzed. Southern blot showed no major deletions or rearrangements. CYP21-specific amplification by polymerase chain reaction, coupled with allele-specific hybridization using wild-type and mutant probes at each of 9 sites for recognized disease-causing mutations, revealed a single, homozygous mutation in each patient: nt 656 A{r_arrow}G. These results were confirmed by sequence analysis. We conclude that the common nt 656 A{r_arrow}G mutation is sometimes associated with delayed phenotypic expression of SW-CAH. We speculate that variable splicing of the mutant CYP21 may modify the clinical manifestation of this disease. 22 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. Radioactive Waste Isolation in Salt: Peer review of documents dealing with geophysical investigations

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, L.D.; Bowen, R.H.

    1987-03-01

    The Salt Repository Project, a US Department of Energy program to develop a mined repository in salt for high-level radioactive waste, is governed by a complex and sometimes inconsistent array of laws, administrative regulations, guidelines, and position papers. In conducting multidisciplinary peer reviews of contractor documents in support of this project, Argonne National Laboratory has needed to inform its expert reviewers of these governmental mandates, with particular emphasis on the relationship between issues and the technical work undertaken. This report acquaints peer review panelists with the regulatory framework as it affects their reviews of site characterization plans and related documents, including surface-based and underground test plans. Panelists will be asked to consider repository performance objectives and issues as they judge the adequacy of proposed geophysical testing. All site-specific discussions relate to the Deaf Smith County site in Texas, which was approved for site characterization by the President in May 1986. Natural processes active at the Deaf Smith County site and the status of geophysical testing near the site are reviewed briefly. 25 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Modeling of the T S D E Heater Test to Investigate Crushed Salt Reconsolidation and Rock Salt Creep for the Underground Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco Martin, L.; Rutqvist, J.; Birkholzer, J. T.; Wolters, R.; Lux, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    Rock salt is a potential medium for the underground disposal of nuclear waste because it has several assets, in particular its water and gas tightness in the undisturbed state, its ability to heal induced fractures and its high thermal conductivity as compared to other shallow-crustal rocks. In addition, the run-of-mine, granular salt, may be used to backfill the mined open spaces. We present simulation results associated with coupled thermal, hydraulic and mechanical processes in the TSDE (Thermal Simulation for Drift Emplacement) experiment, conducted in the Asse salt mine in Germany [1]. During this unique test, conceived to simulate reference repository conditions for spent nuclear fuel, a significant amount of data (temperature, stress changes and displacements, among others) was measured at 20 cross-sections, distributed in two drifts in which a total of six electrical heaters were emplaced. The drifts were subsequently backfilled with crushed salt. This test has been modeled in three-dimensions, using two sequential simulators for flow (mass and heat) and geomechanics, TOUGH-FLAC and FLAC-TOUGH [2]. These simulators have recently been updated to accommodate large strains and time-dependent rheology. The numerical predictions obtained by the two simulators are compared within the framework of an international benchmark exercise, and also with experimental data. Subsequently, a re-calibration of some parameters has been performed. Modeling coupled processes in saliniferous media for nuclear waste disposal is a novel approach, and in this study it has led to the determination of some creep parameters that are very difficult to assess at the laboratory-scale because they require extremely low strain rates. Moreover, the results from the benchmark are very satisfactory and validate the capabilities of the two simulators used to study coupled thermal, mechanical and hydraulic (multi-component, multi-phase) processes relative to the underground disposal of high-level nuclear waste in rock salt. References: [1] Bechthold et al., 1999. BAMBUS-I Project. Euratom, Report EUR19124-EN. [2] Blanco Martín et al., 2014. Comparison of two sequential simulators to investigate thermal-hydraulic-mechanical processes related to nuclear waste isolation in saliniferous formations. In preparation.

  3. Evaluation of Sludge Batch 5 Qualification with ISDP Salt Batch 1 Compliance to DWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, A.

    2010-05-05

    The purpose of this report is to document the acceptability of Sludge Batch 5 with the initial macrobatch operation of the Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) waste to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This report was prepared to comply with the requirements listed in the Waste Acceptance Criteria for Sludge, Actinide Removal Process (ARP), and Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Process Transfers to 512-S and DWPF. The requirements for transfers to 512-S were evaluated during ISDP Salt Batch 1 qualification. The calculations of sludge concentrations are based entirely on the Tank 51 sample processed at SRNL. This is conservative because Tank 51 is blended with the dilute feed in the DWPF Feed Tank (Tank 40). This report documents the acceptability of sludge only as well as Sludge Batch 5 sludge slurry combined with ARP/MCU products for feed to DWPF. All criteria were met for unblended Tank 51 material.

  4. Conceptual design of retrieval systems for emplaced transuranic waste containers in a salt bed depository. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fogleman, S.F.

    1980-04-01

    The US Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission have jurisdiction over the nuclear waste management program. Design studies were previously made of proposed repository site configurations for the receiving, processing, and storage of nuclear wastes. However, these studies did not provide operational designs that were suitable for highly reliable TRU retrieval in the deep geologic salt environment for the required 60-year period. The purpose of this report is to develop a conceptual design of a baseline retrieval system for emplaced transuranic waste containers in a salt bed depository. The conceptual design is to serve as a working model for the analysis of the performance available from the current state-of-the-art equipment and systems. Suggested regulations would be based upon the results of the performance analyses.

  5. Efficacy of backfilling and other engineered barriers in a radioactive waste repository in salt

    SciTech Connect

    Claiborne, H.C.

    1982-09-01

    In the United States, investigation of potential host geologic formations was expanded in 1975 to include hard rocks. Potential groundwater intrusion is leading to very conservative and expensive waste package designs. Recent studies have concluded that incentives for engineered barriers and 1000-year canisters probably do not exist for reasonable breach scenarios. The assumption that multibarriers will significantly increase the safety margin is also questioned. Use of a bentonite backfill for surrounding a canister of exotic materials was developed in Sweden and is being considered in the US. The expectation that bentonite will remain essentially unchanged for hundreds of years for US repository designs may be unrealistic. In addition, thick bentonite backfills will increase the canister surface temperature and add much more water around the canister. The use of desiccant materials, such as CaO or MgO, for backfilling seems to be a better method of protecting the canister. An argument can also be made for not using backfill material in salt repositories since the 30-cm-thick space will provide for hole closure for many years and will promote heat transfer via natural convection. It is concluded that expensive safety systems are being considered for repository designs that do not necessarily increase the safety margin. It is recommended that the safety systems for waste repositories in different geologic media be addressed individually and that cost-benefit analyses be performed.

  6. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INCIPIENT SLUDGE MIXING IN RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE STORAGE TANKS DURING SALT SOLUTION BLENDING

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Lee, S.; Steeper, T.; Fowley, M.; Parkinson, K.

    2011-01-12

    This paper is the second in a series of four publications to document ongoing pilot scale testing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of mixing processes in 85 foot diameter, 1.3 million gallon, radioactive liquid waste, storage tanks at Savannah River Site (SRS). Homogeneous blending of salt solutions is required in waste tanks. Settled solids (i.e., sludge) are required to remain undisturbed on the bottom of waste tanks during blending. Suspension of sludge during blending may potentially release radiolytically generated hydrogen trapped in the sludge, which is a safety concern. The first paper (Leishear, et. al. [1]) presented pilot scale blending experiments of miscible fluids to provide initial design requirements for a full scale blending pump. Scaling techniques for an 8 foot diameter pilot scale tank were also justified in that work. This second paper describes the overall reasons to perform tests, and documents pilot scale experiments performed to investigate disturbance of sludge, using non-radioactive sludge simulants. A third paper will document pilot scale CFD modeling for comparison to experimental pilot scale test results for both blending tests and sludge disturbance tests. That paper will also describe full scale CFD results. The final paper will document additional blending test results for stratified layers in salt solutions, scale up techniques, final full scale pump design recommendations, and operational recommendations. Specifically, this paper documents a series of pilot scale tests, where sludge simulant disturbance due to a blending pump or transfer pump are investigated. A principle design requirement for a blending pump is UoD, where Uo is the pump discharge nozzle velocity, and D is the nozzle diameter. Pilot scale test results showed that sludge was undisturbed below UoD = 0.47 ft{sup 2}/s, and that below UoD = 0.58 ft{sup 2}/s minimal sludge disturbance was observed. If sludge is minimally disturbed, hydrogen will not be released. Installation requirements were also determined for a transfer pump which will remove tank contents, and which is also required to not disturb sludge. Testing techniques and test results for both types of pumps are presented.

  7. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: special advisory report on the status of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's plans for repository performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Ditmars, J.D.; Walbridge, E.W.; Rote, D.M.; Harrison, W.; Herzenberg, C.L.

    1983-10-01

    Repository performance assessment is analysis that identifies events and processes that might affect a repository system for isolation of radioactive waste, examines their effects on barriers to waste migration, and estimates the probabilities of their occurrence and their consequences. In 1983 Battelle Memorial Institute's Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) prepared two plans - one for performance assessment for a waste repository in salt and one for verification and validation of performance assessment technology. At the request of the US Department of Energy's Salt Repository Project Office (SRPO), Argonne National Laboratory reviewed those plans and prepared this report to advise SRPO of specific areas where ONWI's plans for performance assessment might be improved. This report presents a framework for repository performance assessment that clearly identifies the relationships among the disposal problems, the processes underlying the problems, the tools for assessment (computer codes), and the data. In particular, the relationships among important processes and 26 model codes available to ONWI are indicated. A common suggestion for computer code verification and validation is the need for specific and unambiguous documentation of the results of performance assessment activities. A major portion of this report consists of status summaries of 27 model codes indicated as potentially useful by ONWI. The code summaries focus on three main areas: (1) the code's purpose, capabilities, and limitations; (2) status of the elements of documentation and review essential for code verification and validation; and (3) proposed application of the code for performance assessment of salt repository systems. 15 references, 6 figures, 4 tables.

  8. New Design for an HLW Repository (for Spent Fuel and Waste from Reprocessing) in a Salt Formation in Germany - 12213

    SciTech Connect

    Bollingerfehr, Wilhelm; Filbert, Wolfgang; Lerch, Christian; Mueller-Hoeppe, Nina; Charlier, Frank

    2012-07-01

    In autumn 2010, after a 10-year moratorium, exploration was resumed in Gorleben, the potential site for a German HLW repository. At the same time, the Federal Government launched a two-year preliminary safety analysis to assess whether the salt dome at Gorleben is suitable to host all heat-generating radioactive waste generated by German NPPs based on the waste amounts expected at that time. The revised Atomic Energy Act of June 2011 now stipulates a gradual phase-out of nuclear energy production by 2022, which is 13 years earlier than expected in 2010. A repository design was developed which took into account an updated set of data on the amounts and types of expected heat-generating waste, the documented results of the exploration of the Gorleben salt dome, and the new 'Safety Requirements Governing the Final Disposal of Heat-Generating Radioactive Waste' of 30 September, 2010. The latter has a strong influence on the conceptual designs as it requires that retrievability of all waste containers is possible within the repository lifetime. One design considered that all waste containers will be disposed of in horizontal drifts of a geologic repository, while the other design considered that all waste containers will be disposed of in deep vertical boreholes. For both options (emplacement in drifts/emplacement in vertical boreholes), the respective design includes a selection of waste containers, the layout of drifts, respectively lined boreholes, a description of emplacement fields, and backfilling and sealing measures. The design results were described and displayed and the differences between the two main concepts were elaborated and discussed. For the first time in both repository designs the requirement was implemented to retrieve waste canisters during the operational phase. The measures to fulfill this requirement and eventually the consequences were highlighted. It was pointed out that there arises the need to keep transport- and storage casks in adequate numbers and interim storage facilities available until the repository is closed. (authors)

  9. Highlights of the Salt Extraction Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasalizadeh, Aida; Seetharaman, Seshadri; Teng, Lidong; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Grinder, Olle; Izumi, Yukari; Barati, Mansoor

    2013-11-01

    This article presents the salient features of a new process for the recovery of metal values from secondary sources and waste materials such as slag and flue dusts. It is also feasible in extracting metals such as nickel and cobalt from ores that normally are difficult to enrich and process metallurgically. The salt extraction process is based on extraction of the metals from the raw materials by a molten salt bath consisting of NaCl, LiCl, and KCl corresponding to the eutectic composition with AlCl3 as the chlorinating agent. The process is operated in the temperature range 973 K (700°C) to 1173 K (900°C). The process was shown to be successful in extracting Cr and Fe from electric arc furnace (EAF) slag. Electrolytic copper could be produced from copper concentrate based on chalcopyrite in a single step. Conducting the process in oxygen-free atmosphere, sulfur could be captured in the elemental form. The method proved to be successful in extracting lead from spent cathode ray tubes. In order to prevent the loss of AlCl3 in the vapor form and also chlorine gas emission at the cathode during the electrolysis, liquid aluminum was used. The process was shown to be successful in extracting Nd and Dy from magnetic scrap. The method is a highly promising process route for the recovery of strategic metals. It also has the added advantage of being environmentally friendly.

  10. Costs for off-site disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes: Salt caverns versus other disposal methods

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-09-01

    According to an American Petroleum Institute production waste survey reported on by P.G. Wakim in 1987 and 1988, the exploration and production segment of the US oil and gas industry generated more than 360 million barrels (bbl) of drilling wastes, more than 20 billion bbl of produced water, and nearly 12 million bbl of associated wastes in 1985. Current exploration and production activities are believed to be generating comparable quantities of these oil field wastes. Wakim estimates that 28% of drilling wastes, less than 2% of produced water, and 52% of associated wastes are disposed of in off-site commercial facilities. In recent years, interest in disposing of oil field wastes in solution-mined salt caverns has been growing. This report provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in oil-and gas-producing states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and the amounts they charge. It also compares cavern disposal costs with the costs of other forms of waste disposal.

  11. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: Peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's draft report on an issues hierarchy and data needs for site characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, W.; Fenster, D.F.; Ditmars, J.D.; Paddock, R.A.; Rote, D.M.; Hambley, D.F.; Seitz, M.G.; Hull, A.B.

    1986-12-01

    At the request of the Salt Repository Project (SRPO), Argonne National Laboratory conducted an independent peer review of a report by the Battelle Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation entitled ''Salt Repository Project Issues Hierarchy and Data Needs for Site Characterization (Draft).'' This report provided a logical structure for evaluating the outstanding questions (issues) related to selection and licensing of a site as a high-level waste repository. It also provided a first estimate of the information and data necessary to answer or resolve those questions. As such, this report is the first step in developing a strategy for site characterization. Microfiche copies of ''Draft Issues Hierarchy, Resolution Strategy, and Information Needs for Site Characterization and Environmental/Socioeconomic Evaluation - July, 1986'' and ''Issues Hierarchy and Data Needs for Site Characterization - February, 1985'' are included in the back pocket of this report.

  12. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of Westinghouse Electric Corporation's report on reference conceptual designs for a repository waste package

    SciTech Connect

    Rote, D.M.; Hull, A.B.; Was, G.S.; Macdonald, D.D.; Wilde, B.E.; Russell, J.E.; Kruger, J.; Harrison, W.; Hambley, D.F.

    1985-10-01

    This report documents the findings of the peer panel constituted by Argonne National Laboratory to review Region A of Westinghouse Electric Corporation's report entitled Waste Package Reference Conceptual Designs for a Repository in Salt. The panel determined that the reviewed report does not provide reasonable assurance that US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements for waste packages will be met by the proposed design. It also found that it is premature to call the design a ''reference design,'' or even a ''reference conceptual design.'' This review report provides guidance for the preparation of a more acceptable design document.

  13. Mitigation of Salinity Buildup and Recovery of Wasted Salts in a Hybrid Osmotic Membrane Bioreactor-Electrodialysis System.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yaobin; He, Zhen

    2015-09-01

    The osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR) is an emerging technology that uses water osmosis to accomplish separation of biomass from the treated effluent; however, accumulation of salts in the wastewater due to water flux and loss of draw solute because of reverse salt flux seriously hinder OMBR development. In this study, a hybrid OMBR-electrodialysis (ED) system was proposed and investigated to alleviate the salinity buildup. The use of an ED (3 V applied) could maintain a relatively low conductivity of 8 mS cm(-1) in the feed solution, which allowed the OMBR to operate for 24 days, about 6 times longer than a conventional OMBR without a functional ED. It was found that the higher the voltage applied to the ED, the smaller area of ion-exchange membrane was needed for salt separation. The salts recovered by the ED were successfully reused as a draw solute in the OMBR. At an energy consumption of 1.88-4.01 kWh m(-3), the hybrid OMBR-ED system could achieve a stable water flux of about 6.23 L m(-2) h(-1) and an efficient waste salt recovery of 1.26 kg m(-3). The hybrid OMBR-ED system could be potentially more advantageous in terms of less waste saline water discharge and salt recovery compared with a combined OMBR and reverse osmosis system. It also offers potential advantages over the conventional OMBR+post ED treatment in higher water flux and less wastewater discharge. PMID:26238212

  14. An optimal method for phosphorylation of rare earth chlorides in LiCl-KCl eutectic based waste salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eun, H. C.; Kim, J. H.; Cho, Y. Z.; Choi, J. H.; Lee, T. K.; Park, H. S.; Park, G. I.

    2013-11-01

    A study on an optimal method for the phosphorylation of rare earth chlorides in LiCl-KCl eutectic waste salt generated the pyrochemical process of spent nuclear fuel was performed. A reactor with a pitched four blade impeller was designed to create a homogeneous mixing zone in LiCl-KCl eutectic salt. A phosphorylation test of NdCl3 in the salt was carried out by changing the operation conditions (operation temperature, stirring rate, agent injection amount). Based on the results of the test, a proper operation condition (450 °C, 300 rpm, 1 eq. of phosphorylation agent) for over a 0.99 conversion ratio of NdCl3 to NdPO4 was determined. Under this condition, multi-component rare earth (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Y) chlorides were effectively converted into phosphate forms. It was confirmed that the existing regeneration process of LiCl-KCl eutectic waste salt can be greatly improved and simplified through these phosphorylation test results.

  15. Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion and Cerebral/Renal Salt Wasting Syndrome: Similarities and Differences

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ji Young; Shin, Jae Il

    2015-01-01

    Hyponatremia (sodium levels of <135?mEq/L) is one of the most common electrolyte imbalances in clinical practice, especially in patients with neurologic diseases. Hyponatremia can cause cerebral edema and brain herniation; therefore, prompt diagnosis and proper treatment is important in preventing morbidity and mortality. Among various causes of hyponatremia, diagnosing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) and cerebral/renal salt wasting syndrome (C/RSW) is difficult due to many similarities. SIADH is caused by excess of renal water reabsorption through inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, and fluid restriction is the treatment of choice. On the other hand, C/RSW is caused by natriuresis, which is followed by volume depletion and negative sodium balance and replacement of water and sodium is the mainstay of treatment. Determinating volume status in hyponatremic patients is the key point in differential between SIADH and C/RSW. However, in most situations, differential diagnosis of these two diseases is difficult because they overlap in many clinical and laboratory aspects, especially to assess differences in volume status of these patients. Although distinction between the SIADH and C/RSW is difficult, improvement of hypouricemia and an increased fractional excretion of uric acid after the correction of hyponatremia in SIADH, not in C/RSW, may be one of the helpful points in discriminating the two diseases. In this review, we compare these two diseases regarding the pathophysiologic mechanisms, diagnosis, and therapeutic point of view. PMID:25657991

  16. Cerebral salt wasting after traumatic brain injury: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Jan; Garrett, Raymond E; Salottolo, Kristin; Slone, Denetta S; Mains, Charles W; Carrick, Matthew M; Bar-Or, David

    2015-01-01

    Electrolyte imbalances are common among patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Cerebral salt wasting (CSW) is an electrolyte imbalance characterized by hyponatremia and hypovolemia. Differentiating the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone and CSW remains difficult and the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying CSW are unclear. Our intent was to review the literature on CSW within the TBI population, in order to report the incidence and timing of CSW after TBI, examine outcomes, and summarize the biochemical changes in patients who developed CSW. We searched MEDLINE through 2014, hand-reviewed citations, and searched abstracts from the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (2003-2014). Publications were included if they were conducted within a TBI population, presented original data, and diagnosed CSW. Publications were excluded if they were review articles, discussed hyponatremia but did not differentiate the etiology causing hyponatremia, or presented cases with chronic disease. Fifteen of the 47 publications reviewed met the selection criteria; nine (60%) were case reports, five (33%) were prospective and 1 (7%) was a retrospective study. Incidence of CSW varied between 0.8 - 34.6%. The populations studied were heterogeneous and the criteria used to define hyponatremia and CSW varied. Though believed to play a role in the development of CSW, increased levels of natriuretic peptides in patients diagnosed with CSW were not consistently reported. These findings reinforce the elusiveness of the CSW diagnosis and the need for strict and consistent diagnostic criteria. PMID:26561391

  17. Waste Stream Generated and Waste Disposal Plans for Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Haghighi, M. H.; Szozda, R. M.; Jugan, M. R.

    2002-02-26

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) site is located in Tennessee, on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), south of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) main plant across Haw Ridge in Melton Valley. The MSRE was run by ORNL to demonstrate the desirable features of the molten-salt concept in a practical reactor that could be operated safely and reliably. It introduced the idea of a homogeneous reactor using fuel salt media and graphite moderation for power and breeder reactors. The MSRE reactor and associated components are located in cells beneath the floor in the high-bay area of Building 7503 (Figure 1). The reactor was operated from June 1965 to December 1969. When the reactor was shut down, fuel salt was drained from the reactor circuit to two drain tanks. A ''clean'' salt was then circulated through the reactor as a decontamination measure and drained to a third drain tank. When operations ceased, the fuel and flush salts were allowed t o cool and solidify in the drain tanks. At shutdown, the MSRE facility complex was placed in a surveillance and maintenance program. As a result of the S&M program, it was discovered in 1994 that gaseous uranium (233U/232U) hexafluoride (UF6) had moved throughout the MSRE process systems. The UF6 was generated when radiolysis of the fluorine salts caused the individual constituents to dissociate to their component atoms, including free fluorine.Some of the free fluorine combined with uranium fluorides (UF4) in the salt to form UF6. UF6 is gaseous at slightly above ambient temperatures; thus, periodic heating of the fuel salts (which was intended to remedy the radiolysis problems) and simple diffusion had allowed the UF6 to move out of the salt and into the process systems of MSRE.

  18. Demonstration of natriuretic activity in urine of neurosurgical patients with renal salt wasting

    PubMed Central

    Youmans, Steven J; Fein, Miriam R; Wirkowski, Elizabeth; Maesaka, John K

    2013-01-01

    We have utilized the persistent elevation of fractional excretion (FE) of urate, > 10%, to differentiate cerebral/renal salt wasting (RSW) from the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), in which a normalization of FEurate occurs after correction of hyponatremia.  Previous studies suggest as well  that an elevated FEurate with normonatremia, without pre-existing hyponatremia, is also consistent with RSW, including studies demonstrating induction of RSW in rats infused with plasma from normonatremic neurosurgical and Alzheimer’s disease patients.  The present studies were designed to test whether precipitates from the urine of normonatremic neurosurgical patients, with either normal or elevated FEurate, and patients with SIADH, display natriuretic activity.   Methods: Ammonium sulfate precipitates from the urine of 6 RSW and 5 non-RSW Control patients were dialyzed (10 kDa cutoff) to remove the ammonium sulfate, lyophilized, and the reconstituted precipitate was tested for its effect on transcellular transport of 22Na across LLC-PK1 cells grown to confluency in transwells. Results: Precipitates from 5 of the 6 patients with elevated FEurate and normonatremia significantly inhibited the in vitro transcellular transport of 22Na above a concentration of 3 ?g protein/ml, by 10-25%, versus to vehicle alone, and by 15-40% at concentrations of 5-20 ?g/ml as compared to precipitates from 4 of the 5 non-RSW patients with either normal FEurate and normonatremia (2 patients) or with SIADH (2 patients). Conclusion: These studies provide further evidence that an elevated FEurate with normonatremia is highly consistent with RSW.  Evidence in the urine of natriuretic activity suggests significant renal excretion of the natriuretic factor. The potentially large source of the natriuretic factor that this could afford, coupled with small analytical sample sizes required by the in-vitro bioassay used here, should facilitate future experimental analysis and allow the natriuretic factor to be investigated as a potential biomarker for RSW. PMID:24358843

  19. Renal salt wasting and chronic dehydration in claudin-7-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Tatum, Rodney; Zhang, Yuguo; Salleng, Kenneth; Lu, Zhe; Lin, Jen-Jar; Lu, Qun; Jeansonne, Beverly G; Ding, Lei; Chen, Yan-Hua

    2010-01-01

    Claudin-7, a member of the claudin family, is highly expressed in distal nephrons of kidneys and has been reported to be involved in the regulation of paracellular Cl(-) permeability in cell cultures. To investigate the role of claudin-7 in vivo, we generated claudin-7 knockout mice (Cln7(-/-)) by the gene-targeting deletion method. Here we report that Cln7(-/-) mice were born viable, but died within 12 days after birth. Cln7(-/-) mice showed severe salt wasting, chronic dehydration, and growth retardation. We found that urine Na(+), Cl(-), and K(+) were significantly increased in Cln7(-/-) mice compared with that of Cln7(+/+) mice. Blood urea nitrogen and hematocrit were also significantly higher in Cln7(-/-) mice. The wrinkled skin was evident when Cln7(-/-) mice were approximately 1 wk old, indicating that they suffered from chronic fluid loss. Transepidermal water loss measurements showed no difference between Cln7(+/+) and Cln7(-/-) skin, suggesting that there was no transepidermal water barrier defect in Cln7(-/-) mice. Claudin-7 deletion resulted in the dramatic increase of aldosterone synthase mRNA level as early as 2 days after birth. The significant increases of epithelial Na(+) channel alpha, Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter, and aquaporin 2 mRNA levels revealed a compensatory response to the loss of electrolytes and fluid in Cln7(-/-) mice. Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase alpha(1) expression level was also greatly increased in distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts where claudin-7 is normally expressed. Our study demonstrates that claudin-7 is essential for NaCl homeostasis in distal nephrons, and the paracellular ion transport pathway plays indispensable roles in keeping ionic balance in kidneys. PMID:19759267

  20. Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY)

    1994-11-22

    A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed, The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts, For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates.

  1. Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1994-11-22

    A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed. The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts. For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates. 54 figs.

  2. Emissions from energetic material waste during the Molten Salt Destruction process

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, B.E.; Upadhye, R.S.; Pruneda, C.O.; Brummond, W.A.

    1994-07-05

    The Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) process is an alternative to open burn/open detonation for destroying energetic materials; MSD has inherently low gaseous emissions, and the salt bath can scrub both acidic gases and particulates. It was demonstrated that high explosives and a liquid propellant can be safely and completely destroyed using MSD. Gaseous emissions of NOx and CO are very low. Nitrate builds up in the salt bath when nitrate-rich materials are destroyed, but addition fuel reduces the nitrate to NO. A program has been begun to add catalytic materials to the bed to further reduce emissions; a small molten salt bath has been constructed for chemical kinetic studies.

  3. Recovery of soluble chloride salts from the wastewater generated during the washing process of municipal solid wastes incineration fly ash.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hailong; Erzat, Aris; Liu, Yangsheng

    2014-01-01

    Water washing is widely used as the pretreatment method to treat municipal solid waste incineration fly ash, which facilitates the further solidification/stabilization treatment or resource recovery of the fly ash. The wastewater generated during the washing process is a kind of hydrosaline solution, usually containing high concentrations of alkali chlorides and sulphates, which cause serious pollution to environment. However, these salts can be recycled as resources instead of discharge. This paper explored an effective and practical recovery method to separate sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and calcium chloride salts individually from the hydrosaline water. In laboratory experiments, a simulating hydrosaline solution was prepared according to composition of the waste washing water. First, in the three-step evaporation-crystallization process, pure sodium chloride and solid mixture of sodium and potassium chlorides were obtained separately, and the remaining solution contained potassium and calcium chlorides (solution A). And then, the solid mixture was fully dissolved into water (solution B obtained). Finally, ethanol was added into solutions A and B to change the solubility of sodium, potassium, and calcium chlorides within the mixed solvent of water and ethanol. During the ethanol-adding precipitation process, each salt was separated individually, and the purity of the raw production in laboratory experiments reached about 90%. The ethanol can be recycled by distillation and reused as the solvent. Therefore, this technology may bring both environmental and economic benefits. PMID:25176491

  4. Results of screening activities in salt states prior to the enactment of the Nationall Waste Policy Act

    SciTech Connect

    Carbiener, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    The identification of potential sites for a nuclear waste repository through screening procedures in the salt states is a well-established, deliberate process. This screening process has made it possible to carry out detailed studies of many of the most promising potential sites, and general studies of all the sites, in anticipation of the siting guidelines specified in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. The screening work completed prior to the passage of the Act allowed the Secretary of Energy to identify seven salt sites as potentially acceptable under the provisions of Section 116(a) of the Act. These sites were formally identified by letters from Secretary Hodel to the states of Texas, Utah, Mississippi, and Louisiana on February 2, 1983. The potentially acceptable salt sites were in Deaf Smith and Swisher Counties in Texas; Davis and Lavender Canyons in the Gibson Dome location in Utah; Richton and Cypress Creek Domes in Mississippi; and Vacherie Dome in Louisiana. Further screening will include comparison of each potentially acceptable site against disqualification factors and selection of a preferred site in each of the three geohydrologic settings from those remaining, in accordance with the siting guidelines. These steps will be documented in statutory Environmental Assessments prepared for each site to be nominated for detailed characterization. 9 references.

  5. Preservation of artifacts in salt mines as a natural analog for the storage of transuranic wastes at the WIPP repository

    SciTech Connect

    Martell, M.A.; Hansen, F.; Weiner, R.

    1998-10-01

    Use of nature`s laboratory for scientific analysis of complex systems is a largely untapped resource for understanding long-term disposal of hazardous materials. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the US is a facility designed and approved for storage of transuranic waste in a salt medium. Isolation from the biosphere must be ensured for 10,000 years. Natural analogs provide a means to interpret the evolution of the underground disposal setting. Investigations of ancient sites where manmade materials have experienced mechanical and chemical processes over millennia provide scientific information unattainable by conventional laboratory methods. This paper presents examples of these pertinent natural analogs, provides examples of features relating to the WIPP application, and identifies potential avenues of future investigations. This paper cites examples of analogical information pertaining to the Hallstatt salt mine in Austria and Wieliczka salt mine in Poland. This paper intends to develop an appreciation for the applicability of natural analogs to the science and engineering of a long-term disposal facility in geomedia.

  6. Use of zinc and copper (I) salts to reduce sulfur and nitrogen impurities during the pyrolysis of plastic and rubber waste to hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Wingfield, Jr., Robert C. (Southfield, MI); Braslaw, Jacob (Southfield, MI); Gealer, Roy L. (West Bloomfield, MI)

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in a process for the pyrolytic conversion of rubber and plastic waste to hydrocarbon products which results in reduced levels of nitrogen and sulfur impurities in these products. The improvement comprises pyrolyzing the waste in the presence of at least about 1 weight percent of salts, based on the weight of the waste, preferably chloride or carbonate salts, of zinc or copper (I). This invention was made under contract with or subcontract thereunder of the Department of Energy Contract #DE-AC02-78-ER10049.

  7. Zr electrorefining process for the treatment of cladding hull waste in LiCl-KCl molten salts

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chang Hwa; Lee, You Lee; Jeon, Min Ku; Kang, Kweon Ho; Choi, Yong Taek; Park, Geun Il

    2013-07-01

    Zr electrorefining for the treatment of Zircaloy-4 cladding hull waste is demonstrated in LiCl-KCl-ZrCl{sub 4} molten salts. Although a Zr oxide layer thicker than 5 ?m strongly inhibits the Zr dissolution process, pre-treatment processes increases the dissolution kinetics. For 10 g-scale experiments, the purities of the recovered Zr were 99.54 wt.% and 99.74 wt.% for fresh and oxidized cladding tubes, respectively, with no electrical contact issue. The optimal condition for Zr electrorefining has been found to improve the morphological feature of the recovered Zr, which reduces the salt incorporation by examining the effect of the process parameters such as the ZrCl{sub 4} concentration and the applied potential.

  8. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: Peer review of the Fluor Technology, Inc. , report and position paper concerning waste emplacement mode and its effect on repository conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Hambley, D.F.; Russell, J.E.; Whitfield, R.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Harrison, W.; Jacoby, C.H.; Bump, T.R.; Mraz, D.Z.; Busch, J.S.; Fischer, L.E.

    1987-02-01

    Recommendations for revising the Fluor Technology, Inc., draft position paper entitled Evaluation of Waste Emplacement Mode and the final report entitled Waste Package/Repository Impact Study include: reevaluate the relative rankings for the various emplacement modes; delete the following want objectives: maximize ability to locate the package horizon because sufficient flexibility exists to locate rooms in the relatively clean San Andres Unit 4 Salt and maximize far-field geologic integrity during retrieval because by definition the far field will be unaffected by thermal and stress perturbations caused by remining; give greater emphasis to want objectives regarding cost and use of present technology; delete the following statements from pages 1-1 and 1-2 of the draft position paper: ''No thought or study was given to the impacts of this configuration (vertical emplacement) on repository construction or short and long-term performance of the site'' and ''Subsequent salt repository designs adopted the vertical emplacement configuration as the accepted method without further evaluation.''; delete App. E and lines 8-17 of page 1-4 of the draft position paper because they are inappropriate; adopt a formal decision-analysis procedure for the 17 identified emplacement modes; revise App. F of the impact study to more accurately reflect current technology; consider designing the underground layout to take advantage of stress-relief techniques; consider eliminating reference to fuel assemblies <10 yr ''out-of-reactor''; model the temperature distribution, assuming that the repository is constructed in an infinitely large salt body; state that the results of creep analyses must be considered tentative until they can be validated by in situ measurements; and reevaluate the peak radial stresses on the waste package so that the calculated stress conditions more closely approximate expected in situ conditions.

  9. Radiation damage studies on natural rock salt from various geological localities of interest to the radioactive waste disposal program

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, P.W.

    1981-01-01

    As part of a program to investigate radiation damage in geological materials of interest to the radioactive waste disposal program, radiation damage, particularly radiation induced sodium metal colloid formation, has been studied in 14 natural rock salt samples. All measurements were made with equipment for making optical absorption and other measurements on samples, in a temperature controlled irradiation chamber, during and after 0.5 to 3.0 MeV electron irradiation. Samples were chosen for practical and scientific purposes, from localities that are potential repository sites and from different horizons at certain localities.

  10. Melting of the precipitated ice IV in LiCl aqueous solution and polyamorphism of water.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Osamu

    2011-12-01

    Melting of the precipitated ice IV in supercooled LiCl-H(2)O solution was studied in the range of 0-0.6 MPa and 160-270 K. Emulsified solution was used to detect this metastable transition. Ice IV was precipitated from the aqueous solution of 2.0 mol % LiCl (or 4.8 mol % LiCl) in each emulsion particle at low-temperature and high-pressure conditions, and the emulsion was decompressed at different temperatures. The melting of ice IV was detected from the temperature change of the emulsified sample during the decompression. There was an apparently sudden change in the slope of the ice IV melting curve (liquidus) in the pressure-temperature diagram. At the high-pressure and high-temperature side of the change, the solute-induced freezing point depression was observed. At the low-pressure and low-temperature side, ice IV transformed into ice Ih on the decompression, and the transition was almost unrelated to the concentration of LiCl. These experimental results were roughly explained by the presumed existence of two kinds of liquid water (low-density liquid water and high-density liquid water), or polyamorphism in water, and by the simple assumption that LiCl dissolved maily in high-density liquid water. PMID:21736291

  11. Solution-based approaches for making high-density sodalite waste forms to immobilize spent electrochemical salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepry, William C.; Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Pierce, David A.

    2013-11-01

    Three different solution-based approaches were taken to make sodalite minerals as a host for a mixed salt simulating the waste in the electrochemical separations process of nuclear fuel reprocessing. The methods used an aqueous solution of mixed chlorides (simulated waste) but the other reactants varied: (1) Al(OH)3 + NaOH + CS, (2) NaAlO2 + CS, and (3) Al2Si2O7 + NaOH, (CS = colloidal silica). The products were dried, ground, pressed into pellets, and fired at 650-950 °C. In some cases, either 5 or 10 mass% of a Si-Na-B oxide glass sintering aid was introduced at different stages in the process. Method (2) proved the most successful at producing high sodalite fractions (up to 100%) with minimal sintering aid additions and showed high consolidation potential (up to 91.4% of theoretical density) at reduced firing temperatures.

  12. Regulatory Framework for Salt Waste Disposal and Tank Closure at the Savannah River Site - 13663

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Steve; Dickert, Ginger

    2013-07-01

    The end of the Cold War has left a legacy of approximately 37 million gallons of radioactive waste in the aging waste tanks at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). A robust program is in place to remove waste from these tanks, treat the waste to separate into a relatively small volume of high-level waste and a large volume of low-level waste, and to actively dispose of the low-level waste on-site and close the waste tanks and associated ancillary structures. To support performance-based, risk-informed decision making and to ensure compliance with all regulatory requirements, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its current and past contractors have worked closely with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop and implement a framework for on-site low-level waste disposal and closure of the SRS waste tanks. The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, provides DOE the authority to manage defense-related radioactive waste. DOE Order 435.1 and its associated manual and guidance documents detail this radioactive waste management process. The DOE also has a requirement to consult with the NRC in determining that waste that formerly was classified as high-level waste can be safely managed as either low-level waste or transuranic waste. Once DOE makes a determination, NRC then has a responsibility to monitor DOE's actions in coordination with SCDHEC to ensure compliance with the Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 61 (10CFR61), Subpart C performance objectives. The management of hazardous waste substances or components at SRS is regulated by SCDHEC and the EPA. The foundation for the interactions between DOE, SCDHEC and EPA is the SRS Federal Facility Agreement (FFA). Managing this array of requirements and successfully interacting with regulators, consultants and stakeholders is a challenging task but ensures thorough and thoughtful processes for disposing of the SRS low-level waste and the closure of the tank farm facilities. (authors)

  13. Geohydrology of the northern Louisiana salt-dome basin pertinent to the storage of radioactive wastes; a progress report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hosman, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    Salt domes in northern Louisiana are being considered as possible storage sites for nuclear wastes. The domes are in an area that received regional sedimentation through early Tertiary (Eocene) time with lesser amounts of Quaternary deposits. The Cretaceous-Tertiary accumulation is a few thousand feet thick; the major sands are regional aquifers that extend far beyond the boundaries of the salt-dome basin. Because of multiple aquifers, structural deformation, and variations in the hydraulic characteristics of cap rock, the ground-water hydrology around a salt dome may be highly complex. The Sparta Sand is the most productive and heavily used regional aquifer. It is either penetrated by or overlies most of the domes. A fluid entering the Sparta flow system would move toward one of the pumping centers, all at or near municipalities that pump from the Sparta. Movement could be toward surface drainage where local geologic and hydrologic conditions permit leakage to the surface or to a surficial aquifer. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Quantum Theoretical Study of KCl and LiCl Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koetter, Ted; Hira, Ajit; Salazar, Justin; Jaramillo, Danelle

    2014-03-01

    This research focuses on the theoretical study of molecular clusters to examine the chemical properties of small KnClnandLinCln clusters (n = 2 - 20). The potentially important role of these molecular species in biochemical and medicinal processes is well known. This work applies the hybrid ab initio methods of quantum chemistry to derive the different alkali-halide (MnHn) geometries. Of particular interest is the competition between hexagonal ring geometries and rock salt structures. Electronic energies, rotational constants, dipole moments, and vibrational frequencies for these geometries are calculated. Magic numbers for cluster stability are identified and are related to the property of cluster compactness. Mapping of the singlet, triplet, and quintet, potential energy surfaces is performed. Calculations were performed to examine the interactions of these clusters with some atoms and molecules of biological interest, including O, O2, and Fe. Potential design of new medicinal drugs is explored.

  15. Salton Sea Geothermal Field, California, as a near-field natural analog of a radioactive waste repository in salt

    SciTech Connect

    Elders, W.A.; Cohen, L.H.

    1983-11-01

    Since high concentrations of radionuclides and high temperatures are not normally encountered in salt domes or beds, finding an exact geologic analog of expected near-field conditions in a mined nuclear waste repository in salt will be difficult. The Salton Sea Geothermal Field, however, provides an opportunity to investigate the migration and retardation of naturally occurring U, Th, Ra, Cs, Sr and other elements in hot brines which have been moving through clay-rich sedimentary rocks for up to 100,000 years. The more than thirty deep wells drilled in this field to produce steam for electrical generation penetrate sedimentary rocks containing concentrated brines where temperatures reach 365/sup 0/C at only 2 km depth. The brines are primarily Na, K, Ca chlorides with up to 25% of total dissolved solids; they also contain high concentrations of metals such as Fe, Mn, Li, Zn, and Pb. This report describes the geology, geophysics and geochemistry of this system as a prelude to a study of the mobility of naturally occurring radionuclides and radionuclide analogs within it. The aim of this study is to provide data to assist in validating quantitative models of repository behavior and to use in designing and evaluating waste packages and engineered barriers. 128 references, 33 figures, 13 tables.

  16. Thermal Properties of LiCl-KCl Molten Salt for Nuclear Waste Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Sridharan, Kumar; Allen, Todd; Anderson, Mark; Simpson, Mike

    2012-11-30

    This project addresses both practical and fundamental scientific issues of direct relevance to operational challenges of the molten LiCl-KCl salt pyrochemical process, while providing avenues for improvements in the process. In order to understand the effects of the continually changing composition of the molten salt bath during the process, the project team will systematically vary the concentrations of rare earth surrogate elements, lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, and neodymium, which will be added to the molten LiCl-KCl salt. They will also perform a limited number of focused experiments by the dissolution of depleted uranium. All experiments will be performed at 500 deg C. The project consists of the following tasks. Researchers will measure density of the molten salts using an instrument specifically designed for this purpose, and will determine the melting points with a differential scanning calorimeter. Knowledge of these properties is essential for salt mass accounting and taking the necessary steps to prevent melt freezing. The team will use cyclic voltammetry studies to determine redox potentials of the rare earth cations, as well as their diffusion coefficients and activities in the molten LiCl-KCl salt. In addition, the team will perform anodic stripping voltammetry to determine the concentration of the rare earth elements and their solubilities, and to develop the scientific basis for an on-line diagnostic system for in situ monitoring of the cation species concentration (rare earths in this case). Solubility and activity of the cation species are critically important for the prediction of the salt's useful lifetime and disposal.

  17. Separation of CsCl from a Ternary CsCl-LiCl-KCl Salt via a Melt Crystallization Technique for Pyroprocessing Waste Minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Ammon Williams; Supathorn Phongikaroon; Michael Simpson

    2013-02-01

    A parametric study has been conducted to identify the effects of several parameters on the separation of CsCl from molten LiCl-KCl salt via a melt crystallization process. A reverse vertical Bridgman technique was used to grow the salt crystals. The investigated parameters were: (1) the advancement rate, (2) the crucible lid configuration, (3) the amount of salt mixture, (4) the initial composition of CsCl, and (5) the temperature difference between the high and low furnace zones. From each grown crystal, samples were taken axially and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results show that CsCl concentrations at the top of the crystals were low and increased to a maximum at the bottom of the salt. Salt (LiCl-KCl) recycle percentages for the experiments ranged from 50% to 75% and the CsCl composition in the waste salt was low. To increase the recycle percentage and the concentration of CsCl in the waste form, the possibility of using multiple crystallization stages was explored to further optimize the process. Results show that multiple crystallization stages are practical and the optimal experimental conditions should be operated at 5.0 mm/hr rate with a lid configuration and temperature difference of 200 °C for a total of five crystallization stages. Under these conditions, up to 88% of the salt can be recycled.

  18. Tank Waste Transport Stability: Summary of Slurry and Salt-Solution Studies for FY 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, T.D.

    2002-06-07

    Despite over 50 years of experience in transporting radioactive tank wastes to and from equipment and tanks at the Department of Energy's Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge sites, waste slurry transfer pipelines and process piping become plugged on occasion. At Hanford, several tank farm pipelines are no longer in service because of plugs. At Savannah River, solid deposits in the outlet line of the 2H evaporator have resulted in an unplanned extended downtime. Although waste transfer criteria and guidelines intended to prevent pipeline plugging are in place, they are not always adequate. To avoid pipeline plugging in the future, other factors that are not currently embodied in the transfer criteria may need to be considered. The work summarized here is being conducted to develop a better understanding of the chemical and waste flow dynamics during waste transfer. The goal is to eliminate pipeline plugs by improving analysis and engineering tools in the field that incorporate this understanding.

  19. Technetium in alkaline, high-salt, radioactive tank waste supernate: Preliminary characterization and removal

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, D.L. Jr.; Brown, G.N.; Conradson, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the initial work conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to study technetium (Tc) removal from Hanford tank waste supernates and Tc oxidation state in the supernates. Filtered supernate samples from four tanks were studied: a composite double shell slurry feed (DSSF) consisting of 70% from Tank AW-101, 20% from AP-106, and 10% from AP-102; and three complexant concentrate (CC) wastes (Tanks AN-107, SY-101, ANS SY-103) that are distinguished by having a high concentration of organic complexants. The work included batch contacts of these waste samples with Reillex{trademark}-HPQ (anion exchanger from Reilly Industries) and ABEC 5000 (a sorbent from Eichrom Industries), materials designed to effectively remove Tc as pertechnetate from tank wastes. A short study of Tc analysis methods was completed. A preliminary identification of the oxidation state of non-pertechnetate species in the supernates was made by analyzing the technetium x-ray absorption spectra of four CC waste samples. Molybdenum (Mo) and rhenium (Re) spiked test solutions and simulants were tested with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry to evaluate the feasibility of the technique for identifying Tc species in waste samples.

  20. Measurement of unsaturated hydraulic properties of salt cake simulant relevant to hanford and SRS high-level waste tanks using a pilot-scale setup

    SciTech Connect

    Tachiev, G.; Yaari, G.; Long, S.; Srivastava, R.; Roelant, D.

    2007-07-01

    Closure of the remaining tanks and final disposition of the radioactive waste is a high priority task at both Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford. The radioactive waste in the tanks are generally found in layers: supernate (on top) containing soluble fission products, and salt-cake and sludge (on the bottom of the tank) containing insoluble actinides. One strategy for minimizing the waste volume is to segregate the low curie salt waste from the high curie salt supernate by draining the supernate and interstitial salt solution from the salt-cake. The retrieval of the interstitial fluid will require knowledge of relevant properties of salt-cake waste including drainage parameters, more specifically, its hydraulic properties. The hydraulic parameters of the salt-cake have significance with respect to: 1) Kinetics of the retrieval process; and 2) Equilibrium conditions of the drainage. While the saturated hydraulic properties of the salt waste (hydraulic conductivity in the vertical and horizontal direction) can be used to determine the kinetics of the flow through the salt waste, the unsaturated properties are needed in order to assess not only the time frame of tank drainage but also the equilibrium conditions. How much and how fast fluid can be drained at given initial and boundary conditions (atmospheric pressure and temperature) can be analyzed. A series of dissolution and drainage experiments was conducted using S-112, S-109 and Tank 41 simulants in a pilot-scale column (1' diameter, 10' high). The major goal of these experiments was to determine the hydraulic parameters of flow through the column and the dissolution patterns upon addition of fresh water. The hydraulic experiments were conducted using interstitial fluid as well as fresh water. A series of one-step outflow experiments were used to evaluate the drainage patterns for salt-bed heights ranging from 1' to 8'. Measured data include bulk densities and saturated hydraulic conductivities as a function of temperature, and water retention characteristics for ambient temperature. Experiments in the range of 22-43 deg. C confirmed that the hydraulic conductivity in the vertical direction is strongly dependent on the temperature with variations most likely caused by physical-chemical changes in the salt-cake structure and the viscosity of the interstitial fluid. Evidence for the changes in salt-cake structure include: increased effluent specific gravity to 1.47, appearance of voids in the column, and a 10% reduction of the column height. A two-orders-of-magnitude difference in viscosity was observed when the temperature increased from 22 deg. C to 43 deg. C. The liquid retention parameters were determined using static retention points (derived from the multi-step outflow time series). Inverse analyses of the outflow data yielded additional unsaturated hydraulic conductivity parameters. The inverse analysis was performed by fixing saturated and residual water contents and the pore connectivity factor. Numerical simulations showed that the amount of drained fluid is directly related to van Genuchten's shape parameters n and {alpha} . On the other hand, the rate of drainage was directly related to saturated hydraulic conductivity. The recommended values for {alpha} and n with uncertainties in the parenthesis are respectively: 3.2(0.32) 1/m and 2.6(0.4). The recommended value for saturated hydraulic conductivity of salt-cake is 6.0E-06(3E-06). This work provides critical data about unsaturated hydraulic properties which can be used in numerical models to better predict removal of interstitial liquid from tanks that directly impact tank and site cleanup schedule and costs. (authors)

  1. Enhanced ?-galactosidase production of Aspergillus oryzae mutated by UV and LiCl.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weibing; Liu, Fangning; Yang, Min; Liang, Qi; Zhang, Yan; Ai, Duiyuan; An, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    In order to breed a high-yield ?-galactosidase-producing strain, Aspergillus oryzae was used as the parent strain and mutagenized with ultraviolet (UV) and UV plus lithium chloride (LiCl), respectively. After being mutagenized by UV, the ?-galactosidase activity of mutant UV-15-20 reached 114.08 U/mL, which revealed a 49.22% increase compared with the original strain. A mutant UV-LiCl-38 with high ?-galactosidase activity (121.42 U/mL) was obtained after compound mutagenesis of UV and LiCl; the ?-galactosidase activity of this mutant was 58.82% higher than that of the parent strain. Subculture testing indicated that UV-15-20 and UV-LiCl-38 had good hereditary stability and may be ideal strains for the production of ?-galactosidase. Additionally, it was demonstrated that compound mutagenesis with UV and LiCl is an effective mutation method for breeding industrially interesting strains. PMID:24274018

  2. Permeability and hydraulic diffusivity of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository salt inferred from small-scale brine inflow experiments

    SciTech Connect

    McTigue, D.F.

    1993-06-01

    Brine seepage to 17 boreholes in salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility horizon has been monitored for several years. A simple model for one-dimensional, radial, darcy flow due to relaxation of ambient pore-water pressure is applied to analyze the field data. Fits of the model response to the data yield estimates of two parameters that characterize the magnitude of the flow and the time scale over which it evolves. With further assumptions, these parameters are related to the permeability and the hydraulic diffusivity of the salt. For those data that are consistent with the model prediction, estimated permeabilities are typically 10{sup {minus}22} to 10{sup {minus}21} m{sup 2}. The relatively small range of inferred permeabilities reflects the observation that the measured seepage fluxes are fairly consistent from hole to hole, of the order of 10{sup {minus}10} m/s. Estimated diffusivities are typically 10{sup {minus}10} to 10{sup {minus}8} m{sup 2}/s. The greater scatter in inferred hydraulic diffusivities is due to the difficulty of matching the idealized model history to the observed evolution of the flows. The data obtained from several of the monitored holes are not consistent with the simple model adopted here; material properties could not be inferred in these cases.

  3. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: rationale and methodology for Argonne-conducted reviews of site characterization programs

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, W.; Ditmars, J.D.; Tisue, M.W.; Hambley, D.F.; Fenster, D.F.; Rote, D.M.

    1985-07-01

    Both regulatory and technical concerns must be addressed in Argonne-conducted peer reviews of site characterization programs for individual sites for a high-level radioactive waste repository in salt. This report describes the regulatory framework within which reviews must be conducted and presents background information on the structure and purpose of site characterization programs as found in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 4.17 and Title 10, Part 60, of the Code of Federal Regulations. It also presents a methodology to assist reviewers in addressing technical concerns relating to their respective areas of expertise. The methodology concentrates on elements of prime importance to the US Department of Energy's advocacy of a given salt repository system during the NRC licensing process. Instructions are given for reviewing 12 site characterization program elements, starting with performance objectives, performance issues, and levels of performance of repository subsystem components; progressing through performance assessment; and ending with plans for data acquisition and evaluation. The success of a site characterization program in resolving repository performance issues will be determined by judging the likelihood that the proposed data acquisition activities will reduce uncertainties in the performance predictions. 8 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's reports on multifactor life testing of waste package materials

    SciTech Connect

    McPheeters, C.C.; Harrison, W.; Ditmars, J.D.; Lerman, A.; Rote, D.M.; Edgar, D.E.; Hambley, D.F.

    1984-09-01

    Two documents that provide the approaches in designing a test program to investigate uniform corrosion of low-carbon cash steel in a salt repository environment were reviewed. Recommendations are made by the Peer Review Panel for improving the two reports.

  5. Properties of salt-saturated concrete and grout after six years in situ at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeley, L.D.; Harrington, P.T.; Weiss, C.A. Jr.

    1993-06-01

    Samples of concrete and grout were recovered from short boreholes in the repository floor at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant more than six years after the concrete and grout were placed. Plugs from the Plug Test Matrix of the Plugging and Sealing Program of Sandia National Laboratories were overcored to include a shell of host rock. The cores were analyzed at the Waterways Experiment Station to assess their condition after six years of service, having potentially been exposed to those aspects of their service environment (salt, brine, fracturing, anhydrite, etc.) that could cause deterioration. Measured values of compressive strength and pulse velocity of both the grout and the concrete equaled or exceeded values from tests performed on laboratory-tested samples of the same mixtures at ages of one month to one year after casting. The phase assemblages had changed very little. Materials performed as intended and showed virtually no chemical or physical evidence of deterioration. The lowest values for strength and pulse velocity were measured for samples taken from the Disturbed Rock Zone, indicating the influence of cracking in this zone on the properties of enclosed seal materials. There was evidence of movement of brine in the system. Crystalline phases containing magnesium, potassium, sulfate, and other ions had been deposited on free surfaces in fractures and pilot holes. There was a reaction rim in the anhydrite immediately surrounding each recovered borehole plug, suggesting interaction between grout or concrete and host rock. However, the chemical changes apparent in this reaction rim were not reflected in the chemical composition of the adjacent concrete or grout. The grout and concrete studied here showed no signs of the deterioration found to have occurred in some parts of the concrete liner of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant waste handling shaft.

  6. On the importance of coupled THM processes to predict the long-term response of a generic salt repository for high-level nuclear waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco Martin, L.; Rutqvist, J.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2013-12-01

    Salt is a potential medium for the underground disposal of nuclear waste because it has several assets, in particular its ability to creep and heal fractures generated by excavation and its water and gas tightness in the undisturbed state. In this research, we focus on disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste (such as spent fuel) and we consider a generic salt repository with in-drift emplacement of waste packages and subsequent backfill of the drifts with run-of-mine crushed salt. As the natural salt creeps, the crushed salt backfill gets progressively compacted and an engineered barrier system is subsequently created. In order to evaluate the integrity of the natural and engineered barriers over the long-term, it is important to consider the coupled effects of the thermal, hydraulic and mechanical processes that take place. In particular, the results obtained so far show how the porosity reduction of the crushed salt affects the saturation and pore pressure evolution throughout the repository, both in time and space. Such compaction is induced by the stress and temperature regime within the natural salt. Also, transport properties of the host rock are modified not only by thermo-mechanically and hydraulically-induced damaged processes, but also by healing/sealing of existing fractures. In addition, the THM properties of the backfill evolve towards those of the natural salt during the compaction process. All these changes are based on dedicated laboratory experiments and on theoretical considerations [1-3]. Different scenarios are modeled and compared to evaluate the relevance of different processes from the perspective of effective nuclear waste repositories. The sensitivity of the results to some parameters, such as capillarity, is also addressed. The simulations are conducted using an updated version of the TOUGH2-FLAC3D simulator, which is based on a sequential explicit method to couple flow and geomechanics [4]. A new capability for large strains and creep has been introduced and validated. The time-dependent geomechanical response of salt is determined using the Lux/Wolters constitutive model, developed at Clausthal University of Technology (Germany). References: [1] R. Wolters, and K.-H. Lux. Evaluation of Rock Salt Barriers with Respect to Tightness: Influence of Thermomechanical Damage, Fluid Infiltration and Sealing/Healing. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on the Mechanical Behavior of Salt (SaltMech7). Paris: Balkema, Rotterdam (2012). [2] W. Bechthold et al., Backfilling and Sealing of Underground Repositories for Radioactive Waste in Salt (BAMBUS Project), European Atomic Energy Community, Report EUR19124 EN (1999). [3] J. Kim, E.L Sonnenthal and J. Rutqvist, 'Formulation and sequential numerical algorithms of coupled fluid/heat flow and geomechanics for multiple porosity materials', Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng., 92, 425 (2012). [4] J. Rutqvist. Status of the TOUGH-FLAC simulator and recent applications related to coupled fluid flow and crustal deformations. Computational Geosciences, 37, 739-750 (2011).

  7. Effects of resource activities upon repository siting and waste containment with reference to bedded salt

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, J.; Rowe, J.

    1980-02-01

    The primary consideration for the suitability of a nuclear waste repository site is the overall ability of the repository to safely contain radioactive waste. This report is a discussion of the past, present, and future effects of resource activities on waste containment. Past and present resource activities which provide release pathways (i.e., leaky boreholes, adjacent mines) will receive initial evaluation during the early stages of any repository site study. However, other resource activities which may have subtle effects on containment (e.g., long-term pumping causing increased groundwater gradients, invasion of saline water causing lower retardation) and all potential future resource activities must also be considered during the site evaluation process. Resource activities will affect both the siting and the designing of repositories. Ideally, sites should be located in areas of low resource activity and low potential for future activity, and repository design should seek to eliminate or minimize the adverse effects of any resource activity. Buffer zones should be created to provide areas in which resource activities that might adversely affect containment can be restricted or curtailed. This could mean removing large areas of land from resource development. The impact of these frozen assets should be assessed in terms of their economic value and of their effect upon resource reserves. This step could require a major effort in data acquisition and analysis followed by extensive numerical modeling of regional fluid flow and mass transport. Numerical models should be used to assess the effects of resource activity upon containment and should include the cumulative effects of different resource activities. Analysis by other methods is probably not possible except for relatively simple cases.

  8. Effect of biosolid waste compost on soil respiration in salt-affected soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raya, Silvia; Gómez, Ignacio; García, Fuensanta; Navarro, José; Jordán, Manuel Miguel; Belén Almendro, María; Martín Soriano, José

    2013-04-01

    A great part of mediterranean soils are affected by salinization. This is an important problem in semiarid areas increased by the use of low quality waters, the induced salinization due to high phreatic levels and adverse climatology. Salinization affects 25% of irrigated agriculture, producing important losses on the crops. In this situation, the application of organic matter to the soil is one of the possible solutions to improve their quality. The main objective of this research was to asses the relation between the salinity level (electrical conductivity, EC) in the soil and the response of microbial activity (soil respiration rate) after compost addition. The study was conducted for a year. Soil samples were collected near to an agricultural area in Crevillente and Elche, "El Hondo" Natural Park (Comunidad de Regantes from San Felipe Neri). The experiment was developed to determine and quantify the soil respiration rate in 8 different soils differing in salinity. The assay was done in close pots -in greenhouse conditions- containing soil mixed with different doses of sewage sludge compost (2, 4 and 6%) besides the control. They were maintained at 60% of water holding capacity (WHC). Soil samples were analyzed every four months for a year. The equipment used to estimate the soil respiration was a Bac-Trac and CO2 emitted by the soil biota was measured and quantified by electrical impedance changes. It was observed that the respiration rate increases as the proportion of compost added to each sample increases as well. The EC was incremented in each sampling period from the beginning of the experiment, probably due to the fact that soils were in pots and lixiviation was prevented, so the salts could?t be lost from soil. Over time the compost has been degraded and, it was more susceptible to be mineralized. Salts were accumulated in the soil. Also it was observed a decrease of microbial activity with the increase of salinity in the soil. Keywords: soil respiration, compost, electrical conductivity, salinization, Bac-Trac References: Abdelbasset Lakhdar, Mokded Rabhi, Tahar Ghnaya, Francesco Montemurro, Naceur Jedidi , Chedly Abdelly. Effectiveness of compost use in salt-affected soil. Journal of Hazardous Materials 171 (2009) pp 29-37. M. Tejada, C. Garcia, J.L. Gonzalez , M.T. Hernandez . Use of organic amendment as a strategy for saline soil remediation:Influence on the physical, chemical and biological properties of soil. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38 (2006) pp 1413-1421. I. Gomez; J.M. Disla Soriano; J. Navarro-Pedreño; F. García-Orenes; M.B. Almendro-Candel; M.M. Jordan. Quantification of soil respiration in different saline soil of Alicante (Spain). EGU General Assembly (2012). Viena. Ed. Geophysycal Research Abstracts. Vol 14 EGU2012-2399,(2012). (Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Spanish MICINN. Project Ref.: CGL2009-11194)

  9. Repository environmental parameters and models/methodologies relevant to assessing the performance of high-level waste packages in basalt, tuff, and salt

    SciTech Connect

    Claiborne, H.C.; Croff, A.G.; Griess, J.C.; Smith, F.J.

    1987-09-01

    This document provides specifications for models/methodologies that could be employed in determining postclosure repository environmental parameters relevant to the performance of high-level waste packages for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) at Richland, Washington, the tuff at Yucca Mountain by the Nevada Test Site, and the bedded salt in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Guidance is provided on the identify of the relevant repository environmental parameters; the models/methodologies employed to determine the parameters, and the input data base for the models/methodologies. Supporting studies included are an analysis of potential waste package failure modes leading to identification of the relevant repository environmental parameters, an evaluation of the credible range of the repository environmental parameters, and a summary of the review of existing models/methodologies currently employed in determining repository environmental parameters relevant to waste package performance. 327 refs., 26 figs., 19 tabs.

  10. Site characterization plan conceptual design report for a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt, vertical emplacement mode: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    This Conceptual Design Report describes the conceptual design of a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt at a proposed site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Waste receipt, processing, packing, and other surface facility operations are described. Operations in the shafts underground are described, including waste hoisting, transfer, and vertical emplacement. This report specifically addresses the vertical emplacement mode, the reference design for the repository. Waste retrieval capability is described. The report includes a description of the layout of the surface, shafts, and underground. Major equipment items are identified. The report includes plans for decommissioning and sealing of the facility. The report discusses how the repository will satisfy performance objectives. Chapters are included on basis for design, design analyses, and data requirements for completion of future design efforts. 105 figs., 52 tabs.

  11. Differentiating SIADH from Cerebral/Renal Salt Wasting: Failure of the Volume Approach and Need for a New Approach to Hyponatremia

    PubMed Central

    Maesaka, John K.; Imbriano, Louis; Mattana, Joseph; Gallagher, Dympna; Bade, Naveen; Sharif, Sairah

    2014-01-01

    Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality. Its diagnostic and therapeutic approaches are in a state of flux. It is evident that hyponatremic patients are symptomatic with a potential for serious consequences at sodium levels that were once considered trivial. The recommendation to treat virtually all hyponatremics exposes the need to resolve the diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma of deciding whether to water restrict a patient with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) or administer salt and water to a renal salt waster. In this review, we briefly discuss the pathophysiology of SIADH and renal salt wasting (RSW), and the difficulty in differentiating SIADH from RSW, and review the origin of the perceived rarity of RSW, as well as the value of determining fractional excretion of urate (FEurate) in differentiating both syndromes, the high prevalence of RSW which highlights the inadequacy of the volume approach to hyponatremia, the importance of changing cerebral salt wasting to RSW, and the proposal to eliminate reset osmostat as a subtype of SIADH, and finally propose a new algorithm to replace the outmoded volume approach by highlighting FEurate. This algorithm eliminates the need to assess the volume status with less reliance on determining urine sodium concentration, plasma renin, aldosterone and atrial/brain natriuretic peptide or the BUN to creatinine ratio. PMID:26237607

  12. Effects of metal salt addition on odor and process stability during the anaerobic digestion of municipal waste sludge.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Timothy; Eskicioglu, Cigdem

    2015-12-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an effective way to recover energy and nutrients from organic waste; however, several issues including the solubilization of bound nutrients and the production of corrosive, highly odorous and toxic volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in AD biogas can limit its wider adoption. This study explored the effects of adding two different doses of ferric chloride, aluminum sulfate and magnesium hydroxide directly to the feed of complete mix semi-continuously fed mesophilic ADs on eight of the most odorous VSCs in AD biogas at three different organic loading rates (OLR). Ferric chloride was shown to be extremely effective in reducing VSCs by up to 87%, aluminum sulfate had the opposite effect and increased VSC levels by up to 920%, while magnesium hydroxide was not shown to have any significant impact. Ferric chloride, aluminum sulfate and magnesium hydroxide were effective in reducing the concentration of orthophosphate in AD effluent although both levels of alum addition caused digester failure at elevated OLRs. Extensive foaming was observed within the magnesium hydroxide dosed digesters, particularly at higher doses and high OLRs. Certain metal salt additions may be a valuable tool in overcoming barriers to AD and to meet regulatory targets. PMID:26260964

  13. Laboratory creep and mechanical tests on salt data report (1975-1996): Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) thermal/structural interactions program

    SciTech Connect

    Mellegard, K.D.

    1997-02-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility located in a bedded salt formation in Carlsbad, New Mexico, is being used by the U.S. Department of Energy to demonstrate the technology for safe handling and disposal of transuranic wastes produced by defense activities in the United States. In support of that demonstration, mechanical tests on salt were conducted in the laboratory to characterize material behavior at the stresses and temperatures expected for a nuclear waste repository. Many of those laboratory test programs have been carried out in the RE/SPEC Inc. rock mechanics laboratory in Rapid City, South Dakota; the first program being authorized in 1975 followed by additional testing programs that continue to the present. All of the WIPP laboratory data generated on salt at RE/SPEC Inc. over the last 20 years is presented in this data report. A variety of test procedures were used in performance of the work including quasi-static triaxial compression tests, constant stress (creep) tests, damage recovery tests, and multiaxial creep tests. The detailed data is presented in individual plots for each specimen tested. Typically, the controlled test conditions applied to each specimen are presented in a plot followed by additional plots of the measured specimen response. Extensive tables are included to summarize the tests that were performed. Both the tables and the plots contain cross-references to the technical reports where the data were originally reported. Also included are general descriptions of laboratory facilities, equipment, and procedures used to perform the work.

  14. Familial renal glucosuria: SLC5A2 mutation analysis and evidence of salt-wasting.

    PubMed

    Calado, J; Loeffler, J; Sakallioglu, O; Gok, F; Lhotta, K; Barata, J; Rueff, J

    2006-03-01

    Familial renal glucosuria (FRG) is an inherited renal tubular disorder characterized by persistent isolated glucosuria in the absence of hyperglycemia. Mutations in the sodium/glucose co-transporter SGLT2 coding gene, SLC5A2, were recently found to be responsible for the disorder. Here, we report the molecular and phenotype study of five unrelated FRG families. Five patients were identified and their family members screened for glucosuria. SLC5A2 coding region of index cases was polymerase chain reaction amplified and sequenced. Five different mutations are reported, including four novel alleles. The IVS12+1G>A and p.A102V alleles were identified in homozygosity in index patients of two unrelated families. A proband from another family was compound heterozygous for the p.R132H and p.A219T mutations, and the heterozygous p.Q167fsX186 frameshift allele was the only mutation detected in the affected individual from an additional pedigree. For the remaining family no mutations were detected. The patient homozygous for the p.A102V mutation had glucosuria of 65.6 g/1.73 m(2)/24 h, evidence of renal sodium wasting, mild volume depletion, and raised basal plasma renin and serum aldosterone levels. Our findings confirm previous observations that in FRG, transmitted as a codominant trait with incomplete penetrance, most mutations are private. In the only patient with massive glucosuria in our cohort there was evidence evocative of renin-angiotensin aldosterone system activation by extracellular volume depletion induced by natriuresis. Definite proof of renin-angiotensin aldosterone system activation in FGR should rely on evaluation of additional patients with massive glucosuria. PMID:16518345

  15. Mass transport in bedded salt and salt interbeds

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Y.; Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-08-01

    Salt is the proposed host rock for geologic repositories of nuclear waste in several nations because it is nearly dry and probably impermeable. Although experiments and experience at potential salt sites indicate that salt may contain brine, the low porosity, creep, and permeability of salt make it still a good choice for geologic isolation. In this paper we summarize several mass-transfer and transport analyses of salt repositories. The mathematical details are given in our technical reports.

  16. Ceramicrete stabilization of radioactive-salt-containing liquid waste and sludge water. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ehst, D.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-08-04

    It was found that the Ceramicrete Specimens incorporated the Streams 1 and 2 sludges with the adjusted loading about 41.6 and 31.6%, respectively, have a high solidity. The visible cracks in the matrix materials and around the anionite AV-17 granules included could not obtain. The granules mentioned above fixed by Ceramicrete matrix very strongly. Consequently, we can conclude that irradiation of Ceramecrete matrix, goes from the high radioactive elements, not result the structural degradation. Based on the chemical analysis of specimens No.462 and No.461 used it was shown that these matrix included the formation elements (P, K, Mg, O), but in the different samples their correlations are different. These ratios of the content of elements included are about {+-} 10%. This information shows a great homogeneity of matrix prepared. In the list of the elements founded, expect the matrix formation elements, we detected also Ca and Si (from the wollastonite - the necessary for Ceramicrete compound); Na, Al, S, O, Cl, Fe, Ni also have been detected in the Specimen No.642 from the waste forms: NaCl, Al(OH){sub 3}, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Fe(OH){sub 3}, nickel ferrocyanide and Ni(NO{sub 3})2. The unintelligible results also were found from analysis of an AV-17 granules, in which we obtain the great amount of K. The X-ray radiographs of the Ceramicrete specimens with loading 41.4 % of Stream 1 and 31.6% of Stream 2, respectively showed that the realization of the advance technology, created at GEOHKI, leads to formation of excellent ceramic matrix with high amount of radioactive streams up to 40% and more. Really, during the interaction with start compounds MgO and KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} with the present of H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} and Wollastonite this process run with high speed under the controlled regimes. That fact that the Ceramicrete matrix with 30-40% of Streams 1 and 2 have a crystalline form, not amorphous matter, allows to permit that these matrix should be very stable, reliable for incorporation of a radionuclides.

  17. Chemistry of brines in salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), southeastern New Mexico: a preliminary investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, C.L.; Krumhansl, J.L.

    1986-03-01

    We present here analyses of macro- and microscopic (intracrystalline) brines observed within the WIPP facility and in the surrounding halite, with interpretations regarding the origin and history of these fluids and their potential effect(s) on long-term waste storage. During excavation, several large fluid inclusions were recovered from an area of highly recrystallized halite in a thick salt bed at the repository horizon (2150 ft below ground level). In addition, 52 samples of brine ''weeps'' were collected from walls of recently excavated drifts at the same stratigraphic horizon from which the fluid inclusion samples are assumed to have been taken. Analyses of these fluids show that they differ substantially in composition from the inclusion fluids and cannot be explained by mixing of the fluid inclusion populations. Finally, holes in the facility floor that filled with brine were sampled but with no stratographic control; therefore it is not possible to interpret the compositions of these brines with any accuracy, except insofar as they resemble the weep compositions but with greater variation in both K/Mg and Na/Cl ratios. However, the Ca and SO/sub 4/ values for the floor holes are relatively close to the gypsum saturation curve, suggesting that brines filling floor holes have been modified by the presence of gypsum or anhydrite, possibly even originating in one or more of the laterally continuous anhydrite units referred to in the WIPP literature as marker beds. In conclusion, the wide compositional variety of fluids found in the WIPP workings suggest that (1) an interconnected hydrologic system which could effectively transport radonuclides away from the repository does not exist; (2) brine migration studies and experiments must consider the mobility of intergranular fluids as well as those in inclusions; and (3) near- and far-field radionuclide migration testing programs need to consider a wide range of brine compositions rather than a few reference brines.

  18. LiCl Dehumidifier LiBr absorption chiller hybrid air conditioning system with energy recovery

    DOEpatents

    Ko, Suk M. (Huntsville, AL)

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to a hybrid air conditioning system that combines a solar powered LiCl dehumidifier with a LiBr absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier removes the latent load by absorbing moisture from the air, and the sensible load is removed by the absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier is coupled to a regenerator and the desiccant in the regenerator is heated by solar heated hot water to drive the moisture therefrom before being fed back to the dehumidifier. The heat of vaporization expended in the desiccant regenerator is recovered and used to partially preheat the driving fluid of the absorption chiller, thus substantially improving the overall COP of the hybrid system.

  19. Electronic excitations of bulk LiCl from many-body perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Yun-Feng; Wang, Neng-Ping; Rohlfing, Michael

    2013-12-07

    We present the quasiparticle band structure and the optical excitation spectrum of bulk LiCl, using many-body perturbation theory. Density-functional theory is used to calculate the ground-state geometry of the system. The quasiparticle band structure is calculated within the GW approximation. Taking the electron-hole interaction into consideration, electron-hole pair states and optical excitations are obtained by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the electron-hole two-particle Green function. The calculated band gap is 9.5 eV, which is in good agreement with the experimental result of 9.4 eV. And the calculated optical absorption spectrum, which contains an exciton peak at 8.8 eV and a resonant-exciton peak at 9.8 eV, is also in good agreement with experimental data.

  20. Results of brine flow testing and disassembly of a crushed salt/bentonite block seal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, R.E.; Jones, R.L.

    1994-03-01

    The Small-Scale Seal Performance Tests, Series C, a set of in situ experiments conducted at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, are designed to evaluate the performance of various seal materials emplaced in large (0.9-m-diameter) boreholes. This report documents the results of fluid (brine) flow testing and water and clay content analyses performed on one emplaced seal comprised of 100% salt blocks and 50%/50% crushed salt/bentonite blocks and disassembled after nearly three years of brine injection testing. Results from the water content analyses of 212 samples taken from within this seal show uniform water content throughout the 50%/50% salt/bentonite blocks with saturations about 100%. Clay content analyses from the 100% salt endcaps of the seal show a background clay content of about 1% by weight uniformly distributed, with the exception of samples taken at the base of the seal at the borehole wall interface. These samples show clay contents up to 3% by weight, which suggests some bentonite may have migrated under pressure to that interface. Results of the brine-flow testing show that the permeability to brine for this seal was about 2 to 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} darcy (2 to 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}16} m{sup 2}).

  1. Expected near-field thermal environments in a sequentially loaded spent-fuel or high-level waste repository in salt

    SciTech Connect

    Rickertsen, L.D.; Arbital, J.G.; Claiborne, H.C.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the effect of realistic waste emplacement schedules on repository thermal environments. Virtually all estimates to date have been based on instantaneous loading of wastes having uniform properties throughout the repository. However, more realistic scenarios involving sequential emplacement of wastes reflect the gradual filling of the repository over its lifetime. These cases provide temperatures that can be less extreme than with the simple approximation. At isolated locations in the repository, the temperatures approach the instantaneous-loading limit. However, for most of the repository, temperature rises in the near-field are 10 to 40 years behind the conservative estimates depending on the waste type and the location in the repository. Results are presented for both spent-fuel and high-level reprocessing waste repositories in salt, for a regional repository concept, and for a single national repository concept. The national repository is filled sooner and therefore more closely approximates the instantaneously loaded repository. However, temperatures in the near-field are still 20/sup 0/C or more below the values in the simple model for 40 years after startup of repository emplacement operations. The results suggest that current repository design concepts based on the instantaneous-loading predictions are very conservative. Therefore, experiments to monitor temperatures in a test and evaluation facility, for example, will need to take into account the reduced temperatures in order to provide data used in predicting repository performance.

  2. Rheology Of MonoSodium Titanate (MST) And Modified Mst (mMST) Mixtures Relevant To The Salt Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D. C.; Martino, C. J.; Shehee, T. C.; Poirier, M. R.

    2013-07-31

    The Savannah River National Laboratory performed measurements of the rheology of suspensions and settled layers of treated material applicable to the Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility. Suspended solids mixtures included monosodium titanate (MST) or modified MST (mMST) at various solid concentrations and soluble ion concentrations with and without the inclusion of kaolin clay or simulated sludge. Layers of settled solids were MST/sludge or mMST/sludge mixtures, either with or without sorbed strontium, over a range of initial solids concentrations, soluble ion concentrations, and settling times.

  3. Numerical simulation of hydrothermal salt separation process and analysis and cost estimating of shipboard liquid waste disposal

    E-print Network

    Hunt, Andrew Robert

    2007-01-01

    Due to environmental regulations, waste water disposal for US Navy ships has become a requirement which impacts both operations and the US Navy's budget. In 2006, the cost for waste water disposal Navy-wide was 54 million ...

  4. Electrodialysis technology for salt recovery from aluminum salt cake

    SciTech Connect

    Hryn, J. N.; Krumdick, G.; Graziano, D.; Sreenivasarao, K.

    2000-02-02

    Electrodialysis technology for recovering salt from aluminum salt cake is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. Salt cake, a slag-like aluminum-industry waste stream, contains aluminum metal, salt (NaCl and KCl), and nonmetallics (primarily aluminum oxide). Salt cake can be recycled by digesting with water and filtering to recover the metal and oxide values. A major obstacle to widespread salt cake recycling is the cost of recovering salt from the process brine. Electrodialysis technology developed at Argonne appears to be a cost-effective approach to handling the salt brines, compared to evaporation or disposal. In Argonne's technology, the salt brine is concentrated until salt crystals are precipitated in the electrodialysis stack; the crystals are recovered downstream. The technology is being evaluated on the pilot scale using Eurodia's EUR 40-76-5 stack.

  5. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of the D'Appolonia report on Schematic Designs for Penetration Seals for a Repository in the Permian Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Hambley, D.F.; Stormont, J.C.; Russell, J.E.; Edgar, D.E.; Fenster, D.F.; Harrison, W.; Tisue, M.W.

    1984-09-01

    Argonne made the following recommedations for improving the reviewed reports. The authors of the report should: state the major assumptions of the study in Sec. 1.1 rather than later in the report; consider using salt for the shaft seals in salt horizons; reconsider whether keys are needed for the bulkheads; provide for interface grouting because use of expansive cement will not guarantee that interfaces will be impermeable; discuss the sealing schedule and, where appropriate, consider what needs to be done to ensure that emplaced radioactive waste could be retrieved if necessary; describe in more detail the sealing of the Dockum and Ogallala aquifers; consider an as low as reasonably achievable approach to performance requirements for the initial design phase; address the concerns in the 1983 US Nuclear Regulatory Commission document entitled Draft Technical Position: Borehole and Shaft Sealing of High-Level Nuclear Waste Repositories; cite the requirements for release of radioactivity by referring to specific clauses in the regulations of the US Environmental Protection Agency; and provide further explanation in the outline of future activities about materials development and verification testing. More emphasis on development of accelerated testing programs is also required.

  6. Effect of salts and organic solvents on the activity of Halobacterium cutirubrum catalase.

    PubMed

    Lanyi, J K; Stevenson, J

    1969-05-01

    Catalase in extracts of the extreme halophile Halobacterium cutirubrum exhibits up to threefold stimulation by 0.5 to 1.5 m monovalent salts and by 0.1 m divalent salts. Above these concentrations, inhibition of enzyme activity is observed. The inhibitory effect, and to some extent the stimulation, is salt-specific; the effectiveness of a salt in inhibiting enzyme activity depends on both cation and anion. Thus, the order of effectiveness is MgCl(2) > LiCl > NaCl > KCl > NH(4)Cl, and LiCl > LiNO(3) > Li(2)SO(4). The magnitude of enzyme inhibition for the salts tested is positively correlated with their molar vapor pressure depression in aqueous solution. Stimulation of enzyme activity was observed when one salt was added at its optimal concentration in the presence of inhibiting concentrations of another salt, indicating that the effect on the enzyme is not due to changing water activity but probably to enzyme-salt interaction. Aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol, glycerol, and dimethyl sulfoxide containing no ions influence enzyme activity in the same manner as do salts. PMID:5784214

  7. Removal of alkaline-earth elements by a carbonate precipitation in a chloride molten salt

    SciTech Connect

    Yung-Zun Cho; In-Tae Kim; Hee-Chui Yang; Hee-Chui Eun; Hwan-Seo Park; Eung-Ho Kim

    2007-07-01

    Separation of some alkaline-earth chlorides (Sr, Ba) was investigated by using carbonate injection method in LiCl-KCl eutectic and LiCl molten salts. The effects of the injected molar ratio of carbonate([K{sub 2}(or Li{sub 2})CO{sub 3}/Sr(or Ba)Cl{sub 2}]) and the temperature(450-750 deg.) on the conversion ratio of the Sr or Ba carbonate were determined. In addition, the form of the Sr and Ba carbonate resulting from the carbonation reaction with carbonates was identified via XRD and SEM-EDS analysis. In these experiments, the carbonate injection method can remove Sr and Ba chlorides effectively over 99% in both LiCl-KCl eutectic and LiCl molten salt conditions. When Sr and Ba were co-presented in the eutectic molten salt, they were carbonated in a form of Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.3}CO{sub 3}. And when Sr was present in LiCl molten salt, it was carbonated in the form of SrCO{sub 3}. Carbonation ratio increased with a decreasing temperature and it was more favorable in the case of a K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} injection than that of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Based on this experiment, it is postulated that carbonate precipitation method has the potential for removing alkali-earth chlorides from LiCl-KCl eutectic and LiCl molten salts. (authors)

  8. Purification of used eutectic (LiCl-KCl) salt electrolyte from pyroprocessing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Yung-Zun; Lee, Tae-Kyo; Eun, Hee-Chul; Choi, Jung-Hoon; Kim, In-Tae; Park, Geun-Il

    2013-06-01

    The separation characteristics of surrogate rare-earth fission products in a eutectic (LiCl-KCl) molten salt were investigated. This system is based on the eutectic salt used for the pyroprocessing treatment of used nuclear fuel (UNF). The investigation was performed using an integrated rare-earth separation apparatus comprising a precipitation reactor, a solid detachment device, and a layer separation device. To separate rare-earth fission products, a phosphate precipitation method using both Li3PO4 and K3PO4 as a precipitant was performed. The use of an equivalent phosphate precipitant composed of 0.408 molar ratio-K3PO4 and 0.592 molar ratio-Li3PO4 can preserve the original eutectic ratio, LiCl-0.592 molar ratio (or 45.2 wt%), as well as provide a high separation efficiency of over 99.5% under conditions of 550 °C and Ar sparging when using La, Nd, Ce, and Pr chlorides. The mixture of La, Nd, Ce, and Pr phosphate had a typical monoclinic (or monazite) structure, which has been proposed as a reliable host matrix for the permanent disposal of a high-level waste form. To maximize the reusability of purified eutectic waste salt after rare-earth separation, the successive rare-earth separation process, which uses both phosphate precipitation and an oxygen sparging method, were introduced and tested with eight rare-earth (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd) chlorides. In the successive rare-earth separation process, the phosphate reaction was terminated within 1 h at 550 °C, and a 4-8 h oxygen sparging time were required to obtain over a 99% separation efficiency at 700-750 °C. The mixture of rare-earth precipitates separated by the successive rare-earth separation process was found to be phosphate, oxychloride, and oxide. Through the successive rare-earth separation process, the eutectic ratio of purified salt maintained its original value, and impurity content including the residual precipitant of purified salt can be minimized.

  9. Enhanced tolerance to NaCl and LiCl stresses by over-expressing Caragana korshinskii sodium/proton exchanger 1 (CkNHX1) and the hydrophilic C terminus is required for the activity of CkNHX1 in Atsos3-1 mutant and yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Da-Hai; Department of Plant Physiology, Institute of General Botany and Plant Physiology, Friedrich-Schiller-University, Dornburger Strasse 159, 07743 Jena ; Song, Li-Ying; Hu, Jun; Yin, Wei-Bo; Li, Zhi-Guo; Chen, Yu-Hong; Su, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Richard R.-C.; Hu, Zan-Min

    2012-01-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CkNHX1 was isolated from Caragana korshinskii. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CkNHX1 was expressed mainly in roots, and significantly induced by NaCl in stems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of CkNHX1 enhanced the resistance to NaCl and LiCl in yeast and Atsos3-1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of CkNHX1-{Delta}C had little effect on NaCl/LiCl tolerance in Atsos3-1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C-terminal region of CkNHX1 is required for its Na{sup +} and Li{sup +} transporting activity. -- Abstract: Sodium/proton exchangers (NHX antiporters) play important roles in plant responses to salt stress. Previous research showed that hydrophilic C-terminal region of Arabidopsis AtNHX1 negatively regulates the Na{sup +}/H{sup +} transporting activity. In this study, CkNHX1 were isolated from Caragana korshinskii, a pea shrub with high tolerance to salt, drought, and cold stresses. Transcripts of CkNHX1 were detected predominantly in roots, and were significantly induced by NaCl stress in stems. Transgenic yeast and Arabidopsisthalianasos3-1 (Atsos3-1) mutant over-expressing CkNHX1 and its hydrophilic C terminus-truncated derivative, CkNHX1-{Delta}C, were generated and subjected to NaCl and LiCl stresses. Expression of CkNHX1 significantly enhanced the resistance to NaCl and LiCl stresses in yeast and Atsos3-1 mutant. Whereas, compared with expression of CkNHX1, the expression of CkNHX1-{Delta}C had much less effect on NaCl tolerance in Atsos3-1 and LiCl tolerance in yeast and Atsos3-1. All together, these results suggest that the predominant expression of CkNHX1 in roots might contribute to keep C. korshinskii adapting to the high salt condition in this plant's living environment; CkNHX1 could recover the phenotype of Atsos3-1 mutant; and the hydrophilic C-terminal region of CkNHX1 should be required for Na{sup +}/H{sup +} and Li{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanging activity of CkNHX1.

  10. Metals removal from spent salts

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Peter C. (Pleasanton, CA); Von Holtz, Erica H. (Livermore, CA); Hipple, David L. (Livermore, CA); Summers, Leslie J. (Livermore, CA); Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Adamson, Martyn G. (Danville, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing metal contaminants from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents may be added to precipitate the metal oxide and/or the metal as either metal oxide, metal hydroxide, or as a salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as waste or can be immobilized as ceramic pellets. More than about 90% of the metals and mineral residues (ashes) present are removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be spray-dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 1.0 ppm of contaminants.

  11. Actinide removal from spent salts

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Peter C. (Pleasanton, CA); von Holtz, Erica H. (Livermore, CA); Hipple, David L. (Livermore, CA); Summers, Leslie J. (Livermore, CA); Adamson, Martyn G. (Danville, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A method for removing actinide contaminants (uranium and thorium) from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents are added to precipitate the thorium as thorium oxide and/or the uranium as either uranium oxide or as a diuranate salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as radioactive waste. About 90% of the thorium and/or uranium present is removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 0.1 ppm of thorium or uranium.

  12. Geological suitability studies as to burial of radioactive waste in salts and tuffs of the Transcarpathian depression

    SciTech Connect

    Shestopalova, O.V.

    1995-12-01

    The Transcarpathian depression is considered as one of the promising regions as to selection of the sites for radioactive waste burial. The structures in the depression were analyzed having regard to flow conditions and the favorable reservoirs available. The Solotvino depression as the most favorable structure was examined in respect to its deposits and candidate sites for further research.

  13. Consolidation, permeability, and strength of crushed salt/bentonite mixtures with application to the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant)

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeifle, T.W. )

    1991-01-01

    Three tests were performed to measure the consolidation, permeability, and compressive strength of specimens prepared from bentonite/crushed salt mixtures. Each mixture comprised 30% bentonite and 70% crushed salt based on total dry weight. Brine was added to each mixture to adjust its water content to either 5 or 10% (nominal) of the total dry weight of the mixture. In the consolidation tests, each specimen was subjected to multiple stages of successively higher hydrostatic stress (pressure). During each stage, the pressure was maintained at a constant level and volumetric strain data were continuously logged. By using multiple stages, consolidation data were obtained at several pressures and the time required to consolidate the specimens to full saturation was reduced. Once full saturation was achieved, each specimen was subjected to a final test stage in which the hydrostatic stress was reduced and a permeability test performed. Permeability was measured using the steady flow of brine and was found to range between 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}17} and 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}17} m{sup 2}. After the final test stage, unconfined compressive strength was determined for each specimen and was found to range between 0.5 and 8.1 MPa. Two constitutive models were fitted to the consolidation data. One relatively simple model related volumetric strain to time while the other related instantaneous density to time, pressure, and initial density. 8 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Recycling of aluminum salt cake

    SciTech Connect

    Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Karvelas, D.E.

    1991-12-01

    The secondary aluminum industry generates more than 110 {times} 10{sup 3} tons of salt-cake waste every year. This waste stream contains about 3--5% aluminum, 15--30% aluminum oxide, 30--40% sodium chloride, and 20--30% potassium chloride. As much as 50% of the content of this waste is combined salt (sodium and potassium chlorides). Salt-cake waste is currently disposed of in conventional landfills. In addition, over 50 {times} 10{sup 3} tons of black dross that is not economical to reprocess a rotary furnace for aluminum recovery ends up in landfills. The composition of the dross is similar to that of salt cake, except that it contains higher concentrations of aluminum (up to 20%) and correspondingly lower amounts of salts. Because of the high solubility of the salts in water, these residues, when put in landfills, represent a potential source of pollution to surface-water and groundwater supplies. The increasing number of environmental regulations on the generation and disposal of industrial wastes are likely to restrict the disposal of these salt-containing wastes in conventional landfills. Processes exist that employ the dissolution and recovery of the salts from the waste stream. These wet-processing methods are economical only when the aluminum concentration in that waste exceeds about 10%. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a study in which existing technologies were reviewed and new concepts that are potentially more cost-effective than existing processes were developed and evaluated. These include freeze crystallization, solvent/antisolvent extraction, common-ion effect, high-pressure/high-temperature process, and capillary-effect systems. This paper presents some of the technical and economic results of the aforementioned ANL study.

  15. Preliminary petrological and geochemical results from the Salton Sea Geothermal Field, California: A near-field natural analog of a radioactive waste repository in salt: Topical report No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Elders, W.A.; Cohen, L.H.; Williams, A.E.; Neville, S.; Collier, P.; Oakes, C.

    1986-03-01

    High concentrations of radionuclides and high temperatures are not naturally encountered in salt beds. For this reason, the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF) may be the best available geologic analog of some of the processes expected to occur in high level nuclear waste repositories in salt. Subsurface temperatures and brine concentrations in the SSGF span most of the temperature range and fluid inclusion brine range expected in a salt repository, and the clay-rich sedimentary rocks are similar to those which host bedded or domal salts. As many of the chemical processes observed in the SSGF are similar to those expected to occur in or near a salt repository, data derived from it can be used in the validation of geochemical models of the near-field of a repository in salt. This report describes preliminary data on petrology and geochemistry, emphasizing the distribution of rare earth elements and U and Th, of cores and cuttings from several deep wells chosen to span a range of temperature gradients and salinities. Subsurface temperature logs have been augmented by fluid inclusion studies, to reveal the effects of brines of varying temperature and salinity. The presence of brines with different oxygen isotopic signatures also indicate lack of mixing. Whole rock major, minor and trace element analyses and data on brine compositions are being used to study chemical migration in these sediments. 65 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Investigation of residual anode material after electrorefining uranium in molten chloride salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, M. A.; Williamson, M. A.; Willit, J.

    2015-12-01

    A buildup of material at uranium anodes during uranium electrorefining in molten chloride salts has been observed. Potentiodynamic testing has been conducted using a three electrode cell, with a uranium working electrode in both LiCl/KCl eutectic and LiCl each containing ?5 mol% UCl3. The anodic current response was observed at 50° intervals between 450 °C and 650 °C in the eutectic salt. These tests revealed a buildup of material at the anode in LiCl/KCl salt, which was sampled at room temperature, and analyzed using ICP-MS, XRD and SEM techniques. Examination of the analytical data, current response curves and published phase diagrams has established that as the uranium anode dissolves, the U3+ ion concentration in the diffusion layer surrounding the electrode rises precipitously to levels, which may at low temperatures exceed the solubility limit for UCl3 or in the case of the eutectic salt for K2UCl5. The reduction in current response observed at low temperature in eutectic salt is eliminated at 650 °C, where K2UCl5 is absent due to its congruent melting and only simple concentration polarization effects are seen. In LiCl similar concentration effects are seen though significantly longer time at applied potential is required to effect a reduction in the current response as compared to the eutectic salt.

  17. Modeling and Field Test Planning Activities in Support of Disposal of Heat-Generating Waste in Salt

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Blanco Martin, Laura; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-09-26

    The modeling efforts in support of the field test planning conducted at LBNL leverage on recent developments of tools for modeling coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in salt and their effect on brine migration at high temperatures. This work includes development related to, and implementation of, essential capabilities, as well as testing the model against relevant information and published experimental data related to the fate and transport of water. These are modeling capabilities that will be suitable for assisting in the design of field experiment, especially related to multiphase flow processes coupled with mechanical deformations, at high temperature. In this report, we first examine previous generic repository modeling results, focusing on the first 20 years to investigate the expected evolution of the different processes that could be monitored in a full-scale heater experiment, and then present new results from ongoing modeling of the Thermal Simulation for Drift Emplacement (TSDE) experiment, a heater experiment on the in-drift emplacement concept at the Asse Mine, Germany, and provide an update on the ongoing model developments for modeling brine migration. LBNL also supported field test planning activities via contributions to and technical review of framework documents and test plans, as well as participation in workshops associated with field test planning.

  18. Crushed Salt Constitutive Model

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, G.D.

    1999-02-01

    The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well.

  19. Increased Lifetime for Biomass and Waste to Energy Power Plant Boilers with HVOF Coatings: High Temperature Corrosion Testing Under Chlorine-Containing Molten Salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oksa, Maria; Tuurna, Satu; Varis, Tommi

    2013-06-01

    Heat exchanger surfaces of waste to energy and biomass power plant boilers experience often severe corrosion due to very aggressive components in the used fuels. High velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) coatings offer excellent protection for boiler tubes against high temperature corrosion due to their high density and good adherence to the substrate material. Several thermal spray coatings with high chromium content were sprayed with HVOF technique. Their mechanical properties and high temperature corrosion resistance were tested and analyzed. The coating materials included NiCr, IN625, Ni-21Cr-10W-9Mo-4Cu, and iron-based partly amorphous alloy SHS9172 (Fe-25Cr-15W-12Nb-6Mo). High temperature corrosion testing was performed in NaCl-KCl-Na2SO4 salt with controlled H2O atmosphere at 575 and 625 °C. The corrosion test results of the coatings were compared to corrosion resistance of tube materials (X20, Alloy 263 and Sanicro 25).

  20. Variations of organic matters and microbial community in thermophilic anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge with the addition of ferric salts.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bao; Lou, Ziyang; Zhang, Dongling; Shan, Aidang; Yuan, Haiping; Zhu, Nanwen; Zhang, Kanghan

    2015-03-01

    Ferric salts will influence the thermophilic anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS). FeCl3 was found to contribute to the anaerobic digestion process with a cumulative biogas production of 357 mL/gVS, 79.6% higher than that in the control group, and Fe2(SO4)3 had no distinct impact, while Fe(NO3)3 inhibited the methanogenesis process. A favorable balance between the release of organic matters from WAS and consumption rate was established after dosing FeCl3 from the perspective of variations of soluble COD, volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and the dissolved organic matters (DOM) assessed by EEM fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence regional integration (FRI) technique. Conversely, the system with Fe(NO3)3 achieved an unsuitable substrates environment. Pyrosequencing revealed that the anaerobic digestion system with FeCl3 enriched Coprothermobacter for proteins fermentation and Methanosarcina for methanogenesis with the values of 18.7% and 63.2%, respectively, while that with the supplementation of Fe(NO3)3 obtained the lowest relative abundance. PMID:25545098

  1. Small-Column Ion-Exchange Alternative to Remove 137Cs from Low-Curie Salt Waste: Summary of Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, JR.,J.F.

    2004-05-12

    A Small-Column Ion-Exchange (SCIX) system is being evaluated for removing cesium from the Type 2 and/or Type 3 dissolved saltcake wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to ensure that the dissolved saltcake meets the waste acceptance criteria at the Saltstone Facility. Both crystalline silicotitanate (CST) and IONSIV{trademark} IE-96 zeolite were evaluated as the ion-exchange media. The accelerated alternative, using CST in the SCIX, could save as much as $3 billion in operating and storage costs and {approx}20 years in processing time compared to the current baseline. With its proven high cesium-loading capacity for the expected dissolved saltcake compositions and temperatures, CST is the preferred sorbent for SCIX. The low-cost alternative sorbent, zeolite, greatly increases the volume of sorbent required because of its much lower cesium-loading capacity. Thus, zeolite greatly increases the cost for the alternative, mainly because of the increased number of Defense Waste Processing Facility canisters required to dispose of the loaded sorbent (potentially over 7000 for zeolite, compared with <500 for CST). The models previously developed for predicting cesium loading on CST compared favorably with laboratory measurements of equilibrium distribution ratios and column loading performance using dissolved saltcake simulants. These models predict that a column of 432 gal of CST can operate at 25 gal/min and treat 100,000 to 900,000 gal of dissolved saltcake, depending on the solution composition. An average value of 300,000 gal per column was used for the cost benefit analysis. Predicted cesium loading on the CST is normally below 300 Ci/L; however, solutions with low salt concentrations could potentially load the CST to 630 Ci/L. Heat transfer calculations predict nonboiling temperatures for the small columns with loadings <100 Ci/L with only natural convection cooling. For the loadings up to the maximum calculated for the tank farm (630 Ci/L), a water cooling system is required to ensure that no boiling occurs in the column if the process flow is stopped. Dose rate calculations indicate that the maximum dose rate above the tank riser is expected to be {approx} 10{sup -2} mrem/h for a column loaded at 300 Ci/L in the riser. The risk analysis indicates a net beneficial impact with no major problems likely to prevent implementation or completion of saltcake treatment.

  2. Studies of the plasticizing effect of different hydrophilic inorganic salts on starch/poly (vinyl alcohol) films.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiancai; Li, Hongmei; Luo, Yong; Zhao, Yulai; Hou, Linxi

    2016-01-01

    The effects of different inorganic salts LiCl, MgCl2·6H2O, CaCl2, and AlCl3·6H2O on the crystalline, thermal, water vapor barrier, and tensile properties of starch/PVA films were studied. The high plasticizing efficiency of all these four inorganic salts for starch/PVA film was confirmed by the obtained results. These four salts all had a good compatibility with starch/PVA within the content of 15 wt% and starch/PVA became completely miscible with the addition of 15 wt% inorganic salts. All these four salts had a strong destroying effect on the crystals of starch and PVA. Among these four salts, AlCl3·6H2O had the largest negative effect on the thermal stability of starch/PVA and LiCl had the largest improving effect on the water sorption rate of starch/PVA film. On the whole MgCl2·6H2O and CaCl2 were the more suitable plasticizer for starch/PVA film among these four inorganic salts. With the addition of 15 wt% MgCl2·6H2O and CaCl2, the elongation at break of starch/PVA film could reach to 418.83% and 434.80%, respectively. PMID:26608006

  3. Application of lithium in molten-salt reduction processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Gourishankar, K. V.

    1998-11-11

    Metallothermic reductions have been extensively studied in the field of extractive metallurgy. At Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), we have developed a molten-salt based reduction process using lithium. This process was originally developed to reduce actinide oxides present in spent nuclear fuel. Preliminary thermodynamic considerations indicate that this process has the potential to be adapted for the extraction of other metals. The reduction is carried out at 650 C in a molten-salt (LiCl) medium. Lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O), produced during the reduction of the actinide oxides, dissolves in the molten salt. At the end of the reduction step, the lithium is regenerated from the salt by an electrowinning process. The lithium and the salt from the electrowinning are then reused for reduction of the next batch of oxide fuel. The process cycle has been successfully demonstrated on an engineering scale in a specially designed pyroprocessing facility. This paper discusses the applicability of lithium in molten-salt reduction processes with specific reference to our process. Results are presented from our work on actinide oxides to highlight the role of lithium and its effect on process variables in these molten-salt based reduction processes.

  4. Pseudo-binary electrolyte, LiBH4-LiCl, for bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-sulfur battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unemoto, Atsushi; Chen, ChunLin; Wang, Zhongchang; Matsuo, Motoaki; Ikeshoji, Tamio; Orimo, Shin-ichi

    2015-06-01

    The ionic conduction and electrochemical and thermal stabilities of the LiBH4-LiCl solid-state electrolyte were investigated for use in bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-sulfur batteries. The LiBH4-LiCl solid-state electrolyte exhibiting a lithium ionic conductivity of log ?ft( ? /S c{{m}-1} \\right)=-3.3 at 373 K, forms a reversible interface with a lithium metal electrode and has a wide electrochemical potential window up to 5 V. By means of the high-energy mechanical ball-milling technique, we prepared a composite powder consisting of elemental sulfur and mixed conductive additive, i.e., Ketjen black and Maxsorb. In that composite powder, homogeneous dispersion of the materials is achieved on a nanometer scale, and thereby a high concentration of the interface among them is induced. Such nanometer-scale dispersals of both elemental sulfur and carbon materials play an important role in enhancing the electrochemical reaction of elemental sulfur. The highly deformable LiBH4-LiCl electrolyte assists in the formation of a high concentration of tight interfaces with the sulfur-carbon composite powder. The LiBH4-LiCl electrolyte also allows the formation of the interface between the positive electrode and the electrolyte layers, and thus the Li-ion transport paths are established at that interface. As a result, our battery exhibits high discharge capacities of 1377, 856, and 636 mAh g-1 for the 1st, 2nd, and 5th discharges, respectively, at 373 K. These results imply that complex hydride-based solid-state electrolytes that contain Cl-ions in the crystal would be integrated into rechargeable batteries.

  5. Pseudo-binary electrolyte, LiBH4-LiCl, for bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-sulfur battery.

    PubMed

    Unemoto, Atsushi; Chen, ChunLin; Wang, Zhongchang; Matsuo, Motoaki; Ikeshoji, Tamio; Orimo, Shin-Ichi

    2015-01-26

    The ionic conduction and electrochemical and thermal stabilities of the LiBH4-LiCl solid-state electrolyte were investigated for use in bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-sulfur batteries. The LiBH4-LiCl solid-state electrolyte exhibiting a lithium ionic conductivity of [Formula: see text] at 373 K, forms a reversible interface with a lithium metal electrode and has a wide electrochemical potential window up to 5 V. By means of the high-energy mechanical ball-milling technique, we prepared a composite powder consisting of elemental sulfur and mixed conductive additive, i.e., Ketjen black and Maxsorb. In that composite powder, homogeneous dispersion of the materials is achieved on a nanometer scale, and thereby a high concentration of the interface among them is induced. Such nanometer-scale dispersals of both elemental sulfur and carbon materials play an important role in enhancing the electrochemical reaction of elemental sulfur. The highly deformable LiBH4-LiCl electrolyte assists in the formation of a high concentration of tight interfaces with the sulfur-carbon composite powder. The LiBH4-LiCl electrolyte also allows the formation of the interface between the positive electrode and the electrolyte layers, and thus the Li-ion transport paths are established at that interface. As a result, our battery exhibits high discharge capacities of 1377, 856, and 636 mAh g(-1) for the 1st, 2nd, and 5th discharges, respectively, at 373 K. These results imply that complex hydride-based solid-state electrolytes that contain Cl-ions in the crystal would be integrated into rechargeable batteries. PMID:26041380

  6. Clean salt process final report

    SciTech Connect

    Herting, D.L.

    1996-09-30

    A process has been demonstrated in the laboratory for separating clean, virtually non-radioactive sodium nitrate from Hanford tank waste using fractional crystallization. The name of the process is the Clean Salt Process. Flowsheet modeling has shown that the process is capable of reducing the volume of vitrified low activity waste (LAW) by 80 to 90 %. Construction of the Clean Salt processing plant would cost less than $1 10 million, and would eliminate the need for building a $2.2 billion large scale vitrification plant planned for Privatization Phase 11. Disposal costs for the vitrified LAW would also be reduced by an estimated $240 million. This report provides a summary of five years of laboratory and engineering development activities, beginning in fiscal year 1992. Topics covered include laboratory testing of a variety of processing options; proof-of-principle demonstrations with actual waste samples from Hanford tanks 241-U-110 (U-110), 241-SY-101 (101-SY), and 241-AN-102 (102-AN); descriptions of the primary solubility phase diagrams that govem the process; a review of environmental regulations governing disposition of the reclaimed salt and an assessment of the potential beneficial uses of the reclaimed salt; preliminary plant design and construction cost estimates. A detailed description is given for the large scale laboratory demonstration of the process using waste from tank 241-AW-101 (101-AW), a candidate waste for 0044vitrification during Phase I Privatization.

  7. Thermophysical properties of reconsolidating crushed salt.

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Stephen J.; Urquhart, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    Reconsolidated crushed salt is being considered as a backfilling material placed upon nuclear waste within a salt repository environment. In-depth knowledge of thermal and mechanical properties of the crushed salt as it reconsolidates is critical to thermal/mechanical modeling of the reconsolidation process. An experimental study was completed to quantitatively evaluate the thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt as a function of porosity and temperature. The crushed salt for this study came from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In this work the thermal conductivity of crushed salt with porosity ranging from 1% to 40% was determined from room temperature up to 300oC, using two different experimental methods. Thermal properties (including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat) of single-crystal salt were determined for the same temperature range. The salt was observed to dewater during heating; weight loss from the dewatering was quantified. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt decreases with increasing porosity; conversely, thermal conductivity increases as the salt consolidates. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt for a given porosity decreases with increasing temperature. A simple mixture theory model is presented to predict and compare to the data developed in this study.

  8. Nitrate Salt Surrogate Blending Scoping Test Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Anast, Kurt Roy

    2015-11-13

    Test blending equipment identified in the “Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing”. Determine if the equipment will provide adequate mixing of zeolite and surrogate salt/Swheat stream; optimize equipment type and operational sequencing; impact of baffles and inserts on mixing performance; and means of validating mixing performance

  9. Phosphate salts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that are too high, and for preventing kidney stones. They are also taken for treating osteomalacia (often ... intravenous phosphate salts should not be used. Kidney stones (nephrolithiasis). Taking potassium phosphate by mouth might help ...

  10. Process to separate transuranic elements from nuclear waste

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Terry R. (Wheaton, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL); Tomczuk, Zygmunt (Orland Park, IL); Fischer, Donald F. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

    1989-01-01

    A process for removing transuranic elements from a waste chloride electrolytic salt containing transuranic elements in addition to rare earth and other fission product elements so the salt waste may be disposed of more easily and the valuable transuranic elements may be recovered for reuse. The salt is contacted with a cadmium-uranium alloy which selectively extracts the transuranic elements from the salt. The waste salt is generated during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel associated with the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR).

  11. Anomalous ion effects on rupture and lifetime of aqueous foam films from monovalent salt solutions up to saturation concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakashev, S. I.; Nguyen, P. T.; Tsekov, R.; Hampton, M. A.; Nguyen, A. V.

    2008-09-01

    We report the effects of ions on rupture and lifetime of aqueous foam films formed from sodium chloride (NaCl), lithium chloride (LiCl), sodium acetate (NaAc), and sodium chlorate (NaClO 3) using microinterferometry. In the case of NaCl and LiCl, the foam films prepared from the salt solutions below 0.1 M were unstable they thinned until rupturing. The film lifetime measured from the first interferogram (appearing at a film thickness on the order of 500 nm) until the film rupture was only a second or so. However, relatively long lasting and nondraining films prepared from salt solutions above 0.1 M were observed. The film lifetime was significantly longer by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude, i.e., from 10 to 100 s. Importantly, both the film lifetime and the (average) thickness of the nondraining films increased with increasing salt concentration. This effect has not been observed with foam films stabilized by surfactants. The film lifetime and thickness also increased with increasing film radius. The films exhibited significant surface corrugations. The films with large radii often contained standing dimples. There was a critical film radius below which the films thinned until rupturing. In the cases of NaAc and NaClO 3, the films were unstable at all radii and salt concentrations they thinned until rupturing, ruling out the effect of solution viscosity on stabilizing the films.

  12. SOLUTION MINING IN SALT DOMES OF THE GULF COAST EMBAYMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Griswold, G. B.

    1981-02-01

    Following a description of salt resources in the salt domes of the gulf coast embayment, mining, particularly solution mining, is described. A scenario is constructed which could lead to release of radioactive waste stored in a salt dome via inadvertent solution mining and the consequences of this scenario are analyzed.

  13. Temporal and qualitative dynamics of conditioned taste aversions in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice self-administering LiCl.

    PubMed

    Rebecca Glatt, A; St John, Steven J; Lu, Lianyi; Boughter, John D

    2016-01-01

    Self-administration of LiCl solution has been shown to result in the formation of a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) that generalizes to NaCl in rats. This paradigm may have considerable ecological validity as it models CTA learning in natural settings, and also allows for the investigation of drinking microstructure as an assay of potential shifts in stimulus palatability. We used this paradigm to examine possible mouse strain differences in CTA acquisition, generalization, and extinction. In the first experiment, C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) mice self-administered LiCl (or control NaCl) over a 20-minute free access acquisition period and were tested on the following day with a panel of taste solutions available in brief (5-s) trials delivered in random order. In the second experiment, mice again self-administered LiCl or NaCl (at low, 0.12M, or high, 0.24M concentrations) in a 20-minute session, and on the following day received a 20-minute free access period to equimolar NaCl. Strain differences were found for aspects of ingestive behavior, with B6 mice showing greater consumption of all stimuli, including water, while D2 mice lick faster, in less frequent but longer bursts. We did not, however, find evidence of a robust strain difference in taste aversion learning. Both strains demonstrated profound alterations in licking microstructure in the generalization session relative to controls. We suggest that a decrease in "lick efficiency" (the percentage of inter-lick intervals within a burst of short duration vs. longer duration) reflects avoidance behavior, and signals a shift in palatability of a stimulus following CTA. PMID:26524511

  14. 76 FR 47613 - Board Meeting: September 13-14, 2011-Salt Lake City, UT; the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ...including research on transportation and long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF), studies of various geologic media that might be considered for disposing of SNF and high-level radioactive waste (HLW), and DOE's Used Fuel...

  15. 76 FR 47613 - Board Meeting: September 13-14, 2011-Salt Lake City, UT; the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... transportation and long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF), studies of various geologic media that might be considered for disposing of SNF and high-level radioactive waste (HLW), and DOE's Used Fuel Disposition...

  16. Bases, Assumptions, and Results of the Flowsheet Calculations for the Decision Phase Salt Disposition Alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, H.H.

    2001-07-11

    The HLW salt waste (salt cake and supernate) now stored at the SRS must be treated to remove insoluble sludge solids and reduce the soluble concentration of radioactive cesium radioactive strontium and transuranic contaminants (principally Pu and Np). These treatments will enable the salt solution to be processed for disposal as saltstone, a solid low-level waste.

  17. A new compound heterozygous frameshift mutation in the type II 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3{beta}-HSD gene causes salt-wasting 3{beta}-HSD deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L.; Sakkal-Alkaddour, S.; Chang, Ying T.; Yang, Xiaojiang; Songya Pang

    1996-01-01

    We report a new compound heterozygous frameshift mutation in the type II 3{Beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3{beta}-HSD) gene in a Pakistanian female child with the salt-wasting form of 3{Beta}-HSD deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The etiology for her congenital adrenal hyperplasia was not defined. Although the family history suggested possible 3{beta}-HSd deficiency disorder, suppressed adrenal function caused by excess glucocorticoid therapy in this child at 7 yr of age did not allow hormonal diagnosis. To confirm 3{beta}-HSD deficiency, we sequenced the type II 3{beta}-HSD gene in the patient, her family, and the parents of her deceased paternal cousins. The type II 3{beta}-HSD gene region of a putative promotor, exons I, II, III, and IV, and exon-intron boundaries were amplified by PCR and sequenced in all subjects. The DNA sequence of the child revealed a single nucleotide deletion at codon 318 [ACA(Thr){r_arrow}AA] in exon IV in one allele, and two nucleotide deletions at codon 273 [AAA(Lys){r_arrow}A] in exon IV in the other allele. The remaining gene sequences were normal. The codon 318 mutation was found in one allele from the father, brother, and parents of the deceased paternal cousins. The codon 273 mutation was found in one allele of the mother and a sister. These findings confirmed inherited 3{beta}-HSD deficiency in the child caused by the compound heterozygous type II 3{beta}-HSD gene mutation. Both codons at codons 279 and 367, respectively, are predicted to result in an altered and truncated type II 3{beta}-HSD protein, thereby causing salt-wasting 3{beta}-HSD deficiency in the patient. 21 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. The effect of ferrocyanide ions on sodium chloride crystallization in salt mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Sonia; Pel, Leo; Steiger, Michael; Kopinga, Klaas

    2015-01-01

    The use of crystallization inhibitors has been proposed as a potential preventive treatment method against damage and is extensively tested for crystallization of single salts. However, in practice salt mixtures are present. Therefore, before using inhibitors in practice there is a strong need to explore their effect on salt mixtures. In this research, we studied the effect of ferrocyanide ions ([Fe(CN)6]4-) on NaCl crystallization in single salt and in salt mixtures of NaCl-KCl and NaCl-LiCl. A series of micro droplet drying experiments were undertaken. Time lapse microscopy of the crystallization was performed along with NMR measurements of hydrogen, sodium and lithium ions. This gives the possibility to visualize the drying of the droplet while simultaneously obtaining information of both NaCl and LiCl concentration in the droplet. For a NaCl solution droplet, in the presence of inhibitor, a significantly higher supersaturation prior to the onset of crystallization and a change in crystal morphology were observed. On the other hand, for salt mixtures, lower supersaturation compared to single salt and dendritic crystal morphology was seen in the presence of inhibitor. In a porous material, such a type of morphology can promote the formation of efflorescence that causes only little structural damage.

  19. Mass transfer and transport in salt repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-02-01

    Salt is a unique rock isolation of nuclear waste because it is dry'' and nearly impermeable. In this paper we summarize some mass-transfer and transport analyses of salt repositories. First we analyses brine migration. Heating by high-level waste can cause brine in grain boundaries to move due to pressure-gradients. We analyze brine migration treating salt as a thermoelastic solid and found that brine migration is transient and localized. We use previously developed techniques to estimate release rates from waste packages by diffusion. Interbeds exist in salt and may be conduits for radionuclide migration. We analyze steady-state migration due to brine flow in the interbed, as a function of the Peclet number. Then we analyze transient mass transfer, both into the interbed and directly to salt, due only to diffusion. Finally we compare mass transfer rates of a waste cylinder in granite facing a fracture and in salt facing an interbed. In all cases, numerical illustrations of the analytic solution are given. 10 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Subsidence and collapse at Texas Salt Domes

    SciTech Connect

    Mullican, W.F.

    1989-01-01

    This book provides a description of the mechanisms and extent of natural and man-induced subsidence and collapse at Texas salt domes. In the Houston diapir province, Frasch mining has caused subsidence bowls and collapse sinkholes at 12 of the 14 sulfur-productive domes. Understanding the structural and hydrologic instability that results at the surface and subsurface is crucial in evaluating the suitability of salt domes as repositories for waste disposal. Part of the Bureau's Coastal Salt Dome Program, this study used aerial photographs, remote-sensing methods, historical and modern topographic maps, and field checks to detect subsidence and collapse associated with natural salt diapiric processes and commercial resource recovery and to determine which processes are likely to reduce the stability and integrity of hydrologic and structural barriers around salt diapirs. Figures and tables illustrating the extent and evolution of subsidence and collapse, along with photographs showing their effects, highlight the text discussion of the salt domes detailed in this study-Boling, Orchard, Moss Bluff, Spindletop, Hoskins Mound, Fannett, Long Point, Nash, High Island, Bryan Mound, Clemens, and Gulf. The author concludes that Frasch sulfur mining from cap rocks causes the most catastrophic subsidence and collapse and that subsidence over salt domes includes processes ranging from trough subsidence to various types of subsurface caving. He concludes that salt domes characterized by subsidence and collapse are unfavorable sites for storage/disposal of hazardous wastes.

  1. Efficacy of a solution-based approach for making sodalite waste forms for an oxide reduction salt utilized in the reprocessing of used uranium oxide fuel

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Frank, Steven M.; Matyáš, Josef; Burns, Carolyne A.

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes the various approaches attempted to make solution-derived sodalite with a LiCl-Li2O oxide reduction salt used to dissolve used uranium oxide fuel so the uranium can be recovered and recycled. The approaches include modified sol-gel and solutionbased synthesis processes. As-made products were mixed with 5 and 10 mass% of a Na2O-B2O3- SiO2 glass binder and these, along with product without a binder, were heated using either a cold-press-and-sinter method or hot uniaxial pressing. The results demonstrate the limitation of sodalite yield due to the fast intermediate reactions between Na+ and Cl- to form halite in solution and Li2Omore »and SiO2 to form lithium silicates (e.g., Li2SiO3 or Li2Si2O5) in the calcined and sintered pellets. The results show that pellets can be made with high sodalite fractions in the crystalline product (~92 mass%) and low porosities using a solution-based approach and this LiCl-Li2O salt but that the incorporation of Li into the sodalite is low.« less

  2. Efficacy of a solution-based approach for making sodalite waste forms for an oxide reduction salt utilized in the reprocessing of used uranium oxide fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Frank, Steven M.; Matyáš, Josef; Burns, Carolyne A.

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes the various approaches evaluated for making solution-derived sodalite with a LiCl-Li2O oxide reduction salt selected to dissolve used uranium oxide fuel so the uranium can be recovered and recycled. The approaches include modified sol-gel and solution-based synthesis processes. As-made products were mixed with 5 and 10 mass% of a Na2O-B2O3-SiO2 glass binder and these, along with product without a binder, were heated using either a cold-press-and-sinter method or hot uniaxial pressing. The results demonstrate the limitation of sodalite yield due to the fast intermediate reactions between Na+ and Cl- to form halite in solution and Li2O and SiO2 to form lithium silicates (e.g., Li2SiO3 or Li2Si2O5) in the calcined and sintered pellets. The results show that pellets can be made with high sodalite fractions in the crystalline product (?92 mass%) and low porosities using a solution-based approach and this LiCl-Li2O salt but that the incorporation of Li into the sodalite is low.

  3. Efficacy of a Solution-Based Approach for Making Sodalite Waste Forms for an Oxide Reduction Salt Utilized in the Reprocessing of Used Uranium Oxide Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Frank, Steven M.; Matyas, Josef; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes various approaches for making sodalite with a LiCl-Li2O oxide reduction salt used to recover uranium from used oxide fuel. The approaches include sol-gel and solution-based synthesis processes. As-made products were mixed with 5 and 10 mass% of a Na2O-B2O3-SiO2 glass binder and these, along with product without a binder, were heated using either a cold-press-and-sinter method or hot uniaxial pressing. The results demonstrate the limitation of sodalite yield due to the fast intermediate reactions between Na+ and Cl- to form halite in solution and Li2O and SiO2 to form lithium silicates (e.g., Li2SiO3 or Li2Si2O5) in the calcined and sintered pellets. The results show that pellets can be made with high sodalite fractions (~92 mass%) and low porosities using a solution-based approach and this LiCl-Li2O salt.

  4. Efficacy of a solution-based approach for making sodalite waste forms for an oxide reduction salt utilized in the reprocessing of used uranium oxide fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Frank, Steven M.; Matyáš, Josef; Burns, Carolyne A.

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes the various approaches attempted to make solution-derived sodalite with a LiCl-Li2O oxide reduction salt used to dissolve used uranium oxide fuel so the uranium can be recovered and recycled. The approaches include modified sol-gel and solutionbased synthesis processes. As-made products were mixed with 5 and 10 mass% of a Na2O-B2O3- SiO2 glass binder and these, along with product without a binder, were heated using either a cold-press-and-sinter method or hot uniaxial pressing. The results demonstrate the limitation of sodalite yield due to the fast intermediate reactions between Na+ and Cl- to form halite in solution and Li2O and SiO2 to form lithium silicates (e.g., Li2SiO3 or Li2Si2O5) in the calcined and sintered pellets. The results show that pellets can be made with high sodalite fractions in the crystalline product (~92 mass%) and low porosities using a solution-based approach and this LiCl-Li2O salt but that the incorporation of Li into the sodalite is low.

  5. Pressure-induced brine migration in consolidated salt in a repository

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Y.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.; Pigford, T.H.

    1987-06-01

    This report describes a mathematical model for brine migration through intact salt near a radioactive waste package emplaced in salt. Solutions indicate limited movement following ten years emplacement. (TEM)

  6. Electrodialysis-ion exchange for the separation of dissolved salts

    SciTech Connect

    Baroch, C.J.; Grant, P.J.

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy generates and stores a significant quantity of low level, high level, and mixed wastes. As some of the DOE facilities are decontaminated and decommissioned, additional and possibly different forms of wastes will be generated. A significant portion of these wastes are aqueous streams containing acids, bases, and salts, or are wet solids containing inorganic salts. Some of these wastes are quite dilute solutions, whereas others contain large quantities of nitrates either in the form of dissolved salts or acids. Many of the wastes are also contaminated with heavy metals, radioactive products, or organics. Some of these wastes are in storage because a satisfactory treatment and disposal processes have not been developed. This report describes the process of electrodialysis-ion exchange (EDIX) for treating aqueous wastes streams consisting of nitrates, sodium, organics, heavy metals, and radioactive species.

  7. Waste Determination Equivalency - 12172

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, Rebecca D.

    2012-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility encompassing approximately 800 square kilometers near Aiken, South Carolina which began operations in the 1950's with the mission to produce nuclear materials. The SRS contains fifty-one tanks (2 stabilized, 49 yet to be closed) distributed between two liquid radioactive waste storage facilities at SRS containing carbon steel underground tanks with storage capacities ranging from 2,800,000 to 4,900,000 liters. Treatment of the liquid waste from these tanks is essential both to closing older tanks and to maintaining space needed to treat the waste that is eventually vitrified or disposed of onsite. Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act of Fiscal Year 2005 (NDAA) provides the Secretary of Energy, in consultation with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), a methodology to determine that certain waste resulting from prior reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel are not high-level radioactive waste if it can be demonstrated that the waste meets the criteria set forth in Section 3116(a) of the NDAA. The Secretary of Energy, in consultation with the NRC, signed a determination in January 2006, pursuant to Section 3116(a) of the NDAA, for salt waste disposal at the SRS Saltstone Disposal Facility. This determination is based, in part, on the Basis for Section 3116 Determination for Salt Waste Disposal at the Savannah River Site and supporting references, a document that describes the planned methods of liquid waste treatment and the resulting waste streams. The document provides descriptions of the proposed methods for processing salt waste, dividing them into 'Interim Salt Processing' and later processing through the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Interim Salt Processing is separated into Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment (DDA) and Actinide Removal Process/Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (ARP/MCU). The Waste Determination was signed by the Secretary of Energy in January of 2006 based on proposed processing techniques with the expectation that it could be revised as new processing capabilities became viable. Once signed, however, it became evident that any changes would require lengthy review and another determination signed by the Secretary of Energy. With the maturation of additional salt removal technologies and the extension of the SWPF start-up date, it becomes necessary to define 'equivalency' to the processes laid out in the original determination. For the purposes of SRS, any waste not processed through Interim Salt Processing must be processed through SWPF or an equivalent process, and therefore a clear statement of the requirements for a process to be equivalent to SWPF becomes necessary. (authors)

  8. CsCl Separation From a LiCl-CsCl Mixture by Using a Crystallization Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Jong-Hyeon, Lee; Gyu-Hwan, Oh; Han-Soo, Lee; Sung-Bin, Park; Yoon-Sang, Lee; In-Tae, Kim; Eung-Ho, Kim; Seong-Won, Park

    2008-07-01

    Separation of CsCl and SrCl{sub 2} from LiCl was carried out by using a noble separation technology, the Czochralski crystallization method. It was experimentally confirmed that Cs as well as Sr could be simultaneously separated from a LiCl molten salt by the suggested crystallization process without any kind of additive or adsorption media. The concentrations of Cs and Sr in the LiCl were decreased from 1.53 wt% and 4.18 wt% in the initial salt to a minimum of 114 ppm and 135 ppm in the grown LiCl crystal respectively. The separation mechanism of Cs and Sr is described by the solubility difference of the solutes between the molten and the solid states. It is expected that the total amount of salt waste could be drastically decreased, because most of the LiCl could be recovered for recycling to the electroreduction process. (authors)

  9. Pressure-driven brine migration in a salt repository

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Y.; Chambre, P.L.; Pigford, T.H.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-01-01

    The traditional view is that salt is the ideal rock for isolation of nuclear waste because it is ''dry'' and probably ''impermeable.'' The existence of salt through geologic time is prima facie evidence of such properties. Experiments and experience at potential salt sites for geologic repositories have indicated that while porosity and permeability of salt are low, the salt may be saturated with brine. If this hypothesis is correct, then it is possible to have brine flow due to pressure differences within the salt. If there is pressure-driven brine migration in salt repositories then it is paramount to know the magnitude of such flow because inward brine flow would affect the corrosion rate of nuclear waste containers and outward brine flow might affect radionuclide transport rates. Brine exists in natural salt as inclusions in salt crystals and in grain boundaries. Brine inclusions in crystals move to nearby grain boundaries when subjected to a temperature gradient, because of temperature-dependent solubility of salt. Brine in grain boundaries moves under the influence of a pressure gradient. When salt is mined to create a waste repository, brine from grain boundaries will migrate into the rooms, tunnels and boreholes because these cavities are at atmospheric pressure. After a heat-emitting waste package is emplaced and backfilled, the heat will impose a temperature gradient in the surrounding salt that will cause inclusions in the nearby salt to migrate to grain boundaries within a few years, adding to the brine that was already present in the grain boundaries. The formulation of brine movement with salt as a thermoelastic porous medium, in the context of the continuum theory of mixtures, has been described. In this report we show the mathematical details and discuss the results predicted by this analysis.

  10. Understanding radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  11. Listeria Phage and Phage Tail Induction Triggered by Components of Bacterial Growth Media (Phosphate, LiCl, Nalidixic Acid, and Acriflavine)

    PubMed Central

    Duroux, Amandine; Pimpie, Romain; Duez, Jean-Marie; Milat, Marie-Louise

    2015-01-01

    The detection of Listeria monocytogenes from food is currently carried out using a double enrichment. For the ISO methodology, this double enrichment is performed using half-Fraser and Fraser broths, in which the overgrowth of L. innocua can occur in samples where both species are present. In this study, we analyzed the induction of phages and phage tails of Listeria spp. in these media and in two brain heart infusion (BHI) broths (BHIM [bioMérieux] and BHIK [Biokar]) to identify putative effectors. It appears that Na2HPO4 at concentrations ranging from 1 to 40 g/liter with an initial pH of 7.5 can induce phage or phage tail production of Listeria spp., especially with 10 g/liter of Na2HPO4 and a pH of 7.5, conditions present in half-Fraser and Fraser broths. Exposure to LiCl in BHIM (18 to 21 g/liter) can also induce phage and phage tail release, but in half-Fraser and Fraser broths, the concentration of LiCl is much lower (3 g/liter). Low phage titers were induced by acriflavine and/or nalidixic acid. We also show that the production of phages and phage tails can occur in half-Fraser and Fraser broths. This study points out that induction of phages and phage tails could be triggered by compounds present in enrichment media. This could lead to a false-negative result for the detection of L. monocytogenes in food products. PMID:25595760

  12. Application to ship nonmixed transuranic waste to the Nevada Test Site for interim storage. Waste Cerification Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This report documents various regulations on radioactive waste processing and discusses how the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant will comply with and meet these requirements. Specific procedures are discussed concerning transuranic, metal scrap, salt block, solid, and glove box wastes.

  13. Nuclear waste solutions

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Darrel D. (1684 Partridge Dr., Aiken, SC 29801); Ebra, Martha A. (129 Hasty Rd., Aiken, SC 29801)

    1987-01-01

    High efficiency removal of technetium values from a nuclear waste stream is achieved by addition to the waste stream of a precipitant contributing tetraphenylphosphonium cation, such that a substantial portion of the technetium values are precipitated as an insoluble pertechnetate salt.

  14. Evaluation of constitutive models for crushed salt

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C. [RE Hurtado, L.D.; Hansen, F.D.

    1996-05-01

    Three constitutive models are recommended as candidates for describing the deformation of crushed salt. These models are generalized to three-dimensional states of stress to include the effects of mean and deviatoric stress and modified to include effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt is used to determine material parameters for the models. To evaluate the capability of the models, parameter values obtained from fitting the complete database are used to predict the individual tests. Finite element calculations of a WIPP shaft with emplaced crushed salt demonstrate the model predictions.

  15. GEOTECHNICAL ASSESSMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION NEEDS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE ISOLATION IN CRYSTALLINE AND ARGILLACEOUS ROCKS SYMPOSIUM

    E-print Network

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01

    mechanical cycle result in increased rock mass permeability?rock units (International symposium on Management of Waste from the LWR Fuel Cycle,Cycle and Waste Management (1978) emphasizes the need to evaluate both salt and non-salt rocks

  16. Deformation-assisted fluid percolation in rock salt.

    PubMed

    Ghanbarzadeh, Soheil; Hesse, Marc A; Prodanovi?, Maša; Gardner, James E

    2015-11-27

    Deep geological storage sites for nuclear waste are commonly located in rock salt to ensure hydrological isolation from groundwater. The low permeability of static rock salt is due to a percolation threshold. However, deformation may be able to overcome this threshold and allow fluid flow. We confirm the percolation threshold in static experiments on synthetic salt samples with x-ray microtomography. We then analyze wells penetrating salt deposits in the Gulf of Mexico. The observed hydrocarbon distributions in rock salt require that percolation occurred at porosities considerably below the static threshold due to deformation-assisted percolation. Therefore, the design of nuclear waste repositories in salt should guard against deformation-driven fluid percolation. In general, static percolation thresholds may not always limit fluid flow in deforming environments. PMID:26612949

  17. Geochemistry and petrology of surface samples, six boreholes and brines from the Salton Sea geothermal field: A natural analog of a nuclear waste repository in salt: Report No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-05-01

    Cuttings from six wells in the Salton Sea geothermal field, and rocks at outcrop that are correlative in age with those encountered at depth in the wells were analyzed in detail. Mineralogy, petrography, x-ray diffraction, electron microprobe, instrumental neutron activation analysis, fission track radiography, oxygen and stable carbon isotopic, uranium-thorium series disequilibrium, and fluid inclusion analyses are reported. Where fluids were being produced from wells, brine chemistry as well as stable isotope and uranium-thorium series analyses are reported. Particular attention has been paid to defining zones of fluid-rock interaction in which analyses of coexisting geothermal reservoir brine and hydrothermally altered sediments could be acquired. A wide span of temperatures, from surficial to greater than 300/degree/C, and salinities ranging from relatively dilute ground waters up to brines of 25 wt% total dissolved solids, span a range of environments that might be encountered in a waste repository in salt. Progressive hydrothermal alteration, mineral formation and element mobility are documented in the data presented. 52 refs., 25 figs., 49 tabs.

  18. Deuterium isotope effects in the solvolysis of benzal chlorides. 4. Salt effects and. cap alpha. -deuterium isotope effects

    SciTech Connect

    Vitullo, V.P.; Wilgis, F.P.

    1981-02-25

    The effect of LiClO/sub 4/, Bu/sub 4/NClO/sub 4/, LiCl, Bu/sub 4/NCl, and mixtures of these salts on the rate and ..cap alpha..-deuterium isotope effects are reported for the solvolysis of p-methoxybenzal chloride in 75% and 85% (v/v) dioxane-water mixtures at 25/sup 0/C. In the less polar of these solvents (85D), k/sub ext//sup 0/ values from the Winstein equation for the two salts LiClO/sub 4/ and Bu/sub 4/NClO/sub 4/ are the same, and very little common-ion rate depression is observed although induced common-ion rate depression is observed. In the more polar solvent (75D), extensive common-ion rate depression is observed for both LiCl and Bu/sub 4/NCl. k/sub ext//sup 0/ values for Bu/sub 4/NClO/sub 4/ and LiClO/sub 4/ are not the same in this more polar solvent. These results are interpreted by using Winstein's ion-pair mechanism for this solvolysis.

  19. Electrolyte salts for power sources

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

    1995-11-28

    Electrolyte salts are disclosed for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts. 2 figs.

  20. Crushed salt reconsolidation at elevated temperatures.

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Joseph; Clayton, Daniel James; Lee, Moo Yul; Bronowski, David R.

    2010-06-01

    There is a long history of testing crushed salt as backfill for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant program, but testing was typically done at 100 C or less. Future applications may involve backfilling crushed salt around heat-generating waste packages, where near-field temperatures could reach 250 C or hotter. A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of hydrostatic stress on run-of-mine salt at temperatures up to 250 C and pressures to 20 MPa. The results of these tests were compared with analogous modeling results. By comparing the modeling results at elevated temperatures to the experimental results, the adequacy of the current crushed salt reconsolidation model was evaluated. The model and experimental results both show an increase in the reconsolidation rate with temperature. The current crushed salt model predicts the experimental results well at a temperature of 100 C and matches the overall trends, but over-predicts the temperature dependence of the reconsolidation. Further development of the deformation mechanism activation energies would lead to a better prediction of the temperature dependence by the crushed salt reconsolidation model.

  1. Ammonia Solubility in High Concentration Salt Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    HEDENGREN, D.C.

    2000-02-01

    Solubility data for ammonia in water and various dilute solutions are abundant in the literature. However, there is a noticeable lack of ammonia solubility data for high salt, basic solutions of various mixtures of salts including those found in many of the Hanford Washington underground waste tanks. As a result, models based on solubility data for dilute salt solutions have been used to extrapolate to high salt solutions. These significant extrapolations need to be checked against actual laboratory data. Some indirect vapor measurements have been made. A more direct approach is to determine the ratio of solubility of ammonia in water to its solubility in high salt solutions. In various experiments, pairs of solutions, one of which is water and the other a high salt solution, are allowed to come to equilibrium with a common ammonia vapor pressure. The ratio of concentrations of ammonia in the two solutions is equal to the ratio of the respective ammonia solubilities (Henry's Law constants) at a given temperature. This information can then be used to refine the models that predict vapor space compositions of ammonia. Ammonia at Hanford is of concern because of its toxicity in the environment and its contribution to the flammability of vapor space gas mixtures in waste tanks.

  2. Fracture and Healing of Rock Salt Related to Salt Caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, K.S.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

    1999-03-01

    In recent years, serious investigations of potential extension of the useful life of older caverns or of the use of abandoned caverns for waste disposal have been of interest to the technical community. All of the potential applications depend upon understanding the reamer in which older caverns and sealing systems can fail. Such an understanding will require a more detailed knowledge of the fracture of salt than has been necessary to date. Fortunately, the knowledge of the fracture and healing of salt has made significant advances in the last decade, and is in a position to yield meaningful insights to older cavern behavior. In particular, micromechanical mechanisms of fracture and the concept of a fracture mechanism map have been essential guides, as has the utilization of continuum damage mechanics. The Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which is summarized extensively in this work was developed specifically to treat both the creep and fracture of salt, and was later extended to incorporate the fracture healing process known to occur in rock salt. Fracture in salt is based on the formation and evolution of microfractures, which may take the form of wing tip cracks, either in the body or the boundary of the grain. This type of crack deforms under shear to produce a strain, and furthermore, the opening of the wing cracks produce volume strain or dilatancy. In the presence of a confining pressure, microcrack formation may be suppressed, as is often the case for triaxial compression tests or natural underground stress situations. However, if the confining pressure is insufficient to suppress fracture, then the fractures will evolve with time to give the characteristic tertiary creep response. Two first order kinetics processes, closure of cracks and healing of cracks, control the healing process. Significantly, volume strain produced by microfractures may lead to changes in the permeability of the salt, which can become a major concern in cavern sealing and operation. The MDCF model is used in three simulations of field experiments in which indirect measures were obtained of the generation of damage. The results of the simulations help to verify the model and suggest that the model captures the correct fracture behavior of rock salt. The model is used in this work to estimate the generation and location of damage around a cylindrical storage cavern. The results are interesting because stress conditions around the cylindrical cavern do not lead to large amounts of damage. Moreover, the damage is such that general failure can not readily occur, nor does the extent of the damage suggest possible increased permeation when the surrounding salt is impermeable.

  3. Salt repository project closeout status report

    SciTech Connect

    1988-06-01

    This report provides an overview of the scope and status of the US Department of Energy (DOE`s) Salt Repository Project (SRP) at the time when the project was terminated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The report reviews the 10-year program of siting a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste in rock salt formations. Its purpose is to aid persons interested in the information developed during the course of this effort. Each area is briefly described and the major items of information are noted. This report, the three salt Environmental Assessments, and the Site Characterization Plan are the suggested starting points for any search of the literature and information developed by the program participants. Prior to termination, DOE was preparing to characterize three candidate sites for the first mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The sites were in Nevada, a site in volcanic tuff; Texas, a site in bedded salt (halite); and Washington, a site in basalt. These sites, identified by the screening process described in Chapter 3, were selected from the nine potentially acceptable sites shown on Figure I-1. These sites were identified in accordance with provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. 196 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs.

  4. Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt

    DOEpatents

    Mullins, L.J.; Christensen, D.C.

    1982-09-20

    A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium for electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

  5. Removal of uranium from spent salt from the moltensalt oxidation process

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, L.; Hsu, P. C.; Holtz, E. V.; Hipple, D.; Wang, F.; Adamson, M.

    1997-03-01

    Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that has the capability of destroying organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials. In this process, combustible waste and air are introduced into the molten sodium carbonate salt. The organic constituents of the waste materials are oxidized to carbon dioxide and water, while most of the inorganic constituents, including toxic metals, minerals, and radioisotopes, are retained in the molten salt bath. As these impurities accumulate in the salt, the process efficiency drops and the salt must be replaced. An efficient process is needed to separate these toxic metals, minerals, and radioisotopes from the spent carbonate to avoid generating a large volume of secondary waste. Toxic metals such as cadmium, chromium, lead, and zinc etc. are removed by a method described elsewhere. This paper describes a separation strategy developed for radioisotope removal from the mixed spent salt, as well as experimental results, as part of the spent salt cleanup. As the MSO system operates, inorganic products resulting from the reaction of halides, sulfides, phosphates, metals and radionuclides with carbonate accumulate in the salt bath. These must be removed to prevent complete conversion of the sodium carbonate, which would result in eventual losses of destruction efficiency and acid scrubbing capability. There are two operational modes for salt removal: (1) during reactor operation a slip-stream of molten salt is continuously withdrawn with continuous replacement by carbonate, or (2) the spent salt melt is discharged completely and the reactor then refilled with carbonate in batch mode. Because many of the metals and/or radionuclides captured in the salt are hazardous and/or radioactive, spent salt removed from the reactor would create a large secondary waste stream without further treatment. A spent salt clean up/recovery system is necessary to segregate these materials and minimize the amount of secondary waste. These materials can then be encapsulated for final disposal.

  6. Waste treatment for removed protective coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Gat, U.; Crosley, S.M.; Gay, R.L.

    1993-07-01

    A molten salt oxidation process is proposed for treatment of removed protective coatings along with the media used for removal. The treatment chemically reduces the waste, leaving any metals associated with the coating as a residue in the salt treatment media. The residue and the salt can be further treated for recycle of the metals, thus all but eliminating metal disposal as a waste problem. The process is expected to be simple and may be integrated into the coatings removal operations on location. Therefore, waste shipment and handling can be significantly reduced, and, as a secondary benefit, other waste can be treated in the same unit.

  7. Novel Ternary Molten Salt Electrolytes for intermediate-temperature sodium/nickel chloride batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Coyle, Christopher A.; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-12-15

    The sodium-nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery is typically operated at relatively high temperature (250~350°C) to achieve adequate electrochemical performance. Reducing the operating temperature in the range of 150 to 200°C can lead to enhanced cycle life by suppressing temperature related degradation mechanisms. The reduced temperature range also allows for lower cost materials of construction such as elastomeric sealants and gaskets. To achieve adequate electrochemical performance at lower operating temperatures requires an overall reduction in ohmic losses associated with temperature. This includes reducing the ohmic resistance of ?”-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) and the incorporation of low melting point molten salt as the secondary electrolyte. In present work, planar-type Na/NiCl2 cells with a thin flat plate BASE (600 ?m) and low melting point secondary electrolyte were evaluated at reduced temperatures. Molten salt formulation for use as secondary electrolytes were fabricated by the partial replace of NaCl in the standard secondary electrolyte (NaAlCl4) with other lower melting point alkali metal salts such as NaBr, LiCl, and LiBr. Electrochemical characterization of the ternary molten salts demonstrated , improved ionic conductivity, and sufficient electrochemical window at reduced temperatures. Furthermore, Na/NiCl2 cells with 50 mol% NaBr-containing secondary electrolyte exhibited reduced polarizations at 175°C compared to the cell with the standard NaAlCl4 catholyte. The cells also exhibited stable cycling performance even at 150oC.

  8. Characterization of an extremely salt-tolerant and thermostable phytase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens US573.

    PubMed

    Boukhris, Ines; Farhat-Khemakhem, Ameny; Blibech, Monia; Bouchaala, Kameleddine; Chouayekh, Hichem

    2015-09-01

    The extracellular phytase produced by the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens US573 strain, isolated from geothermal soil located in Southern Tunisia was purified and characterized. This calcium-dependent and bile-stable enzyme (PHY US573) was optimally active at pH 7.5 and 70 °C. It showed a good stability at pH ranging from 4 to 10, and especially, an exceptional thermostability as it recovered 50 and 62% of activity after heating for 10 min at 100 and 90 °C, respectively. In addition, PHY US573 was found to be extremely salt-tolerant since it preserved 80 and 95% of activity in the presence of 20 g/l of NaCl and LiCl, respectively. The gene corresponding to PHY US573 was cloned. It encodes a 383 amino acids polypeptide exhibiting 99% identity with the highly thermostable phytases from Bacillus sp. MD2 and B. amyloliquefaciens DS11 (3 and 5 residues difference, respectively), suggesting the existence of common molecular determinants responsible for their remarkable heat stability. Overall, our findings illustrated that in addition to its high potential for application in feed industry, the salt tolerance of the PHY US573 phytase, may represent an exciting new avenue for improvement of phosphorus-use efficiency of salt-tolerant plants in soils with high salt and phytate content. PMID:26188308

  9. Heterogeneity of Equilibrium Molten Globule State of Cytochrome c Induced by Weak Salt Denaturants under Physiological Condition

    PubMed Central

    Rahaman, Hamidur; Alam Khan, Md. Khurshid; Hassan, Md. Imtaiyaz; Islam, Asimul; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Ahmad, Faizan

    2015-01-01

    While many proteins are recognized to undergo folding via intermediate(s), the heterogeneity of equilibrium folding intermediate(s) along the folding pathway is less understood. In our present study, FTIR spectroscopy, far- and near-UV circular dichroism (CD), ANS and tryptophan fluorescence, near IR absorbance spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS) were used to study the structural and thermodynamic characteristics of the native (N), denatured (D) and intermediate state (X) of goat cytochorme c (cyt-c) induced by weak salt denaturants (LiBr, LiCl and LiClO4) at pH 6.0 and 25°C. The LiBr-induced denaturation of cyt-c measured by Soret absorption (??400) and CD ([?]409), is a three-step process, N ? X ? D. It is observed that the X state obtained along the denaturation pathway of cyt-c possesses common structural and thermodynamic characteristics of the molten globule (MG) state. The MG state of cyt-c induced by LiBr is compared for its structural and thermodynamic parameters with those found in other solvent conditions such as LiCl, LiClO4 and acidic pH. Our observations suggest: (1) that the LiBr-induced MG state of cyt-c retains the native Met80-Fe(III) axial bond and Trp59-propionate interactions; (2) that LiBr-induced MG state of cyt-c is more compact retaining the hydrophobic interactions in comparison to the MG states induced by LiCl, LiClO4 and 0.5 M NaCl at pH 2.0; and (3) that there exists heterogeneity of equilibrium intermediates along the unfolding pathway of cyt-c as highly ordered (X1), classical (X2) and disordered (X3), i.e., D ? X3 ? X2 ? X1 ? N. PMID:25849212

  10. The Effect of Hydrostatic Pressure and Temperature on Sonoluminescence of Metal Atoms from Aqueous Salt Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordeychuk, Tatyana V.; Kazachek, Mikhail V.

    2008-06-01

    We have measured the spectra of multi-bubble sonoluminescence from aqueous LiCl, NaCl, MgCl2, CaCl2, CuSO4 solutions, saturated with argon, at the frequency 22 kHz. The spectra were collected at different hydrostatic pressures for all salts and in the ambient temperature range of 1-20 °C for NaCl solutions. Total absorbed ultrasonic power was 41 W. The results show that line emission from exited state metal atoms grows rapidly with the increase of hydrostatic pressure and at low ambient temperature. In all cases the increase of the intensity of underlying continuum and OH-radical emission was much lower than that of atomic emission at the same experimental conditions. The observed effects can be explained assuming higher temperature inside the cavitation bubbles during collapse in case of increased static pressure or decreased vapor pressure.

  11. Brines formed by multi-salt deliquescence

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, S; Rard, J; Alai, M; Staggs, K

    2005-11-04

    The FY05 Waste Package Environment testing program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory focused on determining the temperature, relative humidity, and solution compositions of brines formed due to the deliquescence of NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures. Understanding the physical and chemical behavior of these brines is important because they define conditions under which brines may react with waste canister surfaces. Boiling point experiments show that NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures form brines that transform to hydrous melts that do not truly 'dry out' until temperatures exceed 300 and 400 C, respectively. Thus a conducting solution is present for these salt assemblages over the thermal history of the repository. The corresponding brines form at lower relative humidity at higher temperatures. The NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has a mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) of 25.9% at 120 C and 10.8% at 180 C. Similarly, the KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has MDRH of 26.4% at 120 C and 20.0% at 150 C. The KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture salts also absorb some water (but do not appear to deliquesce) at 180 C and thus may also contribute to the transfer of electrons at interface between dust and the waste package surface. There is no experimental evidence to suggest that these brines will degas and form less deliquescent salt assemblages. Ammonium present in atmospheric and tunnel dust (as the chloride, nitrate, or sulfate) will readily decompose in the initial heating phase of the repository, and will affect subsequent behavior of the remaining salt mixture only through the removal of a stoichiometric equivalent of one or more anions. Although K-Na-NO{sub 3}-Cl brines form at high temperature and low relative humidity, these brines are dominated by nitrate, which is known to inhibit corrosion at lower temperature. Nitrate to chloride ratios of the NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture are about NO{sub 3}:Cl = 19:1. The role of nitrate on corrosion at higher temperatures is addressed in a companion report (Dixit et al., 2005).

  12. Salt tectonics on Venus

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, C.A.; Amsbury, D.

    1986-05-01

    The discovery of a surprisingly high deuterium/hydrogen ratio on Venus immediately led to the speculation that Venus may have once had a volume of surface water comparable to that of the terrestrial oceans. The authors propose that the evaporation of this putative ocean may have yielded residual salt deposits that formed various terrain features depicted in Venera 15 and 16 radar images. By analogy with models for the total evaporation of the terrestrial oceans, evaporite deposits on Venus should be at least tens to hundreds of meters thick. From photogeologic evidence and in-situ chemical analyses, it appears that the salt plains were later buried by lava flows. On Earth, salt diapirism leads to the formation of salt domes, anticlines, and elongated salt intrusions - features having dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 km. Due to the rapid erosion of salt by water, surface evaporite landforms are only common in dry regions such as the Zagros Mountains of Iran, where salt plugs and glaciers exist. Venus is far drier than Iran; extruded salt should be preserved, although the high surface temperature (470/sup 0/C) would probably stimulate rapid salt flow. Venus possesses a variety of circular landforms, tens to hundreds of kilometers wide, which could be either megasalt domes or salt intrusions colonizing impact craters. Additionally, arcurate bands seen in the Maxwell area of Venus could be salt intrusions formed in a region of tectonic stress. These large structures may not be salt features; nonetheless, salt features should exist on Venus.

  13. Process to separate transuranic elements from nuclear waste

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, T.R.; Ackerman, J.P.; Tomczuk, Z.; Fischer, D.F.

    1988-07-12

    A process for removing transuranic elements from a waste chloride electrolytic salt containing transuranic elements in addition to rare earth and other fission product elements so the salt waste may be disposed of more easily and the valuable transuranic elements may be recovered for reuse. The salt is contacted with a cadmium-uranium alloy which selectively extracts the transuranic elements from the salt. The waste salt is generated during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel associated with the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). 2 figs.

  14. Process to separate transuranic elements from nuclear waste

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, T.R.; Ackerman, J.P.; Tomczuk, Z.; Fischer, D.F.

    1989-03-21

    A process is described for removing transuranic elements from a waste chloride electrolytic salt containing transuranic elements in addition to rare earth and other fission product elements so the salt waste may be disposed of more easily and the valuable transuranic elements may be recovered for reuse. The salt is contacted with a cadmium-uranium alloy which selectively extracts the transuranic elements from the salt. The waste salt is generated during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel associated with the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). 2 figs.

  15. Utah: Salt Lake Region

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Winter and Summer Views of the Salt Lake Region     View Larger Image Magnificent views of the region surrounding Salt Lake City, Utah are captured in these winter and summer images from the ...

  16. What Are Bath Salts?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search Home + Drug Facts Anabolic Steroids Bath Salts Cocaine Cough and Cold Medicine (DXM and Codeine Syrup) ... Map Home Drug Facts Anabolic Steroids Bath Salts Cocaine Cough and Cold Medicine (DXM and Codeine Syrup) ...

  17. Retrospective salt tectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.P.A.

    1996-12-31

    The conceptual breakthroughs in understanding salt tectonics can be recognized by reviewing the history of salt tectonics, which divides naturally into three parts: the pioneering era, the fluid era, and the brittle era. The pioneering era (1856-1933) featured the search for a general hypothesis of salt diapirism, initially dominated by bizarre, erroneous notions of igneous activity, residual islands, in situ crystallization, osmotic pressures, and expansive crystallization. Gradually data from oil exploration constrained speculation. The effects of buoyancy versus orogeny were debated, contact relations were characterized, salt glaciers were discovered, and the concepts of downbuilding and differential loading were proposed as diapiric mechanisms. The fluid era (1933-{approximately}1989) was dominated by the view that salt tectonics resulted from Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in which a dense fluid overburden having negligible yield strength sinks into a less dense fluid salt layer, displacing it upward. Density contrasts, viscosity contrasts, and dominant wavelengths were emphasized, whereas strength and faulting of the overburden were ignored. During this era, palinspastic reconstructions were attempted; salt upwelling below thin overburdens was recognized; internal structures of mined diapirs were discovered; peripheral sinks, turtle structures, and diapir families were comprehended; flow laws for dry salt were formulated; and contractional belts on divergent margins and allochthonous salt sheets were recognized. The 1970s revealed the basic driving force of salt allochthons, intrasalt minibasins, finite strains in diapirs, the possibility of thermal convection in salt, direct measurement of salt glacial flow stimulated by rainfall, and the internal structure of convecting evaporites and salt glaciers. The 1980`s revealed salt rollers, subtle traps, flow laws for damp salt, salt canopies, and mushroom diapirs.

  18. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is...

  19. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is...

  20. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is...

  1. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is...

  2. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is...

  3. Correlation of Creep Behavior of Domal Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, D.E.

    1999-02-16

    The experimentally determined creep responses of a number of domal salts have been reported in, the literature. Some of these creep results were obtained using standard (conventional) creep tests. However, more typically, the creep data have come from multistage creep tests, where the number of specimens available for testing was small. An incremental test uses abrupt changes in stress and temperature to produce several time increments (stages) of different creep conditions. Clearly, the ability to analyze these limited data and to correlate them with each other could be of considerable potential value in establishing the mechanical characteristics of salt domes, both generally and specifically. In any analysis, it is necessary to have a framework of rules to provide consistency. The basis for the framework is the Multimechanism-Deformation (M-D) constitutive model. This model utilizes considerable general knowledge of material creep deformation to supplement specific knowledge of the material response of salt. Because the creep of salt is controlled by just a few micromechanical mechanisms, regardless of the origin of the salt, certain of the material parameters are values that can be considered universal to salt. Actual data analysis utilizes the methodology developed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) program, and the response of a bedded pure WIPP salt as the baseline for comparison of the domal salts. Creep data from Weeks Island, Bryan Mound, West Hackberry, Bayou Choctaw, and Big Hill salt domes, which are all sites of Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) storage caverns, were analyzed, as were data from the Avery Island, Moss Bluff, and Jennings salt domes. The analysis permits the parameter value sets for the domal salts to be determined in terms of the M-D model with various degrees of completeness. In turn this permits detailed numerical calculations simulating cavern response. Where the set is incomplete because of the sparse database, reasonable assumptions permit the set to be completed. From the analysis, two distinct response groups were evident, with the salts of one group measurably more creep resistant than the other group. Interestingly, these groups correspond well with the indirectly determined creep closure of the SPR storage caverns, a correlation that probably should be expected. Certainly, the results suggest a simple laboratory determination of the creep characteristics of a salt material from a dome site can indicate the relative behavior of any potential cavern placed within that dome.

  4. Integrated Salt Basin Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukla, P. A.

    2012-04-01

    Salt tectonics plays a major role in the development of many sedimentary basins. Basins containing salt thus frequently display a complex geodynamic evolution characterized by several phases of halokinesis and associated sedimentation. One classic area of salt tectonics is the Central European Basin System (CEBS). Here, the mobile Permian Zechstein salt formed a large number of salt structures such as anticlines, diapirs, pillows, sheets, stocks, and walls during an extended period of salt tectonic activity in Mesozoic and Cenozoic times. Major changes in sedimentation patterns and structural regimes are associated and common in this setting. Increasingly complex subsurface evaluation therefore requires an approach to study salt basins including analogue and numerical models, field studies and laboratory studies which combine seismic, structural and sedimentary studies with analysis of rheological properties, and geomechanic modelling. This concept can be demonstrated using case studies from Permian Salt Basins in Europe and the Late Neoproterozoic to Early Cambrian South Oman Salt Basin. There salt-influenced sedimentary responses to renewed phases of tectonism can be clearly discerned from detailed sequence analysis based on seismic and log data combined with retrodeformation modelling studies. High quality 3-D seismic data integrated with structural modelling improves the definition of the internal dynamics of salt structures and associated sediment architecture in salt-controlled sequences. Paleo-caprocks inside the diapirs point to long phases of dissolution. Salt wedges formed by extrusion and lateral flow of salt glaciers during periods of diapir emergence and reduced sediment accumulation can be accurately modelled. Although salt is widely regarded as a perfect seal, it can become permeable for one- or two-phase fluids under certain conditions of fluid pressure, temperature and deviatoric stress. The fluid pathways can be either along zones of diffuse grain boundary dilatancy, or along open fractures, depending on the fluid overpressure and deviatoric stress.

  5. Molten salts and nuclear energy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Brun, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Molten salts (fluorides or chlorides) were considered near the beginning of research into nuclear energy production. This was initially due to their advantageous physical and chemical properties: good heat transfer capacity, radiation insensitivity, high boiling point, wide range solubility for actinides. In addition it was realised that molten salts could be used in numerous situations: high temperature heat transfer, core coolants with solid fuels, liquid fuel in a molten salt reactor, solvents for spent nuclear solid fuel in the case of pyro-reprocessing and coolant and tritium production in the case of fusion. Molten salt reactors, one of the six innovative concepts chosen by the Generation IV international forum, are particularly interesting for use as either waste incinerators or thorium cycle systems. As the neutron balance in the thorium cycle is very tight, the possibility to perform online extraction of some fission product poisons from the salt is very attractive. In this article the most important questions that must be addressed to demonstrate the feasibility of molten salt reactor will be reviewed.

  6. Catalytic oxidation of waste materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagow, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    Aqueous stream of human waste is mixed with soluble ruthenium salts and is introduced into reactor at temperature where ruthenium black catalyst forms on internal surfaces of reactor. This provides catalytically active surface to convert oxidizable wastes into breakdown products such as water and carbon dioxide.

  7. Microstructural observations of reconsolidated granular salt to 250°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, M. M.; Hansen, F.; Bauer, S. J.; Stormont, J.

    2014-12-01

    Very low permeability is a principal reason salt formations are considered viable hosts for disposal of nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel. Granular salt is likely to be used as back-fill material and as a seal system component. Granular salt is expected to reconsolidate to a low permeability condition because of external pressure from the surrounding salt formation. Understanding the consolidation processes--known to depend on the stress state, moisture availability and temperature--is important for predicting achievement of sealing functions and long-term repository performance. As granular salt consolidates, initial void reduction is accomplished by brittle processes of grain rearrangement and cataclastic flow. At porosities of less than 10%, grain boundary processes and crystal-plastic mechanisms govern further porosity reduction. We investigate the micro-mechanisms operative in granular salt that has been consolidated under high temperatures to relatively low porosity. These conditions would occur proximal to heat-generating canisters. Mine-run salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant was used to create cylindrical samples which were consolidated at 250°C and stresses to 20 MPa. From samples consolidated to fractional densities of 86% and 97% polished thin sections, etched cleavage chips, and fragments were fabricated. Microstructural techniques included scanning electron and optical microscopy. Microstructure of undeformed mine-run salt was compared to the deformed granular salt. Observed deformation mechanisms include glide, cross slip, climb, fluid-assisted creep, pressure-solution redeposition, and annealing. Documentation of operative deformation mechanisms within the consolidating granular salt, particularly at grain boundaries, is essential to establish effects of moisture, stress, and temperature. Future work will include characterization of pore structures. Information gleaned in these studies supports evaluation of a constitutive model for reconsolidating granular salt, which will be used to predict the thermal-mechanical-hydrologic response of salt repository seal structures and backfilled rooms.

  8. Preconceptual design of a salt splitting process using ceramic membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Kurath, D.E.; Brooks, K.P.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Clemmer, R.; Balagopal, S.; Landro, T.; Sutija, D.P.

    1997-01-01

    Inorganic ceramic membranes for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions are being developed for treating U. S. Department of Energy tank wastes. The process consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON) membranes. The primary NaSICON compositions being investigated are based on rare- earth ions (RE-NaSICON). Potential applications include: caustic recycling for sludge leaching, regenerating ion exchange resins, inhibiting corrosion in carbon-steel tanks, or retrieving tank wastes; reducing the volume of low-level wastes volume to be disposed of; adjusting pH and reducing competing cations to enhance cesium ion exchange processes; reducing sodium in high-level-waste sludges; and removing sodium from acidic wastes to facilitate calcining. These applications encompass wastes stored at the Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sites. The overall project objective is to supply a salt splitting process unit that impacts the waste treatment and disposal flowsheets and meets user requirements. The potential flowsheet impacts include improving the efficiency of the waste pretreatment processes, reducing volume, and increasing the quality of the final waste disposal forms. Meeting user requirements implies developing the technology to the point where it is available as standard equipment with predictable and reliable performance. This report presents two preconceptual designs for a full-scale salt splitting process based on the RE-NaSICON membranes to distinguish critical items for testing and to provide a vision that site users can evaluate.

  9. INSPECTIONS OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a disposal system for radioactive wastes. Developed by the Department of Energy (DOE), the WIPP is located near Carlsbad in southeastern New Mexico. The DOE is burying radioactive waste 2150 feet underground in an ancient layer of salt ...

  10. Concept for Underground Disposal of Nuclear Waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Packaged waste placed in empty oil-shale mines. Concept for disposal of nuclear waste economically synergistic with earlier proposal concerning backfilling of oil-shale mines. New disposal concept superior to earlier schemes for disposal in hard-rock and salt mines because less uncertainty about ability of oil-shale mine to contain waste safely for millenium.

  11. Characterization of salt cake from secondary aluminum production.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-Lan; Badawy, Amro El; Arambewela, Mahendranath; Ford, Robert; Barlaz, Morton; Tolaymat, Thabet

    2014-05-30

    Salt cake is a major waste component generated from the recycling of secondary aluminum processing (SAP) waste. Worldwide, the aluminum industry produces nearly 5 million tons of waste annually and the end-of-life management of these wastes is becoming a challenge in the U.S. and elsewhere. In this study, the mineral phases, metal content and metal leachability of 39 SAP waste salt cake samples collected from 10 different facilities across the U.S. were determined. The results showed that aluminum (Al), aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride and its oxides, spinel and elpasolite are the dominant aluminum mineral phases in salt cake. The average total Al content was 14% (w/w). The overall percentage of the total leachable Al in salt cake was 0.6% with approximately 80% of the samples leaching at a level less than 1% of the total aluminum content. The extracted trace metal concentrations in deionized water were relatively low (?gL(-1) level). The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was employed to further evaluate leachability and the results indicated that the leached concentrations of toxic metals from salt cake were much lower than the EPA toxicity limit set by USEPA. PMID:24747373

  12. Novel ternary molten salt electrolytes for intermediate-temperature sodium/nickel chloride batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Coyle, Christopher A.; Kim, Jin Y.; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-12-01

    The sodium-nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery is operated at relatively high temperature (250-350 °C) to achieve adequate electrochemical performance. Reducing the operating temperature in the range of 150200 °C can not only lead to enhanced cycle life by suppressing temperature-related degradations, but also allow the use of lower cost materials for construction. To achieve adequate electrochemical performance at lower operating temperatures, reduction in ohmic losses is required, including the reduced ohmic resistance of ??-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) and the incorporation of low melting point secondary electrolytes. In present work, planar-type Na/NiCl2 cells with a thin BASE (600 ?m) and low melting point secondary electrolyte were evaluated at reduced temperatures. Molten salts used as secondary electrolytes were fabricated by the partial replacement of NaCl in the standard secondary electrolyte (NaAlCl4) with other lower melting point alkali metal salts such as NaBr, LiCl, and LiBr. Electrochemical characterization of these ternary molten salts demonstrated improved ionic conductivity and sufficient electrochemical window at reduced temperatures. Furthermore, Na/NiCl2 cells with 50 mol% NaBr-containing secondary electrolyte exhibited reduced polarizations at 175 °C compared to the cell with the standard NaAlCl4 catholyte. The cells also exhibited stable cycling performance even at 150 °C.

  13. Physical chemistry of molten-salt batteries. Final report, 1 October 1980-September 1981. Current-induced composition gradients in molten LiCl-KCl

    SciTech Connect

    Vallet, C.E.; Heatherly, D.E.; Braunstein, J.

    1982-10-01

    Current-induced composition gradients have been predicted in mixed molten salt battery electrolytes. Composition shifts, if large enough, can produce significant deleterious effects, such as solid phase precipitation in or near the electrodes of molten salt batteries, including the LiAl/LiCl-KCl/FeS/sub x/ battery. Quantitative measurements are needed to determine the extent of the gradients and to find means to reduce them. This report presents the first quantitative SEM/EDX measurements with high distance resolution (<50 ..mu..m) of the shape of the composition profile in LiCl-KCl electrolyzed between LiAl electrodes. Also, current-induced precipitation of LiCl in a porous LiAl anode is indicated by SEM/EDX examination. The measured compositions are consistent with predictions from mass transport models based on the electrode reactions, migrational and diffusional mobilities. 5 figures, 4 tables.

  14. Brine flow in heated geologic salt.

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

    2013-03-01

    This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes' governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

  15. Photochemistry of triarylsulfonium salts

    SciTech Connect

    Dektar, J.L.; Hacker, N.P. )

    1990-08-01

    The photolysis of triphenylsulfonium, tris(4-methylphenyl)sulfonium, tris(4-chlorophenyl)sulfonium, several monosubstituted (4-F, 4-Cl, 4-Me, 4-MeO, 4-PhS, and 4-PhCO), and disubstituted (4,4{prime}-Me{sub 2} and 4,4{prime}-(MeO){sub 2}) triphenylsulfonium salts was examined in solution. It was found that direct irradiation of triphenylsulfonium salts produced new rearrangement products, phenylthiobiphenyls, along with diphenyl sulfide, which had been previously reported. Similarly, the triarylsulfonium salts, with the exception of the (4-(phenylthio)phenyl)diphenylsulfonium salts produced new rearrangement products, phenylthiobiphenyls, along with diphenyl sulfide, which had been previously reported. Similarly, the triarylsulfonium salts, with the exception of the (4-(phenylthio)phenyl)diphenylsulfonium salts, gave the new rearrangement products. The mechanism for direct photolysis is proposed to occur from the singlet excited states to give a predominant heterolytic cleavage along with some homolytic cleavage.

  16. Laboratory investigation of crushed salt consolidation and fracture healing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    A laboratory test program was conducted to investigate the consolidation behavior of crushed salt and fracture healing in natural and artificial salt. Crushed salt is proposed for use as backfill in a nuclear waste repository in salt. Artificial block salt is proposed for use in sealing a repository. Four consolidation tests were conducted in a hydrostatic pressure vessel at a maximum pressure of 2500 psi (17.2 MPa) and at room temperature. Three 1-month tests were conducted on salt obtained from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and one 2-month test was conducted on salt from Avery Island. Permeability was obtained using argon and either a steady-state or transient method. Initial porosities ranged from 0.26 to 0.36 and initial permeabilities from 2000 to 50,000 md. Final porosities and permeabilities ranged from 0.05 to 0.19 and from <10/sup -5/ md to 110 md, respectively. The lowest final porosity (0.05) and permeability (<10/sup -5/ md) were obtained in a 1-month test in which 2.3% moisture was added to the salt at the beginning of the test. The consolidation rate was much more rapid than in any of the dry salt tests. The fracture healing program included 20 permeability tests conducted on fractured and unfractured samples. The tests were conducted in a Hoek cell at hydrostatic pressures up to 3000 psi (20.6 MPa) with durations up to 8 days. For the natural rock salt tested, permeability was strongly dependent on confining pressure and time. The effect of confining pressure was much weaker in the artificial salt. In most cases the combined effects of time and pressure were to reduce the permeability of fractured samples to the same order of magnitude (or less) as the permeability measured prior to fracturing.

  17. A history of salt.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, M; Capasso, G; Di Leo, V A; De Santo, N G

    1994-01-01

    The medical history of salt begins in ancient times and is closely related to different aspects of human history. Salt may be extracted from sea water, mineral deposits, surface encrustations, saline lakes and brine springs. In many inland areas, wood was used as a fuel source for evaporation of brine and this practice led to major deafforestation in central Europe. Salt played a central role in the economies of many regions, and is often reflected in place names. Salt was also used as a basis for population censuses and taxation, and salt monopolies were practised in many states. Salt was sometimes implicated in the outbreak of conflict, e.g. the French Revolution and the Indian War of Independence. Salt has also been invested with many cultural and religious meanings, from the ancient Egyptians to the Middle Ages. Man's innate appetite for salt may be related to his evolution from predominantly vegetarian anthropoids, and it is noteworthy that those people who live mainly on protein and milk or who drink salty water do not generally salt their food, whereas those who live mainly on vegetables, rice and cereals use much more salt. Medicinal use tended to emphasize the positive aspects of salt, e.g. prevention of putrefaction, reduction of tissue swelling, treatment of diarrhea. Evidence was also available to ancient peoples of its relationship to fertility, particularly in domestic animals. The history of salt thus represents a unique example for studying the impact of a widely used dietary substance on different important aspects of man's life, including medical philosophy. PMID:7847480

  18. Deformation of underground deep cavities in rock salts at their long-term operations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuravleva, T.; Shafarenko, E.

    1995-12-01

    The underground deep cavities are created in rock salts of various morphological types with the purpose of storage of petroleum, gas and nuclear wastes. It is well known that the rock salt has rheological properties, which can result in closure of caverns and loss of their stability. In the evaporitic rocks, especially those containing halite, time-dependent deformation is pronounced even at comparatively low stress levels. At high stress levels this creep becomes a dominant feature of the mechanical behavior of salt rocks. So the knowledge of creep behavior of rock salt is of paramount importance in underground storage application of gas, petroleum products and nuclear wastes.

  19. Dosimetry using silver salts

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2003-06-24

    The present invention provides a method for detecting ionizing radiation. Exposure of silver salt AgX to ionizing radiation results in the partial reduction of the salt to a mixture of silver salt and silver metal. The mixture is further reduced by a reducing agent, which causes the production of acid (HX) and the oxidized form of the reducing agent (R). Detection of HX indicates that the silver salt has been exposed to ionizing radiation. The oxidized form of the reducing agent (R) may also be detected. The invention also includes dosimeters employing the above method for detecting ionizing radiation.

  20. A Dash of Salt 

    E-print Network

    Supercinski, Danielle

    2006-01-01

    Texas A&M researcher is assessing the impact of using moderately saline water for irrigating urban landscapes in West Texas and southern New Mexico. A DASH OF SALT Researcher assesses salinity impacts on grasses, trees and shrubs A Dash of Salt... too much salt in the water (containing dissolved salts near or in excess of 1,000 parts per million) used for irrigation. ?We just do not have good guidelines to assess potential salinity hazards to landscape plants and soils,? he said. Most...

  1. Radioactive Waste Radioactive Waste

    E-print Network

    Slatton, Clint

    #12;Radioactive Waste at UF Bldg 831 392-8400 #12;Radioactive Waste · Program is designed to;Radioactive Waste · Program requires · Generator support · Proper segregation · Packaging · labeling #12;Radioactive Waste · What is radioactive waste? · Anything that · Contains · or is contaminated

  2. Reference repository design concept for bedded salt

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, D.W.; Martin, R.W.

    1980-10-08

    A reference design concept is presented for the subsurface portions of a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. General geologic, geotechnical, hydrologic and geochemical data as well as descriptions of the physical systems are provided for use on generic analyses of the pre- and post-sealing performance of repositories in this geologic medium. The geology of bedded salt deposits and the regional and repository horizon stratigraphy are discussed. Structural features of salt beds including discontinuities and dissolution features are presented and their effect on repository performance is discussed. Seismic hazards and the potential effects of earthquakes on underground repositories are presented. The effect on structural stability and worker safety during construction from hydrocarbon and inorganic gases is described. Geohydrologic considerations including regional hydrology, repository scale hydrology and several hydrological failure modes are presented in detail as well as the hydrological considerations that effect repository design. Operational phase performance is discussed with respect to operations, ventilation system, shaft conveyances, waste handling and retrieval systems and receival rates of nuclear waste. Performance analysis of the post sealing period of a nuclear repository is discussed, and parameters to be used in such an analysis are presented along with regulatory constraints. Some judgements are made regarding hydrologic failure scenarios. Finally, the design and licensing process, consistent with the current licensing procedure is described in a format that can be easily understood.

  3. New public information resources on salt caverns.

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasko, D.; Veil, J. A.

    1999-08-25

    For the past decade, interest has been growing in using underground salt caverns for disposing of wastes. The Railroad Commission of Texas has permitted a few caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) and one cavern for disposal of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) from oil field activities. Several salt caverns in Canada have also been permitted for disposal of NOW. In addition, oil and gas agencies in Louisiana and New Mexico are developing cavern disposal regulations. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has funded several studies to evaluate the technical feasibility, legality, economic viability, and risk of disposing of NOW and NORM in caverns. The results of these studies have been disseminated to the scientific and regulatory communities. However, as use of caverns for waste disposal increases, more government and industry representatives and members of the public will become aware of this practice and will need adequate information about how disposal caverns operate and the risks they pose. In anticipation of this need, DOE has funded Argonne National Laboratory to develop a salt cavern public outreach program. Key components of this program are an informational brochure designed for nontechnical persons and a website that provides greater detail on cavern operations and allows downloadable access to the reports on the topic funded by DOE. This paper provides an overview of the public outreach program.

  4. New public information resources on salt caverns.

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasko, D.; Veil, J. A.

    1999-08-25

    For the past decade, interest has been growing in using underground salt caverns for disposing of wastes. The Railroad Commission of Texas has permitted a few caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) and one cavern for disposal of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) from oil field activities. Several salt caverns in Canada have also been permitted for disposal of NOW. In addition, oil and gas agencies in Louisiana and New Mexico are developing cavern disposal regulations. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has funded several studies to evaluate the technical feasibility, legality, economic viability, and risk of disposing of NOW and NORM in caverns. The results of these studies have been disseminated to the scientific and regulatory communities. However, as use of caverns for waste disposal increases, more government and industry representatives and members of the public will become aware of this practice and will need adequate information about how disposal caverns operate and the risks they pose. In anticipation of this need, DOE has fi.mded Argonne National Laboratory to develop a salt cavern public outreach program. Key components of this program are an informational brochure designed for nontechnical persons and a website that provides greater detail on cavern operations and allows downloadable access to the reports on the topic funded by DOE. This paper provides an overview of the public outreach program.

  5. 24. VIEW SHOWING WASTE GATES ON GRAND CANAL AT JUNCTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW SHOWING WASTE GATES ON GRAND CANAL AT JUNCTION WITH OLD CROSSCUT NE/4, Sec. 7, TIN, R4E; LOOKING WEST. OLD CROSSCUT CANAL ENTERS FROM RIGHT. WASTE GATE ON LEFT EMPTIES INTO SALT RIVER BED Photographer: Kevin Kreisel-Coons, May 1990 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  6. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  7. Mountain of Salt

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This photo shows a road salt storage stockpile that is awaiting use for pavement deicing, Port of Milwaukee, WI. The use of salt to deice pavement can be harmful to aquatic life in urban streams. The USGS is involved in studies that focus on the influence of winter runoff on aquatic ecosystems....

  8. Integrated Salt Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urai, Janos L.; Kukla, Peter A.

    2015-04-01

    The growing importance of salt in the energy, subsurface storage, and chemical and food industries also increases the challenges with prediction of geometries, kinematics, stress and transport in salt. This requires an approach, which integrates a broader range of knowledge than is traditionally available in the different scientific and engineering disciplines. We aim to provide a starting point for a more integrated understanding of salt, by presenting an overview of the state of the art in a wide range of salt-related topics, from (i) the formation and metamorphism of evaporites, (ii) rheology and transport properties, (iii) salt tectonics and basin evolution, (iv) internal structure of evaporites, (v) fluid flow through salt, to (vi) salt engineering. With selected case studies we show how integration of these domains of knowledge can bring better predictions of (i) sediment architecture and reservoir distribution, (ii) internal structure of salt for optimized drilling and better cavern design, (iii) reliable long-term predictions of deformations and fluid flow in subsurface storage. A fully integrated workflow is based on geomechanical models, which include all laboratory and natural observations and links macro- and micro-scale studies. We present emerging concepts for (i) the initiation dynamics of halokinesis, (ii) the rheology and deformation of the evaporites by brittle and ductile processes, (iii) the coupling of processes in evaporites and the under- and overburden, and (iv) the impact of the layered evaporite rheology on the structural evolution.

  9. [Salt and cancer].

    PubMed

    Strnad, Marija

    2010-05-01

    Besides cardiovascular disease, a high salt intake causes other adverse health effects, i.e., gastric and some other cancers, obesity (risk factor for many cancer sites), Meniere's disease, worsening of renal disease, triggering an asthma attack, osteoporosis, exacerbation of fluid retention, renal calculi, etc. Diets containing high amounts of food preserved by salting and pickling are associated with an increased risk of cancers of the stomach, nose and throat. Because gastric cancer is still the most common cancer in some countries (especially in Japan), its prevention is one of the most important aspects of cancer control strategy. Observations among Japanese immigrants in the U.S.A. and Brazil based on the geographic differences, the trend in cancer incidence with time, and change in the incidence patterns indicate that gastric cancer is closely associated with dietary factors such as the intake of salt and salted food. The findings of many epidemiological studies suggest that high dietary salt intake is a significant risk factor for gastric cancer and this association was found to be strong in the presence of Helicobacter (H.) pylori infection with atrophic gastritis. A high-salt intake strips the lining of the stomach and may make infection with H. pylori more likely or may exacerbate the infection. Salting, pickling and smoking are traditionally popular ways of preparing food in Japan and some parts of Asia. In addition to salt intake, cigarette smoking and low consumption of fruit and vegetables increase the risk of stomach cancer. However, it is not known whether it is specifically the salt in these foods or a combination of salt and other chemicals that can cause cancer. One study identified a mutagen in nitrite-treated Japanese salted fish, and chemical structure of this mutagen suggests that it is derived from methionine and that salt and nitrite are precursors for its formation. Working under conditions of heat stress greatly increased the workers' salt excretion through perspiration. Workers exposed to heat stress consumed as much as 13-38 g salt daily. As salt strongly enhances and promotes chemical gastric carcinogenesis and H. pylori infection in both humans and animals, there is an association between work, salt intake, and development of stomach cancer. Reducing salt intake, especially during pregnancy, also reduces the risk of developing breast cancer and many other diseases, as well as obesity. The risk of most cancers is reduced by losing weight. The geographical data and analyses currently available suggest that road salt (road salting in winter) may be associated with elevated mortality from cancer of the breast, lung, esophagus, throat, larynx, large intestine, rectum and bladder. There is no available literature on the health impacts of road salt. The cause and effect relationships cannot be established without further studies. PMID:20649083

  10. Water purification using organic salts

    DOEpatents

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  11. Linking external and internal salt geometries - a key to understanding salt dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukla, Peter; Urai, Janos

    2014-05-01

    Considering the growing importance of salt in the energy, food and waste disposal industries, this paper reviews the status quo and major developments in salt research over the last decade. As a way forward in order to close identified gaps in knowledge, an integrated salt basin evaluation concept is proposed appreciating both external and internal geometries and properties. Examples of key studies in the Central European Basin and the South Oman Salt basin show that such a model may improve our understanding of the multi-scale processes operating in salt terrains. The workflow proposed allows to better asses (i) the initiation and maintenance of salt dynamics, (ii) the evolution of the internal structure of evaporites during halokinesis in salt giants, (iii) the coupling of processes in the evaporites and the salt's under- and overburden. It will lead to a better integration of the different data sets and resulting models, which will provide new insights into the structural evolution of salt giants. Finally it will also stimulate new concepts for (i) the initiation dynamics of halokinesis, (ii) the rheology and mechanics of the evaporites by brittle and ductile processes, (iii) the coupling of processes in the evaporites and the under- and overburden, and (iv) the impact of the layered evaporite rheology on the structural evolution. As an outlook for future research to be initiated in salt terrains we still need to improve our database on evaporite rocks especially the ones which take changes of properties in time into account. This includes for example the dependencies of thermal and mechanical properties on changes in strain, pressure and temperature or external and internal geometry changes relating to slow geological processes. Also geomechanical modelling efforts can be significantly improved by making full use of the data available on the effects of water, and some of the discrepancies seen in experimental data on different salts can probably be explained in terms of these effects. This all will contribute to the development of new integrated techniques for investigating and predicting salt structures from multiple data sets.

  12. Hanford's Simulated Low Activity Waste Cast Stone Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young

    2013-08-20

    Cast Stone is undergoing evaluation as the supplemental treatment technology for Hanford’s (Washington) high activity waste (HAW) and low activity waste (LAW). This report will only cover the LAW Cast Stone. The programs used for this simulated Cast Stone were gradient density change, compressive strength, and salt waste form phase identification. Gradient density changes show a favorable outcome by showing uniformity even though it was hypothesized differently. Compressive strength exceeded the minimum strength required by Hanford and greater compressive strength increase seen between the uses of different salt solution The salt waste form phase is still an ongoing process as this time and could not be concluded.

  13. Modeling of Pilot-Scale Salt-cake Dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Toghiani, R.K.; Smith, L.T.; Lindner, J.S.; Tachiev, G.I.; Yaari, G.

    2006-07-01

    Large portions of the high-level waste present at the Hanford Site and Savannah River Site are comprised of porous salts with associated interstitial liquors. Various processes have been proposed wherein the aqueous phase is removed followed by dissolution of the salt with further mixing or blending of the resulting stream in a receiver tank. This leads to a large reduction in the radioactivity for the dissolved salt-cake; however, the interstitial retrieval process is hindered by capillary forces within the salt-cake pores and large aqueous phase fractions may remain. Thus, the interim stabilized or low-curie salt processes may have less separation effectiveness than desired. In addition, based on the initial extent of pretreatment of the waste, the salt-cake may be either unsaturated or hydraulically saturated. Different interactions are expected based on the contact of the diluent with the salt and/or on mixing the diluent with the salt and some fraction of interstitial liquid. The initial approximation is that the dissolution is governed by the associated thermodynamics of the system. This may be correct assuming sufficient time for contact between the salt and diluent has occurred. Pilot-scale simulant salt-cake dissolution experiments have been conducted by the Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University. As part of a companion program, these experiments have been modeled at the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL, Mississippi State University) using the Environmental Simulation Program (ESP, OLI Systems, Inc.). Hanford simulant compositions were examined under unsaturated and saturated conditions. To account for channeling that occurred during the unsaturated experiment, additional operations were required for the process flowsheet. Direct modeling of the saturated bed was possible without this consideration. The results have impacts on the salt-cake retrieval process. First, depending on the extent of interstitial liquid contained in the waste, recycling may be necessary; removal of the resulting aqueous stream at the largest specific gravity consistent with the operating safety basis ensures productive use of water. Secondly, direct modeling of a given waste dissolution must consider variations in the extent of channeling such that limits can be established on anticipated concentrations expected during the course of the retrieval. Finally, the ability to account for heterogeneous dissolution has been accounted for. Details regarding the development of the modeling strategy as well as knowledge gained regarding flowsheet development are provided. (authors)

  14. Waste package/repository impact study: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    The Waste Package/Repository Impact Study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using the current reference salt waste package in the salt repository conceptual design. All elements of the repository that may impact waste package parameters, i.e., (size, weight, heat load) were evaluated. The repository elements considered included waste hoist feasibility, transporter and emplacement machine feasibility, subsurface entry dimensions, feasibility of emplacement configuration, and temperature limits. The evaluations are discussed in detail with supplemental technical data included in Appendices to this report, as appropriate. Results and conclusions of the evaluations are discussed in light of the acceptability of the current reference waste package as the basis for salt conceptual design. Finally, recommendations are made relative to the salt project position on the application of the reference waste package as a basis for future design activities. 31 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. Development of Polymeric Waste Forms for the Encapsulation of Toxic Wastes Using an Emulsion-Encapsulation Based Process

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.; Quach, A.; Birnie, D. P.; Saez, A. E.; Ela, W. P.; Zeliniski, B. J. J.; Xia, G.; Smith, H.

    2003-01-01

    Developed technologies in vitrification, cement, and polymeric materials manufactured using flammable organic solvents have been used to encapsulate solid wastes, including low-level radioactive materials, but are impractical for high salt-content waste streams (Maio, 1998). In this work, we investigate an emulsification process for producing an aqueous-based polymeric waste form as a preliminary step towards fabricating hybrid organic/inorganic polyceram matrices. The material developed incorporates epoxy resin and polystyrene-butadiene (PSB) latex to produce a waste form that is non-flammable, light weight, of relatively low cost, and that can be loaded to a relatively high weight content of waste materials. Sodium nitrate was used as a model for the salt waste. Small-scale samples were manufactured and analyzed using leach tests designed to measure the diffusion coefficient and leachability index for the fastest diffusing species in the waste form, the salt ions. The microstructure and composition of the samples were probed using SEM/EDS techniques. The results show that some portion of the salt migrates towards the exterior surfaces of the waste forms during the curing process. A portion of the salt in the interior of the sample is contained in polymer corpuscles or sacs. These sacs are embedded in a polymer matrix phase that contains fine, well-dispersed salt crystals. The diffusion behavior observed in sections of the waste forms indicates that samples prepared using this emulsion process meet or exceed the leachability criteria suggested for low level radioactivity waste forms.

  16. Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Stimmel, J.; Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.; Brock, J.; Heslop, M.; Wernly, K.

    1999-04-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible {sup 238}Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorous and arsenic in the organic waste react with the molten salt to form the corresponding neutralized salts, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and NaAsO{sub 2} or Na{sub 3}AsO4. Plutonium and other metals react with the molten salt and air to form metal salts or oxides. Saturated salt will be recycled and aqueous chemical separation will be used to recover the {sup 238}Pu. The Los Alamos National Laboratory system, which is currently in the conceptual design stage, will be scaled down from current systems for use inside a glovebox.

  17. Mass transport in salt repositories: Steady-state transport through interbeds

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Y.; Lee, W.W.-L.; Chambre, P.L.; Pigford, T.H. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1989-03-01

    Salt has long been a candidate for geologic disposal of nuclear waste. Because salt is extremely soluble in water, the existence of rock salt in the ground atest to the long-term stability of the salt. Both bedded salt and salt domes have been considered for nuclear waste disposal in the United States and Europe. While the salt is known to be quite pure in salt domes, bedded salt is interlaced with beds of sediments. Traditionally rock salt has not been considered water-conducting, but sediments layers would be classical porous media, capable of conducting water. Therefore there is interest in determining whether interbeds in bedded salt constitute pathway for radionuclide migration. In this report we consider steady-state migration of radionuclides from a single waste cylinder into a single interbed. Two approaches are used. In 1982 Neretnieks proposed an approach for calculating the steady-state transport of oxidants to a copper container. We have adapted that approach for calculating steady-state radionuclide migration away from the waste package, as a first approximation. We have also analyzed the problem of time-dependent radionuclide diffusion from a container through a backfill layer into a fracture, and we used the steady-state solution from that problem for comparison. Section 2 gives a brief summary of the geology of interbeds in bedded salt. Section 3 presents the mass transfer resistances approach of Neretnieks, summarizing the formulation and giving numerical illustrations of the steady-state two-dimensional diffusion analysis. Section 4 gives a brief statement of the steady-state result from a related analysis. Conclusions are stated in Section 5. 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Effect of the graphite electrode material on the characteristics of molten salt electrolytically produced carbon nanomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Kamali, Ali Reza Schwandt, Carsten; Fray, Derek J.

    2011-10-15

    The electrochemical erosion of a graphite cathode during the electrolysis of molten lithium chloride salt may be used for the preparation of nano-structured carbon materials. It has been found that the structures and morphologies of these carbon nanomaterials are dependent on those of the graphite cathodes employed. A combination of tubular and spherical carbon nanostructures has been produced from a graphite with a microstructure of predominantly planar micro-sized grains and a minor fraction of more irregular nano-sized grains, whilst only spherical carbon nanostructures have been produced from a graphite with a microstructure of primarily nano-sized grains. Based on the experimental results, a best-fit regression equation is proposed that relates the crystalline domain size of the graphite reactants and the carbon products. The carbon nanomaterials prepared possess a fairly uniform mesoporosity with a sharp peak in pore size distribution at around 4 nm. The results are of crucial importance to the production of carbon nanomaterials by way of the molten salt electrolytic method. - Highlights: {yields} Carbon nanomaterials are synthesised by LiCl electrolysis with graphite electrodes. {yields} The degree of crystallinity of graphite reactant and carbon product are related. {yields} A graphite reactant is identified that enables the preparation of carbon nanotubes. {yields} The carbon products possess uniform mesoporosity with narrow pore size distribution.

  19. Electrochemistry of LiCl-Li2O-H2O Molten Salt Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Natalie J. Gese; Batric Pesic

    2013-03-01

    Uranium can be recovered from uranium oxide (UO2) spent fuel through the combination of the oxide reduction and electrorefining processes. During oxide reduction, the spent fuel is introduced to molten LiCl-Li2O salt at 650 degrees C and the UO2 is reduced to uranium metal via two routes: (1) electrochemically, and (2) chemically by lithium metal (Li0) that is produced electrochemically. However, the hygroscopic nature of both LiCl and Li2O leads to the formation of LiOH, contributing hydroxyl anions (OH-), the reduction of which interferes with the Li0 generation required for the chemical reduction of UO2. In order for the oxide reduction process to be an effective method for the treatment of uranium oxide fuel, the role of moisture in the LiCl-Li2O system must be understood. The behavior of moisture in the LiCl-Li2O molten salt system was studied using cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry and chronoamperometry, while reduction to hydrogen was confirmed with gas chromatography.

  20. Results of water quality sampling near Richton, Cypress Creek and Lampton Salt Domes, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandl, L.A.; Spiers, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    In the Mississippi salt basin in southern Mississippi, chemical quality studies of surface water and ground water have been made to determine present water-quality conditions near three salt domes being studied by the Department of Energy as potential repositories for radioactive wastes. Chloride concentrations in excess of 60 milligrams per liter in surface water and ground water in Perry County indicate that contamination could be occurring from industrial wastes, oil test wells, or dissolution of Richton or Cypress Creek domes. (USGS)

  1. Low-salt diet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... limit how much tap water you drink. Drink bottled water instead. Ask your doctor if a salt substitute ... Heart Association Nutrition Committee; Lichtenstein AH, Appel LJ, Brands M, Carnethon M, Daniels S, et al. Diet and ...

  2. Amine salts of nitroazoles

    DOEpatents

    Kienyin Lee; Stinecipher, M.M.

    1993-10-26

    Compositions of matter, a method of providing chemical energy by burning said compositions, and methods of making said compositions are described. These compositions are amine salts of nitroazoles. 1 figure.

  3. Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Salt Lake City, Utah, will host the 2002 Winter Olympic Games. The city is located on the southeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake and sits to the west of the Wasatch Mountains, which rise more than 3,500 meters (10,000 feet) above sea level. The city was first settled in 1847 by pioneers seeking relief from religious persecution. Today Salt Lake City, the capital of Utah, is home to more than 170,000 residents. This true-color image of Salt Lake City was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), flying aboard Landsat 7, on May 26, 2000. The southeastern tip of the Great Salt Lake is visible in the upper left of the image. The furrowed green and brown landscape running north-south is a portion of the Wasatch Mountains, some of which are snow-capped (white pixels). The greyish pixels in the center of the image show the developed areas of the city. A number of water reservoirs can be seen east of the mountain range. Salt Lake City International Airport is visible on the northwestern edge of the city. About 20 miles south of the airport is the Bingham Canyon Copper Mine (tan pixels), the world's largest open pit excavation. See also this MODIS image of Utah. Image courtesy NASA Landsat7 Science Team and USGS Eros Data Center

  4. Constitutive behavior of reconsolidating crushed salt

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, G.D.; Mellegard, K.D.

    1998-02-01

    The constitutive model used to describe deformation of crushed salt is presented in this paper. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Recently completed creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from shear consolidation tests and a combination of shear and hydrostatic tests produces two sets of material parameter values for the model. Changes in material parameter values from test group to test group indicate the empirical nature of the model but show significant improvement over earlier work. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on fitting statistics and ability of the model to predict test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

  5. Crushed-salt constitutive model update

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Mellegard, K.D.

    1998-01-01

    Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

  6. HLW Salt Disposition Alternatives Preconceptual Phase II Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Piccolo, S.F.

    1999-07-09

    The purpose of the report is to summarize the process used to identify the Short List alternatives that will be evaluated during Phase III and to document the results of the selection process. The Phase III evaluation will result in the determination of the preferred alternative(s) to be used for final disposition of the HLW salt to a permitted waste form.

  7. Technology for treatment of salt residue stored at NPPs

    SciTech Connect

    Kobelev, A.P.; Savkin, A.E.; Sinjakin, O.G.; Kachalova, E.A.; Sorokoletova, A.N.; Nechaev, V.R.

    2007-07-01

    At Moscow SIA 'Radon', three (3) options for NPP salt residue treatment were developed and tested. Option 1 consists of dissolving the salt residue and subsequent treatment by ozonization, separation of the deposits formed from ozonization and selective cleaning by ferrocyanide sorbents. Option 2 consists of fusion of the salt residue, addition of glass-forming additives and melting of borosilicate glass in a melter such as a 'cold crucible'. Option 3 consists of dissolving the salt residue, oxidation of the solution obtained, removal of radionuclides by collectors and the separate handling of formed deposits and the solution. The deposits containing more than 99 % of the activity are directed to vitrification and the solution is directed either to a concentrates dryer or to cementation. The vitrified waste product is placed in repository for solid radioactive waste storage and the solidified product from the solution goes to an industrial waste disposal site or a repository specially developed at NPP sites for 'exempt waste' products by IAEA classification. (authors)

  8. Synergistic Interactions of Sugars/Polyols and Monovalent Salts with Phospholipids Depend upon Sugar/Polyol Complexity and Anion Identity.

    PubMed

    Clark, Ginevra A; Henderson, J Michael; Heffern, Charles; Akgün, Bülent; Majewski, Jaroslaw; Lee, Ka Yee C

    2015-11-24

    We found that interactions of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lipid monolayers with sugars are influenced by addition of NaCl. This work is of general importance in understanding how sugar-lipid-salt interactions impact biological systems. Using Langmuir isothermal compressions, fluorescence microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and neutron reflectometry, we examined DPPC monolayers upon addition of sugars/polyols and/or monovalent salts. Sugar-lipid interactions in the presence of NaCl increased with increasing complexity of the sugar/polyol in the order glycerol ? glucose < trehalose. When the anion was altered in the series NaF, NaCl, and NaBr, only minor differences were observed. When comparing LiCl, NaCl, and KCl, sodium chloride had the greatest influence on glucose and trehalose interactions with DPPC. We propose that heterogeneity created by cation binding allows for sugars to bind the lipid headgroups. While cation binding increases in the order K(+) < Na(+) < Li(+), lithium ions may also compete with glucose for binding sites. Thus, both cooperative and competitive factors contribute to the overall influence of salts on sugar-lipid interactions. PMID:26496486

  9. Fault-related salt tectonics in the southern North Sea, The Netherlands

    SciTech Connect

    Remmelts, G.

    1996-12-31

    This chapter describes the relationship between basement faulting and salt flow in the southern North Sea in general and in the Dutch Central North Sea Graben area specifically. The research was executed within a national program on radioactive waste disposal in The Netherlands and is based on a 2000-km regional two-dimensional seismic survey. Salt structures consist of Upper Permian Zechstein salt. The salt structures are, almost without exception, related to basement faults. This paper concerns the relative location of the basement faults and salt structures, the triggering of salt flow, and the rate of this flow. The Netherlands sector of the continental shelf can be subdivided into a number of salt provinces on the basis of their developmental stage. This subdivision coincides with the structural units. The maturity of the salt structure is proportional to the throw of the basement fault. A relationship exists between basement faulting and increased salt flow, and the interference of fault systems in the basement is reflected in the geometry of the salt structures. The effect of basement faulting on salt flow appears to correspond with the results of previously published physical modeling. The buoyancy force related to the density inversion alone seems insufficient to pierce the overburden. Weakening of the overburden and enhancing the buoyancy forces by differential loading enable the salt to flow and breach the overburden.

  10. Analysis of Multistage and Other Creep Data for Domal Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, D.E.

    1998-10-01

    There have existed for some time relatively sparse creep databases for a number of domal salts. Although all of these data were analyzed at the time they were reported, to date there has not been a comprehensive, overall evaluation within the same analysis framework. Such an evaluation may prove of value. The analysis methodology is based on the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) description of salt creep and the corresponding model parameters determined from conventional creep tests. The constitutive model of creep wss formulated through application of principles involved in micromechanical modeling. It was possible, at minimum, to obtain the steady state parameters of the creep model from the data on the domal salts. When this was done, the creep of the domal salts, as compared to the well-defined Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) bedded clean salt, was either essentially identical to, or significantly harder (more creep resistant) than WIPP salt. Interestingly, the domal salts form two distinct groups, either sofl or hard, where the difference is roughly a factor often in creep rate between the twcl groups. As might be expected, this classification corresponds quite well to the differences in magnitude of effective creep volume losses of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) caverns as determined by the CAVEMAN cavern pressure history analysis, depending upon the specific dome or region within the dome. Creep response shoulcl also correlate to interior cavern conditions that produce salt falls. WMle, in general, the caverns in hard sah have a noticeably greater propensity for salt falls, a smaller number of similar events are exhibited even in the caverns in soft salt.

  11. Fundamental Properties of Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

    2012-11-01

    Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

  12. Permeability of WIPP Salt During Damage Evolution and Healing

    SciTech Connect

    BODNER,SOL R.; CHAN,KWAI S.; MUNSON,DARRELL E.

    1999-12-03

    The presence of damage in the form of microcracks can increase the permeability of salt. In this paper, an analytical formulation of the permeability of damaged rock salt is presented for both initially intact and porous conditions. The analysis shows that permeability is related to the connected (i.e., gas accessible) volumetric strain and porosity according to two different power-laws, which may be summed to give the overall behavior of a porous salt with damage. This relationship was incorporated into a constitutive model, known as the Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which has been formulated to describe the inelastic flow behavior of rock salt due to coupled creep, damage, and healing. The extended model was used to calculate the permeability of rock salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site under conditions where damage evolved with stress over a time period. Permeability changes resulting from both damage development under deviatoric stresses and damage healing under hydrostatic pressures were considered. The calculated results were compared against experimental data from the literature, which indicated that permeability in damaged intact WIPP salt depends on the magnitude of the gas accessible volumetric strain and not on the total volumetric strain. Consequently, the permeability of WIPP salt is significantly affected by the kinetics of crack closure, but shows little dependence on the kinetics of crack removal by sintering.

  13. Treatment for hydrazine-containing waste water solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yade, N.

    1986-01-01

    The treatment for waste solutions containing hydrazine is presented. The invention attempts oxidation and decomposition of hydrazine in waste water in a simple and effective processing. The method adds activated charcoal to waste solutions containing hydrazine while maintaining a pH value higher than 8, and adding iron salts if necessary. Then, the solution is aerated.

  14. Gas releases from salt

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, B.; Neal, J.; Hinkebein, T.

    1998-06-01

    The occurrence of gas in salt mines and caverns has presented some serious problems to facility operators. Salt mines have long experienced sudden, usually unexpected expulsions of gas and salt from a production face, commonly known as outbursts. Outbursts can release over one million cubic feet of methane and fractured salt, and are responsible for the lives of numerous miners and explosions. Equipment, production time, and even entire mines have been lost due to outbursts. An outburst creates a cornucopian shaped hole that can reach heights of several hundred feet. The potential occurrence of outbursts must be factored into mine design and mining methods. In caverns, the occurrence of outbursts and steady infiltration of gas into stored product can effect the quality of the product, particularly over the long-term, and in some cases renders the product unusable as is or difficult to transport. Gas has also been known to collect in the roof traps of caverns resulting in safety and operational concerns. The intent of this paper is to summarize the existing knowledge on gas releases from salt. The compiled information can provide a better understanding of the phenomena and gain insight into the causative mechanisms that, once established, can help mitigate the variety of problems associated with gas releases from salt. Outbursts, as documented in mines, are discussed first. This is followed by a discussion of the relatively slow gas infiltration into stored crude oil, as observed and modeled in the caverns of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve. A model that predicts outburst pressure kicks in caverns is also discussed.

  15. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 414 - Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Naphthenic acid salts Stearic acid, metal salts/Neutralization with a metallic base Nickel Acetates, 7,11... acyclic & cyclic organosiloxanes Stearic acid, metal salts/Neutralization with a metallic base Styrene...-Bearing Waste Streams Chromium Methylhydroabietate/Esterification of hydroabietic acid (rosin)...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 414 - Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Naphthenic acid salts Stearic acid, metal salts/Neutralization with a metallic base Nickel Acetates, 7,11... acyclic & cyclic organosiloxanes Stearic acid, metal salts/Neutralization with a metallic base Styrene...-Bearing Waste Streams Chromium Methylhydroabietate/Esterification of hydroabietic acid (rosin)...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 414 - Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Naphthenic acid salts Stearic acid, metal salts/Neutralization with a metallic base Nickel Acetates, 7,11... acyclic & cyclic organosiloxanes Stearic acid, metal salts/Neutralization with a metallic base Styrene...-Bearing Waste Streams Chromium Methylhydroabietate/Esterification of hydroabietic acid (rosin)...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 414 - Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Naphthenic acid salts Stearic acid, metal salts/Neutralization with a metallic base Nickel Acetates, 7,11... acyclic & cyclic organosiloxanes Stearic acid, metal salts/Neutralization with a metallic base Styrene...-Bearing Waste Streams Chromium Methylhydroabietate/Esterification of hydroabietic acid (rosin)...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 414 - Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Naphthenic acid salts Stearic acid, metal salts/Neutralization with a metallic base Nickel Acetates, 7,11... acyclic & cyclic organosiloxanes Stearic acid, metal salts/Neutralization with a metallic base Styrene...-Bearing Waste Streams Chromium Methylhydroabietate/Esterification of hydroabietic acid (rosin)...

  20. Development of iron phosphate ceramic waste form to immobilize radioactive waste solution

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jongkwon; Um, Wooyong; Choung, Sungwook

    2014-05-09

    The objective of this research was to develop an iron phosphate ceramic (IPC) waste form using converter slag obtained as a by-product of the steel industry as a source of iron instead of conventional iron oxide. Both synthetic off-gas scrubber solution containing technetium-99 (or Re as a surrogate) and LiCl-KCl eutectic salt, a final waste solution from pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuel, were used as radioactive waste streams. The IPC waste form was characterized for compressive strength, reduction capacity, chemical durability, and contaminant leachability. Compressive strengths of the IPC waste form prepared with different types of waste solutions were 16 MPa and 19 MPa for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and the off-gas scrubber simulant, respectively, which meet the minimum compressive strength of 3.45 MPa (500 psi) for waste forms to be accepted into the radioactive waste repository. The reduction capacity of converter slag, a main dry ingredient used to prepare the IPC waste form, was 4,136 meq/kg by the Ce(IV) method, which is much higher than those of the conventional Fe oxides used for the IPC waste form and the blast furnace slag materials. Average leachability indexes of Tc, Li, and K for the IPC waste form were higher than 6.0, and the IPC waste form demonstrated stable durability even after 63-day leaching. In addition, the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure measurements of converter slag and the IPC waste form with LiCl-KCl eutectic salt met the universal treatment standard of the leachability limit for metals regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This study confirms the possibility of development of the IPC waste form using converter slag, showing its immobilization capability for radionuclides in both LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and off-gas scrubber solutions with significant cost savings.

  1. Development of iron phosphate ceramic waste form to immobilize radioactive waste solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jongkwon; Um, Wooyong; Choung, Sungwook

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this research was to develop an iron phosphate ceramic (IPC) waste form using converter slag obtained as a by-product of the steel industry as a source of iron instead of conventional iron oxide. Both synthetic off-gas scrubber solution containing technetium-99 (or Re as a surrogate) and LiCl-KCl eutectic salt, a final waste solution from pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuel, were used as radioactive waste streams. The IPC waste form was characterized for compressive strength, reduction capacity, chemical durability, and contaminant leachability. Compressive strengths of the IPC waste form prepared with different types of waste solutions were 16 MPa and 19 MPa for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and the off-gas scrubber simulant, respectively, which meet the minimum compressive strength of 3.45 MPa (500 psi) for waste forms to be accepted into the radioactive waste repository. The reduction capacity of converter slag, a main dry ingredient used to prepare the IPC waste form, was 4136 meq/kg by the Ce(IV) method, which is much higher than those of the conventional Fe oxides used for the IPC waste form and the blast furnace slag materials. Average leachability indexes of Tc, Li, and K for the IPC waste form were higher than 6.0, and the IPC waste form demonstrated stable durability even after 63-day leaching. In addition, the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure measurements of converter slag and the IPC waste form with LiCl-KCl eutectic salt met the universal treatment standard of the leachability limit for metals regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This study confirms the possibility of development of the IPC waste form using converter slag, showing its immobilization capability for radionuclides in both LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and off-gas scrubber solutions with significant cost savings.

  2. Engineered waste-package-system design specification

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    This report documents the waste package performance requirements and geologic and waste form data bases used in developing the conceptual designs for waste packages for salt, tuff, and basalt geologies. The data base reflects the latest geotechnical information on the geologic media of interest. The parameters or characteristics specified primarily cover spent fuel, defense high-level waste, and commercial high-level waste forms. The specification documents the direction taken during the conceptual design activity. A separate design specification will be developed prior to the start of the preliminary design activity.

  3. Lowering Salt in Your Diet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... reduced in sodium." FDA has not exercised its regulatory authority to limit the amount of salt added ... requesting that the agency make changes to the regulatory status of salt, including requiring limits on the ...

  4. Salt Marshes at Chincoteague Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Salt marshes at Chincoteague Island. The salt marshes that make up Chincoteague Island are important habitat for migrating waterfowl. In addition, they serve an important role in protecting inland ecosystems and communities from oceanic storms....

  5. Dalapon, sodium salt

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dalapon , sodium salt ; CASRN 75 - 99 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  6. Nickel, soluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nickel , soluble salts ; CASRN Various Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  7. Uranium, soluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Uranium , soluble salts ; no CASRN Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  8. Unitized paramagnetic salt thermometer

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, B.M.

    1982-06-01

    The details of construction and assembly of a cerous magnesium nitrate (CMN) paramagnetic thermometer are presented. The thermometer is a small unit consisting of a primary, two secondaries, the salt pill, and thermal links. The thermometer calibration changes very little on successive coolings and is reliable to 35 mK. A typical calibration curve is also presented.

  9. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  10. Salt Kinematics after Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aftabi, P.; Roustaei, M.

    2007-12-01

    Salt extrusions are simple natural models. The shapes of salt extrusions are complex gauges of the forces extruding them [9]. The uplift rates of a part of the Namakdan is between 1-3 mm/y-1 at the rim to 3-6 mm/yr-1 in the interior [5]. The salt glacier flowed plastically during the brief annual rainy season [6].The salt flow faster with temperature rise and flow slowly when temperature fall [3]. The displacements with>10cm/y and >50 cm/y suggest that, the salt extruded with rate 82 mm a-1 [9] but spread cm to m per year [8].The recent InSAR study Near Namakdan had no explanations about high activity of salt after earthquake [10].The coseismic vertical displacements suggest reactivation of blind thrust [11] .Our recent field measurements reported here suggest that any fast flow in salt may related to the mild to strong Earthquakes and may caused by diapiric reactivation. The earthquake of 27Nov 2005 with Mw ~ 6 occurred in Qeshm Island has a distance of 65 km to Bandar Abbass.The base of our measurements illustrated by Aftabi[1,2]and suggested by Bailly[4].Two wooden stakes about 50 cm in length and (2x3 cm<) in section were hammered vertically into the surficial marly salt along a line on the SW slopes of the thin southern namakier of Namakdan. Two others hammered on the walls of the cave in the south western part of the Namakdan diapir. The distance between stakes was measured (+/- a mm and cm) using a meter scale and the azimuths between them were measured (+/- a degree) by compass. Between readings, the meter scale was stored and carried in an ice chest to minimize its thermal expansion or contraction. Readings were made immediately one and two day after in the same times after installation measurements. We expected repeat of the main shock as mild earthquake one year later as earthquake cycling, we therefore return there and measured distance between stakes in salt one year after main shock but in the same times.IIEES reported the 26 and 27th 06 mild earthquake with Ml 3.3[12]. The distances between stakes both lengthened between measurements demonstrating local extension strains in the tiny southern namakier of Namakdan inside the cave and out in the marly cover.We interpreted some big activities in our 05 InSAR image as brine movements in the rim of the salt.Some of the distances between stakes exhibited complete elastic recovery during one day [1]. Others time-dependant elastic-plastic recovery[1], while in the Namakdan diapir the stakes just extended rapidly in scale of 1cm after 24 hours indicate permanent non recoverable plastic strains[1]with high rate after earthquake.With special thanks to M.Madani, C.J.Talbot and E.Feilding. REF: [1]Aftabi, P., 2000[2]Aftabi, p. et al, 2005[3]Aftabi, P., 2006[4]Bailly, E.B, 1931[5]Bruthans, J et al,In Press [6]Talbot, C.J., & Rojers, E.A.1980[7]Talbot, C.J, 1998[8] Talbot, C.J et al., 2000[9]Talbot, C.J, &Aftabi, P., 2004 [10]Nilforoushan, F. et al., 2005[11]Niessen et al.,In press [12] www.iiees.ac.ir

  11. Calculation of density and permeability of compacted crushed salt within an engineered shaft sealing system

    SciTech Connect

    Loken, M.

    1997-07-01

    Crushed salt from the host Salado Formation is proposed as a sealing material in one component of a multicomponent seal system design for the shafts of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a mined geological repository for storage and disposal of transuranic radioactive wastes located near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The crushed salt will be compacted and placed at a density approaching 90% of the intact density of the host Salado salt. Creep closure of the shaft will further compact the crushed salt over time, thereby reducing the crushed-salt permeability from the initial state and creating an effective long-term seal. A structural model and a fluid flow model have been developed to provide an estimate of crushed-salt reconsolidation rate as a function of depth, time, and pore pressure. Model results are obtained in terms of crushed-salt permeability as a function of time and depth within the salt column. Model results indicate that average salt column permeability will be reduced to 3.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}20} m{sup 2} in about 100 years, which provides for an acceptable long-term seal component.

  12. Microstructural analysis of reconsolidated crushed salt at 250 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, R. K.; Bauer, S. J.; Hansen, F. D.; Broome, S. T.; Urquhart, A.

    2012-12-01

    Reconsolidation of crushed salt is a very important physical phenomenon when backfilling or sealing nuclear waste repositories in salt is considered. There is a long history of testing crushed salt backfill for salt repository applications. Over the years, salt reconsolidation has been a topic of great interest to international salt repository studies. A preponderance of these studies was conducted at room temperature, with a few tests at elevated temperatures up to 100 °C. Today there is a renewed national and international interest in salt reconsolidation at elevated temperature, particularly as applied to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste. Mine-run salt was first dried at 105 °C until no further weight loss was observed. Several reconsolidated granular salt specimens were deformed at 250 °C in a triaxial apparatus under hydrostatic-quasistatic, shear-quasistatic, and creep conditions. Nominally, these test specimens were consolidated from 35% to approximately 10% porosity, which is estimated from random point counting and mechanical test data. Deformation mechanisms are inferred from microstructural observations made using optical and electron microscopy on fragments of the tested specimen, polished thin sections, and etched cleavage chips. Extensive deformation is exhibited in the final state. While naturally occurring salt grains are easily cleaved, individual granules extracted from the reconsolidated mass post-test were very difficult to cleave because the internal crystal structure is highly distorted. We assume initial porosity is removed by grain boundary sliding and attendant comminution because unsutured grain boundaries are decorated with fine particles. Widespread crystal plasticity is manifested in elongate and sinuous grain fabric. Etching techniques highlight heavily deformed grains that exhibit wavy slip band microstructures, and climb recovery processes with an associated minute subgrain size. Free dislocation density is sparse in the highly deformed grains. Despite massive tangles of substructure and hence potentially high internal strain energy, only minor dynamic recrystallization is observed. And, despite drying the granular salt to an accepted dry condition, apparently sufficient brine remains within the crystal lattice as fluid inclusions to facilitate fluid assisted diffusional transfer. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  13. APPLICATIONS OF SALT IN ELECTROFISHING

    E-print Network

    APPLICATIONS OF SALT IN ELECTROFISHING iNlarine Biological Laboratory LIB55.A.K.Y WOODS HOLE, MASS OF SALT IN ELECTROFISHING By Robert E . Lennon and Phillip S . Parker Fishery Research Biologists Leetown. Electric fisliliiK. 2. Salt. i. Farker, Phillip Slieridaii, 192t>- .joiut author, ii. Title. ( Series : IT

  14. Nature and location of the receptors for salt-gland secretion in the goose

    PubMed Central

    Hanwell, Ann; Linzell, J. L.; Peaker, M.

    1972-01-01

    1. The nature and location of the receptors which stimulate salt-gland secretion in the goose have been investigated. 2. The rapid injection of homologous blood (sufficient to raise the blood volume by 16 and 9%) into the right atrium failed to induce secretion. In contrast, hypertonic sucrose, Na2SO4 and LiCl initiated secretion. 3. These results support the theory that osmoreceptors initiate secretion by detecting an increase in plasma tonicity. 4. The minimal amount of hypertonic NaCl required to initiate secretion when infusions were made into a carotid artery or into various arteries and veins in the splanchnic region was not less than that required by an I.V. route. 5. Cross-circulation and perfusion studies also showed that a raised [NaCl] in the blood perfusing the head was ineffective in evoking secretion and thus that plasma tonicity must be raised elsewhere in the body. 6. Secretion in response to salt-loading was abolished or prevented by cutting the vagus nerves or blocking them with local anaesthetic. Stimulation of the cephalic end of the cut vagi in an isolated, perfused decerebrate head induced secretion, indicating that the afferent fibres from the receptors to the C.N.S. lie in the vagus nerves. Cutting the vagi below the heart, however, had no effect on the secretory response. 7. Blocking nerves in the crop with local anaesthetic had no effect on secretion induced by salt-loading but when local anaesthetic was injected into the pericardial sac, secretion decreased immediately, stopped, and recovered with a time course similar to that seen after blocking the vagus nerves. 8. Section of the vagi in the neck abolished the tachycardia observed in response to the injection of hypertonic NaCl into the right atrium. 9. As in other species, stimulation of the `secretory nerve' induced secretion in anaesthetized or decerebrate geese. 10. Hexamethonium given I.V. or applied topically to the `secretory nerve ganglion' blocked secretion in response to salt-loading or to secretory nerve stimulation. 11. It appears that the receptors for salt-gland secretion are located in or near the heart and that afferent fibres from these receptors travel in the vagus nerves to the C.N.S. 12. A possible scheme of the secretory reflex which initiates and maintains salt-gland activity is proposed. PMID:5085337

  15. ENVIROCARE OF UTAH: EXPANDING WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA TO PROVIDE LOW-LEVEL AND MIXED WASTE DISPOSAL OPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, B.; Loveland, K.

    2003-02-27

    Envirocare of Utah operates a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility 80 miles west of Salt Lake City in Clive, Utah. Accepted waste types includes NORM, 11e2 byproduct material, Class A low-level waste, and mixed waste. Since 1988, Envirocare has offered disposal options for environmental restoration waste for both government and commercial remediation projects. Annual waste receipts exceed 12 million cubic feet. The waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for the Envirocare facility have significantly expanded to accommodate the changing needs of restoration projects and waste generators since its inception, including acceptable physical waste forms, radiological acceptance criteria, RCRA requirements and treatment capabilities, PCB acceptance, and liquids acceptance. Additionally, there are many packaging, transportation, and waste management options for waste streams acceptable at Envirocare. Many subcontracting vehicles are also available to waste generators for both government and commercial activities.

  16. Geohydrology of the Keechi, Mount Sylvan, Oakwood, and Palestine salt domes in the northeast Texas salt-dome basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, Jerry E.; Halasz, Stephen J.; Peters, Henry B.

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is considering the feasibility of using salt domes in the northeast Texas salt-dome basin as repositories for radioactive wastes that may require complete confinement for as much as 250,000 years. Four of fourteen known shallow piercement salt domes within the basin--Keechi, Mount Sylvan, Oakwood, and Palestine Salt Domes--have been selected as candidate domes for further study and possible selection as storage sites. Dissolution may exist at all four candidate salt domes, possibly through contact with Cretaceous or Tertiary aquifers, or through fault systems in the vicinity of the domes. Strata overlying and surrounding Palestine and Keechi Salt Domes have been arched into steeply-dipping folds that are complexly faulted. Similar conditions exist at Oakwood and Mount Sylvan Domes, except that the Tertiary strata have been only moderately disturbed. Cap rock, which is generally accepted to be an indication of salt dissolution, is present in varying amounts over all four domes. Saline water has been reported at the surface at all candidate domes except Oakwood, but only two water wells near the domes yield water containing possible anomalous concentrations of dissolved chloride--one at Keechi and one at Oakwood. Possible subsurface plumes of saline water, which are indications of instability, exist at all four domes. Additional problems concerning the hydrologic stability of Oakwood and Palestine salt domes have resulted from the disposal of oil-field saline water in the cap rock at the Oakwood dome and previous solution mining of salt at the Palestine dome. Additional investigations are needed to determine if a selected dome is hydrologically stable. Needed investigations include (1) more complete comparative analysis of the regional and local geohydrologic system; (2) a site-specific drilling and sampling program to analyze the cap rock-aquifer boundary, sediment distribution, hydraulic-parameter variations, hydraulic-head relationships, and hydrochemical patterns; and (3) mass-transport computer modeling of groundwater flow at the domes. (USGS)

  17. Morphology and Composition of Simulant Waste Loaded Polymer Composite Phase Inversion, Encapsulation, and Durability

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Harry D.; Smith, Gary Lynn L.; Xia, Gordon; Zelinski, Brian J.

    2003-11-03

    Because of their good physical and chemical durability, relatively high salt loading capacity, and low leachability, sol-gel-derived, organic-inorganic hybrid materials (polycerams) show promise as media that could be used to stabilize high salt wastes. Use of this technique has been hindered by the need for highly volatile and flammable organic solvents in the fabrication process. In an effort to overcome this hinderance, we carried out initial development of an alternative production approach based on an aqueous emulsion technology and a “phase inversion” phenomenon that results in encapsulation of the waste form. Our major interests focused on understanding the phenomena and optimizing fabrication methods to produce a final waste form with excellent waste stabilization characteristics. Scanning electron microscopy was used to obtain the microstructures of the waste forms for understanding the migration, distribution, and encapsulation of the salt in the waste forms. The leaching rate of the salt from a waste form was quantified by means of conductivity measurement.

  18. Brine Inclusions Migration in Intact Salt Crystals under Thermal Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporuscio, F.; Boukhalfa, H.

    2013-12-01

    The behavior of water contained in rock salt under the influence of thermal gradients is critical to the performance of salt as a medium for the disposal of nuclear waste. Water contained in salt can be present as discrete inclusions within intact salt crystals, at the interface between salt crystals and aggregates, and also as hydration water and structural water present in accessory minerals present in salt. Water content in pure halite salt usually rages from 0.1 to 0.5 wt. % but is significantly higher in clay rich salt, for which water content can be up to several wt. %. Under the influence of thermal gradients brine inclusions and water associated to the accessory mineral is mobilized. Previous investigations have shown brine inclusions tend to move towards the heat source through a mechanism that involves the dissolution of salt at the hot face of the brine inclusion and its precipitation at the colder side of the inclusion. Uncertainties remain on the exact parameters that define the rate of brine migration and whether it truly migrates to towards the heat source. We performed studies under controlled thermal gradients to examine the behavior of brine inclusions in single salt crystals obtained from the underground salt mine at the Waste Isolation Power Plant (WIPP). We found that the behavior of the brine inclusions under thermal gradients is dependent on the thermal gradient magnitude and the nature of the inclusion. Full inclusions (liquid only) migrate predominantly towards the heat source, but when the inclusions are large and close to the surface they fracture the salt and release water near the surface. Inclusions that migrate towards the heat source migrate through a mechanism that involves the dissolution of salt at the hot side of the inclusion and its deposition along the migration path. SEM analysis of the migration pathways shows that brine migrates through the creation of a network of square shaped hollow channels of about 10 micron diameter. The behavior of two phase inclusions (liquid and gas) in a temperature gradient is distinctly different from that of full inclusions. The brine in the two phase inclusions still migrates towards the heat source; however, the vapor phase moves away from the heat source through narrow square shaped channels. The resulting salt crystals are much more fractured and have a distinct appearance compared to salt crystals with full inclusion. The composition of the salt deposited along the migration channels changes along migration pathway. At the start of the inclusion migration pathway the deposited salt is composed of a mixture of NaCl, MgCl2, and CaCl2, with minor other elements. However, as the brine migrates towards the heat source its composition changes and it gets enriched in NaCl. SEM images and migration channels

  19. Concentration and precipitation of NaCl and KCl from salt cake leach solutions by electrodialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sreenivasarao, K; Patsiogiannis, F.; Hryn, J.N.

    1997-02-09

    Electrodialysis was investigated for cost-effective recovery of salt from salt cake leach solutions. (Salt cake is a waste stream generated by the aluminum industry during treatment of aluminum drosses and scrap.) We used a pilot-scale electrodialysis stack of 5 membrane pairs, each with an effective area of 0.02 m{sup 2}. The diluate stream contained synthetic NaCl, KCl,mixtures of NaCl and KCl, and actual salt cake leach solutions (mainly NaCl and KCl, with small amounts of MgCl{sub 2}). We concentrated and precipitated NaCl and KCl salts from the concentrate steam when the initial diluate stream concentration was 21.5 to 28.8 wt% NaCl and KCl. We found that water transferring through the membranes was a significant factor in overall efficiency of salt recovery by electrodialysis.

  20. From science to compliance: Geomechanics studies of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    HANSEN,FRANCIS D.

    2000-06-05

    Mechanical and hydrological properties of salt provide excellent bases for geological isolation of hazardous materials. Regulatory certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) testifies to the nearly ideal characteristics of bedded salt deposits in southeast New Mexico. The WIPP history includes decades of testing and scientific investigations, which have resulted in a comprehensive understanding of salt's mechanical deformational and hydrological properties over an applicable range of stresses and temperatures. Comprehensive evaluation of salt's favorable characteristics helped demonstrate regulatory compliance and ensure isolation of radioactive waste placed in a salt geological setting.

  1. Reduction of perchlorate and nitrate by salt tolerant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Okeke, Benedict C; Giblin, Tara; Frankenberger, William T

    2002-01-01

    Spent regenerant brine from ion-exchange technology for the removal of perchlorate and nitrate produces a high salt waste stream, which requires remediation before disposal. Bioremediation is an attractive treatment option. In this study, we enriched for salt tolerant bacteria from sediments from Cargill salt evaporation facility (California, USA), the Salton Sea (California, USA), and a high density hydrocarbon oxidizing bacterial cocktail. The bacterial cocktail enrichment culture reduced ClO4- from 500 to 260 mg 1 in 4 weeks. Salt tolerant bacterial isolates from the enrichment cultures and two denitrifying salt tolerant bacteria, Haloferax denitrificans and Parococcus halodenitricans, substantially reduced perchlorate. The highest rate of perchlorate removal was recorded with the isolate, Citrobacter sp.: 32% reduction in 1 week. This bacterium substantially reduced perchlorate in 0-5% NaCl solutions and maximally at 30 degrees C and at an initial pH 7.5. In simulated brines containing 7.5% total solids, the Citrobacter sp. significantly reduced both perchlorate and nitrate with 34.9 and 15.6% reduction, respectively, in 1 week. Coculture of a potent perchlorate reducing, non-salt tolerant (non-saline) bacterium, perclace and the Citrobacter sp. proved most effective for perchlorate removal in the brine (46.4% in 1 week). This study demonstrates that both anions can be reduced in treatment of brines from ion exchange systems. PMID:12009133

  2. Determination of Thermal Conductivity of Reconsolidated Crushed Salt to 200°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urquhart, A.; Bauer, S. J.; Hansen, F. D.

    2012-12-01

    Thermal, mechanical, and fluid transport properties of reconsolidating granular salt are important for design, analysis and performance assessment of potential salt repositories for heat-generating nuclear waste. Properties such as thermal conductivity (?) and permeability (k) are functions of porosity. To inform salt repository evaluations, where salt creep at elevated pressures and temperatures will reduce the porosity of salt enclosures, we have undertaken an experimental program to determine ? of reconsolidated granular salt as a function of porosity, with the secondary intent of quantifying temperature dependence over a range of temperatures from 100-200°C. Mine-run salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Program (WIPP) was first dried at 100°C until weight loss ceased. The disaggregated salt was compacted at room temperature by quasistatic die compression into samples with porosities ranging from 40% (unconsolidated) to 5%. Thermal conductivity was also measured on intact domal salt, WIPP bedded salt, and commercially available salt licks in order to determine ? in salt with porosity as low as 1-8%. For every sample, measurements were made at 100, 125, 150, 175, and 200°C using a guarded heat flow meter. Thermal conductivity was found to decrease by a factor of about 4-5 for the porosity range studied. The ? versus porosity relationship is well represented by a simple mixture model. A temperature dependence is also observed, the effect of which increases at lower porosities. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  3. Hazardous solid waste from agriculture.

    PubMed Central

    Loehr, R C

    1978-01-01

    Large quantities of food processing, crop, forestry, and animal solid wastes are generated in the United States each year. The major components of these wastes are biodegradable. However, they also contain components such as nitrogen, human and animal pathogens, medicinals, feed additives, salts, and certain metals, that under uncontrolled conditions can be detrimental to aquatic, plant, animal, or human life. The most common method of disposal of these wastes is application to the land. Thus the major pathways for transmission of hazards are from and through the soil. Use of these wastes as animal feed also can be a pathway. While at this time there are no crises associated with hazardous materials in agricultural solid wastes, the potential for problems should not be underestimated. Manpower and financial support should be provided to obtain more detailed information in this area, esepcially to better delineate transport and dispersal and to determine and evaluate risks. PMID:367770

  4. Frost formation with salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guadarrama-Cetina, J.; Mongruel, A.; González-Viñas, W.; Beysens, D.

    2015-06-01

    The formation of frost in presence of salt (NaCl) crystal is experimentally investigated on a hydrophobic surface. It presents several remarkable features due to the interplay of salty-water saturation pressure evolution, initially lower than the saturation pressure of ice and water, and the percolating propagation of ice dendrites from defects throughout the supercooled water droplet pattern. In particular, it is remarkable that nucleation of supercooled water and/or ice is prevented around the salty drop in a region of inhibited condensation where the substrate remains dry. As condensation proceeds, salt concentration decreases to eventually become lower than ice's, allowing ice dendrites to hit the salty drop. Salty water then melts ice but eventually freezes as an effect of dilution.

  5. A Novel Plant Vacuolar Na+/H+ Antiporter Gene Evolved by DNA Shuffling Confers Improved Salt Tolerance in Yeast*

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kai; Zhang, Hui; Blumwald, Eduardo; Xia, Tao

    2010-01-01

    Plant vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporters play important roles in maintaining cellular ion homeostasis and mediating the transport of Na+ out of the cytosol and into the vacuole. Vacuolar antiporters have been shown to play significant roles in salt tolerance; however the relatively low Vmax of the Na+/H+ exchange of the Na+/H+ antiporters identified could limit its application in the molecular breeding of salt tolerant crops. In this study, we applied DNA shuffling methodology to generate and recombine the mutations of Arabidopsis thaliana vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter gene AtNHX1. Screening using a large scale yeast complementation system identified AtNHXS1, a novel Na+/H+ antiporter. Expression of AtNHXS1 in yeast showed that the antiporter localized to the vacuolar membrane and that its expression improved the tolerance of yeast to NaCl, KCl, LiCl, and hygromycin B. Measurements of the ion transport activity across the intact yeast vacuole demonstrated that the AtNHXS1 protein showed higher Na+/H+ exchange activity and a slightly improved K+/H+ exchange activity. PMID:20457597

  6. The Electrochemistry of Li-LiCl-Li2O Molten Salt Systems and the Role of Moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gese, Natalie J.

    Uranium can be recovered from uranium-oxide (UO2) spent fuel through the combination of oxide reduction and electrorefining processes. During oxide reduction, the spent fuel is introduced to molten LiCl-Li 2O salt at 650°C, and the UO2 is reduced to uranium metal via two routes: (1) electrochemically, and (2) chemically by lithium metal (Li°) that is produced electrochemically. However, the hygroscopic nature of both LiCl and Li2O leads to the formation of LiOH, contributing hydroxyl anions (OH-), the reduction of which interferes with the Li° generation required for the chemical reduction of UO 2. In order for the oxide reduction process to be an effective method for the treatment of uranium-oxide fuel, the role of moisture in the LiCl-Li 2O system must be understood. The behavior of moisture in the LiCl-Li 2O molten-salt system was studied using cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry, and chronoamperometry while reduction to hydrogen was confirmed with gas chromatography.

  7. A Trail of Salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This graph shows the relative abundances of sulfur (in the form of sulfur tri-oxide) and chlorine at three Meridiani Planum sites: soil measured in the small crater where Opportunity landed; the rock dubbed 'McKittrick' in the outcrop lining the inner edge of the crater; and the rock nicknamed 'Guadalupe,' also in the outcrop. The 'McKittrick' data shown here were taken both before and after the rover finished grinding the rock with its rock abrasion tool to expose fresh rock underneath. The 'Guadalupe' data were taken after the rover grounded the rock. After grinding both rocks, the sulfur abundance rose to high levels, nearly five times higher than that of the soil. This very high sulfur concentration reflects the heavy presence of sulfate salts (approximately 30 percent by weight) in the rocks. Chloride and bromide salts are also indicated. Such high levels of salts strongly suggest the rocks contain evaporite deposits, which form when water evaporates or ice sublimes into the atmosphere.

  8. TOTAL RECYCLE SYSTEMS FOR PETROCHEMICAL WASTE BRINES CONTAINING REFRACTORY CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Petrochemical wastewaters containing relatively high concentrations of salt and refractory organics were selected to study their feasibility for total recycle. A combination of reverse osmosis and electrodialysis was operated as a hybrid system using the pretreated wastes to prod...

  9. Update on cavern disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-09-22

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. Argonne National Laboratory has previously evaluated the feasibility, legality, risk and economics of disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes, other than NORM waste, in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste, other than NORM waste, is occurring at four Texas facilities, in several Canadian facilities, and reportedly in Europe. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns as well. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, a review of federal regulations and regulations from several states indicated that there are no outright prohibitions against NORM disposal in salt caverns or other Class II wells, except for Louisiana which prohibits disposal of radioactive wastes or other radioactive materials in salt domes. Currently, however, only Texas and New Mexico are working on disposal cavern regulations, and no states have issued permits to allow cavern disposal of NORM waste. On the basis of the costs currently charged for cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal in caverns is likely to be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  10. The Mixed Waste Management Facility. Preliminary design review

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This document presents information about the Mixed Waste Management Facility. Topics discussed include: cost and schedule baseline for the completion of the project; evaluation of alternative options; transportation of radioactive wastes to the facility; capital risk associated with incineration; radioactive waste processing; scaling of the pilot-scale system; waste streams to be processed; molten salt oxidation; feed preparation; initial operation to demonstrate selected technologies; floorplans; baseline revisions; preliminary design baseline; cost reduction; and project mission and milestones.

  11. Geohydrology of the Keechi, Mount Sylvan, Oakwood, and Palestine salt domes in the northeast Texas salt-dome basin

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, J.E.; Halasz, S.J.; Peters, H.B.

    1980-01-01

    The salt within these domes has penetrated as much as 20,000 feet of Mesozoic and Cenozoic strata, and presently extends to within 120 to 800 feet of the land surface. The salt penetrates or closely underlies major freshwater and salinewater aquifers within the basin. To provide a safe repository for radioactive wastes within one or more of these domes, a thorough understanding of the geohydrology needs to be obtained, and the hydrologic stability of the domes needs to be established for the expected life of the storage facility. Dissolution may exist at all four candidate salt domes, possibly through contact with Cretaceous or Tertiary aquifers, or through fault systems in the vicinity of the domes. Strata overlying and surrounding Palestine and Keechi Salt Domes have been arched into steeply-dipping folds that are complexly faulted. Similar conditions exist at Oakwood and Mount Sylvan Domes, except that the Tertiary strata have been only moderately disturbed. Additional problems concerning the hydrologic stability of Oakwood and Palestine Salt Domes have resulted from the disposal of oil-field salinewater in the cap rock at the Oakwood Dome and previous solution mining of salt at the Palestine Dome.

  12. Contribution of the TRPV1 channel to salt taste quality in mice as assessed by conditioned taste aversion generalization and chorda tympani nerve responses

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kimberly R.; Treesukosol, Yada; Paedae, A. Brennan; Contreras, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    In rodents, at least two transduction mechanisms are involved in salt taste: 1) the sodium-selective epithelial sodium channel, blocked by topical amiloride administration, and 2) one or more amiloride-insensitive cation-nonselective pathways. Whereas electrophysiological evidence from the chorda tympani nerve (CT) has implicated the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channel as a major component of amiloride-insensitive salt taste transduction, behavioral results have provided only equivocal support. Using a brief-access taste test, we examined generalization profiles of water-deprived C57BL/6J (WT) and TRPV1 knockout (KO) mice conditioned (via LiCl injection) to avoid 100 ?M amiloride-prepared 0.25 M NaCl and tested with 0.25 M NaCl, sodium gluconate, KCl, NH4Cl, 6.625 mM citric acid, 0.15 mM quinine, and 0.5 M sucrose. Both LiCl-injected WT and TRPV1 KO groups learned to avoid NaCl+amiloride relative to controls, but their generalization profiles did not differ; LiCl-injected mice avoided the nonsodium salts and quinine suggesting that a TRPV1-independent pathway contributes to the taste quality of the amiloride-insensitive portion of the NaCl signal. Repeating the experiment but doubling all stimulus concentrations revealed a difference in generalization profiles between genotypes. While both LiCl-injected groups avoided the nonsodium salts and quinine, only WT mice avoided the sodium salts and citric acid. CT responses to these stimuli and a concentration series of NaCl and KCl with and without amiloride did not differ between genotypes. Thus, in our study, TRPV1 did not appear to contribute to sodium salt perception based on gustatory signals, at least in the CT, but may have contributed to the oral somatosensory features of sodium. PMID:23054171

  13. Schematic designs for penetration seals for a reference repository in bedded salt

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsall, P.C.; Case, J.B.; Meyer, D.; Coons, W.E.

    1982-11-01

    The isolation of radioactive wastes in geologic repositories requires that man-made penetrations such as shafts, tunnels, or boreholes are adequately sealed. This report describes schematic seal designs for a repository in bedded salt referenced to the straitigraphy of southeastern New Mexico. The designs are presented for extensive peer review and will be updated as site-specific conceptual designs when a site for a repository in salt has been selected. The principal material used in the seal system is crushed salt obtained from excavating the repository. It is anticipated that crushed salt will consolidate as the repository rooms creep close to the degree that mechanical and hydrologic properties will eventually match those of undisturbed, intact salt. For southeastern New Mexico salt, analyses indicate that this process will require approximately 1000 years for a seal located at the base of one of the repository shafts (where there is little increase in temperature due to waste emplacement) and approximately 400 years for a seal located in an access tunnel within the repository. Bulkheads composed of contrete or salt bricks are also included in the seal system as components which will have low permeability during the period required for salt consolidation.

  14. Thermal-hydraulics of internally heated molten salts and application to the Molten Salt Fast Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorina, Carlo; Cammi, Antonio; Luzzi, Lelio; Mikityuk, Konstantin; Ninokata, Hisashi; Ricotti, Marco E.

    2014-04-01

    The Molten Salt Reactors (MSR) are an innovative kind of nuclear reactors and are presently considered in the framework of the Generation IV International Forum (GIF-IV) for their promising performances in terms of low resource utilization, waste minimization and enhanced safety. A unique feature of MSRs is that molten fluoride salts play the distinctive role of both fuel (heat source) and coolant. The presence of an internal heat generation perturbs the temperature field and consequences are to be expected on the heat transfer characteristics of the molten salts. In this paper, the problem of heat transfer for internally heated fluids in a straight circular channel is first faced on a theoretical ground. The effect of internal heat generation is demonstrated to be described by a corrective factor applied to traditional correlations for the Nusselt number. It is shown that the corrective factor can be fully characterized by making explicit the dependency on Reynolds and Prandtl numbers. On this basis, a preliminary correlation is proposed for the case of molten fluoride salts by interpolating the results provided by an analytic approach previously developed at the Politecnico di Milano. The experimental facility and the related measuring procedure for testing the proposed correlation are then presented. Finally, the developed correlation is used to carry out a parametric investigation on the effect of internal heat generation on the main out-of-core components of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR), the reference circulating-fuel MSR design in the GIF-IV. The volumetric power determines higher temperatures at the channel wall, but the effect is significant only in case of large diameters and/or low velocities.

  15. Cooperativity of complex salt bridges

    PubMed Central

    Gvritishvili, Anzor G.; Gribenko, Alexey V.; Makhatadze, George I.

    2008-01-01

    The energetic contribution of complex salt bridges, in which one charged residue (anchor residue) forms salt bridges with two or more residues simultaneously, has been suggested to have importance for protein stability. Detailed analysis of the net energetics of complex salt bridge formation using double- and triple-mutant cycle analysis revealed conflicting results. In two cases, it was shown that complex salt bridge formation is cooperative, i.e., the net strength of the complex salt bridge is more than the sum of the energies of individual pairs. In one case, it was reported that complex salt bridge formation is anti-cooperative. To resolve these different findings, we performed analysis of the geometries of salt bridges in a representative set of structures from the PDB and found that over 87% of all complex salt bridges anchored by Arg/Lys have a geometry such that the angle formed by their C? atoms, ?, is <90°. This preferred geometry is observed in the two reported instances when the energetics of complex salt bridge formation is cooperative, while in the reported anti-cooperative complex salt bridge, ? is close to 160°. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that complex salt bridges are cooperative for ? < 90° and anti-cooperative for 90° < ? < 180°. To provide a further experimental test for this hypothesis, we engineered a complex salt bridge with ? = 150° into a model protein, the activation domain of human procarboxypeptidase A2 (ADA2h). Experimentally derived stabilities of the ADA2h variants allowed us to show that the complex salt bridge in ADA2h is anti-cooperative. PMID:18469176

  16. Rhenium volatilization in waste glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kai; Pierce, David A.; Hrma, Pavel; Schweiger, Michael J.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2015-09-01

    We investigated volatilization of rhenium (Re), sulfur, cesium, and iodine during the course of conversion of high-level waste melter feed to glass and compared the results for Re volatilization with those in low-activity waste borosilicate glasses. Whereas Re did not volatilize from high-level waste feed heated at 5 K min-1 until 1000 °C, it began to volatilize from low-activity waste borosilicate glass feeds at ?600 °C, a temperature ?200 °C below the onset temperature of evaporation from pure KReO4. Below 800 °C, perrhenate evaporation in low-activity waste melter feeds was enhanced by vigorous foaming and generation of gases from molten salts as they reacted with the glass-forming constituents. At high temperatures, when the glass-forming phase was consolidated, perrhenates were transported to the top surface of glass melt in bubbles, typically together with sulfates and halides. Based on the results of this study (to be considered preliminary at this stage), the high-level waste glass with less foaming and salts appears a promising medium for technetium immobilization.

  17. Monitoring system specifications: retrieval of surf from a salt repository

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The task of developing specifications for a reference monitoring system determined by repository environmental conditions, retrieval operations, and federal regulatory criteria is discussed. The monitoring system specified in this report is capable of measuring (1) package position and orientation, (2) vault deformation, (3) brine accumulation, (4) spent fuel dissolution, (5) temperature, (6) nuclear radiation, and (7) package condition with sufficient accuracy to provide data input to a general risk assessment model. In order to define a monitoring system which can provide probabilistic data on radiological risk to operating personnel and the general public for a salt mine repository, the following information is required: (1) a complete design of the salt SURF repository including inventory, density and waste package design details; (2) probalistic failure rate data on containment integrity of the SURF waste package; (3) probabilistic failure rate data on the monitoring system components (i.e., monitoring procedure, instrumentation, data acquisition, data processing and data interpretation).

  18. Electrolyte salts for nonaqueous electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Amine, Khalil; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Chen, Zonghai

    2012-10-09

    Metal complex salts may be used in lithium ion batteries. Such metal complex salts not only perform as an electrolyte salt in a lithium ion batteries with high solubility and conductivity, but also can act as redox shuttles that provide overcharge protection of individual cells in a battery pack and/or as electrolyte additives to provide other mechanisms to provide overcharge protection to lithium ion batteries. The metal complex salts have at least one aromatic ring. The aromatic moiety may be reversibly oxidized/reduced at a potential slightly higher than the working potential of the positive electrode in the lithium ion battery. The metal complex salts may also be known as overcharge protection salts.

  19. Water, Vapor, and Salt Dynamics in a Hot Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Bahrami, Davood; Danko, George; Walton, John

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a new model study examining the high temperature nuclear waste disposal concept at Yucca Mountain using MULTIFLUX, an integrated in-drift- and mountain-scale thermal-hydrologic model. The results show that a large amount of vapor flow into the drift is expected during the period of above-boiling temperatures. This phenomenon makes the emplacement drift a water/moisture attractor during the above-boiling temperature operation. The evaporation of the percolation water into the drift gives rise to salt accumulation in the rock wall, especially in the crown of the drift for about 1500 years in the example. The deposited salts over the drift footprint, almost entirely present in the fractures, may enter the drift either by rock fall or by water drippage. During the high temperature operation mode, the barometric pressure variation creates fluctuating relative humidity in the emplacement drift with a time period of approximately 10 days. Potentially wet and dry conditions and condensation on salt-laden drift wall sections may adversely affect the storage environment. Salt accumulations during the above-boiling temperature operation must be sufficiently addressed to fully understand the waste package environment during the thermal period. Until the questions are resolved, a below-boiling repository design is favored where the Alloy-22 will be less susceptible to localized corrosion. (authors)

  20. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

    1982-02-09

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  1. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

    1983-01-01

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  2. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, I.D.; Poris, J.; Huggins, R.A.

    1980-07-18

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell which may be operated at temperatures between about 100 to 170/sup 0/C. The cell is comprised of an electrolyte, which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode.

  3. Electrochromic salts, solutions, and devices

    DOEpatents

    Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky,7,064,212 T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2006-06-20

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  4. Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices

    DOEpatents

    Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-10-14

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  5. Batteries using molten salt electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Guidotti, Ronald A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-04-08

    An electrolyte system suitable for a molten salt electrolyte battery is described where the electrolyte system is a molten nitrate compound, an organic compound containing dissolved lithium salts, or a 1-ethyl-3-methlyimidazolium salt with a melting temperature between approximately room temperature and approximately 250.degree. C. With a compatible anode and cathode, the electrolyte system is utilized in a battery as a power source suitable for oil/gas borehole applications and in heat sensors.

  6. Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices

    DOEpatents

    Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-11-11

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  7. Salt appetite in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Hendi, Khadeja; Leshem, Micah

    2014-11-28

    The present study investigated whether salt appetite in the elderly is impaired similar to thirst because of the commonality of their physiological substrates and whether alterations in salt appetite are related to mood. Elderly (65-85 years, n 30) and middle-aged (45-58 years, n 30) men and women were compared in two test sessions. Thirst, psychophysical ratings of taste solutions, dietary Na and energy intakes, seasoning with salt and sugar, number of salty and sweet snacks consumed, preferred amounts of salt in soup and sugar in tea, and an overall measure of salt appetite and its relationship with mood, nocturia and sleep were measured. Elderly participants were found to be less thirsty and respond less to thirst. In contrast, no impairment of salt appetite was found in them, and although they had a reduced dietary Na intake, it dissipated when corrected for their reduced dietary energy intake. Diet composition and Na intake were found to be similar in middle-aged and elderly participants, despite the lesser intake in elderly participants. There were no age-related differences in the intensity of taste or hedonic profile of Na, in salting habits, in tests of salting soup, or number of salty snacks consumed. No relationship of any measure of salt appetite with mood measured by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, frequency of nocturia, or sleep duration was observed. The age-related impairment of the physiology of mineralofluid regulation, while compromising thirst and fluid intake, spares salt appetite, suggesting that salt appetite in humans is not regulated physiologically. Intact salt appetite in the elderly might be utilised judiciously to prevent hyponatraemia, increase thirst and improve appetite. PMID:25287294

  8. Characterization of composite ceramic high level waste forms.

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, S. M.; Bateman, K. J.; DiSanto, T.; Johnson, S. G.; Moschetti, T. L.; Noy, M. H.; O'Holleran, T. P.

    1997-12-05

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a composite ceramic waste form for the disposition of high level radioactive waste produced during electrometallurgical conditioning of spent nuclear fuel. The electrorefiner LiCl/KCl eutectic salt, containing fission products and transuranics in the chloride form, is contacted with a zeolite material which removes the fission products from the salt. After salt contact, the zeolite is mixed with a glass binder. The zeolite/glass mixture is then hot isostatic pressed (HIPed) to produce the composite ceramic waste form. The ceramic waste form provides a durable medium that is well suited to incorporate fission products and transuranics in the chloride form. Presented are preliminary results of the process qualification and characterization studies, which include chemical and physical measurements and product durability testing, of the ceramic waste form.

  9. Hazardous Waste

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint ...

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF AN INSOLUBLE SALT SIMULANT TO SUPPORT ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    Eibling, R

    2008-05-23

    The closure process for high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site will require dissolution of the crystallized salts that are currently stored in many of the tanks. The insoluble residue from salt dissolution is planned to be removed by an Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process. Development of a chemical cleaning process requires an insoluble salt simulant to support evaluation tests of different cleaning methods. The Process Science and Engineering section of SRNL has been asked to develop an insoluble salt simulant for use in testing potential ECC processes (HLE-TTR-2007-017). An insoluble salt simulant has been developed based upon the residues from salt dissolution of saltcake core samples from Tank 28F. The simulant was developed for use in testing SRS waste tank chemical cleaning methods. Based on the results of the simulant development process, the following observations were developed: (1) A composition based on the presence of 10.35 grams oxalate and 4.68 grams carbonate per 100 grams solids produces a sufficiently insoluble solids simulant. (2) Aluminum observed in the solids remaining from actual waste salt dissolution tests is probably precipitated from sodium aluminate due to the low hydroxide content of the saltcake. (3) In-situ generation of aluminum hydroxide (by use of aluminate as the Al source) appears to trap additional salts in the simulant in a manner similar to that expected for actual waste samples. (4) Alternative compositions are possible with higher oxalate levels and lower carbonate levels. (5) The maximum oxalate level is limited by the required Na content of the insoluble solids. (6) Periodic mixing may help to limit crystal growth in this type of salt simulant. (7) Long term storage of an insoluble salt simulant is likely to produce a material that can not be easily removed from the storage container. Production of a relatively fresh simulant is best if pumping the simulant is necessary for testing purposes. The insoluble salt simulant described in this report represents the initial attempt to represent the material which may be encountered during final waste removal and tank cleaning. The final selected simulant was produced by heating and evaporation of a salt slurry sample to remove excess water and promote formation and precipitation of solids with solubility characteristics which are consistent with actual tank insoluble salt samples. The exact anion composition of the final product solids is not explicitly known since the chemical components in the final product are distributed between the solid and liquid phases. By combining the liquid phase analyses and total solids analysis with mass balance requirements a calculated composition of assumed simple compounds was obtained and is shown in Table 0-1. Additional improvements to and further characterization of the insoluble salt simulant are possible. During the development of these simulants it was recognized that: (1) Additional waste characterization on the residues from salt dissolution tests with actual waste samples to determine the amount of species such as carbonate, oxalate and aluminosilicate would allow fewer assumptions to be made in constructing an insoluble salt simulant. (2) The tank history will impact the amount and type of insoluble solids that exist in the salt dissolution solids. Varying the method of simulant production (elevated temperature processing time, degree of evaporation, amount of mixing (shear) during preparation, etc.) should be tested.

  11. Large-scale dynamic compaction demonstration using WIPP salt: Fielding and preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, E.H.; Hansen, F.D.

    1995-10-01

    Reconsolidation of crushed rock salt is a phenomenon of great interest to programs studying isolation of hazardous materials in natural salt geologic settings. Of particular interest is the potential for disaggregated salt to be restored to nearly an impermeable state. For example, reconsolidated crushed salt is proposed as a major shaft seal component for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project. The concept for a permanent shaft seal component of the WIPP repository is to densely compact crushed salt in the four shafts; an effective seal will then be developed as the surrounding salt creeps into the shafts, further consolidating the crushed salt. Fundamental information on placement density and permeability is required to ensure attainment of the design function. The work reported here is the first large-scale compaction demonstration to provide information on initial salt properties applicable to design, construction, and performance expectations. The shaft seals must function for 10,000 years. Over this period a crushed salt mass will become less permeable as it is compressed by creep closure of salt surrounding the shaft. These facts preclude the possibility of conducting a full-scale, real-time field test. Because permanent seals taking advantage of salt reconsolidation have never been constructed, performance measurements have not been made on an appropriately large scale. An understanding of potential construction methods, achievable initial density and permeability, and performance of reconsolidated salt over time is required for seal design and performance assessment. This report discusses fielding and operations of a nearly full-scale dynamic compaction of mine-run WIPP salt, and presents preliminary density and in situ (in place) gas permeability results.

  12. Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

  13. Occlusion and ion exchange in the molten (lithium chloride + potassium chloride + alkaline earth chloride) salt + zeolite 4A system with alkaline earth chlorides of calcium and strontium, and in the molten (lithium chloride + potassium chloride + actinide chloride) salt + zeolite 4A system with the actinide chloride of uranium.

    SciTech Connect

    Lexa, D.; Chemical Engineering

    2003-04-01

    The interaction between molten salts of the type LiCl-KCl-MeCl n (Me=Ca, Sr, U; x{sub MeCLn} $$ = to 0.45; and x {sub KCl}/x LiCl=0.69) and zeolite 4A have been studied at 823 K. The main interactions between these salts and zeolite are molten salt occlusion to form salt-loaded zeolite and ion exchange between the molten salt and salt-loaded zeolite. An irreversible chemical reaction has been observed in the LiCl-KCl-UCl{sup 3+}zeolite system. The extent of occlusion is a function of the concentration of MeCl n in the zeolite and is equal to 10{+-}1 Cl- per zeolite unit cell, (AlSiO{sub 4}){sub 12}, at infinite MeCl n dilution. The ion-exchange mole-fraction equilibrium constants (separation factors) with respect to Li are decreasing functions of the concentration of SrCl{sub 2} and UCl{sub 3}, but an increasing function of the concentration of CaCl{sub 2} in the zeolite. At infinite MeCl n dilution, they are equal to 0.9, 11.9, and 13 for CaCl{sub 2}, SrCl{sub 2}, and UCl{sub 3}, respectively. The standard ion-exchange chemical potentials are equal to -50.0, -84, and -101.1 kJ x mol-1 for Ca{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, and U{sup 3+}, respectively.

  14. Gas release during salt well pumping: model predictions and comparisons to laboratory experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Peurrung, L.M.; Caley, S.M.; Bian, E.Y.; Gauglitz, P.A.

    1996-09-01

    The Hanford Site has 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) containing radioactive wastes that are complex mixes of radioactive and chemical products. Some of these wastes are known to generate mixtures of flammable gases, including hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and ammonia. Nineteen of these SSTs have been placed on the Flammable Gas Watch List (FGWL) because they are known or suspected, in all but one case, to retain these flammable gases. Salt well pumping to remove the interstitial liquid from SSTs is expected to cause the release of much of the retained gas, posing a number of safety concerns. Research at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has sought to quantify the release of flammable gases during salt well pumping operations. This study is being conducted for Westinghouse Hanford Company as part of the PNNL Flammable Gas Project. Understanding and quantifying the physical mechanisms and waste properties that govern gas release during salt well pumping will help to resolve the associated safety issues.

  15. Study of thermal-gradient-induced migration of brine inclusions in salt. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Olander, D.R.

    1984-08-01

    Natural salt deposits, which are being considered for high-level waste disposal, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine (the all-liquid inclusions) migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms, which is undesirable. Therefore it is important to consider the migration of brine inclusions in salt under imposed temperature gradients to properly evaluate the performance of a future salt repository for nuclear wastes. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is nonlinear. At high axial loads, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, helium, air and argon were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large-ange grain boundaries was observed.

  16. Internal structure of mushroom-shaped salt diapirs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This book focuses on the dynamics and kinematics of salt diapirs with crestal bulbs shaped like a mushroom, one of the most complex types of diapirs, as interpreted by experimental modeling and from naturally occurring examples. Direct, practical applications of this research include use in the evaluation of salt domes as repositories for radioactive waste, in the exploration and production of salt, potash, and sulfur, and in the search for subtle hydrocarbon traps. The authors conducted 8 centrifuge experiments, which produced more than 100 model diapirs. These experiments were dynamically scaled to U.S. Gulf Coast salt domes, but the qualitative results are also relevant to salt diapirs in other provinces and to granitoid diapirs penetrating metamorphic crust. The centrifuged domes grew under overburdens of constant thickness or under aggrading and prograding overburdens, a new experimental approach. Results indicate that external mushroom structure results from toroidal circulation of buoyant source and immediate cover having similar effective viscosities, whereas internal structure is produced by toroidal circulation confined within the diapir. The internal diapir structure elucidates the mechanics of emplacement and indicates whether an external mushroom shape can be expected and sought by further exploration.

  17. Weakening of rock salt by water during long-term creep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urai, Janos L.; Spiers, Christopher J.; Zwart, Hendrik J.; Lister, Gordon S.

    1986-12-01

    The rheological properties of rock salt are of fundamental importance in predicting the long-term evolution of salt-based radioactive waste repositories and strategic storage caverns, and in modelling the formation of salt diapirs and associated oil traps1,2. The short-term, high-stress rheology of rock salt is well known from laboratory experiments; however, extrapolation to appropriately low stresses fails to predict the rapid flow seen in certain natural structures. Furthermore, experiments have failed to reproduce the recrystallized microstructure of naturally deformed salt. Here we report experiments indicating that the above discrepancies can be explained by taking into account the influence of trace amounts of brine. Trace brine is always present in natural salt but sometimes escapes during experiments. Our tests on dry dilated salt show more or less conventional dislocation creep behaviour, but brine-bearing samples show marked weakening at low strain rates. This is associated with dynamic recrystallization and a change of deformation mechanism to solution transfer creep. Because natural rock salt always contains some brine, these results cast substantial doubt on the validity of presently accepted dislocation creep laws for predicting the long-term rheological behaviour of salt in nature.

  18. Laboratory Characterization of Mechanical and Permeability Properties of Dynamically Compacted Crushed Salt

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, F.D.; Mellegard, K.D.; Pfeifle, T.W.

    1999-02-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy plans to dispose of transuranic wastes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a geologic repository located at a depth of about 655 meters. The WIPP underground facility is located in the bedded salt of the Salado Formation. Access to the facility is provided through vertical shafts, which will be sealed after decommissioning to limit the release of hazardous waste from the repository and to limit flow into the facility. Because limited data are available to characterize the properties of dynamically compacted crushed salt, Sandia National Laboratories authorized RE/SPEC to perform additional tests on specimens of dynamically compacted crushed salt. These included shear consolidation creep, permeability, and constant strain-rate triaxial compression tests. A limited number of samples obtained from the large compacted mass were available for use in the testing program. Thus, additional tests were performed on samples that were prepared on a smaller scale device in the RE/SPEC laboratory using a dynamic-compaction procedure based on the full-scale construction technique. The laboratory results were expected to (1) illuminate the phenomenology of crushed-salt deformation behavior and (2) add test results to a small preexisting database for purposes of estimating parameters in a crushed-salt constitutive model. The candidate constitutive model for dynamically compacted crushed salt was refined in parallel with this laboratory testing.

  19. Geologic appraisal of Paradox basin salt deposits for water emplacement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hite, R.J.; Lohman, Stanley William

    1973-01-01

    Thick salt deposits of Middle Pennsylvanian age are present in an area of 12,000 square miles in the Paradox basin of southeast Utah and southwest Colorado. The deposits are in the Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation. The greatest thickness of this evaporite sequence is in a troughlike depression adjacent to the Uncompahgre uplift on the northeast side of the basin. The salt deposits consist of a cyclical sequence of thick halite units separated by thin units of black shale, dolomite, and anhydrite. Many halite units are several hundred feet thick and locally contain economically valuable potash deposits. Over much of the Paradox basin the salt deposits occur at depths of more than 5,000 feet. Only in a series of salt anticlines located along the northeastern side of the basin do the salt deposits rise to relatively shallow depths. The salt anticlines can be divided geographically and structurally into five major systems. Each system consists of a long undulating welt of thickened salt over which younger rocks are arched in anticlinal form. Locally there are areas along the axes of the anticlines where the Paradox Member was never covered by younger sediments. This allowed large-scale migration of Paradox strata toward and up through these holes in the sediment cover forming diapiric anticlines. The central or salt-bearing cores of tthe anticlines range in thickness from about 2,500 to 14,000 feet. Structure in the central core of the salt anticlines is the result of both regional-compression and flowage of the Paradox Member into the anticlines from adjacent synclines. Structure in the central cores of the salt anticlines ranges from relatively undeformed beds to complexly folded and faulted masses, in which stratigraphic continuity is undemonstrable. The presence of thick cap rock .over many of the salt anticlines is evidence of removal of large volumes of halite by groundwater. Available geologic and hydrologic information suggests that this is a relatively slow process and that any waste-storage or disposal sites in these structures should remain dry for hundreds of thousands of years. Trace to commercial quantities of oil and gas are found in all of the black shale-dolomite-anhydrite interbeds of the Paradox Member. These hydrocarbons constitute a definite hazard in the construction and operation of underground waste-storage or disposal facilities. However, many individual halite beds are of. sufficient thickness that a protective seal of halite can be left between the openings and the gassy beds. A total of 12 different, localities were considered to be potential waste-storage or disposal sites in the Paradox basin. Two Sharer dome and Salt Valley anticline, were considered to have the most favorable characteristics.

  20. Waste drum fire propagation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-04-01

    An accident scenario had been postulated at WIPP in which spontaneous ignition of the contents of a CH-TRU waste container, combined with a flow of air to the burning waste material, results in fire propagation to adjacent containers and throughout the storage room. The Waste Drum Fire Propagation Task Force was formed to evaluate the credibility of a fire propagation scenario. Goals of the task force included evaluation of existing information regarding the likelihood of waste drum fire propagation, determination of the credibility of such a scenario at WIPP, and assessment of the need for salt backfill as a fire deterrent in TRU storage areas. The analysis presented in this report assumes no backfilling of the emplaced waste. It was recognized by the Task Force, however, that if the results of this analysis indicate that a propagating fire (assuming no backfill) is a credible event at WIPP, the potential effectiveness of salt backfill as well as other methods of fire control would need to be evaluated. The approach used to resolve these concerns as well as conclusions reached by the Task Force are described in subsequent sections. 10 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Cloning and Functional Characterization of a Vacuolar Na+/H+ Antiporter Gene from Mungbean (VrNHX1) and Its Ectopic Expression Enhanced Salt Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Sagarika; Alavilli, Hemasundar; Lee, Byeong-ha; Panda, Sanjib Kumar; Sahoo, Lingaraj

    2014-01-01

    Plant vacuolar NHX exchangers play a significant role in adaption to salt stress by compartmentalizing excess cytosolic Na+ into vacuoles and maintaining cellular homeostasis and ionic equilibrium. We cloned an orthologue of the vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter gene, VrNHX1 from mungbean (Vigna radiata), an important Asiatic grain legume. The VrNHX1 (Genbank Accession number JN656211.1) contains 2095 nucleotides with an open reading frame of 1629 nucleotides encoding a predicted protein of 542 amino acids with a deduced molecular mass of 59.6 kDa. The consensus amiloride binding motif (84LFFIYLLPPI93) was observed in the third putative transmembrane domain of VrNHX1. Bioinformatic and phylogenetic analysis clearly suggested that VrNHX1 had high similarity to those of orthologs belonging to Class-I clade of plant NHX exchangers in leguminous crops. VrNHX1 could be strongly induced by salt stress in mungbean as the expression in roots significantly increased in presence of 200 mM NaCl with concomitant accumulation of total [Na+]. Induction of VrNHX1 was also observed under cold and dehydration stress, indicating a possible cross talk between various abiotic stresses. Heterologous expression in salt sensitive yeast mutant AXT3 complemented for the loss of yeast vacuolar NHX1 under NaCl, KCl and LiCl stress indicating that VrNHX1 was the orthologue of ScNHX1. Further, AXT3 cells expressing VrNHX1 survived under low pH environment and displayed vacuolar alkalinization analyzed using pH sensitive fluorescent dye BCECF-AM. The constitutive and stress inducible expression of VrNHX1 resulted in enhanced salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines. Our work suggested that VrNHX1 was a salt tolerance determinant in mungbean. PMID:25350285

  2. Preliminary analyses of scenarios for potential human interference for repositories in three salt formations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-10-01

    Preliminary analyses of scenarios for human interference with the performance of a radioactive waste repository in a deep salt formation are presented. The following scenarios are analyzed: (1) the U-Tube Connection Scenario involving multiple connections between the repository and the overlying aquifer system; (2) the Single Borehole Intrusion Scenario involving penetration of the repository by an exploratory borehole that simultaneously connects the repository with overlying and underlying aquifers; and (3) the Pressure Release Scenario involving inflow of water to saturate any void space in the repository prior to creep closure with subsequent release under near lithostatic pressures following creep closure. The methodology to evaluate repository performance in these scenarios is described and this methodology is applied to reference systems in three candidate formations: bedded salt in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas; bedded salt in the Paradox Basin, Utah; and the Richton Salt Dome, Mississippi, of the Gulf Coast Salt Dome Basin.

  3. Densification of salt-occluded zeolite a powders to a leach-resistant monolith

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.A.; Fischer, D.F.; Murhpy, C.D.

    1993-10-01

    Pyrochemical processing of spent fuel from the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) yields a salt waste of LiCl-KCl that contains approximately 6 wt% fission products, primarily as CsCl and SrCl{sub 2}. Past work has shown that zeolite A will preferentially sorb cesium and strontium and will encapsulate the salt waste in a leach-resistant, radiation-resistant aluminosilicate matrix. However, a method is sill needed to convert the salt-occluded zeolite powders into a form suitable for geologic disposal. We are thus investigating a method that forms bonded zeolite by hot pressing a mixture of glass frit and salt-occluded zeolite powders at 990 K (717{degree}C) and 28 MPa. The leach resistance of the bonded zeolite was measured in static leach tests run for 28 days in 363 K (90{degree}C) deionized water. Normalized release rates of all elements in the bonded zeolite were low, <1 g/m{sup 2} d. Thus, the bonded zeolite may be a suitable waste form for IFR salt waste.

  4. Salt Marshes at Chincoteague Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Salt marshes at Chincoteague Island. The salt marshes that make up Chincoteague Island are important habitat for migrating waterfowl. In addition, they serve an important role in protecting inland ecosystems and communities from oceanic storms. Mosquito point can be seen in the background where the ...

  5. Salt-gradient solar ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Neeper, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    A description of salt-gradient solar ponds is presented. Guidelines concerning the construction and maintenance of the pond are discussed. A computer model was used to study layer migration in laboratory tanks and in an outdoor pond. The status of solar ponds is briefly discussed. An equation relating heat flux and salt flux at a boundary is included. (BCS)

  6. 7 CFR 58.721 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Salt. 58.721 Section 58.721 Agriculture Regulations...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.721 Salt. Salt shall be free flowing, white refined sodium chloride...

  7. 7 CFR 58.721 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salt. 58.721 Section 58.721 Agriculture Regulations...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.721 Salt. Salt shall be free flowing, white refined sodium chloride...

  8. 40 CFR 721.7655 - Alkylsulfonium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Alkylsulfonium salt. 721.7655 Section 721.7655 ...Substances § 721.7655 Alkylsulfonium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...identified generically as alkylsulfonium salt (PMN P-93-1166) is subject to...

  9. 7 CFR 58.721 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Salt. 58.721 Section 58.721 Agriculture Regulations...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.721 Salt. Salt shall be free flowing, white refined sodium chloride...

  10. 40 CFR 721.6085 - Phosphonocarboxylate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Phosphonocarboxylate salts. 721.6085 Section 721.6085 ...Substances § 721.6085 Phosphonocarboxylate salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant...identified generically as phosphonocarboxylate salts (PMNs P-93-722,...

  11. 40 CFR 721.6085 - Phosphonocarboxylate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Phosphonocarboxylate salts. 721.6085 Section 721.6085 ...Substances § 721.6085 Phosphonocarboxylate salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant...identified generically as phosphonocarboxylate salts (PMNs P-93-722,...

  12. 7 CFR 58.721 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Salt. 58.721 Section 58.721 Agriculture Regulations...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.721 Salt. Salt shall be free flowing, white refined sodium chloride...

  13. DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF DIVALENT SALTS

    PubMed Central

    YANG, HEIDI HAI-LING; LAWLESS, HARRY T.

    2005-01-01

    Many divalent salts (e.g., calcium, iron, zinc), have important nutritional value and are used to fortify food or as dietary supplements. Sensory characterization of some divalent salts in aqueous solutions by untrained judges has been reported in the psychophysical literature, but formal sensory evaluation by trained panels is lacking. To provide this information, a trained descriptive panel evaluated the sensory characteristics of 10 divalent salts including ferrous sulfate, chloride and gluconate; calcium chloride, lactate and glycerophosphate; zinc sulfate and chloride; and magnesium sulfate and chloride. Among the compounds tested, iron compounds were highest in metallic taste; zinc compounds had higher astringency and a glutamate-like sensation; and bitterness was pronounced for magnesium and calcium salts. Bitterness was affected by the anion in ferrous and calcium salts. Results from the trained panelists were largely consistent with the psychophysical literature using untrained judges, but provided a more comprehensive set of oral sensory attributes. PMID:16614749

  14. Plant salt-tolerance mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Deinlein, Ulrich; Stephan, Aaron B.; Horie, Tomoaki; Luo, Wei; Xu, Guohua; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2014-06-01

    Crop performance is severely affected by high salt concentrations in soils. To engineer more salt-tolerant plants it is crucial to unravel the key components of the plant salt-tolerance network. Here we review our understanding of the core salt-tolerance mechanisms in plants. Recent studies have shown that stress sensing and signaling components can play important roles in regulating the plant salinity stress response. We also review key Na+ transport and detoxification pathways and the impact of epigenetic chromatin modifications on salinity tolerance. In addition, we discuss the progress that has been made towards engineering salt tolerance in crops, including marker-assisted selection and gene stacking techniques. We also identify key open questions that remain to be addressed in the future.

  15. Plant salt-tolerance mechanisms

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Deinlein, Ulrich; Stephan, Aaron B.; Horie, Tomoaki; Luo, Wei; Xu, Guohua; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2014-06-01

    Crop performance is severely affected by high salt concentrations in soils. To engineer more salt-tolerant plants it is crucial to unravel the key components of the plant salt-tolerance network. Here we review our understanding of the core salt-tolerance mechanisms in plants. Recent studies have shown that stress sensing and signaling components can play important roles in regulating the plant salinity stress response. We also review key Na+ transport and detoxification pathways and the impact of epigenetic chromatin modifications on salinity tolerance. In addition, we discuss the progress that has been made towards engineering salt tolerance in crops, including marker-assisted selectionmore »and gene stacking techniques. We also identify key open questions that remain to be addressed in the future.« less

  16. Plant salt-tolerance mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Deinlein, Ulrich; Stephan, Aaron B.; Horie, Tomoaki; Luo, Wei; Xu, Guohua; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2014-01-01

    Crop performance is severely affected by high salt concentrations in soils. To engineer more salt-tolerant plants it is crucial to unravel the key components of the plant salt tolerance network. Here we review our understanding of the core salt-tolerance mechanisms in plants. Recent studies have shown that stress sensing and signaling components may play important roles in regulating the plant salinity stress response. We also review key Na+ transport and detoxification pathways and the impact of epigenetic chromatin modifications on salinity tolerance. In addition, we discuss the progress that has been made toward engineering salt tolerance in crops, including marker assisted selection and gene stacking techniques. We also identify key open questions that remain to be addressed in the future. PMID:24630845

  17. LIFE Materails: Molten-Salt Fuels Volume 8

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R; Brown, N; Caro, A; Farmer, J; Halsey, W; Kaufman, L; Kramer, K; Latkowski, J; Powers, J; Shaw, H; Turchi, P

    2008-12-11

    The goals of the Laser Inertial Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) is to use fusion neutrons to fission materials with no enrichment and minimum processing and have greatly reduced wastes that are not of interest to making weapons. Fusion yields expected to be achieved in NIF a few times per day are called for with a high reliable shot rate of about 15 per second. We have found that the version of LIFE using TRISO fuel discussed in other volumes of this series can be modified by replacing the molten-flibe-cooled TRISO fuel zone with a molten salt in which the same actinides present in the TRISO particles are dissolved in the molten salt. Molten salts have the advantage that they are not subject to radiation damage, and hence overcome the radiation damage effects that may limit the lifetime of solid fuels such as TRISO-containing pebbles. This molten salt is pumped through the LIFE blanket, out to a heat exchanger and back into the blanket. To mitigate corrosion, steel structures in contact with the molten salt would be plated with tungsten or nickel. The salt will be processed during operation to remove certain fission products (volatile and noble and semi-noble fission products), impurities and corrosion products. In this way neutron absorbers (fission products) are removed and neutronics performance of the molten salt is somewhat better than that of the TRISO fuel case owing to the reduced parasitic absorption. In addition, the production of Pu and rare-earth elements (REE) causes these elements to build up in the salt, and leads to a requirement for a process to remove the REE during operation to insure that the solubility of a mixed (Pu,REE)F3 solid solution is not exceeded anywhere in the molten salt system. Removal of the REE will further enhance the neutronics performance. With molten salt fuels, the plant would need to be safeguarded because materials of interest for weapons are produced and could potentially be removed.

  18. Excavation Damaged Zones In Rock Salt Formations

    SciTech Connect

    Jockwer, N.; Wieczorek, K.

    2008-07-01

    Salt formations have long been proposed as potential host rocks for nuclear waste disposal. After the operational phase of a repository the openings, e.g., boreholes, galleries, and chambers, have to be sealed in order to avoid the release of radionuclides into the biosphere. For optimising the sealing techniques knowledge about the excavation damaged zones (EDZ) around these openings is essential. In the frame of a project performed between 2004 and 2007, investigations of the EDZ evolution were performed in the Stassfurt halite of the Asse salt mine in northern Germany. Three test locations were prepared in the floor of an almost 20 year old gallery on the 800-m level of the Asse mine: (1) the drift floor as existing, (2) the new drift floor shortly after removing of a layer of about 1 m thickness of the floor with a continuous miner, (3) the new drift floor 2 years after cutting off the 1-m layer. Subject of investigation were the diffusive and advective gas transport and the advective brine transport very close to the opening. Spreading of the brine was tracked by geo-electric monitoring in order to gain information about permeability anisotropy. Results obtained showed that EDZ cut-off is a useful method to improve sealing effectiveness when constructing technical barriers. (authors)

  19. Salt-saturated concrete strength and permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeifle, T.W.

    1996-11-01

    Laboratory-scale experiments applicable to the use of salt-saturated concrete as a seal material for a transuranic waste repository have been completed. Nitrogen gas permeability measurements were made using a flexible-wall permeameter, a confining pressure of 1 MPa, and gas pressure gradients ranging from 0.3 MPa to 0.75 MPa. Results show that salt-saturated concrete has very low intrinsic permeability with values ranging from 9.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}22} m{sup 2} to 9.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}17} m{sup 2}. Strength and deformation characteristics were investigated under conditions of triaxial compression with confining pressures ranging from 0 to 15 MPa using either axial strain-rate or axial stress-rate control and show that the failure strength of concrete increases with confining pressure which can be adequately described through pressure-sensitive failure criteria. Axial, radial, and volumetric strains were also measured during each test and these data were used to determine elastic properties. Experimental results are applicable in the design and analysis of scale-related functions and apply to other concrete structures subjected to compressive loadings such as dams and prestressed structural members.

  20. History Leaves Salts Behind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    These plots, or spectra, show that a rock dubbed 'McKittrick' near the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site at Meridiani Planum, Mars, has higher concentrations of sulfur and bromine than a nearby patch of soil nicknamed 'Tarmac.' These data were taken by Opportunity's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer, which uses curium-244 to assess the elemental composition of rocks and soil. Only portions of the targets' full spectra are shown to highlight the significant differences in elemental concentrations between 'McKittrick' and 'Tarmac.' Intensities are plotted on a logarithmic scale.

    A nearby rock named Guadalupe similarly has extremely high concentrations of sulfur, but very little bromine. This 'element fractionation' typically occurs when a watery brine slowly evaporates and various salt compounds are precipitated in sequence.

  1. Waste Separations and Pretreatment Workshop report

    SciTech Connect

    Cruse, J.M.; Harrington, R.A.; Quadrel, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the minutes from the Waste Separations and Pretreatment Workshop sponsored by the Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration in Salt Lake City, Utah, February 3--5, 1993. The Efficient Separations and Processing-Integrated Program and the Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System were joint participants. This document provides the detailed minutes, including responses to questions asked, an attendance list, reproductions of the workshop presentations, and a revised chart showing technology development activities.

  2. Biological production of products from waste gases

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

    2002-01-22

    A method and apparatus are designed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, and carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various products, such as organic acids, alcohols, hydrogen, single cell protein, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

  3. bHLH106 Integrates Functions of Multiple Genes through Their G-Box to Confer Salt Tolerance on Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Aftab; Niwa, Yasuo; Goto, Shingo; Ogawa, Takeshi; Shimizu, Masanori; Suzuki, Akane; Kobayashi, Kyoko; Kobayashi, Hirokazu

    2015-01-01

    An activation-tagging methodology was applied to dedifferentiated calli of Arabidopsis to identify new genes involved in salt tolerance. This identified salt tolerant callus 8 (stc8) as a gene encoding the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor bHLH106. bHLH106-knockout (KO) lines were more sensitive to NaCl, KCl, LiCl, ABA, and low temperatures than the wild-type. Back-transformation of the KO line rescued its phenotype, and over-expression (OX) of bHLH106 in differentiated plants exhibited tolerance to NaCl. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused with bHLH106 revealed that it was localized to the nucleus. Prepared bHLH106 protein was subjected to electrophoresis mobility shift assays against E-box sequences (5'-CANNTG-3'). The G-box sequence 5'-CACGTG-3' had the strongest interaction with bHLH106. bHLH106-OX lines were transcriptomically analyzed, and resultant up- and down-regulated genes selected on the criterion of presence of a G-box sequence. There were 198 genes positively regulated by bHLH106 and 36 genes negatively regulated; these genes possessed one or more G-box sequences in their promoter regions. Many of these genes are known to be involved in abiotic stress response. It is concluded that bHLH106 locates at a branching point in the abiotic stress response network by interacting directly to the G-box in genes conferring salt tolerance on plants. PMID:25978450

  4. Release rates in a salt repository by diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Y.; Lee, W.W.L.; Chambre, P.L.; Pigford, T.H.

    1988-09-01

    In a recent analysis, we predicted extremely small brine migration velocities after emplacement of waste packages. Therefore it is expected that mass transfer of radioactive species dissolved in the brine is likely to be controlled by molecular diffusion. Here we apply the analytic solutions for the rate of diffusive mass transfer of dissolved species through a porous medium predict radionuclide release from waste packages in salt. This analysis shows that for the parameter values selected here, and for containment times of over 300 years, release rates from individual waste packages in sale can meet the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (USNRC) performance objective for the engineered barrier system. If many waste packages are actually exposed to brine much sooner than 300 years after emplacement, it will be difficult to meet the release rate for /sup 137/Cs, calculated from the USNRC regulation. In this report we present the analytic solutions and some numerical illustrations of the molecular diffusion analysis. We also compare the results with a different type of diffusion analysis in the Environmental Assessments for the potential repository sites in salt. 21 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Iodized Salt Sales in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Maalouf, Joyce; Barron, Jessica; Gunn, Janelle P.; Yuan, Keming; Perrine, Cria G.; Cogswell, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Iodized salt has been an important source of dietary iodine, a trace element important for regulating human growth, development, and metabolic functions. This analysis identified iodized table salt sales as a percentage of retail salt sales using Nielsen ScanTrack. We identified 1117 salt products, including 701 salt blends and 416 other salt products, 57 of which were iodized. When weighted by sales volume in ounces or per item, 53% contained iodized salt. These findings may provide a baseline for future monitoring of sales of iodized salt. PMID:25763528

  6. FISHERY WASTE EFFLUENTS: A METHOD TO DETERMINE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND AND RESIDUE

    E-print Network

    of screened waste effluents from November 1973 to September 1974: shrimp using fresh or salt water processing 1638, Kodiak, AK 99615. 2Tenney, R. D. 1972. COD for Industrial Waste Water, Tech. Rep. 97, 5 p.; 1972FISHERY WASTE EFFLUENTS: A METHOD TO DETERMINE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND

  7. Crystallization of sodium nitrate from radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Krapukhin, V.B.; Krasavina, E.P. Pikaev, A.K.

    1997-07-01

    From the 1940s to the 1980s, the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IPC/RAS) conducted research and development on processes to separate acetate and nitrate salts and acetic acid from radioactive wastes by crystallization. The research objective was to decrease waste volumes and produce the separated decontaminated materials for recycle. This report presents an account of the IPC/RAS experience in this field. Details on operating conditions, waste and product compositions, decontamination factors, and process equipment are described. The research and development was generally related to the management of intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The waste solutions resulted from recovery and processing of uranium, plutonium, and other products from irradiated nuclear fuel, neutralization of nuclear process solutions after extractant recovery, regeneration of process nitric acid, equipment decontamination, and other radiochemical processes. Waste components include nitric acid, metal nitrate and acetate salts, organic impurities, and surfactants. Waste management operations generally consist of two stages: volume reduction and processing of the concentrates for storage, solidification, and disposal. Filtration, coprecipitation, coagulation, evaporation, and sorption were used to reduce waste volume. 28 figs., 40 tabs.

  8. Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This simulated natural color image presents a late spring view of north central Utah that includes all of the Olympic sites. The image extends from Ogden in the north, to Provo in the south; and includes the snow-capped Wasatch Mountains and the eastern part of the Great Salt Lake.

    This image was acquired on May 28, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Size: 63.5 x 123.3 km (38.1 x 74 miles) Location: 40.7 deg. North lat., 111.9 deg. West long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1,2, and 3. Original Data Resolution: 15 m Date Acquired: May 28, 2000

  9. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste, Part II: Selected mixed waste treatment project waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Chiang, J.M.; Hermes, W.H.; Gibson, L.V. Jr.; Richmond, A.A.; Mayberry, J.; Frazier, G.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the formulation of surrogate waste packages, representing the major bulk constituent compositions for 12 waste stream classifications selected by the US DOE Mixed Waste Treatment Program. These waste groupings include: neutral aqueous wastes; aqueous halogenated organic liquids; ash; high organic content sludges; adsorbed aqueous and organic liquids; cement sludges, ashes, and solids; chloride; sulfate, and nitrate salts; organic matrix solids; heterogeneous debris; bulk combustibles; lab packs; and lead shapes. Insofar as possible, formulation of surrogate waste packages are referenced to authentic wastes in inventory within the DOE; however, the surrogate waste packages are intended to represent generic treatability group compositions. The intent is to specify a nonradiological synthetic mixture, with a minimal number of readily available components, that can be used to represent the significant challenges anticipated for treatment of the specified waste class. Performance testing and evaluation with use of a consistent series of surrogate wastes will provide a means for the initial assessment (and intercomparability) of candidate treatment technology applicability and performance. Originally the surrogate wastes were intended for use with emerging thermal treatment systems, but use may be extended to select nonthermal systems as well.

  10. Waste-to-Energy Design Proposal for

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    silo and provides storage for stone, salt, cement, and storage containers. The placement of a mass burn to be used for adjoining industrial processes or for distribution as district heating. This process would of to the existing nearby Waste Transfer Station on Hamilton Avenue, the Transfer Station could be closed

  11. Assessment of selected furnace technologies for RWMC waste

    SciTech Connect

    Batdorf, J.; Gillins, R.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-03-01

    This report provides a description and initial evaluation of five selected thermal treatment (furnace) technologies, in support of earlier thermal technologies scoping work for application to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) buried wastes. The cyclone furnace, molten salt processor, microwave melter, ausmelt (fuel fired lance) furnace, and molten metal processor technologies are evaluated. A system description and brief development history are provided. The state of development of each technology is assessed, relative to treatment of RWMC buried waste.

  12. Waste Form Evaluation Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, E.M.; Colombo, P.

    1985-09-01

    This report presents data that can be used to assess the acceptability of polyethylene and modified sulfur cement waste forms to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 61. The waste streams selected for this study include dry evaporator concentrate salts and incinerator ash as representative wastes which result from advanced volume reduction technologies and ion exchange resins which remain problematic for solidification using commercially available matrix materials. Property evaluation tests such as compressive strength, water immersion, thermal cycling, irradiation, biodegradation and leachability were conducted for polyethylene and sulfur cement waste forms over a range of waste-to-binder ratios. Based on the results of the tests, optimal waste loadings of 70 wt % sodium sulfate, 50 wt % boric acid, 40 wt % incinerator ash and 30 wt % ion exchange resins were established for polyethylene, although maximum loadings were considerably higher. For modified sulfur cement, optimal loadings of 40 wt % sodium sulfate, 40 wt % boric acid and 40 wt % incinerator ash are reported. Ion exchange resins are not recommended for incorporation into modified sulfur cement because of poor waste form performance even at very low waste concentrations. The results indicate that all waste forms tested within the range of optimal waste concentrations satisifed the requirements of the NRC Technical Position Paper on Waste Form.

  13. Offsite testing in support of the Salt Repository Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kalia, H.N.

    1987-04-01

    This report presents a rationale and recommendation to perform an offsite testing program in support of the Salt Repository Project. The investigation to be performed primarily consists of qualifying test methods and procedures, qualifying personnel-training procedures, evaluating test instruments and selected equipment, and obtaining mining and production equipment performance-related information. The key objective of these activities is to develop capabilities to be used at the exploratory shaft facility (ESF). The ESF is to be excavated at the Deaf Smith County site to characterize the salt site for the construction of a repository used to isolate radioactive waste from the biosphere. The bulk of the offsite testing work will be performed at Avery Island Salt Mine at New Iberia, Lousiana. Additional knowledge will be obtained by exchanging technical information either as participants or as observers at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site and the Asse Mine in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). It is estimated that the offsite testing program will cost approximately $9.3 million over 4 fiscal years. 14 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  14. Salts Are Mostly NOT Ionized.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, Stephen J.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the misconception that salts are completely ionizing in solution, the presence of this error in textbooks, probable origins of the error, covalent bonding and ion pairs, and how to tell students the truth. (MKR)

  15. Sodium (Salt or Sodium Chloride)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Physical Activity in Children My Family Health Tree What's that you're drinking? Get Active with ... salt coming from? Reducing Sodium in a Salty World The Salty Six – Surprising Foods that Add the ...

  16. U.S. Space Station Freedom waste fluid disposal system with consideration of hydrazine waste gas injection thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winters, Brian A.

    1990-01-01

    The results are reported of a study of various methods for propulsively disposing of waste gases. The options considered include hydrazine waste gas injection, resistojets, and eutectic salt phase change heat beds. An overview is given of the waste gas disposal system and how hydrozine waste gas injector thruster is implemented within it. Thruster performance for various gases are given and comparisons with currently available thruster models are made. The impact of disposal on station propellant requirements and electrical power usage are addressed. Contamination effects, reliability and maintainability assessments, safety issues, and operational scenarios of the waste gas thruster and disposal system are considered.

  17. Liking, salt taste perception and use of table salt when consuming reduced-salt chicken stews in light of South Africa's new salt regulations.

    PubMed

    De Kock, H L; Zandstra, E H; Sayed, N; Wentzel-Viljoen, E

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of salt reduction on liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt when consuming chicken stew in light of South Africa's new salt recommendations. In total, 432 South-African consumers (aged 35.2 ± 12.3 years) consumed a full portion of a chicken stew meal once at a central location. Four stock cube powders varying in salt content were used to prepare chicken stews: 1) no reduction - 2013 Na level; regular salt level as currently available on the South African market (24473 mg Na/100 g), 2) salt reduction smaller than 2016 level, i.e. 10%-reduced (22025 mg Na/100 g), 3) 2016 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (18000 mg Na/100 g), 4) 2019 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (13000 mg Na/100 g). Consumers were randomly allocated to consume one of the four meals. Liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt and pepper were measured. Chicken stews prepared with reduced-salt stock powders were equally well-liked as chicken stews with the current salt level. Moreover, a gradual reduction of the salt in the chicken stews resulted in a reduced salt intake, up to an average of 19% for the total group compared to the benchmark 2013 Na level stew. However, 19% of consumers compensated by adding salt back to full compensation in some cases. More salt was added with increased reductions of salt in the meals, even to the point of full compensation. Further investigation into the impacts of nutrition communication and education about salt reduction on salt taste perception and use is needed. This research provides new consumer insights on salt use and emphasises the need for consumer-focused behaviour change approaches, in addition to reformulation of products. PMID:26415915

  18. BYU Salt Lake Center Financial Assistance

    E-print Network

    Hart, Gus

    BYU Salt Lake Center Financial Assistance Program 2015 A financial assistance program of the Brigham Young University Division of Continuing Education BYU Salt Lake Center 345 West North Temple Street 3 Triad Center Salt Lake City, UT 84180 Fax: (801) 933­9456 Email: slc@byu.edu #12;BYU Salt Lake

  19. Textile Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from textile industry, covering publications of 1977. This review covers studies such as removing heavy metals in textile wastes, and the biodegradability of six dyes. A list of references is also presented. (HM)

  20. Microstructure and Leaching Behavior of Polymer Composites for Encapsulating Toxic Solid Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Rengifo, Felipe; Saez, Avelino E.; Ela, Wendell P.; Quach, Anh P.; Garbo, Bryce; Franks, Carrie J.; Zelinski, Brian J.; Birnie, Dunbar P.; Smith, Harry D.; Smith, Gary Lynn L.

    2004-11-10

    This work presents a water-based process for the manufacture of a polymeric waste form for the encapsulation of soluble toxic salts. The process is based on the elaboration of an aqueous emulsion in which polymeric precursors are mixed with the waste. Upon drying and curing, the emulsion inverts to form a waste form with mechanical integrity that stabilizes the toxic salt. The final polymer matrix is a mixture of an epoxy resin and poly(styrene butadiene) (PSB). Sodium nitrate was used as a model salt waste. The microstructure and composition of the samples were examined using scanning electron microscopy, osmium tetroxide staining, and salt extraction. The results show that the epoxy resin is dispersed in a continuous PSB phase, and the encapsulated salt is distributed throughout the matrix. Leaching tests were carried out by exposing sections of the waste forms to large volumes of well-stirred water. The measured time dependence of the leaching process is described quantitatively by a model based on the diffusion of the salt through the waste form. Effective diffusivities of the salt in the polymeric matrix ranged between 10{sup -8} and 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2}/s. The results suggest that diffusion occurs through limited but significant continuous porosity.

  1. PLAT X41601 EAST (SALT LAKE CITY CEMETERY LOCATER), SALT LAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PLAT X-4-160-1 EAST (SALT LAKE CITY CEMETERY LOCATER), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH AT CEMETERY BETWEEN OLIVE STREET (1020 EAST) AND 1000 EAST STREET, REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 12049, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  2. Agricultural Waste.

    PubMed

    Shu, Huajie; Zhang, Panpan; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2015-10-01

    The management and disposal of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention because of the increasing yields and negative effects on the environment. However, proper treatments such as converting abundant biomass wastes into biogas through anaerobic digestion technology, can not only avoid the negative impacts, but also convert waste into available resources. This review summarizes the studies of nearly two hundred scholars from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management of agricultural waste. PMID:26420088

  3. US/German Collaboration in Salt Repository Research, Design and Operation - 13243

    SciTech Connect

    Steininger, Walter; Hansen, Frank; Biurrun, Enrique; Bollingerfehr, Wilhelm

    2013-07-01

    Recent developments in the US and Germany [1-3] have precipitated renewed efforts in salt repository investigations and related studies. Both the German rock salt repository activities and the US waste management programs currently face challenges that may adversely affect their respective current and future state-of-the-art core capabilities in rock salt repository science and technology. The research agenda being pursued by our respective countries leverages collective efforts for the benefit of both programs. The topics addressed by the US/German salt repository collaborations align well with the findings and recommendations summarized in the January 2012 US Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (BRC) report [4] and are consistent with the aspirations of the key topics of the Strategic Research Agenda of the Implementing Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste Technology Platform (IGD-TP) [5]. Against this background, a revival of joint efforts in salt repository investigations after some years of hibernation has been undertaken to leverage collective efforts in salt repository research, design, operations, and related issues for the benefit of respective programs and to form a basis for providing an attractive, cost-effective insurance against the premature loss of virtually irreplaceable scientific expertise and institutional memory. (authors)

  4. A preliminary report of the geohydrology of the Mississippi Salt-Dome Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spiers, C.A.; Gandl, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is investigating the suitability of salt domes in the Mississippi salt-dome basin as repositories for storing radioactive wastes. The Department of Energy has requested that the U.S. Geological Survey describe the groundwater hydrology of the Mississippi salt-dome basin, giving special attention to direction and rate of movement of water. In this first part of a continuing investigation the data obtained from one year of extensive literature search and data compilation are summarized. The regional groundwater hydrology in the salt-dome basin is defined with respect to (1) groundwater flow, (2) facies changes, (3) geological structure, (4) recharge and discharge, (5) freshwater-saltwater relations, and (6) identification of localities where additional data are needed. From the 50 piercement-type salt domes in the Mississippi salt-dome basin three domes (Richton, Cypress Creek, and Lampton) were selected for more intensive study. To further evaluate the geohydrology of Richton, Lampton, and Cypress Creek domes as possible sites for storage of radioactive waste, an intensive geohydrologic study based on a comprehensive test drilling program near the domes is planned. (USGS)

  5. Automotive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Guigard, Selma E; Shariaty, Pooya; Niknaddaf, Saeid; Lashaki, Masoud Jahandar; Atkinson, John D; Hashisho, Zaher

    2015-10-01

    A review of the literature from 2014 related to automotive wastes is presented. Topics include solid wastes from autobodies and tires as well as vehicle emissions to soil and air as a result of the use of conventional and alternative fuels. Potential toxicological and health risks related to automotive wastes are also discussed. PMID:26420089

  6. Radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Devarakonda, M.S.; Hickox, J.A.

    1996-11-01

    This paper provides a review of literature published in 1995 on the subject of radioactive wastes. Topics covered include: national programs; waste repositories; mixed wastes; decontamination and decommissioning; remedial actions and treatment; and environmental occurrence and transport of radionuclides. 155 refs.

  7. Radioactive Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  8. Agricultural Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, W. J.; Switzenbaum, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of agricultural wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the areas covered are: (1) water characteristics and impacts; (2) waste treatment; (3) reuse of agricultural wastes; and (4) nonpoint pollution sources. A list of 150 references is also presented. (HM)

  9. Electrochemical/Pyrometallurgical Waste Stream Processing and Waste Form Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Frank; Hwan Seo Park; Yung Zun Cho; William Ebert; Brian Riley

    2015-07-01

    This report summarizes treatment and waste form options being evaluated for waste streams resulting from the electrochemical/pyrometallurgical (pyro ) processing of used oxide nuclear fuel. The technologies that are described are South Korean (Republic of Korea – ROK) and United States of America (US) ‘centric’ in the approach to treating pyroprocessing wastes and are based on the decade long collaborations between US and ROK researchers. Some of the general and advanced technologies described in this report will be demonstrated during the Integrated Recycle Test (IRT) to be conducted as a part of the Joint Fuel Cycle Study (JFCS) collaboration between US Department of Energy (DOE) and ROK national laboratories. The JFCS means to specifically address and evaluated the technological, economic, and safe guard issues associated with the treatment of used nuclear fuel by pyroprocessing. The IRT will involve the processing of commercial, used oxide fuel to recover uranium and transuranics. The recovered transuranics will then be fabricated into metallic fuel and irradiated to transmutate, or burn the transuranic elements to shorter lived radionuclides. In addition, the various process streams will be evaluated and tested for fission product removal, electrolytic salt recycle, minimization of actinide loss to waste streams and waste form fabrication and characterization. This report specifically addresses the production and testing of those waste forms to demonstrate their compatibility with treatment options and suitability for disposal.

  10. Chemical species of plutonium in Hanford radioactive tank waste

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, G.S.

    1997-10-22

    Large quantities of radioactive wastes have been generated at the Hanford Site over its operating life. The wastes with the highest activities are stored underground in 177 large (mostly one million gallon volume) concrete tanks with steel liners. The wastes contain processing chemicals, cladding chemicals, fission products, and actinides that were neutralized to a basic pH before addition to the tanks to prevent corrosion of the steel liners. Because the mission of the Hanford Site was to provide plutonium for defense purposes, the amount of plutonium lost to the wastes was relatively small. The best estimate of the amount of plutonium lost to all the waste tanks is about 500 kg. Given uncertainties in the measurements, some estimates are as high as 1,000 kg (Roetman et al. 1994). The wastes generally consist of (1) a sludge layer generated by precipitation of dissolved metals from aqueous wastes solutions during neutralization with sodium hydroxide, (2) a salt cake layer formed by crystallization of salts after evaporation of the supernate solution, and (3) an aqueous supernate solution that exists as a separate layer or as liquid contained in cavities between sludge or salt cake particles. The identity of chemical species of plutonium in these wastes will allow a better understanding of the behavior of the plutonium during storage in tanks, retrieval of the wastes, and processing of the wastes. Plutonium chemistry in the wastes is important to criticality and environmental concerns, and in processing the wastes for final disposal. Plutonium has been found to exist mainly in the sludge layers of the tanks along with other precipitated metal hydrous oxides. This is expected due to its low solubility in basic aqueous solutions. Tank supernate solutions do not contain high concentrations of plutonium even though some tanks contain high concentrations of complexing agents. The solutions also contain significant concentrations of hydroxide which competes with other potential complexants. The sodium nitrate and sodium phosphate salts that form most of the salt cake layers have little interaction with plutonium in the wastes and contain relatively small plutonium concentrations. For these reasons the authors consider plutonium species in the sludges and supernate solutions only. The low concentrations of plutonium in waste tank supernate solutions and in the solid sludges prevent identification of chemical species of plutonium by ordinary analytical techniques. Spectrophotometric measurements are not sensitive enough to identify plutons oxidation states or complexes in these waste solutions. Identification of solid phases containing plutonium in sludge solids by x-ray diffraction or by microscopic techniques would be extremely difficult. Because of these technical problems, plutonium speciation was extrapolated from known behavior observed in laboratory studies of synthetic waste or of more chemically simple systems.

  11. Adiabatic Heat of Hydration Calorimetric Measurements for Reference Saltstone Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, James

    2006-01-12

    The production of nuclear materials for weapons, medical, and space applications from the mid-1950's through the late-1980's at the Savannah River Site (SRS) generated approximately 35 million gallons of liquid high-level radioactive waste, which is currently being processed into vitrified glass for long-term storage. Upstream of the vitrification process, the waste is separated into three components: high activity insoluble sludge, high activity insoluble salt, and very low activity soluble salts. The soluble salt represents 90% of the 35 million gallons of overall waste and is processed at the SRS Saltstone Facility, where it mixed with cement, blast furnace slag, and flyash, creating a grout-like mixture. The resulting grout is pumped into aboveground storage vaults, where it hydrates into concrete monoliths, called saltstone, thus immobilizing the low-level radioactive salt waste. As the saltstone hydrates, it generates heat that slowly diffuses out of the poured material. To ensure acceptable grout properties for disposal and immobilization of the salt waste, the grout temperature must not exceed 95 C during hydration. Adiabatic calorimetric measurements of the heat generated for a representative sample of saltstone were made to determine the time-dependent heat source term. These measurements subsequently were utilized as input to a numerical conjugate heat transfer model to determine the expected peak temperatures for the saltstone vaults.

  12. Tank waste remediation system milestone report magnetic separation of tank waste: Surrogate system separations report

    SciTech Connect

    Avens, L.R.; Worl, L.A.; Schake, A.R.; Padilla, D.D.; de Aguero, K.J.; Prenger, F.C.; Stewart, W.F.; Hill, D.D.

    1994-01-14

    High-level radioactive waste (HLW) has been stored in large underground storage tanks (UST) at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site since 1944. More than 253,000 m{sup 3} of waste have been accumulated in 177 tanks. The waste consists of many different chemicals and are in the form of liquids, slurries, salt cakes and sludges. A magnetic separation effort at Los Alamos National Laboratory is funded through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) to explore the use of high-gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) for tank waste segregation. The concept is to concentrate into a low volume waste stream, all or most of the magnetic components, which include actinide compounds, most of the fission products and precious metals. As a first step in this process investigations were made on surrogate systems. This milestone report discusses the HGMS results on these systems.

  13. Base of fresh ground water, northern Louisiana Salt-Dome Basin and vicinity, northern Louisiana and southern Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryals, G.N.

    1980-01-01

    The National Waste Terminal Storage Program is an effort by the U.S. Department of Energy to locate and develop sites for disposal or storage of commercially produced radioactive wastes. As part of this program, salt domes in the northern Louisiana salt-dome basin are being studied to determine their suitability as repositories. Part of the U.S. Geological Survey 's participation in the program has been to describe the regional geohydrology of the northern Louisiana salt-dome basin. A map based on a compilation of published data and the interpretation of electrical logs shows the altitude of the base of freshwater in aquifers in the northern Louisiana salt-dome basin. (USGS)

  14. Improving the performance of ammonia-water absorption cycles using salt additives and membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, O.M.; Barnett, S.M.; Balamuru, V.G.

    1997-12-31

    This paper proposes a new design of an ammonia-water absorption refrigeration cycle for low-temperature heat sources such as solar energy and waste heat. The proposed cycle uses a salt additive to shift the chemical equilibrium toward more effective separation of ammonia molecules from aqueous solution (i.e., salting out). Since salt additives can affect all aspects of the absorption cycle, membranes have been chosen to control the flow of ions in the cycle and limit their effects to the generation side. This paper describes an absorption cycle that uses membrane separation processes, such as reverse osmosis, dialysis, and electrodialysis. To optimize the performance of the cycle, however, the membranes and salts must be carefully chosen.

  15. Molten salt extraction of transuranic and reactive fission products from used uranium oxide fuel

    DOEpatents

    Herrmann, Steven Douglas

    2014-05-27

    Used uranium oxide fuel is detoxified by extracting transuranic and reactive fission products into molten salt. By contacting declad and crushed used uranium oxide fuel with a molten halide salt containing a minor fraction of the respective uranium trihalide, transuranic and reactive fission products partition from the fuel to the molten salt phase, while uranium oxide and non-reactive, or noble metal, fission products remain in an insoluble solid phase. The salt is then separated from the fuel via draining and distillation. By this method, the bulk of the decay heat, fission poisoning capacity, and radiotoxicity are removed from the used fuel. The remaining radioactivity from the noble metal fission products in the detoxified fuel is primarily limited to soft beta emitters. The extracted transuranic and reactive fission products are amenable to existing technologies for group uranium/transuranic product recovery and fission product immobilization in engineered waste forms.

  16. Sedimentation dynamics about salt features

    SciTech Connect

    Lowrie, A.; Blake, D.W.

    1985-02-01

    Detailed side-scan sonar and gridded bathymetric surveys on continental margins reveal the existence of numerous submarine canyons. Recently published compilations of current velocities in submarine canyons indicate that alternating and undirectionaly flows often exceed 20-30 cm/sec with peak velocities ranging from 70 to 100 cm/sec. Current meters attached to the ocean floor have been lost at current velocities of 190 cm/sec. Such velocities are ample to transport sand-size sediments. The results of DSDP Leg 96 show the existence of massive sands and gravels on the Louisiana slope, deposited during the last glacial advance. Thus, present physical oceanographic data may be an analog to conditions during glacially induced lowered sea levels. Salt ridges and domes underlie much of the Louisiana slope, determining morphology. Submarine canyons lace the slope. Given a prograding shelf, the net sediment transport routes will be down the submarine canyons. Sediment deposition patterns around the salt ridges and domes include parallel-bedded foredrifts on the upslope side, lee drifts on the downslope side, and moats along the lateral flanks of the salt features. Major differences exist between the sedimentation patterns around a ridge and a dome. The size and shape of the flow pattern will determine whether there can be a flow over the salt feature with a resulting turbulent wave that may influence sedimentation. Sedimentation patterns about salt features on the present slope should be applicable to similar paleoenvironments.

  17. COMPLEX EVOLUTION OF BILE SALTS IN BIRDS

    PubMed Central

    Hagey, Lee R.; Vidal, Nicolas; Hofmann, Alan F.; Krasowski, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    Bile salts are the major end-metabolites of cholesterol and are important in lipid digestion and shaping of the gut microflora. There have been limited studies of bile-salt variation in birds. The purpose of our study was to determine bile-salt variation among birds and relate this variation to current avian phylogenies and hypotheses on the evolution of bile salt pathways. We determined the biliary bile-salt composition of 405 phylogenetically diverse bird species, including 7 paleognath species. Bile salt profiles were generally stable within bird families. Complex bile-salt profiles were more common in omnivores and herbivores than in carnivores. The structural variation of bile salts in birds is extensive and comparable to that seen in surveys of bile salts in reptiles and mammals. Birds produce many of the bile salts found throughout nonavian vertebrates and some previously uncharacterized bile salts. One difference between birds and other vertebrates is extensive hydroxylation of carbon-16 of bile salts in bird species. Comparison of our data set of bird bile salts with that of other vertebrates, especially reptiles, allowed us to infer evolutionary changes in the bile salt synthetic pathway. PMID:21113274

  18. Retrieval of Hanford Single Shell Nuclear Waste Tanks using Technologies Foreign and Domestic

    SciTech Connect

    EACKER, J.A.; GIBBONS, P.W.

    2003-01-01

    The Hanford Site is accelerating its SST retrieval mission. One aspect of this acceleration is the identification of new baseline retrieval technologies that can be applied to all tank conditions for salt & sludge wastes in both sound & leaking tanks.

  19. IMPACT OF THE SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS ON THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY - 12112

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D.; Lambert, D.; Fox, K.; Stone, M.

    2011-11-07

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is investigating the deployment of a parallel technology to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF, presently under construction) to accelerate high activity salt waste processing. The proposed technology combines large waste tank strikes of monosodium titanate (MST) to sorb strontium and actinides with two ion exchange columns packed with crystalline silicotitanate (CST) resin to sorb cesium. The new process was designated Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX), since the ion exchange columns were sized to fit within a waste storage tank riser. Loaded resins are to be combined with high activity sludge waste and fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for incorporation into the current glass waste form. Decontaminated salt solution produced by SCIX will be fed to the SRS Saltstone Facility for on-site immobilization as a grout waste form. Determining the potential impact of SCIX resins on DWPF processing was the basis for this study. Accelerated salt waste treatment is projected to produce a significant savings in the overall life cycle cost of waste treatment at SRS.

  20. Results from simulated contact-handled transuranic waste experiments at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Molecke, M.A.; Sorensen, N.R.; Krumhansl, J.L.

    1993-12-31

    We conducted in situ experiments with nonradioactive, contact-handled transuranic (CH TRU) waste drums at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility for about four years. We performed these tests in two rooms in rock salt, at WIPP, with drums surrounded by crushed salt or 70 wt % salt/30 wt % bentonite clay backfills, or partially submerged in a NaCl brine pool. Air and brine temperatures were maintained at {approximately}40C. These full-scale (210-L drum) experiments provided in situ data on: backfill material moisture-sorption and physical properties in the presence of brine; waste container corrosion adequacy; and, migration of chemical tracers (nonradioactive actinide and fission product simulants) in the near-field vicinity, all as a function of time. Individual drums, backfill, and brine samples were removed periodically for laboratory evaluations. Waste container testing in the presence of brine and brine-moistened backfill materials served as a severe overtest of long-term conditions that could be anticipated in an actual salt waste repository. We also obtained relevant operational-test emplacement and retrieval experience. All test results are intended to support both the acceptance of actual TRU wastes at the WIPP and performance assessment data needs. We provide an overview and technical data summary focusing on the WIPP CH TRU envirorunental overtests involving 174 waste drums in the presence of backfill materials and the brine pool, with posttest laboratory materials analyses of backfill sorbed-moisture content, CH TRU drum corrosion, tracer migration, and associated test observations.

  1. Hanford Supplemental Treatment: Literature and Modeling Review of SRS HLW Salt Dissolution and Fractional Crystallization

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, A. S.; Flach, G. P.; Martino, C. J.; Zamecnik, J. R.; Harris, M. K.; Wilmarth, W. R.; Calloway, T. B.

    2005-03-23

    In order to accelerate waste treatment and disposal of Hanford tank waste by 2028, the Department of Energy (DOE) and CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CHG), Inc. are evaluating alternative technologies which will be used in conjunction with the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) to safely pretreat and immobilize the tank waste. Several technologies (Bulk Vitrification and Steam Reforming) are currently being evaluated for immobilizing the pretreated waste. Since the WTP does not have sufficient capacity to pretreat all the waste going to supplemental treatment by the 2028 milestone, two technologies (Selective Dissolution and Fractional Crystallization) are being considered for pretreatment of salt waste. The scope of this task was to: (1) evaluate the recent Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 41 dissolution campaign and other literature to provide a more complete understanding of selective dissolution, (2) provide an update on the progress of salt dissolution and modeling activities at SRS, (3) investigate SRS experience and outside literature sources on industrial equipment and experimental results of previous fractional crystallization processes, and (4) evaluate recent Hanford AP104 boildown experiments and modeling results and recommend enhancements to the Environmental Simulation Program (ESP) to improve its predictive capabilities. This report provides a summary of this work and suggested recommendations.

  2. Method of preparing sodalite from chloride salt occluded zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Michele A. (Naperville, IL); Pereira, Candido (Lisle, IL)

    1997-01-01

    A method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal starting with a substantially dry zeolite and sufficient glass to form leach resistant sodalite with occluded radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material. The zeolite and glass are heated to a temperature up to about 1000.degree. K. to convert the zeolite to sodalite and thereafter maintained at a pressure and temperature sufficient to form a sodalite product near theoretical density. Pressure is used on the formed sodalite to produce the required density.

  3. Method of preparing sodalite from chloride salt occluded zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, M.A.; Pereira, C.

    1997-03-18

    A method is described for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal starting with a substantially dry zeolite and sufficient glass to form leach resistant sodalite with occluded radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material. The zeolite and glass are heated to a temperature up to about 1000 K to convert the zeolite to sodalite and thereafter maintained at a pressure and temperature sufficient to form a sodalite product near theoretical density. Pressure is used on the formed sodalite to produce the required density.

  4. Method of preparing sodalite from chloride salt occluded zeolite A

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.A.; Pereira, C.

    1995-12-31

    A method is described for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal starting with a substantially dry zeolite and sufficient glass to form leach resistance sodalite with occluded radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material. The zeolite and glass are heated to a temperature up to about 1,000 K to convert the zeolite to sodalite and thereafter maintained at a pressure and temperature sufficient to form a sodalite product near theoretical density. Pressure is used on the formed sodalite to produce the required density.

  5. Protein aggregation in salt solutions

    PubMed Central

    Kastelic, Miha; Kalyuzhnyi, Yurij V.; Hribar-Lee, Barbara; Dill, Ken A.; Vlachy, Vojko

    2015-01-01

    Protein aggregation is broadly important in diseases and in formulations of biological drugs. Here, we develop a theoretical model for reversible protein–protein aggregation in salt solutions. We treat proteins as hard spheres having square-well-energy binding sites, using Wertheim’s thermodynamic perturbation theory. The necessary condition required for such modeling to be realistic is that proteins in solution during the experiment remain in their compact form. Within this limitation our model gives accurate liquid–liquid coexistence curves for lysozyme and ? IIIa-crystallin solutions in respective buffers. It provides good fits to the cloud-point curves of lysozyme in buffer–salt mixtures as a function of the type and concentration of salt. It than predicts full coexistence curves, osmotic compressibilities, and second virial coefficients under such conditions. This treatment may also be relevant to protein crystallization. PMID:25964322

  6. Protein aggregation in salt solutions.

    PubMed

    Kastelic, Miha; Kalyuzhnyi, Yurij V; Hribar-Lee, Barbara; Dill, Ken A; Vlachy, Vojko

    2015-05-26

    Protein aggregation is broadly important in diseases and in formulations of biological drugs. Here, we develop a theoretical model for reversible protein-protein aggregation in salt solutions. We treat proteins as hard spheres having square-well-energy binding sites, using Wertheim's thermodynamic perturbation theory. The necessary condition required for such modeling to be realistic is that proteins in solution during the experiment remain in their compact form. Within this limitation our model gives accurate liquid-liquid coexistence curves for lysozyme and ? IIIa-crystallin solutions in respective buffers. It provides good fits to the cloud-point curves of lysozyme in buffer-salt mixtures as a function of the type and concentration of salt. It than predicts full coexistence curves, osmotic compressibilities, and second virial coefficients under such conditions. This treatment may also be relevant to protein crystallization. PMID:25964322

  7. Salt site performance assessment activities

    SciTech Connect

    Kircher, J.F.; Gupta, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    During this year the first selection of the tools (codes) for performance assessments of potential salt sites have been tentatively selected and documented; the emphasis has shifted from code development to applications. During this period prior to detailed characterization of a salt site, the focus is on bounding calculations, sensitivity and with the data available. The development and application of improved methods for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis is a focus for the coming years activities and the subject of a following paper in these proceedings. Although the assessments to date are preliminary and based on admittedly scant data, the results indicate that suitable salt sites can be identified and repository subsystems designed which will meet the established criteria for protecting the health and safety of the public. 36 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  8. Production of chlorine from chloride salts

    DOEpatents

    Rohrmann, Charles A. (Kennewick, WA)

    1981-01-01

    A process for converting chloride salts and sulfuric acid to sulfate salts and elemental chlorine is disclosed. A chloride salt and sulfuric acid are combined in a furnace where they react to produce a sulfate salt and hydrogen chloride. Hydrogen chloride from the furnace contacts a molten salt mixture containing an oxygen compound of vanadium, an alkali metal sulfate and an alkali metal pyrosulfate to recover elemental chlorine. In the absence of an oxygen-bearing gas during the contacting, the vanadium is reduced, but is regenerated to its active higher valence state by separately contacting the molten salt mixture with an oxygen-bearing gas.

  9. Handling observation proposals for SALT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hettlage, Christian; Buckley, David A. H.; Charles, Anne C.; Cordiner, Martin; Harbeck, Daniel R.; Husser, Tim-Oliver; Nordsieck, Kenneth H.; Percival, Jeffrey W.; Romero Colmenero, Encarni; Still, Martin D.

    2010-07-01

    SALT uses the Principal Investigator Proposal Tool (PIPT) for generating, checking, submitting and editing proposals. The PIPT maps XML into Java classes with immediate error and consistency checking, and thus prevents non-feasible observation requests. Various tools allow the user to simulate SALT observations. These include standard source spectra (e.g. black body, power law, Kurucz model atmospheres), and allow users to add their own library spectra. The PIPT is complemented by the Web Manager for administering submitted proposals. It is discussed how the code of these tools can easily be extended for future instruments and used for other projects.

  10. Separation & Fixation of Toxic Components in Salt Brines Using a Water-Based Process

    SciTech Connect

    Franks, Carrie J.; Quach, Anh P.; Birnie, Dunbar P.; Ela, Wendell P.; Saez, Avelino E.; Zelinski, Brian J.; Smith, Harry D.; Smith, Gary Lynn L.

    2004-12-01

    Efforts to implement new water quality standards, increase water reuse and reclamation, and minimize the cost of waste storage motivate the development of new processes for stabilizing waste water residuals that minimize waste volume, water content and the long-term environmental risk from related by products. This work explores the use of an aqueous-based emulsion process to create an epoxy/rubber matrix for separating and encapsulating waste components from salt laden, arsenic contaminated, amorphous iron hydrate sludges. Such sludges are generated from conventional water purification precipitation/adsorption processes, used to convert aqueous brine streams to semi-solid waste streams, such as ion exchange/membrane separation, and from other precipitative heavy metal removal operations. In this study, epoxy and polystyrene butadiene (PSB) rubber emulsions are mixed together and then combined with a surrogate sludge. The surrogate sludge consists of amorphous iron hydrate with 1 part arsenic fixed to the surface of the hydrate per 10 parts iron mixed with sodium nitrate and chloride salts and water. The resulting emulsion is cured and dried at 80 C to remove water. Microstructure characterization by electron microscopy confirms that the epoxy/PSB matrix surrounds and encapsulates the arsenic laden amorphous iron hydrate phase while allowing the salt to migrate to internal and external surfaces of the sample. Salt extraction studies indicate that the porous nature of the resulting matrix promotes the separation and removal of as much as 90% of the original salt content in only one hours time. Long term leaching studies based on the use of the infinite slab diffusion model reveal no evidence of iron migration or, by inference, arsenic migration, and demonstrate that the diffusion coefficients of the unextracted salt yield leachability indices within regulations for non-hazardous landfill disposal. Because salt is the most mobile species, it is inferred that arsenic leaches from the host material at an even slower rate, making the waste forms amenable to unregulated land disposal options. These result indicate that the environmentally-benign, water-based emulsion processing of epoxy/PSB polymeric hosts show great promise as a separation and fixation technology for treating brine streams from wastewater treatment facilities.

  11. Development and testing of a wet oxidation waste processing system. [for waste treatment aboard manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weitzmann, A. L.

    1977-01-01

    The wet oxidation process is considered as a potential treatment method for wastes aboard manned spacecraft for these reasons: (1) Fecal and urine wastes are processed to sterile water and CO2 gas. However, the water requires post-treatment to remove salts and odor; (2) the residual ash is negligible in quantity, sterile and easily collected; and (3) the product CO2 gas can be processed through a reduction step to aid in material balance if needed. Reaction of waste materials with oxygen at elevated temperature and pressure also produces some nitrous oxide, as well as trace amounts of a few other gases.

  12. Evaluation of potential for MSRE spent fuel and flush salt storage and treatment at the INEL

    SciTech Connect

    Ougouag, A.M.; Ostby, P.A.; Nebeker, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    The potential for interim storage as well as for treatment of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment spent fuel at INEL has been evaluated. Provided that some minimal packaging and chemical stabilization prerequisites are satisfied, safe interim storage of the spent fuel at the INEL can be achieved in a number of existing or planned facilities. Treatment by calcination in the New Waste Calcining Facility at the INEL can also be a safe, effective, and economical alternative to treatment that would require the construction of a dedicated facility. If storage at the INEL is chosen for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) spent fuel salts, their transformation to the more stable calcine solid would still be desirable as it would result in a lowering of risks. Treatment in the proposed INEL Remote-Handled Immobilization Facility (RHIF) would result in a waste form that would probably be acceptable for disposal at one of the proposed national repositories. The cost increment imputable to the treatment of the MSRE salts would be a small fraction of the overall capital and operating costs of the facility or the cost of building and operating a dedicated facility. Institutional and legal issues regarding shipments of fuel and waste to the INEL are summarized. The transfer of MSRE spent fuel for interim storage or treatment at the INEL is allowed under existing agreements between the State of idaho and the Department of energy and other agencies of the Federal Government. In contrast, current agreements preclude the transfer into Idaho of any radioactive wastes for storage or disposal within the State of Idaho. This implies that wastes and residues produced from treating the MSRE spent fuel at locations outside Idaho would not be acceptable for storage in Idaho. Present agreements require that all fuel and high-level wastes stored at the INEL, including MSRE spent fuel if received at the INEL, must be moved to a location outside Idaho by the year 2035.

  13. Hanford Waste Physical and Rheological Properties: Data and Gaps

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, Beric E.; Kurath, Dean E.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Onishi, Yasuo; Huckaby, James L.; Cooley, Scott K.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Buck, Edgar C.; Tingey, Joel M.; Daniel, Richard C.; Anderson, K. K.

    2011-08-01

    The Hanford Site in Washington State manages 177 underground storage tanks containing approximately 250,000 m3 of waste generated during past defense reprocessing and waste management operations. These tanks contain a mixture of sludge, saltcake and supernatant liquids. The insoluble sludge fraction of the waste consists of metal oxides and hydroxides and contains the bulk of many radionuclides such as the transuranic components and 90Sr. The saltcake, generated by extensive evaporation of aqueous solutions, consists primarily of dried sodium salts. The supernates consist of concentrated (5-15 M) aqueous solutions of sodium and potassium salts. The 177 storage tanks include 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) and 28 double -hell tanks (DSTs). Ultimately the wastes need to be retrieved from the tanks for treatment and disposal. The SSTs contain minimal amounts of liquid wastes, and the Tank Operations Contractor is continuing a program of moving solid wastes from SSTs to interim storage in the DSTs. The Hanford DST system provides the staging location for waste feed delivery to the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection’s (ORP) Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP is being designed and constructed to pretreat and then vitrify a large portion of the wastes in Hanford’s 177 underground waste storage tanks.

  14. Microplastic Pollution in Table Salts from China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dongqi; Shi, Huahong; Li, Lan; Li, Jiana; Jabeen, Khalida; Kolandhasamy, Prabhu

    2015-11-17

    Microplastics have been found in seas all over the world. We hypothesize that sea salts might contain microplastics, because they are directly supplied by seawater. To test our hypothesis, we collected 15 brands of sea salts, lake salts, and rock/well salts from supermarkets throughout China. The microplastics content was 550-681 particles/kg in sea salts, 43-364 particles/kg in lake salts, and 7-204 particles/kg in rock/well salts. In sea salts, fragments and fibers were the prevalent types of particles compared with pellets and sheets. Microplastics measuring less than 200 ?m represented the majority of the particles, accounting for 55% of the total microplastics, and the most common microplastics were polyethylene terephthalate, followed by polyethylene and cellophane in sea salts. The abundance of microplastics in sea salts was significantly higher than that in lake salts and rock/well salts. This result indicates that sea products, such as sea salts, are contaminated by microplastics. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on microplastic pollution in abiotic sea products. PMID:26486565

  15. I-NERI Annual Technical Progress Report 2007-004-K Development and Characterization of New High-Level Waste Forms for Achieving Waste Minimization from Pyroprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    S. Frank

    2010-09-01

    The current method for the immobilization of fission products that accumulate in electrorefiner salt during the electrochemical processing of used metallic nuclear fuel is to encapsulate the electrorefiner salt in a glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form. This process was developed by Argonne National Laboratory in the USA and is currently performed at the Idaho National Laboratory for the treatment of Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) used fuel. This process utilizes a “once-through” option for the disposal of spent electrorefiner salt; where, after the treatment of the EBR-II fuel, the electrorefiner salt containing the active fission products will be disposed of in the ceramic waste form (CWF). The CWF produced will have low fission product loading of approximately 2 to 5 weight percent due to the limited fuel inventory currently being processed. However; the design and implementation of advanced electrochemical processing facilities to treat used fuel would process much greater quantities fuel. With an advanced processing facility, it would be necessary to selectively remove fission products from the electrorefiner salt for salt recycle and to concentrate the fission products to reduce the volume of high-level waste from the treatment facility. The Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute and the Idaho National Laboratory have been collaborating on I-NERI research projects for a number of years to investigate both aspects of selective fission product separation from electrorefiner salt, and to develop advanced waste forms for the immobilization of the collected fission products. The first joint KAERI/INL I-NERI project titled: 2006-002-K, Separation of Fission Products from Molten LiCl-KCl Salt Used for Electrorefining of Metal Fuels, was successfully completed in 2009 by concentrating and isolating fission products from actual electrorefiner salt used for the treated used EBR-II fuel. Two separation methods were tested and from these tests were produced concentrated salt products that acted as the feed material for development of advanced waste forms investigated in this proposal. Accomplishments from the first year activities associated with this I-NERI project included the down selection of candidate waste forms to immobilize fission products separated from electrorefiner salt, and the design of equipment to fabricate actual waste forms in the Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) at the INL. Reported in this document are accomplishments from the second year (FY10) work performed at the INL, and includes the testing of waste form fabrication equipment, repeating the fission product precipitation experiment, and initial waste form fabrication efforts.

  16. Bioconversion of Cheese Waste (Whey)

    SciTech Connect

    Bohnert, G.W.

    1998-03-11

    The US dairy industry produces 67 billion pounds of cheese whey annually. A waste by-product of cheese production, whey consists of water, milk sugar (lactose), casein (protein), and salts amounting to about 7% total solids. Ultrafiltration is used to concentrate cheese whey into a protein-rich foodstuff; however, it too produces a waste stream, known as ''whey permeate,'' (rejected water, lactose, and salts from the membrane). Whey permeate contains about 4.5% lactose and requires treatment to reduce the high BOD (biological oxygen demand) before disposal. Ab Initio, a small business with strong chemistry and dairy processing background, desired help in developing methods for bioconversion of whey permeate lactose into lactic acid. Lactic acid is an organic acid primarily used as an acidulant in the food industry. More recently it has been used to produce polylactic acid, a biodegradable polymer and as a new method to treat meat carcasses to combat E. coli bacteria. Conversion of whey permeate to lactic acid is environmentally sound because it produces a valued product from an otherwise waste stream. FM&T has expertise in bioconversion processes and analytical techniques necessary to characterize biomass functions. The necessary engineering and analytical services for pilot biomass monitoring, process development, and purification of crude lactic acid were available at this facility.

  17. Deformation of allochthonous salt and evolution of related salt-structural systems, eastern Louisiana Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, D.C.

    1996-12-31

    Salt tectonics in the northern Gulf of Mexico involves both vertical diapirism and lateral silling or flow of salt into wings and tablets (sheets). Combinations of these two modes of salt deformation, concurrent with sediment loading and salt evacuation, have produced complex structures in the coastal and offshore region of southeastern Louisiana, a prolific oil and gas province. Many large growth faults and salt domes in the study area root into intra-Tertiary salt welds that were formerly occupied by allochthonous salt tablets. Two end-member structural systems involving evacuation of former tabular salt are recognized: roho systems and stepped counter-regional systems. Both end-member systems share a similar multi-staged evolution, including (1) initial formation of a south-leaning salt dome or wall sourced from the Jurassic salt level; (2) progressive development into a semi-tabular allochthonous salt body; and (3) subsequent loading, evacuation, and displacement of the tabular salt into secondary domes. In both systems, it is not uncommon to find salt displaced as much as 16-24 km south of its autochthonous source, connected by a horizontal salt weld to an updip, deflated counter-regional feeder. Although both end-member structural systems may originate before loading of allochthonous salt having grossly similar geometry, their final structural configurations after loading and salt withdrawal are distinctly different. Roho systems are characterized by large-displacement, listric, south-dipping growth faults that sole into intra-Tertiary salt welds marked by high-amplitude reflections continuous with residual salt masses. Salt from the former salt tablets has been loaded and squeezed laterally and downdip. Stepped counter-regional systems, in contrast, comprise large salt domes and adjacent large-displacement, north-dipping growth faults that sole into intra-Tertiary salt welds before stepping down again farther north.

  18. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2015-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2014. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes. PMID:26420096

  19. Recent advances in the molten salt destruction of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pruneda, C. O., LLNL

    1996-09-01

    We have demonstrated the use of the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process for destroying explosives, liquid gun propellant, and explosives-contaminated materials on a 1.5 kg of explosive/hr bench- scale unit (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). In our recently constructed 5 kg/hr pilot- scale unit we have also demonstrated the destruction of a liquid gun propellant and simulated wastes containing HMX (octogen). MSD converts the organic constituents of the waste into non-hazardous substances such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water. Any inorganic constituents of the waste, such as metallic particles, are retained in the molten salt. The destruction of energetic materials waste is accomplished by introducing it, together with air, into a vessel containing molten salt (a eutectic mixture of sodium, potassium, and lithium carbonates). The following pure explosives have been destroyed in our bench-scale experimental unit located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF): ammonium picrate, HMX, K- 6 (keto-RDX), NQ, NTO, PETN, RDX, TATB, and TNT. In addition, the following compositions were also destroyed: Comp B, LX- IO, LX- 1 6, LX- 17, PBX-9404, and XM46 (liquid gun propellant). In this 1.5 kg/hr bench-scale unit, the fractions of carbon converted to CO and of chemically bound nitrogen converted to NO{sub x} were found to be well below 1%. In addition to destroying explosive powders and compositions we have also destroyed materials that are typical of residues which result from explosives operations. These include shavings from machined pressed parts of plastic-bonded explosives and sump waste containing both explosives and non-explosive debris. Based on the process data obtained on the bench-scale unit we designed and constructed a next-generation 5 kg/hr pilot-scale unit, incorporating LLNL`s advanced chimney design. The pilot unit has completed process implementation operations and explosives safety reviews. To date, in this pilot unit we have successfully destroyed liquid gun propellant and dimethylsulfoxide containing HMX in continuous, long-duration runs.

  20. Results from simulated remote-handled transuranic waste experiments at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    SciTech Connect

    Molecke, M A

    1992-01-01

    Multi-year, simulated remote-handled transuranic waste (RH TRU, nonradioactive) experiments are being conducted underground in the Waste Isolation Pilot-Plant (WIPP) facility. These experiments involve the near-reference (thermal and geometrical) testing of eight full size RH TRU test containers emplaced into horizontal, unlined rock salt boreholes. Half of the test emplacements are partially filled with bentonite/silica-sand backfill material. All test containers were electrically heated at about 115 W/each for three years, then raised to about 300 W/each for the remaining time. Each test borehole was instrumented with a selection of remote-reading thermocouples, pressure gages, borehole vertical-closure gages, and vertical and horizontal borehole-diameter closure gages. Each test emplacements was also periodically opened for visual inspections of brine intrusions and any interactions with waste package materials, materials sampling, manual closure measurements, and observations of borehole changes. Effects of heat on borehole closure rates and near-field materials (metals, backfill, rock salt, and intruding brine) interactions were closely monitored as a function of time. This paper summarizes results for the first five years of in situ test operation with supporting instrumentation and laboratory data and interpretations. Some details of RH TRU waste package materials, designs, and assorted underground test observations are also discussed. Based on the results, the tested RH TRU waste packages, materials, and emplacement geometry in unlined salt boreholes appear to be quite adequate for initial WIPP repository-phase operations.

  1. RESULTS OF ROUTINE STRIP EFFLUENT HOLD TANK AND DECONTAMINATED SALT SOLUTION HOLD TANK SAMPLES FROM MODULAR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT DURING MACROBATCH 3 OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2011-06-10

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT) and Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT) samples from several of the 'microbatches' of Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch ('Macrobatch') 3 have been analyzed for {sup 238}Pu, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICPES). The results indicate good decontamination performance within process design expectations. While the data set is sparse, the results of this set and the previous set of results for Macrobatch 3 samples indicate consistent operations. However, the Decontamination Factors for plutonium and strontium removal have declined in Macrobatch 3, compared to Macrobatch 2. This may be due to the differences in the Pu concentration or the bulk chemical concentrations in the feed material. SRNL is considering the possible reasons for this decline. The DSSHT samples show continued presence of titanium, likely from leaching of the monosodium titanate in ARP. During operation of the ISDP, quantities of salt waste are processed through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and MCU in batches of {approx}3800 gallons. Monosodium titanate (MST) is used in ARP to adsorb actinides and strontium from the salt waste and the waste slurry is then filtered prior to sending the clarified salt solution to MCU. The MCU uses solvent extraction technology to extract cesium from salt waste and concentrate cesium in an acidic aqueous stream (Strip Effluent - SE), leaving a decontaminated caustic salt aqueous stream (Decontaminated Salt Solution - DSS). Sampling occurs in the Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT) and Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT) in the MCU process. The MCU sample plan requires that batches be sampled and analyzed for plutonium and strontium content by Savannah River National Lab (SRNL) to determine MST effectiveness. The cesium measurement is used to monitor cesium removal effectiveness and the inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICPES) is used to monitor inorganic carryover.

  2. Salt Marshes along Little Mosquito Creek

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Salt marshes along Little Mosquito Creek of Chincoteague Island. The salt marshes that make up Chincoteague Island are important habitat for migrating waterfowl. In addition, they serve an important role in protecting inland ecosystems and communities from oceanic storms....

  3. Plant Zonation in a Salt Marsh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etri, Lawrence R.

    1978-01-01

    The zonation of plants within a salt marsh environment is detailed via illustrations and scientific nomeclature for purposes of encouraging outdoor educators to use the salt marsh environment as a learning laboratory. (JC)

  4. 7 CFR 58.437 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.437 Salt. The salt shall be free-flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet the requirements of the Food Chemical Codex. Operations and Operating...

  5. 7 CFR 58.437 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.437 Salt. The salt shall be free-flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet the requirements of the Food Chemical Codex. Operations and Operating...

  6. 7 CFR 58.437 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.437 Salt. The salt shall be free-flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet the requirements of the Food Chemical Codex. Operations and Operating...

  7. Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide Salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 08 / 016 F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF HYDROGEN CYANIDE AND CYANIDE SALTS ( CAS No . various ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) September 2010 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This docu

  8. Long-Term High-Level Defense-Waste technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-07-01

    In the residual liquid solidification effort, the primary alternative studied is the wiped film evaporator approach to solidifying salt well pumped liquids and returning the molten material to single shell tanks for microwave final stabilization to a hard dry product. Both systems analysis and experimental work are proceeding to evaluate this approach. The primary alternative for in situ stabilization of in-tank wastes is microwave drying of wet salt cake and unpumped sludges. Experimental work was successfully conducted on a 1/12 scale tank containing wet synthetic salt cake. Related systems analysis of a full scale system was initiated.

  9. Potential for exothermic chemical reactions in waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Van Tuyl, H.H.

    1983-02-03

    The potential for exothermic chemical reactions in waste tanks at Hanford is discussed. Organic chemicals have been added to Hanford waste tanks, particularly as ferrocyanides and when processing sludges at B Plant. Recent planned or ongoing activities involving stored wastes have possibly increased the potential for reaction of these wastes with nitrate salts in the waste tanks. Risk evaluations appear to be deficient in assessing the consequences of a deflagration, and in determining the probability of either a deflagration or detonation. The present question is whether current plans and recent safety-related documentation have given proper consideration to the available information about organic compounds in waste tanks. The principal organic additions to Hanford waste tanks are 1200 tonnes of organic carbon'' and 500 tonnes of Ni{sub 2}Fe(CN){sub 6}. 13 refs.

  10. Fenofibrate lowers blood pressure in salt-sensitive but not salt-resistant hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Kimberly; Nian, Hui; Yu, Chang; Luther, James M.; Brown, Nancy J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? agonists reduce blood pressure in rodents, but clinical trials provide conflicting data regarding their effects in humans. We tested the hypothesis that the effect of fenofibrate on blood pressure depends on salt sensitivity. Methods Thirty-one hypertensive volunteers (17 salt-resistant, 14 salt-sensitive) completed a randomized, crossover, double-blind protocol with three dietary phases: low salt diet (10 mmol/day) followed by two consecutive high salt diets (200 mmol/day), each for 6 days. During high salt, volunteers were randomized to fenofibrate 160 mg/day or placebo. Hemodynamic and metabolic parameters were measured on the last morning of each treatment arm. Results Fenofibrate reduced triglycerides similarly in salt-sensitive and salt-resistant volunteers. Fenofibrate did not affect blood pressure in salt-resistant volunteers. In salt-sensitive volunteers, fenofibrate significantly decreased diastolic (P =0.02 versus placebo) and mean arterial (P = 0.04 versus placebo) blood pressure during high salt. In all volunteers, the decrease in systolic pressure during fenofibrate correlated inversely with the salt sensitivity of mean arterial pressure as a continuous variable. Fenofibrate significantly decreased heart rate, plasma renin activity, and renal vascular resistance during high salt in salt-sensitive volunteers, but not salt-resistant volunteers. Fenofibrate did not affect sodium excretion or weight gain during high salt. The effect of salt intake and fenofibrate on plasma and urine epoxyeicosatrienoic acid concentrations differed in salt-resistant and salt-sensitive volunteers. Conclusion Fenofibrate reduces blood pressure, heart rate and renal vasoconstriction in salt-sensitive volunteers, but not in salt-resistant volunteers. These findings have implications for the treatment of hyperlipidemia in hypertensive individuals. PMID:23385647

  11. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 414 - Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing...Appendix A to Part 414—Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing...of ethylene Dialkyldithiocarbamates, metal salts/Dialkylamines + carbon...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 414 - Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 true Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing...Appendix A to Part 414—Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing...of ethylene Dialkyldithiocarbamates, metal salts/Dialkylamines + carbon...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 414 - Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2009-07-01 true Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing...Appendix A to Part 414—Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing...of ethylene Dialkyldithiocarbamates, metal salts/Dialkylamines + carbon...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 414 - Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 true Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing...Appendix A to Part 414—Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing...of ethylene Dialkyldithiocarbamates, metal salts/Dialkylamines + carbon...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 414 - Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 true Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing...Appendix A to Part 414—Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing...of ethylene Dialkyldithiocarbamates, metal salts/Dialkylamines + carbon...

  16. Salt marsh geomorphology: Physical and ecological effects on landform Keywords: salt marsh geomorphology; AGU Chapman Conference

    E-print Network

    Fagherazzi, Sergio

    Editorial Salt marsh geomorphology: Physical and ecological effects on landform Keywords: salt marsh geomorphology; AGU Chapman Conference Evidence that the three-dimensional structure of salt marsh, and the ratio of marsh edge:marsh interior have all been shown to affect the distribution and density of salt

  17. Modeling salt precipitation from brines on Mars: Evaporation versus freezing origin for soil salts

    E-print Network

    Winglee, Robert M.

    they are among the most hygroscopic salts known (Gough et al., 2011), and can depress the freezing point of water found that $1.3 wt.% H2O is held in hydrated salts if WCL solutions freeze. Given minimum water contentsModeling salt precipitation from brines on Mars: Evaporation versus freezing origin for soil salts

  18. I-NERI-2007-004-K, DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NEW HIGH-LEVEL WASTE FORMS FOR ACHIEVING WASTE MINIMIZATION FROM PYROPROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    S.M. Frank

    2011-09-01

    Work describe in this report represents the final year activities for the 3-year International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (I-NERI) project: Development and Characterization of New High-Level Waste Forms for Achieving Waste Minimization from Pyroprocessing. Used electrorefiner salt that contained actinide chlorides and was highly loaded with surrogate fission products was processed into three candidate waste forms. The first waste form, a high-loaded ceramic waste form is a variant to the CWF produced during the treatment of Experimental Breeder Reactor-II used fuel at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The two other waste forms were developed by researchers at the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). These materials are based on a silica-alumina-phosphate matrix and a zinc/titanium oxide matrix. The proposed waste forms, and the processes to fabricate them, were designed to immobilize spent electrorefiner chloride salts containing alkali, alkaline earth, lanthanide, and halide fission products that accumulate in the salt during the processing of used nuclear fuel. This aspect of the I-NERI project was to demonstrate 'hot cell' fabrication and characterization of the proposed waste forms. The outline of the report includes the processing of the spent electrorefiner salt and the fabrication of each of the three waste forms. Also described is the characterization of the waste forms, and chemical durability testing of the material. While waste form fabrication and sample preparation for characterization must be accomplished in a radiological hot cell facility due to hazardous radioactivity levels, smaller quantities of each waste form were removed from the hot cell to perform various analyses. Characterization included density measurement, elemental analysis, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and the Product Consistency Test, which is a leaching method to measure chemical durability. Favorable results from this demonstration project will provide additional options for fission product immobilization and waste management associated the electrochemical/pyrometallurgical processing of used nuclear fuel.

  19. 200 MAIN STREET, SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    200 MAIN STREET, SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING EAST OF "MAIN' STREET. REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 18273, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  20. INTERSECTION OF 445 NORTH & 1040 EAST, SALT LAKE CITY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERSECTION OF 445 NORTH & 1040 EAST, SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 18272, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  1. Salt in Dutchess Co. Waters Stuart Findlay

    E-print Network

    Berkowitz, Alan R.

    or Groundwater? STREAM · Road salt biggest source ­ others? #12;SOIL CORES HOLD Cl LONGER THAN WATER KincaidSalt in Dutchess Co. Waters Stuart Findlay Vicky Kelly Where are we now? Compared to what? Where be increasing · What else is coming along? #12;Scope for Action · Reduced Salt is in Everyone's Interest

  2. DEVELOPING INDICATORS OF SALT MARSH HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    We relate plant zonation in salt marshes to key ecosystem services such as erosion control and wildlife habitat. Ten salt marshes in Narragansett Bay, with similar geological bedrock and sea exchange, were identified to examine plant zonation. Sub-watersheds adjacent to the salt ...

  3. 7 CFR 58.328 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Salt. 58.328 Section 58.328 Agriculture Regulations...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.328 Salt. The salt shall be free-flowing, white refined sodium...

  4. 7 CFR 58.328 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Salt. 58.328 Section 58.328 Agriculture Regulations...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.328 Salt. The salt shall be free-flowing, white refined sodium...

  5. 7 CFR 58.328 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Salt. 58.328 Section 58.328 Agriculture Regulations...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.328 Salt. The salt shall be free-flowing, white refined sodium...

  6. 7 CFR 58.437 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Salt. 58.437 Section 58.437 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....437 Salt. The salt shall be free-flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet...

  7. 40 CFR 721.7655 - Alkylsulfonium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkylsulfonium salt. 721.7655 Section... Substances § 721.7655 Alkylsulfonium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylsulfonium salt (PMN P-93-1166)...

  8. 7 CFR 58.437 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salt. 58.437 Section 58.437 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....437 Salt. The salt shall be free-flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet...

  9. 40 CFR 721.7655 - Alkylsulfonium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkylsulfonium salt. 721.7655 Section... Substances § 721.7655 Alkylsulfonium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylsulfonium salt (PMN P-93-1166)...

  10. 40 CFR 721.6085 - Phosphonocarboxylate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphonocarboxylate salts. 721.6085... Substances § 721.6085 Phosphonocarboxylate salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as phosphonocarboxylate salts (PMNs...

  11. 7 CFR 58.437 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Salt. 58.437 Section 58.437 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....437 Salt. The salt shall be free-flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet...

  12. 7 CFR 58.721 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Salt. 58.721 Section 58.721 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....721 Salt. Salt shall be free flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet the requirements...

  13. 7 CFR 58.721 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Salt. 58.721 Section 58.721 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....721 Salt. Salt shall be free flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet the requirements...

  14. 40 CFR 721.6085 - Phosphonocarboxylate salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphonocarboxylate salts. 721.6085... Substances § 721.6085 Phosphonocarboxylate salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as phosphonocarboxylate salts (PMNs...

  15. 7 CFR 58.721 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Salt. 58.721 Section 58.721 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....721 Salt. Salt shall be free flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet the requirements...

  16. 40 CFR 721.7655 - Alkylsulfonium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkylsulfonium salt. 721.7655 Section... Substances § 721.7655 Alkylsulfonium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylsulfonium salt (PMN P-93-1166)...

  17. 7 CFR 58.328 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Salt. 58.328 Section 58.328 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....328 Salt. The salt shall be free-flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet...

  18. 40 CFR 721.7655 - Alkylsulfonium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkylsulfonium salt. 721.7655 Section... Substances § 721.7655 Alkylsulfonium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylsulfonium salt (PMN P-93-1166)...

  19. 7 CFR 58.328 - Salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Salt. 58.328 Section 58.328 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....328 Salt. The salt shall be free-flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet...

  20. 2013 -2014 SALT Center SCHOLARSHIP AWARD APPLICATION

    E-print Network

    Watkins, Joseph C.

    2013 - 2014 SALT Center SCHOLARSHIP AWARD APPLICATION Deadline: March 1, 2013 Scholarship Awards of the candidate. (Factors considered: FAFSA, GPA, SALT Center usage) Scholarship Awards are based upon available funds. Scholarship Awards apply to SALT Center program fees only. Scholarship Application materials