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1

Technology applications for radioactive waste minimization  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear power industry has achieved one of the most successful examples of waste minimization. The annual volume of low-level radioactive waste shipped for disposal per reactor has decreased to approximately one-fifth the volume about a decade ago. In addition, the curie content of the total waste shipped for disposal has decreased. This paper will discuss the regulatory drivers and economic factors for waste minimization and describe the application of technologies for achieving waste minimization for low-level radioactive waste with examples from the nuclear power industry.

Devgun, J.S.

1994-07-01

2

Minimizing hazardous waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hazardous waste minimization is a broad term often associated with pollution prevention, saving the environment or protecting Mother Earth. Some associate hazardous waste minimization with saving money. Thousands of hazardous materials are used in processes every day, but when these hazardous materials become hazardous wastes, dollars must be spent for disposal. When hazardous waste is reduced, an organization will spend

DeClue

1996-01-01

3

Waste minimization handbook, Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This technical guide presents various methods used by industry to minimize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated during decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities. Such activities generate significant amounts of LLW during their operations. Waste minimization refers to any measure, procedure, or technique that reduces the amount of waste generated during a specific operation or project. Preventive waste minimization techniques implemented when a project is initiated can significantly reduce waste. Techniques implemented during decontamination activities reduce the cost of decommissioning. The application of waste minimization techniques is not limited to D and D activities; it is also useful during any phase of a facility`s life cycle. This compendium will be supplemented with a second volume of abstracts of hundreds of papers related to minimizing low-level nuclear waste. This second volume is expected to be released in late 1996.

Boing, L.E.; Coffey, M.J.

1995-12-01

4

Refinery waste minimization  

SciTech Connect

Waste minimization in petroleum refining is becoming increasingly important for doing business in the `90s. In 1993, the Mobil Torrance Refinery landfilled 97% less waste than the amount disposed in 1989. The refinery recycled less than 1% of the waste generated in 1989, and more than 70% generated in 1993. This paper presents the Refinery`s method of achieving these results. Success can be attributed to a structured, results oriented waste minimization program which evolved from a refinery waste engineer`s plan to an integrated team approach within the refinery, the west coast, and all of Mobil U.S. Marketing and Refining. The key elements of this evolved program are: Upper management support; corporate waste minimization committee; waste management costs and accountability at the lowest levels; setting goals; waste tracking; performance reporting and rewards/publishing successes. This program has led the refinery to utilize innovative approaches to waste management problems. This paper includes a discussion of the structure of the waste minimization program, soil remediation, catalyst recycling, sludge coking, resale/reuse of refinery by-products, and source reduction efforts. Technologies successfully employed in soil remediation are: chemical fixation, in-situ and ex-situ bioremediation, and pH neutralization. Several refinery by-products are now sold to other industries. All refinery catalysts are recycled or otherwise beneficially reused. Utilization of the Mobil Oil Sludge Coking (MOSC{trademark}) process has increased over 400% since 1991.

Richardson, K.E. [Mobil Oil Corp., Torrance, CA (United States)

1995-09-01

5

Waste minimization, McMurdo  

NSF Publications Database

... Action Memorandum (Waste Minimization, Treatment and Disposal Program for McMurdo Station Including ... two major projects: (1) waste minimization, treatment and disposal; and, (2) preliminary assessment ...

6

Foam application of oxalic acid as a decontamination waste minimization tool.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of foam in applying decontamination solutions has proven to bc an effective waste minimization strategy. Initial trials in 299-H indicated a 70% reduction in waste volume. An overpressurization of the equipment during a decon operation. however, i...

K. D. Peterson

1992-01-01

7

Guidelines for mixed waste minimization  

SciTech Connect

Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization.

Owens, C.

1992-02-01

8

Waste Minimization Plan Prepared by  

E-print Network

of the environmental and financial impacts related to the disposal Waste Minimization Plan Prepared by: Environmental Health and Safety Department Revised February 2012 #12;Waste Minimization Plan Table of Contents Policy Statement

9

Eleventh annual Department of Energy low-level waste management conference. Volume 3: Waste characterization, waste reduction and minimization, prototype licensing application.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thirteen papers are presented in volume 3. The seven papers on waste characterization discuss sampling, analysis, and certification techniques for low-level radioactive wastes. Three papers discuss US DOE waste minimization policies and regulations, Y-12 ...

1989-01-01

10

Transuranic waste minimization and avoidance.  

SciTech Connect

This paper assesses the effectiveness of existing, planned and proposed waste avoidance and minimization projects in reducing the amount of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Transuranic (TRU) waste requiring disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The majority of the TRU wastes generated at LANL are associated with the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program, the Milliwatt Heat Source Program, and nuclear materials R&D. NMT Division is the principal waste generator responsible for these programs, which are conducted at the Plutonium Facility (TA-55-PF4) and the CMR Facility (TA-3, Building SM-29). The DOE 2005 Pollution Prevention goals require that the DOE complex reduce 'routine' TRU/MTRU waste generation by 80% to <141 m{sup 3} by 2005. LANL's allocation of that 141 m{sup 3} has not been determined. However, LANL must reduce its present generation rate if the DOE is to achieve that goal. Between 1993 and 1998, the amount of TRU waste generated by LANL increased from 76.7 to 121.7 m{sup 3} (58%). The volume of routine TRU waste produced by LANL has been increasing recently as a result of increased mission activities. The effectiveness of the minimization technologies was applied against a base case rate. Since many of the processing systems are not yet operational, assumptions were made about the their operational startup, waste processing rates and minimization capabilities.

Dodge, R. L. (Robert L.); Montoya, A. J. (Andrew J.)

2001-01-01

11

Foam application of oxalic acid as a decontamination waste minimization tool  

SciTech Connect

The use of foam in applying decontamination solutions has proven to bc an effective waste minimization strategy. Initial trials in 299-H indicated a 70% reduction in waste volume. An overpressurization of the equipment during a decon operation. however, indicated the need to better define chemical compatibility and to develop inherently safer equipment. A foamer system with an open solution vessel and 1:1 ratio pneumatically actuated pump was modified, tested and found to operate satisfactorily. Laboratory tests indicate no significant incompatibilities between the foam agent and oxalic or dilute nitric acid solutions. Oxalic acid/foam agent compatibility was verified in the foamer vessel for concentrations up to 4 weight percent. It is recommended, however, that 1 weight percent oxalic acid be used in plant decon operations. The defoamer used previously is no longer in production. A new defoamer remains to be tested. Limited use of the foamer in 299-H can now be initiated. Long term use of foam and its impact on waste tank processes is being reviewed.

Peterson, K.D.

1992-03-09

12

LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

This document is the February 14, 1990 version of the LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan (WMPP). The Waste Minimization Policy field has undergone continuous changes since its formal inception in the 1984 HSWA legislation. The first LLNL WMPP, Revision A, is dated March 1985. A series of informal revision were made on approximately a semi-annual basis. This Revision 2 is the third formal issuance of the WMPP document. EPA has issued a proposed new policy statement on source reduction and recycling. This policy reflects a preventative strategy to reduce or eliminate the generation of environmentally-harmful pollutants which may be released to the air, land surface, water, or ground water. In accordance with this new policy new guidance to hazardous waste generators on the elements of a Waste Minimization Program was issued. In response to these policies, DOE has revised and issued implementation guidance for DOE Order 5400.1, Waste Minimization Plan and Waste Reduction reporting of DOE Hazardous, Radioactive, and Radioactive Mixed Wastes, final draft January 1990. This WMPP is formatted to meet the current DOE guidance outlines. The current WMPP will be revised to reflect all of these proposed changes when guidelines are established. Updates, changes and revisions to the overall LLNL WMPP will be made as appropriate to reflect ever-changing regulatory requirements. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Not Available

1990-02-14

13

Waste minimization in analytical methods  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) will require a large number of waste characterizations over a multi-year period to accomplish the Department`s goals in environmental restoration and waste management. Estimates vary, but two million analyses annually are expected. The waste generated by the analytical procedures used for characterizations is a significant source of new DOE waste. Success in reducing the volume of secondary waste and the costs of handling this waste would significantly decrease the overall cost of this DOE program. Selection of appropriate analytical methods depends on the intended use of the resultant data. It is not always necessary to use a high-powered analytical method, typically at higher cost, to obtain data needed to make decisions about waste management. Indeed, for samples taken from some heterogeneous systems, the meaning of high accuracy becomes clouded if the data generated are intended to measure a property of this system. Among the factors to be considered in selecting the analytical method are the lower limit of detection, accuracy, turnaround time, cost, reproducibility (precision), interferences, and simplicity. Occasionally, there must be tradeoffs among these factors to achieve the multiple goals of a characterization program. The purpose of the work described here is to add waste minimization to the list of characteristics to be considered. In this paper the authors present results of modifying analytical methods for waste characterization to reduce both the cost of analysis and volume of secondary wastes. Although tradeoffs may be required to minimize waste while still generating data of acceptable quality for the decision-making process, they have data demonstrating that wastes can be reduced in some cases without sacrificing accuracy or precision.

Green, D.W.; Smith, L.L.; Crain, J.S.; Boparai, A.S.; Kiely, J.T.; Yaeger, J.S. Schilling, J.B.

1995-05-01

14

National Institutes of Health: Mixed waste minimization and treatment  

SciTech Connect

The Appalachian States Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission requested the US Department of Energy`s National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) to assist the biomedical community in becoming more knowledgeable about its mixed waste streams, to help minimize the mixed waste stream generated by the biomedical community, and to identify applicable treatment technologies for these mixed waste streams. As the first step in the waste minimization process, liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste (LLMW) streams generated at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) were characterized and combined into similar process categories. This report identifies possible waste minimization and treatment approaches for the LLMW generated by the biomedical community identified in DOE/LLW-208. In development of the report, on site meetings were conducted with NIH personnel responsible for generating each category of waste identified as lacking disposal options. Based on the meetings and general waste minimization guidelines, potential waste minimization options were identified.

NONE

1995-08-01

15

The OTD Robotics Waste Minimization Program  

SciTech Connect

The danger to human health and safety posed by exposure to transuranic (TRU) and Pu contaminated materials necessitates remote processing in confined environments. Currently these operations are carried out in gloveboxes and hot-cells by human operators using lead- lined gloves or teleoperated manipulators. Protective clothing worn by operators during gloved operations has contributed significantly to the waste problems currently facing site remediators. The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER/WM) Program is in the process of developing and demonstrating technologies to assist in the remediation of sites that have accumulated wastes generated using these processes over the past five decades. Recognizing that continued use of existing production, recovery and waste treatment systems will compound the remediation problem, DOE has made a commitment to waste minimization. To reduce waste generation during weapons production and waste processing operations, automated processes are being developed and demonstrated for use in future DOE processing facilities as part of OTD's Robotics Technology Development Program. These technologies are currently being applied to pyrochemical processing systems to demonstrate conversion of plutonium oxide to metal. However, these technologies are expected to have applications in a variety of waste processing systems including those used to treat high-level tank wastes, buried wastes requiring remote processing, mixed wastes, and unknown hazardous materials. In addition to reducing the future waste burden of DOE, automated processes are an effective way to comply with existing and anticipated federal, state, and local regulations related to personal health and safety and the health of the environment.

Couture, S.A.

1992-04-01

16

Application of geographic information systems to waste minimization efforts at the national laboratories  

Microsoft Academic Search

At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), facility waste streams tend to be small but highly diverse. Initial characterization of such waste streams is often difficult in part due to a lack of tools to assist the generators themselves in completing such assessments. A methodology has been developed at LANL to allow process knowledgeable field personnel to develop baseline waste generation

T. W. Lyttle; D. M. Smith; M. Burns; J. B. Weinrach

1993-01-01

17

Application of geographic information systems to waste minimization efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), facility waste streams tend to be small but highly diverse. Initial characterization of such waste streams is often difficult in part due to a lack of tools to assist the generators themselves in completing such assessments. A methodology has been developed at LANL to allow process knowledgeable field personnel to develop baseline waste generation

T. W. Lyttle; D. M. Smith; M. Burns; J. B. Weinrach

1993-01-01

18

Application of molten salt oxidation for the minimization and recovery of plutonium-238 contaminated wastes  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the technical and economic feasibility of molten salt oxidation technology as a volume reduction and recovery process for {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste. Combustible low-level waste material contaminated with {sup 238}Pu residue is destroyed by oxidation in a 900 C molten salt reaction vessel. The combustible waste is destroyed creating carbon dioxide and steam and a small amount of ash and insoluble {sup 2328}Pu in the spent salt. The valuable {sup 238}Pu is recycled using aqueous recovery techniques. Experimental test results for this technology indicate a plutonium recovery efficiency of 99%. Molten salt oxidation stabilizes the waste converting it to a non-combustible waste. Thus installation and use of molten salt oxidation technology will substantially reduce the volume of {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste. Cost-effectiveness evaluations of molten salt oxidation indicate a significant cost savings when compared to the present plans to package, or re-package, certify and transport these wastes to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for permanent disposal. Clear and distinct cost advantages exist for MSO when the monetary value of the recovered {sup 238}Pu is considered.

Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.

1998-12-31

19

Application of molten salt oxidation for the minimization and recovery of plutonium-238 contaminated wastes  

SciTech Connect

Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is proposed as a {sup 238}Pu waste treatment technology that should be developed for volume reduction and recovery of {sup 238}Pu and as an alternative to the transport and permanent disposal of {sup 238}Pu waste to the WIPP repository. In MSO technology, molten sodium carbonate salt at 800--900 C in a reaction vessel acts as a reaction media for wastes. The waste material is destroyed when injected into the molten salt, creating harmless carbon dioxide and steam and a small amount of ash in the spent salt. The spent salt can be treated using aqueous separation methods to reuse the salt and to recover 99.9% of the precious {sup 238}Pu that was in the waste. Tests of MSO technology have shown that the volume of combustible TRU waste can be reduced by a factor of at least twenty. Using this factor the present inventory of 574 TRU drums of {sup 238}Pu contaminated wastes is reduced to 30 drums. Further {sup 238}Pu waste costs of $22 million are avoided from not having to repackage 312 of the 574 drums to a drum total of more than 4,600 drums. MSO combined with aqueous processing of salts will recover approximately 1.7 kilograms of precious {sup 238}Pu valued at 4 million dollars (at $2,500/gram). Thus, installation and use of MSO technology at LANL will result in significant cost savings compared to present plans to transport and dispose {sup 238}Pu TRU waste to the WIPP site. Using a total net present value cost for the MSO project as $4.09 million over a five-year lifetime, the project can pay for itself after either recovery of 1.6 kg of Pu or through volume reduction of 818 drums or a combination of the two. These savings show a positive return on investment.

Wishau, R.

1998-05-01

20

The OTD Robotics Waste Minimization Program  

SciTech Connect

The danger to human health and safety posed by exposure to transuranic (TRU) and Pu contaminated materials necessitates remote processing in confined environments. Currently these operations are carried out in gloveboxes and hot-cells by human operators using lead- lined gloves or teleoperated manipulators. Protective clothing worn by operators during gloved operations has contributed significantly to the waste problems currently facing site remediators. The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER/WM) Program is in the process of developing and demonstrating technologies to assist in the remediation of sites that have accumulated wastes generated using these processes over the past five decades. Recognizing that continued use of existing production, recovery and waste treatment systems will compound the remediation problem, DOE has made a commitment to waste minimization. To reduce waste generation during weapons production and waste processing operations, automated processes are being developed and demonstrated for use in future DOE processing facilities as part of OTD`s Robotics Technology Development Program. These technologies are currently being applied to pyrochemical processing systems to demonstrate conversion of plutonium oxide to metal. However, these technologies are expected to have applications in a variety of waste processing systems including those used to treat high-level tank wastes, buried wastes requiring remote processing, mixed wastes, and unknown hazardous materials. In addition to reducing the future waste burden of DOE, automated processes are an effective way to comply with existing and anticipated federal, state, and local regulations related to personal health and safety and the health of the environment.

Couture, S.A.

1992-04-01

21

Plastic wastes and the potential for waste minimization  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines plastic waste minimization from an economic perspective and addresses several issues: the definition and measurement of plastic waste minimization, projections of quantities and sources of future plastic wastes, the role of government in promoting plastic waste minimization. For the purposes of this paper, plastic waste minimization is defined as any activity at the manufacturing level that (1) reduces the quantity of plastics used in products, (2) reduces the toxicity of plastics used in products, or (3) directly or indirectly promotes the recycling of plastic wastes. Several conclusions are drawn. First, the potential for plastic waste minimization is difficult to qualify, much less quantify, because waste minimization must be discussed in relation to the potential indirect consequences of minimization efforts. Second, valid arguments can be made to defend government actions to encourage plastic waste minimization. Those arguments focus on market failures resulting from environmental externalities and the failure to price solid waste disposal at marginal cost. Several alternative government measures are available to encourage waste minimization -- with various pros and cons. Third, measures that are currently being discussed to promote quantity reductions are not likely to have a significant effect on the quantities of plastic waste produced. Fourth, measures to reduce the toxicity of plastics are difficult to evaluate because there is no concensus on the environmental threat posed by currently-used plastics. The current evidence suggests that plastics do not pose significant environmental problems when either landfilled or incinerated. 22 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Curlee, T.R.

1990-03-13

22

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A BOURBON DISTILLERY  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected un...

23

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A DAIRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Ce...

24

WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - FORT RILEY, KANSAS  

EPA Science Inventory

Under the Waste Reduction Evaluations at Federal Sites (WREAFS) Program, a waste minimization opportunity assessment was conducted at a maintenance operation carried out at one of the U.S. Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) Fort Riley, Kansas facilities. hese facilities generate waste...

25

Waste minimization in an autobody repair shop  

SciTech Connect

This work was done to document the waste minimization incorporated in a new autobody repair facility in Hermantown, Minnesota. Humes Collision Center incorporated new waste reduction techniques when it expanded its old facilities in 1992 and it was able to achieve the benefits of cost reduction and waste reduction. Humes Collision Center repairs an average of 500 cars annually and is a very small quantity generator (VSQG) of hazardous waste, as defined by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA). The hazardous waste consists of antifreeze, batteries, paint sludge, refrigerants, and used oil, while the nonhazardous waste consists of cardboard, glass, paint filters, plastic, sanding dust, scrap metal, and wastewater. The hazardous and nonhazardous waste output were decreased by 72%. In addition, there was a 63% reduction in the operating costs. The waste minimization includes antifreeze recovery and recycling, reduction in unused waste paint, reduction, recovery and recycle of waste lacquer thinner for cleaning spray guns and paint cups, elimination of used plastic car bags, recovery and recycle of refrigerant, reduction in waste sandpaper and elimination of sanding dust, and elimination of waste paint filters. The rate of return on the investment in waste minimization equipment is estimated from 37% per year for the distillation unit, 80% for vacuum sanding, 146% for computerized paint mixing, 211% for the refrigerant recycler, to 588% per year for the gun washer. The corresponding payback time varies from 3 years to 2 months.

Baria, D.N.; Dorland, D.; Bergeron, J.T. [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1994-12-31

26

Waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this plan is to document the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. The intent of this plan is to respond to and comply with (DOE's) policy and guidelines concerning the need for pollution prevention. The Plan is composed of a LLNL Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan and, as attachments, Program- and Department-specific waste minimization plans. This format reflects the fact that waste minimization is considered a line management responsibility and is to be addressed by each of the Programs and Departments. 14 refs.

Not Available

1991-05-31

27

EPA WASTE MINIMIZATION RESEARCH PROGRAM: AN OVERVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established a waste minimization research program within the Office of Research and Development's Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory which is the primary contact for pollution prevention research efforts concentrating on source ...

28

Waste minimization at La Hague  

SciTech Connect

The industrial mastery of commercial reprocessing gained by COGEMA is the result of a progressive strategy. Today more than 25 years after the start-up of the facilities which initiated the commercial reprocessing at La Hague, the recovery and recycling of energetic materials are demonstrated and the necessary industrial facilities are available. The second objective of reprocessing, i.e. safe on-line waste conditioning has been achieved in the UP3 plant. At the present time, there are strong incentives to reduce the volumes of HLW and TRU waste, in all countries involved in nuclear electricity generation and COGEMA is making significant progress in reducing the volume of wastes generated in its reprocessing plants to provide the best possible reprocessing service and simplify waste management practices through a continuous policy of progress. When UP3 was designed, it was planned to produce 0.75 glass canisters and 3 bitumen drums per ton of uranium reprocessed. Through changes in the waste management practices and plant modifications, COGEMA will eliminate all bitumen waste forms by 1995. Furthermore, an advanced compaction technology for the hulls and end-pieces will be implemented at the La Hague reprocessing plant in the coming years. Similarly, volumes of technological residues will be reduced from 1,700 liters per MTU to only 200 liters per MTU, with further progress planned in the coming years.

Masson, H.; Roux, P.

1994-12-31

29

Utilization of biocatalysts in cellulose waste minimization  

SciTech Connect

Cellulose, a polymer of glucose, is the principal component of biomass and, therefore, a major source of waste that is either buried or burned. Examples of biomass waste include agricultural crop residues, forestry products, and municipal wastes. Recycling of this waste is important for energy conservation as well as waste minimization and there is some probability that in the future biomass could become a major energy source and replace fossil fuels that are currently used for fuels and chemicals production. It has been estimated that in the United States, between 100-450 million dry tons of agricultural waste are produced annually, approximately 6 million dry tons of animal waste, and of the 190 million tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated annually, approximately two-thirds is cellulosic in nature and over one-third is paper waste. Interestingly, more than 70% of MSW is landfilled or burned, however landfill space is becoming increasingly scarce. On a smaller scale, important cellulosic products such as cellulose acetate also present waste problems; an estimated 43 thousand tons of cellulose ester waste are generated annually in the United States. Biocatalysts could be used in cellulose waste minimization and this chapter describes their characteristics and potential in bioconversion and bioremediation processes.

Woodward, J.; Evans, B.R.

1996-09-01

30

EXPERIENCE WITH THE EPA MANUAL FOR WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessments Manual (EPA/625/7-88/003) is designed to assist those responsible for planning, managing, and implementing waste minimization activities at the waste generating operation and at all management levels. The Manual defines waste minimizatio...

31

Development of a waste minimization expert system prototype  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is the development of a generalized advanced waste minimization applicable to waste on any site, but oriented to DOE operations. The framework for the methodology is a PC-based expert system that leads the user through a waste minimization process that will tailor the general program to their specific circumstances through interactions with the experts at their facility and the expert knowledge embodied in the shell. Under this framework, the expert system will consider the implementation of several activities pertaining to waste minimization. The expert system addresses two main areas relevant to waste minimization: information and implementation. The information phase of the system provides the regulations, schedule, planning, and structure needed to minimize waste. The implementation phase includes: waste characterization and conducting research, development, and process analysis of prioritized streams. The information portion of WMES will create an environmental information system (EIS) for the facility that will be available to everyone who has a PC computer. The implementation part is the working portion where planning and implementation activities are carried out by managers and waste handlers.

Ferrada, J.J.; Rodgers, B.R.

1992-03-01

32

Environmental projects. Volume 16: Waste minimization assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC), located in the MoJave Desert, is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Deep Space Network (DSN), the world's largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation network. The Goldstone Complex is operated for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. At present, activities at the GDSCC support the operation of nine parabolic dish antennas situated at five separate locations known as 'sites.' Each of the five sites at the GDSCC has one or more antennas, called 'Deep Space Stations' (DSS's). In the course of operation of these DSS's, various hazardous and non-hazardous wastes are generated. In 1992, JPL retained Kleinfelder, Inc., San Diego, California, to quantify the various streams of hazardous and non-hazardous wastes generated at the GDSCC. In June 1992, Kleinfelder, Inc., submitted a report to JPL entitled 'Waste Minimization Assessment.' This present volume is a JPL-expanded version of the Kleinfelder, Inc. report. The 'Waste Minimization Assessment' report did not find any deficiencies in the various waste-management programs now practiced at the GDSCC, and it found that these programs are being carried out in accordance with environmental rules and regulations.

1994-01-01

33

Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L. (Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

1991-07-01

34

Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1991-07-01

35

One hospital's road to waste minimization.  

PubMed

There are many new and exciting waste minimization programs being offered to healthcare facilities. Companies are now making reusable operating packs and gowns that are more efficient than disposables. The selling point is that the system will save healthcare money! The reusable programs do save disposal costs for an institution. Shore Memorial has scheduled a trial evaluation for reusable operating room linens to begin May 1, 1994. The concept has not been difficult to sell to physicians and staff. Perhaps this is because people are generally more aware of their environment and the reasons why it should be protected. The hospital will also be evaluating an IV bottle and bag recycling program. The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Agency has given approval to proceed with this type of recycling program, and Shore Memorial is in the process of scheduling this trial program with a local vendor. Waste reduction and recycling in healthcare settings will continue to be challenging because of the diversity of the wastestream and the changing environment facing healthcare. Certainly, healthcare has as much of a responsibility to the well-being of patients as it does to keeping the environment healthy. Returning to the "old way" of doing things, such as reusables, does not have a negative impact on people, but it does have an impact on the environment. Shore Memorial believes it is moving in the right direction with its waste minimization program to make a positive environmental impact. PMID:10135120

Hooper, D M

1994-05-01

36

WASTE MINIMIZATION AUDIT REPORT: CASE STUDIES OF MINIMIZATION OF SOLVENT WASTE FROM PARTS CLEANING AND FROM ELECTRONIC CAPACITOR MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

To promote waste minimization activities in accordance with the national policy objectives established under the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), the Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Laboratory (HWERL) of ...

37

Waste Minimization via Radiological Hazard Reduction  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS), a 803 km{sup 2} U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility in south-western South Carolina, incorporates pollution prevention as a fundamental component of its Environmental Management System. A comprehensive pollution prevention program was implemented as part of an overall business strategy to reduce waste generation and pollution releases, minimize environmental impacts, and to reduce future waste management and pollution control costs. In fiscal years 1995 through 1997, the Site focused on implementing specific waste reduction initiatives identified while benchmarking industry best practices. These efforts resulted in greater than $25 million in documented cost avoidance. While these results have been dramatic to date, the Site is further challenged to maximize resource utilization and deploy new technologies and practices to achieve further waste reductions. The Site has elected to target a site-wide reduction of contaminated work spaces in fiscal year 1998 as the primary source reduction initiative. Over 120,900 m{sup 2} of radiologically contaminated work areas (approximately 600 separate inside areas) exist at SRS. Reduction of these areas reduces future waste generation, minimizes worker exposure, and reduces surveillance and maintenance costs. This is a major focus of the Site`s As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) program by reducing sources of worker exposure. The basis for this approach was demonstrated during 1997 as part of a successful Enhanced Work Planning pilot conducted at several specific contamination areas at SRS. An economic-based prioritization process was utilized to develop a model for prioritizing areas to reclaim. In the H-Canyon Separation facility, over 3,900 m{sup 2} of potentially contaminated area was rolled back to a Radiation Buffer Area. The facility estimated nearly 420 m{sup 3} of low level radioactive waste will be avoided each year, and overall cost savings and productivity gains will reach approximately $1 million annually as a result of this effort. During fiscal year 1998, SRS will intensify the reclamation of contaminated work areas through implementation of the Site Rollback Plan. The economic based model was utilized to prioritize areas for reclamation based on achieving a return on investment of over 2:1. Generators have been challenged to exceed planned rollbacks through a DOE imposed Performance Based Incentive with the Site Operator. In the first quarter, over 1,580 m{sup 2} of contaminated areas have been reclaimed with approximately 7,720 m{sup 2} remaining to be done before the end of the fiscal year.

Stone, K.A. [British Nuclear Fuels, Ltd. Savannah River Corp., Aiken, SC (United States); Coffield, T. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Hooker, K.L. [USDOE (United States)

1998-03-01

38

Analytical procedures for waste minimization and pollution prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Procedures exist for waste characterization, but waste minimization and pollution prevention have not usually played a role in development of these procedures. The US Department of Energy (DOE) expects to require several million characterizations over a 30-year period to accomplish the Department`s goals in environmental restoration and waste management. The waste generated by the analytical procedures used for characterizations is

D. W. Green; L. L. Smith; J. S. Crain; A. S. Boparai; J. B. Schilling

1994-01-01

39

Waste-minimization opportunity assessment, Fort Riley, Kansas. Summary report, April 1989-December 1989  

SciTech Connect

Under the Waste Reduction Evaluations at Federal Sites (WREAFS) Program, a waste minimization opportunity assessment was conducted at a maintenance operation carried out at one of the U.S. Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) Fort Riley, Kansas facilities. These facilities generate waste battery acid and metals-contaminated alkaline wastewaters. The waste minimization assessment developed two recycling options for these RCRA wastes: (1) Filtration, restrengthening and recycling of waste battery acid as a replacement for virgin battery acid and, (2) purification and reuse of alkaline detergent solution for automotive parts cleaning. The payback periods for these two waste reduction options are very short and create the potential for application of similar waste minimization options in at least ten other U.S. Army FORSCOM installations.

Drabkin, M.; Bridges, J.S.

1990-07-01

40

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD MANUFACTURER  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected ...

41

Waste Minimization Assessment for Multilayered Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manu facturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at s...

42

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PREWASHED JEANS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cen...

43

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF MILITARY FURNITURE  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established t selected u...

44

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF COATED PARTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effeort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Ce...

45

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PLIERS AND WRENCHES  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Cen...

46

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF SURGICAL IMPLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Ce...

47

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF MICROELECTRONIC COMPONENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Cen...

48

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF REFURBISHED RAILCAR ASSEMBLIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected ...

49

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist mall- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Cen...

50

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF AERIAL LIFTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their geneation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cente...

51

Using benchmarking to minimize common DOE waste streams: Volume 5. Office paper waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finding innovative ways to reduce waste streams generated at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites by 50% by the year 2000 is a challenge for DOE`s waste minimization efforts. A team composed of members from several DOE facilities used the quality tool known as benchmarking to improve waste minimization efforts. First the team examined office waste generation and handling processes

1995-01-01

52

40 CFR 262.27 - Waste minimization certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...in place to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated to the degree I have determined...have made a good faith effort to minimize my waste generation and select the best waste management method that is available to me and that I...

2011-07-01

53

40 CFR 262.27 - Waste minimization certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...in place to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated to the degree I have determined...have made a good faith effort to minimize my waste generation and select the best waste management method that is available to me and that I...

2013-07-01

54

40 CFR 262.27 - Waste minimization certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...in place to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated to the degree I have determined...have made a good faith effort to minimize my waste generation and select the best waste management method that is available to me and that I...

2010-07-01

55

40 CFR 262.27 - Waste minimization certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...in place to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated to the degree I have determined...have made a good faith effort to minimize my waste generation and select the best waste management method that is available to me and that I...

2012-07-01

56

Minimization of mixed waste in explosive testing operations  

SciTech Connect

In the 1970s and 1980s, efforts to manage mixed waste and reduce pollution focused largely on post-process measures. In the late 1980s, the approach to waste management and pollution control changed, focusing on minimization and prevention rather than abatement, treatment, and disposal. The new approach, and the formulated guidance from the US Department of Energy, was to take all necessary measures to minimize waste and prevent the release of pollutants to the environment. Two measures emphasized in particular were source reduction (reducing the volume and toxicity of the waste source) and recycling. In 1988, a waste minimization and pollution prevention program was initiated at Site 300, where the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) conducts explosives testing. LLNL`s Defense Systems/Nuclear Design (DS/ND) Program has adopted a variety of conservation techniques to minimize waste generation and cut disposal costs associated with ongoing operations. The techniques include minimizing the generation of depleted uranium and lead mixed waste through inventory control and material substitution measures and through developing a management system to recycle surplus explosives. The changes implemented have reduced annual mixed waste volumes by more than 95% and reduced overall radioactive waste generation (low-level and mixed) by more than 75%. The measures employed were cost-effective and easily implemented.

Gonzalez, M.A.; Sator, F.E.; Simmons, L.F.

1993-02-01

57

Minimization of mixed waste in explosive testing operations  

SciTech Connect

In the 1970s and 1980s, efforts to manage mixed waste and reduce pollution focused largely on post-process measures. In the late 1980s, the approach to waste management and pollution control changed, focusing on minimization and prevention rather than abatement, treatment, and disposal. The new approach, and the formulated guidance from the US Department of Energy, was to take all necessary measures to minimize waste and prevent the release of pollutants to the environment. Two measures emphasized in particular were source reduction (reducing the volume and toxicity of the waste source) and recycling. In 1988, a waste minimization and pollution prevention program was initiated at Site 300, where the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) conducts explosives testing. LLNL's Defense Systems/Nuclear Design (DS/ND) Program has adopted a variety of conservation techniques to minimize waste generation and cut disposal costs associated with ongoing operations. The techniques include minimizing the generation of depleted uranium and lead mixed waste through inventory control and material substitution measures and through developing a management system to recycle surplus explosives. The changes implemented have reduced annual mixed waste volumes by more than 95% and reduced overall radioactive waste generation (low-level and mixed) by more than 75%. The measures employed were cost-effective and easily implemented.

Gonzalez, M.A.; Sator, F.E.; Simmons, L.F.

1993-02-01

58

Savannah River Site Radiological Technology Center's Efforts Supporting Waste Minimization  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the efforts of the newly formed Radiological Technology Center (RTC) at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) to support waste minimization. The formation of the RTC was based upon the highly successful ALARA Center at the DOE Hanford Site. The RTC is tasked with evaluation and dissemination of new technologies and techniques for radiological hazard reduction and waste minimization. Initial waste minimization efforts have focused on the promotion of SRS containment fabrication capabilities, new personal protective equipment and use of recyclable versus disposable materials.

Rosenberger, K. H.; Smith, L. S.; Bates, R. L.

2003-02-25

59

Foam is a decon waste minimization tool  

SciTech Connect

The use of foam in decontamination operations offers significant reductions in waste generation. Initial use has confirmed its effectiveness. Issues being resolved at Savannah River Site (SRS) include compatibility of foam generating solutions with decontamination solutions, waste disposal, and operational safety.

Peterson, K.D.; McGlynn, J.F.; Rankin, W.N.

1991-04-18

60

Waste Minimization Policy at the Romanian Nuclear Power Plant  

SciTech Connect

The radioactive waste management system at Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in Romania was designed to maintain acceptable levels of safety for workers and to protect human health and the environment from exposure to unacceptable levels of radiation. In accordance with terminology of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), this system consists of the ''pretreatment'' of solid and organic liquid radioactive waste, which may include part or all of the following activities: collection, handling, volume reduction (by an in-drum compactor, if appropriate), and storage. Gaseous and aqueous liquid wastes are managed according to the ''dilute and discharge'' strategy. Taking into account the fact that treatment/conditioning and disposal technologies are still not established, waste minimization at the source is a priority environmental management objective, while waste minimization at the disposal stage is presently just a theoretical requirement for future adopted technologies . The necessary operational and maintenance procedures are in place at Cernavoda to minimize the production and contamination of waste. Administrative and technical measures are established to minimize waste volumes. Thus, an annual environmental target of a maximum 30 m3 of radioactive waste volume arising from operation and maintenance has been established. Within the first five years of operations at Cernavoda NPP, this target has been met. The successful implementation of the waste minimization policy has been accompanied by a cost reduction while the occupational doses for plant workers have been maintained at as low as reasonably practicable levels. This paper will describe key features of the waste management system along with the actual experience that has been realized with respect to minimizing the waste volumes at the Cernavoda NPP.

Andrei, V.; Daian, I.

2002-02-26

61

Trends and Opportunities in Industrial Hazardous Waste Minimization  

E-print Network

This paper describes trends and opportunities in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act hazardous waste minimization. It uses U.S. Environmental Protection Agency data gathered since 1989 from over 20,000 facilities that account for almost all...

Atlas, M.

62

WASTE MINIMIZATION IN THE PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD INDUSTRY: CASE STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents information on waste minimization practices currently employed in the printed circuit board (PCB) and semiconductor manufacturing industries. Case studies conducted at six facilities evaluated the technical, environmental and cost impacts associated with the i...

63

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A BOURBON DISTILLERY  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected un...

64

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF INDUSTRIAL COATINGS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a' pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected u...

65

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF WATER ANALYSIS INSTRUMENTATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-sized manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at...

66

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR AN ALUMINUM EXTRUSIONS MANUFACTURERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected u...

67

Analytical procedures for waste minimization and pollution prevention  

SciTech Connect

Procedures exist for waste characterization, but waste minimization and pollution prevention have not usually played a role in development of these procedures. The US Department of Energy (DOE) expects to require several million characterizations over a 30-year period to accomplish the Department`s goals in environmental restoration and waste management. The waste generated by the analytical procedures used for characterizations is a significant source of new DOE waste. We have begun investigating ways to reduce these secondary wastes, focusing on three areas: microanalysis using flow injection; reduction of solvent volume required for dissolution of waste samples for radiochemical analysis; and alternative samples preparation for analysis of organic constituents in waste samples. Preliminary results are reported.

Green, D.W.; Smith, L.L.; Crain, J.S.; Boparai, A.S.; Schilling, J.B.

1994-05-01

68

Waste Minimization: A Hidden Energy Savings?  

E-print Network

and must be recycled, this "energy input" is lost. If the product cannot be recycled, either as a differ ent product or as fuel, then the original inherent energy in the raw material and the energy used in processing is lost. If incineration is required..., then additional energy is lost. A fourth element can best be described as "waste and the liability thereof is yours forever." Many responsible companies are participants in Superfund cleanups because waste was sent to a recycler or disposal service...

Good, R. L.; Hunt, K. E.

69

Secondary waste minimization in analytical methods  

SciTech Connect

The characterization phase of site remediation is an important and costly part of the process. Because toxic solvents and other hazardous materials are used in common analytical methods, characterization is also a source of new waste, including mixed waste. Alternative analytical methods can reduce the volume or form of hazardous waste produced either in the sample preparation step or in the measurement step. The authors are examining alternative methods in the areas of inorganic, radiological, and organic analysis. For determining inorganic constituents, alternative methods were studied for sample introduction into inductively coupled plasma spectrometers. Figures of merit for the alternative methods, as well as their associated waste volumes, were compared with the conventional approaches. In the radiological area, the authors are comparing conventional methods for gross {alpha}/{beta} measurements of soil samples to an alternative method that uses high-pressure microwave dissolution. For determination of organic constituents, microwave-assisted extraction was studied for RCRA regulated semivolatile organics in a variety of solid matrices, including spiked samples in blank soil; polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in soils, sludges, and sediments; and semivolatile organics in soil. Extraction efficiencies were determined under varying conditions of time, temperature, microwave power, moisture content, and extraction solvent. Solvent usage was cut from the 300 mL used in conventional extraction methods to about 30 mL. Extraction results varied from one matrix to another. In most cases, the microwave-assisted extraction technique was as efficient as the more common Soxhlet or sonication extraction techniques.

Green, D.W.; Smith, L.L.; Crain, J.S.; Boparai, A.S.; Kiely, J.T.; Yaeger, J.S.; Schilling, J.B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Analytical Chemistry Lab.

1995-07-01

70

WASTE MINIMIZATION AUDIT REPORT: CASE STUDIES OF MINIMIZATION OF MERCURY-BEARING WASTES AT A MERCURY CELL CHLORALKALI PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report documents the results of waste minimization audits carried out at two mercury cell chloralkali plants in 1987. The audit addressed to waste streams, K-071-brine purification muds, and K-106-wastewater treatment sludges from Mercury cell processes in chlorine production...

71

WASTE MINIMIZATION AUDIT REPORT: CASE STUDIES OF CORROSIVE AND HEAVY METAL WASTE MINIMIZATION AT A SPECIALTY STEEL MANUFACTURING COMPLEX  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is expanding its efforts to promote waste minimization activity in the private sector by providing technical assistance to generators of hazardous waste. As part of the effort, the EPA Office of Research and Development/Hazardous Was...

72

Minimization and management of wastes from biomedical research.  

PubMed

Several committees were established by the National Association of Physicians for the Environment to investigate and report on various topics at the National Leadership Conference on Biomedical Research and the Environment held at the 1--2 November 1999 at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland. This is the report of the Committee on Minimization and Management of Wastes from Biomedical Research. Biomedical research facilities contribute a small fraction of the total amount of wastes generated in the United States, and the rate of generation appears to be decreasing. Significant reductions in generation of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes have recently been reported, even at facilities with rapidly expanding research programs. Changes in the focus of research, improvements in laboratory techniques, and greater emphasis on waste minimization (volume and toxicity reduction) explain the declining trend in generation. The potential for uncontrolled releases of wastes from biomedical research facilities and adverse impacts on the general environment from these wastes appears to be low. Wastes are subject to numerous regulatory requirements and are contained and managed in a manner protective of the environment. Most biohazardous agents, chemicals, and radionuclides that find significant use in research are not likely to be persistent, bioaccumulative, or toxic if they are released. Today, the primary motivations for the ongoing efforts by facilities to improve minimization and management of wastes are regulatory compliance and avoidance of the high disposal costs and liabilities associated with generation of regulated wastes. The committee concluded that there was no evidence suggesting that the anticipated increases in biomedical research will significantly increase generation of hazardous wastes or have adverse impacts on the general environment. This conclusion assumes the positive, countervailing trends of enhanced pollution prevention efforts by facilities and reductions in waste generation resulting from improvements in research methods will continue. PMID:11121362

Rau, E H; Alaimo, R J; Ashbrook, P C; Austin, S M; Borenstein, N; Evans, M R; French, H M; Gilpin, R W; Hughes, J; Hummel, S J; Jacobsohn, A P; Lee, C Y; Merkle, S; Radzinski, T; Sloane, R; Wagner, K D; Weaner, L E

2000-12-01

73

Minimization and management of wastes from biomedical research.  

PubMed Central

Several committees were established by the National Association of Physicians for the Environment to investigate and report on various topics at the National Leadership Conference on Biomedical Research and the Environment held at the 1--2 November 1999 at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland. This is the report of the Committee on Minimization and Management of Wastes from Biomedical Research. Biomedical research facilities contribute a small fraction of the total amount of wastes generated in the United States, and the rate of generation appears to be decreasing. Significant reductions in generation of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes have recently been reported, even at facilities with rapidly expanding research programs. Changes in the focus of research, improvements in laboratory techniques, and greater emphasis on waste minimization (volume and toxicity reduction) explain the declining trend in generation. The potential for uncontrolled releases of wastes from biomedical research facilities and adverse impacts on the general environment from these wastes appears to be low. Wastes are subject to numerous regulatory requirements and are contained and managed in a manner protective of the environment. Most biohazardous agents, chemicals, and radionuclides that find significant use in research are not likely to be persistent, bioaccumulative, or toxic if they are released. Today, the primary motivations for the ongoing efforts by facilities to improve minimization and management of wastes are regulatory compliance and avoidance of the high disposal costs and liabilities associated with generation of regulated wastes. The committee concluded that there was no evidence suggesting that the anticipated increases in biomedical research will significantly increase generation of hazardous wastes or have adverse impacts on the general environment. This conclusion assumes the positive, countervailing trends of enhanced pollution prevention efforts by facilities and reductions in waste generation resulting from improvements in research methods will continue. PMID:11121362

Rau, E H; Alaimo, R J; Ashbrook, P C; Austin, S M; Borenstein, N; Evans, M R; French, H M; Gilpin, R W; Hughes, J; Hummel, S J; Jacobsohn, A P; Lee, C Y; Merkle, S; Radzinski, T; Sloane, R; Wagner, K D; Weaner, L E

2000-01-01

74

Waste minimization: What a university is doing to reduce waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the cost of low-level waste (LLW) disposal has spiraled upward and the ability to even dispose of LLW has been questioned, the University of Florida has undertaken a study of waste generation, its cost, and its reduction. This paper reports on the results of that study.

W. Coughlin; W. Properzio; C. Pitcher; J. Tulenko

1995-01-01

75

Technologies and methods for waste minimization in the analytical laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Routine environmental and waste analytical methods are quite prescriptive and often do not include the principles of waste minimization and pollution prevention. A classic example is the procedure currently approved and in use for the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure published in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations. This procedure tests materials for the leachability of toxic components. The approved procedure requires that a 100-g sample of the unknown be leached with a solvent 20 times its weight. This procedure generates 2 L of liquid waste, which becomes hazardous waste if any one of 40 inorganic or organic contaminants exceeds the established regulatory level. Add to this level any secondary waste associated with instrument calibration and quality control for the analysis, and the waste stream has multiplied over 20-fold. Only a small percentage of the sample generated in the previous scenario is actually used for the analysis. This example is by no means unique.

Erickson, M.D.; Alvarado, J.S.; Lu, Cheng-Shen [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31

76

Lessons in waste minimization from nuclear industry experience  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear power industry has been very successful at reducing waste volumes and waste sources. The success has been driven by escalating cost, decreasing disposal ability, and a desire by the industry to achieve excellence. The result has been a cycle of continuing improvement resulting in reduced cost. Many of the examples of Dry Active Waste reduction are applicable to the Department of Energy in both operations and remedial activities. This paper discusses several successful examples of utility applications in this area.

Devgun, J.S.; Thuot, J.R.; Vrtis, J.

1996-07-01

77

Treatment and minimization of heavy metal-containing wastes 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

This symposium was held in conjunction with the 1995 Annual Meeting of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society in Las Vegas, Nevada, February 12--16, 1995. The purpose of this meeting was to provide a forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on treating and minimizing heavy metal-containing wastes. Papers were categorized under the following broad headings: aqueous processing; waste water treatment;

J. P. Hager; B. Mishra; C. F. Davidson; J. L. Litz

1995-01-01

78

Hanford site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program  

SciTech Connect

This plan documents the requirements of the Hanford Site Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) Program. The plan specifies requirements for Hanford contractors to prevent pollution from entering the environment, to conserve resources and energy, and to reduce the quantity and toxicity of hazardous, radioactive, mixed, and sanitary waste generated at Hanford. The Pollution Prevention Awareness Program required by DOE 5400.1 (DOE 1988A) is included in the Hanford WMin/P2 Program.

Kirkendall, J.R.

1996-09-23

79

Opportunity assessments: A tool for waste minimization and pollution prevention  

SciTech Connect

Waste costs, liabilities, and regulations continue to be growing concerns for government and industry. Pollution prevention opportunity assessments (PPOAs) are a tool which proactively manages these concerns. The Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the benefits of PPOAs in the DOE Waste Minimization Pollution Prevention Crosscut Plan which states that the completion of opportunity assessments is of critical importance to DOE because they are an essential management decision-making tool that tell DOE: (1) how much waste and environmental releases can be avoided; (2) through what activity/process changes waste reduction can be achieved; (3) what it will cost to implement a pollution prevention opportunity; and (4) what will be the long-term savings in avoided waste management costs. Before exploring what a PPOA is, a brief discussion of pollution prevention is necessary. Pollution prevention (P2) may also be referred to as waste minimization, source reduction, and/or recycling. The definition used in the DOE-sponsored PPOA training class is: {open_quotes}Pollution prevention reduces or eliminates material releases to air, water, and/or land.{close_quotes} The benefits of pollution prevention include a proactive approach to waste management, compliance issues, and liability concerns; economic incentives; improved employee and public health; and environmental stewardship. Basically it all boils down to the phrase, {open_quotes}It`s the right thing to do.{close_quotes}

Pemberton, S.E.; Schlosberg, W.H.

1995-03-01

80

WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: SCOTT AIR FORCE BASE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes a waste minimization assessment of three operations at Scott AFB. ircuit board manufacturing, non-destructive wheel inspection, and paint shipping/painting/parts cleaning are the operations addressed in this assessment. he primary focus of the assessment was...

81

WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - SCOTT AIR FORCE BASE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes a waste minimization assessment of three operations at Scott AFB. ircuit board manufacturing, non-destructive wheel inspection, and paint shipping/painting/parts cleaning are the operations addressed in this assessment. he primary focus of the assessment was...

82

A reverse logistics cost minimization model for the treatment of hazardous wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents a cost-minimization model for a multi-time-step, multi-type hazardous-waste reverse logistics system. A discrete-time linear analytical model is formulated that minimizes total reverse logistics operating costs subject to constraints that take into account such internal and external factors as business operating strategies and governmental regulations. Application cases are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach. By

Tung-Lai Hu; Jiuh-Biing Sheu; Kuan-Hsiung Huang

2002-01-01

83

WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: NAVAL UNDERSEA WARFARE ENGINEERING STATION - KEYPORT, WA  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes the application of EPA's waste minimization assessment procedures to a torpedo maintenance facility at the Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station, Keyport, WA. he assessment focused on the Mark 48 shop and the Mark 46 shop. hese shops service the Mark 48...

84

Using benchmarking to minimize common DOE waste streams. Volume 1, Methodology and liquid photographic waste  

SciTech Connect

Finding innovative ways to reduce waste streams generated at Department of Energy (DOE) sites by 50% by the year 2000 is a challenge for DOE`s waste minimization efforts. This report examines the usefulness of benchmarking as a waste minimization tool, specifically regarding common waste streams at DOE sites. A team of process experts from a variety of sites, a project leader, and benchmarking consultants completed the project with management support provided by the Waste Minimization Division EM-352. Using a 12-step benchmarking process, the team examined current waste minimization processes for liquid photographic waste used at their sites and used telephone and written questionnaires to find ``best-in-class`` industrv partners willing to share information about their best waste minimization techniques and technologies through a site visit. Eastman Kodak Co., and Johnson Space Center/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) agreed to be partners. The site visits yielded strategies for source reduction, recycle/recovery of components, regeneration/reuse of solutions, and treatment of residuals, as well as best management practices. An additional benefit of the work was the opportunity for DOE process experts to network and exchange ideas with their peers at similar sites.

Levin, V.

1994-04-01

85

Annual Report on Waste Generation and Waste Minimization Progress, 1991--1992  

SciTech Connect

This report is DOE`s first annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress. Data presented in this report were collected from all DOE sites which met minimum threshold criteria established for this report. The fifty-seven site submittals contained herein represent data from over 100 reporting sites within 25 states. Radioactive, hazardous and sanitary waste quantities and the efforts to minimize these wastes are highlighted within the fifty-seven site submittals. In general, sites have made progress in moving beyond the planning phase of their waste minimization programs. This is evident by the overall 28 percent increase in the total amount of materials recycled from 1991 to 1992, as well as individual site initiatives. During 1991 and 1992, DOE generated a total of 279,000 cubic meters of radioactive waste and 243,000 metric tons of non-radioactive waste. These waste amounts include significant portions of process wastewater required to be reported to regulatory agencies in the state of Texas and the state of Tennessee. Specifically, the Pantex Plant in Texas treats an industrial wastewater that is considered by the Texas Water Commission to be a hazardous waste. In 1992, State regulated wastewater from the Pantex Plant represented 3,620 metric tons, 10 percent of the total hazardous waste generated by DOE. Similarly, mixed low-level wastewater from the TSCA Incinerator Facility at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site in Tennessee represented 55 percent of the total radioactive waste generated by DOE in 1992.

Not Available

1994-02-01

86

Pollution prevention and waste minimization opportunity assessment in environmental restoration  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Restoration (ER) Project at Sandia National Laboratories implicitly subscribed to the philosophy of pollution prevention and waste minimization. As a result of a Department of Energy (DOE) offer, Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (PPOA) were conducted at two ER sites and a decontamination and Demolition (D and D) site. The purpose of one of the PPOAs was to identify pollution prevention (P2) opportunities during environmental remediation at the Classified Waste Landfill located at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The remediation activities at this site are scheduled to begin in the fall of 1997. The PPOA included presentations by the team members, a tour of the site, and a brainstorming session to list the waste streams, identify P2 opportunities and rank them in order of priority. Twenty-five P2 opportunities were identified during the brainstorming session of which twenty-two opportunities were selected for further investigation. Those twenty-two opportunities are discussed in this paper. A cost benefit analysis was performed for each P2 opportunity based on the estimated waste volume, feasibility, and cost. Pollution Prevention by Design (P2D) was incorporated into the PPOA to introduce waste minimization techniques that can be used during the planning phase of restoration projects.

Roybal, J.A.; Willison, C.P.

1997-10-01

87

Drug waste minimization as an effective strategy of cost-containment in Oncology  

PubMed Central

Background Sustainability of cancer care is a crucial issue for health care systems worldwide, even more during a time of economic recession. Low-cost measures are highly desirable to contain and reduce expenditures without impairing the quality of care. In this paper we aim to demonstrate the efficacy of drug waste minimization in reducing drug-related costs and its importance as a structural measure in health care management. Methods We first recorded intravenous cancer drugs prescription and amount of drug waste at the Oncology Department of Udine, Italy. Than we developed and applied a protocol for drug waste minimization based on per-pathology/per-drug scheduling of chemotherapies and pre-planned rounding of dosages. Results Before the protocol, drug wastage accounted for 8,3% of the Department annual drug expenditure. Over 70% of these costs were attributable to six drugs (cetuximab, docetaxel, gemcitabine, oxaliplatin, pemetrexed and trastuzumab) that we named ‘hot drugs’. Since the protocol introduction, we observed a 45% reduction in the drug waste expenditure. This benefit was confirmed in the following years and drug waste minimazion was able to limit the impact of new pricely drugs on the Department expenditures. Conclusions Facing current budgetary constraints, the application of a drug waste minimization model is effective in drug cost containment and may produce durable benefits. PMID:24507545

2014-01-01

88

360 Degree Photography to Decrease Exposure, Increase Safety & Minimize Waste  

SciTech Connect

High-resolution digital cameras, in conjunction with software techniques. make possible 360{sup o} photos that allow a person to look all around, up and dawn, and zoom in or out. The software provides the opportunity to attach other information to a 360{sup o} photo such as sound tiles, flat photos (providing additional detail about what is behind a panel or around a corner) and text (Information which can be used to show radiological conditions or identify other hazards not readily visible). The software also allows other 360{sup o} photos to be attached creating a virtual tour where the user can move from area to area, and stop, study and zoom in on areas of interest. A virtual tour of a building or room can be used for facility documentation, informing management and others, work planning and orientation, and training, thus minimizing the need to re-enter hazardous radioactive areas. Reducing entries decreases exposure, increases safety and minimizes waste.

LEBARON, G.J.

2002-01-31

89

Chelating water-soluble polymers for waste minimization  

SciTech Connect

Within the DOE complex and in industry there is a tremendous need for advanced metal ion recovery and waste minimization techniques. This project sought to employ capabilities for ligand-design and separations chemistry in which one can develop and evaluate water- soluble chelating polymers for recovering actinides and toxic metals from various process streams. Focus of this work was (1) to develop and select a set of water-soluble polymers suitable for a selected waste stream and (2) demonstrate this technology in 2 areas: removal of (a) actinides and toxic RCRA metals from waste water and (b) recovery of Cu and other precious metals from industrial process streams including from solid catalysts and aqueous waste streams. The R&D was done in 4 phases for each of the 2 target areas: polymer synthesis for scaleup, equipment assembly, process demonstration at a DOE or industrial site, and advanced ligand/polymer synthesis. The TA- 50 site at Los Alamos was thought to be appropriate due to logistics and to its being representative of similar problems throughout the DOE complex.

Smith, B.; Cournoyer, M.; Duran, B.; Ford, D.; Gibson, R.; Lin, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Meck, A.; Robinson, P. [N,P Energy, Inc. (United States); Robison, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-11-01

90

Hanford Site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan  

SciTech Connect

This plan, which is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400. 1, provides waste minimization and pollution prevention guidance for all Hanford Site contractors. The plan is primary in a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan, Prime contractor implementation plans, and the Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation (DOE-RL, 1997a) describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and 3005(h) (RCRA and EPA, 1994). Items discussed include the pollution prevention policy and regulatory background, organizational structure, the major objectives and goals of Hanford Site`s pollution prevention program, and an itemized description of the Hanford Site pollution prevention program. The document also includes US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office`s (RL`s) statement of policy on pollution prevention as well as a listing of regulatory drivers that require a pollution prevention program.

Place, B.G.

1998-09-24

91

Applicability of a field-portable toxic heavy metal detector, using a radioisotope-tagged metalloprotein, to DOE environmental remediation and waste minimization initiatives  

SciTech Connect

A system based on the metal-binding kidney protein, metallothionein, bound with a trace quantity of radioactive metal, has been shown to be capable of detecting parts-per-million (ppm) to parts-per-billion (ppb) concentrations of some heavy metals in liquid solution. The main objective of this study was to determine if this type of system has adequate sensitivity and selectivity for application in detecting a number of metallic species of concern to DOE, such as mercury, lead, and chromium. An affinity-displacement study is reported here using the heavy metal radiotracers {sup 65}Zn and {sup 109}Cd bound to metallothionein immobilized on an Affi-Gel 10 filter support. When a heavy metal solution with a greater affinity than the tracer for the protein is poured through the filter the radiotracer is displaced by a mechanism similar to ion exchange. The main objective of this study was to verify previous internal experimental parameters and results, and to determine the specific affinities of metallothionein for the metallic species of most concern to DOE.

Randles, K.E. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States); Bragg, D.J.; Bodette, D.E.; Lipinski, R.J.; Luera, T.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-08-01

92

Proceedings of pollution prevention and waste minimization tools workshop  

SciTech Connect

Pollution Prevention (P2) has evolved into one of DOE`s sprime strategies to meet environmental, fiscal, and worker safety obligations. P2 program planning, opportunity identification, and implementation tools were developed under the direction of the Waste Minimization Division (EM-334). Forty experts from EM, DP, ER and DOE subcontractors attended this 2-day workshop to formulate the incentives to drive utilization of these tools. Plenary and small working group sessions were held both days. Working Group 1 identified incentives to overcoming barriers in the area of P2 program planning and resource allocation. Working Group 2 identified mechanisms to drive the completion of P2 assessments and generation of opportunities. Working Group 3 compiled and documented a broad range of potential P2 incentives that address fundamental barriers to implementation of cost effective opportunities.

NONE

1995-11-01

93

The IFR pyroprocessing for high-level waste minimization  

SciTech Connect

The process developed for the recycle of integral fast reactor (IFR) spent fuel utilizes a combination of pyrometallurgical and electrochemical methods and has been termed pyroprocessing. The process has been operated at full scale with simulated spent fuel using nonradioactive fission product elements. A comprehensive demonstration of the pyroprocessing of irradiated IFR fuel will begin later this year. Pyroprocessing involves the anodic dissolution of all the constituent elements of the IFR spent fuel and controlled electrotransport (electrorefining) to separate the actinide elements from the fission products present in the spent fuel. The process be applied to the processing of spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel as well, requiring only the addition of a reduction step to convert the LWR fuel as well, requiring only the addition of a reduction step to convert the LWR oxide fuel to metallic form and a separation step to separate uranium from the transuranic (TRU) elements. The TRU elements are then recovered by electroefining in the same manner as the actinides from the IFR high-level wastes arising from pyroprocessing are virtually free of actinides, and the volume of the wastes is minimized by the intrinsic characteristics of the processing of the processing method.

Laidler, J.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

1993-01-01

94

Waste-minimization assessment for a bumper-refinishing plant. Environmental research brief  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA\\/625\\/7-88\\/003, July 1988). The

F. W. Kirsch; G. P. Looby

1991-01-01

95

Waste-minimization assessment for a paint-manufacturing plant. Environmental research brief  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA\\/625\\/7-88\\/003, July 1988). The

F. W. Kirsch; G. P. Looby

1991-01-01

96

Development and pilot demonstration program of a waste minimization plan at Argonne National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

In response to US Department of Energy directives, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed a waste minimization plan aimed at reducing the amount of wastes at this national research and development laboratory. Activities at ANL are primarily research- oriented and as such affect the amount and type of source reduction that can be achieved at this facility. The objective of ANL's waste minimization program is to cost-effectively reduce all types of wastes, including hazardous, mixed, radioactive, and nonhazardous wastes. The ANL Waste Minimization Plan uses a waste minimization audit as a systematic procedure to determine opportunities to reduce or eliminate waste. To facilitate these audits, a computerized bar-coding procedure is being implemented at ANL to track hazardous wastes from where they are generated to their ultimate disposal. This paper describes the development of the ANL Waste Minimization Plan and a pilot demonstration of the how the ANL Plan audited the hazardous waste generated within a selected divisions of ANL. It includes quantitative data on the generation and disposal of hazardous waste at ANL and describes potential ways to minimize hazardous wastes. 2 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

Peters, R.W.; Wentz, C.A.; Thuot, J.R.

1991-01-01

97

40 CFR 63.1213 - How can the compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization...  

...compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls...compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls...reasonably document that the installation of pollution prevention or waste...

2014-07-01

98

Waste Minimization- The Challenge of the 90's  

E-print Network

and that waste must be treated. Dow's primary method of destruction is high temperature incineration or bioxidation, depending on the waste. Those wastes which are not amenable to be destroyed ? such as asbestos - must also be disposed of properly... and that waste must be treated. Dow's primary method of destruction is high temperature incineration or bioxidation, depending on the waste. Those wastes which are not amenable to be destroyed ? such as asbestos - must also be disposed of properly...

Durham, R.

99

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF CUTTING AND WELDING EQUIPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot program to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so in an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

100

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONING CONDENSERS AND EVAPORATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilotproject to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected u...

101

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF ALUMINUM AND STEEL PARTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-sized manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Ce...

102

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A STEEL FABRICATOR (EPA/600/S-95/006)  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected u...

103

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF IRON CASTINGS AND FABRICATED SHEET METAL PARTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected u...

104

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF COMPONENTS FOR AUTOMOBILE AIR CONDITIONERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected ...

105

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF BRAZED ALUMINUM OIL COOLERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

106

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF MOUNTINGS FOR ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT COMPONENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

107

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF METAL-PLATED DISPLAY RACKS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established t selected u...

108

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PRINTED PLASTIC BAGS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established ...

109

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF LABELS AND FLEXIBLE PACKAGING  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

110

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF COATED PARTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

111

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PRE-WASHED JEANS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

112

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF FINISHED METAL AND PLASTIC PARTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Ce...

113

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR ROTOGRAVURE PRINTING CYLINDER MANUFACTURING  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expense to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Center...

114

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A BUMPER REFINISHING PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

115

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A PAINT MANUFACTURING PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

116

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF MOTOR VEHICLE EXTERIOR MIRRORS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected ...

117

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF CUSTOM MOLDED PLASTIC PRODUCTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected ...

118

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR MANUFACTURER OF GRAVUER-COATED METALIZED PAPER AND METALIZED FILM  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cen...

119

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF REBUILT RAILWAY CARS AND COMPONENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

120

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PAINTS AND LACQUERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

121

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

122

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF FELT TIP MARKERS, STAMP PADS, AND RUBBER CEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

123

Molten salt treatment to minimize and optimize waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination molten salt oxidizer (MSO) and molten salt reactor (MSR) is described for treatment of waste. The MSO is proposed for contained oxidization of organic hazardous waste, for reduction of mass and volume of dilute waste by evaporation of the water. The NTSO residue is to be treated to optimize the waste in terms of its composition, chemical form,

U. Gat; S. M. Crosley; R. L. Gay

1993-01-01

124

Waste minimization charges up recycling of spent lead-acid batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substantial strides are being made to minimize waste generated form spent lead-acid battery recycling. The Center for Hazardous Materials Research (Pittsburgh) recently investigated the potential for secondary lead smelters to recover lead from battery cases and other materials found at hazardous waste sites. Primary and secondary lead smelters in the U.S. and Canada are processing substantial tons of lead wastes,

P. B. Queneau; A. L. Troutman

1993-01-01

125

Potentials for food waste minimization and effects on potential biogas production through anaerobic digestion.  

PubMed

Several treatment alternatives for food waste can result in both energy and nutrient recovery, and thereby potential environmental benefits. However, according to the European Union waste management hierarchy, waste prevention should be the prioritized strategy to decrease the environmental burdens from all solid waste management. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the potential for food waste minimization among Swedish households through an investigation of the amount of avoidable food waste currently disposed of. A further aim was to investigate the effect on the national biogas production potential through anaerobic digestion of food waste, considering minimization potentials. A method for waste composition analyses of household food waste, where a differentiation between avoidable and unavoidable food waste is made, was used in a total of 24 waste composition analyses of household waste from Swedish residential areas. The total household food waste generation reached 3.4 kg (household and week)(-1), on average, of which 34% is avoidable. The theoretical methane (CH4) potential in unavoidable food waste reached 442 Ndm(3) (kg VS)(-1) or 128 Nm(3) tonne(-1) wet waste, while the measured (mesophilic CH4 batch tests) CH4 production reached 399 Ndm(3) (kg VS)(-1), which is lower than several previous assessments of CH4 production from household food waste. According to this study the combination of a decrease in food waste generation-in case of successful minimization-and decreased CH4 production from unavoidable food waste will thus result in lower total potential energy recovery from household food waste through anaerobic digestion CH4 potential than previously stated. PMID:23681829

Schott, Anna Bernstad Saraiva; Vukicevic, Sanita; Bohn, Irene; Andersson, Tova

2013-08-01

126

Strategic Minimization of High Level Waste from Pyroprocessing of Spent Nuclear Fuel  

SciTech Connect

The pyroprocessing of spent nuclear fuel results in two high-level waste streams--ceramic and metal waste. Ceramic waste contains active metal fission product-loaded salt from the electrorefining, while the metal waste contains cladding hulls and undissolved noble metals. While pyroprocessing was successfully demonstrated for treatment of spent fuel from Experimental Breeder Reactor-II in 1999, it was done so without a specific objective to minimize high-level waste generation. The ceramic waste process uses “throw-away” technology that is not optimized with respect to volume of waste generated. In looking past treatment of EBR-II fuel, it is critical to minimize waste generation for technology developed under the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). While the metal waste cannot be readily reduced, there are viable routes towards minimizing the ceramic waste. Fission products that generate high amounts of heat, such as Cs and Sr, can be separated from other active metal fission products and placed into short-term, shallow disposal. The remaining active metal fission products can be concentrated into the ceramic waste form using an ion exchange process. It has been estimated that ion exchange can reduce ceramic high-level waste quantities by as much as a factor of 3 relative to throw-away technology.

Simpson, Michael F.; Benedict, Robert W.

2007-09-01

127

Sanitizing And Minimizing Databases For Software Application Test Outsourcing  

E-print Network

Sanitizing And Minimizing Databases For Software Application Test Outsourcing Boyang Li College approach for Protecting and mInimizing databases for Software TestIng taSks (PISTIS) that both sanitizes of the data in the cluster. Doing so also sanitizes information, since these centroid objects replace

Poshyvanyk, Denys

128

Minimizing demolition wastes in Hong Kong public housing projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Being one of the major housing developers in Hong Kong, the Hong Kong Housing Authority (HA) carries out a large number of construction and demolition projects. As a result, a large amount of construction and demolition waste is produced. As for demolition projects, demolition wastes usually contain a large amount of reusable materials. If sorted out properly, these materials could

Chi Sun Poon; Ann Tit Wan Yu; Siu Ching See; Esther Cheung

2004-01-01

129

Waste minimization charges up recycling of spent lead-acid batteries  

SciTech Connect

Substantial strides are being made to minimize waste generated form spent lead-acid battery recycling. The Center for Hazardous Materials Research (Pittsburgh) recently investigated the potential for secondary lead smelters to recover lead from battery cases and other materials found at hazardous waste sites. Primary and secondary lead smelters in the U.S. and Canada are processing substantial tons of lead wastes, and meeting regulatory safeguards. Typical lead wastes include contaminated soil, dross and dust by-products from industrial lead consumers, tetraethyl lead residues, chemical manufacturing by-products, leaded glass, china clay waste, munitions residues and pigments. The secondary lead industry also is developing and installing systems to convert process inputs to products with minimum generation of liquid, solid and gaseous wastes. The industry recently has made substantial accomplishments that minimize waste generation during lead production from its bread and butter feedstock--spent lead-acid batteries.

Queneau, P.B.; Troutman, A.L. (Hazen Research Inc., Golden, CO (United States))

1993-08-01

130

Reviewing Applicants: Understanding and minimizing the  

E-print Network

Schemas o Stereotypes o Mental models o Cognitive shortcuts o Statistical discrimination o Implicit and women ­ hold unconscious biases about groups of people. · Depending on the discipline unconscious biases pictures, words, or applications with a racial or gender indicator o Isolate gender, race, or ethnicity

Sheridan, Jennifer

131

PROCEEDINGS OF INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON RESEARCH IN PESTICIDE TREATMENT/DISPOSAL/WASTE MINIMIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The International Workshop on Research in Pesticide Management, Disposal, and Waste Minimization was held in Cincinnati, Ohio, February 26-27, 1991. he purpose of this workshop was to provide government officials, pesticide user groups, pesticide producers and farm organizations ...

132

INVESTIGATION OF CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES TO MINIMIZE AUTOMOTIVE COOLANT WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The US Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the State of New Jersey evaluated chemical filtration and distillation technologies designed to recycle automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants. These evaluations addressed the product quality, waste reduction and econo...

133

Radioactive waste minimization at a large academic medical facility.  

PubMed

The University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) at Galveston is a large academic medical center with about 12,700 employees, 350 radioisotope research labs and 200 permitted radioactive materials users. Consequently, UTMB generates a fairly large amount of radioactive waste. The majority of this waste contains short-lived radionuclides, such as 32P, 33P, and 35S, which are held for decay and then disposed at a sanitary landfill. However, some waste, including long-lived waste and stock vials, is compacted into drums and stored in a warehouse facility, on-site, until disposal at a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) facility. Space in the warehouse is limited but disposal is currently cost prohibitive. A reevaluation of our program was conducted to see if volumes of LLRW requiring disposal at a commercial LLRW facility could be reduced. A reevaluation of the waste streams resulted in the shifting of most of the material that was being drummed for shipment to a LLRW facility to disposal by landfill or incineration. Materials that were previously assumed to be radioactive are now being evaluated prior to disposal to determine if they may be disposed of as non-radioactive waste. Following the initial evaluation, the amount of compacted dry solids assumed to contain long-lived radionuclides was reduced. The space that was saved due to the decrease in drumming for disposal is now used to hold the increased volume of decay-in-storage material. The monetary savings will amount to about $45,000 per year. This program is currently being expanded to reduce other waste streams at the university. PMID:12003027

Krieger, Kenneth; Van Baalen, Mary; Walters, Christopher

2002-05-01

134

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF SHEET METAL CABINETS AND PRECISION METAL PARTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at ...

135

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF CAN-MANUFACTURING EQUIPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at ...

136

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF ROTOGRAVURE PRINTING CYLINDERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACS) were established at selected un...

137

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF NEW AND REWORKED ROTOGRAVURE PRINTING CYLINDERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected un...

138

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PRODUCT CARRIERS AND PRINTED LABELS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACS) were established at selected un...

139

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PENNY BLANKS AND ZINC PRODUCTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EnvIronmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected u...

140

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF COMMERCIAL ICE MACHINES AND ICE STORAGE BINS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at ...

141

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF METAL-CUTTING WHEELS AND COMPONENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) ere established at s...

142

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF INJECTION-MOLDED CAR AND TRUCK MIRRORS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected un...

143

Implementation of Waste Minimization at a complex R&D site  

SciTech Connect

Under the 1994 Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention Crosscut Plan, the Department of Energy (DOE) has set a goal of 50% reduction in waste at its facilities by the end of 1999. Each DOE site is required to set site-specific goals to reduce generation of all types of waste including hazardous, radioactive, and mixed. To meet these goals, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL, has developed and implemented a comprehensive Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization (PP/WMin) Program. The facilities and activities at the site vary from research into basic sciences and research into nuclear fuel cycle to high energy physics and decontamination and decommissioning projects. As a multidisciplinary R&D facility and a multiactivity site, ANL generates waste streams that are varied, in physical form as well as in chemical constituents. This in turn presents a significant challenge to put a cohesive site-wide PP/WMin Program into action. In this paper, we will describe ANL`s key activities and waste streams, the regulatory drivers for waste minimization, and the DOE goals in this area, and we will discuss ANL`s strategy for waste minimization and it`s implementation across the site.

Lang, R.E. [USDOE Chicago Operations Office, Argonne, IL (United States); Thuot, J.R.; Devgun, J.S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1995-03-01

144

RESULTS FROM A COOPERATIVE FEDERAL, STATE, AND TRADE ASSOCIATION WASTE MINIMIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development supported a waste minimization research program in 1986-1988 for small and medium sized generators to develop and promote the use of innovative technologies and management practices to reduce the generation of hazardous wastes. his ...

145

INVESTIGATION OF CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES TO MINIMIZE AUTOMOTIVE COOLANT WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the State of New Jersey evaluated chemical filtration and distillation technologies designed to recycle automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants. hese evaluations addressed the product quality, waste reduction, and eco...

146

Sandia National Laboratories/Production Agency Weapon Waste Minimization Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Plan describes activities to reduce the usage of hazardous materials and the production of hazardous material waste during the development, production, stockpile, and retirement phases of war reserve nuclear weapons and nuclear weapon test units. Activities related to the development and qualification of more benign materials and processes for weapon production and the treatment and disposal of these materials from weapon retirement are described in separate plans.

Skinrood, A.C.; Radosevich, L.G.

1991-07-01

147

Small-quantity generator's handbook for managing RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) wastes. Pesticide application  

SciTech Connect

This RCRA Handbook was developed for pesticide applicators to provide assistance in complying with pertinent sections of the RCRA requirements. Section 2 summarizes operations of pesticide users and describes potential waste types that could be generated from these operations. Section 3 provides a guide for determining if a particular pesticide waste is subject to these regulations. Section 4 discusses the RCRA generator requirements, while Section 5 describes waste-management strategies for minimizing the amount of hazardous waste generated by the pesticide applicators. Appendix A lists hazardous wastes. Appendix B summarizes RCRA characteristic wastes. Appendix C contains a list of references and contacts for obtaining more information about hazardous wastes and their regulation.

Not Available

1988-06-01

148

MIN-CYANIDE: An expert system for cyanide waste minimization in electroplating plants  

SciTech Connect

An expert system, MIN-CYANIDE, has been constructed to assist engineers and technicians in the source reduction of cyanide-waste solutions in an electroplating plant by resorting to these techniques and experience, and to train plant operators in the application of the techniques. MIN-CYANIDE evaluates options, such as drag-out minimization, bath-life extension, rinse-water reduction, replacement with a non-cyanide solution, use of an alternative plating technique, and improvement of the operating procedure; furthermore, it identifies the most effective among them. The knowledge about the cyanide source reduction is acquired from available publications, represented by numerous fuzzy or non-fuzzy heuristic rules, and codified into a commercial export system shell, Personal Consultant Plus, on an IBM PC/AT compatible computer. MIN-CYANIDE provides a user friendly interface; in operating it, the user answers various questions concerning the operational situations of the production and/or current equipment and techniques in the plant. In response, MIN-CYANIDE will present instantaneously a series of options for cyanide minimization and eventually rank them.

Huang, Y.L.; Sundar, G.; Fan, L.T. (Kansas State Univ., Manhattan (United States))

1991-05-01

149

An analysis of radioactive waste minimization efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

LANL will be the primary DOE facility for plutonium research and development and plutonium processing. A summary of the currently generated waste types, volumes, generating facilities or programs, and disposal costs are given in this report along with future waste generation projections. Several key existing technologies have been identified that could be introduced to reduce the generated waste at LANL. Four of these are discussed in detail in this report: (1) electrolytic surface decontamination, (2) electrochemical treatment of mixed wastes, (3) Long Range Alpha Detection (LRAD), and (4) Segmented Gate and Containerized Vat Leach System (SGS/CVL). These technologies may be implemented as modifications in upstream processes as well as more efficient volume reduction and segregation. The four technologies are mature enough to be implemented in the next two to three years and can be done so with the support for capital and operational costs. Also discussed in this report is a small sample of some of the recent waste minimization success stories that have been implemented. Several technologies are presented that are either currently being investigated or on hold due to lack of funding at LANL but show potential for making significant gains in waste minimization. This report is intended to provide a review of the waste minimization issues and analysis of the impact of implementing a few of these technologies.

Voit, S.L.; Boerigter, S.T.

1997-09-30

150

A Biomimetic steering robot for Minimally invasive surgery application  

E-print Network

A Biomimetic steering robot for Minimally invasive surgery application G. Chen a, aUnilever R, needles) to improve this procedure during last decades. New robot mechanisms have been designed and used space for fine manipulations. In recent years, a con- tinuum robotic mechanism has been investigated

Boyer, Edmond

151

1994 Annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress as required by DOE Order 5400.1, Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

Many Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention successes at the Hanford Site occur every day without formal recognition. A few of the successful projects are: T-Plant helps facilities reuse equipment by offering decontamination services for items such as gas cylinders, trucks, and railcars, thus saving disposal and equipment replacement costs. Custodial Services reviewed its use of 168 hazardous cleaning products, and, through a variety of measures, replaced them with 38 safer substitutes, one for each task. Scrap steel contaminated with low level radioactivity from the interim stabilization of 107-K and 107-C was decontaminated and sold to a vendor for recycling. Site-wide programs include the following: the Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (P2OA) program at the Hanford site was launched during 1994, including a training class, a guidance document, technical assistance, and goals; control over hazardous materials purchased was achieved by reviewing all purchase requisitions of a chemical nature; the Office Supply Reuse Program was established to redeploy unused or unwanted office supply items. In 1994, pollution prevention activities reduced approximately 274,000 kilograms of hazardous waste, 2,100 cubic meters of radioactive and mixed waste, 14,500,000 kilograms of sanitary waste, and 215,000 cubic meters off liquid waste and waste water. Pollution Prevention activities also saved almost $4.2 million in disposal, product, and labor costs. Overall waste generation increased in 1994 due to increased work and activity typical for a site with an environmental restoration mission. However, without any Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention activities, solid radioactive waste generation at Hanford would have been 25% higher, solid hazardous waste generation would have been 30% higher, and solid sanitary waste generation would have been 60% higher.

NONE

1995-09-01

152

Second international symposium on extraction and processing for the treatment and minimization of wastes - 1996  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains 71 papers presented at the Second International symposium on Extraction and Processing for the Treatment and Minimization of Wastes. 21 papers were selected for the database. The papers selected covered topics in chemical, environmental, and mechanical engineering related to radioactive and nonradioactive wastes. Specific topics include spent catalyst processing of petroleum refinery wastes; redox alloy for water treatment; thermodynamic modeling of uranium fluoride waste processing; calcination of radioactive wastes; geochemical modeling of radioactive waste processing; removal and/or stabilization of arsenic, selenium, mercury, lead and other metals from soils and ground water; pond dredging and dewatering; options for complying with water quality based metal limitations; removal of thorium from ilmenite; and electroslag remelting of fusion reactor vanadium alloy.

Ramachandran, V.; Nesbitt, C.C. [eds.

1996-12-31

153

Potential pollution prevention and waste minimization for Department of Energy operations  

SciTech Connect

With the tightening of budgets and limited resources, it is important to ensure operations are carried out in a cost-effective and productive manner. Implementing an effective Pollution Prevention strategy can help to reduce the costs of waste management and prevent harmful releases to the environment. This document provides an estimate of the Department of Energy`s waste reduction potential from the implementation of Pollution Prevention opportunities. A team of Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention professionals was formed to collect the data and make the estimates. The report includes a list of specific reduction opportunities for various waste generating operations and waste types. A generic set of recommendations to achieve these reduction opportunities is also provided as well as a general discussion of the approach and assumptions made for each waste generating operation.

Griffin, J.; Ischay, C.; Kennicott, M.; Pemberton, S.; Tull, D.

1995-10-01

154

Pollution prevention-waste minimization program 1998 fiscal year work plan -- WBS 1.11.2.1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollution Prevention\\/Waste Minimization (P2\\/WMin) is the Department of Energy`s preferred approach to environmental management. The P2\\/WMin mission is to eliminate or minimize waste generation, pollutant releases to the environment, use of toxic substances, and to conserve resources by implementing cost-effective pollution prevention technologies, practices, and polices. Technical objectives are to: Coordinate the Hanford Site Pollution Prevention and Waste Minimization Program

Merry

1997-01-01

155

Waste minimization plan construction and operation of the replacement cross-site transfer system, project W-058  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the research and development of a waste minimization plan for the construction and operation of Project W-058, Replacement of the Cross-Site Transfer System, on the Hanford Site. The plan is based on Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-307, Plans. The waste minimization plan identifies areas where pollution prevention/waste minimization principles can be incorporated into the construction and operation of the cross-site transfer system.

Boucher, T.D.

1996-04-01

156

Function of nurses and other staff to minimize hospital waste in selected hospitals in Isfahan  

PubMed Central

Context: Medical waste (MW) is all waste materials generated at health care facilities. MW naturally is hazardous for environment and subsequently for human. Waste minimization (WM) is the latest alternative for risk reduction. All hospital staff generally and nurses specially can play an active role through education and the implementation of measures to reduce medical wastage and their environmental effects. Aims: This study is aimed to compare nurses and other staff functions in selected hospitals in Isfahan about waste minimization strategies. Settings and Design: This is a descriptive analytical study. The study tool was a researcher -designed questionnaire in five area of waste minimization based on WHO recommendation. Materials and Methods: There were 90 nurses and other staff from randomized selected public and private hospitals of Isfahan as the sample of this research. This study was done in 2009. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed by t-test using SPSS16. Results: Nurses mean score of WM performance was 58.16 (12), and others was 58.56 (12.18) (of max 100). There was no significant difference between nurses and others mean score of WM performance according to t-test. There was not significant difference between WM performances of two studied groups in public and private hospitals based on t-test. Comparing between two studied groups mean scores by waste minimization areas indicated that nurses have done significantly better in source reduction area and other staffs have acted better in waste segregation (P < 0.05). Conclusions: All of hospital staff specially, nurses have an important role in qualified waste management practice of hospitals. Totally mean score of WM performance in hospitals (nurses and other) was average. With regard to other countries activities, this result is disappointing. So, it is necessary to plan educational programs for hospital staff, especially nurses. PMID:23922587

Maroufi, Maryam; Javadi, Marzieh; yaghoubi, Maryam; Karimi, Saied

2012-01-01

157

INNOVATIVE PRACTICES FOR TREATING WASTE STREAMS CONTAINING HEAVY METALS: A WASTE MINIMIZATION APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

Innovative practices for treating waste streams containing heavy metals often involve technologies or systems that either reduce the amount of waste generated or recover reusable resources. With the land disposal of metal treatment residuals becoming less of an accepted waste man...

158

INNOVATIVE PRACTICES FOR TREATING WASTE STREAMS CONTAINING HEAVY METALS: A WASTE MINIMIZATION APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

Innovative practices for treating waste streams containing heavy metals often involve technologies or systems that either reduce the amount of waste generated or recover reusable resources. ith the land disposal of metal treatment residuals becoming less of an accepted waste mana...

159

FY 1993 Projection Capability Assurance Program waste and hazard minimization. Quarterly report, October--December 1993  

SciTech Connect

Waste and hazard minimization efforts in the following areas are described: (1) environmentally responsive cleaning, (2) hazardous material exposure, (3) explosive processing, (4) flex circuit manufacturing, (5) tritium capture w/o conversion to water, (6) ES&H compatible pyrotechnic materials, and (7) remote explosive component assembly.

Haws, L.D.; Homan, D.A.

1993-01-15

160

Waste-minimization assessment for a manufacturer of brazed-aluminum oil coolers. Environmental research brief  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA/625/7-88/003, July 1988). The WMAC team at the University of Tennessee inspected a plant manufacturing brazed aluminum oil coolers that are used in heavy equipment. After the cooler components are fabricated, they are degreased (with Chlorothene, which is recycled); assembled; brazed to join internal and external coil fin surfaces (involving a molten salt bath and a quench tank whose sludge is disposed of on-site in a sand filter bed); cleaned (with solutions and rinse waters needing treatment and disposal); and painted. The team's report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that a significant minimization opportunity could be effected by replacing molten salt bath brazing with vacuum brazing. The implementation cost would be high and the payback years relatively long, but the percent waste reduction (80%) and annual savings would be pronounced. The Research Brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA's Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from the authors.

Kirsch, F.W.; Looby, G.P.

1991-07-01

161

Waste-minimization assessment for a bumper-refinishing plant. Environmental research brief  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA/625/7-88/003, July 1988). The WMAC team at Colorado State University inspected a plant refinishing steel, aluminum, and plastic bumpers. The plant is new and already incorporates many hazardous waste management features. After the bumpers are straightened, the processes to remove old plating and coating, the rinsing, the caustic cleaning for steel bumpers and de-smuting for aluminum ones, followed by more rinsing generates significant quantities of waste. Aluminum bumpers are then reanodized at another location; the steel bumpers are soaked in cleaning solutions and rinsed, creating still more waste, before being electrolytically replated with nickel and chromium. The team's report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that the greatest waste reduction could occur with the use of additional filtration along with the existing deionization systems. Their use would reduce chromium and nickel levels in rinse waters and other liquid streams to levels acceptable for recycle to the plant. The collected solids would go to a landfill for disposal. Because steel and aluminum bumpers generate the most waste, plastic bumpers were not considered for the purpose of the assessment. The Research Brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA's Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from the authors.

Kirsch, F.W.; Looby, G.P.

1991-07-01

162

Trash-to-Gas: Using Waste Products to Minimize Logistical Mass During Long Duration Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Just as waste-to-energy processes utilizing municipal landftll and biomass wastes are finding increased terrestrial uses, the Trash-to-Gas (TtG) project seeks to convert waste generated during spaceflight into high value commodities. These include methane for propulsion and water for life support in addition to a variety of other gasses. TtG is part of the Logistic Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project under the NASA Advanced Exploration Systems Program. The LRR project will enable a largely mission-independent approach to minimize logistics contributions to total mission architecture mass. LRR includes technologies that reduce the amount of consumables that need to be sent to space, repurpose items sent to space, or convert wastes to commodities. Currently, waste generated on the International Space Station is stored inside a logistic module which is de-orbited into Earth's atmosphere for destruction. The waste consists of food packaging, food, clothing and other items. This paper will discuss current results on incineration as a waste processing method. Incineration is part of a two step process to produce methane from waste: first the waste is converted to carbon oxides; second, the carbon oxides are fed to a Sabatier reactor where they are converted to methane. The quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane and water were measured under the different thermal degradation conditions. The overall carbon conversion efficiency and water recovery are discussed.

Hintze, Paul. E.; Caraccio, Anne J.; Anthony, Stephen M.; Tsoras, Alexandra N.; Nur, Monoita; Devor, Robert; Captain, James G.

2013-01-01

163

Trash-to-Gas: Using Waste Products to Minimize Logistical Mass During Long Duration Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Just as waste-to-energy processes utilizing municipal landftll and biomass wastes are finding increased terrestrial uses, the Trash-to-Gas (TtG) project seeks to convert waste generated during spaceflight into high value commodities. These include methane for propulsion and water for life support in addition to a variety of other gasses. TtG is part of the Logistic Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project under the NASA Advanced Exploration Systems Program. The LRR project will enable a largely mission-independent approach to minimize logistics contributions to total mission architecture mass. LRR includes technologies that reduce the amount of consumables that need to be sent to space, repurpose items sent to space, or convert wastes to commodities. Currently, waste generated on the International Space Station is stored inside a logistic module which is de-orbited into Earth's atmosphere for destruction. The waste consists of food packaging, food, clothing and other items. This paper will discuss current results on incineration as a waste processing method. Incineration is part of a two step process to produce methane from waste: first the waste is converted to carbon oxides; second, the carbon oxides are fed to a Sabatier reactor where they are converted to methane. The quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane and water were measured under the different thermal degradation conditions. The overall carbon conversion efficiency and water recovery are discussed

Hintze, Paul E.; Caraccio, A. J.; Anthony, S. M.; Tsoras, A. N.; Devor, Robert; Captain, James G.; Nur, Mononita

2013-01-01

164

Minimizing Characterization - Derived Waste at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina  

SciTech Connect

Environmental restoration activities at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS) utilize innovative site characterization approaches and technologies that minimize waste generation. Characterization is typically conducted in phases, first by collecting large quantities of inexpensive data, followed by targeted minimally invasive drilling to collect depth-discrete soil/groundwater data, and concluded with the installation of permanent multi-level groundwater monitoring wells. Waste-reducing characterization methods utilize non-traditional drilling practices (sonic drilling), minimally intrusive (geoprobe, cone penetrometer) and non-intrusive (3-D seismic, ground penetration radar, aerial monitoring) investigative tools. Various types of sensor probes (moisture sensors, gamma spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, laser induced and X-ray fluorescence) and hydrophobic membranes (FLUTe) are used in conjunction with depth-discrete sampling techniques to obtain high-resolution 3-D plume profiles. Groundwater monitoring (short/long-term) approaches utilize multi-level sampling technologies (Strata-Sampler, Cone-Sipper, Solinst Waterloo, Westbay) and low-cost diffusion samplers for seepline/surface water sampling. Upon collection of soil and groundwater data, information is portrayed in a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) format for interpretation and planning purposes. At the SRS, the use of non-traditional drilling methods and minimally/non intrusive investigation approaches along with in-situ sampling methods has minimized waste generation and improved the effectiveness and efficiency of characterization activities.

Van Pelt, R. S.; Amidon, M. B.; Reboul, S. H.

2002-02-25

165

Waste minimization at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: A case study of environmentally conscious manufacturing  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on what we`ve accomplished and have planned in our plating operation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in the area of waste minimization. Our efforts have included issues other than waste minimization and, therefore, fall under the wider umbrella entitled pollution prevention or environmentally conscious electroplating. Approximately one year has passed since our last report on pollution prevention and since this topic remains a high-effort activity much more has been accomplished. Our efforts to date fall under the first two generation categories of waste reduction. Good housekeeping practices, inventory control, and minor changes in operating practices (first generation) resulted in an impressive amount of waste reduction. In the second generation of waste reduction, current technology, separation technologies, and material substitutions were used to reduce emission and wastes. The third generation of improvements requires significant technological advances in process synthesis and engineering. We are presently starting some projects in this third generation phase and these will be discussed at the end of this paper.

Steffani, C.P.; Dini, J.W.

1994-02-01

166

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF GRAVURE-COATED METALIZED PAPER AND METALIZED FILM  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

167

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF NEW AND REWORKED ROTOGRAVURE PRINTING CYLINDERS (EPA/600/S-95/005)  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected u...

168

Possible applications for municipal solid waste fly ash.  

PubMed

The present study focuses on existing practices related to the reuse of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) fly ash and identifies new potential uses. Nine possible applications were identified and grouped into four main categories: construction materials (cement, concrete, ceramics, glass and glass-ceramics); geotechnical applications (road pavement, embankments); "agriculture" (soil amendment); and, miscellaneous (sorbent, sludge conditioning). Each application is analysed in detail, including final-product technical characteristics, with a special emphasis on environmental impacts. A comparative analysis of the different options is performed, stressing the advantages but also the weaknesses of each option. This information is systemized in order to provide a framework for the selection of best technology and final products. The results presented here show new possibilities for this waste reuse in a short-term, in a wide range of fields, resulting in great advantages in waste minimization as well as resources conservation. PMID:12493209

Ferreira, C; Ribeiro, A; Ottosen, L

2003-01-31

169

REDUCING WASTE IN THE PHOTO LAB WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT MAKE IT EASY  

EPA Science Inventory

As the attention given to waste disposal and pollution prevention increases, so does the possibility of regulation. wners and operators of small photo processing labs are among the many who must be concerned about waste disposal and pollution prevention. he U.S. EPA conducted a w...

170

WESF hot cells waste minimization criteria hot cells window seals evaluation  

SciTech Connect

WESF will decouple from B Plant in the near future. WESF is attempting to minimize the contaminated solid waste in their hot cells and utilize B Plant to receive the waste before decoupling. WESF wishes to determine the minimum amount of contaminated waste that must be removed in order to allow minimum maintenance of the hot cells when they are placed in ''laid-up'' configuration. The remaining waste should not cause unacceptable window seal deterioration for the remaining life of the hot cells. This report investigates and analyzes the seal conditions and hot cell history and concludes that WESF should remove existing point sources, replace cerium window seals in F-Cell and refurbish all leaded windows (except for A-Cell). Work should be accomplished as soon as possible and at least within the next three years.

Walterskirchen, K.M.

1997-03-31

171

Development of waste minimization and decontamination technologies at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant  

SciTech Connect

Emphasis on the minimization of decontamination secondary waste has increased because of restrictions on the use of hazardous chemicals and Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) waste handling issues. The Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co. (LITCO) Decontamination Development Subunit has worked to evaluate and introduce new performed testing, evaluations, development and on-site demonstrations for a number of novel decontamination techniques that have not yet previously been used at the ICPP. This report will include information on decontamination techniques that have recently been evaluated by the Decontamination Development Subunit.

Ferguson, R.L.; Archibald, K.E.; Demmer, R.L. [and others

1995-11-01

172

I-NERI-2007-004-K, DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NEW HIGH-LEVEL WASTE FORMS FOR ACHIEVING WASTE MINIMIZATION FROM PYROPROCESSING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work describe in this report represents the final year activities for the 3-year International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (I-NERI) project: Development and Characterization of New High-Level Waste Forms for Achieving Waste Minimization from Pyroprocessing. Used electrorefiner salt that contained actinide chlorides and was highly loaded with surrogate fission products was processed into three candidate waste forms. The first waste form,

S. M. Frank

2011-01-01

173

OC-ALC hazardous waste minimization strategy: Reduction of industrial biological sludge from industrial wastewater treatment facilities  

SciTech Connect

Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center (OC-ALC) is one of five US Air Force Logistic Centers that perform depot level maintenance of aircraft. As part of the maintenance process, aircraft are cleaned, chemically depainted, repainted, and electroplated. These repair/maintenance processes generate large quantities of dilute liquid effluent which are collected and treated in the Industrial Waste Treatment Plant (IWTP) prior to hazardous waste disposal. OC-ALC is committed to reducing the use of hazardous materials in the repair and maintenance of aircraft and ancillary components. A major Air Force initiative is to reduce the amount of hazardous waste discharged off-site by 25% by the end of CY96 and 50% by CY99 end. During maintenance and repair operations, organic chemicals are employed. These organics are discharged to the IWTP for biological degradation. During the biological digestion process, a biological sludge is generated. OC-ALC engineers are evaluating the applicability of a biosludge acid/heat treatment process. In the acid hydrolysis process, an acid is added to the biosludge and processed through a hot, pressurized reactor where the majority of the biosolids are broken down and solubilized. The resulting aqueous product stream is then recycled back to the traditional biotreatment process for digestion of the solubilized organics. The solid waste stream is dewatered prior to disposal. The objective of the subsequent effort is to achieve a reduction in hazardous waste generation and disposal by focusing primarily on end-of-the-pipe treatment at the IWTP. Acid hydrolysis of biosludge is proving to be a practical process for use in industrial and municipal wastewater biotreatment systems that will lower environmental and economic costs by minimizing the production and disposal of biosludge.

Hall, F.E. Jr. [OC-ALC/EMV, Tinker AFB, OK (United States)

1997-12-31

174

Cost/benefit analysis for selected waste minimization technologies at TA-55  

SciTech Connect

The TA-55 plutonium facility at LANL is one of the remaining plutonium-handling facilities in the United States with significant operational capability. In recent years a great deal of attention has been focused on the waste streams generated by this facility. Costs of properly treating these streams have risen significantly. This paper discusses the characterization of several proposed radioactive waste minimization technologies as a function of Return on Investment (ROI). In particular, the DOE Environmental Management program has identified a specific funding channel for such technology development activities, but this funding channel requires a restrictive definition of ROI. Here, a simple extension to the required ROI equation is used to capture the lifecycle ROI due to offsets in future capital charges resulting from present spending.

Boerigter, S.T.

1996-05-01

175

Knowledge-based and model-based hybrid methodology for comprehensive waste minimization in electroplating plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electroplating industry of over 10,000 planting plants nationwide is one of the major waste generators in the industry. Large quantities of wastewater, spent solvents, spent process solutions, and sludge are the major wastes generated daily in plants, which costs the industry tremendously for waste treatment and disposal and hinders the further development of the industry. It becomes, therefore, an urgent need for the industry to identify technically most effective and economically most attractive methodologies and technologies to minimize the waste, while the production competitiveness can be still maintained. This dissertation aims at developing a novel WM methodology using artificial intelligence, fuzzy logic, and fundamental knowledge in chemical engineering, and an intelligent decision support tool. The WM methodology consists of two parts: the heuristic knowledge-based qualitative WM decision analysis and support methodology and fundamental knowledge-based quantitative process analysis methodology for waste reduction. In the former, a large number of WM strategies are represented as fuzzy rules. This becomes the main part of the knowledge base in the decision support tool, WMEP-Advisor. In the latter, various first-principles-based process dynamic models are developed. These models can characterize all three major types of operations in an electroplating plant, i.e., cleaning, rinsing, and plating. This development allows us to perform a thorough process analysis on bath efficiency, chemical consumption, wastewater generation, sludge generation, etc. Additional models are developed for quantifying drag-out and evaporation that are critical for waste reduction. The models are validated through numerous industrial experiments in a typical plating line of an industrial partner. The unique contribution of this research is that it is the first time for the electroplating industry to (i) use systematically available WM strategies, (ii) know quantitatively and accurately what is going on in each tank, and (iii) identify all WM opportunities through process improvement. This work has formed a solid foundation for the further development of powerful WM technologies for comprehensive WM in the following decade.

Luo, Keqin

1999-11-01

176

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF IRON CASTINGS AND FABRICATED SHEET METAL PARTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expense to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACS) were established at selected univ...

177

Exposure and risk calculations for disposal of wastes having minimal radioactivity  

SciTech Connect

The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is currently considering revision of rules 10 CFR 20 and 10 CFR 61, which cover disposal of solid wastes containing minimal activity radioactivity. In support of these revised rules, we have evaluated the consequences of disposing of four waste streams at four types of disposal areas located in three different geographic regions. Consequences are expressed in terms of human exposures and associated health effects. Each geographic region has its own climate and geology. Example waste streams, waste disposal methods, and geographic regions chosen for this study are clearly specified. The PRESTO-II methodology was used to evaluate radionuclide transport and health effects. This methodology was developed to assess radiological impacts to a static local population for a 1000-year period following disposal. The modeling of pathways and processes of migration from the trench to exposed populations included the following considerations: groundwater transport, overland flow, erosion, surface water dilution, resuspension, atmospheric transport, deposition, inhalation, and ingestion of contaminated beef, milk, crops, and water. 9 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

Fields, D.E.

1984-01-01

178

PUREX Storage Tunnels dangerous waste permit application  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a dangerous waste permit application for the storage of wastes from the Purex process at Hanford. Appendices are presented on the following: construction drawings; HSW-5638, specifications for disposal facility for failed equipment, Project CA-1513-A; HWS-8262, specification for Purex equipment disposal, Project CGC 964; storage tunnel checklist; classification of residual tank heels in Purex storage tunnels; emergency plan for Purex facility; training course descriptions; and the Purex storage tunnels engineering study.

Not Available

1991-12-01

179

Characterization, minimization and disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes during cleanup and rransition of the Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) at Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA)  

SciTech Connect

This document provides an outline of waste handling practices used during the Sandia National Laboratory/California (SNL/CA), Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) Cleanup and Transition project. Here we provide background information concerning the history of the TRL and the types of operations that generated the waste. Listed are applicable SNL/CA site-wide and TRL local waste handling related procedures. We describe personnel training practices and outline methods of handling and disposal of compactible and non-compactible low level waste, solidified waste water, hazardous wastes and mixed wastes. Waste minimization, reapplication and recycling practices are discussed. Finally, we provide a description of the process followed to remove the highly contaminated decontamination systems. This document is intended as both a historical record and as a reference to other facilities who may be involved in similar work.

Garcia, T.B.; Gorman, T.P.

1996-12-01

180

Establishing and Implementing a Waste Minimization Program in the Chemical and Oil Industries  

E-print Network

chemicals and chemical processes, and are the best equipped to manage and reduce waste. It is the responsibility of all companies that manufacture a product or generate a waste to understand the meaning of proper waste management hierarchy, waste...

Hollod, G. J.; Marton, R. J.

181

Weak Minimization of DFA - An Algorithm and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

DFA minimization is a central problem in algorithm design and is based on the notion of DFA equivalence: Two DFA’s are equivalent\\u000a if and only if they accept the same set of strings. In this paper, we propose a new notion of DFA equivalence (that we call\\u000a weak-equivalence):We say that two DFA’s are weakly equivalent if they both accept the

Bala Ravikumar

2003-01-01

182

COMPARISON OF CHEMICAL SCREENING AND RANKING APPROACHES: THE WASTE MINIMIZATION PRIORITIZATION TOOL VERSUS TOXIC EQUIVALENCY POTENTIALS: JOURNAL ARTICLE  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-STD-0014 Pennington*, D.W., and Bare*, J.C. Comparison of Chemical Screening and Ranking Approaches: The Waste Minimization Prioritization Tool versus Toxic Equivalency Potentials. Risk Analysis (Anderson, E.L. (Ed.), Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers) 21 (5):897-912 (2001)...

183

Removal of Contaminants from Equipment and Debris and Waste Minimization Using the TECHXTRACT(TM) Technology  

SciTech Connect

From September, 1996 through July, 1997, EET, Inc. conducted a series of experiments under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Program Research and Development Agreement (PRDA). This project, entitled "Removal of Contaminants from Equipment and Debris and Waste Minimization Using the TECHXTRACT â Technology" was conducted under DOE Contract DE-AC21- 96MC33138, administered by the Federal Energy Technology Center. The contract is divided into two phases - a base phase during which bench scale testing was conducted; and an optional phase for a field demonstration of a full-scale system. This report documents the results from the base phase of the contract. The base phase included the following major elements: - Evaluation of the effectiveness of various decontamination options, using both surrogate and radioactively contaminated samples. - Evaluation of various methods for the treatment of the secondary waste streams from the preferred decontamination system(s). - Evaluation of decontamination effectiveness for concrete rubble. - Preliminary engineering design and cost estimation for a full-scale system. - Preliminary economic analysis of the proposed system versus other currently available options for disposition of the materials. Results from the base phase, which are described in the following report, are very positive. Testing has shown that free release requirements and extremely high decontamination factors can be achieved for a variety of materials and radionuclides. Results for concrete rubble decontamination were less conclusive. The bench scale testing has led to the design of two different systems, both based on the TECHXTRACT â chemistry, for potential full-scale demonstration. Based on the preliminary economic analysis, this system compares favorably with currently available commercial options, including disposal.

Jorg Schwitzgebel; Klaus Schwitzgebel; Michael W. Bonem; Ronald E. Borah

1998-12-09

184

HLNC calibration and application to waste measurement  

SciTech Connect

Using the established equations governing the counts and the underlying nuclear parameters involved in neutron coincidence measurements, the calibration procedure used in calculating the effective Pu{sup 240} mass in plutonium bearing samples is carefully reexamined and restructured in a physically and mathematically consistent form. The characteristics of this approach are described and its application to existing data illustrated. The implications for waste measurements are discussed.

Lu, Ming-Shih; Teichmann, T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); De Ridder, P.M.; Delegard, C. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

1992-06-01

185

Recycling of construction and demolition materials as part of the waste minimization strategy in the Sydney Basin and possible lessons for the Himalayas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The State of New South Wales Government in Australia actively pursues a policy of waste minimization as part of an effort to promote ecologically sustainable development within the state. The waste minimization strategy is developed within a framework in which resource recovery including re-use, reprocessing, recycling and energy recovery are being encouraged. Construction and demolition materials, which is conservatively estimated

Nathan Gambin; Chin Leo; Ataur Rahman

186

REGULATORY STRATEGIES TO MINIMIZE GENERATION OF REGULATED WASTES FROM CLEANUP, CONTINUED USE OR DECOMMISSIONING OF NUCLEAR FACILITIES CONTAMINATED WITH POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) - 11198  

SciTech Connect

Disposal costs for liquid PCB radioactive waste are among the highest of any category of regulated waste. The high cost is driven by the fact that disposal options are extremely limited. Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) regulations require most liquids with PCBs at concentration of {ge} 50 parts-per-million to be disposed by incineration or equivalent destructive treatment. Disposal fees can be as high as $200 per gallon. This figure does not include packaging and the cost to transport the waste to the disposal facility, or the waste generator's labor costs for managing the waste prior to shipment. Minimizing the generation of liquid radioactive PCB waste is therefore a significant waste management challenge. PCB spill cleanups often generate large volumes of waste. That is because the removal of PCBs typically requires the liberal use of industrial solvents followed by a thorough rinsing process. In a nuclear facility, the cleanup process may be complicated by the presence of radiation and other occupational hazards. Building design and construction features, e.g., the presence of open grating or trenches, may also complicate cleanup. In addition to the technical challenges associated with spill cleanup, selection of the appropriate regulatory requirements and approach may be challenging. The TSCA regulations include three different sections relating to the cleanup of PCB contamination or spills. EPA has also promulgated a separate guidance policy for fresh PCB spills that is published as Subpart G of 40 CFR 761 although it is not an actual regulation. Applicability is based on the circumstances of each contamination event or situation. Other laws or regulations may also apply. Identification of the allowable regulatory options is important. Effective communication with stakeholders, particularly regulators, is just as important. Depending on the regulatory path that is taken, cleanup may necessitate the generation of large quantities of regulated waste. Allowable options must be evaluated carefully in order to reduce compliance risks, protect personnel, limit potential negative impacts on facility operations, and minimize the generation of wastes subject to TSCA. This paper will identify critical factors in selecting the appropriate TSCA regulatory path in order to minimize the generation of radioactive PCB waste and reduce negative impacts to facilities. The importance of communicating pertinent technical issues with facility staff, regulatory personnel, and subsequently, the public, will be discussed. Key points will be illustrated by examples from five former production reactors at the DOE Savannah River Site. In these reactors a polyurethane sealant was used to seal piping penetrations in the biological shield walls. During the intense neutron bombardment that occurred during reactor operation, the sealant broke down into a thick, viscous material that seeped out of the piping penetrations over adjacent equipment and walls. Some of the walls were painted with a PCB product. PCBs from the paint migrated into the degraded sealant, creating PCB 'spill areas' in some of these facilities. The regulatory cleanup approach selected for each facility was based on its operational status, e.g., active, inactive or undergoing decommissioning. The selected strategies served to greatly minimize the generation of radioactive liquid PCB waste. It is expected that this information would be useful to other DOE sites, DOD facilities, and commercial nuclear facilities constructed prior to the 1979 TSCA ban on most manufacturing and uses of PCBs.

Lowry, N.

2010-11-05

187

ANL progress in minimizing effects of LEU conversion on calcination of fission-product {sup 99}Mo acid waste solution.  

SciTech Connect

A partnership between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), MDS Nordion (MDSN), Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL) and SGN (France) has addressed the conversion of the MAPLE Reactor 99Mo production process from high-enriched uranium (HEU) targets to low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets. One effect of the conversion would be to increase the amount of solid uranium waste five-fold; we have worked to minimize the effect of the additional waste on the overall production process and, in particular, solid waste storage. Two processes were investigated for the treatment of the uranium-rich acidic waste solution: direct calcination, and oxalate precipitation as a prelude to calcination. Direct calcination generates a dense UO3 solid that should allow a significantly greater amount of uranium in one waste container than is planned for the HEU process, but doing so results in undesirable sputtering. These results suggest that direct calcination could be adapted for use with LEU targets without a large effect on the uranium waste treatment procedures. The oxalate-calcination generates a lower-density granular U3O8 product; sputtering is not significant during calcination of the uranyl oxalate precipitate. A physical means to densify the product would need to be developed to increase the amount of uranium in each waste container. Future work will focus on the specific chemical reactions that occur during the direct and oxalate calcination processes.

Bakel, A.; Vandegrift, G.; Quigley, K.; Aase, S.; Neylon, M.; Carney, K.

2003-01-01

188

PC proliferation: Minimizing corporate risk through planning for application maintenance  

SciTech Connect

The rapid proliferation of personal computers, offering tremendous productivity gains for the knowledge worker, often creates new application maintenance tasks. Specific concerns include security, data integrity, and access authorization. Distributed networks require security and communication systems. Distributed data entry requires file servers, network support personnel, and synchronization methods to preserve the integrity of corporate data. Much PC software which must be maintained will be developed outside of standard-imposing environments and without benefit of formal training. A recommended method for limiting future maintenance problems is the formation of a staff possessing skills specific to problem solving in the areas mentioned and functioning as PC consultants for the area of the knowledge worker.

Shafer, L.I.

1987-01-01

189

Virtual reality applications in improving postural control and minimizing falls.  

PubMed

Maintaining balance under all conditions is an absolute requirement for humans. Orientation in space and balance maintenance requires inputs from the vestibular, the visual, the proprioceptive and the somatosensory systems. All the cues coming from these systems are integrated by the central nervous system (CNS) to employ different strategies for orientation and balance. How the CNS integrates all the inputs and makes cognitive decisions about balance strategies has been an area of interest for biomedical engineers for a long time. More interesting is the fact that in the absence of one or more cues, or when the input from one of the sensors is skewed, the CNS "adapts" to the new environment and gives less weight to the conflicting inputs [1]. The focus of this paper is a review of different strategies and models put forward by researchers to explain the integration of these sensory cues. Also, the paper compares the different approaches used by young and old adults in maintaining balance. Since with age the musculoskeletal, visual and vestibular system deteriorates, the older subjects have to compensate for these impaired sensory cues for postural stability. The paper also discusses the applications of virtual reality in rehabilitation programs not only for balance in the elderly but also in occupational falls. Virtual reality has profound applications in the field of balance rehabilitation and training because of its relatively low cost. Studies will be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of virtual reality training in modifying the head and eye movement strategies, and determine the role of these responses in the maintenance of balance. PMID:17946975

Virk, Sumandeep; McConville, Kristiina M Valter

2006-01-01

190

Isolation of a strain of Aspergillus fumigatus able to grow in minimal medium added with an industrial cyanide waste.  

PubMed

The present note refers the results about the isolation of an Aspergillus fumigatus strain able to grow on an industrial cyanide waste as nitrogen source. The fungus was selected from an alkaline unpolluted soil in enrichment cultures in 50 ml of Minimal Medium added with 20 mmol glucose and supplemented initially with 0.1 mmol KCN and then with 70 ?l of a waste solution from a jewelry industry containing free cyanide and cyanide complexes of heavy metal ions including copper, silver, nickel, and others. The cyanide content of the waste was 1,500 ppm. The fungal growth was monitored determining dry weight, protein content and glucose consumption. The fungus efficiently utilized the cyanide as evidenced by the decrease in the inoculated medium of the compound under detection limits within 24 h and the concomitant growth within 15 days during which periodical additions of the waste to the cultures were made. The amount of the cyanide in the biomass of the fungus grown in presence of the waste was very scarce and comparable to that in absence of the pollutant. Furthermore the fungus was able to sequestrate metals such Ag, Cu, and Ni as a resistance mechanism against heavy metals. In conclusion our results are of interest for biodegradation plans of electroplating industrial wastes containing cyanide based pollutants. PMID:22806792

Sabatini, Luigia; Ferrini, Claudio; Micheloni, Mauro; Pianetti, Anna; Citterio, Barbara; Parlani, Chiara; Bruscolini, Francesca

2012-01-01

191

Multiple Scan Chains for Power Minimization during Test Application in Sequential Circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new technique for power minimization during test application in sequen- tial circuits using multiple scan chains. The technique is based on a new design for test (DFT) architecture and a novel test application strategy which reduces spurious transitions in the cir- cuit under test. To facilitate the reduction of spurious transitions, the proposed DFT architecture is

Nicola Nicolici; Bashir M. Al-hashimi

2002-01-01

192

RESEARCH RELATIVE TO LAND APPLICATION OF DIESEL INVERT DRILLING WASTES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diesel invert wastes are one of the more difficult types of drilling mud wastes to dispose of due to the presence of hydrocarbons and salts. In 1989 a joint research program funded by the Alberta Research Council (ARC) and the Alberta Land Conservation and Reclamation Council was initiated to develop environmentally acceptable land application rates of diesel invert wastes for

T. M. Macyk; Dave Martin

193

DISCRISET: a battery of tests for fast waste classification--application of tests on waste extracts.  

PubMed

The Hazardous Waste Directive (HWD, Council Directive 91/689/EC, 1991) provides a framework for classification of hazardous waste, based on 15 Hazard (H)-criteria. For complex wastes the HWD foresees the application of toxicity tests on the waste material itself to assess its toxic properties. However, these proposed test methods often involve mammalian testing, which is not acceptable from an ethical point of view, nor is it feasible economically. The DISCRISET project was initiated to investigate the use of alternative chemical and biological fast screening tests for waste hazard classification. In the first part of the project, different methods were reviewed and a testing strategy was proposed to minimize time and cost of analysis by a tiered approach. This includes as a first tier chemical analysis followed by a general acute toxicity screen as a second tier and as a third tier mechanistic toxicity tests to assess chronic toxicity (genotoxicity, hormone disturbance, teratogenic effects, immunologic activity). In this phase of the project, selected methods were applied to 16 different waste samples from various sources and industries. The first tier chemical tests are recommended for the full characterization of the leachate fraction (inorganics) but not for the organic fraction of samples. Here the chemical characterization is only useful if toxic content is known or suspected. As second tier the fast bacterial test Microtox is validated as a general toxicity screen for the organic fraction (worst case organic extract). Samples that are not classified in tier 1 or 2 are then further investigated in the third tier by the mechanistic toxicity tests and tested for their potential chronic toxicity: immune activity (TNF-? upregulation) is indicative for corrosive, irritating or sensitising effects (H4/H8/H15), reproductive effects (H10) are indicated by hormone disturbance and early life stage abnormalities in fish larvae when exposed to the extracts and mutagenicity and carcinogenicity (H7, H11) are indicated by SOS response induction and increased mutation frequency in the Ames test when exposed to the extracts. Results indicate that the combination of chemical tests and bioassays allows important hazardous properties to be addressed and the tiered approach ensures that the tests are performed quickly and economically. The suggested strategy provides a solid and ethical alternative to the methods described in the HWD and is a vast improvement on the current, arbitrary classification. PMID:22770807

Deprez, K; Robbens, J; Nobels, I; Vanparys, C; Vanermen, G; Tirez, K; Michiels, L; Weltens, R

2012-12-01

194

Investigation of Fission Product Transport into Zeolite-A for Pyroprocessing Waste Minimization  

SciTech Connect

Methods to improve fission product salt sorption into zeolite-A have been investigated in an effort to reduce waste associated with the electrochemical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. It was demonstrated that individual fission product chloride salts were absorbed by zeolite-A in a solid-state process. As a result, recycling of LiCl-KCl appears feasible via adding a zone-freezing technique to the current treatment process. Ternary salt molten-state experiments showed the limiting kinetics of CsCl and SrCl2 sorption into the zeolite. CsCl sorption occurred rapidly relative to SrCl2 with no observed dependence on zeolite particle size, while SrCl2 sorption was highly dependent on particle size. The application of experimental data to a developed reaction-diffusion-based sorption model yielded diffusivities of 8.04 × 10-6 and 4.04 × 10-7 cm2 /s for CsCl and SrCl2, respectively. Additionally, the chemical reaction term in the developed model was found to be insignificant compared to the diffusion term.

James R. Allensworth; Michael F. Simpson; Man-Sung Yim; Supathorn Phongikaroon

2013-02-01

195

Minimization of tool tracking error using fulcrum correction in minimally invasive interventions: application to prostate biopsy procedure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-time 3D optical tracking of free-hand imaging devices or surgical tools has been studied and employed for object localization in many minimally invasive interventions. However, the surgical workspace for many interventional procedures is often sub-dermal with tool access through ports from surgical incisions or anatomical orifices. To maintain the optical line-of-sight criterion, external extensions of inserted imaging devices and rigid surgical tools must be tracked to localize the internal tool tips. Unfortunately, tracking by this form of correspondence is very susceptible to noise as orientation errors on the external tracked end compound into both rotational and translational errors on the internal, workspace position. These translational errors are proportional to the length of the probe and the sine of the angulation error, so small angulation errors can quickly compromise the accuracy of the tool tip localization. We propose a real-time tracking correction technique that uses the rotational fulcrum created by the device entry port to minimize the effect of translational and rotational noise errors for tool tip localization. Our technique could apply to many types of interventions, but we focus on the application to the prostate biopsy procedure for tracking a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) probe commonly used for prostate biopsies. In vitro studies were performed using the Claron Technology MicronTracker 2 to track a TRUS probe in a fixed rotational device. Our experimental results showed an order of magnitude improvement in RMS localization of the internal TRUS probe tip using fulcrum correction over the raw tracking information.

Cool, Derek; Sherebrin, Shi; Izawa, Jonathan; Peters, Terrence; Fenster, Aaron

2006-03-01

196

Natural gas applications in waste management  

SciTech Connect

The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is engaged in several projects related to the use of natural gas for waste management. These projects can be classified into four categories: cyclonic incineration of gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes; fluidized-bed reclamation of solid wastes; two-stage incineration of liquid and solid wastes; natural gas injection for emissions control. 5 refs., 8 figs.

Tarman, P.B.

1991-01-01

197

PUREX Storage Tunnels dangerous waste permit application  

SciTech Connect

The PUREX Storage Tunnels are a mixed waste storage unit consisting of two underground railroad tunnels: Tunnel Number 1 designated 218-E-14 and Tunnel Number 2 designated 218-E-15. The two tunnels are connected by rail to the PUREX Plant and combine to provide storage space for 48 railroad cars (railcars). The PUREX Storage Tunnels provide a long-term storage location for equipment removed from the PUREX Plant. Transfers into the PUREX Storage Tunnels are made on an as-needed basis. Radioactively contaminated equipment is loaded on railcars and remotely transferred by rail into the PUREX Storage Tunnels. Railcars act as both a transport means and a storage platform for equipment placed into the tunnels. This report consists of part A and part B. Part A reports on amounts and locations of the mixed water. Part B permit application consists of the following: Facility Description and General Provisions; Waste Characteristics; Process Information; Groundwater Monitoring; Procedures to Prevent Hazards; Contingency Plan; Personnel Training; Exposure Information Report.

Not Available

1991-12-01

198

1997 annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress as required by DOE Order 5400.1, Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

Hanford`s missions are to safely clean up and manage the site`s legacy wastes, and to develop and deploy science and technology. Through these missions Hanford will contribute to economic diversification of the region. Hanford`s environmental management or cleanup mission is to protect the health and safety of the public, workers, and the environment; control hazardous materials; and utilize the assets (people, infra structure, site) for other missions. Hanford`s science and technology mission is to develop and deploy science and technology in the service of the nation including stewardship of the Hanford Site. Pollution Prevention is a key to the success of these missions by reducing the amount of waste to be managed and identifying/implementing cost effective waste reduction projects. Hanford`s original mission, the production of nuclear materials for the nation`s defense programs, lasted more than 40 years, and like most manufacturing operations, Hanford`s operations generated large quantities of waste and pollution. However, the by-products from Hanford operations pose unique problems like radiation hazards, vast volumes of contaminated water and soil, and many contaminated structures including reactors, chemical plants and evaporation ponds. The cleanup activity is an immense and challenging undertaking, which includes characterization and decommissioning of 149 single shell storage tanks, treating 28 double shell tanks, safely disposing of over 2,100 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel stored on site, removing numerous structures, and dealing with significant solid waste, ground water, and land restoration issues.

Segall, P.

1998-04-13

199

Proceedings of the tenth annual DOE low-level waste management conference: Session 4: Waste treatment minimization  

SciTech Connect

This document contains eleven papers on various aspects of low-level radioactive waste management. Topics in this volume include: volume reduction plans; incentitives; and cost proposals; acid detoxification and reclamation; decontamination of lead; leach tests; West Valley demonstration project status report; and DOE's regional management strategies. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base. (TEM)

Not Available

1988-12-01

200

Waste Heat Boilers for Incineration Applications  

E-print Network

Incineration is a widely used process for disposing of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes generated in various types of industries. In addition to destroying pollutants, energy may also be recovered from the waste gas streams in the form of steam...

Ganapathy, V.

201

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PAPER ROLLS, INK ROLLS, INK RIBBONS, AND MAGNETIC AND THERMAL TRANSFER RIBBON  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected un...

202

Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 325 hazardous waste treatment units. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application for the 325 Hazardous Waste Treatment Units (325 HWTUs) which consist of the Shielded Analytical Laboratory, the 325 Building, and the 325 Collection/Loadout Station Tank. The 325 HWTUs receive, store, and treat dangerous waste generated by Hanford Facility programs. Routine dangerous and/or mixed waste treatment that will be conducted in the 325 HWTUs will include pH adjustment, ion exchange, carbon absorption, oxidation, reduction, waste concentration by evaporation, precipitation, filtration, solvent extraction, solids washing, phase separation, catalytic destruction, and solidification/stabilization.

NONE

1997-07-01

203

Energy minimization using the classical density distribution: Application to sodium chloride clusters  

E-print Network

Energy minimization using the classical density distribution: Application to sodium chloride. In the case of sodium chloride, it has been shown that small clus- ters have, in general, two stable packings several potentials have been used to model sodium chloride clusters and for some clusters the identity

Straub, John E.

204

Optimization of a piezoelectric bimorph grasper for use in minimally invasive surgical applications  

E-print Network

Optimization of a piezoelectric bimorph grasper for use in minimally invasive surgical applications for publication on 10 June 2005. DOI: 10.1243/095440505X32607 Abstract: The potential use of piezoelectric bimorph analysis of the underlying piezoelectric boundary value problem is combined with the genetic algorithm

Grujicic, Mica

205

Military wastes-to-energy applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This analysis focuses on the military waste material and byproduct stream and the potential for energy recovery and utilization. Feedstock material includes municipal-type solid waste, selected installation hazardous waste, and biomass residue. The study objectives are to (1) analyze the characteristics of the military waste stream; (2) identify potential energy recovery options; and (3) examine and assess the technical and economic feasibility and environmental and institutional impacts of various energy recovery approaches. Total energy recoverable from DOD solid waste could provide about 2 percent of DOD's facility energy demand. The energy potential available to DOD from biomass and hazardous waste was not available. Available waste-to-energy systems are thermal conversion processes such as incineration with heat recovery. The significance of this recoverable energy from military wastes is put in proper perspective when the benefits and barriers in using waste-derived energy are considered. Some of the benefits of waste-to-energy conversion are as follows: waste energy is a readily available and inexhaustible resource that greatly reduces dependence on imported energy.

Kawaoka, K. E.

1980-11-01

206

On minimization of rad-waste carryover in an n-stage evaporator  

SciTech Connect

The mathematical problem of minimizing gross solids entrainment in an n-stage evaporator is formulated and solved using the method of Lagrange multipliers. The solution procedure enables direct comparison of the decontamination efficiencies of multistage evaporators as the number of stages (n) is varied. A numerical example is utilized to illustrate the method of solution. Equivalent expressions for batch distillation are also derived.

Singh, K.P.; Holtz, M.; Luk, V.K.

1984-01-01

207

WASTE MINIMIZATION EFFORTS - AN OVERVIEW OF THE U.S. EPA POLLUTIONPREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper is to be presented at the Governmental Refuse,Collection, and Disposal Association's 28th Annual InternationalSolid Waste Exposition in Vancouver, B.C., Canada, August 20-24,1990. he paper's purpose is to describe the current pollutionprevention research program assign...

208

POLLUTION PREVENTION STRATEGIES FOR THE MINIMIZING OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES IN THE VCM-PVC INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

In many U.S. companies, pollution prevention strategies coincide with economic interests. Typically a company strives to be the lowest-cost producer, to be competitive, and to reduce wastes. In this paper, the author reviews pollution prevention strategies in the vinyl chloride m...

209

Agent Regeneration and Hazardous Waste Minimization and Teaching Note. IBM Case Study. Doc #93-1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The manufacturing process used to produce printbands for International Business Machines, Inc. involves a photolithographic process in which the stainless steel panels are chemically machined using strong ferric chloride etching solution containing hydrochloric acid. The waste material that results from this chemical reaction is a solution…

Oliker, L. Richard; And Others

210

Pilot studies to achieve waste minimization and enhance radioactive liquid waste treatment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Radioactive and Industrial Wastewater Science Group manages and operates the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The RLWTF treats low-level radioactive liquid waste generated by research and analytical facilities at approximately 35 technical areas throughout the 43-square-mile site. The RLWTF treats an average of 5.8 million gallons (21.8-million liters) of liquid waste

J. Freer; E. Freer; A. Bond

1996-01-01

211

Waste-to-energy application in an industrial district  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial districts present some features that can be recognized and exploited in the plant engineering through the proposal of solutions which are not simple applications of models created for individual companies. This work illustrates a waste-to-energy plant to be used for the industrial waste of the district of Friuli Venezia Giulia. The project from the union between university and local

Antonella Meneghetti; Gioacchino Nardin; Patrizia Simeoni

2002-01-01

212

Car and renewable energy storage accumulators active life extension for hazardous wastes eco-impact minimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical nature of an accumulator battery is likely to defeat the ability to charge. Traumatic damage is being caused to the environment by the accumulator waste-pollutants: sulfuric acid and lead from the accumulators. Similar problems arise with different types of accumulators (NiCd, NiMH, Li-ion, Li-Polymer, etc.) This leakage seeps into waterways, soil and the air of the living beings,

O. Ustun; M. Yilmaz; P. Ali-Zada; R. N. Tuncay; H. Mamadov

2010-01-01

213

Synthetic\\/biosynthetic phase transfer polymers for pollution minimization, remediation, and waste management. Annual report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultimate goal of this interdisciplinary proposal is the development of phase transfer polymers capable of efficient removal of water-borne pollutants from inadvertent spills or waste discharge in naval environments. Targets include petroleum based fuels and lubricants and gray water contaminants such as surfactants and oils. The polymers will be specifically tailored by synthetic or biosynthetic techniques to possess pH-responsive,

C. L. McCormick; G. C. Cannon; R. Y. Lochhead

1994-01-01

214

Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 2, Industrial liquid waste processing, industrial gaseous waste processing  

SciTech Connect

This two-volume proceedings summarize the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Individual reports are indexed separately.

Lee, V.E. [ed.; Watts, R.L.

1993-04-01

215

Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 1, Industrial solid waste processing municipal waste reduction/recycling  

SciTech Connect

This two-volume proceedings summarizes the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Lee, V.E. [ed.; Watts, R.L.

1993-04-01

216

Possible applications for municipal solid waste fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study focuses on existing practices related to the reuse of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) fly ash and identifies new potential uses. Nine possible applications were identified and grouped into four main categories: construction materials (cement, concrete, ceramics, glass and glass–ceramics); geotechnical applications (road pavement, embankments); “agriculture” (soil amendment); and, miscellaneous (sorbent, sludge conditioning). Each application is analysed in

C Ferreira; A Ribeiro; L Ottosen

2003-01-01

217

40 CFR 266.203 - Standards applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions.  

...applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions. 266.203 Section 266...HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions § 266.203 Standards...applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions. (a) Criteria for...

2014-07-01

218

40 CFR 266.205 - Standards applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions.  

...applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions. 266.205 Section...HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions § 266.205 Standards...applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions. (a) Criteria...

2014-07-01

219

40 CFR 266.205 - Standards applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions. 266.205 Section...HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions § 266.205 Standards...applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions. (a) Criteria...

2012-07-01

220

40 CFR 266.205 - Standards applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions. 266.205 Section...HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions § 266.205 Standards...applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions. (a) Criteria...

2011-07-01

221

40 CFR 266.203 - Standards applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions. 266.203 Section 266...HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions § 266.203 Standards...applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions. (a) Criteria for...

2011-07-01

222

40 CFR 266.203 - Standards applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions. 266.203 Section 266...HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions § 266.203 Standards...applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions. (a) Criteria for...

2012-07-01

223

40 CFR 266.203 - Standards applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions. 266.203 Section 266...HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions § 266.203 Standards...applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions. (a) Criteria for...

2010-07-01

224

40 CFR 266.205 - Standards applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions. 266.205 Section...HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions § 266.205 Standards...applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions. (a) Criteria...

2010-07-01

225

MSW management for waste minimization in Taiwan: The last two decades  

SciTech Connect

Taiwan is the second most densely populated country in the world; its 22.604 million residents (2002) live in an area of 35,967 km{sup 2} (628 people/km{sup 2}). Taiwan's economy has grown rapidly during the last 20 years, resulting in a corresponding increase in the amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). This study describes and evaluates the municipal solid waste management system in Taiwan. The study's results indicate that the amount of MSW began to decline after 1997, when the government enforced aggressive MSW management policies. By 2002, total MSW production had dropped by 27%, and the average daily per capita weight of MSW had fallen from 1.14 kg in 1997 to 0.81 kg in 2002. Summarizing the successful experience of MSW reduction in Taiwan, the most important factor was the government's combining of the MSW collection system with reduction/recycling programs. The second most important factor was the policy of extended producer responsibility, which laid a foundation of recycling by producers and retailers and promoted public recycling.

Lu, L.-T. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Road, 10660 Taipei, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: luliteh@ms13.hinet.net; Hsiao, T.-Y. [Department of Tourism Industry, Jin-Wen Institute of Technology, 99, Ann-Chung Road, 231 Taipei County, Taiwan (China); Shang, N.-C. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Road, 10660 Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yu, Y.-H. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Road, 10660 Taipei, Taiwan (China); Ma, H.-W. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Road, 10660 Taipei, Taiwan (China)

2006-07-01

226

Pilot studies to achieve waste minimization and enhance radioactive liquid waste treatment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Radioactive and Industrial Wastewater Science Group manages and operates the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The RLWTF treats low-level radioactive liquid waste generated by research and analytical facilities at approximately 35 technical areas throughout the 43-square-mile site. The RLWTF treats an average of 5.8 million gallons (21.8-million liters) of liquid waste annually. Clarifloculation and filtration is the primary treatment technology used by the RLWTF. This technology has been used since the RLWTF became operable in 1963. Last year the RLWTF achieved an average of 99.7% removal of gross alpha activity in the waste stream. The treatment process requires the addition of chemicals for the flocculation and subsequent precipitation of radionuclides. The resultant sludge generated during this process is solidified in drums and stored or disposed of at LANL.

Freer, J.; Freer, E.; Bond, A. [and others

1996-07-01

227

Application of glove box robotics to hazardous waste management  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) is developing a semi-automated system for handling, characterizing, processing, sorting, and repackaging hazardous wastes containing tritium. The system combines an IBM developed gantry robot with a special glove box enclosure designed to protect the operators and minimize the potential release of tritium to the atmosphere. All hazardous waste handling and processing will be performed remotely using the robot in a telerobotic mode for one-of-a-kind functions and in an autonomous mode for repetitive type operations. The system will initially be used in conjunction with a portable gas system designed to capture any gaseous phase tritium released into the glove box. This paper presents the objectives of this program, provides background related to LLNL`s robotics and waste handling program, describes the major system components, outlines system operation, and discusses current status and plans.

Dennison, D.K.; Hurd, R.L.; Merrill, R.D.; Reitz, T.C.

1995-02-01

228

State Waste Discharge Permit application: 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations; the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water discharges to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit via dedicated pipelines. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water is the only discharge to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse is a steam generation facility consisting of a coal-handling and preparation section and boilers.

Atencio, B.P.

1994-06-01

229

Study on the strategies of waste solvent minimization in automobile production industry  

SciTech Connect

There are six automobile manufacturers who produce several kinds of vehicles in Taiwan. To meet the consumer`s needs, the automobile coating processes are necessary for the basic functions of anti-rust protection, weatherproofing and appearance. Some kinds of solvents are added as thinners and additives to avoid excessive viscosity of the coating materials and to increase facility productivity. The total consumption of volatile organic solvents is about 407,000 ton/year of which about 100,700 ton/year is used in surface coating. It is worthy of attention that solvents used in automobile industries account for 7,200 ton/year in major coating processes, including electrodeposition coating, primer coating, top coating, and bar coating, according to statistics of VOCs emission rate calculated from the data of consumption provided by each automobile plant. The amount of solvents used for washing spray gun and base coating are about 3,350 ton/year; and about 1,700 ton/year for primer coat and clear coat. The species of organic solvents include toluene, xylene, ethylacetate, n-butyl acetate, ketone, etc. VOCs emission factor from each plant lies between 500 to 650 g-VOCs/L coating. To reduce the amount of coating and waste liquor, the suggested methods include increasing gun spray efficiency, lengthening same colors painting period, reducing the solvent content in paint, and adding treatment equipment. The high solid content painting, waterborne coat, and powder coat should be used for traditional painting. Additionally, a carbon adsorption bed and zeolite rotator recovery system can replace scrubbers since they can be used as solvent recovery equipment.

Chang, C.T.; Lin, K.L.; Wu, Y.P.; Lan, W.L.; Jeng, F.T. [National I-Lan Inst. of Agriculture and Technology (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Environmental Engineering

1998-12-31

230

Land application of wastes. Volume II  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of carefully engineered land treatment systems for municipal, industrial, and agricultural wastes is discussed. Volume II presents scientific and engineering information that can be used in the formulation of the practical land treatment systems. The role nitrogen plays in land treatment systems, organic and inorganic transformations, methods for determining nitrogen loading, and ways existing systems deal with nitrogen

R. C. Loehr; W. J. Jewell; J. D. Novak; W. W. Clarkson; G. S. Friedman

1979-01-01

231

Use of Novel Highly Selective Ion Exchange Media for Minimizing the Waste Arising from Different NPP and Other Liquids  

SciTech Connect

Highly selective inorganic ion exchangers give new possibilities to implement and operate new innovative treatment systems for radioactive liquids. Because of high selectivity these ion exchangers can be used even in liquids of high salt concentrations. Only selected target nuclides will be separated and inactive salts are left in the liquid, which can be released or recategorized. Thus, it is possible to reduce the volume of radioactive waste dramatically. On the other hand, only a small volume of highly selective material is required in applications, which makes it possible to design totally new types of compact treatment systems. The major benefit of selective ion exchange media comes from the very large volume reduction of radioactive waste in final disposal. It is also possible to save in investment costs, because small ion exchanger volumes can be used and handled in a very small facility. This paper describes different applications of these highly selective ion exchangers, both commercial fullscale applications and laboratory tests, to give the idea of their efficiency for different liquids.

Tusa, Esko; Harjula, Risto; Lehto, Jukka

2003-02-25

232

Application of Epoxy Based Coating Instacote on Waste Tank Tops  

SciTech Connect

This evaluation examines the compatibility of coating Instacote with existing High-Level Waste facilities and safety practices. No significant incompatibilities are identified. The following actions need to be completed as indicated when applying Instacote on waste tank tops:(1) Prior to application in ITP facilities, the final product should be tested for chemical resistance to sodium tetraphenylborate solutions or sodium titanate slurries.(2) Any waste contaminated with Part A or B that can not be removed by the vendor such as for radiological contamination, HLW must hold the waste until HLW completes a formal assessment of the waste, disposal criteria, and impact.(3) Prior to the start of any application of the coating, each riser needs to be evaluated for masking and masking applied if needed.(4) At the conclusion of an application actual total weight of material applied to a waste tank needs to documented and sent to the tank top loading files for reference purposes.(5) Verify that the final product contains less than 250 ppm chloride.

Pike, J.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1998-03-18

233

Application of Sequential Quadratic Programming to Minimize Smart Active Flap Rotor Hub Loads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In an analytical study, SMART active flap rotor hub loads have been minimized using nonlinear programming constrained optimization methodology. The recently developed NLPQLP system (Schittkowski, 2010) that employs Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) as its core algorithm was embedded into a driver code (NLP10x10) specifically designed to minimize active flap rotor hub loads (Leyland, 2014). Three types of practical constraints on the flap deflections have been considered. To validate the current application, two other optimization methods have been used: i) the standard, linear unconstrained method, and ii) the nonlinear Generalized Reduced Gradient (GRG) method with constraints. The new software code NLP10x10 has been systematically checked out. It has been verified that NLP10x10 is functioning as desired. The following are briefly covered in this paper: relevant optimization theory; implementation of the capability of minimizing a metric of all, or a subset, of the hub loads as well as the capability of using all, or a subset, of the flap harmonics; and finally, solutions for the SMART rotor. The eventual goal is to implement NLP10x10 in a real-time wind tunnel environment.

Kottapalli, Sesi; Leyland, Jane

2014-01-01

234

Application of a multiobjective minimization technique for reducing the torque ripple in permanent-magnet motors  

SciTech Connect

The demand for high performance permanent-magnet (PM) motors is continuously increasing in industrial applications because of their high efficiency and power density. The main design parameters of a permanent-magnet motor, which reduce the total torque ripple, are determined. A two-step design procedure is utilized. First the geometry of the permanent-magnet rotor is derived by a one-dimensional field analysis coupled to a multiobjective minimization technique. The objective function of the minimization is defined as a combination of the electromotive force harmonic components induced in the stator and of the harmonic components of the air-gap magnet permeance. As a second step, a two-dimensional numerical model, solved through a finite element method, is adopted to further improve the analysis of the magnetic field. This allows the optimization of the magnet arc width and the minimization of the cogging torque. The method described has been used for the design of a three-phase, six-pole, permanent-magnet synchronous motor. Experimental tests have been carried out to verify the results obtained by the design procedure.

Borghi, C.A.; Casadei, D.; Cristofolini, A.; Fabbri, M.; Serra, G.

1999-09-01

235

A Novel and Cost Effective Approach to the Decommissioning and Decontamination of Legacy Glove Boxes - Minimizing TRU Waste and Maximizing LLW Waste - 13634  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the process of decommissioning two gloveboxes at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) that were employed for work with plutonium and other radioactive materials. The decommissioning process involved an initial phase of clearing tools and materials from the glove boxes and disconnecting them from the laboratory infrastructure. The removed materials, assessed as Transuranic (TRU) waste, were packaged into 55 gallon (200 litre) drums and prepared for ultimate disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) at Carlsbad New Mexico. The boxes were then sampled to determine the radioactive contents by means of smears that were counted with alpha and beta detectors to determine the residual surface contamination, especially in terms of alpha particle emitters that are an indicator of TRU activity. Paint chip samples were also collected and sent for laboratory analysis in order to ascertain the radioactive contamination contributing to the TRU activity as a fixed contamination. The investigations predicted that it may be feasible to reduce the residual surface contamination and render the glovebox structure low level waste (LLW) for disposal. In order to reduce the TRU activity a comprehensive decontamination process was initiated using chemical compounds that are particularly effective for lifting and dissolving radionuclides that adhere to the inner surfaces of the gloveboxes. The result of the decontamination process was a reduction in the TRU surface activity on the inner surfaces of the gloveboxes by four orders of magnitude in terms of disintegrations per unit area (DPA). The next phase of the process involved a comprehensive assay of the gloveboxes using a combination of passive neutron and gamma ray scintillation detectors and a shielded and collimated high purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma ray detector. The HPGe detector was used to obtain gamma ray spectra for a variety of measurement positions within the glovebox. The spectra were used to determine the TRU content of the boxes by assessing the activity of Am-241 (59 keV) and Pu-241 (414 keV). Using the data generated it was possible for qualified subject matter experts (SME) to assess that the gloveboxes could be consigned for disposition as LLW and not as TRU. Once this determination was assessed and accepted the gloveboxes were prepared for final disposition to the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) - formerly the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This preparation involved fixing any remaining radioactive contamination within the gloveboxes by filling them with a foam compound, prior to transportation. Once the remaining contamination was fixed the gloveboxes were removed from the laboratory and prepared for transported by road to NNSS. This successful glovebox decontamination and decommissioning process illustrates the means by which TRU waste generation has been minimized, LLW generation has been maximized, and risk has been effectively managed. The process minimizes the volume of TRU waste and reduced the decommissioning time with significant cost savings as the result. (authors)

Pancake, Daniel; Rock, Cynthia M.; Creed, Richard [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)] [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Donohoue, Tom; Martin, E. Ray; Mason, John A. [ANTECH Corporation 9050 Marshall Court, Westminster, CO, 80031 (United States)] [ANTECH Corporation 9050 Marshall Court, Westminster, CO, 80031 (United States); Norton, Christopher J.; Crosby, Daniel [Environmental Alternatives, Inc., 149 Emerald Street, Suite R, Keene, NH 03431 (United States)] [Environmental Alternatives, Inc., 149 Emerald Street, Suite R, Keene, NH 03431 (United States); Nachtman, Thomas J. [InstaCote, Inc., 160 C. Lavoy Road, Erie, MI, 48133 (United States)] [InstaCote, Inc., 160 C. Lavoy Road, Erie, MI, 48133 (United States)

2013-07-01

236

Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, PUREX storage tunnels  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the PUREX Storage Tunnels (this document, DOE/RL-90-24).

Haas, C.R., Westinghouse Hanford, Richland, WA

1997-09-08

237

Evidence-based integrated environmental solutions for secondary lead smelters: pollution prevention and waste minimization technologies and practices.  

PubMed

An evidence-based methodology was adopted in this research to establish strategies to increase lead recovery and recycling via a systematic review and critical appraisal of the published literature. In particular, the research examines pollution prevention and waste minimization practices and technologies that meet the following criteria: (a) reduce/recover/recycle the largest quantities of lead currently being disposed of as waste, (b) technically and economically viable, that is, ready to be diffused and easily transferable, and (c) strong industry interest (i.e., industry would consider implementing projects with higher payback periods). The following specific aims are designed to achieve the study objectives: Aim 1 - To describe the recycling process of recovering refined lead from scrap; Aim 2 - To document pollution prevention and waste management technologies and practices adopted by US stakeholders along the trajectory of LAB and lead product life cycle; Aim 3 - To explore improved practices and technologies which are employed by other organizations with an emphasis on the aforementioned criteria; Aim 4 - To demonstrate the economic and environmental costs and benefits of applying improved technologies and practices to existing US smelting operations; and Aim 5 - To evaluate improved environmental technologies and practices using an algorithm that integrates quantitative and qualitative criteria. The process of identifying relevant articles and reports was documented. The description of evidence was presented for current practices and technologies used by US smelters as well as improved practices and technologies. Options for integrated environmental solutions for secondary smelters were introduced and rank ordered on the basis of costs (i.e., capital investment) and benefits (i.e., production increases, energy and flux savings, and reduction of SO(2) and slag). An example was provided to demonstrate the utility of the algorithm by detailing the costs and benefits associated with different combinations of practices and technologies. The evidence-based methodology documented in this research reveals that it is technically and economically feasible to implement integrated environmental solutions to increase lead recovery and recycling among US smelters. The working example presented in this research can be confirmed with US stakeholders and form the basis for implementable solutions in the lead smelter and product industries to help reverse the overall trend of declining life-cycle recycling rates. PMID:19232675

Genaidy, A M; Sequeira, R; Tolaymat, T; Kohler, J; Rinder, M

2009-05-01

238

Application of Plasma Gasification Technology in Waste to Energy—Challenges and Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilization of plasma gasification in waste to energy (WTE) is one of the novel applications of a technology that was introduced several decades ago. In this application, plasma arc gasifies the carbon-based part of waste materials such as municipal solid waste, sludge, agricultural waste, etc., and generates a synthetic gas which can be used to produce energy through reciprocating engine

Masoud Pourali

2010-01-01

239

APPLICATION OF PULSE COMBUSTION TO SOLID AND HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the application of pulse combustion to solid and hazardous waste incineration. otary kiln incinerator simulator was retrofitted with a frequency-tunable pulse combustor to enhance the efficiency of combustion. he pulse combustor excites pulsations in the kiln ...

240

Polyethylene Terephthalate Waste Recycling and Application Possibilities: a Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a review of works that cover PET post-consumer waste recycling and application during last twenty years. It is shown that physically recycled PET can be used in the blends with other polymers, such as high and low density polyethylene, polycarbonates, polyvinyl chloride, etc. The compatibilizers and other additives often are used to obtain valuable blends of recycled

Gintaras MACIJAUSKAS

241

Chemical Applications of Electrohydraulic Cavitation for Hazardous Waste Control  

E-print Network

CHEMICAL APPLICATIONS OF ELECTROHVDRAULIC CAVITATION FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE CONTROL MICHAEL R. HOFFMANN, PROFESSOR, CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, PASADENA, CA 91125 Abstract We have been investigating the fundamental chemistry..., production of hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen atoms, hydrogen peroxide and aquated electrons. The chemical changes of compounds in water pulsed with these different sources of power are induced in part by the violent collapse of cavitation bubbles...

Hoffmann, M. R.

242

Natural Zeolites and Application in Liquid Waste Treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zeolite-clinoptilolite minerals crystal structures and their main properties are presented depending on property structure relation particular attention is given on irradiated clinoptilolite properties in connection w3ith application for radioactive waste water treatment. It was shown the high effiency for reducing the radioactivity of waters by electron irradiated Armenian clinoptilolite more than 1700 times.

Yeritsyan, H. N.; Sahakyan, A. A.; Harutunyan, V. V.; Nikoghosyan, S. K.; Hakhverdyan, E. A.; Grigoryan, N. E.

243

Novel hydrogel application in minimally invasive surgical approaches to spontaneous intracranial hypotension.  

PubMed

The authors report 2 cases of orthostatic headaches associated with spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) secondary to CSF leaks that were successfully treated with an alternative dural repair technique in which a tubular retractor system and a hydrogel dural sealant were used. The 2 patients, a 63-year-old man and a 45-year-old woman, presented with orthostatic headache associated with SIH secondary to suspected lumbar and lower cervical CSF leaks, respectively, as indicated by bony defects or epidural fluid collection. Epidural blood patch repair failed in both cases, but both were successfully treated with the minimally invasive application of a hydrogel dural sealant as a novel adjunct to traditional dural repair techniques. Both patients tolerated the procedure well. Moreover, SIH symptoms and MRI signs were completely resolved at 1-month follow-up in both patients. The minimally invasive dural repair procedure with hydrogel dural sealant described here offers a viable alternative in patients in whom epidural blood patches have failed, with obscure recalcitrant CSF leaks at the cervical as well as lumbar spinal level. The authors demonstrate that the adjuvant use of sealant is a safe and efficient repair method regardless of dural defect location. PMID:25084466

Chai, Casey M; Banu, Matei A; Cobb, William; Mehta, Neel; Heier, Linda; Boockvar, John A

2014-10-01

244

Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Design Procedures for Land Application of Wastes - Module 6, Objectives, Script and Figures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this module is to develop a general procedure to decide the feasibility of land application as a waste management alternative, given a specific problem situation. This information provides a framework within which to apply the information presented in all other modules in the program. An outline of the general procedure followed in…

Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

245

Design and fabrication of an IPMC-embedded tube for minimally invasive surgery applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) is receiving much attention for a number of reasons, including less trauma, faster recovery and enhanced precision. The traditional robotic actuators do not have the capabilities required to fulfill the demand for new applications in MIS. Ionic Polymer-Metal Composite (IPMC), one of the most promising smart materials, has extensive desirable characteristics such as low actuation voltage, large bending deformation and high functionality. Compared with traditional actuators, IPMCs can mimic biological muscle and are highly promising for actuation in robotic surgery. In this paper, a new approach which involves molding and integrating IPMC actuators into a soft silicone tube to create an active actuating tube capable of multi-degree-of-freedom motion is presented. First, according to the structure and performance requirements of the actuating tube, the biaxial bending IPMC actuators fabricated by using solution casting method have been implemented. The silicone was cured at a suitable temperature to form a flexible tube using molds fabricated by 3D Printing technology. Then an assembly based fabrication process was used to mold or integrate biaxial bending IPMC actuators into the soft silicone material to create an active control tube. The IPMC-embedded tube can generate multi-degree-of-freedom motions by controlling each IPMC actuator. Furthermore, the basic performance of the actuators was analyzed, including the displacement and the response speed. Experimental results indicate that IPMC-embedded tubes are promising for applications in MIS.

Liu, Jiayu; Wang, Yanjie; Zhao, Dongxu; Zhang, Chi; Chen, Hualing; Li, Dichen

2014-03-01

246

A 4-DOF haptic master using ER fluid for minimally invasive surgery system application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel 4-degrees-of-freedom (4-DOF) haptic master using a electrorheological (ER) fluid which is applicable to minimally invasive surgery (MIS) systems. By adopting a controllable ER fluid, the master can easily generate 4-DOF repulsive forces with the advantages of a simple mechanism and continuous force control capability. The proposed master consists of two actuators: an ER spherical joint for 3-DOF rotational motion and an ER piston device for 1-DOF translational motion. The generated torque/force models are mathematically derived by analyzing the mechanism geometry and using the Bingham characteristics of an ER Fluid. The haptic master is optimally designed and manufactured based on the mathematical torque/force models. The repulsive torque/force responses are experimentally evaluated and expressed by the first-order and second-order dynamic equations for each motion. A sliding mode controller (SMC), which is known to be robust to uncertainties, is then designed and empirically implemented to achieve the desired torque/force trajectories. It is demonstrated by presenting torque/force tracking results of both rotational and translational motions that the proposed 4-DOF ER haptic master integrated with the SMC can provide an effective haptic control performance for MIS applications.

Oh, Jong-Seok; Han, Young-Min; Lee, Sang-Rock; Choi, Seung-Bok

2013-04-01

247

Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application for T Plant Complex  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, operating treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the T Plant Complex (this document, DOE/RL-95-36). Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is contained in the T Plant Complex permit application documentation, in relation to the Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents Section. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever appropriate, the T Plant Complex permit application documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text.

BARNES, B.M.

2002-09-01

248

Pollution prevention assessment manual. A guide for large quantity generators and TRI reporters in preparing a source reduction and waste minimization plan  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Reduction Policy Act (WRPA) of 1991 requires certain industries and businesses that generate hazardous waste or release toxics to prepare a source reduction and waste minimization (SR/WM) plan and a SR/WM annual progress report. This manual is organized to accomplish two objectives: to assist in preparing a pollution prevention plan as required under the WRPA; to aid in planning, developing, and implementing a successful pollution prevention program. Each chapter in this manual contains worksheets, detailed descriptions explaining the worksheets, and advice on how to complete a pollution prevention assessment and plan. Chapter 2 presents instructions and approaches for preparing a pollution prevention plan as required by the WRPA. Chapters 3 through 6 present worksheets that will help to prepare a plan.

NONE

1998-07-01

249

Potential applications of nanostructured materials in nuclear waste management.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results obtained from a Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD) project entitled 'Investigation of Potential Applications of Self-Assembled Nanostructured Materials in Nuclear Waste Management'. The objectives of this project are to (1) provide a mechanistic understanding of the control of nanometer-scale structures on the ion sorption capability of materials and (2) develop appropriate engineering approaches to improving material properties based on such an understanding.

Braterman, Paul S. (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Phol, Phillip Isabio; Xu, Zhi-Ping (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Yang, Yi (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Bryan, Charles R.; Yu, Kui; Xu, Huifang (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Wang, Yifeng; Gao, Huizhen

2003-09-01

250

Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, general information. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The current Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (this document, number DOE/RL-91-28) and a treatment, storage, and/or disposal Unit-Specific Portion, which includes documentation for individual TSD units (e.g., document numbers DOE/RL-89-03 and DOE/RL-90-01). Both portions consist of a Part A division and a Part B division. The Part B division consists of 15 chapters that address the content of the Part B checklists prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information requirements mandated by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology checklist section numbers, in brackets, follow the chapter headings and subheadings. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion (i.e., this document, number DOE/RL-91-28) is broader in nature and applies to all treatment, storage, and/or disposal units for which final status is sought. Because of its broad nature, the Part A division of the General Information Portion references the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Part A Permit Application (document number DOE/RL-88-21), a compilation of all Part A documentation for the Hanford Facility.

Not Available

1993-05-01

251

Application of neural networks to waste site screening  

SciTech Connect

Waste site screening requires knowledge of the actual concentrations of hazardous materials and rates of flow around and below the site with time. The present approach consists primarily of drilling boreholes near contaminated sites and chemically analyzing the extracted physical samples and processing the data. This is expensive and time consuming. The feasibility of using neural network techniques to reduce the cost of waste site screening was investigated. Two neural network techniques, gradient descent back propagation and fully recurrent back propagation were utilized. The networks were trained with data received from Westinghouse Hanford Corporation. The results indicate that the network trained with the fully recurrent technique shows satisfactory generalization capability. The predicted results are close to the results obtained from a mathematical flow prediction model. It is possible to develop a new tool to predict the waste plume, thus substantially reducing the number of the bore sites and samplings. There are a variety of applications for this technique in environmental site screening and remediation. One of the obvious applications would be for optimum well siting. A neural network trained from the existing sampling data could be utilized to decide where would be the best position for the next bore site. Other applications are discussed in the report.

Dabiri, A.E.; Garrett, M.; Kraft, T.; Hilton, J.; VanHammersveld, M.

1993-02-01

252

Review of LLNL Mixed Waste Streams for the Application of Potential Waste Reduction Controls  

SciTech Connect

In July 2004, LLNL adopted the International Standard ISO 14001 as a Work Smart Standard in lieu of DOE Order 450.1. In support of this new requirement the Director issued a new environmental policy that was documented in Section 3.0 of Document 1.2, ''ES&H Policies of LLNL'', in the ES&H Manual. In recent years the Environmental Management System (EMS) process has become formalized as LLNL adopted ISO 14001 as part of the contract under which the laboratory is operated for the Department of Energy (DOE). On May 9, 2005, LLNL revised its Integrated Safety Management System Description to enhance existing environmental requirements to meet ISO 14001. Effective October 1, 2005, each new project or activity is required to be evaluated from an environmental aspect, particularly if a potential exists for significant environmental impacts. Authorizing organizations are required to consider the management of all environmental aspects, the applicable regulatory requirements, and reasonable actions that can be taken to reduce negative environmental impacts. During 2006, LLNL has worked to implement the corrective actions addressing the deficiencies identified in the DOE/LSO audit. LLNL has begun to update the present EMS to meet the requirements of ISO 14001:2004. The EMS commits LLNL--and each employee--to responsible stewardship of all the environmental resources in our care. The generation of mixed radioactive waste was identified as a significant environmental aspect. Mixed waste for the purposes of this report is defined as waste materials containing both hazardous chemical and radioactive constituents. Significant environmental aspects require that an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) be developed. The objective of the EMP developed for mixed waste (EMP-005) is to evaluate options for reducing the amount of mixed waste generated. This document presents the findings of the evaluation of mixed waste generated at LLNL and a proposed plan for reduction.

Belue, A; Fischer, R P

2007-01-08

253

Domestic applications for aerospace waste and water management technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some of the aerospace developments in solid waste disposal and water purification, which are applicable to specific domestic problems are explored. Also provided is an overview of the management techniques used in defining the need, in utilizing the available tools, and in synthesizing a solution. Specifically, several water recovery processes will be compared for domestic applicability. Examples are filtration, distillation, catalytic oxidation, reverse osmosis, and electrodialysis. Solid disposal methods will be discussed, including chemical treatment, drying, incineration, and wet oxidation. The latest developments in reducing household water requirements and some concepts for reusing water will be outlined.

Disanto, F.; Murray, R. W.

1972-01-01

254

Ultrasound-based navigation for minimally invasive surgical atrial fibrillation treatment: workflow and application prototype  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia and results in an increased risk of ischemic stroke. Recently, a european consortium has developed a new minimally invasive device for surgical AF treatment. It consists of a micro-robot holding an end-effector called "umbrella" containing 22 radiofrequency powered electrodes. Surgery using this new device can only be performed having an appropriate navigation technique. Therefore, we have developed an image-based navigation workflow and a prototypic navigation application. First, a navigation workflow including an appropriate intra-operative image-modality was defined. Intraoperative ultrasound became the imaging modality of choice. Once the umbrella is unfolded inside the left atrium, data is acquired and segmented. Using a reliable communication protocol, mobility values are transferred from the control software to the navigation system. A deformation model predicts the behavior of the umbrella during repositioning. Prior to surgery, desired ablation lines can be interactively planned and actually made ablation lines are visualized during surgery. Several in-vitro tests were performed. The navigation prototype has been integrated and tested within the overall system successfully. Image acquisitions of the umbrella showed the feasibility of the navigation procedure. More in-vitro and in-vivo tests are currently performed to make the new device and the described navigation procedure ready for clinical use.

Hastenteufel, Mark; Yang, Siwei; Christoph, Carsten; Vetter, Marcus; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Wolf, Ivo

2005-04-01

255

Soil Nitrogen and Nutrient Dynamics after Repeated Application of Treated Dairy-Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved understanding of the effects of dairy-waste treatment and land application on microbial processes and products is required to predict the outcome of waste applications and avoid undesirable environmental impacts. Our objective was to assess effects of treated dairy-waste on soil N pools, nitrification, plant N availability, and yield in a silage cornfield (Zea mays L.) treated with ammonium sulfate

Mussie Y. Habteselassie; Bruce E. Miller; Seth G. Thacker; John M. Stark; Jeanette M. Norton

2006-01-01

256

Applications and mechanisms of laser ablation for elemental analysis of nuclear wastes and contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

Survey methods for compositional analysis of nuclear wastes and contaminated soils are under development to support characterization prior to treatment and continued monitoring during remediation. Laser ablation in conjunction with optical spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy are attractive because of the safety and convenience of minimal sample handling and very small sampling volume. However, the signal intensities in analytic applications depend sensitively on the physical state of the sample (e.g., particle morphology, defect concentration, impurities, and presence of liquids). In this work, the authors examine how solid and condensed state properties of the sample affect the laser-substrate interaction, and the dynamic electronic, physical, and chemical processes which ultimately generate the signals that are detected for analytic purposes.

Langford, S.C.; Dickinson, J.T. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

1996-12-31

257

Application of a multiobjective minimization technique for reducing the torque ripple in permanent-magnet motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main design parameters of a permanent-magnet motor, which reduce the total torque ripple, are determined. A two-step design procedure is utilized. First the geometry of the permanent-magnet rotor is derived by a one-dimensional field analysis coupled to a multiobjective minimization technique. The objective function of the minimization is defined as a combination of the electromotive force harmonic components induced

Carlo A. Borghi; Domenico Casadei; Andrea Cristofolini; Massimo Fabbri; Giovanni Serra

1999-01-01

258

Importance of biological systems in industrial waste treatment potential application to the space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In addition to having applications for waste management issues on planet Earth, microbial systems have application in reducing waste volumes aboard spacecraft. A candidate for such an application is the space station. Many of the planned experiments generate aqueous waste. To recycle air and water the contaminants from previous experiments must be removed before the air and water can be used for other experiments. This can be achieved using microorganisms in a bioreactor. Potential bioreactors (inorganics, organics, and etchants) are discussed. Current technologies that may be applied to waste treatment are described. Examples of how biological systems may be used in treating waste on the space station.

Revis, Nathaniel; Holdsworth, George

1990-01-01

259

Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Waste Application Systems - Module 12, Objectives, and Script.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Land application systems are discussed with reference to the options available for applying wastewater and sludge to the site. Spray systems, surface flow methods, and sludge application schemes are all included with discussions of the advantages and disadvantages of each option within these categories. A distinction is made between the choice of…

Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

260

Sources and potential application of waste heat utilization at a gas processing facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waste heat recovery (WHR) has the potential to significantly improve the efficiency of oil and gas plants, chemical and other processing facilities, and reduce their environmental impact. In this Thesis a comprehensive energy audit at Abu Dhabi Gas Industries Ltd. (GASCO) ASAB gas processing facilities is undertaken to identify sources of waste heat and evaluate their potential for on-site recovery. Two plants are considered, namely ASAB0 and ASAB1. Waste heat evaluation criteria include waste heat grade (i.e., temperature), rate, accessibility (i.e., proximity) to potential on-site waste heat recovery applications, and potential impact of recovery on installation performance and safety. The operating parameters of key waste heat source producing equipment are compiled, as well as characteristics of the waste heat streams. In addition, potential waste heat recovery applications and strategies are proposed, focusing on utilities, i.e., enhancement of process cooling/heating, electrical/mechanical power generation, and steam production. The sources of waste heat identified at ASAB facilities consist of gas turbine and gas generator exhaust gases, flared gases, excess propane cooling capacity, excess process steam, process gas air-cooler heat dissipation, furnace exhaust gases and steam turbine outlet steam. Of the above waste heat sources, exhaust gases from five gas turbines and one gas generator at ASAB0 plant, as well as from four gas turbines at ASAB1 plant, were found to meet the rate (i.e., > 1 MW), grade (i.e., > 180°C), accessibility (i.e., < 50 m from potential on-site WHR applications) and minimal impact criteria on the performance and safety of existing installations, for potential waste heat recovery. The total amount of waste heat meeting these criteria were estimated at 256 MW and 289 MW at ASAB0 and ASAB1 plants, respectively, both of which are substantial. Of the 289 MW waste generated at ASAB1, approximately 173 MW are recovered by waste heat recovery steam generators (WHRSGs), leaving 116 MW unutilized. The following strategies were developed to recover the above waste heat. At ASAB0, it is proposed that exhaust gases from all five gas turbines be used to power a WHRSG. The steam generated by the WHRSG would both i) drive an absorption refrigeration unit for gas turbine inlet air cooling, which would result in additional electric or mechanical power generation, and pre-cooling of process gas, which could reduce the need for or eliminate air coolers, as well as reduce propane chiller load, and ii) serve for heating of lean gas, which would reduce furnace load. At ASAB1, it is proposed that exhaust gases from all four gas turbines be used to generate steam in WHRSG that would drive an absorption refrigeration unit for either gas turbine inlet air cooling for additional electric or mechanical power generation, or pre-cooling of process gas to eliminate air-coolers and reduce propane chiller cooling load. Considering the smaller amount of waste heat available at ASAB1 (116 MW) relative to ASAB0 (237 MW), these above two recovery options could not be implemented simultaneously at ASAB0. To permit the detailed design and techno-economic feasibility evaluation of the proposed waste heat recovery strategies in a subsequent study, the cooling loads and associated electric power consumption of ASAB0 process gas air-coolers were estimated at 21 MW and 1.9 MW, respectively, and 67 MW and 2.2 MW, respectively for ASAB1 plant. In addition, the heating loads and fuel consumption of ASAB0 furnaces used for lean gas re-generation were estimated at 24 MW and 0.0653 MMSCMD, respectively. In modeling work undertaken in parallel with this study at the Petroleum Institute, the waste heat recovery strategies proposed here were found to be thermodynamically and economically feasible, and to lead to substantial energy and cost savings, hence environmental benefits.

Alshehhi, Alyas Ali

261

Stochastic quasi-Newton method: Application to minimal model for proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of protein folding pathways and inherent structures is of utmost importance for our understanding of biological function, including the rational design of drugs and future treatments against protein misfolds. Computational approaches have now reached the stage where they can assess folding properties and provide data that is complementary to or even inaccessible by experimental imaging techniques. Minimal models of proteins, which make possible the simulation of protein folding dynamics by (systematic) coarse graining, have provided understanding in terms of descriptors for folding, folding kinetics, and folded states. Here we focus on the efficiency of equilibration on the coarse-grained level. In particular, we applied a new regularized stochastic quasi-Newton (S-QN) method, developed for accelerated configurational space sampling while maintaining thermodynamic consistency, to analyze the folding pathway and inherent structures of a selected protein, where regularization was introduced to improve stability. The adaptive compound mobility matrix B in S-QN, determined by a factorized secant update, gives rise to an automated scaling of all modes in the protein, in particular an acceleration of protein domain dynamics or principal modes and a slowing down of fast modes or “soft” bond constraints, similar to lincs/shake algorithms, when compared to conventional Langevin dynamics. We used and analyzed a two-step strategy. Owing to the enhanced sampling properties of S-QN and increased barrier crossing at high temperatures (in reduced units), a hierarchy of inherent protein structures is first efficiently determined by applying S-QN for a single initial structure and T=1>T?, where T? is the collapse temperature. Second, S-QN simulations for several initial structures at very low temperature (T=0.01applicable to other coarse-grained proteins.

Chau, C. D.; Sevink, G. J. A.; Fraaije, J. G. E. M.

2011-01-01

262

Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 616 Nonradioactive dangerous waste storage facility  

SciTech Connect

This chapter provides information on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the waste stored at the 616 NRDWSF. A waste analysis plan is included that describes the methodology used for determining waste types.

Price, S.M.

1997-04-30

263

Minimization of organic and metallic industrial waste via lemna minor concentration. Final report, 1 September 1991-1 December 1992  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, new strict environmental laws have required improved and cost-effective water purification methods by Air Force complexes. Naturally assisted primary units (microbiological) and secondary units (macrophyte) could bring waste treatment systems into tighter compliance. Aquatic macrophytes which have rapid growth rates and absorb large quantities of nutrients could provide a practical and economic method for more complete wastewater maintenance, hazardous waste clean-up or river, lake and ground water purification. This work has shown that Lemna minor, or Common Duckweed, can successfully and thoroughly accumulate organics and metals from Air Force wastewaters.

Bowers-Irons, G.L.

1992-12-30

264

State waste discharge permit application: 400 Area secondary cooling water  

SciTech Connect

This document constitutes the Washington Administrative Code 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit Application that serves as interim compliance as required by the Consent Order DE 91NM-177, for the 400 Area Secondary Cooling Water stream. As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permitting Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered in to Consent Order DE 91NM-177. The Consent Order DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges.

Not Available

1992-12-01

265

A novel water delivery system for administering volatile chemicals while minimizing chemical waste in rodent toxicity sutdies  

EPA Science Inventory

Rodent toxicity studies typically use water bottles to administer test chemicals via drinking water. However, water bottles provide inconsistent exposure of volatile chemicals due to varying headspace, as well as lead to excessive waste of test material. In order to refine drinki...

266

A Novel Water Delivery System for Administering Volatile Chemicals while Minimizing Chemical Waste in Rodent Toxicity Studies  

EPA Science Inventory

Rodent toxicity studies typically use water bottles to administer test chemicals via drinking water. However, water bottles provide inconsistent exposure of volatile chemicals due to varying headspace, as well as lead to excessive waste of test material. In order to refine drin...

267

Advancing the field of pharmaceutical risk minimization through application of implementation science best practices.  

PubMed

Regulators are increasingly mandating the use of pharmaceutical risk-minimization programs for a variety of medicinal products. To date, however, evaluations of these programs have shown mixed results and relatively little attention has been directed at diagnosing the specific factors contributing to program success or lack thereof. Given the growing use of these programs in many different patient populations, it is imperative to understand how best to design, deliver, disseminate, and assess them. In this paper, we argue that current approaches to designing, implementing, and evaluating risk-minimization programs could be improved by applying evidence- and theory-based 'best practices' from implementation science. We highlight commonly encountered challenges and gaps in the design, implementation, and evaluation of pharmaceutical risk-minimization initiatives and propose three key recommendations to address these issues: (1) risk-minimization program design should utilize models and frameworks that guide what should be done to produce successful outcomes and what questions should be addressed to evaluate program success; (2) intervention activities and tools should be theoretically grounded and evidence based; and (3) evaluation plans should incorporate a mixed-methods approach, pragmatic trial designs, and a range of outcomes. Regulators, practitioners, policy makers, and researchers are encouraged to apply these best practices in order to improve the public health impact of this important regulatory tool. PMID:25005707

Smith, Meredith Y; Morrato, Elaine

2014-08-01

268

Closing the Loop: Integrated Waste Management Activities for School & Home. K-12 Edition. A School-Based Waste Minimization and Education Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increased human population has led to more frequent interactions with the environment. The results of those interactions have affected the Earth's ecosystem. This manual contains hands-on, problem-centered activities to help students develop an environmental ethic and stewardship regarding waste management. The activities are grouped under three…

Institute for Environmental Education, Chagrin Falls, OH.

269

I-NERI Annual Technical Progress Report 2007-004-K Development and Characterization of New High-Level Waste Forms for Achieving Waste Minimization from Pyroprocessing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current method for the immobilization of fission products that accumulate in electrorefiner salt during the electrochemical processing of used metallic nuclear fuel is to encapsulate the electrorefiner salt in a glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form. This process was developed by Argonne National Laboratory in the USA and is currently performed at the Idaho National Laboratory for the treatment of

S. Frank

2010-01-01

270

Application of Subarray Averaging and Entropy Minimization Algorithm to Stepped-Frequency ISAR Autofocus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subarray averaging and entropy minimization (SAEM) algorithm is applied to stepped-frequency ISAR autofocus to compensate for the phase error along the down-range due to high target speed and low pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of radar systems. In stepped-frequency radar systems, the phase error due to target motion in each burst make range profiles blur. Thus, the stepped-frequency ISAR often adopts

Ho-Ryung Jeong; Hyo-Tae Kim; Kyung-Tae Kim

2008-01-01

271

The application of waste management systems for long duration spaceflight.  

PubMed

In the future planned interplanetary expedition mission to Mars, spaceflight crewmembers will be exposed to an environment that is completely unique from anything they are accustomed to on Earth. Due to the characteristics of these missions, a challenge will be to design an environment that allows crewmembers to easily work and live in for extended durations. One of the challenges associated with these future missions is supplying the crew with essential resources for survivability such as food and water. In this case, the waste management system can play a role in a closed-loop life support system, as provisions sent with the crew will be severely limited with no opportunity for resupply. The following looks at the rationale of designing a system for collecting, storing, and recycling human bodily waste that (1) is considered user-friendly by crewmembers in regard to habitability in spaceflight, and (2) provides applications for a self sustaining closed-loop life support system that will aid the crew during the mission. Future design processes should consider adhering to these guidelines to help in the spaceflight crew's living environment and the conduction of the interplanetary expedition. PMID:22316723

Oglesby, James M

2012-01-01

272

Application of food industry waste to agricultural soils mitigates green house gas emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of organic waste materials such as food processing and serving industry cooking oil waste (OFW) can recycle soil nitrate nitrogen (NO3–N), which is otherwise prone to leaching after the harvest of crop. Nitrogen (N) recycling will not only reduce the amount of N fertilizer application for corn crop production but is also expected to mitigate green house gas (GHG)

M. T. Rashid; R. P. Voroney; M. Khalid

2010-01-01

273

Prodrug enzymes and their applications in image-guided therapy of cancer: tracking prodrug enzymes to minimize collateral damage  

PubMed Central

Many cytotoxic therapies are available to kill cancer cells. Unfortunately, these also inflict significant damage on normal cells. Identifying highly effective cancer treatments that have minimal or no side effects continues to be a major challenge. One of the strategies to minimize damage to normal tissue is to deliver an activating enzyme that localizes only in the tumor and converts a nontoxic prodrug to a cytotoxic agent locally in the tumor. Such strategies have been previously tested but with limited success due in large part to the uncertainty in the delivery and distribution of the enzyme. Imaging the delivery of the enzyme to optimize timing of the prodrug administration to achieve image-guided prodrug therapy would be of immense benefit for this strategy. Here, we have reviewed advances in the incorporation of image guidance in the applications of prodrug enzymes in cancer treatment. These advances demonstrate the feasibility of using clinically translatable imaging in these prodrug enzyme strategies. PMID:23646292

Penet, Marie-France; Chen, Zhihang; Li, Cong; Winnard, Paul T.

2013-01-01

274

A Regulatory Analysis and Reassessment of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Listed Hazardous Waste Numbers for Applicability to the INTEC Liquid Waste System  

SciTech Connect

This report concludes that there are four listed hazardous waste numbers (F001, F002, F005, and U134) applicable to the waste in the Process Equipment Waste Evaporator (PEWE) liquid waste system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The chemical constituents associated with these listed hazardous waste numbers, including those listed only for ignitability are identified. The RCRA Part A permit application hazardous waste numbers identify chemical constituents that may be treated or stored by the PEWE liquid waste system either as a result of a particular characteristic (40 CFR, Subpart C) or as a result of a specific process (40 CFR 261, Subpart D). The RCRA Part A permit application for the PEWE liquid waste system identifies the universe of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hazardous waste numbers [23 characteristic (hazardous waste codes) numbers and 105 listed numbers (four F-listed hazardous waste numbers, 20 P-listed hazardous waste numbers, and 81 U-listed hazardous waste numbers)] deemed acceptable for storage and treatment. This evaluation, however, identifies only listed wastes (and their chemical constituents) that have actually entered the PEWE liquid waste system and would, therefore, be assigned to the PEWE liquids and treatment residuals.

Gilbert, K.L.; Venneman, T.E.

1998-12-01

275

Mobile MapReduce: Minimizing Response Time of Computing Intensive Mobile Applications  

E-print Network

,sqchen}@gmu.edu Abstract. The increasing popularity of mobile devices calls for effective execution of mobile applications techniques. Ac- cordingly, we propose to build Mobile MapReduce (MMR) to effectively execute outsource on mobile devices, can result in poor performance. For example, an OpenGL application on an Android phone

Chen, Songqing

276

Application of Reset Voltage Feedback for Droop Minimization in the Unidirectional Current Pulse Transformer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the application of reset voltage feedback for reducing errors due to droop in the signal derived from a current transformer sensing unidirectional current pulses in switched-mode power converter applications. Droop is minimised by applying a correcting voltage in series with the transformer's output terminals during the current pulse. The magnitude of the correcting voltage is based on

Neville McNeill; Narendra K. Gupta; Steve G. Burrow; Derrick Holliday; Phil H. Mellor

2008-01-01

277

Waste-Lithium-Liquid (WLL) Flow Battery for Stationary Energy Storage Applications Youngsik Kim* and Nina MahootcheianAsl  

E-print Network

Waste-Lithium-Liquid (WLL) Flow Battery for Stationary Energy Storage Applications Youngsik Kim in a Waste-Lithium-Liquid (WLL) flow battery that can be used in a stationary energy storage application. Li

Zhou, Yaoqi

278

Development of optical fiber Bragg grating force-reflection sensor system of medical application for safe minimally invasive robotic surgery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Force feedback plays a very important role in medical surgery. In minimally invasive surgery (MIS), however, the very long and stiff bars of surgical instruments greatly diminish force feedback for the surgeon. In the case of minimally invasive robotic surgery (MIRS), force feedback is totally eliminated. Previous researchers have reported that the absence of force feedback increased the average force magnitude applied to the tissue by at least 50%, and increased the peak force magnitude by at least a factor of two. Therefore, it is very important to provide force information in MIRS. Recently, many sensors are being developed for MIS and MIRS, but some obstacles to their application in actual medical surgery must be surmounted. The most critical problems are size limit and sterilizability. Optical fiber sensors are among the most suitable sensors for the surgical environment. The optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor, in particular, offers an important additional advantage over other optical fiber sensors in that it is not influenced by the intensity of the light source. In this paper, we present the initial results of a study on the application of a FBG sensor to measure reflected forces in MIRS environments and suggest the possibility of successful application to MIRS systems.

Song, Hoseok; Kim, Kiyoung; Lee, Jungju

2011-07-01

279

Development of optical fiber Bragg grating force-reflection sensor system of medical application for safe minimally invasive robotic surgery.  

PubMed

Force feedback plays a very important role in medical surgery. In minimally invasive surgery (MIS), however, the very long and stiff bars of surgical instruments greatly diminish force feedback for the surgeon. In the case of minimally invasive robotic surgery (MIRS), force feedback is totally eliminated. Previous researchers have reported that the absence of force feedback increased the average force magnitude applied to the tissue by at least 50%, and increased the peak force magnitude by at least a factor of two. Therefore, it is very important to provide force information in MIRS. Recently, many sensors are being developed for MIS and MIRS, but some obstacles to their application in actual medical surgery must be surmounted. The most critical problems are size limit and sterilizability. Optical fiber sensors are among the most suitable sensors for the surgical environment. The optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor, in particular, offers an important additional advantage over other optical fiber sensors in that it is not influenced by the intensity of the light source. In this paper, we present the initial results of a study on the application of a FBG sensor to measure reflected forces in MIRS environments and suggest the possibility of successful application to MIRS systems. PMID:21806202

Song, Hoseok; Kim, Kiyoung; Lee, Jungju

2011-07-01

280

Application of augmented-Lagrangian methods in meteorology: Comparison of different conjugate-gradient codes for large-scale minimization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Lagrange multiplier method using techniques developed by Bertsekas (1982) was applied to solving the problem of enforcing simultaneous conservation of the nonlinear integral invariants of the shallow water equations on a limited area domain. This application of nonlinear constrained optimization is of the large dimensional type and the conjugate gradient method was found to be the only computationally viable method for the unconstrained minimization. Several conjugate-gradient codes were tested and compared for increasing accuracy requirements. Robustness and computational efficiency were the principal criteria.

Navon, I. M.

1984-01-01

281

Application of the microbiological method DEFT/APC to detect minimally processed vegetables treated with gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marketing of minimally processed vegetables (MPV) are gaining impetus due to its convenience, freshness and apparent health effect. However, minimal processing does not reduce pathogenic microorganisms to safe levels. Food irradiation is used to extend the shelf life and to inactivate food-borne pathogens. In combination with minimal processing it could improve safety and quality of MPV. A microbiological screening method based on the use of direct epifluorescent filter technique (DEFT) and aerobic plate count (APC) has been established for the detection of irradiated foodstuffs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of this technique in detecting MPV irradiation. Samples from retail markets were irradiated with 0.5 and 1.0 kGy using a 60Co facility. In general, with a dose increment, DEFT counts remained similar independent of the irradiation while APC counts decreased gradually. The difference of the two counts gradually increased with dose increment in all samples. It could be suggested that a DEFT/APC difference over 2.0 log would be a criteria to judge if a MPV was treated by irradiation. The DEFT/APC method could be used satisfactorily as a screening method for indicating irradiation processing.

Araújo, M. M.; Duarte, R. C.; Silva, P. V.; Marchioni, E.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.

2009-07-01

282

Unconstrained and constrained minimization, localization, and the Grassmann manifold: Theory and application to electronic structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An unconstrained minimization algorithm for electronic structure calculations using density functional for systems with a gap is developed to solve for nonorthogonal Wannier-like orbitals in the spirit of E. B. Stechel, A. R. Williams, and P. J. Feibelman [Phys. Rev. B 49, 10 008 (1994)]. The search for the occupied subspace is a Grassmann conjugate gradient algorithm generalized from the algorithm of A. Edelman, T. A. Arias, and S. T. Smith [SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl. 20, 303 (1998)]. The gradient takes into account the nonorthogonality of a local atom-centered basis, Gaussian in our implementation. With a localization constraint on the Wannier-like orbitals, well-constructed sparse matrix multiplies lead to O(N) scaling of the computationally intensive parts of the algorithm. Using silicon carbide as a test system, the accuracy, convergence, and implementation of this algorithm as a quantitative alternative to diagonalization are investigated. Results up to 1458 atoms on a single processor are presented.

Raczkowski, David; Fong, C. Y.; Schultz, Peter A.; Lippert, R. A.; Stechel, E. B.

2001-10-01

283

Buffer minimization of real-time streaming applications scheduling on hybrid CPU\\/FPGA architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the problem of real-time streaming appli- cations scheduling on hybrid CPU\\/FPGA architectures. The main contribution is a two-step approach to min- imize the buffer requirement for streaming applications with throughput guarantees. A novel declarative way of constraint based scheduling for real-time hybrid SW\\/HW systems is proposed, while the application throughput is guaranteed by periodic phases in execution. We

Jun Zhu; Ingo Sander; Axel Jantsch

2009-01-01

284

US Department of Energy: Waste Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management's goals include minimizing the waste generated by DOE, and pursuing compliance with all applicable environmental regulations. The Waste Management Web site contains information on how the DOE directs the treatment, storage, and disposal of waste generated by DOE's activities, nuclear and otherwise. A whole host of reports and other informational products such as the Standard Operating Practices and Procedures link and Waste Management Privatization information is available.

285

Up-cycling waste glass to minimal water adsorption/absorption lightweight aggregate by rapid low temperature sintering: optimization by dual process-mixture response surface methodology.  

PubMed

Mixed color waste glass extracted from municipal solid waste is either not recycled, in which case it is an environmental and financial liability, or it is used in relatively low value applications such as normal weight aggregate. Here, we report on converting it into a novel glass-ceramic lightweight aggregate (LWA), potentially suitable for high added value applications in structural concrete (upcycling). The artificial LWA particles were formed by rapidly sintering (<10 min) waste glass powder with clay mixes using sodium silicate as binder and borate salt as flux. Composition and processing were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) modeling, and specifically (i) a combined process-mixture dual RSM, and (ii) multiobjective optimization functions. The optimization considered raw materials and energy costs. Mineralogical and physical transformations occur during sintering and a cellular vesicular glass-ceramic composite microstructure is formed, with strong correlations existing between bloating/shrinkage during sintering, density and water adsorption/absorption. The diametrical expansion could be effectively modeled via the RSM and controlled to meet a wide range of specifications; here we optimized for LWA structural concrete. The optimally designed LWA is sintered in comparatively low temperatures (825-835 °C), thus potentially saving costs and lowering emissions; it had exceptionally low water adsorption/absorption (6.1-7.2% w/wd; optimization target: 1.5-7.5% w/wd); while remaining substantially lightweight (density: 1.24-1.28 g.cm(-3); target: 0.9-1.3 g.cm(-3)). This is a considerable advancement for designing effective environmentally friendly lightweight concrete constructions, and boosting resource efficiency of waste glass flows. PMID:24871934

Velis, Costas A; Franco-Salinas, Claudia; O'Sullivan, Catherine; Najorka, Jens; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Cheeseman, Christopher R

2014-07-01

286

Minimal GKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minimal GKS is a subset of the Draft International Standard Graphical Kernel System. Minimal GKS has been implemented at Sandia in the programming language C. This implementation confirms that Minimal GKS does indeed have the anticipated advantages of easy implementation and small size. Experience in using this implementation has also demonstrated that Minimal GKS is easy to learn and use,

Randall W. Simons

1983-01-01

287

Finite element based stability-constrained weight minimization of sandwich composite ducts for airship applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) airships are platform of interest due to their persistent observation and persistent communication capabilities. A novel HALE airship design configuration incorporates a composite sandwich propulsive hull duct between the front and the back of the hull for significant drag reduction via blown wake effects. The sandwich composite shell duct is subjected to hull pressure on its outer walls and flow suction on its inner walls which result in in-plane wall compressive stress, which may cause duct buckling. An approach based upon finite element stability analysis combined with a ply layup and foam thickness determination weight minimization search algorithm is utilized. Its goal is to achieve an optimized solution for the configuration of the sandwich composite as a solution to a constrained minimum weight design problem, for which the shell duct remains stable with a prescribed margin of safety under prescribed loading. The stability analysis methodology is first verified by comparing published analytical results for a number of simple cylindrical shell configurations with FEM counterpart solutions obtained using the commercially available code ABAQUS. Results show that the approach is effective in identifying minimum weight composite duct configurations for a number of representative combinations of duct geometry, composite material and foam properties, and propulsive duct applied pressure loading.

Khode, Urmi B.

288

Applicability of PM3 to transphosphorylation reaction path: Toward designing a minimal ribozyme  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A growing body of evidence shows that RNA can catalyze many of the reactions necessary both for replication of genetic material and the possible transition into the modern protein-based world. However, contemporary ribozymes are too large to have self-assembled from a prebiotic oligonucleotide pool. Still, it is likely that the major features of the earliest ribozymes have been preserved as molecular fossils in the catalytic RNA of today. Therefore, the search for a minimal ribozyme has been aimed at finding the necessary structural features of a modern ribozyme (Beaudry and Joyce, 1990). Both a three-dimensional model and quantum chemical calculations are required to quantitatively determine the effects of structural features of the ribozyme on the reaction it catalyzes. Using this model, quantum chemical calculations must be performed to determine quantitatively the effects of structural features on catalysis. Previous studies of the reaction path have been conducted at the ab initio level, but these methods are limited to small models due to enormous computational requirements. Semiempirical methods have been applied to large systems in the past; however, the accuracy of these methods depends largely on a simple model of the ribozyme-catalyzed reaction, or hydrolysis of phosphoric acid. We find that the results are qualitatively similar to ab initio results using large basis sets. Therefore, PM3 is suitable for studying the reaction path of the ribozyme-catalyzed reaction.

Manchester, John I.; Shibata, Masayuki; Setlik, Robert F.; Ornstein, Rick L.; Rein, Robert

1993-01-01

289

Minimizing area costs in GPS applications on a programmable DSP by code compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of applications requiring personal satellite based navigation is growing rapidly at the moment. Complexity of the GPS (Global Positioning System) navigation algorithms and thus the memory requirements for the systems are growing at the same pace as the demands from customers. The large program memory footprint can be efficiently reduced by code compression. In this paper we describe

Piia Saastamoinen; Jari Nurmi; I. Saastamoinen; M. Laiho

2009-01-01

290

Survey of computer codes applicable to waste facility performance evaluations  

SciTech Connect

This study is an effort to review existing information that is useful to develop an integrated model for predicting the performance of a radioactive waste facility. A summary description of 162 computer codes is given. The identified computer programs address the performance of waste packages, waste transport and equilibrium geochemistry, hydrological processes in unsaturated and saturated zones, and general waste facility performance assessment. Some programs also deal with thermal analysis, structural analysis, and special purposes. A number of these computer programs are being used by the US Department of Energy, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and their contractors to analyze various aspects of waste package performance. Fifty-five of these codes were identified as being potentially useful on the analysis of low-level radioactive waste facilities located above the water table. The code summaries include authors, identification data, model types, and pertinent references. 14 refs., 5 tabs.

Alsharif, M.; Pung, D.L.; Rivera, A.L.; Dole, L.R.

1988-01-01

291

Heavy metal accumulation in soil after application of organic wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Municipal solid waste compost and cattle manure are used as organic fertilizers in agriculture and horticulture. These wastes,\\u000a however, may also have some negative effects on the agricultural environment. This study investigates the effects of municipal\\u000a solid waste compost of Kerman (MSC) and cattle manure (CM) on availability of the heavy metal in calcareous soil (extractable\\u000a with EDTA) in greenhouse

Majid Fekri; Soheila Kaveh

292

Review process for low-level radioactive waste disposal license application under Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document estimates the level of effort and expertise that is needed to review a license application within the required time. It is intended to be used by the NRC staff as well as States and interested parties to provide a better understanding of what the NRC envisions will be involved in licensing a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. 5

Pittiglio; C. L. Jr

1987-01-01

293

Minimizing losses in bio-electrochemical systems: the road to applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bio-electrochemical systems (BESs) enable microbial catalysis of electrochemical reactions. Plain electrical power production\\u000a combined with wastewater treatment by microbial fuel cells (MFCs) has been the primary application purpose for BESs. However,\\u000a large-scale power production and a high chemical oxygen demand conversion rates must be achieved at a benchmark cost to make\\u000a MFCs economical competitive in this context. Recently, a number

Peter Clauwaert; Peter Aelterman; Liesje De Schamphelaire; Marta Carballa; Korneel Rabaey; Willy Verstraete

2008-01-01

294

The Costs of Disposal and Recycling: An Application to Italian Municipal Solid Waste Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abrate G., Erbetta F., Fraquelli G. and Vannoni D. The costs of disposal and recycling: an application to Italian municipal solid waste services, Regional Studies. The paper investigates the costs of waste disposal and recycling services by using a well-behaved Composite cost function model. The estimates on a unique sample of more than 500 Italian municipalities highlight that the refuse

Graziano Abrate; Fabrizio Erbetta; Giovanni Fraquelli; Davide Vannoni

2012-01-01

295

77 FR 73054 - Application for a License To Export Radioactive Waste  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...REGULATORY COMMISSION Application for a License To Export Radioactive Waste Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70(b) ``Public Notice...Approximately Storage or Canada. 2012, October 25, 2012, XW020, radioactive 1178 pounds disposal by the 11006061. waste in the...

2012-12-07

296

78 FR 45578 - Application For a License to Export Radioactive Waste  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...REGULATORY COMMISSION Application For a License to Export Radioactive Waste Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b) ``Public Notice...quantity Storage or Canada. June 4, 2013, June 5, 2013, radioactive waste authorized for disposal by the XW021, 11006101....

2013-07-29

297

Alternative energy sources 6: Vol. 2: solar applications\\/waste energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume provides information on building energy analysis, lighting, solar ponds, and photovoltaics. Sections of the volume present papers on biogas, bioconversion and waste energy. The papers in this volume present alternative energy sources in the areas of solar applications and waste energy.

Veziroglu

1985-01-01

298

Description, applications and numerical modelling of bubbling fluidized bed combustion in waste-to-energy plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of the fluidized bed combustor (FBC) has increased. It began in the 20th century as coal combustion and gasification, which then developed into catalytic reactions. Only recently, the application field has been extended to the incineration of biomass and pre-treated waste, for either power generation or waste disposal. The success of fluidized bed combustion is due to high

S. Ravelli; A. Perdichizzi; G. Barigozzi

2008-01-01

299

Minimally invasive drug delivery to the cochlea through application of nanoparticles to the round window membrane.  

PubMed

Direct drug delivery to the cochlea is associated with the risk of irreversible damage to the ear. In this study, liposome and polymersome nanoparticles (NPs), both formed from amphiphilic molecules (lipids in liposomes and block copolymers in polymersomes), were tested as potential tools for drug delivery to the cochlea via application onto the round window membrane in adult mice (strain C3H). One day after round window membrane application, both types of NPs labeled with fluorescent markers were identified in the spiral ganglion in all cochlear turns without producing any distinct morphological or functional damage to the inner ear. NPs were detected, although to a lesser extent, in the organ of Corti and the lateral wall. The potential of liposome and polymersome NPs as therapeutic delivery systems into the cochlea via the round window membrane was evaluated using disulfiram, a neurotoxic agent, as a model payload. Disulfiram-loaded NP delivery resulted in a significant decrease in the number of spiral ganglion cells starting 2 days postapplication, with associated pronounced hearing loss reaching 20-35 dB 2 weeks postapplication as assessed through auditory brainstem responses. No changes in hair cell morphology and function (as assessed by recording otoacoustic emissions) were detected after disulfiram-loaded NP application. No effects were observed in controls where solution of free disulfiram was similarly administered. The results demonstrate that liposome and polymersome NPs are capable of carrying a payload into the inner ear that elicits a biological effect, with consequences measurable by a functional readout. PMID:22475648

Buckiová, Daniela; Ranjan, Sanjeev; Newman, Tracey A; Johnston, Alexander H; Sood, Rohit; Kinnunen, Paavo K J; Popelá?, Ji?í; Chumak, Tetyana; Syka, Josef

2012-09-01

300

Waste heat recovery system for residential application. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing emphasis on improving both fuel economy and emissions provides a strong incentive for development of systems that convert currently wasted energy in furnaces to useful power. The major portion of the waste energy in a residential oil or gas furnace system is associated with the exhaust gases. While recycling the heat energy in the exhaust is not new, the

Deniega

1985-01-01

301

HANDBOOK: STREAM SAMPLING FOR WASTE LOAD ALLOCATION APPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses sampling requirements in support of waste load allocation studies in rivers and streams. Two approaches to waste load allocation are addressed: the chemical-specific approach and the whole effluent approach. Numerical or analytical toxicant fate models are us...

302

Method for minimizing the cost/Watt of complete photovoltaic systems and applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper describes an optimization method and some applications in which the design criterion for every part of a photovoltaic system is the minimum power cost for the complete system. The various parts of a photovoltaic system are grouped so that all costs fall into four classes: fabrication steps of the active solar cells; steps associated with the collector array and its complete structure; power-handling elements such as switchgear, storage, etc.; and fixed costs that do not vary directly with any of the system parts, such as factory-level overhead. It is assumed that the total collector area is independent of any of the optimization processes. A general equation is found to be capable of optimizing all parts of a system, although the cell and array steps are basically different from the power-handling elements. It is shown that the optimization of any step in the system requires inclusion of the properties of the other parts of the system.

Redfield, D.

1978-01-01

303

The Organic Rankine Cycle System, Its Application to Extract Energy From Low Temperature Waste Heat  

E-print Network

THE ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE SYSTEM, ITS APPLICATION TO EXTRACT ENERGY FROM LOW TEMPERATURE WASTE HEAT Robert H. Sawyer Shoji Ichikawa AFI Energy Systems AFI Energy Systems Livingston, New Jersey Livingston, New Jersey ABSTRACT The conservation...THE ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE SYSTEM, ITS APPLICATION TO EXTRACT ENERGY FROM LOW TEMPERATURE WASTE HEAT Robert H. Sawyer Shoji Ichikawa AFI Energy Systems AFI Energy Systems Livingston, New Jersey Livingston, New Jersey ABSTRACT The conservation...

Sawyer, R. H.; Ichikawa, S.

1980-01-01

304

Application of SYNROC to high-level defense wastes  

SciTech Connect

The SYNROC method for immobilization of high-level nuclear reactor wastes is currently being applied to US defense wastes in tank storage at Savannah River, South Carolina. The minerals zirconolite, perovskite, and hollandite are used in SYNROC D formulations to immobilize fission products and actinides that comprise up to 10% of defense waste sludges and coexisting solutions. Additional phases in SYNROC D are nepheline, the host phase for sodium; and spinel, the host for excess aluminum and iron. Up to 70 wt % of calcined sludge can be incorporated with 30 wt % of SYNROC additives to produce a waste form consisting of 10% nepheline, 30% spinel, and approximately 20% each of the radioactive waste-bearing phases. Urea coprecipitation and spray drying/calcining methods have been used in the laboratory to produce homogeneous, reactive ceramic powders. Hot pressing and sintering at temperatures from 1000 to 1100/sup 0/C result in waste form products with greater than 97% of theoretical density. Hot isostatic pressing has recently been implemented as a processing alternative. Characterization of waste-form mineralogy has been done by means of XRD, SEM, and electron microprobe. Leaching of SYNROC D samples is currently being carried out. Assessment of radiation damage effects and physical properties of SYNROC D will commence in FY 81.

Tewhey, J.D.; Hoenig, C.L.; Newkirk, H.W.; Rozsa, R.B.; Coles, D.G.; Ryerson, F.J.

1981-01-01

305

Application of value of information of tank waste characterization: A new paradigm for defining tank waste characterization requirements  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the rationale for adopting a recommended characterization strategy that uses a risk-based decision-making framework for managing the Tank Waste Characterization program at Hanford. The risk-management/value-of-information (VOI) strategy that is illustrated explicitly links each information-gathering activity to its cost and provides a mechanism to ensure that characterization funds are spent where they can produce the largest reduction in risk. The approach was developed by tailoring well-known decision analysis techniques to specific tank waste characterization applications. This report illustrates how VOI calculations are performed and demonstrates that the VOI approach can definitely be used for real Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) characterization problems.

Fassbender, L.L.; Brewster, M.E.; Brothers, A.J. [and others

1996-11-01

306

Estimation and Selection via Absolute Penalized Convex Minimization And Its Multistage Adaptive Applications  

PubMed Central

The ?1-penalized method, or the Lasso, has emerged as an important tool for the analysis of large data sets. Many important results have been obtained for the Lasso in linear regression which have led to a deeper understanding of high-dimensional statistical problems. In this article, we consider a class of weighted ?1-penalized estimators for convex loss functions of a general form, including the generalized linear models. We study the estimation, prediction, selection and sparsity properties of the weighted ?1-penalized estimator in sparse, high-dimensional settings where the number of predictors p can be much larger than the sample size n. Adaptive Lasso is considered as a special case. A multistage method is developed to approximate concave regularized estimation by applying an adaptive Lasso recursively. We provide prediction and estimation oracle inequalities for single- and multi-stage estimators, a general selection consistency theorem, and an upper bound for the dimension of the Lasso estimator. Important models including the linear regression, logistic regression and log-linear models are used throughout to illustrate the applications of the general results. PMID:24348100

Huang, Jian; Zhang, Cun-Hui

2013-01-01

307

Combined application of essential oils from Origanum vulgare L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. to inhibit bacteria and autochthonous microflora associated with minimally processed vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the occurrence of an enhancing inhibitory effect of the combined application of Origanum vulgare (OV) and Rosmarinus officinalis (RO) essential oils against bacteria associated to minimally processed vegetables using the determination of Fractional Inhibitory Concentration (FIC) index, kill-time assay in vegetal broth and application in vegetable matrices. Moreover, it was determined chemical composition of the essential oils

Geíza Alves de Azeredo; Tânia Lúcia Montenegro Stamford; Pollyana Campos Nunes; Nelson Justino Gomes Neto; Maria Elieidy Gomes de Oliveira; Evandro Leite de Souza

2011-01-01

308

Overview of resuspension model: application to low level waste management  

SciTech Connect

Resuspension is one of the potential pathways to man for radioactive or chemical contaminants that are in the biosphere. In waste management, spills or other surface contamination can serve as a source for resuspension during the operational phase. After the low-level waste disposal area is closed, radioactive materials can be brought to the surface by animals or insects or, in the long term, the surface can be removed by erosion. Any of these methods expose the material to resuspension in the atmosphere. Intrusion into the waste mass can produce resuspension of potential hazard to the intruder. Removal of items from the waste mass by scavengers or archeologists can result in potential resuspension exposure to others handling or working with the object. The ways in which resuspension can occur are wind resuspension, mechanical resuspension and local resuspension. While methods of predicting exposure are not accurate, they include the use of the resuspension factor, the resuspension rate and mass loading of the air.

Healy, J.W.

1980-01-01

309

Nonradioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction (NOC) Application for the Central Waste Complex (CSC) for Storage of Vented Waste Containers  

SciTech Connect

This Notice of Construction (NOC) application is submitted for the storage and management of waste containers at the Central Waste Complex (CWC) stationary source. The CWC stationary source consists of multiple sources of diffuse and fugitive emissions, as described herein. This NOC is submitted in accordance with the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-400-110 (criteria pollutants) and 173-460-040 (toxic air pollutants), and pursuant to guidance provided by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). Transuranic (TRU) mixed waste containers at CWC are vented to preclude the build up of hydrogen produced as a result of radionuclide decay, not as safety pressure releases. The following activities are conducted within the CWC stationary source: Storage and inspection; Transfer and staging; Packaging; Treatment; and Sampling. This NOC application is intended to cover all existing storage structures within the current CWC treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) boundary, as well as any storage structures, including waste storage pads and staging areas, that might be constructed in the future within the existing CWC boundary.

KAMBERG, L.D.

2000-04-01

310

Waste  

SciTech Connect

A process for converting wastes in molten salts into usable fuels is described. The molten salt acts as a reaction medium and potential acidic pollutants are retained in the melt. The waste is converted to a fuel gas by reacting it with insufficient air for complete conversion to CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O. The product gas is cleared of particles using a baghouse or venturi scrubber and it is then burned in a boiler to produce steam. The results for waste streams containing a high-sulfur oil refinery waste, rubber, wood, leather scraps, and waste x-ray film are presented in this article.

Gay, R.L.; Barclay, K.M.; Grantham, L.F.; Yosim, S.J.

1981-09-01

311

SITE DEMONSTRATION CAPSULE --MATCON MODIFIED ASPHALT FOR WASTE CONTAINMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

MatCon is a polymer modified asphalt material designed specifically for waste contaminment applications. The modifications to the material differentiate it from conventional paving asphalt by minimizing the damaging effects of environmental exposure that could detract from the d...

312

Characterization of waste streams and suspect waste from largest Los Alamos National Laboratory generators  

SciTech Connect

A detailed waste stream characterization of 4 primary generators of low level waste at LANL was performed to aid in waste minimization efforts. Data was compiled for these four generators from 1988 to the present for analyses. Prior waste minimization efforts have focused on identifying waste stream processes and performing source materials substitutions or reductions where applicable. In this historical survey, the generators surveyed included an accelerator facility, the plutonium facility, a chemistry and metallurgy research facility, and a radiochemistry research facility. Of particular interest in waste minimization efforts was the composition of suspect low level waste in which no radioactivity is detected through initial survey. Ultimately, this waste is disposed of in the LANL low level permitted waste disposal pits (thus filling a scarce and expensive resource with sanitary waste). Detailed analyses of the waste streams from these 4 facilities, have revealed that suspect low level waste comprises approximately 50% of the low level waste by volume and 47% by weight. However, there are significant differences in suspect waste density when one considers the radioactive contamination. For the 2 facilities that deal primarily with beta emitting activation and spallation products (the radiochemistry and accelerator facilities), the suspect waste is much lower density than all low level waste coming from those facilities. For the 2 facilities that perform research on transuranics (the chemistry and metallurgy research and plutonium facilities), suspect waste is higher in density than all the low level waste from those facilities. It is theorized that the low density suspect waste is composed primarily of compactable lab trash, most of which is not contaminated but can be easily surveyed. The high density waste is theorized to be contaminated with alpha emitting radionuclides, and in this case, the suspect waste demonstrates fundamental limits in detection.

Soukup, J.D.; Erpenbeck, G.J. [Benchmark Environmental Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-12-31

313

Plasma separation process: Disposal of PSP radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive wastes, in the form of natural uranium contaminated scrap hardware and residual materials from decontamination operations, were generated in the PSP facilities in buildings R1 and 106. Based on evaluation of the characteristics of these wastes and the applicable regulations, the various options for the processing and disposal of PSP radioactive wastes were investigated and recommended procedures were developed. The essential features of waste processing included: (1) the solidification of all liquid wastes prior to shipment; (2) cutting of scrap hardware to fit 55-gallon drums and use of inerting agents (diatomaceous earth) to eliminate pyrophoric hazards; and (3) compaction of soft wastes. All PSP radioactive wastes were shipped to the Hanford Site for disposal. As part of the waste disposal process, a detailed plan was formulated for handling and tracking of PSP radioactive wastes, from the point of generation through shipping. In addition, a waste minimization program was implemented to reduce the waste volume or quantity. Included in this document are discussions of the applicable regulations, the types of PSP wastes, the selection of the preferred waste disposal approach and disposal site, the analysis and classification of PSP wastes, the processing and ultimate disposition of PSP wastes, the handling and tracking of PSP wastes, and the implementation of the PSP waste minimization program. 9 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

Not Available

1989-07-01

314

State waste discharge permit application for cooling water and condensate discharges  

SciTech Connect

The following presents the Categorical State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) Application for the Cooling Water and Condensate Discharges on the Hanford Site. This application is intended to cover existing cooling water and condensate discharges as well as similar future discharges meeting the criteria set forth in this document.

Haggard, R.D.

1996-08-12

315

APPLICATION OF PULSE COMBUSTION TO INCINERATION OF LIQUID HAZARDOUS WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to determine the effect of acoustic pulsations on the steady-state operation of a pulse combustor burning liquid hazardous waste. A horizontal tunnel furnace was retrofitted with a liquid injection pulse combustor that burned No. 2 fuel oil. Th...

316

PUREX Storage Tunnels dangerous waste permit application. Volume 2, Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a dangerous waste permit application for the storage of wastes from the Purex process at Hanford. Appendices are presented on the following: construction drawings; HSW-5638, specifications for disposal facility for failed equipment, Project CA-1513-A; HWS-8262, specification for Purex equipment disposal, Project CGC 964; storage tunnel checklist; classification of residual tank heels in Purex storage tunnels; emergency plan for Purex facility; training course descriptions; and the Purex storage tunnels engineering study.

Not Available

1991-12-01

317

Water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications. Volume 1: Final report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive study of advanced water recovery and solid waste processing techniques employed in both aerospace and domestic or commercial applications is reported. A systems approach was used to synthesize a prototype system design of an advanced water treatment/waste processing system. Household water use characteristics were studied and modified through the use of low water use devices and a limited amount of water reuse. This modified household system was then used as a baseline system for development of several water treatment waste processing systems employing advanced techniques. A hybrid of these systems was next developed and a preliminary design was generated to define system and hardware functions.

Murray, R. W.

1973-01-01

318

The application of a chemical equilibrium model, SOLTEQ, to predict the chemical speciations in stabilized/solidified waste forms  

E-print Network

by physically and/or chemically immobilizing the waste constituents (I). S/S is a "best demonstrated available technology" (BOAT) under the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act. In 1987 and 1988, S/S was the second-most-frequently selected method... for source control at Superfund sites (2). The goal of S/S for hazardous wastes is the safe, ultimate disposal of the wastes through landfilling or some other alternatives by containing the waste contaminants and preventing or minimizing the release...

Park, Joo-Yang

2012-06-07

319

Evaluating waste treatment, recycle and reuse in industrial system: an application of the eMergy approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the application of emergy analysis of industrial systems in considering wastes. Making process system engineering decisions that are ecologically conscious requires emergy analysis of both industrial and ecological processes. The traditional emergy analysis methods of a natural ecological system usually do not consider the impact of wastes. This paper considers the impact of wastes and improves

Hui Yang; Yourun Li; Jingzhu Shen; Shanying Hu

2003-01-01

320

State Waste Discharge Permit application for industrial discharge to land: 200 East Area W-252 streams  

SciTech Connect

This document constitutes the WAC 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit application for six W-252 liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site. Appendices B through H correspond to Section B through H in the permit application form. Within each appendix, sections correspond directly to the respective questions on the application form. The appendices include: Product or service information; Plant operational characteristics; Water consumption and waterloss; Wastewater information; Stormwater; Other information; and Site assessment.

Not Available

1993-12-01

321

Waste Collector System Technology Comparisons for Constellation Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Waste Collection Systems (WCS) for space vehicles have utilized a variety of hardware for collecting human metabolic wastes. It has typically required multiple missions to resolve crew usability and hardware performance issues that are difficult to duplicate on the ground. New space vehicles should leverage off past WCS systems. Past WCS hardware designs are substantially different and unique for each vehicle. However, each WCS can be analyzed and compared as a subset of technologies which encompass fecal collection, urine collection, air systems, pretreatment systems. Technology components from the WCS of various vehicles can then be combined to reduce hardware mass and volume while maximizing use of previous technology and proven human-equipment interfaces. Analysis of past US and Russian WCS are compared and extrapolated to Constellation missions.

Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

2006-01-01

322

Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a research and development facility for the demonstration of the permanent isolation of transuranic radioactive wastes in a geologic formation. The facility was constructed in southeastern New Mexico in a manner intended to meet criteria established by the scientific and regulatory community for the safe, long-term disposal of transuranic wastes. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing an application to demonstrate compliance with the requirements outlined in Title 40, Part 191 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) for the permanent disposal of transuranic wastes. As mandated by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Land Withdrawal Act of 1992, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must evaluate this compliance application and provide a determination regarding compliance with the requirements within one year of receiving a complete application. Because the WIPP is a very complex program, the DOE has planned to submit the application as a draft in two parts. This strategy will allow for the DOE and the EPA to begin technical discussions on critical WIPP issues before the one-year compliance determination period begins. This report is the first of these two draft submittals.

NONE

1995-03-31

323

Application of neural networks to waste site screening  

SciTech Connect

Waste site screening requires knowledge of the actual concentrations of hazardous materials and rates of flow around and below the site with time. The present approach to site screening consists primarily of drilling, boreholes near contaminated site and chemically analyzing the extracted physical samples and processing the data. In addition, hydraulic and geochemical soil properties are obtained so that numerical simulation models can be used to interpret and extrapolate the field data. The objective of this work is to investigate the feasibility of using neural network techniques to reduce the cost of waste site screening. A successful technique may lead to an ability to reduce the number of boreholes and the number of samples analyzed from each borehole to properly screen the waste site. The analytic tool development described here is inexpensive because it makes use of neural network techniques that can interpolate rapidly and which can learn how to analyze data rather than having to be explicitly programmed. In the following sections, data collection and data analyses will be described, followed by a section on different neural network techniques used. The results will be presented and compared with mathematical model. Finally, the last section will summarize the research work performed and make several recommendations for future work.

Dabiri, A.E.; Kraft, T.; Hilton, J.M. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

1993-03-01

324

Use of a state-of-the-art model in generic designs of shallow land repositories for low-level wastes. [Code creams  

SciTech Connect

A state of the art model is described for simulating hydrologic and soil erosion processes at shallow land waste disposal sites. Applications of the model in waste site selection and in the management of waste disposal sites are discussed relative to minimizing soil erosion of trench caps and percolation of soil water through trench caps into underlying buried wastes.

Nyhan, J.W.; Lane, L.J.

1982-01-01

325

Application of macro material flow modeling to the decision making process for integrated waste management systems  

SciTech Connect

Computer models have been used for almost a decade to model and analyze various aspects of solid waste management Commercially available models exist for estimating the capital and operating costs of landfills, waste-to-energy facilities and compost systems and for optimizing system performance along a single dimension (e.g. cost or transportation distance). An alternative to the use of currently available models is the more flexible macro material flow modeling approach in which a macro scale or regional level approach is taken. Waste materials are tracked through the complete integrated waste management cycle from generation through recycling and reuse, and finally to ultimate disposal. Such an approach has been applied by the authors to two different applications. The STELLA simulation language (for Macintosh computers) was used to model the solid waste management system of Puerto Rico. The model incorporated population projections for all 78 municipalities in Puerto Rico from 1990 to 2010, solid waste generation factors, remaining life for the existing landfills, and projected startup time for new facilities. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has used the SimScript simulation language (for Windows computers) to model the management of solid and hazardous wastes produced during cleanup and remediation activities at the Hanford Nuclear Site.

Vigil, S.A. [California Polytechnic State Univ., San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Holter, G.M. [Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

1995-04-01

326

Survey of systems safety analysis methods and their application to nuclear waste management systems  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews system safety analysis methods and examines their application to nuclear waste management systems. The safety analysis methods examined include expert opinion, maximum credible accident approach, design basis accidents approach, hazard indices, preliminary hazards analysis, failure modes and effects analysis, fault trees, event trees, cause-consequence diagrams, G0 methodology, Markov modeling, and a general category of consequence analysis models. Previous and ongoing studies on the safety of waste management systems are discussed along with their limitations and potential improvements. The major safety methods and waste management safety related studies are surveyed. This survey provides information on what safety methods are available, what waste management safety areas have been analyzed, and what are potential areas for future study.

Pelto, P.J.; Winegardner, W.K.; Gallucci, R.H.V.

1981-11-01

327

Application of microbiological methods for waste-compound degradation  

SciTech Connect

To develop processes for decontaminating lipophilic waste compounds in water or soil, several methods were investigated based on applying free or immobilized microbial cells, as well as mediators of the solubility of lipophilic substances or mixtures. Degradation of hydrocarbons and phenolic compounds (e.g., phenol, o-, m-, and p-cresol) in the groundwater of an industrial area and preliminary investigations of the degradation of volatile halogenated hydrocarbons (model compound trichloroethylene, TCE) using these methods are described. The microorganisms used were Bacillus pumilus (degradation of hydrocarbons and phenolic compounds) and strains isolated from contaminated soils.

Schmauder, H.P.; Ludwig, M.; Zeth, R. [Soemmerdaer Centrum fuer Medizintechnik und Biotechnologie e.V., Soemmerda (Germany); Guenther, K. [GMBU e.V., Jena (Germany); Schlosser, D. [Friedrisch-Schiller-Univ. Jena (Germany). Inst. fuer Mikrobiologie

1995-12-31

328

Citizens guide to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Compliance Certification Application to the EPA  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has submitted an application to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for a certificate showing that the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) complies with strict environmental regulations designed to safeguard humans and the environment for at least 10,000 years. Congress gave the EPA authority to regulate the WIPP site for disposal of transuranic waste under the 1992 WIPP Land Withdrawal Act. The EPA has one year to review the Compliance Certification Application (CCA) before determining whether the DOE has successfully documented the WIPP`s compliance with federal environmental standards. The application presents the conclusions of more than 20 years of scientific and engineering work specifically dedicated to disposal of transuranic waste at the WIPP. The application thoroughly documents how the natural characteristics of the WIPP site, along with engineered features, comply with the regulations. In the application, the DOE responds fully to the federal standards and to the EPA`s certification criteria. This Citizens` Guide provides an overview of the CCA and its role in moving toward final disposal of transuranic waste.

NONE

1996-11-01

329

Hanford facility dangerous waste Part A, Form 3 and Part B permit application documentation, Central Waste Complex (WA7890008967)(TSD: TS-2-4)  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, operating, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the Central Waste Complex (this document, DOE/RL-91-17). Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needed by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is contained in the Central Waste Complex permit application documentation, in relation to the Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents section. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever appropriate, the Central Waste Complex permit application documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. Information provided in this Central Waste Complex permit application documentation is current as of May 1998.

Saueressig, D.G.

1998-05-20

330

Sorption on eggshell waste--a review on ultrastructure, biomineralization and other applications.  

PubMed

The structure, adsorption behavior and applications of eggshell waste materials have been reviewed. The ultrastructure of eggshell particles has been discussed to understand the pore structure as well as the surface geometry of the materials leading to its multifarious applicability. Besides, the ultrastructure studies give full information regarding the chemical constituents of egghell particles as well as eggshell membranes. The process of biomineralization in living organisms, their consequent effect of controlling the formation of inorganic-organic composites propelling their application in biomimetic designing of advanced composites with optimized novel properties leading to advances in materials design have been discussed. Utilization of eggshell waste materials for the removal of organic dyes and heavy inorganic ions has been reviewed with suitable models for understanding their adsorption quality and capacity. The applications of these materials in various fields of research have been extensively discussed. PMID:24456801

Guru, Partha Sarathi; Dash, Sukalyan

2014-07-01

331

Forage, soil and water quality responses to animal waste application  

E-print Network

applications to bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam) sods were used to quantify N03 leaching below the root zone of a Darco loamy fine sand (loamy, siliceous, thermic Grossarenic Paleudult) located at Overton, Texas. Rates of 0...

Johnson, Andrew Floyd

2012-06-07

332

APPLICATION OF STAGED COMBUSTION AND REBURNING TO THE CO-FIRING OF NITROGEN-CONTAINING WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of an evaluation of a 0.6 MW precombustion chamber burner, designed for in-furnace NOx control, high combustion efficiency, and retrofit applications, for use with high nitrogen content fuel/waste mixtures. he 250- to 750- ms residence time precombustion c...

333

Reaction of catalytic oxidation by liquid water and its application to waste water purification  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the results of experiments and some considerations of theoretical and practical problems devoted to a new type of chemical reaction--oxidation of organic substances by liquid water with the aid of noble metal catalyst--are given. Some problems of application such as reaction to self-purification of industrial waste waters are also considered.

Ioffe, I.I. [All-Union Inst. of Pulp and Paper Industry, Leningrad (Russian Federation)] [All-Union Inst. of Pulp and Paper Industry, Leningrad (Russian Federation); Rubinskaya, E.V. [All-Union Inst. of Petrochemical Processes, Leningrad (Russian Federation)] [All-Union Inst. of Petrochemical Processes, Leningrad (Russian Federation)

1997-06-01

334

Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Climate and Wastewater Storage - Module 8, Objectives, and Script.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module discusses the hydrologic considerations that apply to land application of wastes. These are precipitation, infiltration and percolation, evapotranspiration, runoff, and groundwater. Climatic considerations that relate to wastewater storage are also discussed. Particular emphasis is given to wastewater flow, precipitation, evaporation,…

Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

335

Department of ENENG/ME Spring 2012 Waste Heat Recovery for Small Engine Applications  

E-print Network

techniques to a small internal combustion (IC) engine. Out team applied three separate heat recoveringPENNSTATE Department of ENENG/ME Spring 2012 Waste Heat Recovery for Small Engine Applications technologies to a Yanmar 155cc engine to test for engine efficiency, fuel consumptions, power/weight ratios

Demirel, Melik C.

336

Application of Bayesian Network Learning Methods to Waste Water Treatment Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bayesian Networks have been proposed as an alternative to rule-based systems in domains with uncertainty. Applications in monitoring and control can benefit from this form of knowledge representation. Following the work of Chong and Walley, we explore the possibilities of Bayesian Networks in the Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTP) monitoring and control domain. We show the advantages of modelling knowledge

Ramón Sangüesa; Phillip Burrell

2000-01-01

337

APPLICATION OF LOW NOX PRECOMBUSTOR TECHNOLOGY TO THE INCINERATION OF NITROGENATED WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of an evaluation of a 0.6 precombustion chamber burner/package boiler simulator, designed for in-furnace NOx control and high combustion efficiency, for high nitrogen content fuel combustion/waste incineration application. The 250-750 ms residence time pre...

338

Microwave applicator for in-drum processing of radioactive waste slurry  

DOEpatents

A microwave applicator for processing of radioactive waste slurry uses a waveguide network which splits an input microwave of TE.sub.10 rectangular mode to TE.sub.01 circular mode. A cylindrical body has four openings, each receiving 1/4 of the power input. The waveguide network includes a plurality of splitters to effect the 1/4 divisions of power.

White, Terry L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01

339

Potential benefit of fibre optics in nuclear applications: the case of decommissioning and waste storage activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fiber optics is now widely used for data communication, sensing and vision applications. In the nuclear industry, however, its use is still quite limited. This paper reviews two particular areas where the optical fibers could bring substantial advantages: the decommissioning of shut- down nuclear installations, and the long term storage of nuclear waste. It summarizes some expected potential benefits, but points out also the challenges to be met for wider applications of fiber optics in a nuclear environment.

Decreton, Marc C.; Massaut, V.; Borgermans, Paul

1994-12-01

340

Potential Application Of Radionuclide Scaling Factors To High Level Waste Characterization  

SciTech Connect

Production sources, radiological properties, relative solubilities in waste, and laboratory analysis techniques for the forty-five radionuclides identified in Hanford?s Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Feed Acceptance Data Quality Objectives (DQO) document are addressed in this report. Based on Savannah River Site (SRS) experience and waste characteristics, thirteen of the radionuclides are judged to be candidates for potential scaling in High Level Waste (HLW) based on the concentrations of other radionuclides as determined through laboratory measurements. The thirteen radionuclides conducive to potential scaling are: Ni-59, Zr-93, Nb-93m, Cd-113m, Sn-121m, Sn-126, Cs-135, Sm-151, Ra-226, Ra-228, Ac-227, Pa-231, and Th-229. The ability to scale radionuclides is useful from two primary perspectives: 1) it provides a means of checking the radionuclide concentrations that have been determined by laboratory analysis; and 2) it provides a means of estimating radionuclide concentrations in the absence of a laboratory analysis technique or when a complex laboratory analysis technique fails. Along with the rationale for identifying and applying the potential scaling factors, this report also provides examples of using the scaling factors to estimate concentrations of radionuclides in current SRS waste and into the future. Also included in the report are examples of independent laboratory analysis techniques that can be used to check results of key radionuclide analyses. Effective utilization of radionuclide scaling factors requires understanding of the applicable production sources and the chemistry of the waste. As such, the potential scaling approaches identified in this report should be assessed from the perspective of the Hanford waste before reaching a decision regarding WTP applicability.

Reboul, S. H.

2013-09-30

341

Minimal Reduplication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation introduces Minimal Reduplication, a new theory and framework within generative grammar for analyzing reduplication in human language. I argue that reduplication is an emergent property in multiple components of the grammar. In particular, reduplication occurs independently in the phonology and syntax components, and in both cases…

Kirchner, Jesse Saba

2010-01-01

342

Microwave Technology for Waste Management Applications Including Disposition of Electronic Circuitry  

SciTech Connect

Advanced microwave technology is being developed nationally and internationally for a variety of waste management and environmental remediation purposes. These efforts include treatment and destruction of a vast array of gaseous, liquid and solid hazardous wastes as well as subsequent immobilization of hazardous components into leach resistant forms. Microwave technology provides an important contribution to an arsenal of existing remediation methods that are designed to protect the public and environment from the undesirable consequences of hazardous materials. One application of special interest is the treatment of discarded electronic circuitry using a new hybrid microwave treatment process and subsequent reclamation of the precious metals within.

Wicks, G.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Clark, D.E. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Schulz, R.L. [University of Flordia, Gainesville, FL (United States)

1998-06-01

343

Investigation of low-reflective ZrCN–PVD-arc coatings for application on medical tools for minimally invasive surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical tools for minimally invasive surgery are often used under difficult environmental conditions. If the surgeons have to work with a microscope, the operating area must be brightly lit. Reflection and scattering of light from tool-surfaces disturb the visual field. To decrease this kind of disturbance, the tools can be covered by a dark PVD thin film. In the present

F Hollstein; D Kitta; P Louda; F Pacal; J Meinhardt

2001-01-01

344

Assessment of TEES reg sign applications for Wet Industrial Wastes: Energy benefit and economic analysis report  

SciTech Connect

Fundamental work is catalyzed biomass pyrolysis/gasification led to the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg sign}) concept, a means of converting moist biomass feedstocks to high-value fuel gases such as methane. A low-temperature (350{degrees}C), pressurized (3100 psig) reaction environment and a nickel catalyst are used to reduce volumes of very high-moisture wastes such as food processing byproducts while producing useful quantities of energy. A study was conducted to assess the economic viability of a range of potential applications of the process. Cases examined included feedstocks of cheese whey, grape pomace, spent grain, and an organic chemical waste stream. The analysis indicated that only the organic chemical waste process is economically attractive in the existing energy/economic environment. However, food processing cases will become attractive as alternative disposal practices are curtailed and energy prices rise.

Elliott, D.C.; Scheer, T.H.

1992-02-01

345

A concept to combine DOE waste minimization goals with commercial utility needs for a universal container system for spent nuclear fuel storage, transportation, and disposal  

SciTech Connect

Two major initiatives are underway in the US that are creating a significant financial impact on both the US taxpayer and on users of electric power. First, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been tasked with cleaning-up the defense complex. This task is managed under the direction of the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) of the DOE. The waste that EM must address includes radioactive, hazardous, and mixed that consists of both radioactive and hazardous constituents. Second, the DOE is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) to take title to commercial nuclear spent fuel assemblies starting in 1998. The DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) was established to carry out this charter. Since a final repository is not scheduled for opening until 2010 at the earliest, the DOE is planning on providing a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility for centralized storage to bridge the time gap between 1998 and 2010. The NWPA requires that nuclear utilities pay a fee into a specific fund that Congress uses to pay the DOE for the development of the MRS, the transportation system, and the repository. This fund, along with the EM budget, constitutes a multi-billion dollar effort to manage DOE nuclear waste and to store and dispose of commercial spent nuclear fuel. These two seemingly unrelated problems have aspects of commonality that can be considered for the benefit of both programs, the US taxpayer, and the utility rate payer. Both programs are the responsibility of the DOE, and both will require engineered packages for storage, transportation, and disposal of the EM waste and commercial spent fuel. Rather than using specialized systems for each step (storage, transport, and disposal), a concept for a Universal Container System has been developed that could potentially simplify the overall waste management system, reduce expensive handling operations, and reduce total system cost.

Falci, F.P. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Sorenson, K.B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Smith, M.L. [Virginia Power Co., Glen Allen, VA (United States) Nuclear Analysis and Fuel

1992-12-31

346

Minimization of the root of a quadratic functional under a system of affine equality constraints with application to portfolio management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an explicit closed form solution of the problem of minimizing the root of a quadratic functional subject to a system of affine constraints. The result generalizes Z. Landsman, Minimization of the root of a quadratic functional under an affine equality constraint, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 2007, to appear, see , articles in press, where the optimization problem was solved under only one linear constraint. This is of interest for solving significant problems pertaining to financial economics as well as some classes of feasibility and optimization problems which frequently occur in tomography and other fields. The results are illustrated in the problem of optimal portfolio selection and the particular case when the expected return of finance portfolio is certain is discussed.

Landsman, Zinoviy

2008-10-01

347

Three-level spin system under decoherence-minimizing driving fields: Application to nitrogen-vacancy spin dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the framework of a general three-level problem, the dynamics of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) spin is studied for the case of a special type of external driving consisting of a set of continuous fields with decreasing intensities. Such a set has been proposed for minimizing coherence losses. Each new driving field with smaller intensity is designed to protect against the fluctuations induced by the driving field at the preceding step with larger intensity. We show that indeed this particular type of external driving minimizes the loss of coherence, using purity and entropy as quantifiers for this purpose. As an illustration, we study the coherence loss of an NV spin due to a surrounding spin bath of C13 nuclei.

Mishra, S. K.; Chotorlishvili, L.; Rau, A. R. P.; Berakdar, J.

2014-09-01

348

A two-dimensional cascade solution using minimized surface singularity density distributions - with application to film cooled turbine blades  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation of the effects of coolant injection on the aerodynamic performance of cooled turbine blades is presented. The coolant injection is modeled in the inviscid irrotational adiabatic flow analysis through the cascade using the distributed singularities approach. The resulting integral equations are solved using a minimized surface singularity density criteria. The aerodynamic performance was evaluated using this solution in conjunction with an existing mixing theory analysis. The results of the present analysis are compared with experimental measurements in cold flow tests.

Mcfarland, E.; Tabakoff, W.; Hamed, A.

1977-01-01

349

Hazardous Waste Certification Plan: Hazardous Waste Handling Facility, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of hazardous waste (HW) handled in the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). The plan also incorporates the applicable elements of waste reduction, which include both up-front minimization and end- product treatment to reduce the volume and toxicity of the waste; segregation of the waste as it applies to certification; and executive summary of the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the HWHF and a list of the current and planned implementing procedures used in waste certification. The plan provides guidance from the HWHF to waste generators, waste handlers, and the Systems Group Manager to enable them to conduct their activities and carry out their responsibilities in a manner that complies with several requirements of the Federal Resource Conservation and Resource Recovery Act (RCRA), the Federal Department of Transportation (DOT), and the State of California, Code of Regulations (CCR), Title 22.

Not Available

1992-02-01

350

Treatability study of absorbent polymer waste form for mixed waste treatment  

SciTech Connect

A treatability study was performed to develop and characterize an absorbent polymer waste form for application to low level (LLW) and mixed low level (MLLW) aqueous wastes at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W). In this study absorbent polymers proved effective at immobilizing aqueous liquid wastes in order to meet Land Disposal Restrictions for subsurface waste disposal. Treatment of aqueous waste with absorbent polymers provides an alternative to liquid waste solidification via high-shear mixing with clays and cements. Significant advantages of absorbent polymer use over clays and cements include ease of operations and waste volume minimization. Absorbent polymers do not require high-shear mixing as do clays and cements. Granulated absorbent polymer is poured into aqueous solutions and forms a gel which passes the paint filter test as a non-liquid. Pouring versus mixing of a solidification agent not only eliminates the need for a mixing station, but also lessens exposure to personnel and the potential for spread of contamination from treatment of radioactive wastes. Waste minimization is achieved as significantly less mass addition and volume increase is required of and results from absorbent polymer use than that of clays and cements. Operational ease and waste minimization translate into overall cost savings for LLW and MLLW treatment.

Herrmann, S. D.; Lehto, M. A.; Stewart, N. A.; Croft, A. D.; Kern, P. W.

2000-02-10

351

An assessment of waste processing/resource recovery technologies for lunar/Mars life applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's future manned missions to explore the solar system are by nature of long duration, mandating extensive regeneration of life support consumables from wastes generated in space-based habitats. Long-duration exploration missions would otherwise be prohibitive due to the number and frequency of energy-intensive resupply missions from Earth. Resource recovery is therefore a critical component of the controlled ecological life support system (CELSS). In order to assess resource recovery technologies for CELSS applications, the Crew and Thermal Systems Division at NASA-Johnson Space Center convened a three-day workshop to assess potential resource recovery technologies for application in a space-based CELSS. This paper describes the methodology of assessing and ranking of these technologies. Recommendations and issues are identified. Evaluations focused on the processes for handling and treatment of inedible plant biomass, human waste, and human generated trash. Technologies were assessed on the basis of safety, reliability, technology readiness, and performance characteristics.

Verostko, Charles E.; Packham, Nigel J. C.; Henninger, Donald H.

1992-01-01

352

Managing hazardous and toxic waste information: GIS application. Report for 9-11 August 1989  

SciTech Connect

United States Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA), United States Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (USACERL), and United States Army Waterways Experiment Station (USAWES) sponsored a symposium entitled 'Managing Hazardous and Toxic Waste Information: Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Applications on August 9, 10, and 11 in Denver, Colorado. The purpose of that meeting was for sharing ideas, systems and process on the various GIS programs within the Corps of Engineers and the Army, with applications to the study and management of hazardous and toxic waste issues. The symposium provided a unique opportunity to develop synergy between the Corps of Engineers Laboratories, specifically in the area of GIS Research and Development and GIS implementation efforts.

Not Available

1989-08-01

353

Photocatalysis for the treatment of waste water: Applications involving the removal of metals  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes laboratory work investigating the applicability of solar-powered photocatalysis for the treatment of water contaminated with heavy metals and organics. It was found that Ag(I), Au (HI), Cr(VI), Hg(H), Pd(H), and PT(IV) are easily treated while Cd(U), Cu(II), and NI(II) are not. The importance of the entire photocatalytic redox cycle is demonstrated by showing that the rates of oxidation (of organics) and reduction (of metals) are intrinsically interrelated. Data are presented showing that photoefficiency decreases as light intensity increases in the range of 0 to 17 suns UV. This result suggests that one-sun systems are more efficient than those using concentrated solar radiation. Preliminary data for three samples of actual waste: (1) gold mining leachate, (2) precious metals mining extract, and (3) photographic waste, are described. In general, actual applications are less effective than predicted using laboratory data for clean systems.

Prairie, M.R.; Stange, B.M.

1993-04-01

354

SITE PROGRAM APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT, INTERNATIONAL WASTE TECHNOLOGIES/GEO CON IN-SITU STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

An evaluation was performed of the International Waste Technologies (IWT) HWT-20 additive and the Geo-Con, Inc. deep-soil-mixing equipment for an in situ stabilization/solidification process and its applicability as an on-site treatment method for waste site cleanup. emonstration...

355

Application of Extraction Chromatography to the Recovery of Neptunium, Plutonium and Americium from an Industrial Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot scale investigation was made to evaluate the possible application of the extraction Chromatographie method (LLC) to the partitioning of alpha emitters from liquid wastes containing traces of transuranium elements. A secondary purpose was to obtain pure AmO2, which is used to produce alpha, gamma, and neutron sources.The process developed for “alpha partitioning” consists essentially of the extraction of

C. Madic; C. Kertesz; R. Sontag; G. Koehly

1980-01-01

356

Microwave applicator for in-drum processing of radioactive waste slurry  

DOEpatents

A microwave applicator for processing of radioactive waste slurry uses a waveguide network which splits an input microwave of TE[sub 10] rectangular mode to TE[sub 01] circular mode. A cylindrical body has four openings, each receiving 1/4 of the power input. The waveguide network includes a plurality of splitters to effect the 1/4 divisions of power. 4 figures.

White, T.L.

1994-06-28

357

Synthesis and applications of unsaturated polyester resins based on PET waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three types of unsaturated polyester resins were synthesized from the glycolysis of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic\\u000a waste, considering environment, cost and properties for their applications. These synthesized unsaturated polyester resins\\u000a could be used for various construction processes and materials such as no dig pipelining (NDR-1), pultrusion (PLR-1) and polymer\\u000a concrete (PCR-1). PET was taken from common soft-drink bottles, and ethylene

Jinkyung Kim; Dookyo Jeong; Changho Son; Younghee Lee; Eunyong Kim; Il Moon

2007-01-01

358

Replacement of chemical oxygen demand (COD) with total organic carbon (TOC) for monitoring wastewater treatment performance to minimize disposal of toxic analytical waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is widely used for wastewater monitoring, design, modeling and plant operational analysis. However this method results in the production of hazardous wastes including mercury and hexavalent chromium. The study examined the replacement of COD with total organic carbon (TOC) for general performance monitoring by comparing their relationship with influent and effluent samples from 11 wastewater treatment

Donata Dubber; Nicholas F. Gray

2010-01-01

359

40 CFR 266.206 - Standards applicable to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions § 266.206...

2013-07-01

360

Combined Municipal Solid Waste and biomass system optimization for district energy applications.  

PubMed

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal has been a controversial issue in many countries over the past years, due to disagreement among the various stakeholders on the waste management policies and technologies to be adopted. One of the ways of treating/disposing MSW is energy recovery, as waste is considered to contain a considerable amount of bio-waste and therefore can lead to renewable energy production. The overall efficiency can be very high in the cases of co-generation or tri-generation. In this paper a model is presented, aiming to support decision makers in issues relating to Municipal Solid Waste energy recovery. The idea of using more fuel sources, including MSW and agricultural residue biomass that may exist in a rural area, is explored. The model aims at optimizing the system specifications, such as the capacity of the base-load Waste-to-Energy facility, the capacity of the peak-load biomass boiler and the location of the facility. Furthermore, it defines the quantity of each potential fuel source that should be used annually, in order to maximize the financial yield of the investment. The results of an energy tri-generation case study application at a rural area of Greece, using mixed MSW and biomass, indicate positive financial yield of investment. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the effect of the most important parameters of the model on the optimum solution, pinpointing the parameters of interest rate, investment cost and heating oil price, as those requiring the attention of the decision makers. Finally, the sensitivity analysis is enhanced by a stochastic analysis to determine the effect of the volatility of parameters on the robustness of the model and the solution obtained. PMID:24140378

Rentizelas, Athanasios A; Tolis, Athanasios I; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P

2014-01-01

361

WITS - WASTE DATA COLLECTION WITH OUR PALMS AT OUR FINGERTIPS  

SciTech Connect

The waste management and environmental compliance group (NMT-7) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has initiated a project to build a computer-based system for tracking inventory, storage and disposal information for hazardous and radioactive waste and contaminated byproducts. This project, the Waste Inventory Tracking System (WITS), will initially be used in TA-55 (which includes the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility) and the Chemical and Metallurgy Research (CMR) building where wastes are generated. The system handles numerous waste types with variation in size, disposal method, and hazard classification including: low level waste such as room trash (compactable waste), SEG waste (non-compactable), and over-sized waste, mixed waste, hazardous and chemical waste, universal waste, and waste containing asbestos and PCB's. WITS is designed to provide up-to-date location, status, content information, radioactivity analyses, and other inventory information for every waste item and container managed by NMT-7. The system will support comprehensive reporting capabilities and cradle-to-grave audit trails. WITS is intended to facilitate handling of waste by NMT-7 staff to help minimize waste disposal costs, ensure compliance with applicable regulations, and standardize waste management methodologies and practices. This paper compares current management practices with revised methodologies supported by WITS. It shows how automating inventory tracking helps achieve these goals.

B. MARTINEZ

2000-11-01

362

Performance assessment in support of the 1996 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.  

PubMed

The conceptual and computational structure of a performance assessment (PA) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is described. Important parts of this structure are (1) maintenance of a separation between stochastic (i.e., aleatory) and subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty, with stochastic uncertainty arising from the many possible disruptions that could occur over the 10,000-year regulatory period that applies to the WIPP, and subjective uncertainty arising from the imprecision with which many of the quantities required in the analysis are known, (2) use of Latin hypercube sampling to incorporate the effects of subjective uncertainty, (3) use of Monte Carlo (i.e., random) sampling to incorporate the effects of stochastic uncertainty, and (4) efficient use of the necessarily limited number of mechanistic calculations that can be performed to support the analysis. The WIPP is under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the geologic (i.e., deep underground) disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste, with the indicated PA supporting a Compliance Certification Application (CCA) by the DOE to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October 1996 for the necessary certifications for the WIPP to begin operation. The EPA certified the WIPP for the disposal of TRU waste in May 1998, with the result that the WIPP will be the first operational facility in the United States for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste. PMID:10765441

Helton, J C; Anderson, D R; Jow, H N; Marietta, M G; Basabilvazo, G

1999-10-01

363

Cradle-to-cradle stewardship of drugs for minimizing their environmental disposition while promoting human health. II. Drug disposal, waste reduction, and future directions.  

PubMed

Since the 1980s, the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as trace environmental pollutants, originating primarily from consumer use and actions rather than manufacturer effluents, continues to become more firmly established. The growing, worldwide importance of freshwater resources underscores the need for ensuring that any aggregate or cumulative impacts on (or from) water supplies are minimized. Despite a paucity of effects data from long-term, simultaneous exposure at low doses to multiple xenobiotics (particularly non-target-organism exposure to PPCPs), a wide range of proactive actions could be implemented for reducing or minimizing the introduction of PPCPs to the environment. Most of these actions fall under what could be envisioned as a holistic stewardship program--overseen by the health care industry and consumers alike. Significantly, such a stewardship program would benefit not just the environment--additional, collateral benefits could automatically accrue, including the lessening of medication expense for the consumer and improving patient health and consumer safety. In this article (the second of two parts describing the "green pharmacy") I focus on those actions and activities tied more closely to the end user (e.g., the patient) and issues associated with drug disposal/recycling that could prove useful in minimizing the environmental disposition of PPCPs. I also outline some recommendations and suggestions for further research and pose some considerations regarding the future. In this mini-monograph I attempt to capture cohesively for the first time the wide spectrum of actions available for minimizing the release of PPCPs to the environment. A major objective is to generate an active dialog or debate across the many disciplines that must become actively involved to design and implement a successful approach to life-cycle stewardship of PPCPs. PMID:12727607

Daughton, Christian G

2003-05-01

364

Contaminated Groundwater N flux to Surface Waters from Biosolid Waste Application Fields at a Waste Water Treatment Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biosolids have been land applied at the Neuse River Waste Water Treatment Plant (NRWWTP) since 1980. The long biosolid application history at this site has resulted in a build up of nitrate in the ground water beneath the Waste Application Fields (WAFs). We have used an innovative river monitoring system that measures in situ nitrate concentrations and discharge above and below the plant to determine the amount of nitrate gained in the reach from the WAFs. The nitrogen and oxygen isotopic composition of nitrate in the WAF groundwater indicates that 18% of the monitoring wells are impacted by fertilizer N, 57% of the wells are impacted by biosolid N, 22% of the wells are affected by denitrification, and one well is impacted by A.D.N. The net daily contribution of surface / ground water and nitrate to the reach was calculated from the sum of the flux into the reach at the upper RiverNet station plus the plant discharge minus the flux out of the reach at the lower RiverNet station. The difference between the flux into the reach and plant discharge minus the flux out of the reach is termed the non-point source gain (NPS gain). The NPS gain could come from groundwater and/or surface drainage additions to the reach. On an annual basis, daily integrated NPS nitrate gains were ~70,000 kg in year 2004 and ~27,900 kg in 2005. This represents an average over the two year period of ~12% of the total nitrate flux out of the reach and 43% of the nitrate discharged from the plant. During the past year groundwater wells were installed in the river riparian buffer and N Flux was measured in a surface water drainage in the WAF. The results indicate that N is not migrating through the shallow groundwater, and most of the NPS gains in the reach can come from surface drainages which have nitrate concentrations of 30-80 mg/l. Over the next year wetlands will be reconstructed in the surface drainages to attenuate the N flux and protect river water quality.

Showers, W. J.; Fountain, M.; Fountain, J. C.

2006-05-01

365

Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, liquid effluent retention facility and 200 area effluent treatment facility  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to 10 be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document 11 number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the 12 Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation 13 submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal 14 units, such as the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 15 Treatment Facility (this document, DOE/RL-97-03). 16 17 Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford 18 Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B 19 permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of 20 Ecology (Ecology 1987 and 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 21 (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs 22 defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of 23 Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington 24 State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit 25 application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the 26 chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is 27 contained in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 28 Treatment Facility permit application documentation, in relation to the 29 Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents 30 Section. 31 32 Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in 33 nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units 34 (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever 35 appropriate, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 36 Treatment Facility permit application documentation makes cross-reference to 37 the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. 38 39 Information provided in this Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 40 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility permit application documentation is 41 current as of June 1, 1997.

Coenenberg, J.G.

1997-08-15

366

Application of food industry waste to agricultural soils mitigates green house gas emissions.  

PubMed

Application of organic waste materials such as food processing and serving industry cooking oil waste (OFW) can recycle soil nitrate nitrogen (NO(3)-N), which is otherwise prone to leaching after the harvest of crop. Nitrogen (N) recycling will not only reduce the amount of N fertilizer application for corn crop production but is also expected to mitigate green house gas (GHG) emissions by saving energy to be used for the production of the same amount of industrial fertilizer N required for the growth of corn crop. Application of OFW at 10Mg solid ha(-1)y(-1) conserved 68 kg N ha(-1)y(-1) which ultimately saved 134 L diesel ha(-1)y(-1), which would otherwise be used for the production of fertilizer N as urea. Average fossil energy substitution value (FESV) of N conserved/recycled was calculated to be 93 US$ ha(-1)y(-1), which is about 13 million US$y(-1). Potential amount of GHG mitigation through the application of OFW to agricultural soils in Canada is estimated to be 57 Gg CO(2)Eq y(-1). PMID:19765979

Rashid, M T; Voroney, R P; Khalid, M

2010-01-01

367

A methodology for evaluating the toxicity of radioactive waste and its application to the radioactive waste generated in Pennsylvania  

SciTech Connect

Communicating with the public on the risks of low-level radioactive waste disposal is difficult due to the lack of comparisons that are understandable to the public. This paper presents a methodology for analyzing the intrinsic toxicity of radionuclides in waste and comparing it to that for soil or other wastes that may contain naturally-occurring radionuclides. The intrinsic toxicity of each radionuclide is normalized by dividing its specific activity in the waste by an appropriate ingestion risk standard, such as the U.S. EPA proposed drinking water limits. To illustrate the usefulness of this method, it was used to analyze Pennsylvania`s commercial low-level radioactive waste inventory. The results are presented along with an indication of the usefulness of this method for screening purposes to analyze and identify problematic constituents in various waste streams. 15 refs., 11 figs.

Dornsife, W.P. [Pennsylvania Bureau of Radiation Protection, Harrisburg, PA (United States)

1995-08-01

368

Potential application of microsensor technology in radioactive waste management with emphasis on headspace gas detection.  

SciTech Connect

Waste characterization is probably the most costly part of radioactive waste management. An important part of this characterization is the measurements of headspace gas in waste containers in order to demonstrate the compliance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or transportation requirements. The traditional chemical analysis methods, which include all steps of gas sampling, sample shipment and laboratory analysis, are expensive and time-consuming as well as increasing worker's exposure to hazardous environments. Therefore, an alternative technique that can provide quick, in-situ, and real-time detections of headspace gas compositions is highly desirable. This report summarizes the results obtained from a Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD) project entitled 'Potential Application of Microsensor Technology in Radioactive Waste Management with Emphasis on Headspace Gas Detection'. The objective of this project is to bridge the technical gap between the current status of microsensor development and the intended applications of these sensors in nuclear waste management. The major results are summarized below: {sm_bullet} A literature review was conducted on the regulatory requirements for headspace gas sampling/analysis in waste characterization and monitoring. The most relevant gaseous species and the related physiochemical environments were identified. It was found that preconcentrators might be needed in order for chemiresistor sensors to meet desired detection {sm_bullet} A long-term stability test was conducted for a polymer-based chemresistor sensor array. Significant drifts were observed over the time duration of one month. Such drifts should be taken into account for long-term in-situ monitoring. {sm_bullet} Several techniques were explored to improve the performance of sensor polymers. It has been demonstrated that freeze deposition of black carbon (CB)-polymer composite can effectively eliminate the so-called 'coffee ring' effect and lead to a desirable uniform distribution of CB particles in sensing polymer films. The optimal ratio of CB/polymer has been determined. UV irradiation has been shown to improve sensor sensitivity. {sm_bullet} From a large set of commercially available polymers, five polymers were selected to form a sensor array that was able to provide optimal responses to six target-volatile organic compounds (VOCs). A series of tests on the response of sensor array to various VOC concentrations have been performed. Linear sensor responses have been observed over the tested concentration ranges, although the responses over a whole concentration range are generally nonlinear. {sm_bullet} Inverse models have been developed for identifying individual VOCs based on sensor array responses. A linear solvation energy model is particularly promising for identifying an unknown VOC in a single-component system. It has been demonstrated that a sensor array as such we developed is able to discriminate waste containers for their total VOC concentrations and therefore can be used as screening tool for reducing the existing headspace gas sampling rate. {sm_bullet} Various VOC preconcentrators have been fabricated using Carboxen 1000 as an absorbent. Extensive tests have been conducted in order to obtain optimal configurations and parameter ranges for preconcentrator performance. It has been shown that use of preconcentrators can reduce the detection limits of chemiresistors by two orders of magnitude. The life span of preconcentrators under various physiochemical conditions has also been evaluated. {sm_bullet} The performance of Pd film-based H2 sensors in the presence of VOCs has been evaluated. The interference of sensor readings by VOC has been observed, which can be attributed to the interference of VOC with the H2-O2 reaction on the Pd alloy surface. This interference can be eliminated by coating a layer of silicon dioxide on sensing film surface. Our work has demonstrated a wide range of applications of gas microsensors in radioactive waste management. Such applications can poten

Davis, Chad Edward; Thomas, Michael Loren; Wright, Jerome L.; Pohl, Phillip Isabio; Hughes, Robert Clark; Wang, Yifeng; McGrath, Lucas K.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Gao, Huizhen

2004-09-01

369

CONTAMINATION CONTROL DURING IN SITU JET GROUTING FOR APPLICATION IN A BURIED TRANSURANIC WASTE SITE  

SciTech Connect

Engineers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) have developed means of contamination control associated with jet-grouting buried radioactive mixed waste sites. Finely divided plutonium/americium oxide particulate can escape as the drill stem of the jet-grouting apparatus exits a waste deposit in preparation for insertion in another injection hole. In studying various options for controlling this potential contamination, engineers found that an elaborate glovebox/drill string shroud system prevents contaminants from spreading. Researchers jet-grouted a pit with nonradioactive tracers to simulate the movement of plutonium fines during an actual application. Data from the testing indicate that the grout immobilizes the tracer material by locking it up in particles large enough to resist aerosolization.

Loomis, Guy G.; Jessmore, Jim J.

2003-02-27

370

Applications for activated carbons from waste tires: Natural gas storage and air pollution control  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Natural gas storage for natural gas vehicles and the separation and removal of gaseous contaminants from gas streams represent two emerging applications for carbon adsorbents. A possible precursor for such adsorbents is waste tires. In this study, activated carbon has been developed from waste tires and tested for its methane storage capacity and SO2 removal from a simulated flue-gas. Tire-derived carbons exhibit methane adsorption capacities (g/g) within 10% of a relatively expensive commercial activated carbon; however, their methane storage capacities (Vm/Vs) are almost 60% lower. The unactivated tire char exhibits SO2 adsorption kinetics similar to a commercial carbon used for flue-gas clean-up. Copyright ?? 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

Brady, T. A.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M. J.

1996-01-01

371

Overview of electronic waste (e-waste) management practices and legislations, and their poor applications in the developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The developing countries are facing huge challenges in the management of electronic waste (e-waste) which are either internally generated or imported illegally as ‘used’ goods in an attempt to bridge the so-called ‘digital divide’. E-waste contains hazardous constituents that may negatively impact the environment and affect human health if not properly managed. In these countries, because of lack of adequate

I. C. Nnorom; O. Osibanjo

2008-01-01

372

Commercial treatability study capabilities for application to the US Department of Energy`s anticipated mixed waste streams. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

US DOE mixed low-level and mixed transuranic waste inventory was estimated at 181,000 cubic meters (about 2,000 waste streams). Treatability studies may be used as part of DOE`s mixed waste management program. Commercial treatability study suppliers have been identified that either have current capability in their own facilities or have access to licensed facilities. Numerous federal and state regulations, as well as DOE Order 5820.2A, impact the performance of treatability studies. Generators, transporters, and treatability study facilities are subject to regulation. From a mixed- waste standpoint, a key requirement is that the treatability study facility must have an NRC or state license that allows it to possess radioactive materials. From a RCRA perspective, the facility must support treatability study activities with the applicable plans, reports, and documentation. If PCBs are present in the waste, TSCA will also be an issue. CERCLA requirements may apply, and both DOE and NRC regulations will impact the transportation of DOE mixed waste to an off-site treatment facility. DOE waste managers will need to be cognizant of all applicable regulations as mixed-waste treatability study programs are initiated.

NONE

1996-09-01

373

Minimization of the vibration energy of thin-plate structures and the application to the reduction of gearbox vibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While the vibration analysis of gear systems has been developed, a systematic approach to the reduction of gearbox vibration has been lacking. The technique of reducing vibration by shifting natural frequencies is proposed here for gearboxes and other thin-plate structures using the theories of finite elements, modal analysis, and optimization. A triangular shell element with 18 degrees of freedom is developed for structural and dynamic analysis. To optimize, the overall vibration energy is adopted as the objective function to be minimized at the excitation frequency by varying the design variable (element thickness) under the constraint of overall constant weight. Modal analysis is used to determine the sensitivity of the vibration energy as a function of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors. The optimum design is found by the gradient projection method and a unidimensional search procedure. By applying the computer code to design problems for beams and plates, it was verified that the proposed method is effective in reducing vibration energy. The computer code is also applied to redesign the NASA Lewis gear noise rig test gearbox housing. As one example, only the shape of the top plate is varied, and the vibration energy levels of all the surfaces are reduced, yielding an overall reduction of 1/5 compared to the initial design. As a second example, the shapes of the top and two side plates are varied to yield an overall reduction in vibration energy of 1/30.

Inoue, Katsumi; Krantz, Timothy L.

1995-01-01

374

Cost-minimizing industry structure for petroleum refining: an application of contestable market theory and multiproduct cost functions  

SciTech Connect

Since the elimination of crude-oil price controls and the entitlements program in 1980, the US petroleum-refining industry has undergone significant changes in structure and technology. The number of refineries has declined from 303 in January 1981 to 191 in January 1985. Several mergers and acquisitions among major refiners have resulted in some reductions in capacity as plants have been retired or sold to independents. Meanwhile, capital investment in existing refineries has made the US industry much more flexible in terms of handling various grades of crude oil. This research first estimates econometrically the long run cost structure of petroleum refining operations using a translog multiproduct cost function and company refining data from the Financial Reporting System (FRS) maintained by the Energy Information Administration. The principles of contestable market theory are then applied to the estimated cost function to determine the cost minimizing number and size of overall company refining operations. It is determined that the existing structure is not sustainable due to the discrepancy between the optimal and existing industry structures and the fact that firms are not producing where price equals marginal cost for each of the three products: motor gasoline, distillate fuels, and other refined products.

Shoesmith, G.L.

1986-01-01

375

Minimization of the Vibration Energy of Thin-Plate Structures and the Application to the Reduction of Gearbox Vibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While the vibration analysis of gear systems has been developed, a systematic approach to the reduction of gearbox vibration has been lacking. The technique of reducing vibration by shifting natural frequencies is proposed here for gearboxes and other thin-plate structures using the theories of finite elements, modal analysis, and optimization. A triangular shell element with 18 degrees of freedom is developed for structural and dynamic analysis. To optimize, the overall vibration energy is adopted as the objective function to be minimized at the excitation frequency by varying the design variable (element thickness) under the constraint of overall constant weight. Modal analysis is used to determine the sensitivity of the vibration energy as a function of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors. The optimum design is found by the gradient projection method and a unidimensional search procedure. By applying the computer code to design problems for beams and plates, it was verified that the proposed method is effective in reducing vibration energy. The computer code is also applied to redesign the NASA Lewis gear noise rig test gearbox housing. As one example, only the shape of the top plate is varied, and the vibration energy levels of all the surfaces are reduced, yielding an overall reduction of 1/5 compared to the initial design. As a second example, the shapes of the top and two side plates are varied to yield an overall reduction in vibration energy of 1/30.

Inoue, Katsumi; Krantz, Timothy L.

1995-01-01

376

Minimal freeness and commutativity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apseudobasis for an abstract algebraA is a subsetX ofA such that every mappingX intoA extends uniquely to an endomorphism onA. A isminimally free ifA has a pseudobasis. In this paper we look at how minimal freeness interacts with various notions of commutativity (e.g., “operational” commutativity in the algebra, usual commutativity in the endomorphism monoid of the algebra). One application is

Paul Bankston

1992-01-01

377

Application of low-NOx precombustor technology to the incineration of nitrogenated wastes  

SciTech Connect

This paper gives results of an evaluation of a 0.6-MW precombustion chamber burner/package boiler simulator, designed for in-furnace NOx control and high combustion efficiency, for high-nitrogen-content fuel combustion/waste incineration application. The 250-750 ms residence-time precombustion chamber burner, using air staging and in-furnace natural gas reburning, yields up to four stoichiometric zones. Subsequently, an examination of the incineration characteristics of a nitrogenated pesticide, containing dinoseb in an organic solvent, was conducted on the low-NOx facility. NO emissions without in-furnace controls were reduced from 4400 to <150 ppm with controls.

Srivastava, R.K.; Ryan, J.V.; Linak, W.P.; Hall, R.E.; McSorley, J.A.

1989-01-01

378

MWCNTs synthesized from waste polypropylene plastics and its application in super-capacitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized at 800 °C by single stage chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from the carbonaceous source of waste polypropylene plastic (WPP) in the presence of a Ni catalyst. The fabrication of capacitor cell is very simple and does not require any binders. The electrochemical performances of the carbon nanotubes electrode were investigated by use of the cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge for its application in super capacitors. The specific capacitance of 59 F/g of the electrode was achieved with scan rate of 5 mV/s in the solution of 1N KOH.

Mishra, Neeraj; Shinde, Sachin; Vishwakarma, Ritesh; Kadam, Siddhi; Sharon, Madhuri; Sharon, Maheshwar

2013-06-01

379

Microwave technology for waste management applications including disposition of electronic circuitry  

SciTech Connect

Microwave technology is being developed nationally and internationally for a variety of environmental remediation purposes. These efforts include treatment and destruction of a vast array of gaseous, liquid and solid hazardous wastes as well as subsequent immobilization of selected components. Microwave technology provides an important contribution to an arsenal of existing remediation methods that are designed to protect the public and environment from undesirable consequences of hazardous materials. Applications of microwave energy for environmental remediation will be discussed. Emphasized will be a newly developed microwave process designed to treat discarded electronic circuitry and reclaim the precious metals within for reuse.

Wicks, G.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L.; Folz, D.C. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

1995-09-01

380

Performance Assessment in Support of the 1996 Compliance Certification Application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The conceptual and computational structure of a performance assessment (PA) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is described. Important parts of thk structure are @ maintenance of a separation between stochastic (i.e., aleatory) and subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertain, with stochastic uncefinty arising from the many possible disruptions that could occur over the 10,000 Y regulatory period fiat applies to the WIPP and subjective uncertainty arising from `the imprecision with which many of the quantities rquired in tie `hdysis are known, (ii) use of Latin hypercttbe sampling to incorporate the effects of subjective uncefirtty, (iii) use of Monte Carlo (i.e., random) sampling to incorporate the effects of stochastic uncetinty, and OV) efficient use of tie necessarily limited number of mechanistic calculations that can be performed to SUPPOII the analysis. The WIPP is under development by the U.S. Department of Ener~ (DOE) for the geologic (i.e., deep underground) disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste, with the indicated PA supporting a ~Compliance Certification Application (CCA) by the DOE to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October 1996 for tie necessary certifications for the WIPP to begin operation. If certified, the WIPP will be the first operational faciliv in tie United States for the geologic disposal of ra&oactive waste.

Anderson, D.R.; Basabilvazo, G.; Helton, J.C.; Jow, H.-N.; Marietta, M.G.

1998-10-14

381

Feasibility of an earth-to-space rail launcher system. [emphasizing nuclear waste disposal application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of earth-to-space electromagnetic (railgun) launchers (ESRL) is considered, in order to determine their technical practicality and economic viability. The potential applications of the launcher include nuclear waste disposal into space, deep space probe launches, and atmospheric research. Examples of performance requirements of the ESRL system are a maximum acceleration of 10,000 g's for nuclear waste disposal in space (NWDS) missions and 2,500 g's for earth orbital missions, a 20 km/sec launch velocity for NWDS missions, and a launch azimuth of 90 degrees E. A brief configuration description is given, and test results indicate that for the 2020-2050 time period, as much as 3.0 MT per day of bulk material could be launched, and about 0.5 MT per day of high-level nuclear waste could be launched. For earth orbital missions, a significant projectile mass was approximately 6.5 MT, and an integral distributed energy store launch system demonstrated a good potential performance. ESRL prove to be economically and environmentally feasible, but an operational ESRL of the proposed size is not considered achievable before the year 2020.

Rice, E. E.; Miller, L. A.; Marshall, R. A.; Kerslake, W. R.

1982-01-01

382

Path-Based, Randomized, Oblivious, Minimal Routing  

E-print Network

Path-based, Randomized, Oblivious, Minimal routing (PROM) is a family of oblivious, minimal, path-diverse routing algorithms especially suitable for Network-on-Chip applications with n x n mesh geometry. Rather than choosing ...

Cho, Myong Hyon

2009-01-01

383

Modeling vadose zone processes during land application of food-processing waste water in California's Central Valley.  

PubMed

Land application of food-processing waste water occurs throughout California's Central Valley and may be degrading local ground water quality, primarily by increasing salinity and nitrogen levels. Natural attenuation is considered a treatment strategy for the waste, which often contains elevated levels of easily degradable organic carbon. Several key biogeochemical processes in the vadose zone alter the characteristics of the waste water before it reaches the ground water table, including microbial degradation, crop nutrient uptake, mineral precipitation, and ion exchange. This study used a process-based, multi-component reactive flow and transport model (MIN3P) to numerically simulate waste water migration in the vadose zone and to estimate its attenuation capacity. To address the high variability in site conditions and waste-stream characteristics, four food-processing industries were coupled with three site scenarios to simulate a range of land application outcomes. The simulations estimated that typically between 30 and 150% of the salt loading to the land surface reaches the ground water, resulting in dissolved solids concentrations up to sixteen times larger than the 500 mg L(-1) water quality objective. Site conditions, namely the ratio of hydraulic conductivity to the application rate, strongly influenced the amount of nitrate reaching the ground water, which ranged from zero to nine times the total loading applied. Rock-water interaction and nitrification explain salt and nitrate concentrations that exceed the levels present in the waste water. While source control remains the only method to prevent ground water degradation from saline wastes, proper site selection and waste application methods can reduce the risk of ground water degradation from nitrogen compounds. PMID:18765777

Miller, Gretchen R; Rubin, Yoram; Mayer, K Ulrich; Benito, Pascual H

2008-01-01

384

40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT General § 273...also of the same type as the universal wastes defined at § 273.9; and...also of the same type as the universal wastes defined at § 273.9....

2011-07-01

385

40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT General § 273...also of the same type as the universal wastes defined at § 273.9; and...also of the same type as the universal wastes defined at § 273.9....

2010-07-01

386

40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT General § 273...also of the same type as the universal wastes defined at § 273.9; and...also of the same type as the universal wastes defined at § 273.9....

2013-07-01

387

40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT General § 273...also of the same type as the universal wastes defined at § 273.9; and...also of the same type as the universal wastes defined at § 273.9....

2012-07-01

388

40 CFR 266.206 - Standards applicable to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions.  

...to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions. 266.206 Section 266...HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions § 266.206 Standards...to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions. The treatment and...

2014-07-01

389

40 CFR 266.206 - Standards applicable to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions. 266.206 Section 266...HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions § 266.206 Standards...to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions. The treatment and...

2012-07-01

390

40 CFR 266.206 - Standards applicable to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions. 266.206 Section 266...HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions § 266.206 Standards...to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions. The treatment and...

2011-07-01

391

40 CFR 266.206 - Standards applicable to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions. 266.206 Section 266...HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions § 266.206 Standards...to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions. The treatment and...

2010-07-01

392

In situ vitrification application to buried waste: Final report of intermediate field tests at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This report describes two in situ vitrification field tests conducted on simulated buried waste pits during June and July 1990 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In situ vitrification, an emerging technology for in place conversion of contaminated soils into a durable glass and crystalline waste form, is being investigated as a potential remediation technology for buried waste. The overall objective of the two tests was to access the general suitability of the process to remediate waste structures representative of buried waste found at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In particular, these tests, as part of a treatability study, were designed to provide essential information on the field performance of the process under conditions of significant combustible and metal wastes and to test a newly developed electrode feed technology. The tests were successfully completed, and the electrode feed technology successfully processed the high metal content waste. Test results indicate the process is a feasible technology for application to buried waste. 33 refs., 109 figs., 39 tabs.

Callow, R.A.; Weidner, J.R.; Loehr, C.A.; Bates, S.O. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Thompson, L.E.; McGrail, B.P. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

1991-08-01

393

State waste discharge permit application: Hydrotest, maintenance and construction discharges. Revision 0  

SciTech Connect

On December 23, 1991, the US DOE< Richland Operation Office (RL) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) agreed to adhere to the provisions of the Department of Ecology Consent Order No. DE91NM-177 (216 Consent Order) (Ecology and US DOE 1991). The 216 Consent Order list regulatory milestones for liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site and requires compliance with the permitting requirements of Washington Administrative Code. Hanford Site liquid effluent streams discharging to the soil column have been categorized on the 216 Consent Order as follows: Phase I Streams; Phase II Streams; Miscellaneous Streams. Phase I and Phase II Streams were initially addressed in two report. Miscellaneous Streams are subject to the requirements of several milestones identified in the 216 Consent Order. This document constitutes the Categorical State Waste Discharge Permit application for hydrotest,maintenance and construction discharges throughout the Hanford Site. This categorical permit application form was prepared and approved by Ecology.

NONE

1995-11-01

394

Novel granular materials with microcrystalline active surfaces: waste water treatment applications of zeolite/vermiculite composites.  

PubMed

The application of zeolites as adsorbents for waste water management is limited by the facts that only synthetic zeolites have sufficient capacity and only natural zeolites can be manufactured in practical sizes for application, i.e. synthetic zeolites have too small a grain size to be used and natural zeolites have low adsorption capacities. This study seeks to resolve this problem by the manufacture of synthetic zeolites upon an expanded lamella matrix (vermiculite). The synthesized composite was tested to show whether it combined the useful properties of both natural and synthetic zeolites. The study compared: hydraulic conductivity, adsorption capacity and rate of attainment of equilibrium of the synthetic composite in comparison to both a natural and a synthetic zeolite. The results demonstrate that the vermiculite-based composite shows the same hydraulic properties as a natural clinoptilolite with similar grain size (2-5mm), however, the rate of adsorption and maximum coverage were improved by a factor of 4. PMID:17360021

Johnson, Christopher D; Worrall, Fred

2007-05-01

395

Application of active and passive neutron non destructive assay methods to concrete radioactive waste drums  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the application of non-destructive neutron measurement methods to control and characterize 200 l radioactive waste drums filled with a concrete matrix. Due to its composition, and particularly to hydrogen, concrete penalizes the use of such methods to quantify uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) components, which are mainly responsible of the ?-activity of the waste. The determination of the alpha activity is the main objective of neutron measurements, in view to verify acceptance criteria in surface storage. Calibration experiments of the Active Neutron Interrogation (ANI) method lead to Detection Limit Masses (DLM) of about 1 mg of 239Pu eff in the total counting mode, and of about 10 mg of 239Pu eff in the coincidence counting mode, in case of a homogeneous Pu source and measurement times between one and two hours. Monte Carlo calculation results show a very satisfactory agreement between experimental values and calculated ones. Results of the application of passive and active neutron methods to control two real drums are presented in the last part of the paper. They show a good agreement between measured data and values declared by the waste producers. The main difficulties that had to be overcome are the low neutron signal in passive and active coincidence counting modes due to concrete, the analysis of the passive neutron signal in presence of 244Cm in the drum, which is a strong spontaneous fission neutron emitter, the variation of the active background with the concrete composition, and the analysis of the active prompt neutron signal due to the simultaneous presence of U and Pu in the drums.

Jallu, F.; Passard, C.; Brackx, E.

2011-09-01

396

Controlling Phosphorus in Runoff From Long Term Dairy Waste Application Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus (P) in runoff from long term animal waste application fields can contribute to accelerated eutrophication of surface waters. Manure when applied at nitrogen (N) agronomic rates generally increases soil P concentrations, which can increase runoff of soluble P. Along the North Bosque River in central Texas, dairy waste application fields are identified as the most controllable nonpoint source of soluble P in a total maximum daily load. To evaluate P reduction practices for fields high in soil extractable P, edgeof-field runoff was measured from paired plots of Coastal bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)/ winter wheat (Triticum spp.). Plots (about 0.4 ha) received manure at P agronomic rates following Texas permit guidelines and commercial N during the pretreatment period. During the posttreatment period, control plots continued to receive manure at P agronomic rates and commercial N. Treatment plots received only commercial N during the post-treatment period. Use of only commercial N on soils with high extractable P levels significantly decreased P loadings in edge-of-field runoff by at least 40 percent, but runoff concentrations sometimes increased. No notable changes in extractable soil P concentrations were observed after five years of monitoring due to drought conditions limiting forage uptake and removal.

McFarland, Anne M. S.; Hauck, Larry M.

2004-10-01

397

Waste minimization/pollution prevention at R&D facilities: A cradle-to-grave tracking and information system that will be implemented at Sandia National Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive environment, safety and health (ES&H) program allocates an extensive portion of its resources to information collection, management, and manipulation. Much of these resources are difficult to obtain and even more costly to ensure that they are sufficiently accurate; however, a system which collects information at the point which a process begins or a material enters a facility and maintains that information throughout its entire life-cycle is a more efficient approach to providing the data necessary to meet ES&H requirements. These data requirements for all the various groups within an ES&H program are associated with the properties and interactions among materials, personnel, facilities, hazards, waste and processes. Although each group is charged with addressing a particular aspect of these properties and interactions, the information they require can be aggregated into a coherent set of common data fields. It is these common data fields that the Cradle-to-Grave Tracking and Information System (CGTIS) is designed to satisfy. Research and development laboratories such as Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) are diverse in nature and, therefore, present a complex challenge to ES&H professionals. The remainder of this paper will describe the CGTIS as envisioned and implemented at SNL, define the requirements of a complete CGTIS, and review the current status of each system module at SNL.

Hollingsworth, M.W. [Rinchem Co., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kjeldgaard, E.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Navarrete, R. [AT and T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (United States)

1993-09-01

398

Pollution Prevention, Waste Minimization and Material Recycling Successes Realized during Savannah River Site's K Area Materials Storage (KAMS) Project, W226  

SciTech Connect

As DOE continues to forge ahead and re-evaluate post cold war missions, facilities that were constructed and operated for DOE/DOD over the past 50+ years are coming to the end of their useful life span. These various facilities throughout the country had served a very useful purpose in our nations history; however, their time of Cold War materials production has come to an end. With this looming finalization comes a decision as to how to remedy their existence: D and R the facilities and return to ''Greenfield''; or, retrofit the existing facilities to accommodate the newer missions of the DOE Complex. The 105-K Reactor Building located at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina was retrofit on an accelerated project schedule for a new mission called K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS). Modifications to the former defense reactor's building and equipment will allow storage of Plutonium from the Rocky Flats Site in Colorado and other materials deemed necessary by the Department of Energy. Proper project planning and activity sequencing allowed the DOE and the Westinghouse Savannah River Company to realize savings from: the recycling and/or reuse of modified facility components; reduction and reclassification of waste; reduction in radiological area footprint (rollbacks).

Ellis, M.S.

2001-01-31

399

Waste Handeling Building Conceptual Study  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the ''Waste Handling Building Conceptual Study'' is to develop proposed design requirements for the repository Waste Handling System in sufficient detail to allow the surface facility design to proceed to the License Application effort if the proposed requirements are approved by DOE. Proposed requirements were developed to further refine waste handling facility performance characteristics and design constraints with an emphasis on supporting modular construction, minimizing fuel inventory, and optimizing facility maintainability and dry handling operations. To meet this objective, this study attempts to provide an alternative design to the Site Recommendation design that is flexible, simple, reliable, and can be constructed in phases. The design concept will be input to the ''Modular Design/Construction and Operation Options Report'', which will address the overall program objectives and direction, including options and issues associated with transportation, the subsurface facility, and Total System Life Cycle Cost. This study (herein) is limited to the Waste Handling System and associated fuel staging system.

G.W. Rowe

2000-11-06

400

Epithermal interrogation of fissile waste  

SciTech Connect

Self-shielding of interrogating thermal neutrons in lumps of fissile material can be a major source of error in transuranic waste assay using the widely employed differential dieaway technique. We are developing a new instrument, the combined thermal/epithermal neutron (CTEN) interrogation instrument to detect the occurrence of self- shielding and mitigate its effects. Neutrons are moderated in the graphite walls of the CTEN instrument to provide an interrogating flux of epithermal and thermal neutrons. The induced prompt fission neutrons are detected in proportional counters. We report the results of measurements made with the CTEN instrument, using minimal and highly self-shielding plutonium and uranium sources in 55 gallon drums containing a variety of mock waste matrices. Fissile isotopes and waste forms for which the method is most applicable, and limitations associated with the hydrogen content of the waste package/matrix are described.

Coop, K.L.; Hollas, C.L.

1996-09-01

401

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 34, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 1998 1105 Torque-Ripple Minimization in Switched Reluctance  

E-print Network

-ripple minimization technique for switched reluctance motors (SRM's) is presented. The technique is partic- ularly-ripple minimization. I. INTRODUCTION THE numerous positive features of the switched reluc- tance motor (SRM) make precalculated optimal torque-sharing functions and a hysteresis current controller to minimize the torque ripple

Husain, Iqbal

402

State waste discharge permit application 400 Area secondary cooling water. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

This document constitutes the Washington Administrative Code 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit Application that serves as interim compliance as required by Consent Order DE 91NM-177, for the 400 Area Secondary Cooling Water stream. As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site that affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permitting Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order DE 91NM-177. The Consent Order DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. Based upon compositional and flow rate characteristics, liquid effluent streams on the Hanford Site have been categorized into Phase 1, Phase 2, and Miscellaneous streams. This document only addresses the 400 Area Secondary Cooling Water stream, which has been identified as a Phase 2 stream. The 400 Area Secondary Cooling Water stream includes contribution streams from the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility, the Maintenance and Storage Facility, the 481-A pump house, and the Fast Flux Test Facility.

NONE

1996-01-01

403

Simultaneous combustion of waste plastics with coal for pulverized coal injection application  

SciTech Connect

A bench-scale study was conducted to investigate the effect of simultaneous cofiring of waste plastic with coal on the combustion behavior of coals for PCI (pulverized coal injection) application in a blast furnace. Two Australian coals, premixed with low- and high-density polyethylene, were combusted in a drop tube furnace at 1473 K under a range of combustion conditions. In all the tested conditions, most of the coal blends including up to 30% plastic indicated similar or marginally higher combustion efficiency compared to those of the constituent coals even though plastics were not completely combusted. In a size range up to 600 {mu}m, the combustion efficiency of coal and polyethylene blends was found be independent of the particle size of plastic used. Both linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) are shown to display similar influence on the combustion efficiency of coal blends. The effect of plastic appeared to display greater improvement on the combustion efficiency of low volatile coal compared to that of a high volatile coal blend. The study further suggested that the effect of oxygen levels of the injected air in improving the combustion efficiency of a coal-plastic blend could be more effective under fuel rich conditions. The study demonstrates that waste plastic can be successfully coinjected with PCI without having any adverse effect on the combustion efficiency particularly under the tested conditions. 22 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

Sushil Gupta; Veena Sahajwalla; Jacob Wood [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Cooperative Research Centre for Coal in Sustainable Development, School of Materials Science and Engineering

2006-12-15

404

PUREX Storage Tunnels dangerous waste permit application. Revision 1, Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The PUREX Storage Tunnels are a mixed waste storage unit consisting of two underground railroad tunnels: Tunnel Number 1 designated 218-E-14 and Tunnel Number 2 designated 218-E-15. The two tunnels are connected by rail to the PUREX Plant and combine to provide storage space for 48 railroad cars (railcars). The PUREX Storage Tunnels provide a long-term storage location for equipment removed from the PUREX Plant. Transfers into the PUREX Storage Tunnels are made on an as-needed basis. Radioactively contaminated equipment is loaded on railcars and remotely transferred by rail into the PUREX Storage Tunnels. Railcars act as both a transport means and a storage platform for equipment placed into the tunnels. This report consists of part A and part B. Part A reports on amounts and locations of the mixed water. Part B permit application consists of the following: Facility Description and General Provisions; Waste Characteristics; Process Information; Groundwater Monitoring; Procedures to Prevent Hazards; Contingency Plan; Personnel Training; Exposure Information Report.

Not Available

1991-12-01

405

Feasible conversion of solid waste bauxite tailings into highly crystalline 4A zeolite with valuable application.  

PubMed

Bauxite tailings are a major type of solid wastes generated in the flotation process. The waste by-products caused significant environmental impact. To lessen this hazardous effect from poisonous mine tailings, a feasible and cost-effective solution was conceived and implemented. Our approach focused on reutilization of the bauxite tailings by converting it to 4A zeolite for reuse in diverse applications. Three steps were involved in the bauxite conversion: wet-chemistry, alkali fusion, and crystallization to remove impurities and to prepare porous 4A zeolite. It was found that the cubic 4A zeolite was single phase, in high purity, with high crystallinity and well-defined structure. Importantly, the 4A zeolite displayed maximum calcium ion exchange capacity averaged at 296mg CaCO3/g, comparable to commercially-available zeolite (310mg CaCO3/g) exchange capacity. Base on the optimal synthesis condition, the reaction yield of zeolite 4A from bauxite tailings achieved to about 38.43%, hence, this study will provide a new paradigm for remediation of bauxite tailings, further mitigating the environmental and health care concerns, particularly in the mainland of PR China. PMID:25153822

Ma, Dongyang; Wang, Zhendong; Guo, Min; Zhang, Mei; Liu, Jingbo

2014-11-01

406

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: Part B, Permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 1, Revison 1.0  

SciTech Connect

This report contains information related to the permit application for the WIPP facility. Information is presented on solid waste management; personnel safety; emergency plans; site characterization; applicable regulations; decommissioning; and ground water monitoring requirements.

Not Available

1992-03-01

407

The ZOOM minimization package  

SciTech Connect

A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.

Fischler, Mark S.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab

2004-11-01

408

Clean energy from sugarcane waste: feasibility study of an innovative application of bagasse and barbojo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the existing difficulty of finding energy sources and reducing pollution, the use of renewable sources and highly efficient technologies for electrical energy production stands out as one of the promising solutions for the future. This paper shows the results of the combination of these two aspects, namely, a molten carbonate fuel cell system fed with biomass derived syngas. In particular, the biogas comes from bagasse and barbojo, the sugarcane residues. So far in developing countries they have been wasted or partly used with poorly efficient technology. The feasibility of such an application is studied by means of the process simulator Aspen Plus © in which a detailed Fortran model has been integrated for the electrochemical reactor simulation. The results of the predictive model are presented and discussed; in particular, the substantial economic and environmental advantages obtainable by applying the technical solution here proposed to the Peruvian energy scenario, are shown.

Dellepiane, Daniela; Bosio, Barbara; Arato, Elisabetta

409

High level waste tank closure project: ALARA applications at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.  

PubMed

Bechtel BWXT Idaho, Maintenance and Operating Contractor for the Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, has emptied, cleaned, and sampled six of the eleven 1.135 x 10(6) L high level waste underground storage tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, well ahead of the State of Idaho Consent Order cleaning schedule. Cleaning of a seventh tank is expected to be complete by the end of calendar year 2004. The tanks, with associated vaults, valve boxes, and distribution systems, are being closed to meet Resource Conservation and Recovery Act regulations and Department of Energy orders. The use of remotely operated equipment placed in the tanks through existing tank riser access points, sampling methods and application of as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) principles have proven effective in keeping personnel dose low during equipment removal, tank, vault, and valve box cleaning, and sampling activities, currently at 0.03 Sv. PMID:15824589

Aitken, Steven B; Butler, Richard; Butterworth, Steven W; Quigley, Keith D

2005-05-01

410

Development and application of a deflagration pressure analysis code for high level waste processing  

SciTech Connect

The Deflagration Pressure Analysis Code (DPAC) was developed primarily to evaluate peak pressures for deflagrations in radioactive waste storage and process facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Deflagrations in these facilities are generally considered to be incredible events, but it was judged prudent to develop modeling capabilities in order to facilitate risk estimates. DPAC is essentially an engineering analysis tool, as opposed to a detailed thermal hydraulics code. It accounts for mass loss via venting, energy dissipation by radiative heat transfer, and gas PdV work. Volume increases due to vessel deformation can also be included using pressure-volume data from a structural analysis of the enclosure. This paper presents an overview of the code, benchmarking, and applications at SRS.

Hensel, S.J.; Thomas, J.K.

1994-06-01

411

Main principles of radiation protection and their applications in waste management  

SciTech Connect

The average exposure for an individual from such background in the United States is about 300 mrem per year with approximately 200 mrem of this coming from radon exposure alone. In addition to the natural sources of background radiation, a very small amount of the background radiation occurs due to the nuclear weapons test fallout. Manmade sources of radiation also include certain consumer products, industrial and research use of radioisotopes, medical X-rays, and radiopharmaceuticals. When all sources, natural and man-made, are taken into account, the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has estimated that the average annual dose to individuals in the US population is 360 mrem (NCRP Report No. 93). In this report the fundamental principles of radiation protection are reviewed, as well as the relevant laws and regulations in the United States and discuss application of radiation protection in radioactive waste management.

Devgun, J.S.

1993-09-01

412

Changes in Soil Physical Properties Due to Organic Waste Applications: A Review1 R. KHALEEL, K. R. REDDY, AND M. R. OVERCASH2  

E-print Network

Changes in Soil Physical Properties Due to Organic Waste Applications: A Review1 R. KHALEEL, K. R- pal wastes, and sewage sludge could alter the soil physical properties. Repeated substantial applications on soil physical properties such as bulk density, water holdingcapaci- ty at both field capacity

Florida, University of

413

Eleventh annual U.S. DOE low-level radioactive waste management conference: Executive summary, opening plenary, technical session summaries, and attendees  

SciTech Connect

The conference consisted of ten technical sessions, with three sessions running simultaneously each day. Session topics included: regulatory updates; performance assessment;understanding remedial action efforts; low-level waste strategy and planning (Nuclear Energy); low-level waste strategy and planning (Defense); compliance monitoring; decontamination and decommissioning; waste characterization; waste reduction and minimization; and prototype licensing application workshop. Summaries are presented for each of these sessions.

NONE

1990-01-01

414

APPLICATION OF A HAZARD-ASSESSMENT RESEARCH STRATEGY FOR WASTE DISPOSAL AT 106-MILE OCEAN DISPOSAL SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

An application of a hazard-assessment research strategy was made using waste disposal at Deepwater Dumpsite-l06 (DWD-106) as an example. The strategy involved the synthesis of results from separate exposure and effects components in order to provide a scientific basis for estimat...

415

Evaluating the Effect of a Restored Wetland on Nutrient Movement from a Farm Animal Waste Application Site.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility and effectiveness of restoring a riparian wetland and using it as a bioremediation site for nutrients moving downslope from an animal waste application site is being evaluated. In question is the short-term effectiveness of the restored we...

G. Vellidis, M. C. Smith, R. Lowrance, R. K. Hubbard

1992-01-01

416

Application of nondestructive assay technology in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's waste management program  

SciTech Connect

Waste characterization is the process whereby physical properties and chemical composition of waste are determined. Waste characterization is an important element of a waste certification program in that it provides information which is necessary to certify that waste meets the acceptance criteria for storage, treatment, or disposal. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A and WIPP-DOE-069 list and describe the germane waste form, package, and container criteria for the storage of both solid low-level waste (SLLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste, including chemical composition and compatibility, hazardous material content, fissile material content, equivalent alpha activity, thermal heat output, and absence of free liquids, explosives, and compressed gases. At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the responsibility for waste characterization begins with the individual(s) who generate the waste. The generator must be able to document the type and estimate the quantity of various materials which have been placed into the waste container. Analyses of process flow sheets and a statistically valid sampling program can provide much of the required information as well as a documented level of confidence in the acquired data. A program is being instituted in which the major generator facilities perform radionuclide assay of small packets of waste prior to being placed into a waste drum. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Schultz, F.J.; Smith, M.A.; Brandenburg, R.W.; Caylor, B.A.; Coffey, D.E.; Hensley, D.C.; Phoenix, L.B.

1990-01-01

417

PRETREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the waste applicability and performance characteristics of hazardous waste pretreatment processes. Pretreatment processes are those unit operations which must often be carried out on hazardous wastes to make them amenable to subsequent materials or energy rec...

418

78 FR 34380 - Biennial Determination of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With Applicable Federal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Biennial Determination of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance...submitted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP...as amended. The Secretary of Energy was notified of the...

2013-06-07

419

40 CFR 403.19 - Provisions of specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...industrial processes, and potential by-products have not contributed...to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility is...User has no reasonable potential to violate a Pretreatment...f) The Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility...

2012-07-01

420

40 CFR 403.19 - Provisions of specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...industrial processes, and potential by-products have not contributed...to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility is...User has no reasonable potential to violate a Pretreatment...f) The Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility...

2010-07-01

421

40 CFR 403.19 - Provisions of specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...industrial processes, and potential by-products have not contributed...to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility is...User has no reasonable potential to violate a Pretreatment...f) The Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility...

2011-07-01

422

40 CFR 403.19 - Provisions of specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...industrial processes, and potential by-products have not contributed...to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility is...User has no reasonable potential to violate a Pretreatment...f) The Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility...

2013-07-01

423

40 CFR 403.19 - Provisions of specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility.  

...industrial processes, and potential by-products have not contributed...to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility is...User has no reasonable potential to violate a Pretreatment...f) The Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility...

2014-07-01

424

Waste Generated from LMR-AMTEC Reactor Concept  

SciTech Connect

The candidate Liquid Metal Reactor-Alkali Metal Thermal -to- Electric Converter (LMR-AMTEC) is considered to be the first reactor that would use pure liquid potassium as a secondary coolant, in which potassium vapor aids in the conversion of thermal energy to electric energy. As with all energy production, the thermal generation of electricity produces wastes. These wastes must be managed in ways which safeguard human health and minimize their impact on the environment. Nuclear power is the only energy industry, which takes full responsibility for all its wastes. Based on the candidate design of the LMR-AMTEC components and the coolant types, different wastes will be generated from LMR. These wastes must be classified and characterized according to the U.S. Code of Federal Regulation, CFR. This paper defines the waste generation and waste characterization from LMR-AMTEC and reviews the applicable U.S. regulations that govern waste transportation, treatment, storage and final disposition. The wastes generated from LMR-AMTEC are characterized as: (1) mixed waste which is generated from liquid sodium contaminated by fission products and activated corrosion products; (2) hazardous waste which is generated from liquid potassium contaminated by corrosion products; (3) spent nuclear fuel; and (4) low-level radioactive waste which is generated from the packing materials (e.g. activated carbon in cold trap and purification units). The regulations and management of these wastes are summarized in this paper.

Hasan, Ahmed; Mohamed, Yasser, T.; Mohammaden, Tarek, F.

2003-02-25

425

Hospital waste management and toxicity evaluation: A case study  

SciTech Connect

Hospital waste management is an imperative environmental and public safety issue, due to the waste's infectious and hazardous character. This paper examines the existing waste strategy of a typical hospital in Greece with a bed capacity of 400-600. The segregation, collection, packaging, storage, transportation and disposal of waste were monitored and the observed problematic areas documented. The concentrations of BOD, COD and heavy metals were measured in the wastewater the hospital generated. The wastewater's toxicity was also investigated. During the study, omissions and negligence were observed at every stage of the waste management system, particularly with regard to the treatment of infectious waste. Inappropriate collection and transportation procedures for infectious waste, which jeopardized the safety of staff and patients, were recorded. However, inappropriate segregation practices were the dominant problem, which led to increased quantities of generated infectious waste and hence higher costs for their disposal. Infectious waste production was estimated using two different methods: one by weighing the incinerated waste (880 kg day{sup -1}) and the other by estimating the number of waste bags produced each day (650 kg day{sup -1}). Furthermore, measurements of the EC{sub 50} parameter in wastewater samples revealed an increased toxicity in all samples. In addition, hazardous organic compounds were detected in wastewater samples using a gas chromatograph/mass spectrograph. Proposals recommending the application of a comprehensive hospital waste management system are presented that will ensure that any potential risks hospital wastes pose to public health and to the environment are minimized.

Tsakona, M.; Anagnostopoulou, E. [Laboratory of Toxic and Hazardous Waste Management, Department of Environmental Engineers, Technical University of Crete, GR-73100 Polytechnioupolis, Chania, Crete (Greece); Gidarakos, E. [Laboratory of Toxic and Hazardous Waste Management, Department of Environmental Engineers, Technical University of Crete, GR-73100 Polytechnioupolis, Chania, Crete (Greece)], E-mail: gidarako@mred.tuc.gr

2007-07-01

426

Creation and application of a universal hazardous waste processing and incinerator feeding system  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the more serious problems, both technically and image-related, for organization that incinerate mixed hazardous wastes is the processing and blending of these wastes in a safe and environmentally desirable manner. This paper documents efforts to address this problem through the development of a universal hazardous waste processing and incinerator feeding system. For safety, environmental and efficiency reasons, the

L Scott Cohen

1994-01-01

427

APPLICATION OF CONCENTRATED SOLAR RADIATION TO HIGH TEMPERATURE DETOXIFICATION AND RECYCLING PROCESSES OF HAZARDOUS WASTES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many cases, hazardous wastes are subject to thermal treatment at elevated temperatures. Some types of wastes do not have a sufficient calorific value to cover the heat demand of the high temperature process. For thermal treatment of e.g. filter residues, dusts, sulfuric acid, aluminium dross, foundry sand, or waste water, supplementary energy supply is needed. The specific energy demand

Karl-Heinz Funken; Bettina Pohlmann; Eckhard Lüpfert; Rainer Dominik

1999-01-01

428

Application of geochemical models to high-level nuclear waste repository assessment: conference proceedings  

SciTech Connect

A conference on the application of geochemical models in the assessment of high-level nuclear waste repositories was held to discuss the current status of geochemical code development, thermodynamic data bases, reaction kinetics, and coupled-process models as applied to site characterization and performance assessment activities. These proceedings include extended abstracts of the technical presentations given at the conference, a discussion of the role of geochemical modeling in predicting the performance of repositories, and a set of recommendations that identify the key developments needed in order for geochemical models to become more applicable for quantitative evaluations of repositories. Detailed recommendations relevant to the following subjects are discussed: (1) improved simulation of repository performance through inclusion of additional important geochemical processes and parameters into current geochemical models, (2) more careful attention to uncertainties associated with geochemical model calculations, (3) assigning priorities to (through sensitivity studies and critical evaluations) and then improving and/or obtaining important thermodynamic data, and (4) addressing the importance of kinetics in simulating repository behavior.

Jacobs, G.K.; Whatley, S.K. (eds.)

1985-04-01

429

HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT REFERENCE  

E-print Network

Cathode Ray Tubes and Consumer Electronic Devices 20 Lamps 21 #12;Hazardous Waste Management Reference Guide Page 3 of 36 CHAPTER FIVE ­ WASTE MINIMIZATION 22 SUBSTITUTION 22 RECYCLING AND REDISTRIBUTION 22HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT REFERENCE GUIDE Prepared by Environment, Health and Safety Office

Faraon, Andrei

430

Application of the risk-based strategy to the Hanford tank waste organic-nitrate safety issue  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results from application of the Risk-Based Decision Management Approach for Justifying Characterization of Hanford Tank Waste to the organic-nitrate safety issue in Hanford single-shell tanks (SSTs). Existing chemical and physical models were used, taking advantage of the most current (mid-1997) sampling and analysis data. The purpose of this study is to make specific recommendations for planning characterization to help ensure the safety of each SST as it relates to the organic-nitrate safety issue. An additional objective is to demonstrate the viability of the Risk-Based Strategy for addressing Hanford tank waste safety issues.

Hunter, V.L.; Colson, S.D.; Ferryman, T.; Gephart, R.E.; Heasler, P.; Scheele, R.D.

1997-12-01

431

Minimal Hearing Loss Is Not Minimal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the needs of students with minimal hearing loss (MHL) and offers practical suggestions to teachers. It considers legal requirements, reasons for under identification of children with MHL, signs of MHL, effects of MHL, classroom factors affecting MHL, minimizing background noise and improving listening conditions, and…

Kaderavek, Joan N.; Pakulski, Lori A.

2002-01-01

432

Assessment of TEES{reg_sign} applications for Wet Industrial Wastes: Energy benefit and economic analysis report  

SciTech Connect

Fundamental work is catalyzed biomass pyrolysis/gasification led to the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg_sign}) concept, a means of converting moist biomass feedstocks to high-value fuel gases such as methane. A low-temperature (350{degrees}C), pressurized (3100 psig) reaction environment and a nickel catalyst are used to reduce volumes of very high-moisture wastes such as food processing byproducts while producing useful quantities of energy. A study was conducted to assess the economic viability of a range of potential applications of the process. Cases examined included feedstocks of cheese whey, grape pomace, spent grain, and an organic chemical waste stream. The analysis indicated that only the organic chemical waste process is economically attractive in the existing energy/economic environment. However, food processing cases will become attractive as alternative disposal practices are curtailed and energy prices rise.

Elliott, D.C.; Scheer, T.H.

1992-02-01

433

77 FR 62537 - Notice of Waste Management Permit Application Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Designated pollutants that would be associated with the expedition are white gas for cooking, kitchen waste, solid waste, trash, batteries, and human waste (urine and human solid waste). All waste will be stored in plastic barrels and returned...

2012-10-15

434

Improvement of chemical and biological characteristics of gossan mine wastes following application of amendments and growth of Cistus ladanifer L.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cistus ladanifer is considered a good option for phytostabilization of mine wastes, composed of several materials, but its growth is very slow due to substrata conditions (acidic pH, low fertility and water availability, high total concentrations of hazardous elements). To enhance the growth of C. ladanifer with application of organic/inorganic amendments can be a strategy to speed up remediation. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of different rates of amendments and C. ladanifer growth on the improvement of chemical and biological characteristics of gossan wastes. Composite samples of mining wastes (gossan+host rocks) were collected at the São Domingos mine. Amendments used were mixtures (30, 75, 150 Mg/ha) of rockwool, agriculture wastes and wastes from liquor distillation obtained from fruits of Arbutus unedo. Four treatments (n=6 replicates) were carried out (control and three amended treatments) under controlled conditions in a greenhouse. After one month of incubation at 70% of water holding capacity, C. ladanifer was sown in half of the pots from each treatment (n=3), and the other three pots remained in the same conditions without plant. Chemical and biological characteristics of the wastes (with/without plants) were analysed after incubation and fifteen months. Gossan wastes had great total concentrations of several elements (g/kg; Al: 24.8, As: 3.03, Cu: 0.23, Pb; 9.21) whereas in an extracting solution (diluted solution of organic acids) these were small (0.5 units), fertility (Corganic, Pextractable, Ntotal) and dehydrogenase activity of mine wastes, principally with the rate of 150 Mg/ha, even after one month of incubation and after the plants be sown. In both sampling periods (beginning/end of the experiment), Kextractable concentrations increased only with the high application rates (control and 30 Mg/ha treatment: 1.02-1.88 mg/kg; other amended treatments: 2.13-3.55 mg/kg). At the end of the experiment, the presence of the plant increased Corganic and Pextractable concentrations, compared to treatments without plants, reaching the highest values in the treatments combining amendments and plants. After one month of incubation, the dehydrogenase activities in wastes were more than twice in the amended treatments (1.71-33.55 ?g TPF g sample 16h-1, depending on amendments application rate and sampling period). Nevertheless, wastes from treatments with plants had higher dehydrogenase activities (9.66-33.55 ?g TPF g sample 16h-1, depending on amendments application rate) than in treatments using only amendments (4.98-22.30 ?g TPF g sample 16h-1), but both were higher than control. The plants in control presented lower fresh biomass than in amended treatments. Plants growth in control was not sufficient to enhance dehydrogenase activity of mine wastes (1.51 and 1.72 ?g TPF g sample 16h-1, with/without plants, respectively). The extractable nutrients (Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Zn) increased with amendment application, an advantage for remediation purposes. Although extractable Al, As, Na also increased in the same treatments, they remained small. In contrast, extractable Cu and Pb were, generally, lower in amended treatments than in control. The presence of the plant did not increase the concentration of elemental in the extractant solution.

Santos, Erika; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Macías, Felipe; de Varennes, Amarilis

2013-04-01

435

An LCA model for waste incineration enhanced with new technologies for metal recovery and application to the case of Switzerland.  

PubMed

A process model of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) and new technologies for metal recovery from combustion residues was developed. The environmental impact is modeled as a function of waste composition as well as waste treatment and material recovery technologies. The model includes combustion with a grate incinerator, several flue gas treatment technologies, electricity and steam production from waste heat recovery, metal recovery from slag and fly ash, and landfilling of residues and can be tailored to specific plants and sites (software tools can be downloaded free of charge). Application of the model to Switzerland shows that the treatment of one tonne of municipal solid waste results on average in 425 kg CO2-eq. generated in the incineration process, and 54 kg CO2-eq. accrue in upstream processes such as waste transport and the production of operating materials. Downstream processes, i.e. residue disposal, generates 5 kg CO2-eq. Savings from energy recovery are in the range of 67 to 752 kg CO2-eq. depending on the assumptions regarding the substituted energy production, while the recovery of metals from slag and fly ash currently results in a net saving of approximately 35 kg CO2-eq. A similar impact pattern is observed when assessing the MSWI model for aggregated environmental impacts (ReCiPe) and for non-renewable resource consumption (cumulative exergy demand), except that direct emissions have less and no relevance, respectively, on the total score. The study illustrates that MSWI plants can be an important element of industrial ecology as they provide waste disposal services and can help to close material and energetic cycles. PMID:24315553

Boesch, Michael E; Vadenbo, Carl; Saner, Dominik; Huter, Christoph; Hellweg, Stefanie

2014-02-01

436

Hanford tank waste simulants specification and their applicability for the retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification processes  

SciTech Connect

A wide variety of waste simulants were developed over the past few years to test various retrieval, pretreatment and waste immobilization technologies and unit operations. Experiments can be performed cost-effectively using non-radioactive waste simulants in open laboratories. This document reviews the composition of many previously used waste simulants for remediation of tank wastes at the Hanford reservation. In this review, the simulants used in testing for the retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification processes are compiled, and the representative chemical and physical characteristics of each simulant are specified. The retrieval and transport simulants may be useful for testing in-plant fluidic devices and in some cases for filtration technologies. The pretreatment simulants will be useful for filtration, Sr/TRU removal, and ion exchange testing. The vitrification simulants will be useful for testing melter, melter feed preparation technologies, and for waste form evaluations.

GR Golcar; NG Colton; JG Darab; HD Smith

2000-04-04

437

Aerobic biodegradation kinetics of solid organic wastes on earth and for applications in space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerobic biodegradation plays an important role in recycling organic matter and nutrients on earth. It is also a candidate technology for waste processing and resource recovery in Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems, such as a proposed planetary base on Mars. Important questions are how long should wastes be treated, and what is the quality (stability/maturity) of the product. To address these questions two aerobic composting systems were evaluated. One treated (252 days) horse manure and cranberry fruit in duplicate open windrows (HCC) as a reference earth application. The other was a pilot-scale (330 L) enclosed, in-vessel system treating (162 days) inedible biomass collected from plant growth systems at NASA, amended with food and human wastes simulant for potential space application (ALSC). Samples were taken from both systems over time and product quality assessed with a range of physical, chemical, biological, toxicological, respirometry and plant growth analyses that were developed and standardized. Because plant growth analyses take so long, a hypothesis was that some parameters could be used to predict compost quality and suitability for growing plants. Maximum temperatures in the thermophilic range were maintained for both systems (HCC > 60°C for >129 days, ALSC > 55°C for >40 days. Fecal streptococci were reduced by 4.8 log-units for HCC and 7.8 for ALSC. Volume/mass reductions achieved were 63%/62% for HCC and 79%/67% for ALSC. Phytotoxicity tests performed on aqueous extracts to recover plant nutrients found decreasing sensitivity: arabidopsis > lettuce > tomato > wheat > cucumber, corresponding with seed size and food reserve capacity. The germination index (GI) of HCC increased over composting time indicating decreasing phytotoxicity. However, GIs for ALSC leachate decreased or fluctuated over composting time. Selected samples of HCC at 31, 157 and 252 days alone and combined with promix (1:1), and of ALSC at 7, 14, 21, 28, 40 and 84 days, or fresh (FL) or dried and leached (DL), alone and combined with promix or "Martian" regolith simulant (1:1) were assessed as plant growth media. For HCC, plants were tallest and heaviest HCC-252 > HCC-157 > HCC-31 days for HCC and FL-ALSC:promix > DL-ALSC > ALSC:regolith > ALSC:promix > ALSC. Whereas phytotoxicity decreased for HCC over composting time, for ALSC it increased. A hypothesis that increasingly high free ammonia concentration in ALSC may have been the cause of toxicity was confirmed on promix adjusted to different NH4+-N concentrations and pHs. Very good, consistent correlations for selected HCC parameters with plant growth were found. However, poor and inconsistent correlations were found for ALSC due to ammonia toxicity. Maximum oxygen uptake rate (new parameter) and GI are recommended as the best indicators of compost stability/maturity and suitability for plant growth.

Ramirez Perez, Javier Christian

438

Application of gamma-ray active and passive computed tomography to nondestructively assay TRU waste  

SciTech Connect

The authors have developed an active and passive computed tomography scanner for assaying radioactive waste drums. They describe the hardware and software components of the system used for data acquisition, gamma-ray spectroscopy analysis, and image reconstruction. They have measured the performance of the system using mock waste drums and calibrated radioactive sources. They describe the results of measurements using this system to assay a real TRU waste drum with relatively low Pu content.

Martz, H.E.; Decman, D.J.; Roberson, G.P.; Johansson, E.M.; Keto, E.R.

1996-05-01

439

Application of staged combustion and reburning to the co-firing of nitrogen-containing wastes  

SciTech Connect

The paper gives results of an evaluation of a 0.6 MW precombustion chamber burner, designed for in-furnace NOx control, high combustion efficiency, and retrofit applications, for use with high nitrogen content fuel/waste mixtures. The 250- to 750-ms residence time precombustion chamber burner mounted on a prototype watertube package boiler simulator used air staging and in-furnace natural gas reburning to control NOx emissions. The paper reports results of research in which the low NOx precombustor was used to examine the co-firing characteristics of a nitrogenated pesticide, containing dinoseb (2-sec-butyl-4,6 dinitrophenol) in a fuel-oil/xylene solvent. The dinoseb formulation as fired contained 6.4% nitrogen. NO emissions without in-furnace NOx control exceeded 4400 ppm (at 0% O2). When NOx controls in the form of air staging and natural gas reburning were used, these emissions were reduced to < 150 ppm (96% reduction). Average CO and total hydrocarbon emissions were typically < 15 and 2 ppm, respectively. No dinoseb was detected in any emission sample, and the destruction efficiency was determined to be > 99.99%. Mutagenicity studies of the dinoseb emissions showed that reburning (used for NOx control) reduced the mutagenic emission factor about 60-70% from that with air staging alone.

Linak, W.P.; Mulholland, J.A.; McSorley, J.A.; Hall, R.E.; Srivastava, R.K.

1991-01-01

440

Application of rock melting to construction of storage holes for nuclear waste  

SciTech Connect

Rock melting technology can provide in-situ glass liners in nuclear waste package emplacement holes to reduce permeability and increase borehole stability. Reduction of permeability would reduce the time and probability of groundwater contacting the waste packages. Increasing the stability of the storage boreholes would enhance the retrievability of the nuclear waste packages. The rock melting hole forming technology has already been tested in volcanic tuff similar to the geology at the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Neudecker, J.W. Jr.

1988-12-31

441

The Application of DCS to Waste Heat Power Generation of Cement Factory  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the production process and the control requirement of pure low temperature waste heat power generation plant, we design a set of distributed control system in waste heat power generation plant. The whole structure, task assignment and important control loop are analyzed. The system is composed of a supervisory and control layer and a process control layer. The DCS

Jingjian Wu; Qingjin Meng; Baoling Xing; Shaoyun Wang

2008-01-01

442

Method for the recovery of actinide elements from nuclear reactor waste. [Patent application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is disclosed for partitioning and recovering actinide values from acidic waste solutions resulting from reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuels by adding hydroxylammonium nitrate and hydrazine to the waste solution to adjust the valence of the neptunium and plutonium values in the solution to the +4 oxidation state, thus forming a feed solution and contacting the feed solution with

E. P. Horwitz; W. H. Delphin; G. W. Mason

1977-01-01

443

APPLICATION OF A SIMPLE SHORT-TERM BIOASSAY FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF GENOTOXINS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The proper disposal of hazardous wastes currently generated and clean up of waste disposal sites of the past are challenges facing regulatory agencies in the industrialized nations. he estimation of levels of toxicity is an essential step in prioritizing industrial effluents and ...

444

A Decision Support Tool for Regional Biomass Waste Management and its Application in Regional Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass waste from organic municipal solid waste and food manufacturing can be used as a source of renewable energy via incineration, gasification or anaerobic digestion. Alternatively, after composting type processing it can be returned to improve the nutrient and drainage structure of agricultural soils, thereby reducing the demand for phosphate rock based fertilizers and their associated highly toxic contaminants particularly

Napat Jakrawatana; Australia Iain MacGill; Australia Stephen Moore; Stephen Moore

445

Aerobic biodegradation kinetics of solid organic wastes on earth and for applications in space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerobic biodegradation plays an important role in recycling organic matter and nutrients on earth. It is also a candidate technology for waste processing and resource recovery in Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems, such as a proposed planetary base on Mars. Important questions are how long should wastes be treated, and what is the quality (stability\\/maturity) of the product. To address

Javier Christian Ramirez Perez

2005-01-01

446

Bathymetry mapping using a GPS-sonar equipped remote control boat: Application in waste stabilisation ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, bathymetry mapping of ponds, lakes and rivers have used techniques which are low in spatial resolution, sometimes subjective in terms of precision and accuracy, labour intensive, and that require a high level of safety precautions. In waste stabilisation ponds (WSP) in particular, sludge heights, and thus sludge volume, are commonly measured using a sludge judge (a clear plastic pipe with length markings). A remote control boat fitted with a GPS-equipped sonar unit can improve the resolution of depth measurements, and reduce safety and labour requirements. Sonar devices equipped with GPS technology, also known as fish finders, are readily available and widely used by people in boating. Through the use of GPS technology in conjunction with sonar, the location and depth can be recorded electronically onto a memory card. However, despite its high applicability to the field, this technology has so far been underutilised. In the case of WSP, the sonar can measure the water depth to the top of the sludge layer, which can then be used to develop contour maps of sludge distribution and to determine sludge volume. The coupling of sonar technology with a remotely operative vehicle has several advantages of traditional measurement techniques, particularly in removing human subjectivity of readings, and the sonar being able to collect more data points in a shorter period of time, and continuously, with a much higher spatial resolution. The GPS-sonar equipped remote control boat has been tested on in excess of 50 WSP within Western Australia, and has shown a very strong correlation (R2 = 0.98) between spot readings taken with the sonar compared to a sludge judge. This has shown that the remote control boat with GPS-sonar device is capable of providing sludge bathymetry with greatly increased spatial resolution, while greatly reducing profiling time. Remotely operated vehicles, such as the one built in this study, are useful for not only determining sludge distribution, but also in calculating sludge accumulation rates, and in evaluating pond hydraulic efficiency (e.g., as input bathymetry for computational fluid dynamics models). This technology is not limited to application for wastewater management, and could potentially have a wider application in the monitoring of other small to medium water bodies, including reservoirs, channels, recreational water bodies, river beds, mine tailings dams and commercial ports.

Coggins, Liah; Ghadouani, Anas; Ghisalberti, Marco

2014-05-01

447

Steel slag: a waste industrial by-product as an alternative sustainable green building material in construction applications--an attempt for solid waste management.  

PubMed

This investigation explores the possibility of utilizing granular slag as an alternative to fine aggregate (natural sand) in construction applications like masonry and plastering. Construction industry utilizes large volume of fine aggregate in all the applications which has resulted into shortage of good quality naturally available fine aggregate. Use of granular slag serves two fold purposes, i.e. waste utilisation as well as alternative eco-friendly green building material for construction. The investigation highlights comparative study of properties with partial and full replacement of fine aggregate (natural sand) by granular slag in cement mortar applications (masonry and plastering). For this purpose, cement mortar mix proportions from 1:3, 1:4, 1:5 & 1:6 by volume were selected for 0, 25, 50, 75 & 100% replacement levels with w/c ratios of 0.60, 0.65, 0.70 & 0.72 respectively. Based on the study results, it could be inferred that replacement of natural sand with granular slag from 25 to 75% increased the packing density of mortar which resulted into reduced w/c ratio, increased strength properties of all mortar mixes. Hence, it could be recommended that the granular slag could be effectively utilized as fine aggregate in masonry and plastering applications in place of conventional cement mortar mixes using natural sand. PMID:23741870

Pofale, Arun D; Nadeem, Mohammed

2012-01-01

448

Application of reutilization technology to waste from liquid crystal display (LCD) industry.  

PubMed

This investigation studies the recycling utility of two major waste products from the liquid crystal display (LCD) industry, panel glass and calcium fluoride sludge, which remain after the treatment of waste water. Waste panel glass was mixed with calcium fluoride sludge in various ratios and then subject to conditioning and melting treatment in order to yield glass-ceramics. Heavy metal leaching tests indicated that reductive conditions lowered the heavy metal concentrations in the leachate to an order of magnitude below that in the waste glass and sludge. A 5:5 (wt%) mixture of glass and sludge melted at 1200 degrees C for 60 min achieves a specific gravity, water absorption, unit mass, porosity ratio, and soundness that meet the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard for fine aggregates. Therefore, waste panel glass can indeed be efficiently recycled into a useful construction material. PMID:20390905

Liu, Wei T; Li, Kung C

2010-01-01

449

Selenium Waste  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides general information about selenium including its occurrence, industrial applications, toxicology, and regulations and practices regarding industrial waste disposal. The site also features links to more detailed information about each of these topics.

2007-01-26

450

Electron beam-induced immobilization of laccase on porous supports for waste water treatment applications.  

PubMed

The versatile oxidase enzyme laccase was immobilized on porous supports such as polymer membranes and cryogels with a view of using such biocatalysts in bioreactors aiming at the degradation of environmental pollutants in wastewater. Besides a large surface area for supporting the biocatalyst, the aforementioned porous systems also offer the possibility for simultaneous filtration applications in wastewater treatment. Herein a "green" water-based, initiator-free, and straightforward route to highly reactive membrane and cryogel-based bioreactors is presented, where laccase was immobilized onto the porous polymer supports using a water-based electron beam-initiated grafting reaction. In a second approach, the laccase redox mediators 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and syringaldehyde were cross-linked instead of the enzyme via electron irradiation in a frozen aqueous poly(acrylate) mixture in a one pot set-up, yielding a mechanical stable macroporous cryogel with interconnected pores ranging from 10 to 50 µm in size. The membranes as well as the cryogels were characterized regarding their morphology, chemical composition, and catalytic activity. The reactivity towards waste- water pollutants was demonstrated by the degradation of the model compound bisphenol A (BPA). Both membrane- and cryogel-immobilized laccase remained highly active after electron beam irradiation. Apparent specific BPA removal rates were higher for cryogel- than for membrane-immobilized and free laccase, whereas membrane-immobilized laccase was more stable with respect to maintenance of enzymatic activity and prevention of enzyme leakage from the carrier than cryogel-immobilized laccase. Cryogel-immobilized redox mediators remained functional in accelerating the laccase-catalyzed BPA degradation, and especially ABTS was found to act more efficiently in immobilized than in freely dissolved state. PMID:25111026

Jahangiri, Elham; Reichelt, Senta; Thomas, Isabell; Hausmann, Kristin; Schlosser, Dietmar; Schulze, Agnes

2014-01-01

451

A review on applicability of naturally available adsorbents for the removal of hazardous dyes from aqueous waste.  

PubMed

The effluent water of many industries, such as textiles, leather, paper, printing, cosmetics, etc., contains large amount of hazardous dyes. There is huge number of treatment processes as well as adsorbent which are available for the processing of this effluent water-containing dye content. The applicability of naturally available low cast and eco-friendly adsorbents, for the removal of hazardous dyes from aqueous waste by adsorption treatment, has been reviewed. In this review paper, we have provided a compiled list of low-cost, easily available, safe to handle, and easy-to-dispose-off adsorbents. These adsorbents have been classified into five different categories on the basis of their state of availability: (1) waste materials from agriculture and industry, (2) fruit waste, (3) plant waste, (4) natural inorganic materials, and (5) bioadsorbents. Some of the treated adsorbents have shown good adsorption capacities for methylene blue, congo red, crystal violet, rhodamine B, basic red, etc., but this adsorption process is highly pH dependent, and the pH of the medium plays an important role in the treatment process. Thus, in this review paper, we have made some efforts to discuss the role of pH in the treatment of wastewater. PMID:21387170

Sharma, Pankaj; Kaur, Harleen; Sharma, Monika; Sahore, Vishal

2011-12-01