Note: This page contains sample records for the topic waste minimization applications from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Waste minimization handbook, Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This technical guide presents various methods used by industry to minimize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated during decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities. Such activities generate significant amounts of LLW during their operations. Waste minimization refers to any measure, procedure, or technique that reduces the amount of waste generated during a specific operation or project. Preventive waste minimization techniques implemented when a project is initiated can significantly reduce waste. Techniques implemented during decontamination activities reduce the cost of decommissioning. The application of waste minimization techniques is not limited to D and D activities; it is also useful during any phase of a facility`s life cycle. This compendium will be supplemented with a second volume of abstracts of hundreds of papers related to minimizing low-level nuclear waste. This second volume is expected to be released in late 1996.

Boing, L.E.; Coffey, M.J.

1995-12-01

2

WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR NON-AGRICULTURAL PESTICIDE APPLICATORS: EPA'S POLLUTION PREVENTION GUIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development is preparing a guide to be published later this year for non-agricultural pesticide applicators which will provide specific information about waste minimization for pesticide users in industries such as commercial lawn care, structura...

3

Hazardous waste minimization handbook  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designed to assist industrial engineers and managers in making changes in purchasing, manufacturing, and waste handling practices to reduce the costs and liabilities of waste disposal, this book begins by defining waste minimization in the first two chapters. Chapters 3 through 7 describe specific waste reduction techniques applied by a number of industries. The chapters in this section rather than

Higgins

1989-01-01

4

Legal incentives for minimizing waste  

SciTech Connect

Waste minimization, or pollution prevention, has become an integral component of federal and state environmental regulation. Minimizing waste offers many economic and public relations benefits. In addition, waste minimization efforts can also dramatically reduce potential criminal requirements. This paper addresses the legal incentives for minimizing waste under current and proposed environmental laws and regulations.

Clearwater, S.W.; Scanlon, J.M. (Winston and Strawn, Washington, DC (United States))

1991-08-01

5

Guidelines for mixed waste minimization  

SciTech Connect

Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization.

Owens, C.

1992-02-01

6

Development and test case application of a waste minimization project evaluation method  

SciTech Connect

The authors have developed and applied a methodology to evaluate and prioritize proposed waste minimization activities affecting Department of Energy (DOE) programs. The approach provides a systematic and defensible method for selecting a set of waste minimization proposals that maximizes the benefits to DOE while maintaining costs within a specified budget. The report discusses the development of a structured set of evaluation criteria to characterize waste minimization issues; techniques for documenting the anticipated and potential costs, risks, and benefits of waste minimization proposals; and a method of translating disparate data into a figure of merit for each proposal. A test case demonstration of this prioritization approach was applied to proposals currently being considered at two DOE weapons production facilities. Recommendations are provided for combining this approach with the existing DOE proposal selection process. 9 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Kjeldgaard, E.A. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Saloio, J.H.; Varnado, G.B. (ERC Environmental and Energy Services Co., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1990-08-01

7

Transuranic waste minimization and avoidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the effectiveness of existing, planned and proposed waste avoidance and minimization projects in reducing the amount of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Transuranic (TRU) waste requiring disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The majority of the TRU wastes generated at LANL are associated with the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program, the Milliwatt Heat Source Program,

R. L. Dodge; A. J. Montoya

2001-01-01

8

WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT MANUAL  

EPA Science Inventory

Waste minimization (WM) is a policy specifically mandated by the U.S. Congress in the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Wastes Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The RCRA regulations require that generators of hazardous waste have a program in place to reduce...

9

LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

This document is the February 14, 1990 version of the LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan (WMPP). The Waste Minimization Policy field has undergone continuous changes since its formal inception in the 1984 HSWA legislation. The first LLNL WMPP, Revision A, is dated March 1985. A series of informal revision were made on approximately a semi-annual basis. This Revision 2 is the third formal issuance of the WMPP document. EPA has issued a proposed new policy statement on source reduction and recycling. This policy reflects a preventative strategy to reduce or eliminate the generation of environmentally-harmful pollutants which may be released to the air, land surface, water, or ground water. In accordance with this new policy new guidance to hazardous waste generators on the elements of a Waste Minimization Program was issued. In response to these policies, DOE has revised and issued implementation guidance for DOE Order 5400.1, Waste Minimization Plan and Waste Reduction reporting of DOE Hazardous, Radioactive, and Radioactive Mixed Wastes, final draft January 1990. This WMPP is formatted to meet the current DOE guidance outlines. The current WMPP will be revised to reflect all of these proposed changes when guidelines are established. Updates, changes and revisions to the overall LLNL WMPP will be made as appropriate to reflect ever-changing regulatory requirements. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Not Available

1990-02-14

10

National Institutes of Health: Mixed waste minimization and treatment  

SciTech Connect

The Appalachian States Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission requested the US Department of Energy`s National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) to assist the biomedical community in becoming more knowledgeable about its mixed waste streams, to help minimize the mixed waste stream generated by the biomedical community, and to identify applicable treatment technologies for these mixed waste streams. As the first step in the waste minimization process, liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste (LLMW) streams generated at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) were characterized and combined into similar process categories. This report identifies possible waste minimization and treatment approaches for the LLMW generated by the biomedical community identified in DOE/LLW-208. In development of the report, on site meetings were conducted with NIH personnel responsible for generating each category of waste identified as lacking disposal options. Based on the meetings and general waste minimization guidelines, potential waste minimization options were identified.

NONE

1995-08-01

11

Plastic wastes and the potential for waste minimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines plastic waste minimization from an economic perspective and addresses several issues: the definition and measurement of plastic waste minimization, projections of quantities and sources of future plastic wastes, the role of government in promoting plastic waste minimization. For the purposes of this paper, plastic waste minimization is defined as any activity at the manufacturing level that (1)

Curlee

1990-01-01

12

The OTD Robotics Waste Minimization Program  

SciTech Connect

The danger to human health and safety posed by exposure to transuranic (TRU) and Pu contaminated materials necessitates remote processing in confined environments. Currently these operations are carried out in gloveboxes and hot-cells by human operators using lead- lined gloves or teleoperated manipulators. Protective clothing worn by operators during gloved operations has contributed significantly to the waste problems currently facing site remediators. The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER/WM) Program is in the process of developing and demonstrating technologies to assist in the remediation of sites that have accumulated wastes generated using these processes over the past five decades. Recognizing that continued use of existing production, recovery and waste treatment systems will compound the remediation problem, DOE has made a commitment to waste minimization. To reduce waste generation during weapons production and waste processing operations, automated processes are being developed and demonstrated for use in future DOE processing facilities as part of OTD's Robotics Technology Development Program. These technologies are currently being applied to pyrochemical processing systems to demonstrate conversion of plutonium oxide to metal. However, these technologies are expected to have applications in a variety of waste processing systems including those used to treat high-level tank wastes, buried wastes requiring remote processing, mixed wastes, and unknown hazardous materials. In addition to reducing the future waste burden of DOE, automated processes are an effective way to comply with existing and anticipated federal, state, and local regulations related to personal health and safety and the health of the environment.

Couture, S.A.

1992-04-01

13

Application of molten salt oxidation for the minimization and recovery of plutonium-238 contaminated wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the technical and economic feasibility of molten salt oxidation technology as a volume reduction and recovery process for ²³⁸Pu contaminated waste. Combustible low-level waste material contaminated with ²³⁸Pu residue is destroyed by oxidation in a 900 C molten salt reaction vessel. The combustible waste is destroyed creating carbon dioxide and steam and a small amount of ash

R. Wishau; K. B. Ramsey; A. Montoya

1998-01-01

14

Annual Waste Minimization Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the waste minimization efforts undertaken by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), during CY06. This report was developed in accordance with the requirements of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Permit (No. NEV HW0021) and as clarified in a letter dated April 21, 1995, from Paul Liebendorfer of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to Donald Elle of the DOE, Nevada Operations Office. The NNSA/NSO Pollution Prevention (P2) Program establishes a process to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by the NNSA/NSO and ensures that proposed methods of treatment, storage, and/or disposal of waste minimize potential threats to human health and the environment. The following information provides an overview of the P2 Program, major P2 accomplishments during the reporting year, a comparison of the current year waste generation to prior years, and a description of efforts undertaken during the year to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by the NNSA/NSO.

Alfred J. Karns

2007-01-01

15

Application of molten salt oxidation for the minimization and recovery of plutonium-238 contaminated wastes  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the technical and economic feasibility of molten salt oxidation technology as a volume reduction and recovery process for {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste. Combustible low-level waste material contaminated with {sup 238}Pu residue is destroyed by oxidation in a 900 C molten salt reaction vessel. The combustible waste is destroyed creating carbon dioxide and steam and a small amount of ash and insoluble {sup 2328}Pu in the spent salt. The valuable {sup 238}Pu is recycled using aqueous recovery techniques. Experimental test results for this technology indicate a plutonium recovery efficiency of 99%. Molten salt oxidation stabilizes the waste converting it to a non-combustible waste. Thus installation and use of molten salt oxidation technology will substantially reduce the volume of {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste. Cost-effectiveness evaluations of molten salt oxidation indicate a significant cost savings when compared to the present plans to package, or re-package, certify and transport these wastes to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for permanent disposal. Clear and distinct cost advantages exist for MSO when the monetary value of the recovered {sup 238}Pu is considered.

Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.

1998-12-31

16

Application of molten salt oxidation for the minimization and recovery of plutonium-238 contaminated wastes  

SciTech Connect

Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is proposed as a {sup 238}Pu waste treatment technology that should be developed for volume reduction and recovery of {sup 238}Pu and as an alternative to the transport and permanent disposal of {sup 238}Pu waste to the WIPP repository. In MSO technology, molten sodium carbonate salt at 800--900 C in a reaction vessel acts as a reaction media for wastes. The waste material is destroyed when injected into the molten salt, creating harmless carbon dioxide and steam and a small amount of ash in the spent salt. The spent salt can be treated using aqueous separation methods to reuse the salt and to recover 99.9% of the precious {sup 238}Pu that was in the waste. Tests of MSO technology have shown that the volume of combustible TRU waste can be reduced by a factor of at least twenty. Using this factor the present inventory of 574 TRU drums of {sup 238}Pu contaminated wastes is reduced to 30 drums. Further {sup 238}Pu waste costs of $22 million are avoided from not having to repackage 312 of the 574 drums to a drum total of more than 4,600 drums. MSO combined with aqueous processing of salts will recover approximately 1.7 kilograms of precious {sup 238}Pu valued at 4 million dollars (at $2,500/gram). Thus, installation and use of MSO technology at LANL will result in significant cost savings compared to present plans to transport and dispose {sup 238}Pu TRU waste to the WIPP site. Using a total net present value cost for the MSO project as $4.09 million over a five-year lifetime, the project can pay for itself after either recovery of 1.6 kg of Pu or through volume reduction of 818 drums or a combination of the two. These savings show a positive return on investment.

Wishau, R.

1998-05-01

17

Tracking System for Hazardous Waste Minimization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A successful waste minimization program must include the development of a reliable system for tracking waste types, volumes, and generation points. Once such a system is in place, process engineers should be capable of developing minimization alternatives...

L. E. Martino S. Y. Chiu R. W. Peters C. A. Wentz L. J. Habegger

1988-01-01

18

Mixed waste and waste minimization: The effect of regulations and waste minimization on the laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site is located in the State of Washington and is subject to state and federal environmental regulations that hamper waste minimization efforts. This paper addresses the negative effect of these regulations on waste minimization and mixed waste issues related to the Hanford Site. Also, issues are addressed concerning the regulations becoming more lenient. In addition to field operations, the Hanford Site is home to the Pacific Northwest Laboratory which has many ongoing waste minimization activities of particular interest to laboratories.

Dagan, E.B. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Selby, K.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-08-01

19

The OTD Robotics Waste Minimization Program  

SciTech Connect

The danger to human health and safety posed by exposure to transuranic (TRU) and Pu contaminated materials necessitates remote processing in confined environments. Currently these operations are carried out in gloveboxes and hot-cells by human operators using lead- lined gloves or teleoperated manipulators. Protective clothing worn by operators during gloved operations has contributed significantly to the waste problems currently facing site remediators. The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER/WM) Program is in the process of developing and demonstrating technologies to assist in the remediation of sites that have accumulated wastes generated using these processes over the past five decades. Recognizing that continued use of existing production, recovery and waste treatment systems will compound the remediation problem, DOE has made a commitment to waste minimization. To reduce waste generation during weapons production and waste processing operations, automated processes are being developed and demonstrated for use in future DOE processing facilities as part of OTD`s Robotics Technology Development Program. These technologies are currently being applied to pyrochemical processing systems to demonstrate conversion of plutonium oxide to metal. However, these technologies are expected to have applications in a variety of waste processing systems including those used to treat high-level tank wastes, buried wastes requiring remote processing, mixed wastes, and unknown hazardous materials. In addition to reducing the future waste burden of DOE, automated processes are an effective way to comply with existing and anticipated federal, state, and local regulations related to personal health and safety and the health of the environment.

Couture, S.A.

1992-04-01

20

Waste Minimization Measurement and Progress Reporting  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse Savannah River Company is implementing productivity improvement concepts into the Waste Minimization Program by focusing on the positive initiatives taken to reduce waste generation at the Savannah River Site. Previous performance measures, based only on waste generation rates, proved to be an ineffective metric for measuring performance and promoting continuous improvements within the Program. Impacts of mission changes and non-routine operations impeded development of baseline waste generation rates and often negated waste generation trending reports. A system was developed to quantify, document and track innovative activities that impact waste volume and radioactivity/toxicity reductions. This system coupled with Management-driven waste disposal avoidance goals is proving to be a powerful tool to promote waste minimization awareness and the implementation of waste reduction initiatives. Measurement of waste not generated, in addition to waste generated, increases the credibility of the Waste Minimization Program, improves sharing of success stories, and supports development of regulatory and management reports

Stone, K.A.

1995-02-13

21

APPLICATIONS OF SUPERCRITICAL FLUID TECHNOLOGY TO POLLUTION PREVENTION AND WASTE MINIMIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The applications of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to environmental problems can yield significant benefits because of the solvent properties and low toxicity of the available solvents, e.g., carbon dioxide. his paper will discuss a new federal EPA program to investigate us...

22

Waste minimization in the oil and gas industries  

SciTech Connect

Recent legislative actions place an emphasis on waste minimization as opposed to traditional end-of-pipe waste management. This new philosophy, coupled with increasing waste disposal costs and associated liabilities, sets the stage for investigating waste minimization opportunities in all industries wastes generated by oil and gas exploration and production (E P) and refuting activities are regulated as non-hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Potential reclassification of these wastes as hazardous would make minimization of these waste streams even more desirable. Oil and gas E P activities generate a wide variety of wastes, although the bulk of the wastes (98%) consists of a single waste stream: produced water. Opportunities to minimize E P wastes through point source reduction activities are limited by the extractive nature of the industry. Significant waste minimization is possible, however, through recycling. Recycling activities include underground injection of produced water, use of closed-loop drilling systems, reuse of produced water and drilling fluids in other oilfield activities, use of solid debris as construction fill, use of oily wastes as substitutes for road mix and asphalt, landspreading of produced sand for soil enhancement, and roadspreading of suitable aqueous wastes for dust suppression or deicing. Like the E P wastes, wastes generated by oil and gas treatment and refining activities cannot be reduced substantially at the point source but can be reduced through recycling. For the most part, extensive recycling and reprocessing of many waste streams already occurs at most petroleum refineries. A variety of innovative waste treatment activities have been developed to minimize the toxicity or volume of oily wastes generated by both E P and refining activities. These treatments include bioremediation, oxidation, biooxidation, incineration, and separation. Application of these treatment processes is still limited.

Smith, K.P.

1992-01-01

23

Waste minimization in the oil and gas industries  

SciTech Connect

Recent legislative actions place an emphasis on waste minimization as opposed to traditional end-of-pipe waste management. This new philosophy, coupled with increasing waste disposal costs and associated liabilities, sets the stage for investigating waste minimization opportunities in all industries wastes generated by oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) and refuting activities are regulated as non-hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Potential reclassification of these wastes as hazardous would make minimization of these waste streams even more desirable. Oil and gas E&P activities generate a wide variety of wastes, although the bulk of the wastes (98%) consists of a single waste stream: produced water. Opportunities to minimize E&P wastes through point source reduction activities are limited by the extractive nature of the industry. Significant waste minimization is possible, however, through recycling. Recycling activities include underground injection of produced water, use of closed-loop drilling systems, reuse of produced water and drilling fluids in other oilfield activities, use of solid debris as construction fill, use of oily wastes as substitutes for road mix and asphalt, landspreading of produced sand for soil enhancement, and roadspreading of suitable aqueous wastes for dust suppression or deicing. Like the E&P wastes, wastes generated by oil and gas treatment and refining activities cannot be reduced substantially at the point source but can be reduced through recycling. For the most part, extensive recycling and reprocessing of many waste streams already occurs at most petroleum refineries. A variety of innovative waste treatment activities have been developed to minimize the toxicity or volume of oily wastes generated by both E&P and refining activities. These treatments include bioremediation, oxidation, biooxidation, incineration, and separation. Application of these treatment processes is still limited.

Smith, K.P.

1992-09-01

24

Department of Energy's waste minimization program  

SciTech Connect

Waste minimization, as mandated by the Congress, requires, the elimination or reduction of the generation of waste as its source, that is, before it can become waste. This audit was made to determine the adequacy of DOE's efforts to minimize the generation of waste. The audit emphasized radioactive and other hazardous waste generation at DOE's nuclear weapons production plants and design laboratories. We included waste minimization activities and actions that can be taken now, in contrast to the long-range weapons complex modernization effort. We reviewed waste minimization activities within the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Defense Programs (DP), the Hazardous Waste Remedial Action Program Office, and the Waste Minimization Management Group (WMMG) in the Albuquerque Field Office. Waste minimization programs were examined in detail at the three largest nuclear weapons production facilities -- the Rocky Flats plant, which manufactures plutonium parts; the Y-12 facility, which produces uranium components; and the Savannah River site, which manufactures and loads tritium -- and two of DOE's weapons design laboratories, Los Alamos and Sandia.

Not Available

1991-09-01

25

Industrial waste minimization--experience from Lithuania.  

PubMed

Waste represents the loss of both material and energy resources. Because excessive waste generation is a symptom of inefficient production processes, low durability of goods and unsustainable consumption patterns, waste quantities can be considered as an indicator of how efficiently society uses raw materials. Therefore, good waste management begins with preventing waste from being generated. The objective of this paper is to present the work related to waste minimization in Lithuania by introducing successful examples from industry, to bring ideas and inspiration to authorities, companies, and others working in the field of waste minimization. The paper is supporting EU waste policy manifested in the EU waste strategy and the proposed Sixth Environmental Action Programme. Many enterprises are still unaware of the full costs of waste management. Therefore, by applying the methodology presented in the paper, companies could make substantial reductions in their waste, and therefore, disposal costs. Waste minimization (WM) often results in substantial savings through reduced purchasing costs and more efficient practices. It also has wide environmental benefits such as reduced energy consumption and less environmental pollution, conservation of natural resources and extension of valuable landfill capacity. Therefore, waste prevention should have the highest priority in waste strategies, as this is the only way to stop the growth of the amount of waste and reduce the loss of resources (EUC Bulletin 12, 1996). PMID:16200978

Staniskis, Jurgis Kazimieras; Stasiskiene, Zaneta

2005-08-01

26

EPA'S (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S) WASTE MINIMIZATION RESEARCH PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

Waste minimization is viewed by the Environmental Protection Agency as a desirable and viable alternative to hazardous waste disposal. The Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Laboratory, in conjunction with the Office of Solid Waste, is developing a Waste Minimization Program fo...

27

Waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this plan is to document the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. The intent of this plan is to respond to and comply with (DOE's) policy and guidelines concerning the need for pollution prevention. The Plan is composed of a LLNL Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan and, as attachments, Program- and Department-specific waste minimization plans. This format reflects the fact that waste minimization is considered a line management responsibility and is to be addressed by each of the Programs and Departments. 14 refs.

Not Available

1991-05-31

28

EPA WASTE MINIMIZATION RESEARCH PROGRAM: AN OVERVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established a waste minimization research program within the Office of Research and Development's Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory which is the primary contact for pollution prevention research efforts concentrating on source ...

29

EXPERIENCE WITH THE EPA MANUAL FOR WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessments Manual (EPA/625/7-88/003) is designed to assist those responsible for planning, managing, and implementing waste minimization activities at the waste generating operation and at all management levels. The Manual defines waste minimizatio...

30

Waste Minimization Assessment for a Dairy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste ...

G. P. Looby F. W. Kirsch

1992-01-01

31

Hazardous waste minimization. Part VI. Waste minimization in the foundry industry  

SciTech Connect

The foundry industry is a major consumer of waste materials (scrap). Unfortunately, the recycling of these waste materials can result in the generation of hazardous wastes that must be properly managed at a significant cost. This article focuses on two waste streams in the foundry industry; calcium carbide desulfurization slag and melt emission control residuals. The author presents an overview of how foundries have evaluated different waste management options with the ultimate goal of minimizing the generation of hazardous waste.

Oman, D.E.

1988-07-01

32

Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this plan is to document the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. It is intended to satisfy Department of Energy (DOE) and other legal requirements that are discussed in Section C, below. The Pollution Prevention Awareness Program is included with the Waste Minimization Program as suggested by DOE Order 5400.1. The intent of this plan is to respond to and comply with the Department`s policy and guidelines concerning the need for pollution prevention. The Plan is composed of a LLNL Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan and, as attachments, Directorate-, Program- and Department-specific waste minimization plans. This format reflects the fact that waste minimization is considered a line management responsibility and is to be addressed by each of the Directorates, Programs and Departments. Several Directorates have been reorganized, necessitating changes in the Directorate plans that were published in 1991.

Not Available

1992-05-31

33

Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization  

SciTech Connect

This chapter offers pollution prevention techniques for design, industrial process, maintenance, and environmental remediation activities. It provides examples of waste reduction, tools for identifying pollution prevention opportunities, and ways of calculating the payback or return on investment associated with the opportunities.

Fowler, Kimberly M.; Hyman, Marvin H.

2002-06-15

34

Waste minimization by process modification  

SciTech Connect

A simulation of the Sohio process for the production of acrylonitrile from the catalytic ammoxidation of propylene has been performed, using published kinetic and thermodynamic data to illustrate the concepts of pollution prevention by process modification. The study has determined the reaction parameters which will minimize the production of by-products while maintaining the conversion of propylene above 80%. The reaction parameters studied were reactor type (plug flow reactor [PFR], continuous stirred tank reactor [CSTR], and fluidized bed reactor [FBC]), reaction temperature, residence time, and entering feed temperature. The minimum by-products were produced in an FBR operating at 450 C at a residence time of 7 seconds for a conversion of 81%.

Hopper, J.R.; Yaws, C.L.; Ho, T.C.; Vichailak, M. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States))

1993-01-01

35

Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1991-07-01

36

Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L. (Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

1991-07-01

37

Waste minimization: The ``planned-parenthood-to-grave`` philosophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until 1985, the Y-12 Plant, a DOE facility, had concentrated waste minimization efforts on select large waste streams. However, during the past seven years, Y-12 has been faced with the challenge of complying with all of these requirements as well as striving to develop and implement a comprehensive proactive program to reduce waste. Thus, the Y-12 Plant Waste Minimization Program

K. M. Cash; A. P. Ostergaard

1992-01-01

38

Waste minimization: The planned-parenthood-to-grave'' philosophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until 1985, the Y-12 Plant, a DOE facility, had concentrated waste minimization efforts on select large waste streams. However, during the past seven years, Y-12 has been faced with the challenge of complying with all of these requirements as well as striving to develop and implement a comprehensive proactive program to reduce waste. Thus, the Y-12 Plant Waste Minimization Program

K. M. Cash; A. P. Ostergaard

1992-01-01

39

County waste minimization programmes: a case study from Northamptonshire, UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The UK Sustainable Development Strategy requires that society strive to make prudent use of natural resources so as to protect the environment and maintain high and stable levels of economic growth and employment. The Waste Strategy for England and Wales emphasizes the need to reduce the amount of waste produced through the adoption of waste minimization methodology. Waste minimization clubs

Paul S. Phillips; Paul Clarkson; Julie Adams; Adam D. Read; P. Chris Coggins

2003-01-01

40

WASTE MINIMIZATION AUDIT REPORT: CASE STUDIES OF MINIMIZATION OF SOLVENT WASTE FROM PARTS CLEANING AND FROM ELECTRONIC CAPACITOR MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

To promote waste minimization activities in accordance with the national policy objectives established under the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), the Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Laboratory (HWERL) of ...

41

Waste Minimization via Radiological Hazard Reduction  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS), a 803 km{sup 2} U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility in south-western South Carolina, incorporates pollution prevention as a fundamental component of its Environmental Management System. A comprehensive pollution prevention program was implemented as part of an overall business strategy to reduce waste generation and pollution releases, minimize environmental impacts, and to reduce future waste management and pollution control costs. In fiscal years 1995 through 1997, the Site focused on implementing specific waste reduction initiatives identified while benchmarking industry best practices. These efforts resulted in greater than $25 million in documented cost avoidance. While these results have been dramatic to date, the Site is further challenged to maximize resource utilization and deploy new technologies and practices to achieve further waste reductions. The Site has elected to target a site-wide reduction of contaminated work spaces in fiscal year 1998 as the primary source reduction initiative. Over 120,900 m{sup 2} of radiologically contaminated work areas (approximately 600 separate inside areas) exist at SRS. Reduction of these areas reduces future waste generation, minimizes worker exposure, and reduces surveillance and maintenance costs. This is a major focus of the Site`s As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) program by reducing sources of worker exposure. The basis for this approach was demonstrated during 1997 as part of a successful Enhanced Work Planning pilot conducted at several specific contamination areas at SRS. An economic-based prioritization process was utilized to develop a model for prioritizing areas to reclaim. In the H-Canyon Separation facility, over 3,900 m{sup 2} of potentially contaminated area was rolled back to a Radiation Buffer Area. The facility estimated nearly 420 m{sup 3} of low level radioactive waste will be avoided each year, and overall cost savings and productivity gains will reach approximately $1 million annually as a result of this effort. During fiscal year 1998, SRS will intensify the reclamation of contaminated work areas through implementation of the Site Rollback Plan. The economic based model was utilized to prioritize areas for reclamation based on achieving a return on investment of over 2:1. Generators have been challenged to exceed planned rollbacks through a DOE imposed Performance Based Incentive with the Site Operator. In the first quarter, over 1,580 m{sup 2} of contaminated areas have been reclaimed with approximately 7,720 m{sup 2} remaining to be done before the end of the fiscal year.

Stone, K.A. [British Nuclear Fuels, Ltd. Savannah River Corp., Aiken, SC (United States); Coffield, T. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Hooker, K.L. [USDOE (United States)

1998-03-01

42

Waste Minimization Study on Pyrochemical Reprocessing Processes  

SciTech Connect

Ideally a new pyro-process should not generate more waste, and should be at least as safe and cost effective as the hydrometallurgical processes currently implemented at industrial scale. This paper describes the thought process, the methodology and some results obtained by process integration studies to devise potential pyro-processes and to assess their capability of achieving this challenging objective. As example the assessment of a process based on salt/metal reductive extraction, designed for the reprocessing of Generation IV carbide spent fuels, is developed. Salt/metal reductive extraction uses the capability of some metals, aluminum in this case, to selectively reduce actinide fluorides previously dissolved in a fluoride salt bath. The reduced actinides enter the metal phase from which they are subsequently recovered; the fission products remain in the salt phase. In fact, the process is not so simple, as it requires upstream and downstream subsidiary steps. All these process steps generate secondary waste flows representing sources of actinide leakage and/or FP discharge. In aqueous processes the main solvent (nitric acid solution) has a low boiling point and evaporate easily or can be removed by distillation, thereby leaving limited flow containing the dissolved substance behind to be incorporated in a confinement matrix. From the point of view of waste generation, one main handicap of molten salt processes, is that the saline phase (fluoride in our case) used as solvent is of same nature than the solutes (radionuclides fluorides) and has a quite high boiling point. So it is not so easy, than it is with aqueous solutions, to separate solvent and solutes in order to confine only radioactive material and limit the final waste flows. Starting from the initial block diagram devised two years ago, the paper shows how process integration studies were able to propose process fittings which lead to a reduction of the waste variety and flows leading at an 'ideal' new block diagram allowing internal solvent recycling, and self eliminating reactants. This new flowsheet minimizes the quantity of inactive inlet flows that would have inevitably to be incorporated in a final waste form. The study identifies all knowledge gaps to be filled and suggest some possible R and D issues to confirm or infirm the feasibility of the proposed process fittings. (authors)

Boussier, H.; Conocar, O.; Lacquement, J. [CEA/DEN Valrho Marcoule/DRCP/SCPS/Pyrochemical Processes Laboratory, BP 17171 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)

2006-07-01

43

The B. E. S. T. solvent extraction process resource recovery, waste minimization, and treatment in a single step application to RCRA, CERCLA, and TSCA wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste disposal methods which are both viable and cost effective have been slow to emerge. Land filling and encapsulation methods accomplish little except to delay a final solution. The most sophisticated of fixation technologies may also cause an even larger disposal problem later. Incineration can be prohibitively expensive and has poor public image due to the potential for air emissions.

1989-01-01

44

Waste minimization: The ``planned-parenthood-to-grave`` philosophy  

SciTech Connect

Until 1985, the Y-12 Plant, a DOE facility, had concentrated waste minimization efforts on select large waste streams. However, during the past seven years, Y-12 has been faced with the challenge of complying with all of these requirements as well as striving to develop and implement a comprehensive proactive program to reduce waste. Thus, the Y-12 Plant Waste Minimization Program has gradually developed toward an all encompassing program. The overall strategy and structure of the Y-12 program is centered around four basic elements: Waste Minimization Process Waste Assessments (PWAs), Opportunities, and Projects; Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Promotional Campaign; Waste Tracking; and Information Exchange and Technology Transfer. Activities within each of these elements are described in this report.

Cash, K.M. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States); Ostergaard, A.P. [International Technology (IT) Corp. (United States)

1992-02-11

45

Waste minimization: The planned-parenthood-to-grave'' philosophy  

SciTech Connect

Until 1985, the Y-12 Plant, a DOE facility, had concentrated waste minimization efforts on select large waste streams. However, during the past seven years, Y-12 has been faced with the challenge of complying with all of these requirements as well as striving to develop and implement a comprehensive proactive program to reduce waste. Thus, the Y-12 Plant Waste Minimization Program has gradually developed toward an all encompassing program. The overall strategy and structure of the Y-12 program is centered around four basic elements: Waste Minimization Process Waste Assessments (PWAs), Opportunities, and Projects; Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Promotional Campaign; Waste Tracking; and Information Exchange and Technology Transfer. Activities within each of these elements are described in this report.

Cash, K.M. (Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States)); Ostergaard, A.P. (International Technology (Italy) Corp. (United States))

1992-02-11

46

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD MANUFACTURER  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected ...

47

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PREWASHED JEANS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cen...

48

Waste Minimization Assessment for a Manufacturer of Printed Plastic Bags.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (W...

F. W. Kirsch G. P. Looby

1990-01-01

49

Hazardous waste minimization assessment: Fort Carson, CO. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

After surveying hazardous material procurement; hazardous waste generation; and current methods of treatment, storage, and disposal, researchers conducted feasibility and economic analyses of minimization options and prepared a hazardous waste minimization (HAZMIN) plan for Fort Carson, Colorado. This plan is aimed at lessening air pollution, water pollution and radioactive pollution through reduction of the net outflow of contaminants from chemicals,

S. Dharmavaram; D. A. Knowlton; B. A. Donahue

1991-01-01

50

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF SCREWDRIVERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

51

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PRINTED LABELS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

52

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF REFURBISHED RAILCAR ASSEMBLIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected ...

53

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF SCREWDRIVERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment C...

54

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF COATED PARTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effeort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Ce...

55

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PLIERS AND WRENCHES  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Cen...

56

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF MICROELECTRONIC COMPONENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Cen...

57

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF CAULK  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

58

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist mall- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Cen...

59

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF SHEET METAL COMPONENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization ssessment Cente...

60

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF SURGICAL IMPLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Ce...

61

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF CAULK  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effor to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cente...

62

Waste Minimization Assessment for a Manufacturer of Printed Circuit Boards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (W...

F. W. Kirsch G. P. Looby

1991-01-01

63

Using benchmarking to minimize common DOE waste streams: Volume 5. Office paper waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finding innovative ways to reduce waste streams generated at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites by 50% by the year 2000 is a challenge for DOE`s waste minimization efforts. A team composed of members from several DOE facilities used the quality tool known as benchmarking to improve waste minimization efforts. First the team examined office waste generation and handling processes

1995-01-01

64

40 CFR 262.27 - Waste minimization certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...in place to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated to the degree I have determined...have made a good faith effort to minimize my waste generation and select the best waste management method that is available to me and that I...

2013-07-01

65

Computer simulated plant design for waste minimization\\/pollution prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The book discusses several paths to pollution prevention and waste minimization by using computer simulation programs. It explains new computer technologies used in the field of pollution prevention and waste management; provides information pertaining to overcoming technical, economic, and environmental barriers to waste reduction; gives case-studies from industries; and covers computer aided flow sheet design and analysis for nuclear fuel

Bumble

2000-01-01

66

Computer simulated plant design for waste minimization/pollution prevention  

SciTech Connect

The book discusses several paths to pollution prevention and waste minimization by using computer simulation programs. It explains new computer technologies used in the field of pollution prevention and waste management; provides information pertaining to overcoming technical, economic, and environmental barriers to waste reduction; gives case-studies from industries; and covers computer aided flow sheet design and analysis for nuclear fuel reprocessing.

Bumble, S.

2000-07-01

67

Analysis of intangible factors in waste minimization projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continual population growth and rising standards of living that accelerate the consumption of limited resources, are forcing society to encourage conservation of these resources. These resources not only include raw material, but also the areas to dispose of the wastes. As a result, communities are driving industries towards waste minimization by limiting waste generation and landfill availability. Firms' environmentally friendly

H. Nystrom; W. Kehr

2000-01-01

68

Minimization of mixed waste in explosive testing operations  

SciTech Connect

In the 1970s and 1980s, efforts to manage mixed waste and reduce pollution focused largely on post-process measures. In the late 1980s, the approach to waste management and pollution control changed, focusing on minimization and prevention rather than abatement, treatment, and disposal. The new approach, and the formulated guidance from the US Department of Energy, was to take all necessary measures to minimize waste and prevent the release of pollutants to the environment. Two measures emphasized in particular were source reduction (reducing the volume and toxicity of the waste source) and recycling. In 1988, a waste minimization and pollution prevention program was initiated at Site 300, where the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) conducts explosives testing. LLNL's Defense Systems/Nuclear Design (DS/ND) Program has adopted a variety of conservation techniques to minimize waste generation and cut disposal costs associated with ongoing operations. The techniques include minimizing the generation of depleted uranium and lead mixed waste through inventory control and material substitution measures and through developing a management system to recycle surplus explosives. The changes implemented have reduced annual mixed waste volumes by more than 95% and reduced overall radioactive waste generation (low-level and mixed) by more than 75%. The measures employed were cost-effective and easily implemented.

Gonzalez, M.A.; Sator, F.E.; Simmons, L.F.

1993-02-01

69

Minimization of mixed waste in explosive testing operations  

SciTech Connect

In the 1970s and 1980s, efforts to manage mixed waste and reduce pollution focused largely on post-process measures. In the late 1980s, the approach to waste management and pollution control changed, focusing on minimization and prevention rather than abatement, treatment, and disposal. The new approach, and the formulated guidance from the US Department of Energy, was to take all necessary measures to minimize waste and prevent the release of pollutants to the environment. Two measures emphasized in particular were source reduction (reducing the volume and toxicity of the waste source) and recycling. In 1988, a waste minimization and pollution prevention program was initiated at Site 300, where the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) conducts explosives testing. LLNL`s Defense Systems/Nuclear Design (DS/ND) Program has adopted a variety of conservation techniques to minimize waste generation and cut disposal costs associated with ongoing operations. The techniques include minimizing the generation of depleted uranium and lead mixed waste through inventory control and material substitution measures and through developing a management system to recycle surplus explosives. The changes implemented have reduced annual mixed waste volumes by more than 95% and reduced overall radioactive waste generation (low-level and mixed) by more than 75%. The measures employed were cost-effective and easily implemented.

Gonzalez, M.A.; Sator, F.E.; Simmons, L.F.

1993-02-01

70

Waste minimization opportunity assessment: A photofinishing facility. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A waste minimization opportunity assessment was performed which identified areas for waste reduction at a photofinishing facility. The study followed procedures in the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual. The report identifies potential options to achieve further waste minimization progress. A number of waste producing processes were initially screened, and detailed technical evaluations were performed on wastes associated with process solutions and wash waters. Options identified were as follows: (1) wash water control; (2) silver recovery--metal replacement cartridges; (3) silver recovery--electrowinning (4) electrowinning with MRC tailing; (5) recovery of silver--ion exchange; (6) recovery of fixer; (7) recovery of bleach fix; and (8) recovery of developer. Based on the results of the assessment phase, Options 1-4 and 7 were selected for further evaluation in the feasibility phase. The results of the study indicate the fastest payback would be realized from Options 1 and 7 assuming Accuphoto's willingness to recycle bleach and no production increases.

Not Available

1991-08-01

71

Savannah River Site Radiological Technology Center's Efforts Supporting Waste Minimization  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the efforts of the newly formed Radiological Technology Center (RTC) at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) to support waste minimization. The formation of the RTC was based upon the highly successful ALARA Center at the DOE Hanford Site. The RTC is tasked with evaluation and dissemination of new technologies and techniques for radiological hazard reduction and waste minimization. Initial waste minimization efforts have focused on the promotion of SRS containment fabrication capabilities, new personal protective equipment and use of recyclable versus disposable materials.

Rosenberger, K. H.; Smith, L. S.; Bates, R. L.

2003-02-25

72

Optimal recycle\\/reuse policies for minimizing the wastes of pulp and paper plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work is to develop a systematic and generally applicable methodology for the optimal design of recycle\\/reuse process networks for reducing the emission of hydrogen sulfide from pulp and paper plants. The problem is formulated as an optimal synthesis task with the objective of minimizing the total annualized cost of the processes used for the waste minimization

Russell F. Dunn

1993-01-01

73

RESEARCH IN WASTE MINIMIZATION: EPA'S PERSPECTIVE  

EPA Science Inventory

Reducing the generation of industrial and other wastes can be achieved in many ways. rocess chemistry can be changed, potential waste streams can be recycled within a manufacturing process or back into the process: process technology and/or equipment can be modified to produce pr...

74

Waste Minimization Policy at the Romanian Nuclear Power Plant  

SciTech Connect

The radioactive waste management system at Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in Romania was designed to maintain acceptable levels of safety for workers and to protect human health and the environment from exposure to unacceptable levels of radiation. In accordance with terminology of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), this system consists of the ''pretreatment'' of solid and organic liquid radioactive waste, which may include part or all of the following activities: collection, handling, volume reduction (by an in-drum compactor, if appropriate), and storage. Gaseous and aqueous liquid wastes are managed according to the ''dilute and discharge'' strategy. Taking into account the fact that treatment/conditioning and disposal technologies are still not established, waste minimization at the source is a priority environmental management objective, while waste minimization at the disposal stage is presently just a theoretical requirement for future adopted technologies . The necessary operational and maintenance procedures are in place at Cernavoda to minimize the production and contamination of waste. Administrative and technical measures are established to minimize waste volumes. Thus, an annual environmental target of a maximum 30 m3 of radioactive waste volume arising from operation and maintenance has been established. Within the first five years of operations at Cernavoda NPP, this target has been met. The successful implementation of the waste minimization policy has been accompanied by a cost reduction while the occupational doses for plant workers have been maintained at as low as reasonably practicable levels. This paper will describe key features of the waste management system along with the actual experience that has been realized with respect to minimizing the waste volumes at the Cernavoda NPP.

Andrei, V.; Daian, I.

2002-02-26

75

WASTE MINIMIZATION IN THE PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD INDUSTRY: CASE STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents information on waste minimization practices currently employed in the printed circuit board (PCB) and semiconductor manufacturing industries. Case studies conducted at six facilities evaluated the technical, environmental and cost impacts associated with the i...

76

Foam is a decon waste minimization tool.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of foam in decontamination operations offers significant reductions in waste generation. Initial use has confirmed its effectiveness. Issues being resolved at Savannah River Site (SRS) include compatibility of foam generating solutions with decont...

K. D. Peterson J. F. McGlynn W. N. Rankin

1991-01-01

77

Trim waste minimization at the Pinellas Plant  

SciTech Connect

Bacteria counts and several methods of slowing bacterial growth in machine trim coolant are suggested to reduce the frequency of coolant replacement without risking employee health or the longevity of the product or machinery. On-site treatment and disposal of waste trim are recommended to further reduce waste volume. This paper discusses the benefits of these efforts, including projected cost savings based on partial implementation at the Department of Energy`s Pinellas Plant.

DeLaneuville, D.

1992-01-30

78

Trim waste minimization at the Pinellas Plant  

SciTech Connect

Bacteria counts and several methods of slowing bacterial growth in machine trim coolant are suggested to reduce the frequency of coolant replacement without risking employee health or the longevity of the product or machinery. On-site treatment and disposal of waste trim are recommended to further reduce waste volume. This paper discusses the benefits of these efforts, including projected cost savings based on partial implementation at the Department of Energy's Pinellas Plant.

DeLaneuville, D.

1992-01-30

79

Waste minimization: The 'planned-parenthood-to-grave' philosophy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Until 1985, the Y-12 Plant, a DOE facility, had concentrated waste minimization efforts on select large waste streams. However, during the past seven years, Y-12 has been faced with the challenge of complying with all of these requirements as well as stri...

K. M. Cash A. P. Ostergaard

1992-01-01

80

EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) MANUAL FOR WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Waste Minimization is a term that includes source reduction and recycling. Source reduction is defined as any activity that reduces or eliminates the generation of wastes at the source, usually within a process. Recycling is defined as the recovery and/or reuse of what would othe...

81

When less is less: Waste minimization at Diablo Canyon  

SciTech Connect

At Diablo Canyon power plant, Pacific Gas and Electric has implemented a minimization plan to reduce the generation of radioactive waste. The plan encompasses wastes generated from plant systems, from the modification of plant systems and structures, and from the use of protective clothing and contamination control consumables.

Miller, C.C. [Pacific Gas & Electric Company, Avila Beach, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

82

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR AN ALUMINUM EXTRUSIONS MANUFACTURERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected u...

83

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF INDUSTRIAL COATINGS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a' pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected u...

84

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A STEEL FABRICATOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected un...

85

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A BOURBON DISTILLERY  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected un...

86

WASTE MINIMIZATION AUDIT REPORT: CASE STUDIES OF CORROSIVE AND HEAVY METAL WASTE MINIMIZATION AT A SPECIALTY STEEL MANUFACTURING COMPLEX  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is expanding its efforts to promote waste minimization activity in the private sector by providing technical assistance to generators of hazardous waste. As part of the effort, the EPA Office of Research and Development/Hazardous Was...

87

Lessons in waste minimization from nuclear industry experience  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear power industry has been very successful at reducing waste volumes and waste sources. The success has been driven by escalating cost, decreasing disposal ability, and a desire by the industry to achieve excellence. The result has been a cycle of continuing improvement resulting in reduced cost. Many of the examples of Dry Active Waste reduction are applicable to the Department of Energy in both operations and remedial activities. This paper discusses several successful examples of utility applications in this area.

Devgun, J.S.; Thuot, J.R.; Vrtis, J.

1996-07-01

88

Hanford site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program  

SciTech Connect

This plan documents the requirements of the Hanford Site Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) Program. The plan specifies requirements for Hanford contractors to prevent pollution from entering the environment, to conserve resources and energy, and to reduce the quantity and toxicity of hazardous, radioactive, mixed, and sanitary waste generated at Hanford. The Pollution Prevention Awareness Program required by DOE 5400.1 (DOE 1988A) is included in the Hanford WMin/P2 Program.

Kirkendall, J.R.

1996-09-23

89

Chelating water-soluble polymers for waste minimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the DOE complex and in industry there is a tremendous need for advanced metal ion recovery and waste minimization techniques. This project sought to employ capabilities for ligand-design and separations chemistry in which one can develop and evaluate water- soluble chelating polymers for recovering actinides and toxic metals from various process streams. Focus of this work was (1) to

B. Smith; M. Cournoyer; B. Duran; D. Ford; R. Gibson; M. Lin; A. Meck; P. Robinson; T. Robison

1996-01-01

90

Waste minimization and pollution prevention at a plutonium processing facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

If nuclear facilities are to achieve public acceptance, they must develop strong programs in waste minimization, pollution prevention, and environmentally sound recycling. These programs are specially essential for defense production facilities that process large quantities of special nuclear materials. The plutonium processing facility at Los Alamos has initiated a focused research and development program with a strategic goal of becoming

K PILLAY; K. K. S

1994-01-01

91

Mixed-waste minimization activities in the nuclear weapons complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 40 years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the nuclear weapons complex have successfully executed their mission of providing the country with a strong nuclear deterrent. Now, however, they must attain another mission at the same time: to eliminate or greatly reduce the environmental, safety, and health problems in the complex. Mixed-waste minimization activities have taken

J. A. Marchetti; J. S. Suffern

1991-01-01

92

Waste Minimization Plans and activities in the MFD Plating Shop  

SciTech Connect

The Plating Shop (Building 322), provides processes such as electroplating, electroless plating, anodizing, cleaning, etching, electroforming and chemical milling. We in MFD are committed to an active program on waste minimization, and the purpose of this document is to outline the plan of action. Our short range minimization goals are threefold: (1) Reduce our major waste stream by 90%, (2) Minimize discharge of rinse water to sewer system, and (3) Eliminate vapor degreasing in the shop. The intermediate goals consist of characterizing the waste streams and evaluating recovery processes. To do this, we first need to have the distillation unit operational and time to determine its effectiveness. If it proves to be as effective as we anticipate, we will perhaps purchase a second unit. Regardless, the streams that we can identify include: nickel, copper, rinses, acids, alkalies, electropolish and miscellaneous. Our goal is to utilize electrolytic processes to recover metals such as nickel and copper and processes such as ion exchange for some of the other streams. We intend to evaluate the full gamut of recycling processes available for these streams. We anticipate completing this phase of the minimization program by January 1993. The long range goal is zero discharge or since this could prove extremely difficult, development of processes that will allow us to produce a sludge cake that could be handled by our Hazardous Waste Management Group.

Dini, J.W.; Steffani, C.P.

1991-02-01

93

MINIMIZATION OF COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS: CHARACTERISTICS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

It has been well recognized that, although there are many potential solid waste treatment technologies, none are as universally applicable as incineration for the treatment of the many types of waste which are governed by the many different Federal laws and State regulations. owe...

94

Molten salt treatment to minimize and optimize waste  

SciTech Connect

A combination molten salt oxidizer (MSO) and molten salt reactor (MSR) is described for treatment of waste. The MSO is proposed for contained oxidization of organic hazardous waste, for reduction of mass and volume of dilute waste by evaporation of the water. The NTSO residue is to be treated to optimize the waste in terms of its composition, chemical form, mixture, concentration, encapsulation, shape, size, and configuration. Accumulations and storage are minimized, shipments are sized for low risk. Actinides, fissile material, and long-lived isotopes are separated and completely burned or transmuted in an MSR. The MSR requires no fuel element fabrication, accepts the materials as salts in arbitrarily small quantities enhancing safety, security, and overall acceptability.

Gat, U.; Crosley, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Gay, R.L. [Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States)

1993-07-01

95

A survey of waste minimization recommendations for three industrial sectors  

SciTech Connect

What changes can manufacturers make to reduce waste streams and save money? A recent modification to a successful Department of Energy energy audit program has included a focus on waste minimization for small and medium-sized manufacturers. The program change was incorporated over two years ago and approximately 2,000 assessments have been completed nationwide since the change. This article will examine the results of the combined energy/waste assessments. Most of the material contained is derived from a paper published at the ASEE 1997 Annual Meeting. The paper focuses on the typical waste recommendations made for three sectors of Standard Industrial Classifications (SIC) 20-39. Recommendations vary from typical conservation measures such as recycling pallets and cardboard to direct process modifications that reduce water or chemical usage. While some recommendations are general and can be applied to any industry, others are industry-specific.

Dunning, S.; Martin, P.

1998-12-31

96

Annual Report on Waste Generation and Waste Minimization Progress, 1991--1992  

SciTech Connect

This report is DOE`s first annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress. Data presented in this report were collected from all DOE sites which met minimum threshold criteria established for this report. The fifty-seven site submittals contained herein represent data from over 100 reporting sites within 25 states. Radioactive, hazardous and sanitary waste quantities and the efforts to minimize these wastes are highlighted within the fifty-seven site submittals. In general, sites have made progress in moving beyond the planning phase of their waste minimization programs. This is evident by the overall 28 percent increase in the total amount of materials recycled from 1991 to 1992, as well as individual site initiatives. During 1991 and 1992, DOE generated a total of 279,000 cubic meters of radioactive waste and 243,000 metric tons of non-radioactive waste. These waste amounts include significant portions of process wastewater required to be reported to regulatory agencies in the state of Texas and the state of Tennessee. Specifically, the Pantex Plant in Texas treats an industrial wastewater that is considered by the Texas Water Commission to be a hazardous waste. In 1992, State regulated wastewater from the Pantex Plant represented 3,620 metric tons, 10 percent of the total hazardous waste generated by DOE. Similarly, mixed low-level wastewater from the TSCA Incinerator Facility at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site in Tennessee represented 55 percent of the total radioactive waste generated by DOE in 1992.

Not Available

1994-02-01

97

Pollution prevention and waste minimization opportunity assessment in environmental restoration  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Restoration (ER) Project at Sandia National Laboratories implicitly subscribed to the philosophy of pollution prevention and waste minimization. As a result of a Department of Energy (DOE) offer, Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (PPOA) were conducted at two ER sites and a decontamination and Demolition (D and D) site. The purpose of one of the PPOAs was to identify pollution prevention (P2) opportunities during environmental remediation at the Classified Waste Landfill located at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The remediation activities at this site are scheduled to begin in the fall of 1997. The PPOA included presentations by the team members, a tour of the site, and a brainstorming session to list the waste streams, identify P2 opportunities and rank them in order of priority. Twenty-five P2 opportunities were identified during the brainstorming session of which twenty-two opportunities were selected for further investigation. Those twenty-two opportunities are discussed in this paper. A cost benefit analysis was performed for each P2 opportunity based on the estimated waste volume, feasibility, and cost. Pollution Prevention by Design (P2D) was incorporated into the PPOA to introduce waste minimization techniques that can be used during the planning phase of restoration projects.

Roybal, J.A.; Willison, C.P.

1997-10-01

98

Annual Waste Minimization Summary Report Calendar Year 2007  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the waste minimization efforts undertaken by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), during calendar year (CY) 2007. This report was developed in accordance with the requirements of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Permit (number NEV HW0021), and as clarified in a letter dated April 21, 1995, from Paul Liebendorfer of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to Donald Elle of the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office. The NNSA/NSO Pollution Prevention (P2) Program establishes a process to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by the NNSA/NSO and ensures that proposed methods of treatment, storage, and/or disposal of waste minimize potential threats to human health and the environment. The following information provides an overview of the P2 Program, major P2 accomplishments during the reporting year, a comparison of the current year waste generation to prior years, and a description of efforts undertaken during the year to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by the NNSA/NSO.

NSTec Environmental Management

2008-02-01

99

Application of value stream mapping (VSM) for minimization of wastes in the processing side of supply chain of cottonseed oil industry in Indian context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to identify and address various wastes in the supply chain of the edible cottonseed oil industry (specifically the processing side) using a value stream mapping (VSM) approach to improve productivity and capacity utilization in an Indian context. Design\\/methodology\\/approach Critical observations and interviewing techniques were used with open-ended questions to understand the

Dinesh Seth; Nitin Seth; Deepak Goel

2008-01-01

100

Using benchmarking to minimize common DOE waste streams: Volume 5. Office paper waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Finding innovative ways to reduce waste streams generated at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites by 50% by the year 2000 is a challenge for DOE's waste minimization efforts. A team composed of members from several DOE facilities used the quality tool know...

V. Levin

1995-01-01

101

Management Strategies and Technologies for the Minimization of Chemical Wastes from Laboratories.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents waste management and minimization methods for hazardous wastes generated in clinical, research, and academic laboratories. Techniques for specific materials are given including management of solvent wastes, recovery of mercury and sil...

R. A. Feild

1986-01-01

102

Waste-minimization assessment for multilayered printed-circuit-board manufacturing. Environmental research brief  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA/625/7-88/003, July 1988). The WMAC team at Colorado State University inspected a plant manufacturing multilayered circuit boards. This complex operation has seven key elements: preparing individual layers of boards; transferring circuit patterns to these layers and forming copper oxide castings; bonding to form multiple layers; applying copper (electroless plating) to ensure electrical contact; applying photoresist to define the area on which copper circuits are to be plated; applying copper electrolytically to establish circuit patterns on outer board surfaces followed by tin or tin/lead plating to protect the circuits; and applying solder and final cleanup after selectively removing protective tin layers. All these elements of the manufacturing process generate hazardous waste, e.g., electrolytic application of copper generates sulfuric acid; propylene glycol methyl ether; copper-laden deionized water and rinse water; ethoxylated octylphenol; copper-free drag-out-laden water; and copper sulfate. The plant had already instituted waste minimization techniques; the team's report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that additional reductions and savings, although not as great, were still possible. The greatest reduction would come from separating liquid wastes into four streams containing differing amounts of waste. Copper-containing streams could be further treated and reused in process rinses and baths.

Kirsch, F.W.; Looby, G.P.

1991-07-01

103

Industrial flue gas desulfurization waste may offer an opportunity to facilitate SANI application for significant sludge minimization in freshwater wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

This paper reports an exploratory study on the use of a sulfite-rich industrial effluent to enable the integration of a sulfite-sulfide-sulfate cycle to the conventional carbon and nitrogen cycles in wastewater treatment to achieve sludge minimization through the non-sludge-producing Sulfate reduction, Autotrophic denitri?cation and Nitri?cation Integrated (SANI) process. A laboratory-scale sulfite reduction reactor was set up for treating sulfite-rich synthetic wastewater simulating the wastewater from industrial flue gas desulfurization (FGD) units. The results indicated that the sulfite reduction reactor can be started up within 11 d, which was much faster than that using sulfate. Thiosulfate was found to be the major sulfite reduction intermediate, accounting for about 30% of the total reduced sulfur in the reactor effluent, which may enable additional footprint reduction of the autotrophic denitrification reactor in the SANI process. This study indicated that it was possible to make use of the FGD effluent for applying the FGD-SANI process in treating freshwater-based sewage. PMID:23787323

Qian, J; Jiang, F; Chui, H K; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Chen, G H

2013-01-01

104

Using benchmarking to minimize common DOE waste streams: Volume 5. Office paper waste  

SciTech Connect

Finding innovative ways to reduce waste streams generated at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites by 50% by the year 2000 is a challenge for DOE`s waste minimization efforts. A team composed of members from several DOE facilities used the quality tool known as benchmarking to improve waste minimization efforts. First the team examined office waste generation and handling processes at their sites. Then team members developed telephone and written questionnaires to help identify potential ``best-in-class`` industry partners willing to share information about their best waste minimization techniques and technologies. The team identified two benchmarking partners, NIKE, Inc., in Beaverton, Oregon, and Microsoft, Inc., in Redmond, Washington. Both companies have proactive, employee-driven environmental issues programs. Both companies report strong employee involvement, management commitment, and readily available markets for recyclable materials such as white paper and nonwhite assorted paper. The availability of markets, the initiative and cooperation of employees, and management support are the main enablers for their programs. At both companies, recycling and waste reduction programs often cut across traditional corporate divisions such as procurement, janitorial services, environmental compliance, grounds maintenance, cafeteria operations, surplus sales, and shipping and receiving. These companies exhibited good cooperation between these functions to design and implement recycling and waste reduction programs.

Levin, V.

1995-10-01

105

Chelating water-soluble polymers for waste minimization  

SciTech Connect

Within the DOE complex and in industry there is a tremendous need for advanced metal ion recovery and waste minimization techniques. This project sought to employ capabilities for ligand-design and separations chemistry in which one can develop and evaluate water- soluble chelating polymers for recovering actinides and toxic metals from various process streams. Focus of this work was (1) to develop and select a set of water-soluble polymers suitable for a selected waste stream and (2) demonstrate this technology in 2 areas: removal of (a) actinides and toxic RCRA metals from waste water and (b) recovery of Cu and other precious metals from industrial process streams including from solid catalysts and aqueous waste streams. The R&D was done in 4 phases for each of the 2 target areas: polymer synthesis for scaleup, equipment assembly, process demonstration at a DOE or industrial site, and advanced ligand/polymer synthesis. The TA- 50 site at Los Alamos was thought to be appropriate due to logistics and to its being representative of similar problems throughout the DOE complex.

Smith, B.; Cournoyer, M.; Duran, B.; Ford, D.; Gibson, R.; Lin, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Meck, A.; Robinson, P. [N,P Energy, Inc. (United States); Robison, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-11-01

106

Electroplating waste minimization at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes efforts on waste minimization in the electroplating facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Issues that are covered include: elimination of cadmium plating, copper cyanide plating, hexavalent chromium plating and vapor degreasing, segregation of cyanide solutions, changing rinsing practices, recycling of rinse water, changing cleaning of aluminum parts and rejuvenation of gold plating solutions. Discussion is also presented on other issues currently being worked and these include: combining electroplating and physical vapor deposition, elimination of all cyanide plating processes, and recycling of electroless nickel and spent acid solutions.

Dini, J.W.; Steffani, C.P.

1992-04-01

107

Applicability of a field-portable toxic heavy metal detector, using a radioisotope-tagged metalloprotein, to DOE environmental remediation and waste minimization initiatives  

SciTech Connect

A system based on the metal-binding kidney protein, metallothionein, bound with a trace quantity of radioactive metal, has been shown to be capable of detecting parts-per-million (ppm) to parts-per-billion (ppb) concentrations of some heavy metals in liquid solution. The main objective of this study was to determine if this type of system has adequate sensitivity and selectivity for application in detecting a number of metallic species of concern to DOE, such as mercury, lead, and chromium. An affinity-displacement study is reported here using the heavy metal radiotracers {sup 65}Zn and {sup 109}Cd bound to metallothionein immobilized on an Affi-Gel 10 filter support. When a heavy metal solution with a greater affinity than the tracer for the protein is poured through the filter the radiotracer is displaced by a mechanism similar to ion exchange. The main objective of this study was to verify previous internal experimental parameters and results, and to determine the specific affinities of metallothionein for the metallic species of most concern to DOE.

Randles, K.E. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States); Bragg, D.J.; Bodette, D.E.; Lipinski, R.J.; Luera, T.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-08-01

108

Waste minimization in analytical chemistry through innovative sample preparation techniques.  

SciTech Connect

Because toxic solvents and other hazardous materials are commonly used in analytical methods, characterization procedures result in significant and costly amount of waste. We are developing alternative analytical methods in the radiological and organic areas to reduce the volume or form of the hazardous waste produced during sample analysis. For the radiological area, we have examined high-pressure, closed-vessel microwave digestion as a way to minimize waste from sample preparation operations. Heated solutions of strong mineral acids can be avoided for sample digestion by using the microwave approach. Because reactivity increases with pressure, we examined the use of less hazardous solvents to leach selected contaminants from soil for subsequent analysis. We demonstrated the feasibility of this approach by extracting plutonium from a NET reference material using citric and tartaric acids with microwave digestion. Analytical results were comparable to traditional digestion methods, while hazardous waste was reduced by a factor often. We also evaluated the suitability of other natural acids, determined the extraction performance on a wider variety of soil types, and examined the extraction efficiency of other contaminants. For the organic area, we examined ways to minimize the wastes associated with the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in environmental samples. Conventional methods for analyzing semivolatile organic compounds are labor intensive and require copious amounts of hazardous solvents. For soil and sediment samples, we have a method to analyze PCBs that is based on microscale extraction using benign solvents (e.g., water or hexane). The extraction is performed at elevated temperatures in stainless steel cells containing the sample and solvent. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to quantitate the analytes in the isolated extract. More recently, we developed a method utilizing solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for natural water samples. In this SPME technique, a fused-silica fiber coated with a polymeric film is exposed to the sample, extraction is allowed to take place, and then the analytes are thermally desorbed for GC analysis. Unlike liquid-liquid extraction or solid-phase extraction, SPME consumes all of the extracted sample in the analysis, significantly reducing the required sample volume.

Smith, L. L.

1998-05-28

109

Hanford Central Waste Complex: Waste Receiving and Processing Facility dangerous waste permit application  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Central Waste Complex is an existing and planned series of treatment, and/or disposal (TSD) unites that will centralize the management of solid waste operations at a single location on the Hanford Facility. The Complex includes two units: the WRAP Facility and the Radioactive Mixed Wastes Storage Facility (RMW Storage Facility). This Part B permit application addresses the WRAP Facility. The Facility will be a treatment and storage unit that will provide the capability to examine, sample, characterize, treat, repackage, store, and certify radioactive and/or mixed waste. Waste treated and stored will include both radioactive and/or mixed waste received from onsite and offsite sources. Certification will be designed to ensure and demonstrate compliance with waste acceptance criteria set forth by onsite disposal units and/or offsite facilities that subsequently are to receive waste from the WRAP Facility. This permit application discusses the following: facility description and general provisions; waste characterization; process information; groundwater monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; contingency plant; personnel training; exposure information report; waste minimization plan; closure and postclosure requirements; reporting and recordkeeping; other relevant laws; certification.

Not Available

1991-10-01

110

1993 Annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress as required by DOE Order 5400.1, Hanford Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

More important than waste generation numbers, the pollution prevention and waste minimization successes achieved at Hanford in 1993 have reduced waste and improved operations at the Site. Just a few of these projects are: A small research nuclear reactor, unused and destined for disposal as low level radioactive waste, was provided to a Texas University for their nuclear research program,

J. R. Kirkendall; J. A. Engel

1994-01-01

111

Proceedings of pollution prevention and waste minimization tools workshop  

SciTech Connect

Pollution Prevention (P2) has evolved into one of DOE`s sprime strategies to meet environmental, fiscal, and worker safety obligations. P2 program planning, opportunity identification, and implementation tools were developed under the direction of the Waste Minimization Division (EM-334). Forty experts from EM, DP, ER and DOE subcontractors attended this 2-day workshop to formulate the incentives to drive utilization of these tools. Plenary and small working group sessions were held both days. Working Group 1 identified incentives to overcoming barriers in the area of P2 program planning and resource allocation. Working Group 2 identified mechanisms to drive the completion of P2 assessments and generation of opportunities. Working Group 3 compiled and documented a broad range of potential P2 incentives that address fundamental barriers to implementation of cost effective opportunities.

NONE

1995-11-01

112

Waste-minimization assessment for a manufacturer of metal bands, clamps, retainers, and tooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA\\/625\\/7-88\\/003, July 1988). The

F. W. Kirsch; G. P. Looby

1992-01-01

113

Waste-minimization assessment for a manufacturer of aluminum cans. Environmental research brief  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA\\/625\\/7-88\\/003, July 1988). The

F. W. Kirsch; G. P. Looby

1991-01-01

114

Waste-minimization assessment for a manufacturer of brazed-aluminum oil coolers. Environmental research brief  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA\\/625\\/7-88\\/003, July 1988). The

F. W. Kirsch; G. P. Looby

1991-01-01

115

Selected waste minimization opportunities for the Koziarske Zavody Leather Tanning facility. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The report, written by ICF, Inc., was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of the Slovak Ministry of Economy. This volume of the report discusses the possibilities for waste minimization at the Koziarske Zavody Leather Tanning Facility. It is divided into the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Description of the Processes and Current Status of the Facility; (3) Waste Minimization Options and Recommendations; (4) Potential Suppliers of Required Equipment and Materials; (5) Establishing a Waste Minimization Program.

Not Available

1994-01-28

116

Waste-minimization assessment for multilayered printed-circuit-board manufacturing. Environmental research brief  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA\\/625\\/7-88\\/003, July 1988). The

F. W. Kirsch; G. P. Looby

1991-01-01

117

Waste-minimization assessment for a paint-manufacturing plant. Environmental research brief  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA\\/625\\/7-88\\/003, July 1988). The

F. W. Kirsch; G. P. Looby

1991-01-01

118

Development and pilot demonstration program of a waste minimization plan at Argonne National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

In response to US Department of Energy directives, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed a waste minimization plan aimed at reducing the amount of wastes at this national research and development laboratory. Activities at ANL are primarily research- oriented and as such affect the amount and type of source reduction that can be achieved at this facility. The objective of ANL's waste minimization program is to cost-effectively reduce all types of wastes, including hazardous, mixed, radioactive, and nonhazardous wastes. The ANL Waste Minimization Plan uses a waste minimization audit as a systematic procedure to determine opportunities to reduce or eliminate waste. To facilitate these audits, a computerized bar-coding procedure is being implemented at ANL to track hazardous wastes from where they are generated to their ultimate disposal. This paper describes the development of the ANL Waste Minimization Plan and a pilot demonstration of the how the ANL Plan audited the hazardous waste generated within a selected divisions of ANL. It includes quantitative data on the generation and disposal of hazardous waste at ANL and describes potential ways to minimize hazardous wastes. 2 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

Peters, R.W.; Wentz, C.A.; Thuot, J.R.

1991-01-01

119

Waste minimization study for a printed circuit board manufacturing facility in Taiwan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents a demonstration of industrial waste minimization sponsored by the Environmental Protection Administration, Taiwan, Republic of China. Waste reduction opportunities are identified and evaluated for a printed circuit board manufacturing ...

S. Chiu H. S. Huang R. W. Peters S. Y. Tsai W. T. Tsai

1990-01-01

120

INTELLIGENT DECISION SUPPORT FOR WASTE MINIMIZATION IN ELECTROPLATING PLANTS. (R824732)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Wastewater, spent solvent, spent process solutions, and sludge are the major waste streams generated in large volumes daily in electroplating plants. These waste streams can be significantly minimized through process modification and operational improvement. I...

121

40 CFR 63.1213 - How can the compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls...compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls...reasonably document that the installation of pollution prevention or waste...

2013-07-01

122

Bioreactor applications in waste treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of bioreactor applications in treatment of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes is presented with emphasis on newer technologies. Waste treatment is considered in a broad context including concentration by bioaccumulation, degradation to substances with reduced environmental impact and upgrading to such useful products as feeds, foods and fuels. Biofilters and bioscrubbers for gas- eous pollutants, high-rate municipal and

Murray Moo-Young; Yusuf Chisti

1994-01-01

123

Using information management systems to support waste minimization at US Army installations  

SciTech Connect

The Army's to reduce hazardous waste generation emphasize reduction at the source. Waste minimization and environmental regulatory compliance are also being integrated into strategies and activities aimed at modernization of industrial operations. The Assistant Secretary of the Army for Research, Development and Acquisition (ASARDA) is conducting a Hazardous Waste Intervention study to understand and evaluate the existing operations and to assess waste minimization opportunities. The overall ASARDA study consists of several teams working on various aspects of hazardous waste intervention at Army installations. The first team is investigating methods of minimizing hazardous waste by modifying the acquisition cycle. This effort is aimed at reducing the generation of hazardous waste by reducing the number and the quantities of hazardous materials that are specified in program and product development. A second team is investigating the technological aspects of waste minimization. Finally, a third team is investigating opportunities for waste minimization by better managing the life-cycle of hazardous materials and hazardous waste. The third team is involved in several tasks, including evaluating the feasibility of using Information Management Systems (IMS) to support waste minimization. This paper summarizes the primary conclusions and recommendations from the information management system evaluation portion of PNL's work.

Myers, R.S.; Butner, R.S.; Callaway, J.W.; Levine, L.O.

1990-04-01

124

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF LABELS AND FLEXIBLE PACKAGING  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

125

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF MOUNTINGS FOR ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT COMPONENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

126

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF COATED PARTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

127

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PAINTS AND LACQUERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

128

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF FELT TIP MARKERS, STAMP PADS, AND RUBBER CEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

129

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONING CONDENSERS AND EVAPORATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilotproject to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected u...

130

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF COMPONENTS FOR AUTOMOBILE AIR CONDITIONERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected ...

131

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A BUMPER REFINISHING PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

132

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A METAL PARTS COATING PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

133

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF COMPRESSED AIR EQUIPMENT COMPONENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

134

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF AERIAL LIFTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

135

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF ELECTRICAL ROTATING DEVICES  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

136

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF FINISHED METAL AND PLASTIC PARTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Ce...

137

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF FINISHED METAL AND PLASTIC PARTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

138

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF LABELS AND FLEXIBLE PACKAGING  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

139

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF CUSTOM MOLDED PLASTIC PRODUCTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected ...

140

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR MANUFACTURER OF GRAVUER-COATED METALIZED PAPER AND METALIZED FILM  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cen...

141

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A PAINT MANUFACTURING PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

142

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PLIERS AND WRENCHES  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

143

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PARTS FOR TRUCK ENGINES  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

144

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PRINTED PLASTIC BAGS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established ...

145

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF ALUMINUM CANS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

146

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF SURGICAL IMPLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

147

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PRE-WASHED JEANS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

148

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF ALUMINUM AND STEEL PARTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

149

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF MOUNTINGS FOR ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT COMPONENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

150

Economic evaluation for the retrofit of chemical processes through waste minimization and process integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research involves the development of an economic-based methodology for waste minimization and reduction of energy consumption in the chemical industry by modifying existing processes. The methodology consists of identifying waste minimization options through a sensitivity analysis and flowsheet configurations through a hierarchical procedure. The alternatives identified together with the heat-exchanger network were used to construct a superstructure that was

Mauricio M. Dantus; Karen A. High

1996-01-01

151

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF MOTOR VEHICLE EXTERIOR MIRRORS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected ...

152

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF CORN SYRUP AND CORN STARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

153

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF CORN SYRUP AND CORN STARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their geneation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

154

User's guide for strategic waste minimization initiative (SWAMI), version 1. 1  

SciTech Connect

The document is a user manual for the Strategic Waste Minimization Initiative (SWAMI) Version 1.1 software system. The guide familiarizes the user with a software program designed to help identify waste minimization opportunities, set up procedures to prioritize those opportunities, and devise strategies that take advantage of those opportunities that rank the highest.

Not Available

1989-02-01

155

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF REBUILT RAILWAY CARS AND COMPONENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

156

Waste Minimization Assessment for a Manufacturer of Corn Syrup and Corn Starch.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) team ...

H. W. Edwards M. F. Kostrzewa G. P. Looby

1994-01-01

157

Hanford Site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan, May 1991. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this plan is to establish the Hanford Site Waste Minimization Program. The plan specifies activities and methods that will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. A waste minimization program is an organized, comprehensive, and continual effort to systematically reduce waste generation. The Hanford Site Waste Minimization Program is designed to eliminate or minimize pollutant releases to all environmental media from all aspects of the site's operations and offers increased protection of public health and the environment. These efforts also yield the following additional benefits: reduce waste management and compliance costs; reduce resource usage; improve product yields; reduce or eliminate inventories and releases of hazardous chemicals reportable under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act''; and reduce or eliminate civil and criminal liabilities under environmental laws. The program reflects the goals and policies for waste minimization of this organization and represents an ongoing effort to make waste minimization part of the site's operating philosophy. In accordance with DOE policy, a hierarchical approach to waste management has been adopted and is applied to all types of waste. 11 refs., 3 figs.

Not Available

1991-01-01

158

Assessment of pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the findings of the first phase of a study undertaken to define a role for the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Division of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) in developing waste minimization technologies for the industrial sector. The report describes the results of an industrial waste characterization based mainly on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) 1989 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) database. IN addition, it contains the results of interviews with personnel from trade associations, environmental advocacy groups, federal agencies, and industrial firms regarding pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization. Recommendations for future AIC waste minimization activities are provided.

Young, J.K.; Fassbender, L.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Sen, R.K. [Sen (R.K.) and Associates, Washington, DC (United States)

1992-02-01

159

Assessment of pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the findings of the first phase of a study undertaken to define a role for the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Division of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) in developing waste minimization technologies for the industrial sector. The report describes the results of an industrial waste characterization based mainly on the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) 1989 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) database. IN addition, it contains the results of interviews with personnel from trade associations, environmental advocacy groups, federal agencies, and industrial firms regarding pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization. Recommendations for future AIC waste minimization activities are provided.

Young, J.K.; Fassbender, L.L. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Sen, R.K. (Sen (R.K.) and Associates, Washington, DC (United States))

1992-02-01

160

ALPHA WASTE MINIMIZATION IN TERMS OF VOLUME AND RADIOACTIVITY AT COGEMA'S MELOX AND LA HAGUE PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the management of alpha waste that cannot be stored in surface repositories under current French regulations. The aim of the paper is to provide an overview of COGEMA's Integrated Waste Management Strategy. The topics discussed include primary waste minimization, from facility design to operating feedback; primary waste management by the plant operator, including waste characterization; waste treatment options that led to building waste treatment industrial facilities for plutonium decontamination, compaction and cement solidification; and optimization of industrial tools, which is strongly influenced by safety and financial considerations.

ARSLAN, M.; DUMONT, J.C.; LONDRES, V.; PONCELET, F.J.

2003-02-27

161

Implementation of Waste Minimization at a complex R&D site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the 1994 Waste Minimization\\/Pollution Prevention Crosscut Plan, the Department of Energy (DOE) has set a goal of 50% reduction in waste at its facilities by the end of 1999. Each DOE site is required to set site-specific goals to reduce generation of all types of waste including hazardous, radioactive, and mixed. To meet these goals, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL),

R. E. Lang; J. R. Thuot; J. S. Devgun

1995-01-01

162

Three case studies of waste minimization through use of metal-recovery processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal bearing wastestreams containing heavy metals are generated through several industrial processes. Standard pretreatment practices usually involve removal of these metals from the effluent prior to discharge using a variety of techniques, often resulting in production of a sludge which must be disposed as a hazardous waste. With the increased costs of hazardous waste disposal, waste minimization practices and techniques

M. L. Apel; J. S. Bridges; M. F. Szabo; S. H. Ambekar

1989-01-01

163

Waste minimization charges up recycling of spent lead-acid batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substantial strides are being made to minimize waste generated form spent lead-acid battery recycling. The Center for Hazardous Materials Research (Pittsburgh) recently investigated the potential for secondary lead smelters to recover lead from battery cases and other materials found at hazardous waste sites. Primary and secondary lead smelters in the U.S. and Canada are processing substantial tons of lead wastes,

P. B. Queneau; A. L. Troutman

1993-01-01

164

Integration of environmentally compatible soldering technologies for waste minimization  

SciTech Connect

There has been a concentrated effort throughout the international microelectronics industry to phase out chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) materials and alleviate the serious problem of ozone depletion created by the release of CFCS. The development of more environmentally compatible manufacturing technologies is the cornerstone of this effort. Alternative materials and processes for cleaning and soldering have received special attention. Electronic. soldering typically utilizes rosin-based fluxes to promote solder wettability. Flux residues must be removed from the soldered parts when high product reliability is essential. Halogenated or CFC solvents have been the principle chemicals used to clean the residues. With the accelerated push to eliminate CFCs in the US by 1995, CFC-free solvents, aqueous-based cleaning, water soluble or ``no clean`` fluxes, and fluxless soldering technologies are being developed and quickly integrated into manufacturing practice. Sandia`s Center for Solder Science and Technology has been ch g a variety of fluxless and alternative soldering technologies for DOE`s waste minimization program. The work has focused on controlled atmosphere, laser, and ultrasonic fluxless soldering, protective metallic and organic coatings, and fluxes which have water soluble or low solids-based chemistries. With the increasing concern that Pb will also be banned from electronic soldering, Sandia has been characterizing the wetting, aging, and mechanical properties of Pb-fire solder alloys. The progress of these integrated studies will be discussed. Their impact on environmentally compatible manufacturing will be emphasized. Since there is no universal solution to the various environmental, safety, and health issues which currently face industry, the proposed technologies offer several complementary materials and processing options from which one can choose.

Hosking, F.M.

1992-09-01

165

Integration of environmentally compatible soldering technologies for waste minimization  

SciTech Connect

There has been a concentrated effort throughout the international microelectronics industry to phase out chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) materials and alleviate the serious problem of ozone depletion created by the release of CFCS. The development of more environmentally compatible manufacturing technologies is the cornerstone of this effort. Alternative materials and processes for cleaning and soldering have received special attention. Electronic. soldering typically utilizes rosin-based fluxes to promote solder wettability. Flux residues must be removed from the soldered parts when high product reliability is essential. Halogenated or CFC solvents have been the principle chemicals used to clean the residues. With the accelerated push to eliminate CFCs in the US by 1995, CFC-free solvents, aqueous-based cleaning, water soluble or no clean'' fluxes, and fluxless soldering technologies are being developed and quickly integrated into manufacturing practice. Sandia's Center for Solder Science and Technology has been ch g a variety of fluxless and alternative soldering technologies for DOE's waste minimization program. The work has focused on controlled atmosphere, laser, and ultrasonic fluxless soldering, protective metallic and organic coatings, and fluxes which have water soluble or low solids-based chemistries. With the increasing concern that Pb will also be banned from electronic soldering, Sandia has been characterizing the wetting, aging, and mechanical properties of Pb-fire solder alloys. The progress of these integrated studies will be discussed. Their impact on environmentally compatible manufacturing will be emphasized. Since there is no universal solution to the various environmental, safety, and health issues which currently face industry, the proposed technologies offer several complementary materials and processing options from which one can choose.

Hosking, F.M.

1992-01-01

166

Potentials for food waste minimization and effects on potential biogas production through anaerobic digestion.  

PubMed

Several treatment alternatives for food waste can result in both energy and nutrient recovery, and thereby potential environmental benefits. However, according to the European Union waste management hierarchy, waste prevention should be the prioritized strategy to decrease the environmental burdens from all solid waste management. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the potential for food waste minimization among Swedish households through an investigation of the amount of avoidable food waste currently disposed of. A further aim was to investigate the effect on the national biogas production potential through anaerobic digestion of food waste, considering minimization potentials. A method for waste composition analyses of household food waste, where a differentiation between avoidable and unavoidable food waste is made, was used in a total of 24 waste composition analyses of household waste from Swedish residential areas. The total household food waste generation reached 3.4 kg (household and week)(-1), on average, of which 34% is avoidable. The theoretical methane (CH4) potential in unavoidable food waste reached 442 Ndm(3) (kg VS)(-1) or 128 Nm(3) tonne(-1) wet waste, while the measured (mesophilic CH4 batch tests) CH4 production reached 399 Ndm(3) (kg VS)(-1), which is lower than several previous assessments of CH4 production from household food waste. According to this study the combination of a decrease in food waste generation-in case of successful minimization-and decreased CH4 production from unavoidable food waste will thus result in lower total potential energy recovery from household food waste through anaerobic digestion CH4 potential than previously stated. PMID:23681829

Schott, Anna Bernstad Saraiva; Vukicevic, Sanita; Bohn, Irene; Andersson, Tova

2013-05-16

167

Applications of minimally invasive cardiac output monitors  

PubMed Central

Because of the increasing age of the population, critical care and emergency medicine physicians have seen an increased number of critically ill patients over the last decade. Moreover, the trend of hospital closures in the United States t imposes a burden of increased efficiency. Hence, the identification of devices that facilitate accurate but rapid assessments of hemodynamic parameters without the added burden of invasiveness becomes tantamount. The purpose of this review is to understand the applications and limitations of these new technologies.

2012-01-01

168

Zone Freezing Study for Pyrochemical Process Waste Minimization  

SciTech Connect

Pyroprocessing technology is a non-aqueous separation process for treatment of used nuclear fuel. At the heart of pyroprocessing lies the electrorefiner, which electrochemically dissolves uranium from the used fuel at the anode and deposits it onto a cathode. During this operation, sodium, transuranics, and fission product chlorides accumulate in the electrolyte salt (LiCl-KCl). These contaminates change the characteristics of the salt overtime and as a result, large volumes of contaminated salt are being removed, reprocessed and stored as radioactive waste. To reduce the storage volumes and improve recycling process for cost minimization, a salt purification method called zone freezing has been proposed at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Zone freezing is melt crystallization process similar to the vertical Bridgeman method. In this process, the eutectic salt is slowly cooled axially from top to bottom. As solidification occurs, the fission products are rejected from the solid interface and forced into the liquid phase. The resulting product is a grown crystal with the bulk of the fission products near the bottom of the salt ingot, where they can be easily be sectioned and removed. Despite successful feasibility report from KAERI on this process, there were many unexplored parameters to help understanding and improving its operational routines. Thus, this becomes the main motivation of this proposed study. The majority of this work has been focused on the CsCl-LiCl-KCl ternary salt. CeCl3-LiCl-KCl was also investigated to check whether or not this process is feasible for the trivalent speciessurrogate for rare-earths and transuranics. For the main part of the work, several parameters were varied, they are: (1) the retort advancement rate1.8, 3.2, and 5.0 mm/hr, (2) the crucible lid configurationslid versus no-lid, (3) the amount or size of mixture50 and 400 g, (4) the composition of CsCl in the salt1, 3, and 5 wt%, and (5) the temperature differences between the high and low furnace zones200 and 300 ?C. During each experiment, the temperatures at selected locations around the crucible were measured and recorded to provide temperature profiles. Following each experiment, samples were collected and elemental analysis was done to determine the composition of iii the salt. Several modelsnon-mixed, well-mixed, Favier, and hybridwere explored to describe the zone freezing process. For CsCl-LiCl-KCl system, experimental results indicate that through this process up to 90% of the used salt can be recycled, effectively reducing waste volume by a factor of ten. The optimal configuration was found to be a 5.0 mm/hr rate with a lid configuration and a ?T of 200C. The larger 400 g mixtures had recycle percentages similar to the 50 g mixtures; however, the throughput per time was greater for the 400 g case. As a result, the 400 g case is recommended. For the CeCl3-LiCl-KCl system, the result implies that it is possible to use this process to separate the rare-earth and transuranics chlorides. Different models were applied to only CsCl ternary system. The best fit model was the hybrid model as a result of a solute transport transition from non- mixed to well-mixed throughout the growing process.

Ammon Williams

2012-05-01

169

Methods Development for Minimizing Waste in the Purex Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Developments have made it possible to divide up by far the greatest part of the continually-occurring medium-active process waste into a high-active and a light-active fraction. The former can be added to the existing high-active waste without any essenti...

H. Schmieder H. Goldacker L. Finsterwalder

1977-01-01

170

Waste minimization charges up recycling of spent lead-acid batteries  

SciTech Connect

Substantial strides are being made to minimize waste generated form spent lead-acid battery recycling. The Center for Hazardous Materials Research (Pittsburgh) recently investigated the potential for secondary lead smelters to recover lead from battery cases and other materials found at hazardous waste sites. Primary and secondary lead smelters in the U.S. and Canada are processing substantial tons of lead wastes, and meeting regulatory safeguards. Typical lead wastes include contaminated soil, dross and dust by-products from industrial lead consumers, tetraethyl lead residues, chemical manufacturing by-products, leaded glass, china clay waste, munitions residues and pigments. The secondary lead industry also is developing and installing systems to convert process inputs to products with minimum generation of liquid, solid and gaseous wastes. The industry recently has made substantial accomplishments that minimize waste generation during lead production from its bread and butter feedstock--spent lead-acid batteries.

Queneau, P.B.; Troutman, A.L. (Hazen Research Inc., Golden, CO (United States))

1993-08-01

171

Waste minimization/pollution prevention at R&D facilities: Implementing the SNL/NM Process Waste Assessment Program  

SciTech Connect

The Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Process Waste Assessment (PWA) program began formally on November 2, 1992. This program represents the first laboratory-wide attempt to explicitly identify and characterize SNL/NM`s waste generating processes for waste minimization purposes. This paper describes the major elements of the SNL/NM PWA program, the underlying philosophy for designing a PWA program at a highly diverse laboratory setting such as SNL/NM, and the experiences and insights gained from five months of implementing this living program. Specifically, the SNL/NM PWA program consists of four major, interrelated phases: (1) Process Definition, (2) Process Characterization, (3) Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment, and (4) Project Evaluation, Selection, Implementation, and Tracking. This phased approach was developed to Provide a flexible, yet appropriate, level of detail to the multitude of different ``processes`` at SNL/NM. Using a staff infrastructure of approximately 60 Waste Minimization Network Representatives (MinNet Reps) and consulting support, the SNL/NM PWA program has become the linchpin of even more progressive and proactive environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) initiatives such as: (1) cradle-to-grove material/waste tracking, (2) centralized ES&H reporting, and (3) detailed baselining and tracking for measuring multi-media waste reduction goals. Specific examples from the SNL/NM PWA program are provided, including the results from Process Definition, Process Characterization, and Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessments performed for a typical SNL/NM process.

Kjeldgaard, E.A.; Stermer, D.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Saloio, J.H. Jr.; Lorton, G.A. [Ogden Environmental and Energy Services Co., Fairfax, VA (United States)

1993-05-01

172

Waste minimization/pollution prevention at R D facilities: Implementing the SNL/NM Process Waste Assessment Program  

SciTech Connect

The Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Process Waste Assessment (PWA) program began formally on November 2, 1992. This program represents the first laboratory-wide attempt to explicitly identify and characterize SNL/NM's waste generating processes for waste minimization purposes. This paper describes the major elements of the SNL/NM PWA program, the underlying philosophy for designing a PWA program at a highly diverse laboratory setting such as SNL/NM, and the experiences and insights gained from five months of implementing this living program. Specifically, the SNL/NM PWA program consists of four major, interrelated phases: (1) Process Definition, (2) Process Characterization, (3) Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment, and (4) Project Evaluation, Selection, Implementation, and Tracking. This phased approach was developed to Provide a flexible, yet appropriate, level of detail to the multitude of different processes'' at SNL/NM. Using a staff infrastructure of approximately 60 Waste Minimization Network Representatives (MinNet Reps) and consulting support, the SNL/NM PWA program has become the linchpin of even more progressive and proactive environmental, safety, and health (ES H) initiatives such as: (1) cradle-to-grove material/waste tracking, (2) centralized ES H reporting, and (3) detailed baselining and tracking for measuring multi-media waste reduction goals. Specific examples from the SNL/NM PWA program are provided, including the results from Process Definition, Process Characterization, and Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessments performed for a typical SNL/NM process.

Kjeldgaard, E.A.; Stermer, D.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Saloio, J.H. Jr.; Lorton, G.A. (Ogden Environmental and Energy Services Co., Fairfax, VA (United States))

1993-01-01

173

Waste Minimization Assessment for a Manufacturer of New and Reworked Rotogravure Printing Cylinders.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Waste Minimization Assessment Center (WMAC) team at the University of Louisville performed an assessment at a plant manufacturing cylinders for rotogravure printing. Rotogravure printing cylinders are produced from new stock and used cylinders that re...

M. Fleischman C. Hansen G. P. Looby

1995-01-01

174

Waste Minimization Assessment for a Manufacturer of Finished Metal and Plastic Parts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) team at Colorado State University performed an assessment at a plant that applies coatings to metal and plastic components supplied by its customers. Several different coating operations are performed, but...

H. W. Edwards M. F. Kostrzewa G. P. Looby

1994-01-01

175

Double-shell tank system dangerous waste permit application  

SciTech Connect

This Double-Shell Tank System Dangerous Waste Permit Application should be read in conjunction with the 242-A Evaporator Dangerous Waste Permit Application and the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, also submitted on June 28, 1991. Information contained in the Double-Shell Tank System permit application is referenced in the other two permit applications. The Double-Shell Tank System stores and treats mixed waste received from a variety of sources on the Hanford Site. The 242-A Evaporator treats liquid mixed waste received from the double-shell tanks. The 242-A Evaporator returns a mixed-waste slurry to the double-shell tanks and generates the dilute mixed-waste stream stored in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility. This report contains information on the following topics: Facility Description and General Provisions; Waste Characteristics; Process Information; Groundwater Monitoring; Procedures to Prevent Hazards; Contingency Plan; Personnel Training; Exposure Information Report; Waste Minimization Plan; Closure and Postclosure Requirements; Reporting and Recordkeeping; other Relevant Laws; and Certification. 150 refs., 141 figs., 118 tabs.

Not Available

1991-06-01

176

Waste minimization through real-time process monitoring and control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Environmental concerns are playing an increasingly important role in manufacturing processes. Hazardous wastes, such as volatile organic compounds and toxic metal ions, are by-products of polymer and plastic processing and electroplating. Solutions to the...

V. E. Granstaff S. H. Weissman

1991-01-01

177

INVESTIGATION OF CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES TO MINIMIZE AUTOMOTIVE COOLANT WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The US Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the State of New Jersey evaluated chemical filtration and distillation technologies designed to recycle automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants. These evaluations addressed the product quality, waste reduction and econo...

178

The Los Alamos National Laboratory Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Facility upgrades project - A model for waste minimization  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Facility, constructed in 1952, is currently undergoing a major, multi-year construction project. Many of the operations required under this project (i.e., design, demolition, decontamination, construction, and waste management) mimic the processes required of a large scale decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) job and are identical to the requirements of any of several upgrades projects anticipated for LANL and other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. For these reasons the CMR Upgrades Project is seen as an ideal model facility - to test the application, and measure the success of - waste minimization techniques which could be brought to bear on any of the similar projects. The purpose of this paper will be to discuss the past, present, and anticipated waste minimization applications at the facility and will focus on the development and execution of the project`s {open_quotes}Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention Strategic Plan.{close_quotes}

Burns, M.L.; Durrer, R.E.; Kennicott, M.A.

1996-07-01

179

Design of optimal waste gas minimization networks for a synthetic liquid fuels (H?coal) plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

To make alternative fuel sources economically competitive with crude oil fractionation processes, the volume of waste generated during production of the synthetic fuel must be reduced in a cost?effective manner. The purpose of this paper is to develop a systematic methodology to design optimal waste minimization networks to tackle air emissions generated during the production of synthetic fuels. In particular,

B. K. Srinivas

1994-01-01

180

RESULTS FROM A COOPERATIVE FEDERAL, STATE, AND TRADE ASSOCIATION WASTE MINIMIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development supported a waste minimization research program in 1986-1988 for small and medium sized generators to develop and promote the use of innovative technologies and management practices to reduce the generation of hazardous wastes. his ...

181

POLLUTION BALANCE: A NEW METHODOLOGY FOR MINIMIZING WASTE PRODUCTION IN MANUFACTURING PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

A new methodology based on a generic pollution balance equation, has been developed for minimizing waste production in manufacturing processes. pollution index," defined as the mass of waste produced per unit mass of a product, has been introduced to provide a quantitative measur...

182

POLLUTION BALANCE: A NEW METHODOLOGY FOR MINIMIZING WASTE PRODUCTION IN MANUFACTURING PROCESSES.  

EPA Science Inventory

A new methodolgy based on a generic pollution balance equation, has been developed for minimizing waste production in manufacturing processes. A "pollution index," defined as the mass of waste produced per unit mass of a product, has been introduced to provide a quantitative meas...

183

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF METAL-CUTTING WHEELS AND COMPONENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) ere established at s...

184

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF BASEBALL BATS AND GOLF CLUBS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACS) were established at selected un...

185

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF NEW AND REWORKED ROTOGRAVURE PRINTING CYLINDERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected un...

186

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF ROTOGRAVURE PRINTING CYLINDERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACS) were established at selected un...

187

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF INJECTION-MOLDED CAR AND TRUCK MIRRORS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected un...

188

Minimizing excess air could be wasting energy in process heaters  

SciTech Connect

Operating a process heater simply to achieve a minimum excess oxygen target in the flue gas may be wasting energy in some process heaters. That's because the real minimum excess oxygen percentage is that required to reach the point of absolute combustion in the furnace. The oxygen target required to achieve absolute combustion may be 1%, or it may be 6%, depending on the operating characteristics of the furnace. Where natural gas is burned, incomplete combustion can occur, wasting fuel dollars. Energy can be wasted because of some misconceptions regarding excess air control. These are: 2-3% excess oxygen in the flue gas is a universally good target, too little excess oxygen will always cause the evolution of black smoke in the stack, and excess air requirements are unaffected by commissioning an air preheater.

Lieberman, N.P.

1988-02-01

189

Small-quantity generator's handbook for managing RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) wastes. Pesticide application  

SciTech Connect

This RCRA Handbook was developed for pesticide applicators to provide assistance in complying with pertinent sections of the RCRA requirements. Section 2 summarizes operations of pesticide users and describes potential waste types that could be generated from these operations. Section 3 provides a guide for determining if a particular pesticide waste is subject to these regulations. Section 4 discusses the RCRA generator requirements, while Section 5 describes waste-management strategies for minimizing the amount of hazardous waste generated by the pesticide applicators. Appendix A lists hazardous wastes. Appendix B summarizes RCRA characteristic wastes. Appendix C contains a list of references and contacts for obtaining more information about hazardous wastes and their regulation.

Not Available

1988-06-01

190

Implementation of 10 CFR 20.1406, Regarding Minimizing Contamination and the Generation of Waste, and Facilitating Decommissioning through the Design of Facilities and Operating Procedures  

SciTech Connect

In the very near future (perhaps as soon as the fall of 2007), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) anticipates receiving one or more license applications for new nuclear power plants. An important consideration for new facilities is that they be designed and operated to minimize contamination, to minimize the generation of waste, and to facilitate decommissioning. A relatively recent regulation, 10 CFR 20.1406, mandates these requirements. The regulation states, 'Applicants for licenses, other than renewals, after August 20, 1997, shall describe in the application how facility design and procedures for operation will minimize, to the extent practicable, contamination of the facility and the environment, facilitate eventual decommissioning, and minimize, to the extent practicable, the generation of radioactive waste'. This paper summarizes various initiatives taken by the NRC and industry to develop guidance for implementing 10 CFR 20.1406 before submission of license applications. (authors)

O'Donnell, E.; Ott, W.R. [Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

2007-07-01

191

EPA'S RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM FOR WASTE MINIMIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper was presented at the 7th Annual Virginia Waste Management Conference in Richmond, Virginia on April 26, 1989. he purpose of the presentation and paper was to discuss the results of two cooperative agreements describing a non-traditional approach to pollution prevention...

192

INVESTIGATION OF CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES TO MINIMIZE AUTOMOTIVE COOLANT WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the State of New Jersey evaluated chemical filtration and distillation technologies designed to recycle automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants. hese evaluations addressed the product quality, waste reduction, and eco...

193

Hanford Site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site WMin/P2 program is an organized, comprehensive, and continual effort to systematically reduce the quantity and toxicity of hazardous, radioactive, mixed, and sanitary wastes; conserve resources; and prevent or minimize pollutant releases to all environmental media from all Site activities. The Hanford Site WMin/P2 program plan reflects national and DOE waste minimization and pollution prevention goals and policies, and represents an ongoing effort to make WMin/P2 part of the Site operating philosophy. In accordance with these policies, a hierarchical approach to environmental management has been adopted and is applied to all types of polluting and waste generating activities. Pollution prevention and waste minimization through source reduction are first priority in the Hanford WMin/P2 program, followed by environmentally safe recycling. Treatment to reduce the quantity, toxicity, and/or mobility will be considered only when prevention or recycling are not possible or practical. Environmentally safe disposal is the last option.

Not Available

1994-05-01

194

Waste-minimization assessment for a manufacturer of components for automobile air conditioners. Environmental research brief  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (PB92-216985, July 199). The WMAC team at the University of Tennessee performed an assessment at a plant manufacturing charged air coolers, round tube plate fin (RTPF) condensers, and air conditioner tubes for automotive air conditioning systems-approximately two million pounds per year. The team's report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that the majority of waste was generated in the rinse tanks and the hot water flush testing stations but that the greatest savings could be obtained by replacing solvent-based vapor degreasing systems with a detergent-based immersion system to eliminate still bottoms and evaporated solvent losses.

Looby, G.P.; Kirsch, F.W.

1992-06-01

195

Sandia National Laboratories/Production Agency Weapon Waste Minimization Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Plan describes activities to reduce the usage of hazardous materials and the production of hazardous material waste during the development, production, stockpile, and retirement phases of war reserve nuclear weapons and nuclear weapon test units. Activities related to the development and qualification of more benign materials and processes for weapon production and the treatment and disposal of these materials from weapon retirement are described in separate plans.

Skinrood, A.C.; Radosevich, L.G.

1991-07-01

196

An analysis of radioactive waste minimization efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

LANL will be the primary DOE facility for plutonium research and development and plutonium processing. A summary of the currently generated waste types, volumes, generating facilities or programs, and disposal costs are given in this report along with future waste generation projections. Several key existing technologies have been identified that could be introduced to reduce the generated waste at LANL. Four of these are discussed in detail in this report: (1) electrolytic surface decontamination, (2) electrochemical treatment of mixed wastes, (3) Long Range Alpha Detection (LRAD), and (4) Segmented Gate and Containerized Vat Leach System (SGS/CVL). These technologies may be implemented as modifications in upstream processes as well as more efficient volume reduction and segregation. The four technologies are mature enough to be implemented in the next two to three years and can be done so with the support for capital and operational costs. Also discussed in this report is a small sample of some of the recent waste minimization success stories that have been implemented. Several technologies are presented that are either currently being investigated or on hold due to lack of funding at LANL but show potential for making significant gains in waste minimization. This report is intended to provide a review of the waste minimization issues and analysis of the impact of implementing a few of these technologies.

Voit, S.L.; Boerigter, S.T.

1997-09-30

197

MINIMIZING WASTE AND COST IN DISPOSITION OF LEGACY RESIDUES  

SciTech Connect

Research is being conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) which is directed toward development of a quantitative basis for disposition of actinide-bearing process residues (both legacy residues and residues generated from ongoing programmatic operations). This research is focused in two directions: (1) identifying minimum negative consequence (waste, dose, cost) dispositions working within regulatory safeguards termination criteria, and (2) evaluating logistics/consequences of across-the-board residue discards such as authorized at Rocky Flats under a safeguards termination variance. The first approach emphasizes Laboratory commitments to environmental stewardship, worker safety, and fiscal responsibility. This approach has been described as the Plutonium Disposition Methodology (PDM) in deference to direction provided by DOE Albuquerque. The second approach is born of the need to expedite removal of residues from storage for programmatic and reasons and residue storage safety concerns. Any disposition path selected must preserve the legal distinction between residues as Special Nuclear Material (SNM) and discardable materials as waste in order to insure the continuing viability of Laboratory plutonium processing facilities for national security operations.

J. BALKEY; M. ROBINSON

2001-05-01

198

616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site is operated by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office. The 616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility receives and stores nonradioactive dangerous waste from various Hanford generating units until the waste can be transported offsite for treatment, storage, and/or disposal. Storage of this nonradioactive dangerous waste is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. The single dangerous waste permit identification number issued to the Hanford Site by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology is US Environmental Protection Agency/State Identification Number WA 7890008967. This identification number encompasses a number of waste management units within the Hanford Site. Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and serves as co-operator of the 616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility, the waste management unit addressed by this permit application. The 616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application consists of both a Part A and a Part B permit application. An explanation of Part A revisions associated with this waste management unit, including the one submitted with this document, is provided at the beginning of the Part A Section. 57 refs.

Not Available

1989-07-31

199

1994 Annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress as required by DOE Order 5400.1, Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

Many Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention successes at the Hanford Site occur every day without formal recognition. A few of the successful projects are: T-Plant helps facilities reuse equipment by offering decontamination services for items such as gas cylinders, trucks, and railcars, thus saving disposal and equipment replacement costs. Custodial Services reviewed its use of 168 hazardous cleaning products, and, through a variety of measures, replaced them with 38 safer substitutes, one for each task. Scrap steel contaminated with low level radioactivity from the interim stabilization of 107-K and 107-C was decontaminated and sold to a vendor for recycling. Site-wide programs include the following: the Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (P2OA) program at the Hanford site was launched during 1994, including a training class, a guidance document, technical assistance, and goals; control over hazardous materials purchased was achieved by reviewing all purchase requisitions of a chemical nature; the Office Supply Reuse Program was established to redeploy unused or unwanted office supply items. In 1994, pollution prevention activities reduced approximately 274,000 kilograms of hazardous waste, 2,100 cubic meters of radioactive and mixed waste, 14,500,000 kilograms of sanitary waste, and 215,000 cubic meters off liquid waste and waste water. Pollution Prevention activities also saved almost $4.2 million in disposal, product, and labor costs. Overall waste generation increased in 1994 due to increased work and activity typical for a site with an environmental restoration mission. However, without any Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention activities, solid radioactive waste generation at Hanford would have been 25% higher, solid hazardous waste generation would have been 30% higher, and solid sanitary waste generation would have been 60% higher.

NONE

1995-09-01

200

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Dangerous Waste Permit Application  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Facility currently stores mixed waste, resulting from various processing operations, in underground storage tanks. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant will be constructed and operated to process the high-activity fraction of mixed waste stored in these underground tanks. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant will solidify pretreated tank waste into a glass product that will be packaged for disposal in a national repository. This Vitrification Plant Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Revision 2, consists of both a Part A and a Part B permit application. An explanation of the Part A revisions, including Revision 4 submitted with this application, is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. The Part B consists of 15 chapters addressing the organization and content of the Part B Checklist prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987).

Not Available

1991-10-01

201

WASOP, a qualitative methodology for waste minimization : Systems thinking, HAZOP principles and nuclear waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose The international nuclear community continues to face the challenge of managing both the legacy waste and the new wastes that emerge from ongoing energy production. The UK is in the early stages of proposing a new convention for its nuclear industry, that is: waste minimisation through closely managing the radioactive source which creates the waste. This paper proposes

Duncan Shaw; Neil Blundell

2008-01-01

202

Second international symposium on extraction and processing for the treatment and minimization of wastes - 1996  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains 71 papers presented at the Second International symposium on Extraction and Processing for the Treatment and Minimization of Wastes. 21 papers were selected for the database. The papers selected covered topics in chemical, environmental, and mechanical engineering related to radioactive and nonradioactive wastes. Specific topics include spent catalyst processing of petroleum refinery wastes; redox alloy for water treatment; thermodynamic modeling of uranium fluoride waste processing; calcination of radioactive wastes; geochemical modeling of radioactive waste processing; removal and/or stabilization of arsenic, selenium, mercury, lead and other metals from soils and ground water; pond dredging and dewatering; options for complying with water quality based metal limitations; removal of thorium from ilmenite; and electroslag remelting of fusion reactor vanadium alloy.

Ramachandran, V.; Nesbitt, C.C. [eds.

1996-12-31

203

Potential pollution prevention and waste minimization for Department of Energy operations  

SciTech Connect

With the tightening of budgets and limited resources, it is important to ensure operations are carried out in a cost-effective and productive manner. Implementing an effective Pollution Prevention strategy can help to reduce the costs of waste management and prevent harmful releases to the environment. This document provides an estimate of the Department of Energy`s waste reduction potential from the implementation of Pollution Prevention opportunities. A team of Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention professionals was formed to collect the data and make the estimates. The report includes a list of specific reduction opportunities for various waste generating operations and waste types. A generic set of recommendations to achieve these reduction opportunities is also provided as well as a general discussion of the approach and assumptions made for each waste generating operation.

Griffin, J.; Ischay, C.; Kennicott, M.; Pemberton, S.; Tull, D.

1995-10-01

204

Waste minimization study for a printed circuit board manufacturing facility in Taiwan  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a demonstration of industrial waste minimization sponsored by the Environmental Protection Administration, Taiwan, Republic of China. Waste reduction opportunities are identified and evaluated for a printed circuit board manufacturing facility in Taiwan. Plant audits were conducted on various processes, such as deburring, alkaline etching, black oxidation, desmearing, electroless copper, and copper and tin/lead plating. Specific areas in which the wastes could be minimized, such as reducing the amount of dragout and rinse water requirements in the plating and etchant lines, and on-site treatment and reuse of spent bath solutions were identified, assessed, and implemented. Jar tests on the wastewater were performed, and the results were used to improve the efficiency of the wastewater treatment plant for removal of heavy metals and reduction of sludge generation. In addition, administrative controls of hazardous wastes designed to reduce associated health and environmental hazards were recommended. 4 figs., 9 tabs.

Chiu, Shen-yann; Huang, Hann S.; Peters, R.W.; Tsai, S.Y. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Tsai, Wen-Tien; Shieh, Shih-Shien; Hsieh, Te-Yuan; Hwang, Li-Shyong (CTCI Corp., Taipei (Taiwan)); Liu, Solo; Peng, Chien-Tang (Printed Wire Corp., Ping Chen, Taoyuan (Taiwan)); Wu, Min H. (Waste Minimization Technology International, Inc., Pewaukee, WI (USA))

1990-01-01

205

Waste minimization plan construction and operation of the replacement cross-site transfer system, project W-058  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the research and development of a waste minimization plan for the construction and operation of Project W-058, Replacement of the Cross-Site Transfer System, on the Hanford Site. The plan is based on Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-307, Plans. The waste minimization plan identifies areas where pollution prevention/waste minimization principles can be incorporated into the construction and operation of the cross-site transfer system.

Boucher, T.D.

1996-04-01

206

Substitute conversion coatings on aluminum for waste minimization  

SciTech Connect

Chromate conversion coatings such as Parker Company`s Alodine coatings are widely used to increase the corrosion resistance of aluminum and aluminum alloys. The primary disadvantage of chromate-based processes is that they use and produce as waste hexavalent chromium (Cr{sup 6+}). We have discovered that the corrosion resistance of Al can be increased by forming an inorganic barrier coating using chemicals that pose a relatively small environmental hazard. These new coatings are formed using a process that is procedurally identical to the basic chromate conversion process. We have prepared new and conventional coatings on 1100 (99.0 Al minimum), 2024-T3 (Al-Cu-Mg) and 7075-T6 (Al-Zn-Mg) commercial sheet stock for accelerated electrochemical testing and coating conductivity testing. Results show that the new coatings offer increased corrosion resistance compared to uncoated Al, but do not yet match the performance of the chromate conversion coatings. The conductivity of these new films on 1100 Al is comparable to that of Alodine coatings; however, the new coatings are more resistive than Alodine coatings on 2024-T3 and 7075-T6.

Buchheit, R.G.; Bode, M.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stoner, G.E. [Virginia Univ., Charlottesville, VA (United States). Center for Electrochemical Sciences and Engineering

1991-09-01

207

Identifying industrial best practices for the waste minimization of low-level radioactive materials  

SciTech Connect

In US DOE, changing circumstances are affecting the management and disposal of solid, low-level radioactive waste (LLW). From 1977 to 1991, the nuclear power industry achieved major reductions in solid waste disposal, and DOE is interested in applying those practices to reduce solid waste at DOE facilities. Project focus was to identify and document commercial nuclear industry best practices for radiological control programs supporting routine operations, outages, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The project team (DOE facility and nuclear power industry representatives) defined a Work Control Process Model, collected nuclear power industry Best Practices, and made recommendations to minimize LLW at DOE facilities.

Levin, V.

1996-04-01

208

INNOVATIVE PRACTICES FOR TREATING WASTE STREAMS CONTAINING HEAVY METALS: A WASTE MINIMIZATION APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

Innovative practices for treating waste streams containing heavy metals often involve technologies or systems that either reduce the amount of waste generated or recover reusable resources. With the land disposal of metal treatment residuals becoming less of an accepted waste man...

209

INNOVATIVE PRACTICES FOR TREATING WASTE STREAMS CONTAINING HEAVY METALS: A WASTE MINIMIZATION APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

Innovative practices for treating waste streams containing heavy metals often involve technologies or systems that either reduce the amount of waste generated or recover reusable resources. ith the land disposal of metal treatment residuals becoming less of an accepted waste mana...

210

Possible applications for municipal solid waste fly ash.  

PubMed

The present study focuses on existing practices related to the reuse of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) fly ash and identifies new potential uses. Nine possible applications were identified and grouped into four main categories: construction materials (cement, concrete, ceramics, glass and glass-ceramics); geotechnical applications (road pavement, embankments); "agriculture" (soil amendment); and, miscellaneous (sorbent, sludge conditioning). Each application is analysed in detail, including final-product technical characteristics, with a special emphasis on environmental impacts. A comparative analysis of the different options is performed, stressing the advantages but also the weaknesses of each option. This information is systemized in order to provide a framework for the selection of best technology and final products. The results presented here show new possibilities for this waste reuse in a short-term, in a wide range of fields, resulting in great advantages in waste minimization as well as resources conservation. PMID:12493209

Ferreira, C; Ribeiro, A; Ottosen, L

2003-01-31

211

Waste-minimization assessment for a manufacturer of rebuilt railway cars and components. Environmental research brief  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA/625/7-88/003, July 1988). The WMAC team at the University of Tennessee inspected a plant that rebuilds approximately 2,000 railway cars (open, flat, and freight) each year and that refurbishes wheel assemblies and air brake systems. The team's report, detailing their findings and recommendations, indicated that the greatest opportunities to minimize waste came from the railcar painting operation where paint and primer solids and sludge are generated. The team recommended installing an electrostatic spray paint system for priming and painting to reduce the overspray losses. The Research Brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA's Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from the authors.

Kirsch, F.W.; Looby, G.P.

1991-07-01

212

Progress toward pollution prevention and waste minimization in the North American gold mining industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a case study of pollution prevention and waste minimization in the North American gold mining industry. Specifically outlined are: 1) the environmental options available to North American goldmines for use in cyanidation setups and Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) control, generally recognized as the two most environmentally problematic areas in the industry; 2) the progress made towards pollution

Gavin Hilson; Barbara Murck

2001-01-01

213

Waste-minimization assessment for a manufacturer of outdoor illuminated signs. Environmental research brief  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA/625/7-88/003, July 1988). The WMAC team at the University of Tennessee inspected a plant making large and small outdoor signs with the use of steel channels and sheeting, plastic sheeting, paint, adhesives, electrical wiring, and hardware. The team's report, detailing their findings and recommendations, identified the greatest opportunities to minimize waste in the painting, cleaning, and letter gluing operations. The greatest savings would result from the reactivation of an unused electrostatic paint spray system. The Research Brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA's Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from the authors.

Kirsch, F.W.; Looby, G.P.

1991-07-01

214

Waste-minimization assessment for a manufacturer of printed plastic bags. Research brief  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA/625/7-88/003, July 1988). The WMAC team at the University of Tennessee performed an assessment at a plant manufacturing printed plastic bags for snack foods - approximately 1.8 million lb/yr. Plastic stock is ink printed and oven cured. To make single-layer bags, a heat seal process is used, and the bags are then packaged and shipped. For certain products, a plastic or metalized film is laminated to the printed plastic film, the rolls are slit to obtain individual bags, and the bags are packaged and shipped. The team's report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated the most waste was generated in the lamination process and that the greatest savings could be obtained by installing an automatic adhesive/solvent mixing system to reduce (75%) the waste from the unused metalized film adhesive/solvent mixture.

Kirsch, F.W.; Looby, G.P.

1990-12-01

215

Waste minimization assessment for a manufacturer of iron castings and fabricated sheet metal parts  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual. That document has been superseded by the Facility Pollution Prevention Guide. The WMAC team at the University of Louisville performed an assessment at a plant that manufactures iron castings and fabricated sheet metal parts. Foundry operations include mixing and mold formation, core making, metal pouring, shakeout, finishing, and painting. Cutting, shaping, and welding are the principal metal fabrication operations. The team`s report, detailing findings and recommendations indicated that paint-related wastes are generated in large quantities, and that significant waste reduction and cost savings could be realized by installing a dry powder coating system or by replacing conventional air spray paint guns with high-volume low-pressure spray guns. This research brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA`s National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from University City Science Center.

Fleischman, M.; Harris, J.J.; Handmaker, A.; Looby, G.P.

1995-08-01

216

Minimizing Characterization - Derived Waste at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina  

SciTech Connect

Environmental restoration activities at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS) utilize innovative site characterization approaches and technologies that minimize waste generation. Characterization is typically conducted in phases, first by collecting large quantities of inexpensive data, followed by targeted minimally invasive drilling to collect depth-discrete soil/groundwater data, and concluded with the installation of permanent multi-level groundwater monitoring wells. Waste-reducing characterization methods utilize non-traditional drilling practices (sonic drilling), minimally intrusive (geoprobe, cone penetrometer) and non-intrusive (3-D seismic, ground penetration radar, aerial monitoring) investigative tools. Various types of sensor probes (moisture sensors, gamma spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, laser induced and X-ray fluorescence) and hydrophobic membranes (FLUTe) are used in conjunction with depth-discrete sampling techniques to obtain high-resolution 3-D plume profiles. Groundwater monitoring (short/long-term) approaches utilize multi-level sampling technologies (Strata-Sampler, Cone-Sipper, Solinst Waterloo, Westbay) and low-cost diffusion samplers for seepline/surface water sampling. Upon collection of soil and groundwater data, information is portrayed in a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) format for interpretation and planning purposes. At the SRS, the use of non-traditional drilling methods and minimally/non intrusive investigation approaches along with in-situ sampling methods has minimized waste generation and improved the effectiveness and efficiency of characterization activities.

Van Pelt, R. S.; Amidon, M. B.; Reboul, S. H.

2002-02-25

217

Waste minimization assessment for a printed-circuit-board manufacturer. Environmental research brief  

SciTech Connect

Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities, and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA/625/7-88/003, July 1988). The WMAC team at the University of Tennessee performed an assessment at a plant manufacturing printed circuit boards for television sets--approximately 4.3 million sq ft of finished boards per yr. To make printed circuit boards, the plant begins with making screens as all printing is accomplished using silk-screening techniques. The circuit boards undergo several operations including punching, scrubbing, printing, etching, and soldering. The team's report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that the majority of waste was generated in the circuit board production lines but the greatest savings could be obtained by installing a closed-loop cooling water system to reduce (60%) excess water usage in the UV-light curing ovens after screen printing and the cooling of the cupric chloride etch tanks.

Looby, G.P.; Kirsch, F.W.

1992-05-01

218

Waste minimization in a non-production oriented metal finishing operation  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides information on activities undertaken in a non- production oriented metal finishing operation to minimize waste and conserve resources. The facility is a 6000 sq foot shop that typically only deals with prototype parts. Utilizing a plan that includes employee awareness, common sense and existing technology, a noticeable reduction in waste volume has been obtained. Initiatives that are covered include: segregation of cyanide plating solutions, elimination of copper cyanide plating, elimination of hexavalent chromium plating, elimination of vapor degreasing, changing of rinsing practices, and changing a process for cleaning of aluminum parts. Some discussion is also presented on the effectiveness of combining the technologies of physical vapor deposition and electrodeposition to help minimize waste. Plans for additional initiatives including water recycling, elimination of cyanide plating and substitution of electrodeposition for electroless deposition of Ni-P alloys are also covered.

Dini, J.W.; Steffani, C.P.

1991-11-01

219

616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site is operated by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office. The 616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility receives and stores nonradioactive dangerous waste from various Hanford Site generating units until the waste can be transported offsite for treatment, storage, and/or disposal. Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and serves as co- operator of the 616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility, the waste management unit addressed by this permit application. The 616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application consists of both a Part A and a Part B permit application. An explanation of the Part A revisions associated with this waste management unit, including the one submitted with this document, is provided at the beginning of the Part A Section. The Part B consists of 15 chapters addressing the organization and content of the Part B Checklist prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987). For ease of reference, the checklist section numbers, in brackets, follow chapter headings and subheadings.

Not Available

1990-06-01

220

RCRA Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility Permit Number NEV HW0101 Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report Calendar Year 2011  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identification number of each generator from which the Permittee received a waste stream; a description and quantity of each waste stream in tons and cubic feet received at the facility; the method of treatment, storage, and/or disposal for each waste stream; a description of the waste minimization efforts undertaken; a description of the changes in volume and toxicity of waste actually received; any unusual occurrences; and the results of tank integrity assessments. This Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report is prepared in accordance with Section 2.13.3 of Permit Number NEV HW0101.

NSTec Environmental Restoration

2012-02-16

221

Waste minimization at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: A case study of environmentally conscious manufacturing  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on what we`ve accomplished and have planned in our plating operation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in the area of waste minimization. Our efforts have included issues other than waste minimization and, therefore, fall under the wider umbrella entitled pollution prevention or environmentally conscious electroplating. Approximately one year has passed since our last report on pollution prevention and since this topic remains a high-effort activity much more has been accomplished. Our efforts to date fall under the first two generation categories of waste reduction. Good housekeeping practices, inventory control, and minor changes in operating practices (first generation) resulted in an impressive amount of waste reduction. In the second generation of waste reduction, current technology, separation technologies, and material substitutions were used to reduce emission and wastes. The third generation of improvements requires significant technological advances in process synthesis and engineering. We are presently starting some projects in this third generation phase and these will be discussed at the end of this paper.

Steffani, C.P.; Dini, J.W.

1994-02-01

222

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF FELT TIP MARKERS, STAMP PADS, AND RUBBER CEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

223

Pollution prevention/waste minimization program 1998 fiscal year work plan - WBS 1.11.2.1  

SciTech Connect

Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) is the Department of Energy`s preferred approach to environmental management. The P2/WMin mission is to eliminate or minimize waste generation, pollutant releases to the environment, use of toxic substances, and to conserve resources by implementing cost-effective pollution prevention technologies, practices, and polices.

Howald, S.C.

1997-08-22

224

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF NEW AND REWORKED ROTOGRAVURE PRINTING CYLINDERS (EPA/600/S-95/005)  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected u...

225

Trip reports. Hazardous-waste minimization and control at Army depots  

SciTech Connect

USATHAMA and PEI personnel participated in meetings and facility tours at eight Army depots between April 5 and July 19, 1989. The purpose of these visits was to acquire comparable information on waste minimization at the depots. Information was collected both on tasks to be conducted in the near future under the current Task Order and potential research projects that USATHAMA may select for long-term effort. Projects that could be funded under PEI's current scope of work include those related to VOC emissions, abrasive blasting (including plastic media blasting), chemical paint strippers, degreasing, electroplating and generation of metals-contaminated sludges. Many of the projects are related, and information from one study could be transferred to the depot of interest in another related study. From these projects, USATHAMA and PEI have selected three tentative projects that will be implemented and one alternative project that may be implemented during the remainder of Task Order No. 0004. These projects are listed below: Conduct tests of paint application systems. Extend lives of process bath (e.g., NaOH) at Letterkenny. Implement chromium recovery units for rinse water at Corpus Christi. An alternative project is to evaluate the use of zirconia alumina as a blast media at Tobyhanna.

Not Available

1989-08-01

226

WESF hot cells waste minimization criteria hot cells window seals evaluation  

SciTech Connect

WESF will decouple from B Plant in the near future. WESF is attempting to minimize the contaminated solid waste in their hot cells and utilize B Plant to receive the waste before decoupling. WESF wishes to determine the minimum amount of contaminated waste that must be removed in order to allow minimum maintenance of the hot cells when they are placed in ''laid-up'' configuration. The remaining waste should not cause unacceptable window seal deterioration for the remaining life of the hot cells. This report investigates and analyzes the seal conditions and hot cell history and concludes that WESF should remove existing point sources, replace cerium window seals in F-Cell and refurbish all leaded windows (except for A-Cell). Work should be accomplished as soon as possible and at least within the next three years.

Walterskirchen, K.M.

1997-03-31

227

REDUCING WASTE IN THE PHOTO LAB WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT MAKE IT EASY  

EPA Science Inventory

As the attention given to waste disposal and pollution prevention increases, so does the possibility of regulation. wners and operators of small photo processing labs are among the many who must be concerned about waste disposal and pollution prevention. he U.S. EPA conducted a w...

228

Waste-minimization assessment for a manufacturer of motor-vehicle exterior mirrors. Environmental Research Brief  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA/625/7-88/003, July 1988). The WMAC team at the University of Tennessee performed an assessment at a plant manufacturing exterior motor vehicle mirrors--approximately 3 million mirrors per year. Galvanized steel and stainless steel stock undergo stamping, pressing, and cutting operations followed by degreasing. Stainless steel mirror housings are buffed, assembled, packaged, and shipped. Galvanized steel, zinc die-cast, and plastic mirror parts are washed then electrostatically primed and painted. Parts are assembled, packaged, and shipped. The team's report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that the majority of the waste was generated in the cleaning and washing areas but that the greatest savings could be obtained by installing an electrostatic powder coating system to reduce primer/paint overspray (100%) solvent evaporation (55%), cleaning solvent evaporation (80%), and still bottoms (80%).

Kirsch, F.W.; Looby, G.P.

1992-05-01

229

Waste-minimization assessment for a manufacturer of printed-circuit boards. Environmental research brief  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA/625/7-88/003, July 1988). The WMAC team at Colorado State University inspected a plant producing printed circuit boards -- a plant that already had taken steps to control its hazardous wastes. Producing a circuit board involves many major processes and subprocesses: preparing the board; depositing copper on the board by electroless plating; applying dry film; electrolytically plating copper; electrolytically plating tin; etching and stripping; applying solder; and, perhaps, plating gold on connectors. Each of these steps produces hazardous wastes, e.g., electrolytic copper plating results in acid soap dumps, copper and tin drag-out, and sulfuric acid. The main sources of metallic contamination (copper (both dissolved and metallic), tin, lead, gold) are the rinses after scrubbing, plating, and etching. Although the greatest amount of waste can be reduced by reusing effluent from the MEMTEK (with some further treatment), the greatest dollar savings can be found by changing the dry film developer. The present brand adheres strongly to the unexposed film and requires an aggressive acid soap; a less aggressive, nonhazardous soap could be used with a less-adhering dry film developer. The Research Brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA's Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from the authors.

Kirsch, F.W.; Looby, G.P.

1991-07-01

230

Unrestricted disposal of minimal activity levels of radioactive wastes: exposure and risk calculations  

SciTech Connect

The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is currently considering revision of rule 10 CFR Part 20, which covers disposal of solid wastes containing minimal radioactivity. In support of these revised rules, we have evaluated the consequences of disposing of four waste streams at four types of disposal areas located in three different geographic regions. Consequences are expressed in terms of human exposures and associated health effects. Each geographic region has its own climate and geology. Example waste streams, waste disposal methods, and geographic regions chosen for this study are clearly specified. Monetary consequences of minimal activity waste disposal are briefly discussed. The PRESTO methodology was used to evaluate radionuclide transport and health effects. This methodology was developed to assess radiological impacts to a static local population for a 1000-year period following disposal. Pathways and processes of transit from the trench to exposed populations included the following considerations: groundwater transport, overland flow, erosion, surface water dilution, resuspension, atmospheric transport, deposition, inhalation, and ingestion of contaminated beef, milk, crops, and water. 12 references, 2 figures, 8 tables.

Fields, D.E.; Emerson, C.J.

1984-08-01

231

Development of waste minimization and decontamination technologies at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant  

SciTech Connect

Emphasis on the minimization of decontamination secondary waste has increased because of restrictions on the use of hazardous chemicals and Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) waste handling issues. The Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co. (LITCO) Decontamination Development Subunit has worked to evaluate and introduce new performed testing, evaluations, development and on-site demonstrations for a number of novel decontamination techniques that have not yet previously been used at the ICPP. This report will include information on decontamination techniques that have recently been evaluated by the Decontamination Development Subunit.

Ferguson, R.L.; Archibald, K.E.; Demmer, R.L. [and others

1995-11-01

232

Waste minimization in the poultry processing industry. Process and water quality aspects  

SciTech Connect

The poultry processing industry is a large, water intensive industry. In a typical week in Alabama up to 15 million birds are processed, and Arkansas, Georgia, and North Carolina have similar processing volumes. This presentation will focus on issues surrounding waste minimization in the live processing industry as well as provide a brief look at the prepared foods segment, mainly cooked chicken products. The case study also reviews water quality issues that require us to examine waste treatment in a new light. This information will also apply to other industries facing more stringent treatment requirements as a result of stiffer water quality regulations.

Gelman, S.R.; Scott, S.; Davis, H.

1989-11-09

233

Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill permit application  

SciTech Connect

Daily activities at the Hanford Site generate sanitary solid waste (nonhazardous and nonradioactive) that is transported to and permanently disposed of at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill. This permit application describes the manner in which the solid Waste Landfill will be operated under Washington State Department of Ecology Minimum Functional Standards for Solid Waste Handling, Washington Administrative Code 173-304. The solid Waste Landfill is owned by the US Department of Energy -- Richland Operations Office and is used for disposal of solid waste generated at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site. The jurisdictional health department's permit application form for the Solid Waste Landfill is provided in Chapter 1.0. Chapter 2.0 provides a description of the Hanford Site and the Solid Waste Landfill and reviews applicable locational, general facility, and landfilling standards. Chapter 3.0 discusses the characteristics and quantity of the waste disposed of in the Solid Waste Landfill. Chapter 4.0 reviews the regional and site geology and hydrology and the groundwater and vadose zone quality beneath the landfill. Chapters 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0 contain the plan of operation, closure plan, and postclosure plan, respectively. The plan of operation describes the routine operation and maintenance of the Solid Waste Landfill, the environmental monitoring program, and the safety and emergency plans. Chapter 5.0 also addresses the operational cover, environmental controls, personnel requirements, inspections, recordkeeping, reporting, and site security. The postclosure plan describes requirements for final cover maintenance and environmental monitoring equipment following final closure. Chapter 8.0 discusses the integration of closure and postclosure activities between the Solid Waste Landfill and adjacent Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill. 76 refs., 48 figs, 15 tabs.

Not Available

1991-01-01

234

Waste minimization assessment for a manufacturer of baseball bats and golf clubs. Environmental research brief  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Center (WMAC) at the University of Louisville performed an assessment at a plant manufacturing baseball bats and golf clubs -- approximately 1,500,000 bats/yr and 550,000 golf clubs/yr. To make the bats, wood billets are oven-dried and machined to a standard dimension. After sanding they are branded and finished. The golf clubs are made by finishing and assembling purchased heads and shafts. The team's report detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that the most waste, other than rinse water discharged to the publicly owned treatment works (POTW) and wood turnings which are sold, consists of scrap cardboard and paper from the shop and offices, and that the greatest savings, including new income, could be obtained by segregating the cardboard and paper wastes for sale to a local recycler.

Fleischman, M.; Kirsch, F.W.; Maginn, J.C.

1993-09-01

235

In situ vitrification: application analysis for stabilization of transuranic waste  

SciTech Connect

The in situ vitrification process builds upon the electric melter technology previously developed for high-level waste immobilization. In situ vitrification converts buried wastes and contaminated soil to an extremely durable glass and crystalline waste form by melting the materials, in place, using joule heating. Once the waste materials have been solidified, the high integrity waste form should not cause future ground subsidence. Environmental transport of the waste due to water or wind erosion, and plant or animal intrusion, is minimized. Environmental studies are currently being conducted to determine whether additional stabilization is required for certain in-ground transuranic waste sites. An applications analysis has been performed to identify several in situ vitrification process limitations which may exist at transuranic waste sites. Based on the process limit analysis, in situ vitrification is well suited for solidification of most in-ground transuranic wastes. The process is best suited for liquid disposal sites. A site-specific performance analysis, based on safety, health, environmental, and economic assessments, will be required to determine for which sites in situ vitrification is an acceptable disposal technique. Process economics of in situ vitrification compare favorably with other in-situ solidification processes and are an order of magnitude less than the costs for exhumation and disposal in a repository. Leachability of the vitrified product compares closely with that of Pyrex glass and is significantly better than granite, marble, or bottle glass. Total release to the environment from a vitrified waste site is estimated to be less than 10/sup -5/ parts per year. 32 figures, 30 tables.

Oma, K.H.; Farnsworth, R.K.; Rusin, J.M.

1982-09-01

236

Waste management models and their application to sustainable waste management  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to review the types of models that are currently being used in the area of municipal waste management and to highlight some major shortcomings of these models. Most of the municipal waste models identified in the literature are decision support models and for the purposes of this research, are divided into three categories--those based on cost benefit analysis, those based on life cycle assessment and those based on multicriteria decision making. Shortcomings of current waste management models include that they are concerned with refinements of the evaluation steps (e.g. stage four of AHP or the improvement of weight allocations in ELECTRE) rather than addressing the decision making process itself. In addition, while many models recognise that for a waste management model to be sustainable, it must consider environmental, economic and social aspects, no model examined considered all three aspects together in the application of the model.

Morrissey, A.J.; Browne, J

2004-07-01

237

1994 annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress as required by DOE Order 5400.1  

SciTech Connect

The Y-12 Plant serves as a key manufacturing technology center for the development and demonstration of unique materials, components, and services of importance to the Department of Energy (DOE) and the nation. This is accomplished through the reclamation and storage of nuclear materials, manufacture of nuclear materials, manufacture of components for the nation`s defense capabilities, support to national security programs, and services provided to other customers as approved by DOE. We are recognized by our people, the community, and our customers as innovative, responsive, and responsible. We are a leader in worker health and safety, environmental protection, and stewardship of our national resources. As a DOE facility, Y-12 also supports DOE`s waste minimization mission. Data contained in this report represents waste generation in Tennessee.

Irwin, E.F.; Poligone, S.E.

1995-10-16

238

Evidence-Based Integrated Environmental Solutions For Secondary Lead Smelters: Pollution Prevention And Waste Minimization Technologies And Practices  

EPA Science Inventory

An evidence-based methodology was adopted in this research to establish strategies to increase lead recovery and recycling via a systematic review and critical appraisal of the published literature. In particular, the research examines pollution prevention and waste minimization...

239

Incorporation of pollution prevention and waste minimization practices during the decommissioning of Building 310 at Argonne National Laboratory-East  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decommissioning of radiologically contaminated buildings at Department of Energy (DOE) sites provides a major opportunity to include pollution prevention and waste minimization (P2\\/WMin) practices to minimize waste using authorized release opportunities, and recycle and reuse (R2) activities on a complex-wide basis. The ``P2\\/WMin Users Guide for Decommissioning Projects`` (a.k.a. Users Guide or Guide) will be used to incorporate P2\\/WMin

J. Mezaraups; M. A. Krstich; P. J. Yerace; M. J. Gresalfi

1997-01-01

240

A literature review of waste treatment technologies which may be applicable to wastes generated at fertilizer/agrichemical dealer sites  

SciTech Connect

Pesticide and fertilizer products, as well as petroleum fuels and oils, are handled by several thousand agricultural chemical dealers (dealers) in the United States. incidental spillage of these products, as well as improper disposal or recycling of equipment and container rinsewaters, can result in contamination of soil, surface water and groundwater with hazardous chemicals. Past accidental spills and improperdisposal and management practices are another source of contamination. As dealers continue their efforts to contain, collect, and recycle their wastes and spills, there will be an increasing need for safe, efficient, and cost-effective waste treatment technologies to treat that portion of the wastes and spills that cannot be recycled. The National Fertilizer Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has initiated an effort to modify, research, develop, demonstrate, introduce, and market waste treatment technologies for dealers. This report supports this effort by providing a review of the literature concerning several physical and chemical waste treatment technologies which may be applicable to the wastes generated by dealers. Applicable waste treatment technologies identified in the literature search include carbon adsorption, UV-ozonation with biological degradation, wet-air oxidation, solar photooxidation, supercritical water oxidation, or microwave plasma destruction. Waste minimization and management technologies, such as recycling, are discussed in this report. The current regulatory environment concerning wastes generated by dealers is also reviewed. Finally, the issues discussed at several national and regional conferences on pesticide waste treatment and disposal technologies are reviewed and conclusions drawn from this information are presented.

Norwood, V.M.

1990-10-01

241

Selection of cultivars for minimization of waste and of water consumption in cassava starch production  

Microsoft Academic Search

When considering the sustainability of a business, deciding on the industrial use of starchy raw materials requires more than just the information on their agricultural productivity and starch yield. The main goal of this work was to investigate ten different cultivars to select for industrial applications seeking to minimize residue generation and water consumption in the production of cassava starch.

Helayne Aparecida Maieves; Daiana Cardoso De Oliveira; Jlia Rodrigues Frescura; Edna Regina Amante

2011-01-01

242

Standard data report. 1997 annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress  

SciTech Connect

The Laboratory`s central mission of Reducing the Global Nuclear Danger supports core competencies that enable the Laboratory to contribute to defense, civilian, and industrial needs. In turn, the intellectual challenges of civilian and industrial problems strengthen and help support the core competencies required for the national security mission. The ability to do great science underpins all of the applied work. There are five core competencies which support this mission: (1) Stockpile Stewardship ensures the US has safe, secure and reliable nuclear weapons; (2) Stockpile Management provides capabilities ranging from dismantling to remanufacturing of the enduring stockpile; (3) Nuclear Materials Management ensures the availability and safe disposition of plutonium, highly enriched uranium, and tritium; (4) Nonproliferation and Counterproliferation help to deter, detect, and respond to the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction; and (5) Environmental Stewardship provides for the remediation and reduction of wastes from the nuclear weapons complex. This report contains data on volumes of waste generated as part of routine and cleanup/stabilization activities of the lab.

Wilburn, D.

1998-04-07

243

Knowledge-based and model-based hybrid methodology for comprehensive waste minimization in electroplating plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electroplating industry of over 10,000 planting plants nationwide is one of the major waste generators in the industry. Large quantities of wastewater, spent solvents, spent process solutions, and sludge are the major wastes generated daily in plants, which costs the industry tremendously for waste treatment and disposal and hinders the further development of the industry. It becomes, therefore, an urgent need for the industry to identify technically most effective and economically most attractive methodologies and technologies to minimize the waste, while the production competitiveness can be still maintained. This dissertation aims at developing a novel WM methodology using artificial intelligence, fuzzy logic, and fundamental knowledge in chemical engineering, and an intelligent decision support tool. The WM methodology consists of two parts: the heuristic knowledge-based qualitative WM decision analysis and support methodology and fundamental knowledge-based quantitative process analysis methodology for waste reduction. In the former, a large number of WM strategies are represented as fuzzy rules. This becomes the main part of the knowledge base in the decision support tool, WMEP-Advisor. In the latter, various first-principles-based process dynamic models are developed. These models can characterize all three major types of operations in an electroplating plant, i.e., cleaning, rinsing, and plating. This development allows us to perform a thorough process analysis on bath efficiency, chemical consumption, wastewater generation, sludge generation, etc. Additional models are developed for quantifying drag-out and evaporation that are critical for waste reduction. The models are validated through numerous industrial experiments in a typical plating line of an industrial partner. The unique contribution of this research is that it is the first time for the electroplating industry to (i) use systematically available WM strategies, (ii) know quantitatively and accurately what is going on in each tank, and (iii) identify all WM opportunities through process improvement. This work has formed a solid foundation for the further development of powerful WM technologies for comprehensive WM in the following decade.

Luo, Keqin

1999-11-01

244

Cost/benefit analysis for selected waste minimization technologies at TA-55  

SciTech Connect

The TA-55 plutonium facility at LANL is one of the remaining plutonium-handling facilities in the United States with significant operational capability. In recent years a great deal of attention has been focused on the waste streams generated by this facility. Costs of properly treating these streams have risen significantly. This paper discusses the characterization of several proposed radioactive waste minimization technologies as a function of Return on Investment (ROI). In particular, the DOE Environmental Management program has identified a specific funding channel for such technology development activities, but this funding channel requires a restrictive definition of ROI. Here, a simple extension to the required ROI equation is used to capture the lifecycle ROI due to offsets in future capital charges resulting from present spending.

Boerigter, S.T.

1996-05-01

245

Waste minimization and the goal of an environmentally benign plutonium processing facility: A strategic plan  

SciTech Connect

To maintain capabilities in nuclear weapons technologies, the Department of Energy (DOE) has to maintain a plutonium processing facility that meets all the current and emerging standards of environmental regulations. A strategic goal to transform the Plutonium Processing Facility at Los Alamos into an environmentally benign operation is identified. A variety of technologies and systems necessary to meet this goal are identified. Two initiatives now in early stages of implementation are described in some detail. A highly motivated and trained work force and a systems approach to waste minimization and pollution prevention are necessary to maintain technical capabilities, to comply with regulations, and to meet the strategic goal.

Pillay, K.K.S.

1994-02-01

246

Application of Kick Minimization to the RTML 'Front End'  

SciTech Connect

The ''front end'' of the ILC RTML constitutes the sections of the RTML which are upstream of the first RF cavity of the first stage bunch compressor: specifically, the SKEW, COLL, TURN, SPIN, and EMIT sections. Although in principle it should be easy to transport the beam through these sections with low emittance growth, since the energy spread of the beam is relatively low, in practice it is difficult because of the large number of betatron wavelengths and strong focusing, especially in the TURN section. We report here on the use of the Kick Minimization Method for limiting the emittance growth in the ''front end'' of the RTML. Kick Minimization (KM) is a steering method which balances two optima: minimization of the RMS measured orbit on the BPMs (often called 1:1 steering), and minimization of the RMS corrector strength [1]. The simulation program used for these studies is Lucretia [2].

Tenenbaum, P.; /SLAC

2007-02-03

247

Minimizing Waste from the Oil Industry: Scale Treatment and Scrap Recycling  

SciTech Connect

Naturally occurring radioactive material is technologically concentrated in the piping in systems in the oil and gas industry, especially in the offshore facilities. The activity, mainly Ra-226, in the scales in the systems are often at levels classified as low level radioactive waste (LSA) in the industry. When the components and pipes are descaled for maintenance or recycling purposes, usually by high-pressure water jetting, the LSA scales arising constitute a significant quantity of radioactive waste for disposal. A new process is under development for the treatment of scales, where the radioactive solids are separated from the inactive. This would result in a much smaller fraction to be deposited as radioactive waste. The radioactive part recovered from the scales will be reduced to a stable non-metallic salt and because the volume is significantly smaller then the original material, will minimize the cost for disposal. The pipes, that have been cleaned by high pressure water jetting can either be reused or free released by scrapping and melting for recycling.

Lindberg, M.

2002-02-26

248

Application of visible spectroscopy in waste sorting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today, waste recycling, (bottles, papers...), is a mechanical operation: the waste are crushed, fused and agglomerated in order to obtain new manufactured products (e.g. new bottles, clothes ...). The plastics recycling is the main application in the color sorting process. The colorless plastics recovered are more valuable than the colored plastics. Other emergent applications are in the paper sorting, where the main goal is to sort dyed paper from white papers. Up to now, Pellenc Selective Technologies has manufactured color sorting machines based on RGB cameras. Three dimensions (red, green and blue) are no longer sufficient to detect low quantities of dye in the considered waste. In order to increase the efficiency of the color detection, a new sorting machine, based on visible spectroscopy, has been developed. This paper presents the principles of the two approaches and their difference in terms of sorting performance, making visible spectroscopy a clear winner.

Spiga, Philippe; Bourely, Antoine

2011-09-01

249

Characterization, minimization and disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes during cleanup and rransition of the Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) at Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA)  

SciTech Connect

This document provides an outline of waste handling practices used during the Sandia National Laboratory/California (SNL/CA), Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) Cleanup and Transition project. Here we provide background information concerning the history of the TRL and the types of operations that generated the waste. Listed are applicable SNL/CA site-wide and TRL local waste handling related procedures. We describe personnel training practices and outline methods of handling and disposal of compactible and non-compactible low level waste, solidified waste water, hazardous wastes and mixed wastes. Waste minimization, reapplication and recycling practices are discussed. Finally, we provide a description of the process followed to remove the highly contaminated decontamination systems. This document is intended as both a historical record and as a reference to other facilities who may be involved in similar work.

Garcia, T.B.; Gorman, T.P.

1996-12-01

250

Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application  

SciTech Connect

This document, Set 2, the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Part B Permit Application, consists of 15 chapters that address the content of the Part B checklists prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR 270), with additional information requirements mandated by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 and revisions of WAC 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology checklist section numbers, in brackets, follow the chapter headings and subheadings. This permit application contains umbrella- type'' documentation with overall application to the Hanford Facility. This documentation is broad in nature and applies to all TSD units that have final status under the Hanford Facility Permit.

Not Available

1991-09-18

251

Annual Waste Minimization Summary Report, Calendar Year 2010, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Identification No. NV3890090001  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the waste minimization efforts undertaken by National Security TechnoIogies, LLC, for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear;\\u000aSecurity Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA\\/NSO), during calendar year 2010. The NNSA\\/NSO Pollution Prevention Program establishes a process to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by NNSA\\/NSO activities and ensures that proposed methods of treatment, storage,

2011-01-01

252

Evidence-based integrated environmental solutions for secondary lead smelters: Pollution prevention and waste minimization technologies and practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evidence-based methodology was adopted in this research to establish strategies to increase lead recovery and recycling via a systematic review and critical appraisal of the published literature. In particular, the research examines pollution prevention and waste minimization practices and technologies that meet the following criteria: (a) reduce\\/recover\\/recycle the largest quantities of lead currently being disposed of as waste, (b)

A. M. Genaidy; R. Sequeira; T. Tolaymat; J. Kohler; M. Rinder

2009-01-01

253

Green Computing - New Horizon of Energy Efficiency and E-Waste Minimization - World Perspective vis--vis Indian Scenario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thrust of computing was initially on faster analysis and speedier calculation and solving of mare complex problems. But in the recent past another focus has got immense importance and that is achievement of energy efficiency, minimization of power consumption of e-equipments. It has also given utmost attention to minimization of e-waste and use of non-toxic materials in preparation of e-equipments.

Sanghita Roy; Manigrib Bag

254

Grout Treatment Facility dangerous waste permit application  

SciTech Connect

The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) is an existing treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) unit located in the 200 East Area and the adjacent 600 Area of the Hanford Site. The GTF mixes dry cementitious solids with liquid mixed waste (containing both dangerous and radioactive constituents) produced by Hanford Site operations. The GTF consists of the following: The 241-AP-02D and 241-AP-04D waste pump pits and transfer piping; Dry Materials Facility (DMF); Grout Disposal Facility (GDF), consisting of the disposal vault and support and monitoring equipment; and Grout Processing Facility (GPF) and Westinghouse Hanford Company on the draft Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit and may not be read to conflict with those comments. The Grout Treatment Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application consists of both a Part A and a Part B permit application. An explanation of the Part A revisions associated with this TSD unit, including the current revision, is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. The Part B consists of 15 chapters addressing the organization and content of the Part B checklist prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987). For ease of reference, the checklist section numbers, in brackets, follow chapter headings and subheadings.

Not Available

1992-07-01

255

616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hanford Site is operated by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office. The 616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility receives and stores nonradioactive dangerous waste from various Hanford Site generating units until the waste c...

1990-01-01

256

PUREX Storage Tunnels dangerous waste permit application  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site is operated by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office. The PUREX Storage Tunnels are a storage unit located on the Hanford Site. The unit consists of two earth-covered railroad tunnels that are used for storage of process equipment (some containing dangerous waste) removed from the PUREX Plant. Radioactively contaminated equipment is loaded on railroad cars and remotely transferred into the tunnels for long-term storage. Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and serves as a co-operator of the PUREX Storage Tunnels, the waste management unit addressed by this permit application. The PUREX Storage Tunnels Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Revision O) consists of both a Part A and Part B permit application and is based on information available as of August 31, 1990. An explanation of the Part A revision submitted with this document is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. In this Part A revision, the PUREX Storage Tunnels have been redesignated as a miscellaneous unit. The Part B consists of 15 chapters addressing the organization and content of the Part B checklist prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology.

Not Available

1990-09-01

257

Lessons Learned at Envirocare of Utah's Containerized Waste Facility (CWF): Dose Minimization Through ALARA Techniques and Tools  

SciTech Connect

Envirocare of Utah, Inc. (Envirocare) commenced operation of its Class A Containerized Waste Facility (CWF) on October 25, 2001. The opening of this facility began a new era for Envirocare, in that; their core business had always been low level, high volume, bulk radioactive waste. The CWF commenced operations to dispose of low level, low volume, high activity, containerized radioactive waste. Due to the potential for high dose rates on the waste disposal containers, the ALARA principle (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) plays an important role in the operation of the CWF and its mission to properly dispose of waste while minimizing doses to the workers, public, and the environment. This paper will enumerate some of the efforts made by the management and staff of the CWF that have contributed to significant dose reductions.

Heckman, J.; Gardner, J.; Ledoux, M. R.

2003-02-24

258

COMPARISON OF CHEMICAL SCREENING AND RANKING APPROACHES: THE WASTE MINIMIZATION PRIORITIZATION TOOL VERSUS TOXIC EQUIVALENCY POTENTIALS: JOURNAL ARTICLE  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-STD-0014 Pennington*, D.W., and Bare*, J.C. Comparison of Chemical Screening and Ranking Approaches: The Waste Minimization Prioritization Tool versus Toxic Equivalency Potentials. Risk Analysis (Anderson, E.L. (Ed.), Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers) 21 (5):897-912 (2001)...

259

I-NERI-2007-004-K, DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NEW HIGH-LEVEL WASTE FORMS FOR ACHIEVING WASTE MINIMIZATION FROM PYROPROCESSING  

SciTech Connect

Work describe in this report represents the final year activities for the 3-year International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (I-NERI) project: Development and Characterization of New High-Level Waste Forms for Achieving Waste Minimization from Pyroprocessing. Used electrorefiner salt that contained actinide chlorides and was highly loaded with surrogate fission products was processed into three candidate waste forms. The first waste form, a high-loaded ceramic waste form is a variant to the CWF produced during the treatment of Experimental Breeder Reactor-II used fuel at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The two other waste forms were developed by researchers at the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). These materials are based on a silica-alumina-phosphate matrix and a zinc/titanium oxide matrix. The proposed waste forms, and the processes to fabricate them, were designed to immobilize spent electrorefiner chloride salts containing alkali, alkaline earth, lanthanide, and halide fission products that accumulate in the salt during the processing of used nuclear fuel. This aspect of the I-NERI project was to demonstrate 'hot cell' fabrication and characterization of the proposed waste forms. The outline of the report includes the processing of the spent electrorefiner salt and the fabrication of each of the three waste forms. Also described is the characterization of the waste forms, and chemical durability testing of the material. While waste form fabrication and sample preparation for characterization must be accomplished in a radiological hot cell facility due to hazardous radioactivity levels, smaller quantities of each waste form were removed from the hot cell to perform various analyses. Characterization included density measurement, elemental analysis, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and the Product Consistency Test, which is a leaching method to measure chemical durability. Favorable results from this demonstration project will provide additional options for fission product immobilization and waste management associated the electrochemical/pyrometallurgical processing of used nuclear fuel.

S.M. Frank

2011-09-01

260

Trace driven logic synthesisapplication to power minimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A trace driven methodology for logic synthesis and optimization is proposed. Given a logic description of a digital circuit C and an expected trace of input vectors T an implementation of C that optimizes a cost function under application of T is derived. This approach is effective in capturing and utilizing the correlations that exist between input signals on an

Luca P. Carloni; Patrick C. McGeer; Alexander Saldanha; Alberto L. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli

1997-01-01

261

Trace driven logic synthesis-application to power minimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A trace driven methodology for logic synthesis and optimization is proposed. Given a logic description of a digital circuit C and an expected trace of input vectors T, an implementation of C that optimizes a cost function under application of T is derived. This approach is effective in capturing and utilizing the correlations that exist between input signals on an

Luca P. Carlonit; Patrick C. McGeer; Alexander Saldanhat; Alberto L. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli

1997-01-01

262

All singularities of the 9DOF DLR medical robot setup for minimally invasive applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows that it is possible to determine analytically all singular congurations of the 9-DoF DLR medical robot setup for minimally invasive applications. It is shown that the problem can be devided into the determination of the singularities of the general 7-DoF DLR medical arm and of the 2-DoF surgical instrument, used in a minimally invasive application. The formula

Rainer Konietschke; Gerd Hirzinger; Yuling Yan

263

Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility. Revision 2A  

SciTech Connect

This permit application for the 616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility consists for 15 chapters. Topics of discussion include the following: facility description and general provisions; waste characteristics; process information; personnel training; reporting and record keeping; and certification.

Bowman, R.C.

1994-04-01

264

Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility. Revision 2A  

Microsoft Academic Search

This permit application for the 616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility consists for 15 chapters. Topics of discussion include the following: facility description and general provisions; waste characteristics; process information; personnel training; reporting and record keeping; and certification.

1994-01-01

265

Minimal form factor digital-image sensor for endoscopic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a digital image sensor SOC featuring a total chip area (including dicing tolerances) of 0.34mm2 for endoscopic applications. Due to this extremely small form factor the sensor enables integration in endoscopes, guide wires and locater devices of less than 1mm outer diameter. The sensor embeds a pixel matrix of 10'000 pixels with a pitch of 3um x

Martin Wny; Stephan Voltz; Fabio Gaspar; Lei Chen

2009-01-01

266

Selecting Map Projections in Minimizing Area Distortions in GIS Applications  

PubMed Central

Various software for Geographical Information Systems (GISs) have been developed and used in many different engineering projects. In GIS applications, map coverage is important in terms of performing reliable and meaningful queries. Map projections can be conformal, equal-area and equidistant. The goal of an application plays an important role in choosing one of those projections. Choosing the equal-area projection for an application in which area information is used (forestry, agriculture, ecosystem etc) reduces the amount of distortion on the area, but many users using GIS ignore this fact and continue to use applications with present map sheets no matter in what map projection it is. For example, extracting area information from data whose country system's map sheet is in conformal projection is relatively more distorted, compared to an equal-area projection one. The goal of this study is to make the best decision in choosing the most proper equal-area projection among the choices provided by ArcGIS 9.0, which is a popular GIS software package, and making a comparison on area errors when conformal projection is used. In this study, the area of parcels chosen in three different regions and geographic coordinates and whose sizes vary between 0.01 to 1,000,000 ha are calculated according to Transversal Mercator (TM, 3), Universal Transversal Mercator (UTM, 6) and 14 different equal-area projections existing in the ArcGIS 9.0 GIS software package. The parcel areas calculated with geographical coordinates are accepted as definite. The difference between the sizes calculated according to projection coordinates and real sizes of the parcels are determined. Consequently, the appropriate projections are decided for the areas smaller and equal than 1,000 ha and greater than 1,000 ha in the GIS software package.

Yildirim, Faruk; Kaya, Ahmet

2008-01-01

267

REGULATORY STRATEGIES TO MINIMIZE GENERATION OF REGULATED WASTES FROM CLEANUP, CONTINUED USE OR DECOMMISSIONING OF NUCLEAR FACILITIES CONTAMINATED WITH POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) - 11198  

SciTech Connect

Disposal costs for liquid PCB radioactive waste are among the highest of any category of regulated waste. The high cost is driven by the fact that disposal options are extremely limited. Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) regulations require most liquids with PCBs at concentration of {ge} 50 parts-per-million to be disposed by incineration or equivalent destructive treatment. Disposal fees can be as high as $200 per gallon. This figure does not include packaging and the cost to transport the waste to the disposal facility, or the waste generator's labor costs for managing the waste prior to shipment. Minimizing the generation of liquid radioactive PCB waste is therefore a significant waste management challenge. PCB spill cleanups often generate large volumes of waste. That is because the removal of PCBs typically requires the liberal use of industrial solvents followed by a thorough rinsing process. In a nuclear facility, the cleanup process may be complicated by the presence of radiation and other occupational hazards. Building design and construction features, e.g., the presence of open grating or trenches, may also complicate cleanup. In addition to the technical challenges associated with spill cleanup, selection of the appropriate regulatory requirements and approach may be challenging. The TSCA regulations include three different sections relating to the cleanup of PCB contamination or spills. EPA has also promulgated a separate guidance policy for fresh PCB spills that is published as Subpart G of 40 CFR 761 although it is not an actual regulation. Applicability is based on the circumstances of each contamination event or situation. Other laws or regulations may also apply. Identification of the allowable regulatory options is important. Effective communication with stakeholders, particularly regulators, is just as important. Depending on the regulatory path that is taken, cleanup may necessitate the generation of large quantities of regulated waste. Allowable options must be evaluated carefully in order to reduce compliance risks, protect personnel, limit potential negative impacts on facility operations, and minimize the generation of wastes subject to TSCA. This paper will identify critical factors in selecting the appropriate TSCA regulatory path in order to minimize the generation of radioactive PCB waste and reduce negative impacts to facilities. The importance of communicating pertinent technical issues with facility staff, regulatory personnel, and subsequently, the public, will be discussed. Key points will be illustrated by examples from five former production reactors at the DOE Savannah River Site. In these reactors a polyurethane sealant was used to seal piping penetrations in the biological shield walls. During the intense neutron bombardment that occurred during reactor operation, the sealant broke down into a thick, viscous material that seeped out of the piping penetrations over adjacent equipment and walls. Some of the walls were painted with a PCB product. PCBs from the paint migrated into the degraded sealant, creating PCB 'spill areas' in some of these facilities. The regulatory cleanup approach selected for each facility was based on its operational status, e.g., active, inactive or undergoing decommissioning. The selected strategies served to greatly minimize the generation of radioactive liquid PCB waste. It is expected that this information would be useful to other DOE sites, DOD facilities, and commercial nuclear facilities constructed prior to the 1979 TSCA ban on most manufacturing and uses of PCBs.

Lowry, N.

2010-11-05

268

Minimal Technologies Application Project, Hohenfels Training Area, Germany: Final report  

SciTech Connect

At the US Army Hohenfels Training Area in Germany, more than 30 years of continuous and intensive tactical training has caused extensive environmental damage because of the loss of vegetative cover and accelerated soil erosion. A project was conducted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and relative benefits of various revegetation procedures. These procedures involved amendment and seedbed preparation options that were combined with three different durations of site closure. The point-intercept method was used to measure the types and amounts of vegetation established and changes in the vegetative community. Over three growing seasons, applications of fertilizer and seed increased the percent grass, legume, and total vegetative cover. The duration of site closure had no influence on the types or amounts of ground cover established. Materials made up only 10% of the total cost of the fertilization and seeding operations. The results of the research indicate that less expensive methods of amendment application should be evaluated. The data also show that site closure is not practical, economical, or necessary. The results of this project suggest that a regular maintenance program consisting of seeding and fertilization is required to maintain adequate vegetative cover and control erosion on tactical training areas.

Zellmer, S.D.; Hinchman, R.R.; Johnson, D.O. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.); Severinghaus, W.D. (Corps of Engineers, Champaign, IL (United States)); Brent, J.J. (Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States))

1991-12-01

269

Virtual reality applications in improving postural control and minimizing falls.  

PubMed

Maintaining balance under all conditions is an absolute requirement for humans. Orientation in space and balance maintenance requires inputs from the vestibular, the visual, the proprioceptive and the somatosensory systems. All the cues coming from these systems are integrated by the central nervous system (CNS) to employ different strategies for orientation and balance. How the CNS integrates all the inputs and makes cognitive decisions about balance strategies has been an area of interest for biomedical engineers for a long time. More interesting is the fact that in the absence of one or more cues, or when the input from one of the sensors is skewed, the CNS "adapts" to the new environment and gives less weight to the conflicting inputs [1]. The focus of this paper is a review of different strategies and models put forward by researchers to explain the integration of these sensory cues. Also, the paper compares the different approaches used by young and old adults in maintaining balance. Since with age the musculoskeletal, visual and vestibular system deteriorates, the older subjects have to compensate for these impaired sensory cues for postural stability. The paper also discusses the applications of virtual reality in rehabilitation programs not only for balance in the elderly but also in occupational falls. Virtual reality has profound applications in the field of balance rehabilitation and training because of its relatively low cost. Studies will be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of virtual reality training in modifying the head and eye movement strategies, and determine the role of these responses in the maintenance of balance. PMID:17946975

Virk, Sumandeep; McConville, Kristiina M Valter

2006-01-01

270

ANL progress in minimizing effects of LEU conversion on calcination of fission-product {sup 99}Mo acid waste solution.  

SciTech Connect

A partnership between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), MDS Nordion (MDSN), Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL) and SGN (France) has addressed the conversion of the MAPLE Reactor 99Mo production process from high-enriched uranium (HEU) targets to low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets. One effect of the conversion would be to increase the amount of solid uranium waste five-fold; we have worked to minimize the effect of the additional waste on the overall production process and, in particular, solid waste storage. Two processes were investigated for the treatment of the uranium-rich acidic waste solution: direct calcination, and oxalate precipitation as a prelude to calcination. Direct calcination generates a dense UO3 solid that should allow a significantly greater amount of uranium in one waste container than is planned for the HEU process, but doing so results in undesirable sputtering. These results suggest that direct calcination could be adapted for use with LEU targets without a large effect on the uranium waste treatment procedures. The oxalate-calcination generates a lower-density granular U3O8 product; sputtering is not significant during calcination of the uranyl oxalate precipitate. A physical means to densify the product would need to be developed to increase the amount of uranium in each waste container. Future work will focus on the specific chemical reactions that occur during the direct and oxalate calcination processes.

Bakel, A.; Vandegrift, G.; Quigley, K.; Aase, S.; Neylon, M.; Carney, K.

2003-01-01

271

Liquid effluent retention facility dangerous waste permit application  

SciTech Connect

This appendix to the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application contains pumps, piping, leak detection systems, geomembranes, leachate collection systems, earthworks and floating cover systems. (GHH)

Not Available

1991-06-01

272

Military Wastes-to-Energy Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This analysis focuses on the military waste material and byproduct stream and the potential for energy recovery and utilization. Feedstock material includes municipal-type solid waste, selected installation hazardous waste, and biomass residue. The study ...

K. E. Kawaoka

1980-01-01

273

Comparison of chemical screening and ranking approaches: the waste minimization prioritization tool versus toxic equivalency potentials.  

PubMed

Chemical screening in the United States is often conducted using scoring and ranking methodologies. Linked models accounting for chemical fate, exposure, and toxicological effects are generally preferred in Europe and in product Life Cycle Assessment. For the first time, a comparison is presented in this article of two of the prominent, but structurally different methodologies adopted to help screen and rank chemicals and chemical emissions data. Results for 250 chemicals are presented, with a focus on 12 chemicals of interest in the United Nations Environment Programme's Persistent Organic Pollutants global treaty negotiations. These results help to illustrate the significance of described structural differences and to assess the correlation between the methodologies. The scope of the comparison was restricted here to human health, although the insights would be equally useful in the context of the health of ecosystems. Illustrating the current types of chemical screening and emissions comparison approaches, the relative significance of the scenario and structural differences of the Waste Minimization Prioritization Tool (WMPT) and the Toxic Equivalency Potential (TEP) methodologies are analyzed. The WMPT facilitates comparison in terms of key physical-chemical properties. Measures for Persistence, Bioaccumulation, and Toxicity (PBT) are calculated. Each PBT measure is scored and then these scores are added to provide a single measure of relative concern. TEPs account for chemical fate, multipathway exposure, and toxicity using a model-based approach. This model structure is sometimes considered to provide a less subjective representation of environmental mechanisms, and, hence, an improved basis for screening. Nevertheless, a strong relationship exists between the two approaches and both have their limitations. PMID:11798125

Pennington, D W; Bare, J C

2001-10-01

274

OPERATING COSTS OF DAIRY PRETREATMENT VS. POTW FACILITIES AND THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A WASTE MINIMIZATION PROGRAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accounting records of each plant's waste treatment department costs and spreadsheet analysis of wastewater monitoring data on three pretreatment facilities and two plants discharging raw wastes to the POTW has enabled calculation of waste treatment costs per pound of raw BOD generated and per pound of BOD removed. Two large plants with pretreatment facilities had similar treatment costs of $0.229\\/1b

Wayne A. Bough; Ed McJimsey; Donna Clark

275

40 CFR 266.205 - Standards applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Standards applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions. ...266.205 Standards applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions. ...waste non-chemical military munitions in storage. (1) Waste military...

2012-07-01

276

State Waste Discharge Permit application: 400 Area Septic System  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affects groundwater or has the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 400 Area Septic System. The influent to the system is domestic waste water. Although the 400 Area Septic System is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. Therefore, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used.

Not Available

1994-06-01

277

Waste management models and their application to sustainable waste management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to review the types of models that are currently being used in the area of municipal waste management and to highlight some major shortcomings of these models. Most of the municipal waste models identified in the literature are decision support models and for the purposes of this research, are divided into three categoriesthose based

A. J. Morrissey; J Browne

2004-01-01

278

Multivariate methods in nuclear waste remediation: Needs and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a strategy for nuclear waste remediation and environmental restoration at several major sites across the country. Nuclear and hazardous wastes are found in underground storage tanks, containment drums, soils, and facilities. Due to the many possible contaminants and complexities of sampling and analysis, multivariate methods are directly applicable. However, effective application

Pulsipher

1992-01-01

279

Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program - Introduction and Script.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the introductory module to the Land Application of Wastes educational program. The module contains information on the content, structure, and dynamics of the program. Also included with the module is a script to accompany a slide presentation. The Land Application of Wastes program consists of twenty-five modules and audio-visual

Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

280

224-T Transuranic Waste Storage and Assay Facility dangerous waste permit application  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the US Department of Energy Richland Field Office and serves as cooperator of the 224-T Transuranic Waste Storage and Assay Facility, the storage unit addressed in this permit application. At the time of submission of this portion of the Hanford Facility. Dangerous Waste Permit Application covering the 224-T Transuranic Waste Storage and Assay Facility, many issues identified in comments to the draft Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit remain unresolved. This permit application reflects the positions taken by the US Department of Energy, Company on the draft Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit and may not be read to conflict with those comments. The 224-T Transuranic Waste Storage and Assay Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Revision 0) consists of both a Part A and Part B permit application. An explanation of the Part A revisions associated with this unit, including the Part A revision currently in effect, is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. The Part B consists of 15 chapters addressing the organization and content of the Part B Checklist prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987). The 224-T Transuranic Waste Storage and Assay Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application contains information current as of March 1, 1992.

Not Available

1992-06-22

281

1997 annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress as required by DOE Order 5400.1, Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

Hanford`s missions are to safely clean up and manage the site`s legacy wastes, and to develop and deploy science and technology. Through these missions Hanford will contribute to economic diversification of the region. Hanford`s environmental management or cleanup mission is to protect the health and safety of the public, workers, and the environment; control hazardous materials; and utilize the assets (people, infra structure, site) for other missions. Hanford`s science and technology mission is to develop and deploy science and technology in the service of the nation including stewardship of the Hanford Site. Pollution Prevention is a key to the success of these missions by reducing the amount of waste to be managed and identifying/implementing cost effective waste reduction projects. Hanford`s original mission, the production of nuclear materials for the nation`s defense programs, lasted more than 40 years, and like most manufacturing operations, Hanford`s operations generated large quantities of waste and pollution. However, the by-products from Hanford operations pose unique problems like radiation hazards, vast volumes of contaminated water and soil, and many contaminated structures including reactors, chemical plants and evaporation ponds. The cleanup activity is an immense and challenging undertaking, which includes characterization and decommissioning of 149 single shell storage tanks, treating 28 double shell tanks, safely disposing of over 2,100 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel stored on site, removing numerous structures, and dealing with significant solid waste, ground water, and land restoration issues.

Segall, P.

1998-04-13

282

Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 325 hazardous waste treatment units. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application for the 325 Hazardous Waste Treatment Units (325 HWTUs) which consist of the Shielded Analytical Laboratory, the 325 Building, and the 325 Collection/Loadout Station Tank. The 325 HWTUs receive, store, and treat dangerous waste generated by Hanford Facility programs. Routine dangerous and/or mixed waste treatment that will be conducted in the 325 HWTUs will include pH adjustment, ion exchange, carbon absorption, oxidation, reduction, waste concentration by evaporation, precipitation, filtration, solvent extraction, solids washing, phase separation, catalytic destruction, and solidification/stabilization.

NONE

1997-07-01

283

Grout treatment facility dangerous waste permit application  

SciTech Connect

The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) will provide permanent disposal for approximately 43 Mgal of radioactive liquid waste currently being stored in underground tanks on the Hanford Site. The first step in permanent disposal is accomplished by solidifying the low-level liquid waste with cementitious dry materials. The resulting grout is cast within underground vaults. This report on the GTF contains information on the following: Hanford Site Maps, road evaluation for the grout treatment facility, Department of Ecology certificate of non-designation for centralia fly ash, double-shell tank waste compositional modeling, laboratory analysis reports for double-shell tank waste, stored in tanks 241-AN-103, 241-AN-106, and 241-AW-101, grout vault heat transfer results for M-106 grout formulation, test results for extraction procedure toxicity testing, test results for toxicity testing of double-shell tank grout, pilot-scale grout production test with a simulated low-level waste, characterization of simulated low-level waste grout produced in a pilot-scale test, description of the procedure for sampling nonaging waste storage tanks, description of laboratory procedures, grout campaign waste composition verification, variability in properties of grouted phosphate/sulfate N-reactor waste, engineering drawings, description of operating procedures, equipment list--transportable grout equipment, grout treatment facility--tank integrity assessment plan, long-term effects of waste solutions on concrete and reinforcing steel, vendor information, grout disposal facilities construction quality assurance plan, and flexible membrane liner/waste compatibility test results.

Not Available

1992-07-01

284

New Process and Equipment for Waste Minimization: Conversion of NO(X) Scrubber Liquor to Fertilizer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new emissions control system for the oxidizer scrubbers that eliminates the current oxidizer liquor waste and lowers the NO(x) emissions is described. Since fueling and deservicing spacecraft constitute the primary operations in which environmental emis...

C. F. Parrish R. G. Barile P. H. Gamble D. E. Lueck R. C. Young

1995-01-01

285

Proceedings of the tenth annual DOE low-level waste management conference: Session 4: Waste treatment minimization  

SciTech Connect

This document contains eleven papers on various aspects of low-level radioactive waste management. Topics in this volume include: volume reduction plans; incentitives; and cost proposals; acid detoxification and reclamation; decontamination of lead; leach tests; West Valley demonstration project status report; and DOE's regional management strategies. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base. (TEM)

Not Available

1988-12-01

286

Minimizing N2O fluxes from full-scale municipal solid waste landfill with properly selected cover soil.  

PubMed

Municipal solid waste landfills emit nitrous oxide (N2O) gas. Assuming that the soil cover is the primary N2O source from landfills, this study tested, during a four-year project, the hypothesis that the proper use of chosen soils with fine texture minimizes N2O emissions. A full-scale sanitary landfill, a full-scale bioreactor landfill and a cell planted with Nerium indicum or Festuca arundinacea Schreb, at the Hangzhou Tianziling landfill in Hangzhou City were the test sites. The N2O emission rates from all test sites were considerably lower than those reported in the published reports. Specifically, the N2O emission rate was dependent on soil water content and nitrate concentrations in the cover soil. The effects of leachate recirculation and irrigation were minimal. Properly chosen cover soils applied to the landfills reduced N2O flux. PMID:18574960

Zhang, Houhu; He, Pinjing; Shao, Liming; Qu, Xian; Lee, Duujong

2008-01-01

287

Virtual environmental applications for buried waste characterization technology evaluation report  

SciTech Connect

The project, Virtual Environment Applications for Buried Waste Characterization, was initiated in the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program in fiscal year 1994. This project is a research and development effort that supports the remediation of buried waste by identifying and examining the issues, needs, and feasibility of creating virtual environments using available characterization and other data. This document describes the progress and results from this project during the past year.

NONE

1995-05-01

288

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PAPER ROLLS, INK ROLLS, INK RIBBONS, AND MAGNETIC AND THERMAL TRANSFER RIBBON  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected un...

289

State Waste Discharge Permit application, 100-N Sewage Lagoon  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Since the influent to the sewer lagoon is domestic waste water, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used. Although the 100-N Sewage Lagoon is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. The 100-N Sewage Lagoon serves the 100-N Area and other Hanford Site areas by receiving domestic waste from two sources. A network of sanitary sewer piping and lift stations transfers domestic waste water from the 100-N Area buildings directly to the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Waste is also received by trucks that transport domestic waste pumped from on site septic tanks and holding tanks. Three ponds comprise the 100-N Sewage Lagoon treatment system. These include a lined aeration pond and stabilization pond, as well as an unlined infiltration pond. Both piped-in and trucked-in domestic waste is discharged directly into the aeration pond.

Not Available

1994-06-01

290

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS AND RISK MANAGEMENT: AN APPLICATION TO HAZARDOUS WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report evaluates the usefulness of economic analysis in designing effective and efficient hazardous waste regulations. In particular, it examines the applicability of cost/benefit analysis to the specific problems posed by hazardous waste mangement. The background for the ana...

291

Waste-to-energy application in an industrial district  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial districts present some features that can be recognized and exploited in the plant engineering through the proposal of solutions which are not simple applications of models created for individual companies. This work illustrates a waste-to-energy plant to be used for the industrial waste of the district of Friuli Venezia Giulia. The project from the union between university and local

Antonella Meneghetti; Gioacchino Nardin; Patrizia Simeoni

2002-01-01

292

Innovative Waste Management Through the Use of Waste Management Plans on Construction Projects in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexity and dynamism of construction projects require innovative approaches to ensure stakeholders' satisfaction. Construction waste management is no doubt a sine qua non to sustainability and needs innovation to ensure waste minimization. The application of a waste management plan (WMP) in previous projects has shown that it can lead to waste minimization. A survey was therefore conducted using a

Olatunji J. Oladiran

2009-01-01

293

CHARACTERIZATION OF DEFENSE NUCLEAR WASTE USING HAZARDOUS WASTE GUIDANCE. APPLICATIONS TO HANFORD SITE ACCELERATED HIGH-LEVEL WASTE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL MISSION0  

Microsoft Academic Search

Federal hazardous waste regulations were developed for management of industrial waste. These same regulations are also applicable for much of the nation's defense nuclear wastes. At the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeast Washington State, one of the nation's largest inventories of nuclear waste remains in storage in large underground tanks. The waste's regulatory designation and its

William Hamel; Lori Huffman; Megan Lerchen; Karyn Wiemers

2003-01-01

294

Characterization of Defense Nuclear Waste Using Hazardous Waste Guidance: Applications to Hanford Site Accelerated High-Level Waste Treatment and Disposal Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Federal hazardous waste regulations were developed for management of industrial waste. These same regulations are also applicable for much of the nation's defense nuclear wastes. At the U.S. Department of Energys (DOE) Hanford Site in southeast Washington State, one of the nations largest inventories of nuclear waste remains in storage in large underground tanks. The waste's regulatory designation and its

William F. Hamel; Lori A. Huffman; Megan E. Lerchen; Karyn D. Wiemers

2003-01-01

295

Modeling moisture movement in revegetating waste heaps: 2. Application to oil shale wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of a model for the movement of water within waste dumps, described in a previous paper, requires the estimation of a range of physical characteristics. Parameters relating to the transfer of liquid water, water vapor, heat, and air within the waste dump must be estimated in addition to surface parameters which determine the interaction between subsurface processs and

L. D. Connell; P. R. Bell; R. Haverkamp

1993-01-01

296

Modeling moisture movement in revegetating waste heaps 2. Application to oil shale wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of a model for the movement of water within waste dumps, described in a previous paper, requires the estimation of a range of physical characteristics. Parameters relating to the transfer of liquid water, water vapor, heat, and air within the waste dump must be estimated in addition to surface parameters which determine the interaction between subsurface process and

L. D. Connell; P. R. Bell; R. Haverkamp

1993-01-01

297

Programmable Multi-Timer for TRU Waste Analysis Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A programmable, multiple-function timing module has been developed for use in transuranic (TRU) waste analysis applications at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The Programmable Multi-Timer (PRMT) is an expanded version of a module originally bui...

R. S. Lawrence E. B. Nieschmidt F. Y. Tsang

1981-01-01

298

Possible applications for municipal solid waste fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study focuses on existing practices related to the reuse of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) fly ash and identifies new potential uses. Nine possible applications were identified and grouped into four main categories: construction materials (cement, concrete, ceramics, glass and glassceramics); geotechnical applications (road pavement, embankments); agriculture (soil amendment); and, miscellaneous (sorbent, sludge conditioning). Each application is analysed in

C Ferreira; A Ribeiro; L Ottosen

2003-01-01

299

40 CFR 266.205 - Standards applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions. 266.205 Section...HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions § 266.205 Standards...applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions. (a) Criteria...

2009-07-01

300

40 CFR 266.203 - Standards applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions. 266.203 Section 266...HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions § 266.203 Standards...applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions. (a) Criteria for...

2010-07-01

301

40 CFR 266.205 - Standards applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions. 266.205 Section...HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions § 266.205 Standards...applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions. (a) Criteria...

2010-07-01

302

40 CFR 403.19 - Provisions of specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. 403.19 Section...applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. (a) For...discharging to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility in...

2009-07-01

303

40 CFR 403.19 - Provisions of specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. 403.19 Section...applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. (a) For...discharging to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility in...

2010-07-01

304

40 CFR 403.19 - Provisions of specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. 403.19 Section...specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. (a) For the...Industrial User discharging to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility in...

2012-07-01

305

Agent Regeneration and Hazardous Waste Minimization and Teaching Note. IBM Case Study. Doc #93-1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The manufacturing process used to produce printbands for International Business Machines, Inc. involves a photolithographic process in which the stainless steel panels are chemically machined using strong ferric chloride etching solution containing hydrochloric acid. The waste material that results from this chemical reaction is a solution

Oliker, L. Richard; And Others

306

AN INNOVATIVE INTEGRATED APPROACH TO MINIMIZING GYPSUM AND PYRITE WASTES BY CONVERSION TO MARKETABLE PRODUCTS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research program is to develop a novel integrated process to eliminate millions of tons of gypsum and pyrite wastes generated annually by the U.S. energy industries and reduce the emission of millions of tons of greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. This was accomplished by converting gypsum and pyrite wastes to marketable products such as lime, direct reduced iron (DRI), and sulfur products and obviating the need to calcine millions of tons of limestone for use in utility scrubbers. Specific objectives included: (1) Develop a novel, integrated process for utilizing two major wastes generated by mining and energy industries to produce lime for recycling and other marketable products. (2) Study individual chemical reactions involved in pyrite decomposition, DRI production, and Muller-Kuhne process for lime regeneration to determine optimum process variables such as temperature, time, and reactant composition. (3) Investigate techniques for effective concentration of pyrite from tailing waste and methods for effective separation of DRI from calcium sulfide.

Daniel Tao

2000-06-27

307

WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: OPTICAL FABRICATION LABORATORY - FITZSIMMONS ARMY MEDICAL CENTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Under the Waste Reduction Evaluations at Federal Sites (WREAFS) program, RREL has taken the initiative to merge the experience and resources of the EPA with other Federal agencies. At the Fitzsimmons Army Medical Center (FAMC) in Aurora, Colorado, the Army and the EPA cooperated ...

308

WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: OPTICAL FABRICATION LABORATORY - FITZSIMMONS ARMY MEDICAL CENTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Under the Waste Reduction Evaluations at Federal Sites (WREAFS) program, RREL has taken the initiative to merge the experience and resources of the EPA with other Federal agencies. t the Fitzsimmons Army Medical Center (FAMC) in Aurora, Colorado, the Army and the EPA cooperated i...

309

POLLUTION PREVENTION STRATEGIES FOR THE MINIMIZING OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES IN THE VCM-PVC INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

In many U.S. companies, pollution prevention strategies coincide with economic interests. Typically a company strives to be the lowest-cost producer, to be competitive, and to reduce wastes. In this paper, the author reviews pollution prevention strategies in the vinyl chloride m...

310

On minimization of rad-waste carryover in an n-stage evaporator  

SciTech Connect

The mathematical problem of minimizing gross solids entrainment in an n-stage evaporator is formulated and solved using the method of Lagrange multipliers. The solution procedure enables direct comparison of the decontamination efficiencies of multistage evaporators as the number of stages (n) is varied. A numerical example is utilized to illustrate the method of solution. Equivalent expressions for batch distillation are also derived.

Singh, K.P.; Holtz, M.; Luk, V.K.

1984-01-01

311

A review of mechanochemistry applications in waste management  

SciTech Connect

Mechanochemistry is defined to describe the chemical and physicochemical transformation of substances during the aggregation caused by the mechanical energy. Mechanochemical technology has several advantages, such as simple process, ecological safety and the possibility of obtaining a product in the metastable state. It potentially has a prospective application in pollution remediation and waste management. Therefore, this paper aims to give an overall review of the mechanochemistry applications in waste management and the related mechanisms. Based on our study, the modification of fly ash and asbestos-containing wastes (ACWs) can be achieved by mechanochemical technology. Waste metal oxides can be transformed into easily recyclable sulfide by mechanochemical sulfidization. Besides, the waste plastics and rubbers, which are usually very difficult to be recycled, can also be recycled by mechanochemical technology.

Guo Xiuying [Department of Precision Instruments and Mechanology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); School of Electronic Information and Communication Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300191 (China); Xiang Dong, E-mail: guoxiuying7899@yahoo.com.c [Department of Precision Instruments and Mechanology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Duan Guanghong; Mou Peng [Department of Precision Instruments and Mechanology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2010-01-15

312

Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 1, Industrial solid waste processing municipal waste reduction/recycling  

SciTech Connect

This two-volume proceedings summarizes the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Lee, V.E. [ed.; Watts, R.L.

1993-04-01

313

Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 2, Industrial liquid waste processing, industrial gaseous waste processing  

SciTech Connect

This two-volume proceedings summarize the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Individual reports are indexed separately.

Lee, V.E. [ed.; Watts, R.L.

1993-04-01

314

Implementing waste minimization at an active plutonium processing facility: Successes and progress at technical area (TA) -55 of the Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory has ongoing national security missions that necessitate increased plutonium processing. The bulk of this activity occurs at Technical Area -55 (TA-55), the nations only operable plutonium facility. TA-55 has developed and demonstrated a number of technologies that significantly minimize waste generation in plutonium processing (supercritical CO{sub 2}, Mg(OH){sub 2} precipitation, supercritical H{sub 2}O oxidation, WAND), disposition of excess fissile materials (hydride-dehydride, electrolytic decontamination), disposition of historical waste inventories (salt distillation), and Decontamination & Decommissioning (D&D) of closed nuclear facilities (electrolytic decontamination). Furthermore, TA-55 is in the process of developing additional waste minimization technologies (molten salt oxidation, nitric acid recycle, americium extraction) that will significantly reduce ongoing waste generation rates and allow volume reduction of existing waste streams. Cost savings from reduction in waste volumes to be managed and disposed far exceed development and deployment costs in every case. Waste minimization is also important because it reduces occupational exposure to ionizing radiation, risks of transportation accidents, and transfer of burdens from current nuclear operations to future generations.

Balkey, J.J.; Robinson, M.A.; Boak, J.

1997-12-01

315

MSW management for waste minimization in Taiwan: The last two decades  

SciTech Connect

Taiwan is the second most densely populated country in the world; its 22.604 million residents (2002) live in an area of 35,967 km{sup 2} (628 people/km{sup 2}). Taiwan's economy has grown rapidly during the last 20 years, resulting in a corresponding increase in the amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). This study describes and evaluates the municipal solid waste management system in Taiwan. The study's results indicate that the amount of MSW began to decline after 1997, when the government enforced aggressive MSW management policies. By 2002, total MSW production had dropped by 27%, and the average daily per capita weight of MSW had fallen from 1.14 kg in 1997 to 0.81 kg in 2002. Summarizing the successful experience of MSW reduction in Taiwan, the most important factor was the government's combining of the MSW collection system with reduction/recycling programs. The second most important factor was the policy of extended producer responsibility, which laid a foundation of recycling by producers and retailers and promoted public recycling.

Lu, L.-T. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Road, 10660 Taipei, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: luliteh@ms13.hinet.net; Hsiao, T.-Y. [Department of Tourism Industry, Jin-Wen Institute of Technology, 99, Ann-Chung Road, 231 Taipei County, Taiwan (China); Shang, N.-C. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Road, 10660 Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yu, Y.-H. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Road, 10660 Taipei, Taiwan (China); Ma, H.-W. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Road, 10660 Taipei, Taiwan (China)

2006-07-01

316

MSW management for waste minimization in Taiwan: the last two decades.  

PubMed

Taiwan is the second most densely populated country in the world; its 22.604 million residents (2002) live in an area of 35,967 km2 (628 people/km2). Taiwan's economy has grown rapidly during the last 20 years, resulting in a corresponding increase in the amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). This study describes and evaluates the municipal solid waste management system in Taiwan. The study's results indicate that the amount of MSW began to decline after 1997, when the government enforced aggressive MSW management policies. By 2002, total MSW production had dropped by 27%, and the average daily per capita weight of MSW had fallen from 1.14 kg in 1997 to 0.81 kg in 2002. Summarizing the successful experience of MSW reduction in Taiwan, the most important factor was the government's combining of the MSW collection system with reduction/recycling programs. The second most important factor was the policy of extended producer responsibility, which laid a foundation of recycling by producers and retailers and promoted public recycling. PMID:16337783

Lu, Li-Teh; Hsiao, Teng-Yuan; Shang, Neng-Chou; Yu, Yue-Hwa; Ma, Hwong-Wen

2005-12-07

317

222-S Laboratory Complex dangerous waste permit application  

SciTech Connect

The 222-S Laboratory Complex Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Revision 0) consists of both a Part A and a Part B permit application. An explanation of the Part A Revision (Revision 1) submitted with this document is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. The Part B consists of 15 chapters addressing the organizations and content of the Part B Checklist prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987). For ease of reference, the checklist section number, in brackets, follows the chapter headings and subheadings. The 222-S Laboratory Complex Dangerous Waste Permit Application contain information current as of November 1, 1991.

Not Available

1991-12-01

318

Applicability of insoluble tannin to treatment of waste containing americium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The applicability of insoluble tannin adsorbent to the treatment of aqueous waste contaminated with americium has been investigated. Insoluble tannin is considered highly applicable because it consists of only carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and so its volume can be easily reduced by incineration. This report describes measurements of the americium distribution coefficient in low concentration nitric acid. The americium distribution

Tatsuro Matsumura; Shigekazu Usuda

1998-01-01

319

Topic One: minimal risk  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPage 1. Topic One: minimal risk Please discuss the application of the concept of minimal risk ... than minimal? 1 Page 2. Topic One: minimal risk ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

320

Pilot studies to achieve waste minimization and enhance radioactive liquid waste treatment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Radioactive and Industrial Wastewater Science Group manages and operates the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The RLWTF treats low-level radioactive liquid waste generated by research and analytical facilities at approximately 35 technical areas throughout the 43-square-mile site. The RLWTF treats an average of 5.8 million gallons (21.8-million liters) of liquid waste annually. Clarifloculation and filtration is the primary treatment technology used by the RLWTF. This technology has been used since the RLWTF became operable in 1963. Last year the RLWTF achieved an average of 99.7% removal of gross alpha activity in the waste stream. The treatment process requires the addition of chemicals for the flocculation and subsequent precipitation of radionuclides. The resultant sludge generated during this process is solidified in drums and stored or disposed of at LANL.

Freer, J.; Freer, E.; Bond, A. [and others

1996-07-01

321

State Waste Discharge Permit application: 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations; the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water discharges to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit via dedicated pipelines. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water is the only discharge to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse is a steam generation facility consisting of a coal-handling and preparation section and boilers.

Atencio, B.P.

1994-06-01

322

State Waste Discharge Permit application: 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department and Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-E Powerhouse Ash Waste Water discharges to the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit via dedicated pipelines. The 200-E Ash Waste Water is the only discharge to the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-E Powerhouse is a steam generation facility consisting of a coal-handling and preparation section and boilers.

Atencio, B.P.

1994-06-01

323

Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application Immobilized High Level Waste (IHLW) Interim Storage Unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology and the U.S. EPA.

2002-01-01

324

Application of Epoxy Based Coating Instacote on Waste Tank Tops  

SciTech Connect

This evaluation examines the compatibility of coating Instacote with existing High-Level Waste facilities and safety practices. No significant incompatibilities are identified. The following actions need to be completed as indicated when applying Instacote on waste tank tops:(1) Prior to application in ITP facilities, the final product should be tested for chemical resistance to sodium tetraphenylborate solutions or sodium titanate slurries.(2) Any waste contaminated with Part A or B that can not be removed by the vendor such as for radiological contamination, HLW must hold the waste until HLW completes a formal assessment of the waste, disposal criteria, and impact.(3) Prior to the start of any application of the coating, each riser needs to be evaluated for masking and masking applied if needed.(4) At the conclusion of an application actual total weight of material applied to a waste tank needs to documented and sent to the tank top loading files for reference purposes.(5) Verify that the final product contains less than 250 ppm chloride.

Pike, J.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1998-03-18

325

Economical disposal of municipal solid waste with minimal discharges to the atmosphere and maximum recycling of energy and metal values  

SciTech Connect

A process has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory for the disposal of municipal solid wastes with minimal discharges to the atmosphere and maximum recycling of the energy and metal values contained therein. The energy values are recovered as zero ash, zero sulfur, zero nitrogen, zero chlorine particulate carbon (carbon black) fuels and a hydrogen-rich (or methane-rich) gaseous co-product. The process is especially adaptable to the disposal of plastic wastes and recycling of its energy values. Also, the inclusion of medical wastes should be no problem. The process consists of hydrogasifying prepared MSW (or any carbonaceous feedstock) to form a methane-rich process gas, which is then thermally decomposed (cracked) to form the primary product, carbon black, and hydrogen which is recycled to the hydrogasifier. Oxygen in the MSW is presently removed as water from the hydrogasifier effluent before it enters the methane decomposer. Any remaining hydrogen in the MSW feed is ultimately removed from the process as a co-product gas as hydrogen per se and/or methane (SNG). Chlorine in feed containing PVCs, for example, is removed as relatively minute amounts of hydrogen chloride in the condensed water discharged from the recuperative partial condenser. Desulfurization is not required to produce sulfur-free carbon black per se. Various options are available for desulfurization of the co-product gas. Since the process operates under a highly-reducing hydrogen atmosphere, toxic oxygenated compounds such as dioxins cannot form and metals entering with the MSW are removed with the ash'' as metals, not oxides.

Grohse, E.W.; Steinberg, M.; Koppel, P.E. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA); Stone and Webster Engineering Corp., Boston, MA (USA))

1989-03-01

326

Application of a multiobjective minimization technique for reducing the torque ripple in permanent-magnet motors  

SciTech Connect

The demand for high performance permanent-magnet (PM) motors is continuously increasing in industrial applications because of their high efficiency and power density. The main design parameters of a permanent-magnet motor, which reduce the total torque ripple, are determined. A two-step design procedure is utilized. First the geometry of the permanent-magnet rotor is derived by a one-dimensional field analysis coupled to a multiobjective minimization technique. The objective function of the minimization is defined as a combination of the electromotive force harmonic components induced in the stator and of the harmonic components of the air-gap magnet permeance. As a second step, a two-dimensional numerical model, solved through a finite element method, is adopted to further improve the analysis of the magnetic field. This allows the optimization of the magnet arc width and the minimization of the cogging torque. The method described has been used for the design of a three-phase, six-pole, permanent-magnet synchronous motor. Experimental tests have been carried out to verify the results obtained by the design procedure.

Borghi, C.A.; Casadei, D.; Cristofolini, A.; Fabbri, M.; Serra, G.

1999-09-01

327

Waste minimization and pollution prevention technology transfer : the Airlie House Projects.  

SciTech Connect

The Airlie House Pollution Prevention Technology Transfer Projects were a series of pilot projects developed for the US Department of Energy with the intention of transferring pollution prevention technology to the private sector. The concept was to develop small technology transfer initiatives in partnership with the private sector. Argonne National Laboratory developed three projects: the microscale chemistry in education project, the microscale cost benefit study project, and the Bethel New Life recycling trainee project. The two microscale chemistry projects focused on introducing microscale chemistry technologies to secondary and college education. These programs were inexpensive to develop and received excellent evaluations from participants and regulators. The Bethel New Life recycling trainee project provided training for two participants who helped identify recycling and source reduction opportunities in Argonne National Laboratory's solid waste stream. The pilot projects demonstrated that technology transfer initiatives can be developed and implemented with a small budget and within a short period of time. The essential components of the pilot projects were identifying target technologies that were already available, identifying target audiences, and focusing on achieving a limited but defined objective.

Gatrone, R.; McHenry, J.; Myron, H.; Thout, J. R.

1998-01-14

328

40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT General § 273.8 Applicability...conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. (a) Persons managing the...

2013-07-01

329

40 CFR 266.206 - Standards applicable to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...applicable to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions. 266.206...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS...

2012-07-01

330

Use of Novel Highly Selective Ion Exchange Media for Minimizing the Waste Arising from Different NPP and Other Liquids  

SciTech Connect

Highly selective inorganic ion exchangers give new possibilities to implement and operate new innovative treatment systems for radioactive liquids. Because of high selectivity these ion exchangers can be used even in liquids of high salt concentrations. Only selected target nuclides will be separated and inactive salts are left in the liquid, which can be released or recategorized. Thus, it is possible to reduce the volume of radioactive waste dramatically. On the other hand, only a small volume of highly selective material is required in applications, which makes it possible to design totally new types of compact treatment systems. The major benefit of selective ion exchange media comes from the very large volume reduction of radioactive waste in final disposal. It is also possible to save in investment costs, because small ion exchanger volumes can be used and handled in a very small facility. This paper describes different applications of these highly selective ion exchangers, both commercial fullscale applications and laboratory tests, to give the idea of their efficiency for different liquids.

Tusa, Esko; Harjula, Risto; Lehto, Jukka

2003-02-25

331

Application of fluidized bed combustion to industrial waste treatment.  

PubMed

Landfill and sea-dumping appear to be on their way out as acceptable methods for the disposal of untreated industrial wastes in Taiwan. Recently, there has been interest in the application of fluidized bed technology to waste incineration for efficient energy utilization and environmental protection. A pilot fluidized bed combustion system was used to investigate the incineration performance and parametric test for the waste from an industrial park. According to the experimental results, the appropriate operating conditions, including temperatures of 800-840 degrees C, aeration rates of U(0)/Um(f)-2.0 or so, and on-bed feeding, were recommended to treat such waste. The emissions of SO(x), NO(x) and CO in flue gas meet the ROC-EPA regulation. PMID:15092126

Chang, Y M; Lo, Y F; Ho, C C

1991-01-01

332

APPLICATION OF NONSPHERICAL FISSILE CONFIGURATION IN WASTE CONTAINERS AT SRS  

SciTech Connect

Transuranic (TRU) solid waste that has been generated as a result of the production of nuclear material for the United States defense program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has been stored in more than 30,000 55-gallon drums and carbon steel boxes since 1953. Nearly two thirds of those containers have been processed and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Among the containers assayed so far, the results indicate several drums with fissile inventories significantly higher (600-1000 fissile grams equivalent (FGE) {sup 239}Pu) than their original assigned values. While part of this discrepancy can be attributed to the past limited assay capabilities, human errors are believed to be the primary contributor. This paper summarizes the application of nonspherical fissile material configuration in waste containers, resulting in less restrictive mass and spacing limits, increased storage capacity, and several administrative controls for handling and storage of waste containers being modified without compromising safety.

Eghbali, D; Michelle Abney, M

2007-01-03

333

Microwave technology for waste management applications: Treatment of discarded electronic circuitry  

SciTech Connect

Significant quantities of hazardous wastes are generated from a multitude of processes and products in today`s society. This waste inventory is not only very large and diverse, but is also growing at an alarming rate. In order to minimize the dangers presented by constituents in these wastes, microwave technologies are being investigated to render harmless the hazardous components and ultimately, to minimize their impact to individuals and the surrounding environment.

Wicks, G.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken, SC (United States); Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

1997-01-01

334

User's guide: Strategic Waste Minimization Initiative (SWAMI) version 2. 0: A software tool to aid in process analysis for pollution prevention  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the SWAMI software is to help the user identify waste minimization opportunities, set up a procedure to prioritize those opportunities, and devise a strategy to take advantage of those opportunities that have the highest priority. The version of SWAMI has been developed to supply the capability of performing mass balance calculations and of generating graphic process flow diagrams.

Not Available

1992-01-01

335

Space technology for nuclear and waste treatment applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced technology is needed to solve some of the problems that are encountered during nuclear work, such as waste retrieval. Some problems are similar to those encountered in space exploration and exploitation for which technical solutions have already been developed and applied. These solutions can be adapted for nuclear applications in many cases. In this paper, examples of space technology

Haines

1990-01-01

336

Liquid effluent retention facility dangerous waste permit application. Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This permit application addresses the transfer and storage of a mixed-waste stream called 'process condensate' generated in the 242-A Evaporator. Process condensate is piped via 4,950 feet (1,509 meters) of double-wall pipe to any one of four 6.5-million ...

1991-01-01

337

Optimized application of systems engineering to nuclear waste repository projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this presentation is to describe a fully optimized application of systems engineering methods and philosophy to the management of a large nuclear waste repository project. Knowledge gained from actual experience with the use of the systems approach on two repository projects is incorporated in the material presented. The projects are currently evaluating the isolation performance of different

P. A. Miskimin; M. Shepard

1986-01-01

338

APPLICATION OF PULSE COMBUSTION TO SOLID AND HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the application of pulse combustion to solid and hazardous waste incineration. otary kiln incinerator simulator was retrofitted with a frequency-tunable pulse combustor to enhance the efficiency of combustion. he pulse combustor excites pulsations in the kiln ...

339

Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, general information portion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The `Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application` is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (this document, DOE\\/RL-91-28) and a Unit- Specific Portion. The scope of the General Information Portion includes information that could be used to discuss operating units, units undergoing closure, or units being dispositioned through other options. Documentation included in the General

Westinghouse Hanford

1996-01-01

340

77 FR 62537 - Notice of Waste Management Permit Application Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Waste Management Permit Application Received...Foundation. ACTION: Notice of a Waste Management Permit Application Received...Foundation (NSF) has received a waste management permit application for...

2012-10-15

341

224-T Transuranic Waste Storage and Assay Facility dangerous waste permit application.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the US Department of Energy Richland Field Office and serves as cooperator of the 224-T Transuranic Waste Storage and Assay Facility, the storage unit addressed in this permit application. At the time ...

1992-01-01

342

Evidence-based integrated environmental solutions for secondary lead smelters: pollution prevention and waste minimization technologies and practices.  

PubMed

An evidence-based methodology was adopted in this research to establish strategies to increase lead recovery and recycling via a systematic review and critical appraisal of the published literature. In particular, the research examines pollution prevention and waste minimization practices and technologies that meet the following criteria: (a) reduce/recover/recycle the largest quantities of lead currently being disposed of as waste, (b) technically and economically viable, that is, ready to be diffused and easily transferable, and (c) strong industry interest (i.e., industry would consider implementing projects with higher payback periods). The following specific aims are designed to achieve the study objectives: Aim 1 - To describe the recycling process of recovering refined lead from scrap; Aim 2 - To document pollution prevention and waste management technologies and practices adopted by US stakeholders along the trajectory of LAB and lead product life cycle; Aim 3 - To explore improved practices and technologies which are employed by other organizations with an emphasis on the aforementioned criteria; Aim 4 - To demonstrate the economic and environmental costs and benefits of applying improved technologies and practices to existing US smelting operations; and Aim 5 - To evaluate improved environmental technologies and practices using an algorithm that integrates quantitative and qualitative criteria. The process of identifying relevant articles and reports was documented. The description of evidence was presented for current practices and technologies used by US smelters as well as improved practices and technologies. Options for integrated environmental solutions for secondary smelters were introduced and rank ordered on the basis of costs (i.e., capital investment) and benefits (i.e., production increases, energy and flux savings, and reduction of SO(2) and slag). An example was provided to demonstrate the utility of the algorithm by detailing the costs and benefits associated with different combinations of practices and technologies. The evidence-based methodology documented in this research reveals that it is technically and economically feasible to implement integrated environmental solutions to increase lead recovery and recycling among US smelters. The working example presented in this research can be confirmed with US stakeholders and form the basis for implementable solutions in the lead smelter and product industries to help reverse the overall trend of declining life-cycle recycling rates. PMID:19232675

Genaidy, A M; Sequeira, R; Tolaymat, T; Kohler, J; Rinder, M

2009-02-20

343

Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Design Procedures for Land Application of Wastes - Module 6, Objectives, Script and Figures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this module is to develop a general procedure to decide the feasibility of land application as a waste management alternative, given a specific problem situation. This information provides a framework within which to apply the information presented in all other modules in the program. An outline of the general procedure followed in

Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

344

Waste disposal by hydrofracture and application of the technology to the management of hazardous wastes  

SciTech Connect

A unique disposal method, involving hydrofracturing, has been used for management of liquid low-level radioactive wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Wastes are mixed with cement and other solids and injected along bedding plane fractures into highly impermeable shale at a depth of 300 m forming a grout sheet. The process has operated successfully for 20 years and may be applicable to disposal of hazardous wastes. The cement grout represents the primary barrier for immobilization of the wastes; the hydrologically isolated injection horizon represents a secondary barrier. At ORNL work has been conducted to characterize the geology of the disposal site and to determine its relationship to the injection process. The site is structurally quite complex. Research has also been conducted on the development of methods for monitoring the extent and orientation of the grout sheets; these methods include gamma-ray logging of cased observation wells, leveling surveys of benchmarks, tiltmeter surveys, and microseismic arrays. These methods, some of which need further development, offer promise for real-time and post-injection monitoring. Initial suggestions are offered for possible application of the technology to hazardous waste management and technical and regulatory areas needing attention are addressed. 11 refs., 1 fig.

Stow, S.H.; Haase, C.S.; Weeren, H.O.

1985-01-01

345

Low-Level Burial Grounds Dangerous Waste Permit Application  

SciTech Connect

The single dangerous waste permit identification number issued to the Hanford Site by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology is US Environmental Protection Agency/State Identification Number WA 7890008967. This identification number encompasses a number of waste management units within the Hanford Site. Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and serves as co-operator of the Low-Level Burial Grounds, the waste management unit addressed by this permit application. The Low-Level Burial Grounds Dangerous Waste Permit Application consists of both a Part A and a Part B Permit Application. The original Part A, submitted in November 1985, identified landfills, retrievable storage units, and reserved areas. An explanation of subsequent Part A revisions is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. The Part B section consists of 15 chapters addressing the organization and content of the Part B checklist prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology. Volumes 2, 3 and 4 are composed of detailed maps.

Not Available

1989-12-12

346

Low-Level Burial Grounds Dangerous Waste Permit Application  

SciTech Connect

The single dangerous waste permit identification number issued to the Hanford Site by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology is US Environmental Protection Agency/State Identification Number WA 7890008967. This identification number encompasses a number of waste management units within the the Hanford Site. Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and services as co-operator of the Low-Level Burial Grounds, the waste management unit addressed by this permit application. The Low-Level Burial Grounds Dangerous Waste Permit Application consists of both a Part A and a Part B Permit Application. The original Part A, submitted in November 1985, identified landfills, retrievable storage units, and reserved areas. An explanation of subsequent Part A revisions is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. The Part B consists of 15 chapters addressing the organization and content of the Part B checklist prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain maps.

Not Available

1989-12-12

347

Low-Level Burial Grounds Dangerous Waste Permit Application  

SciTech Connect

The single dangerous waste permit identification number issued to the Hanford Site by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology is US Environmental Protection Agency/State Identification Number WA 7890008967. This identification number encompasses a number of waste management units within the Hanford Site. Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and serves as co-operator of the Low-Level Burial Grounds, the waste management unit addressed by this permit application. The Low-Level Burial Grounds Dangerous Waste Permit Application consists of both a Part A and a Part B Permit Application. The original Part A, submitted in November 1985, identified landfills, retrievable storage units, and reserved areas. An explanation of subsequent Part A revisions is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. The Part B consists of 15 chapters addressing the organization and content of the Part B checklist prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology.

Not Available

1989-12-29

348

Low-Level Burial Grounds Dangerous Waste Permit Application  

SciTech Connect

The single dangerous waste permit identification number issued to the Hanford Site by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology is US Environmental Protection Agency/State Identification Number WA 7890008967. This identification number encompasses a number of waste management units within the Hanford Site. Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and serves as co-operator of the Low-Level Burial Grounds, the waste management unit addressed by this permit application. The Low-Level Burial Grounds Dangerous Waste Permit Application consists of both a Part A and a Part B Permit Application. The original Part A, submitted in November 1985, identified landfills, retrievable storage units, and reserved areas. An explanation of subsequent Part A revisions is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. Part B consists of 15 chapters addressing the organization and content of the Part B checklist prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology.

Not Available

1989-12-12

349

Low-Level Burial Grounds Dangerous Waste Permit Application  

SciTech Connect

The single dangerous waste permit identification number issued to the Hanford Site by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology is US Environmental Protection Agency/State Identification Number WA 7890008967. This identification number encompasses a number of waste management units within the Hanford Site. Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and serves as co-operator of the Low-Level Burial Grounds, the waste management unit addressed by this permit application. The Low-Level Burial Grounds Dangerous Waste Permit Application consists of both a Part A and a Part B Permit Application. The original Part A, submitted in November 1985, identified landfills, retrievable storage units, and reserved areas. An explanation of subsequent Part A revisions is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. The Part B consists of 15 chapters addressing the organization and content of the Part B checklist prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain maps.

Not Available

1989-12-12

350

Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, PUREX storage tunnels  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, operating treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the PUREX Storage Tunnels (this document, DOE/RL-90-24). Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1996) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is contained in the PUREX Storage Tunnels permit application documentation, in relation to the Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents Section. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever appropriate, the PUREX Storage Tunnels permit application documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. Information provided in this PUREX Storage Tunnels permit application documentation is current as of April 1997.

Price, S.M.

1997-09-08

351

Global error minimization in image mosaicing using graph connectivity and its applications in microscopy  

PubMed Central

Several applications such as multiprojector displays and microscopy require the mosaicing of images (tiles) acquired by a camera as it traverses an unknown trajectory in 3D space. A homography relates the image coordinates of a point in each tile to those of a reference tile provided the 3D scene is planar. Our approach in such applications is to first perform pairwise alignment of the tiles that have imaged common regions in order to recover a homography relating the tile pair. We then find the global set of homographies relating each individual tile to a reference tile such that the homographies relating all tile pairs are kept as consistent as possible. Using these global homographies, one can generate a mosaic of the entire scene. We derive a general analytical solution for the global homographies by representing the pair-wise homographies on a connectivity graph. Our solution can accommodate imprecise prior information regarding the global homographies whenever such information is available. We also derive equations for the special case of translation estimation of an X-Y microscopy stage used in histology imaging and present examples of stitched microscopy slices of specimens obtained after radical prostatectomy or prostate biopsy. In addition, we demonstrate the superiority of our approach over tree-structured approaches for global error minimization.

Khurd, Parmeshwar; Grady, Leo; Oketokoun, Rafiou; Sundar, Hari; Gajera, Tejas; Gibbs-Strauss, Summer; Frangioni, John V.; Kamen, Ali

2011-01-01

352

A Minimal Coverage-based Classification method and its application in predictive toxicology data mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

A robust method, MCC (minimal coverage-based classification), for toxicity prediction of chemical compounds is proposed. The MCC method mainly considers the local distribution of each class around a new tuple to be classified and uses minimal coverage principle - covering minimal number of tuples with different classes - to classify this new tuple. The merits of MCC over other machine

Gongde Guo; Yu Huang

2008-01-01

353

Minimally invasive application of botulinum toxin A in patients with idiopathic rhinitis  

PubMed Central

Background Nasal hypersecretion due to idiopathic rhinitis can often not be treated sufficiently by conventional medication. Botulinum toxin A (BTA) has been injected into the nasal mucosa in patients with nasal hypersecretion with a reduction of rhinorrhea lasting for about 4 to 8 weeks. Since the nasal mucosa is well supplied with glands and vessels, the aim of this study was to find out if the distribution of BTA in the nasal mucosa and a reduction of nasal hypersecretion can also be reached by a minimally invasive application by sponges without an injection. Methods Patients were randomly divided into two groups. The effect of BTA (group A, C, D) or saline as placebo (group B) was investigated in 20 patients with idiopathic rhinitis by applying it with a sponge soaked with BTA (40 units each nostril) or saline. Subgroups C and D contained these patients of group A and B who did not improve in symptoms one week after the original treatment (either BTA or saline) who then received the alternative medication. Changes of symptoms (rhinorrhea, nasal obstruction) were scored by the patients in a four point scale and counted (consumption of tissues, sneezing) in a diary. The patients were followed up weeks 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12. Results There was a clear reduction of the amount of secretion in group A compared to group B, C and D. This did not correlate with the tissue consumption, which was comparably reduced in group A and B, but reduced less in group C and D. Sneezing was clearly reduced in group A but comparably unchanged in group B and C and increased in group D. Nasal congestion remained unchanged. Conclusion In some patients with therapy-resistant idiopathic rhinitis BTA applied with a sponge is a long-lasting and minimal invasive therapy to reduce nasal hypersecretion.

Rohrbach, Saskia; Junghans, Katharina; Kohler, Sibylle; Laskawi, Rainer

2009-01-01

354

Decontamination techniques applicable to waste packages: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an evaluation of methods for decontamination of reference waste canisters and waste containers. The potential use of chemical solvents, ultrasonics, liquid abrasive blasting, vibratory finishing, electropolishing, liquid honing, high-pressure steam/water spraying, and fixatives as decontamination techniques for outer waste package and canister surfaces is discussed. Either test results or available literature on these techniques were examined to assess applicability of the methods. Pertinent technical considerations for each method are presented and discussed. Electropolishing and liquid abrasive blasting are the processes recommended for remote decontamination of waste overpacks and canisters. These processes are recommended on the basis of a number of factors including the type of contaminants present; the geometric configurations and materials; the accessibility, size, and mass of the units; and the time available to perform the process. Representative process conceptual designs for electropolishing and liquid abrasive blasting are presented in this report. Major equipment items and process operations are discussed. Secondary waste treatment and disposal requirements are also briefly discussed. 16 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Not Available

1988-03-01

355

State waste discharge permit application, 200-E chemical drain field  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect ground would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). The Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. This document presents the State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) application for the 200-E Chemical Drain Field. Waste water from the 272-E Building enters the process sewer line directly through a floor drain, while waste water from the 2703-E Building is collected in two floor drains, (north and south) that act as sumps and are discharged periodically. The 272-E and 2703-E Buildings constitute the only discharges to the process sewer line and the 200-E Chemical Drain Field.

Not Available

1994-06-01

356

Potential applications of nanostructured materials in nuclear waste management.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results obtained from a Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD) project entitled 'Investigation of Potential Applications of Self-Assembled Nanostructured Materials in Nuclear Waste Management'. The objectives of this project are to (1) provide a mechanistic understanding of the control of nanometer-scale structures on the ion sorption capability of materials and (2) develop appropriate engineering approaches to improving material properties based on such an understanding.

Braterman, Paul S. (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Phol, Phillip Isabio; Xu, Zhi-Ping (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Yang, Yi (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Bryan, Charles R.; Yu, Kui; Xu, Huifang (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Wang, Yifeng; Gao, Huizhen

2003-09-01

357

Programmable multi-timer for TRU waste analysis applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A programmable, multiple-function timing module has been developed for use in transuranic (TRU) waste analysis applications at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The Programmable Multi-Timer (PRMT) is an expanded version of a module originally built for accelerator-based active photon interrogation experiments. During the course of the experiments, it became obvious that a more versatile timer was needed to meet several

R. S. Lawrence; E. B. Nieschmidt; F. Y. Tsang

1981-01-01

358

Application of neural networks to waste site screening  

SciTech Connect

Waste site screening requires knowledge of the actual concentrations of hazardous materials and rates of flow around and below the site with time. The present approach consists primarily of drilling boreholes near contaminated sites and chemically analyzing the extracted physical samples and processing the data. This is expensive and time consuming. The feasibility of using neural network techniques to reduce the cost of waste site screening was investigated. Two neural network techniques, gradient descent back propagation and fully recurrent back propagation were utilized. The networks were trained with data received from Westinghouse Hanford Corporation. The results indicate that the network trained with the fully recurrent technique shows satisfactory generalization capability. The predicted results are close to the results obtained from a mathematical flow prediction model. It is possible to develop a new tool to predict the waste plume, thus substantially reducing the number of the bore sites and samplings. There are a variety of applications for this technique in environmental site screening and remediation. One of the obvious applications would be for optimum well siting. A neural network trained from the existing sampling data could be utilized to decide where would be the best position for the next bore site. Other applications are discussed in the report.

Dabiri, A.E.; Garrett, M.; Kraft, T.; Hilton, J.; VanHammersveld, M.

1993-02-01

359

Programmable multi-timer for TRU waste analysis applications  

SciTech Connect

A programmable, multiple-function timing module has been developed for use in transuranic (TRU) waste analysis applications at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The Programmable Multi-Timer (PRMT) is an expanded version of a module originally built for accelerator-based active photon interrogation experiments. During the course of the experiments, it became obvious that a more versatile timer was needed to meet several unforeseen requirements. The PRMT was designed to meet the new requirements and to serve as a general-purpose timing module for other applications.

Lawrence, R.S.; Nieschmidt, E.B.; Tsang, F.Y.

1981-01-01

360

Review of LLNL Mixed Waste Streams for the Application of Potential Waste Reduction Controls  

SciTech Connect

In July 2004, LLNL adopted the International Standard ISO 14001 as a Work Smart Standard in lieu of DOE Order 450.1. In support of this new requirement the Director issued a new environmental policy that was documented in Section 3.0 of Document 1.2, ''ES&H Policies of LLNL'', in the ES&H Manual. In recent years the Environmental Management System (EMS) process has become formalized as LLNL adopted ISO 14001 as part of the contract under which the laboratory is operated for the Department of Energy (DOE). On May 9, 2005, LLNL revised its Integrated Safety Management System Description to enhance existing environmental requirements to meet ISO 14001. Effective October 1, 2005, each new project or activity is required to be evaluated from an environmental aspect, particularly if a potential exists for significant environmental impacts. Authorizing organizations are required to consider the management of all environmental aspects, the applicable regulatory requirements, and reasonable actions that can be taken to reduce negative environmental impacts. During 2006, LLNL has worked to implement the corrective actions addressing the deficiencies identified in the DOE/LSO audit. LLNL has begun to update the present EMS to meet the requirements of ISO 14001:2004. The EMS commits LLNL--and each employee--to responsible stewardship of all the environmental resources in our care. The generation of mixed radioactive waste was identified as a significant environmental aspect. Mixed waste for the purposes of this report is defined as waste materials containing both hazardous chemical and radioactive constituents. Significant environmental aspects require that an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) be developed. The objective of the EMP developed for mixed waste (EMP-005) is to evaluate options for reducing the amount of mixed waste generated. This document presents the findings of the evaluation of mixed waste generated at LLNL and a proposed plan for reduction.

Belue, A; Fischer, R P

2007-01-08

361

CHARACTERIZATION OF DEFENSE NUCLEAR WASTE USING HAZARDOUS WASTE GUIDANCE. APPLICATIONS TO HANFORD SITE ACCELERATED HIGH-LEVEL WASTE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL MISSION0  

SciTech Connect

Federal hazardous waste regulations were developed for management of industrial waste. These same regulations are also applicable for much of the nation's defense nuclear wastes. At the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeast Washington State, one of the nation's largest inventories of nuclear waste remains in storage in large underground tanks. The waste's regulatory designation and its composition and form constrain acceptable treatment and disposal options. Obtaining detailed knowledge of the tank waste composition presents a significant portion of the many challenges in meeting the regulatory-driven treatment and disposal requirements for this waste. Key in applying the hazardous waste regulations to defense nuclear wastes is defining the appropriate and achievable quality for waste feed characterization data and the supporting evidence demonstrating that applicable requirements have been met at the time of disposal. Application of a performance-based approach to demonstrating achievable quality standards will be discussed in the context of the accelerated high-level waste treatment and disposal mission at the Hanford Site.

Hamel, William; Huffman, Lori; Lerchen, Megan; Wiemers, Karyn

2003-02-27

362

Pollution prevention assessment manual. A guide for large quantity generators and TRI reporters in preparing a source reduction and waste minimization plan  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Reduction Policy Act (WRPA) of 1991 requires certain industries and businesses that generate hazardous waste or release toxics to prepare a source reduction and waste minimization (SR/WM) plan and a SR/WM annual progress report. This manual is organized to accomplish two objectives: to assist in preparing a pollution prevention plan as required under the WRPA; to aid in planning, developing, and implementing a successful pollution prevention program. Each chapter in this manual contains worksheets, detailed descriptions explaining the worksheets, and advice on how to complete a pollution prevention assessment and plan. Chapter 2 presents instructions and approaches for preparing a pollution prevention plan as required by the WRPA. Chapters 3 through 6 present worksheets that will help to prepare a plan.

NONE

1998-07-01

363

Minimal Neighborhood Mean Projection Function and Its Application to Eye Location  

Microsoft Academic Search

A projection function called minimal neighborhood mean projection function (MNMPF) is proposed. The projection function calculates and stores the minimal neighborhood mean of each pixel on each projection line, so that it is able to trace the low grayscale features in image. Compared with traditional projection functions, i.e. integral projection function (IPF) and variance projection function (VPF), MNMPF is insensitive

ZHENG Ying; WANG Zeng-Fu

2008-01-01

364

Minimizing the Application Execution Time Through Scheduling of Subtasks and Communication Traffic in a Heterogeneous Computing System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a heterogeneous computing (HC) environment consisting of different types of machines, an application program is decomposed into subtasks, each of which is computationally homogeneous. The goal is to execute subtasks on the machines in such a way that the total program execution time is minimized. A mathematical framework is presented that models the matching of subtasks to machines, scheduling

Min Tan; Howard Jay Siegel; John K. Antonio; Yan Alexander Li

1997-01-01

365

Potential and range of application of elastic backscatter lidar systems using polarization selection to minimize detected skylight noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the potential, range of application, and limiting factors of a polarization selection technique, recently devised by us, which takes advantage of naturally occurring polarization properties of scattered sky light to minimize the detected sky background signal and which can be used in conjunction with linearly polarized elastic backscatter lidars to maximize lidar receiver SNR. In this approach, a

S. A. Ahmed; Y. Y. Hassebo; B. Gross; M. Oo; F. Moshary

2006-01-01

366

Minimal Enclosing Sphere Estimation and Its Application to SVMs Model Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper, we propose a modified sequential minimal optimization (SMO) algorithm for the minimal enclosing sphere estimation\\u000a (MESE) problem. Being one of the key issues of the VC dimension estimation, the MESE problem has a formulation similar to\\u000a that of support vector machines (SVMs) training. This allows adoption of the ideas of Platts SMO algorithm. After careful\\u000a analysis of

Huaqing Li; Shaoyu Wang; Feihu Qi

2004-01-01

367

A Genetic-Based Scheduling Algorithm to Minimize the Makespan of the Grid Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Task scheduling algorithms in grid environments strive to maximize the overall throughput of the grid. In order to maximize\\u000a the throughput of the grid environments, the makespan of the grid tasks should be minimized. In this paper, a new task scheduling\\u000a algorithm is proposed to assign tasks to the grid resources with goal of minimizing the total makespan of the

Reza Entezari-Maleki; Ali Movaghar

2010-01-01

368

OPTIMIZATION OF CERAMICS FOR NUCLEAR FUEL AND WASTE FORM APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

We have used atomistic computer simulations and ion beam irradiations to examine radiation damage accumulation in oxides and nitrides. We have developed contour energy maps for oxides via computer simulations, to predict the effects of structure and chemical composition on radiation-induced atomic disorder, defect migration, and swelling. Ion irradiation damage experiments have been performed on fluorite and pyrochlore-structured oxide ceramics, as well as alkali halide-structured nitrides, to examine trends and to test the predictions from computer models. This presentation will examine both theoretical predictions and experimental results regarding radiation damage behavior in ceramics intended for nuclear fuel and waste form applications.

Sickafus, K. (Kurt E.); Grimes, R. W. (Robin W.)

2001-01-01

369

Membrane Lipid Analysis Applications to Monitoring Land Application of Food Processing Waste Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land application of food processing waste is a common treatment technique relying on the soil assimilation capacity, including biological activity, for effective treatment. This treatment technique poses implications for ground water associated with metal leaching when excess loading occurs resulting in oxygen limitations. Determining prescriptive loadings that are protective of groundwater for food processors who dispose of wastewater by land

R. A. Larson; I. Fernandez-Torres; S. I. Safferman; S. M. Pfiffner

2008-01-01

370

State Waste Discharge Permit application, 183-N Backwash Discharge Pond  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). The Consent Order No. DE91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. Liquid effluents on the Hanford Site have been classified as Phase I, Phase II, and Miscellaneous Streams. The Consent Order No. DE91NM-177 establishes milestones for State Waste Discharge Permit application submittals for all Phase I and Phase II streams, as well as the following 11 Miscellaneous Streams as identified in Table 4 of the Consent Order No. DE91NM-177.

Not Available

1994-06-01

371

Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 616 Nonradioactive dangerous waste storage facility  

SciTech Connect

This chapter provides information on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the waste stored at the 616 NRDWSF. A waste analysis plan is included that describes the methodology used for determining waste types.

Price, S.M.

1997-04-30

372

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Dangerous Waste Permit Application. Revision 2: Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hanford Facility currently stores mixed waste, resulting from various processing operations, in underground storage tanks. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant will be constructed and operated to process the high-activity fraction of mixed waste stor...

1991-01-01

373

Cost-benefit analysis for waste compaction alternatives at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: Addendum A to the Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Plan of May 31, 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents a cost-benefit analysis of the potential procurement and operation of various solid waste compactors or of the use of commercial compaction services, for compaction of solid transuranic (TRU), low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mix...

1992-01-01

374

Epiglottis reshaping using CO2 laser: A minimally invasive technique and its potent applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laryngomalacia (LRM), is the most common laryngeal abnormality of the newborn, caused by a long curled epiglottis, which prolapses posteriorly. Epiglottis prolapse during inspiration (acquired laryngomalacia) is an unusual cause of airway obstruction and a rare cause of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). We present a minimally invasive technique where epiglottis on cadaveric larynx specimens was treated with CO2 laser.

Constantinos Bourolias; Jiannis Hajiioannou; Emil Sobol; George Velegrakis; Emmanuel Helidonis

2008-01-01

375

Application of optimization techniques to spacecaft fuel usage minimization in deep space navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathematical analysis of the minimization of spacecraft fuel usage for both impulsive and finite motor burns is presented. A high precision integrated trajectory search program (SEPV) and several optimization software libraries are used to solve minimum fuel usage problems. The SEPV program has the capacity to vary either the initial spacecraft state or the finite burn parameters to acquire a

Tseng-Chan Wang; Richard F. Sunseri; Richard H. Stanford; Donald L. Gray; Peter J. Breckheimer

1987-01-01

376

Buried waste remediation: A new application for in situ vitrification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buried wastes represent a significant environmental concern and a major financial and technological challenge facing many private firms, local and state governments, and federal agencies. Numerous radioactive and hazardous mixed buried waste sites managed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) require timely clean up to comply with state or federal environmental regulations. Hazardous wastes, biomedical wastes, and common household

C. H. Kindle; L. E. Thompson

1991-01-01

377

I-NERI Annual Technical Progress Report 2007-004-K Development and Characterization of New High-Level Waste Forms for Achieving Waste Minimization from Pyroprocessing  

SciTech Connect

The current method for the immobilization of fission products that accumulate in electrorefiner salt during the electrochemical processing of used metallic nuclear fuel is to encapsulate the electrorefiner salt in a glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form. This process was developed by Argonne National Laboratory in the USA and is currently performed at the Idaho National Laboratory for the treatment of Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) used fuel. This process utilizes a once-through option for the disposal of spent electrorefiner salt; where, after the treatment of the EBR-II fuel, the electrorefiner salt containing the active fission products will be disposed of in the ceramic waste form (CWF). The CWF produced will have low fission product loading of approximately 2 to 5 weight percent due to the limited fuel inventory currently being processed. However; the design and implementation of advanced electrochemical processing facilities to treat used fuel would process much greater quantities fuel. With an advanced processing facility, it would be necessary to selectively remove fission products from the electrorefiner salt for salt recycle and to concentrate the fission products to reduce the volume of high-level waste from the treatment facility. The Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute and the Idaho National Laboratory have been collaborating on I-NERI research projects for a number of years to investigate both aspects of selective fission product separation from electrorefiner salt, and to develop advanced waste forms for the immobilization of the collected fission products. The first joint KAERI/INL I-NERI project titled: 2006-002-K, Separation of Fission Products from Molten LiCl-KCl Salt Used for Electrorefining of Metal Fuels, was successfully completed in 2009 by concentrating and isolating fission products from actual electrorefiner salt used for the treated used EBR-II fuel. Two separation methods were tested and from these tests were produced concentrated salt products that acted as the feed material for development of advanced waste forms investigated in this proposal. Accomplishments from the first year activities associated with this I-NERI project included the down selection of candidate waste forms to immobilize fission products separated from electrorefiner salt, and the design of equipment to fabricate actual waste forms in the Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) at the INL. Reported in this document are accomplishments from the second year (FY10) work performed at the INL, and includes the testing of waste form fabrication equipment, repeating the fission product precipitation experiment, and initial waste form fabrication efforts.

S. Frank

2010-09-01

378

Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application documentation consists of both Part A and a Part B permit application documentation. An explanation of the Part A revisions associated with this treatment and storage unit, includ...

1993-01-01

379

Iterative Methods for Obtaining Energy-Minimizing Parametric Snakes with Applications to Medical Imaging  

PubMed Central

After a brief survey on the parametric deformable models, we develop an iterative method based on the finite difference schemes in order to obtain energy-minimizing snakes. We estimate the approximation error, the residue, and the truncature error related to the corresponding algorithm, then we discuss its convergence, consistency, and stability. Some aspects regarding the prosthetic sugical methods that implement the above numerical methods are also pointed out.

Mitrea, Alexandru Ioan; Badea, Radu; Mitrea, Delia; Nedevschi, Sergiu; Mitrea, Paulina; Ivan, Dumitru Mircea; Gurzau, Octavian Mircia

2012-01-01

380

The application of waste management systems for long duration spaceflight.  

PubMed

In the future planned interplanetary expedition mission to Mars, spaceflight crewmembers will be exposed to an environment that is completely unique from anything they are accustomed to on Earth. Due to the characteristics of these missions, a challenge will be to design an environment that allows crewmembers to easily work and live in for extended durations. One of the challenges associated with these future missions is supplying the crew with essential resources for survivability such as food and water. In this case, the waste management system can play a role in a closed-loop life support system, as provisions sent with the crew will be severely limited with no opportunity for resupply. The following looks at the rationale of designing a system for collecting, storing, and recycling human bodily waste that (1) is considered user-friendly by crewmembers in regard to habitability in spaceflight, and (2) provides applications for a self sustaining closed-loop life support system that will aid the crew during the mission. Future design processes should consider adhering to these guidelines to help in the spaceflight crew's living environment and the conduction of the interplanetary expedition. PMID:22316723

Oglesby, James M

2012-01-01

381

Northeast Australian Experience in Minimizing Environmental Harm From Waste Recycling and Potential Pollutants of Soil and Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Users of natural resources are increasingly required to identify and minimize environmental risks associated with their activities. Risks as perceived by the owner or operator (the industry), the general public, and the regulator need to reflect the actual risk, but in real life this goal is elusive. This article provides five examples on how environmental risks were assessed in the

George E. Rayment

2005-01-01

382

Application of food industry waste to agricultural soils mitigates green house gas emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of organic waste materials such as food processing and serving industry cooking oil waste (OFW) can recycle soil nitrate nitrogen (NO3N), which is otherwise prone to leaching after the harvest of crop. Nitrogen (N) recycling will not only reduce the amount of N fertilizer application for corn crop production but is also expected to mitigate green house gas (GHG)

M. T. Rashid; R. P. Voroney; M. Khalid

2010-01-01

383

Electrochemical Corrosion Rate Sensors for Waste Incineration Applications  

SciTech Connect

Electrochemical corrosion rate sensors work in high temperature waste incineration applications where ash is deposited. The ash serves as the electrolyte for electrochemical measurements, such as liner polarization resistance, electrochemical noise, and harmonic distortion analyses. Results to date have shown that these types of sensors respond qualitatively to changes in temperature, gas composition, alloy composition, and type of ash. Several years of research have shown that high temperature corrosion rate probes need to be better understood before corrosion rate can be used as a process variable by power plant operators. More recent research has shown that electrochemical corrosion probes typically measure lower corrosion rates than those measured by standard mass loss techniques. While still useful for monitoring changes in corrosion rates, absolute probe corrosion rates will need a calibration factor to be useful. Ideas for research that may help resolve these issues are presented.

Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Matthes, S.A.; Holcomb, G.R.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Eden, D.A. (Honeywell Intercorr)

2007-03-01

384

Closing the Loop: Integrated Waste Management Activities for School & Home. K-12 Edition. A School-Based Waste Minimization and Education Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Increased human population has led to more frequent interactions with the environment. The results of those interactions have affected the Earth's ecosystem. This manual contains hands-on, problem-centered activities to help students develop an environmental ethic and stewardship regarding waste management. The activities are grouped under three

Institute for Environmental Education, Chagrin Falls, OH.

385

On the Application of the Minimal Principle to Solve Unknown Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Shake-and-Bake method of structure determination is a new direct methods phasing algorithm based on a minimum-variance, phase invariant residual, which is referred to as the minimal principle. Previously, the algorithm had been applied only to known structures. This algorithm has now been applied to two previously unknown structures that contain 105 and 110 non-hydrogen atoms, respectively. This report focuses on (i) algorithmic and parametric optimizations of Shake-and-Bake and (ii) the determination of two previously unknown structures. Traditional tangent formula phasing techniques were unable to unravel these two new structures.

Miller, Russ; Detitta, George T.; Jones, Rob; Langs, David A.; Weeks, Charles M.; Hauptman, Herbert A.

1993-03-01

386

A fixed point method for homotopic l0-minimization with application to MR image recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel method for highly-undersampled Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) reconstruction is presented. One of the principal challenges faced in clinical MR imaging is the fundamental linear relation between net exam duration and admissible spatial resolution. Increased scan duration diminishes patient comfort while increasing the risk of susceptibility to motion artifact and limits the ability to depict many physiological events at high temporal rates. With the recent development of Compressive Sampling theory, several authors have successfully demonstrated that clinical MR images possessing a sparse representation in some transform domain can be accurately reconstructed even when sampled at rates well below the Nyquist limit by casting the recovery as a convex l1-minimization problem. While l1-based techniques offer a sizeable advantage over Nyquist-limited methods, they nonetheless require a modest degree of over-sampling above the true theoretical minimum sampling rate in order to guarantee the achievability of exact reconstruction. In this work, we present a reconstruction model based on homotopic approximation of the l0 quasi-norm and discuss the ability of this technique to reconstruct undersampled MR images at rates even lower than are achievable than with l1-minimization and arbitrarily close to the true minimum sampling rate. A semi-implicit numerical solver is presented for efficient numerical computation of the reconstruction process and several examples depicting the capability for accurate MRI reconstructions from highly-undersampled K-space data are presented.

Trzasko, Joshua D.; Manduca, Armando

2008-04-01

387

Application of Transesophageal Echocardiography in Minimally Invasive Surgical Closure of Ventricular Septal Defects  

PubMed Central

We sought both to evaluate the clinical value of transesophageal echocardiography in minimally invasive surgical closure of ventricular septal defects and to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of the surgical occlusion procedure. We selected 49 pediatric patients who had perimembranous ventricular septal defects as determined by preoperative transthoracic echocardiographic examination. After the patients were under general anesthesia, we used transesophageal echocardiography to determine the number of defects and their positions, shapes, and sizes, these last in order to choose the appropriate occluder. Under transesophageal echocardiographic monitoring and guidance, we introduced and deployed the occluder. The evaluation of therapy was performed by means of transesophageal echocardiography immediately after occluder release. All patients underwent follow-up transthoracic echocardiography within 2 to 5 postoperative days. Satisfactory occluder deployment was achieved in 38 patients. No death occurred. No occluder displacement or valve dysfunction was observed during the last transesophageal echocardiographic study. In addition, follow-up by transthoracic echocardiography showed improvement of left ventricular dimensions and ejection fractions. Our initial experience has been encouraging. Transesophageal echocardiography plays a crucial role in performing minimally invasive surgical closure of cardiac defects. It enables the feasible, safe, and effective closure of ventricular septal defects. However, larger sample sizes and longer-term follow-up are necessary for the accurate evaluation of this procedure's safety and effectiveness as an alternative to cardiopulmonary bypass surgery and transcatheter closure of congenital cardiac defects.

Bai, Wenjuan; An, Qi; Tang, Hong

2012-01-01

388

Waste water pilot plant research, development, and demonstration permit application  

SciTech Connect

Waste waters have been generated as result of operations conducted at the Hanford Facility for over 40 years. These waste waters were previously discharged to cribs, ponds, or ditches. Examples of such waste waters include steam condensates and cooling waters that have not been in contact with dangerous or mixed waste and process condensates that may have been in contact with dangerous or mixed waste. Many measures have been taken to reduce the amount of contamination being discharged in these effluents. However, some of these waste waters still require additional treatment before release to the environment. Systems are being designed and built to treat these waste waters along with any future waste waters resulting from remediation activities on the Hanford Facility.

Not Available

1991-10-01

389

Development of optical fiber Bragg grating force-reflection sensor system of medical application for safe minimally invasive robotic surgery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Force feedback plays a very important role in medical surgery. In minimally invasive surgery (MIS), however, the very long and stiff bars of surgical instruments greatly diminish force feedback for the surgeon. In the case of minimally invasive robotic surgery (MIRS), force feedback is totally eliminated. Previous researchers have reported that the absence of force feedback increased the average force magnitude applied to the tissue by at least 50%, and increased the peak force magnitude by at least a factor of two. Therefore, it is very important to provide force information in MIRS. Recently, many sensors are being developed for MIS and MIRS, but some obstacles to their application in actual medical surgery must be surmounted. The most critical problems are size limit and sterilizability. Optical fiber sensors are among the most suitable sensors for the surgical environment. The optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor, in particular, offers an important additional advantage over other optical fiber sensors in that it is not influenced by the intensity of the light source. In this paper, we present the initial results of a study on the application of a FBG sensor to measure reflected forces in MIRS environments and suggest the possibility of successful application to MIRS systems.

Song, Hoseok; Kim, Kiyoung; Lee, Jungju

2011-07-01

390

A Regulatory Analysis and Reassessment of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Listed Hazardous Waste Numbers for Applicability to the INTEC Liquid Waste System  

SciTech Connect

This report concludes that there are four listed hazardous waste numbers (F001, F002, F005, and U134) applicable to the waste in the Process Equipment Waste Evaporator (PEWE) liquid waste system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The chemical constituents associated with these listed hazardous waste numbers, including those listed only for ignitability are identified. The RCRA Part A permit application hazardous waste numbers identify chemical constituents that may be treated or stored by the PEWE liquid waste system either as a result of a particular characteristic (40 CFR, Subpart C) or as a result of a specific process (40 CFR 261, Subpart D). The RCRA Part A permit application for the PEWE liquid waste system identifies the universe of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hazardous waste numbers [23 characteristic (hazardous waste codes) numbers and 105 listed numbers (four F-listed hazardous waste numbers, 20 P-listed hazardous waste numbers, and 81 U-listed hazardous waste numbers)] deemed acceptable for storage and treatment. This evaluation, however, identifies only listed wastes (and their chemical constituents) that have actually entered the PEWE liquid waste system and would, therefore, be assigned to the PEWE liquids and treatment residuals.

Gilbert, K.L.; Venneman, T.E.

1998-12-01

391

Considerations for NDA in Waste and D and D Applications  

SciTech Connect

Non Destructive Assay (NDA) is a common tool for waste characterization, decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) applications. However there are many things which must be considered in order to set up and run an efficient, cost effective, and successful NDA program for these applications. This paper covers some of these issues and points out examples of how they can affect the programmatic decisions. Most NDA programs were established initially based on measurements performed in a fixed geometry in a laboratory or process work environment. When the process is moved into the rugged environment of the D and D world, issues such as temperature variations, significant changes in background radiation levels, difficulties in operating the equipment when working in personal protective equipment (PPE), difficulties in setting up equipment in appropriate locations for performing measurements, all contribute to the possibility of additional measurement uncertainties or significant measurement errors which may not have been initially considered. For this reason, a good NDA program should have a strong technical lead, who is out in the field performing walk downs of the area and items to be measured, evaluating the problems which the operators are experiencing in performing field measurements, and writing easy to use measurement plans for upcoming measurements.

Gillespie, Bruce [Canberra Industries 2425 Stevens Center Drive, Richland WA 99352 (United States)

2008-01-15

392

Application of the microbiological method DEFT/APC to detect minimally processed vegetables treated with gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marketing of minimally processed vegetables (MPV) are gaining impetus due to its convenience, freshness and apparent health effect. However, minimal processing does not reduce pathogenic microorganisms to safe levels. Food irradiation is used to extend the shelf life and to inactivate food-borne pathogens. In combination with minimal processing it could improve safety and quality of MPV. A microbiological screening method based on the use of direct epifluorescent filter technique (DEFT) and aerobic plate count (APC) has been established for the detection of irradiated foodstuffs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of this technique in detecting MPV irradiation. Samples from retail markets were irradiated with 0.5 and 1.0 kGy using a 60Co facility. In general, with a dose increment, DEFT counts remained similar independent of the irradiation while APC counts decreased gradually. The difference of the two counts gradually increased with dose increment in all samples. It could be suggested that a DEFT/APC difference over 2.0 log would be a criteria to judge if a MPV was treated by irradiation. The DEFT/APC method could be used satisfactorily as a screening method for indicating irradiation processing.

Arajo, M. M.; Duarte, R. C.; Silva, P. V.; Marchioni, E.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.

2009-07-01

393

Application of off-axis holography to spray investigations: aberration minimization and size determination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A holographic measurement system was used for the investigation of droplet size, density and velocity in the injection spray of a model diesel engine. The model engine consisted of a conventional injection pump and a test chamber that could be operated at high pressure and temperature to simulate the conditions in an operating diesel engine. The use of off-axis holography with a laser light sheet from a pulsed ruby laser helped to increase the maximum droplet density in the spray that could be resolved. Chromatic aberrations, introduced by the reconstruction of the holograms with a wavelength different from the recording wavelength, were minimized by careful choice of recording and reconstruction geometry. A new method for size determination was devised. The reconstructed images were recorded with a CCD camera and analyzed with the help of a personal computer. Software for automatic detection of 3-D particle position and velocity determination was developed.

Schaller, Johannes K.; Ante, Andreas; Theisen, Thilo; Stojanoff, Christo G.

1993-02-01

394

Retrostructural analysis of metalloproteins: Application to the design of a minimal model for diiron proteins  

PubMed Central

De novo protein design provides an attractive approach for the construction of models to probe the features required for function of complex metalloproteins. The metal-binding sites of many metalloproteins lie between multiple elements of secondary structure, inviting a retrostructural approach to constructing minimal models of their active sites. The backbone geometries comprising the metal-binding sites of zinc fingers, diiron proteins, and rubredoxins may be described to within approximately 1 ? rms deviation by using a simple geometric model with only six adjustable parameters. These geometric models provide excellent starting points for the design of metalloproteins, as illustrated in the construction of Due Ferro 1 (DF1), a minimal model for the Glu-Xxx-Xxx-His class of dinuclear metalloproteins. This protein was synthesized and structurally characterized as the di-Zn(II) complex by x-ray crystallography, by using data that extend to 2.5 ?. This four-helix bundle protein is comprised of two noncovalently associated helix-loop-helix motifs. The dinuclear center is formed by two bridging Glu and two chelating Glu side chains, as well as two monodentate His ligands. The primary ligands are mostly buried in the protein interior, and their geometries are stabilized by a network of hydrogen bonds to second-shell ligands. In particular, a Tyr residue forms a hydrogen bond to a chelating Glu ligand, similar to a motif found in the diiron-containing R2 subunit of Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase and the ferritins. DF1 also binds cobalt and iron ions and should provide an attractive model for a variety of diiron proteins that use oxygen for processes including iron storage, radical formation, and hydrocarbon oxidation.

Lombardi, Angela; Summa, Christopher M.; Geremia, Silvano; Randaccio, Lucio; Pavone, Vincenzo; DeGrado, William F.

2000-01-01

395

The WIPP RCRA Part B permit application for TRU mixed waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

In August 1993, the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) issued a draft permit for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to begin experiments with transuranic (TRU) mixed waste. Subsequently, the Department of Energy (DOE) decided to cancel the on-site test program, opting instead for laboratory testing. The Secretary of the NMED withdrew the draft permit in 1994, ordering the State`s Hazardous and Radioactive Waste Bureau to work with the DOE on submittal of a revised permit application. Revision 5 of the WIPP`s Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit Application was submitted to the NMED in May 1995, focusing on disposal of 175,600 m{sup 3} of TRU mixed waste over a 25 year span plus ten years for closure. A key portion of the application, the Waste Analysis Plan, shifted from requirements to characterize a relatively small volume of TRU mixed waste for on-site experiments, to describing a complete program that would apply to all DOE TRU waste generating facilities and meet the appropriate RCRA regulations. Waste characterization will be conducted on a waste stream basis, fitting into three broad categories: (1) homogeneous solids, (2) soil/gravel, and (3) debris wastes. Techniques used include radiography, visually examining waste from opened containers, radioassay, headspace gas sampling, physical sampling and analysis of homogeneous wastes, and review of documented acceptable knowledge. Acceptable knowledge of the original organics and metals used, and the operations that generated these waste streams is sufficient in most cases to determine if the waste has toxicity characteristics, hazardous constituents, polychlorinated biphenyls (PBCs), or RCRA regulated metals.

Johnson, J.E. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.; Snider, C.A. [USDOE Carlsbad Area Office, NM (United States)

1995-12-31

396

Endoscopic minimally invasive thyroidectomy (eMIT): some clarifications regarding the idea, development, preclinical studies, and application in humans.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: The transoral endoscopic approach for thyroid surgery was based on a previous attempt to reach the thyroid gland by an axilloscope. In contrast to this single-port access, endoscopic minimally invasive thyroidectomy (eMIT) uses three access points (sublingual and bivestibular). This results in a sufficient triangulation of instruments, making surgical procedures in the anterior neck region possible. METHODS: The idea and development of the eMIT technique are described in detail. Anatomic studies, the development of the surgical access in a cadaver study, and the animal study for safety and feasibility of this transoral endoscopic approach for surgery of the anterior neck are outlined. Also, the foundations and ethical aspects are addressed in the context of developing a surgical innovation, which resulted in the first clinical application of this technique in humans. RESULTS: The preclinical studies regarding endoscopic minimally invasive thyroidectomy proofed feasibility in a human cadaver studies as well as safety in a short-time survival animal study. The first clinical application in a 53-year old patient was successful without any significant complications; expected benefits (no postoperative pain or dysphagia, no visible scar) could be demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: The eMIT technique represents a promising new surgical approach for endoscopic surgery in the anterior neck region. The whole development was based on principles for surgical innovation published after the authors' preclinical studies. At this writing, after an initial clinical study with humans, the time has come to compare this new technique with other endoscopic and minimally invasive approaches in a prospective randomized multicenter trial. PMID:20734066

Wilhelm, Thomas; Metzig, Andreas

2010-08-24

397

Cost-Minimized 24 GHz Pulse Oscillator for Short-Range Automotive Radar Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the design of ultrawideband 24 GHz pulse oscillators developed for automotive radar applications. Due to system considerations (range resolution, dynamic range), such oscillator modules need to generate ultra-short coherent pulses. Measurement results of prototype oscillators demonstrate +5 dBm peak output power, less than 1 ns pulse width and excellent coherency. The oscillators were applied in a

Andriy Kryshtopin; Georgiy Sevskiy; Konstantin Markov; Patric Heide; Martin Nalezinski; Richard Roskosch; Martin Vossiek

2003-01-01

398

Configuring Embeddable Adaptive Computing Systems for Multiple Application Domains with Minimal Size, Weight, and Power.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The advantages of using DSP chips for high-performance embedded signal processing applications have been demonstrated during the past decade. However, it is now apparent that even DSP chips can be overkill for some computations found in common embedded mi...

J. K. Antonio

2003-01-01

399

Bipolar-compatible epitaxial poly for smart sensors: stress minimization and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the optimization of the fabrication process for bipolar-compatible epipoly for micromachining applications. The use of an epitaxial reactor to grow polysilicon enables the growth of monocrystalline silicon (for bipolar electronics) and polysilicon on top of oxkle (for MEMS) in a single deposition step. However, after bipolar processing the early structures showed compressive strain in the epipoly layer,

P. T. J. Gennissen; M. Bartek; P. J. French; P. M. Sarro

1997-01-01

400

Three-chip LED illumination system for laparoscopy and minimal access surgery applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) bring great flexibility in color choice and high luminous efficacy design for biomedical illumination. Based on the state-of-the-art LED chips, a three-chip LED illumination system was developed specially for laparoscopy and minimal access surgery. White light is produced by mixing three specific wavelengths of amber red, true green and blue, and then coupled into a fiber-optic light guide with 2mm diameter. The whole device has a compact size of 145mm 92mm 84 mm which is more suitable than a conventional xenon lamp source for portable endoscopes. The illuminance and color characteristic of the three-chip model were analyzed, compared to those of traditional light source. A maximum illuminance of 1960 lux was obtained at the distance of 100 mm, with the average current of 450 mA of the LEDs. Additionally, a simulation environment had been set up to find out the performance of the endo-illuminator in the specific circumstance, which was closer distance and crawl space. Experiments showed that images taken under the three-chip LED illumination had better contrast and saturation. With the temperature of 31.5 degrees Celsius at the end of the fiber bundle, the endo-illuminator is also a cold light source.

Ye, Bin; Wang, Liqiang; Duan, Huilong

2010-11-01

401

The applicability of different waste materials for the production of lightweight aggregates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The applicability of different waste materials for the production of lightweight aggregates has been studied. The following waste materials were investigated: silica sludge, superfluous clay in the quarry, waste glass, and residue from the polishing process of different types of stone. SiC and MnO2 were selected as foaming agents. Feldspar containing minerals and scrap glass were added in order to

V. Ducman; B. Mirti?

2009-01-01

402

Application of processed organic municipal solid waste on agricultural land a scenario analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Source separation, composting and anaerobic digestion, with associated land application, are increasingly being considered\\u000a as alternative waste management strategies to landfilling and incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW). Environmental life\\u000a cycle assessments are a useful tool in political decision-making about waste management strategies. However, due to the diversity\\u000a of processed organic MSW and the situations in which it can be

Sander Bruun; Trine Lund Hansen; Thomas H. Christensen; Jakob Magid; Lars S. Jensen

2006-01-01

403

The application of an life cycle inventory (LCI) model for solid waste disposal systems in malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the application of an LCt model for solid waste management systems in Malaysia. The model was used to\\u000a analyze the environmental and economic impacts of municipal waste management systems in Malaysia. In the first part of the\\u000a study, the LCI model was adapted to analyze waste management systems of four selected cities: Kuala Lumpur and Penang to

Mohd Nasir Hassan; Muhamad Awang; Theng Lee Chong; Zulina Zakaria; Lim Bee Lay; Norjan Yusoff; Hukil Sino

1999-01-01

404

US Department of Energy: Waste Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management's goals include minimizing the waste generated by DOE, and pursuing compliance with all applicable environmental regulations. The Waste Management Web site contains information on how the DOE directs the treatment, storage, and disposal of waste generated by DOE's activities, nuclear and otherwise. A whole host of reports and other informational products such as the Standard Operating Practices and Procedures link and Waste Management Privatization information is available.

405

Survey of computer codes applicable to waste facility performance evaluations  

SciTech Connect

This study is an effort to review existing information that is useful to develop an integrated model for predicting the performance of a radioactive waste facility. A summary description of 162 computer codes is given. The identified computer programs address the performance of waste packages, waste transport and equilibrium geochemistry, hydrological processes in unsaturated and saturated zones, and general waste facility performance assessment. Some programs also deal with thermal analysis, structural analysis, and special purposes. A number of these computer programs are being used by the US Department of Energy, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and their contractors to analyze various aspects of waste package performance. Fifty-five of these codes were identified as being potentially useful on the analysis of low-level radioactive waste facilities located above the water table. The code summaries include authors, identification data, model types, and pertinent references. 14 refs., 5 tabs.

Alsharif, M.; Pung, D.L.; Rivera, A.L.; Dole, L.R.

1988-01-01

406

Cost-minimized 24 GHz pulse oscillator for short-range automotive radar applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the design of ultra-wideband 24 GHz pulse oscillators developed for automotive radar applications. Due to system considerations (range resolution, dynamic range), such oscillator modules need to generate ultra-short coherent pulses. Measurement results of prototype oscillators demonstrate +5 dBm peak output power, less than 1 ns pulse width and excellent coherency. The oscillators were applied in a

Andriy Kryshtopin; Georgiy Sevskiy; Konstantin Markov; P. Heide; Martin Nalezinski; Richard Roskosch; Martin Vossiek

2003-01-01

407

Minimizing losses in bio-electrochemical systems: the road to applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bio-electrochemical systems (BESs) enable microbial catalysis of electrochemical reactions. Plain electrical power production\\u000a combined with wastewater treatment by microbial fuel cells (MFCs) has been the primary application purpose for BESs. However,\\u000a large-scale power production and a high chemical oxygen demand conversion rates must be achieved at a benchmark cost to make\\u000a MFCs economical competitive in this context. Recently, a number

Peter Clauwaert; Peter Aelterman; Liesje De Schamphelaire; Marta Carballa; Korneel Rabaey; Willy Verstraete

2008-01-01

408

Validation of a musculoskeletal model of wheelchair propulsion and its application to minimizing shoulder joint forces.  

PubMed

The majority of manual wheelchair users (MWUs) will inevitably develop some degree of shoulder pain over time. Previous research has suggested a link between the shoulder joint forces associated with the repetition of wheelchair (WC) propulsion and pain. The objective of this work is to present and validate a rigid-body musculoskeletal model of the upper limb for calculation of shoulder joint forces throughout WC propulsion. It is anticipated that when prescribing a WC, the use of a patient-specific computational model will aide in determining an axle placement in which shoulder joint forces are at a minimum, thus potentially delaying or reducing the shoulder pain that so many MWUs experience. During the validation experiment, 3 subjects (2 individuals with paraplegia and one able-bodied individual) propelled a WC at a self-selected speed, during which, kinematics, kinetics, and electromyography (EMG) activity were measured for the contact phase of 10 consecutive push strokes. The measured forces at the push rim and the 3-D propulsion kinematics drove the model, and the computationally calculated muscle activities were compared with the experimental muscle activities, resulting in an average mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.165. Further investigation of the shoulder joint forces throughout propulsion demonstrate the effect of axle placement on the magnitude of these forces. The present work serves to validate the patient-specific upper limb model for use as a prescriptive tool for fitting a subject to their WC. Minimizing joint forces from injury onset may prolong a MWU's pain-free way of life. PMID:18804763

Dubowsky, Sarah R; Rasmussen, John; Sisto, Sue Ann; Langrana, Noshir A

2008-09-19

409

Application of active and passive neutron non destructive assay methods to concrete radioactive waste drums  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the application of non-destructive neutron measurement methods to control and characterize 200l radioactive waste drums filled with a concrete matrix. Due to its composition, and particularly to hydrogen, concrete penalizes the use of such methods to quantify uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) components, which are mainly responsible of the ?-activity of the waste. The determination of

F. Jallu; C. Passard; E. Brackx

2011-01-01

410

The Costs of Disposal and Recycling: An Application to Italian Municipal Solid Waste Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abrate G., Erbetta F., Fraquelli G. and Vannoni D. The costs of disposal and recycling: an application to Italian municipal solid waste services, Regional Studies. The paper investigates the costs of waste disposal and recycling services by using a well-behaved Composite cost function model. The estimates on a unique sample of more than 500 Italian municipalities highlight that the refuse

Graziano Abrate; Fabrizio Erbetta; Giovanni Fraquelli; Davide Vannoni

2012-01-01

411

Gross Nitrogen Transformations in an Agricultural Soil after Repeated Dairy-Waste Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of gross N transformation rates are important to properly understand N cycling processes in agricultural soils where both productive and consumptive processes occur. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of repeated application of dairy- waste compost (DC), liquid dairy-waste (LW), and ammonium sulfate (AS) on gross N mineralization and nitrification rates and N supplying potential

Mussie Y. Habteselassie; John M. Stark; Bruce E. Miller; Seth G. Thacker; Jeanette M. Norton

2006-01-01

412

77 FR 73054 - Application for a License To Export Radioactive Waste  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...REGULATORY COMMISSION Application for a License To Export Radioactive Waste Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70(b) ``Public Notice...Approximately Storage or Canada. 2012, October 25, 2012, XW020, radioactive 1178 pounds disposal by the 11006061. waste in the...

2012-12-07

413

Description, applications and numerical modelling of bubbling fluidized bed combustion in waste-to-energy plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of the fluidized bed combustor (FBC) has increased. It began in the 20th century as coal combustion and gasification, which then developed into catalytic reactions. Only recently, the application field has been extended to the incineration of biomass and pre-treated waste, for either power generation or waste disposal. The success of fluidized bed combustion is due to high

S. Ravelli; A. Perdichizzi; G. Barigozzi

2008-01-01

414

Land Application of Waste Materials from Dredging, Construction, and Demolition Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents the text of a manuscript to be published as a chapter in a monograph of the symposium entitled 'Land Application of Waste Materials,' sponsored by the Soil Conservation Society of Ameria. The paper is divided into two sections: waste m...

C. R. Lee R. M. Engler J. L. Mahloch

1976-01-01

415

Alternative energy sources 6: Vol. 2: solar applications\\/waste energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume provides information on building energy analysis, lighting, solar ponds, and photovoltaics. Sections of the volume present papers on biogas, bioconversion and waste energy. The papers in this volume present alternative energy sources in the areas of solar applications and waste energy.

Veziroglu

1985-01-01

416

W-Order Scan: Minimizing Cache Pollution by Application Software Level Cache Management for MMDB  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The utilization of shared LLC(Last Level Cache) is important for efficiency of multi-core processor. Uncontrolled sharing\\u000a leads to cache pollution i.e. the weak locality data(single-usage data without re-using) continuously evict the strong locality\\u000a data (frequently re-used data) from LLC in both inner query processing and co-running programs. For analytical MMDB (Main-Memory\\u000a Database) applications, with skewed star schema of DW, more

Yansong Zhang; Min Jiao; Zhanwei Wang; Shan Wang; Xuan Zhou

417

Early detection and evaluation of waste through sensorized containers for a collection monitoring application  

SciTech Connect

The present study describes a novel application for use in the monitoring of municipal solid waste, based on distributed sensor technology and geographical information systems. Original field testing and evaluation of the application were carried out in Pudong, Shanghai (PR China). The local waste management system in Pudong features particular requirements related to the rapidly increasing rate of waste production. In view of the fact that collected waste is currently deployed to landfills or to incineration plants within the context investigated, the key aspects to be taken into account in waste collection procedures include monitoring of the overall amount of waste produced, quantitative measurement of the waste present at each collection point and identification of classes of material present in the collected waste. The case study described herein focuses particularly on the above mentioned aspects, proposing the implementation of a network of sensorized waste containers linked to a data management system. Containers used were equipped with a set of sensors mounted onto standard waste bins. The design, implementation and validation procedures applied are subsequently described. The main aim to be achieved by data collection and evaluation was to provide for feasibility analysis of the final device. Data pertaining to the content of waste containers, sampled and processed by means of devices validated on two purpose-designed prototypes, were therefore uploaded to a central monitoring server using GPRS connection. The data monitoring and management modules are integrated into an existing application used by local municipal authorities. A field test campaign was performed in the Pudong area. The system was evaluated in terms of real data flow from the network nodes (containers) as well as in terms of optimization functions, such as collection vehicle routing and scheduling. The most important outcomes obtained were related to calculations of waste weight and volume. The latter data were subsequently used as parameters for the routing optimization of collection trucks and material density evaluation.

Rovetta, Alberto [Robotics Lab, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, via La Masa 34, 20156 Milan (Italy); Fan Xiumin [Computer Integrated Manufacturing Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Shanghai Key Lab of Advanced Manufacturing Environment, Shanghai 200030 (China); Vicentini, Federico, E-mail: federico.vicentini@polimi.i [Robotics Lab, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, via La Masa 34, 20156 Milan (Italy); Zhu Minghua [Computer Integrated Manufacturing Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Shanghai Key Lab of Advanced Manufacturing Environment, Shanghai 200030 (China); Giusti, Alessandro [Robotics Lab, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, via La Masa 34, 20156 Milan (Italy); He Qichang [Computer Integrated Manufacturing Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Shanghai Key Lab of Advanced Manufacturing Environment, Shanghai 200030 (China)

2009-12-15

418

Waste minimization and pollution prevention initiatives within Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) boiler house operations  

SciTech Connect

The mission of ANL-E Plant Facility and Services-Utilities and Systems (PFS-US) is to operate and maintain utility services in a cost-effective manner, while utilizing new and innovative methods whenever possible. PFS-US operates an on-site coal burning boiler plant that generates steam for use throughout the Laboratory as a source to heat buildings, as well as for use in research experiments. In the recent past, PFS-US has embarked upon a series of initiatives to improve operating efficiency of boiler house operations. The results of these projects have had the following impacts on boiler house performance and operations: (1) boiler house efficiency and operations have improved, (2) boiler house operating costs have been reduced, (3) specific operating and maintenance costs have been avoided or eliminated, and (4) the amount of waste and pollution generated has been reduced. Through the implementation of these initiatives, over $250,000 of revenue and cost savings have been incurred by ANL-E. In addition, the Laboratory and DOE will benefit annually from revenues, cost savings, and the reduction of environmental liability resulting from these initiatives.

NONE

1996-08-01

419

Waste Heat Recovery System for Residential Application. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Increasing emphasis on improving both fuel economy and emissions provides a strong incentive for development of systems that convert currently wasted energy in furnaces to useful power. The major portion of the waste energy in a residential oil or gas fur...

J. C. Deniega

1985-01-01

420

Waste heat recovery system for residential application. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing emphasis on improving both fuel economy and emissions provides a strong incentive for development of systems that convert currently wasted energy in furnaces to useful power. The major portion of the waste energy in a residential oil or gas furnace system is associated with the exhaust gases. While recycling the heat energy in the exhaust is not new, the

Deniega

1985-01-01

421

Low-level burial grounds dangerous waste permit application design documents  

SciTech Connect

This document serves a supplement to the already existing Low-Level Burial Ground Dangerous Waste Permit Application Design Documents.'' This paper contains information regarding drawings, construction specifications, and liner/leachate compatibility test plans. (KJD)

Not Available

1990-08-01

422

Examining Farmland Applications of Composted Biosolid Wastes Depending on Nutrient Balance in Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study emphasizes nutrient balance of soils in the farmland application of composted biosolid wastes. The loading rates of plant nutrients following the compost application to farmland in Japan were estimated and compared with the nutrient uptake of agricultural plants. Results show that the current compost application in Japan can meet the requirements of agricultural plants for plant nutrient Ca,

Yu-Yu Liu; Tsuyoshi Imai; Masao Ukita; Masahiko Sekine; Takaya Higuchi

2004-01-01

423

Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Legal Aspects - Module 16.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This module summarizes laws that are relevant to the land application of wastes, focusing on the applicable Federal laws and representative state regulations from different areas of the country. The module describes the 10 points of Public Law 92-500, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, that relate to land application. It

Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

424

Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, general information portion. Revision 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

For purposes of the Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, the US Department of Energy`s contractors are identified as ``co-operators`` and sign in that capacity (refer to Condition I.A.2. of the Dangerous Waste Portion of the Hanford Facility Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit). Any identification of these contractors as an ``operator`` elsewhere in the application is not meant to

Sonnichsen

1997-01-01

425

Approach toward minimizing chemical interference in FAB mass spectra: the development and application of thermally - assisted FAB  

SciTech Connect

Interferences with fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry can be classified into two major categories. The first includes impurities which remain after analyte isolation/purification, and is especially problematic in samples of biological origin. The second type of chemical interference originates from the matrix used for FAB. An example of the first type, also known as sample-related interference, is presented in the context of the analysis of the urinary metabolites of the analgesic acetaminophen by means of the off-line combination of reverse phase HPLC and FAB. Recommendations are made for efficient use of these two methods with specific regard to minimizing chemical interferences. In addition, a method for calculating analyte signal to background (S/B) values is introduced as a means of evaluating the quality of the FAB mass spectrum. A method known as thermally-assisted FAB (TA-FAB) is introduced as a means of minimizing matrix-related background. Success to date has been achieved using aqueous saccharide solutions as TA-FAB matrices. Several important improvements to FAB result from thermal control of the matrix including a selection against matrix background, and the possibility of valid background subtraction. The development of TA-FAB is described in the context of applications of the technique to the analysis of several representative nonvolatile biomolecules including a series of cyclic tetrapeptide mycotoxins. In the final section, the hypothesis of ternary perculation (TP) is submitted to account for behavior observed during TA-FAB.

Ackermann, B.L.

1987-01-01

426

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Acceptance Criteria - Development, Application, and Quality Assurance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a Research and Development Facility for demonstrating the safe disposal of defense TRU radioactive waste. It is funded by the Office of Defense Programs within the Department of Energy, and is now under constructi...

J. T. D'Ambrosia J. F. Bresson J. E. Dieckhoner

1985-01-01

427

Application of SYNROC to high-level defense wastes  

SciTech Connect

The SYNROC method for immobilization of high-level nuclear reactor wastes is currently being applied to US defense wastes in tank storage at Savannah River, South Carolina. The minerals zirconolite, perovskite, and hollandite are used in SYNROC D formulations to immobilize fission products and actinides that comprise up to 10% of defense waste sludges and coexisting solutions. Additional phases in SYNROC D are nepheline, the host phase for sodium; and spinel, the host for excess aluminum and iron. Up to 70 wt % of calcined sludge can be incorporated with 30 wt % of SYNROC additives to produce a waste form consisting of 10% nepheline, 30% spinel, and approximately 20% each of the radioactive waste-bearing phases. Urea coprecipitation and spray drying/calcining methods have been used in the laboratory to produce homogeneous, reactive ceramic powders. Hot pressing and sintering at temperatures from 1000 to 1100/sup 0/C result in waste form products with greater than 97% of theoretical density. Hot isostatic pressing has recently been implemented as a processing alternative. Characterization of waste-form mineralogy has been done by means of XRD, SEM, and electron microprobe. Leaching of SYNROC D samples is currently being carried out. Assessment of radiation damage effects and physical properties of SYNROC D will commence in FY 81.

Tewhey, J.D.; Hoenig, C.L.; Newkirk, H.W.; Rozsa, R.B.; Coles, D.G.; Ryerson, F.J.

1981-01-01

428

Application of value of information of tank waste characterization: A new paradigm for defining tank waste characterization requirements  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the rationale for adopting a recommended characterization strategy that uses a risk-based decision-making framework for managing the Tank Waste Characterization program at Hanford. The risk-management/value-of-information (VOI) strategy that is illustrated explicitly links each information-gathering activity to its cost and provides a mechanism to ensure that characterization funds are spent where they can produce the largest reduction in risk. The approach was developed by tailoring well-known decision analysis techniques to specific tank waste characterization applications. This report illustrates how VOI calculations are performed and demonstrates that the VOI approach can definitely be used for real Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) characterization problems.

Fassbender, L.L.; Brewster, M.E.; Brothers, A.J. [and others

1996-11-01

429

CONSIDERATIONS IN SELECTING CONVEYORS FOR SOLID WASTE APPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

An engineering evaluation and experimental program involving several types of conveyors applied to processed fractions of municipal solid wastes was conducted by the National Center for Resource Recovery. This final project report discusses the properties and characteristics of w...

430

[Application of microbial fuel cell (MFC) in solid waste composting].  

PubMed

Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a new technology that can recover energy from biomass with simultaneous waste treatment. This technique has been developed fast in recent years in combining with environmental techniques such as wastewater treatment, degradation of toxic pollutants and desalination. With the increase of solid waste, applying MFC in composting is promising due to its property of waste disposal with simultaneous energy generation. In this paper, the microbial community of MFCs during composting was summarized. Four major influencing factors including electrodes, separators, oxygen supplement and configurations on the performance of composting MFCs were discussed. The characteristics of composting MFC as a new technique for reducing solid waste were as follows: high microbial biomass resulted in the high current density; adaptable to different environmental conditions; self-adjustable temperature with high energy efficiency; the transportation of proton from anode to cathode were limited by different solid substrates. PMID:22712388

Cui, Jinxin; Wang, Xin; Tang, Jingchun

2012-03-01

431

NOX CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES APPLICABLE TO MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report documents the key design and operating parameters, commercial status, demonstrated performance, and cost of three technologies available for reducing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs), and identifies technology research and developme...

432

Solid waste management by application of the WAMED model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article aims to develop a general model for the evaluation of ecological-economic efficiency that will serve as an information\\u000a support tool for decision making at the corporate, municipal, and regional levels. It encompasses cost-benefit analysis in\\u000a solid waste management by applying a sustainability promoting approach that is explicitly related to monetary measures. A\\u000a waste managements efficient decision (WAMED) model

Viatcheslav Moutavtchi; Jan Stenis; William Hogland; Antonina Shepeleva

2010-01-01

433

Disability Adjusted Life Years and minimal disease: application of a preference-based relevance criterion to rank enteric pathogens  

PubMed Central

Background Burden of disease estimates, which combine mortality and morbidity into a single measure, are used increasingly for priority setting in disease control, prevention and surveillance. However, because there is no clear exclusion criterion for highly prevalent minimal disease in burden of disease studies its application may be restricted. The aim of this study was to apply a newly developed relevance criterion based on preferences of a population panel, and to compare burden of disease estimates of five foodborne pathogens calculated with and without application of this criterion. Methods Preferences for twenty health states associated with foodborne disease were obtained from a population panel (n = 107) with the Visual Analogue Scale and the Time Trade-off (TTO) technique. The TTO preferences were used to derive the relevance criterion: if at least 50% of a panel of judges is willing to trade-off time in order to be restored to full health the health state is regarded as relevant, i.e. TTO median is greater than 0. Subsequently, the burden of disease of each of the five foodborne pathogens was calculated both with and without the relevance criterion. Results The panel ranked the health states consistently. Of the twenty health states, three did not meet the preference-based relevance criterion. Application of the relevance criterion reduced the burden of disease estimate of all five foodborne pathogens. The reduction was especially significant for norovirus and rotavirus, decreasing with 94% and 78% respectively. Conclusion Individual preferences elicited with the TTO from a population panel can be used to empirically derive a relevance criterion for burden of disease estimates. Application of this preference-based relevance criterion results in considerable changes in ranking of foodborne pathogens.

Haagsma, Juanita A; Havelaar, Arie H; Janssen, Bas MF; Bonsel, Gouke J

2008-01-01

434

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Dangerous Waste Permit Application. Revision 1: Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hanford Site is operated by the US Department of Energy -- Richland Operations Office. The Hanford Site produces mixed waste (containing both radioactive and dangerous materials). The Hanford Site is considered to be a single facility. The single dang...

1990-01-01

435

Certification Plan, low-level waste Hazardous Waste Handling Facility  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) handled in the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). This plan also incorporates the applicable elements of waste reduction, which include both up-front minimization and end-product treatment to reduce the volume and toxicity of the waste; segregation of the waste as it applies to certification; an executive summary of the Waste Management Quality Assurance Implementing Management Plan (QAIMP) for the HWHF and a list of the current and planned implementing procedures used in waste certification. This plan provides guidance from the HWHF to waste generators, waste handlers, and the Waste Certification Specialist to enable them to conduct their activities and carry out their responsibilities in a manner that complies with the requirements of WHC-WAC. Waste generators have the primary responsibility for the proper characterization of LLW. The Waste Certification Specialist verifies and certifies that LBL LLW is characterized, handled, and shipped in accordance with the requirements of WHC-WAC. Certification is the governing process in which LBL personnel conduct their waste generating and waste handling activities in such a manner that the Waste Certification Specialist can verify that the requirements of WHC-WAC are met.

Albert, R.

1992-06-30

436

State waste discharge permit application for cooling water and condensate discharges  

SciTech Connect

The following presents the Categorical State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) Application for the Cooling Water and Condensate Discharges on the Hanford Site. This application is intended to cover existing cooling water and condensate discharges as well as similar future discharges meeting the criteria set forth in this document.

Haggard, R.D.

1996-08-12

437

Optimization of the thermal regime of thermoelectric generators in waste heat recovery applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermoelectric generator is a device which directly converts heat to electricity. These generators have been receiving renewed interest in a wide range of applications such as domestic wood heating, remote area power generation, automotive applications and power supply in interplanetary space flights. Applied as waste-heat recovery systems (WHRS), these generators can reduce fuel consumption and greenhouse gases such as

Jihad G. Haidar; Jamil I. Ghojel

2002-01-01

438

The Auburn Engineering Technical Assistance Program investigation of polyvinyl alcohol film developments pertaining to radioactive particle decontamination and industrial waste minimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, an effective and systematic model is devised to synthesize the optimal formulation for an explicit engineering application in the nuclear industry, i.e. radioactive decontamination and waste reduction. Identification of an optimal formulation that is suitable for the desired system requires integration of all the interlacing behaviors of the product constituents. This work is unique not only in product design, but also in these design techniques. The common practice of new product development is to design the optimized product for a particular industrial niche and then subsequent research for the production process is conducted, developed and optimized separately from the product formulation. In this proposed optimization design technique, the development process, disposal technique and product formulation is optimized simultaneously to improve production profit, product behavior and disposal emissions. This "cradle to grave" optimization approach allowed a complex product formulation development process to be drastically simplified. The utilization of these modeling techniques took an industrial idea to full scale testing and production in under 18 months by reducing the number of subsequent laboratory trials required to optimize the formula, production and waste treatment aspects of the product simultaneously. This particular development material involves the use of a polymer matrix that is applied to surfaces as part of a decontamination system. The polymer coating serves to initially "fix" the contaminants in place for detection and ultimate elimination. Upon mechanical entrapment and removal, the polymer coating containing the radioactive isotopes can be dissolved in a solvent processor, where separation of the radioactive metallic particles can take place. Ultimately, only the collection of divided solids should be disposed of as nuclear waste. This creates an attractive alternative to direct land filling or incineration. This philosophy also provides waste generators a way to significantly reduce waste and associated costs, and help meet regulatory, safety and environmental requirements. In order for the polymeric film exhibit the desired performance, a combination of discrete constraints must be fulfilled. These interacting characteristics include the choice of polymer used for construction, drying time, storage constraints, decontamination ability, removal behavior, application process, coating strength and dissolvability processes. Identification of an optimized formulation that is suitable for this entire decontamination system requires integration of all the interlacing characteristics of the coating composition that affect the film behavior. A novel systematic method for developing quantitative values for theses qualitative characteristics is being developed in order to simultaneously optimize the design formulation subject to the discrete product specifications. This synthesis procedure encompasses intrinsic characteristics vital to successful product development, which allows for implementation of the derived model optimizations to operate independent of the polymer film application. This contribution illustrates the optimized synthesis example by which a large range of polymeric compounds and mixtures can be completed. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Mole, Tracey Lawrence

439

SITE DEMONSTRATION CAPSULE --MATCON MODIFIED ASPHALT FOR WASTE CONTAINMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

MatCon is a polymer modified asphalt material designed specifically for waste contaminment applications. The modifications to the material differentiate it from conventional paving asphalt by minimizing the damaging effects of environmental exposure that could detract from the d...

440

Characterization of waste streams and suspect waste from largest Los Alamos National Laboratory generators  

SciTech Connect

A detailed waste stream characterization of 4 primary generators of low level waste at LANL was performed to aid in waste minimization efforts. Data was compiled for these four generators from 1988 to the present for analyses. Prior waste minimization efforts have focused on identifying waste stream processes and performing source materials substitutions or reductions where applicable. In this historical survey, the generators surveyed included an accelerator facility, the plutonium facility, a chemistry and metallurgy research facility, and a radiochemistry research facility. Of particular interest in waste minimization efforts was the composition of suspect low level waste in which no radioactivity is detected through initial survey. Ultimately, this waste is disposed of in the LANL low level permitted waste disposal pits (thus filling a scarce and expensive resource with sanitary waste). Detailed analyses of the waste streams from these 4 facilities, have revealed that suspect low level waste comprises approximately 50% of the low level waste by volume and 47% by weight. However, there are significant differences in suspect waste density when one considers the radioactive contamination. For the 2 facilities that deal primarily with beta emitting activation and spallation products (the radiochemistry and accelerator facilities), the suspect waste is much lower density than all low level waste coming from those facilities. For the 2 facilities that perform research on transuranics (the chemistry and metallurgy research and plutonium facilities), suspect waste is higher in density than all the low level waste from those facilities. It is theorized that the low density suspect waste is composed primarily of compactable lab trash, most of which is not contaminated but can be easily surveyed. The high density waste is theorized to be contaminated with alpha emitting radionuclides, and in this case, the suspect waste demonstrates fundamental limits in detection.

Soukup, J.D.; Erpenbeck, G.J. [Benchmark Environmental Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-12-31

441

Minimal State Graph Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the problem of generating a minimal state graph from a program, without buildingthe whole state graph. Minimality is considered here with respect to bisimulation. Ageneration algorithm is derived and illustrated. Applications concern program verificationand control synthesis in reactive program compilation.1 IntroductionThis paper concerns the problem of explicitly building a state graph from a program, a formulaor any implicit

A. Bouajjani; J C Fernandez; N. Halbwachs; P. Raymond; C. Ratel

1994-01-01

442

Plasma separation process: Disposal of PSP radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive wastes, in the form of natural uranium contaminated scrap hardware and residual materials from decontamination operations, were generated in the PSP facilities in buildings R1 and 106. Based on evaluation of the characteristics of these wastes and the applicable regulations, the various options for the processing and disposal of PSP radioactive wastes were investigated and recommended procedures were developed. The essential features of waste processing included: (1) the solidification of all liquid wastes prior to shipment; (2) cutting of scrap hardware to fit 55-gallon drums and use of inerting agents (diatomaceous earth) to eliminate pyrophoric hazards; and (3) compaction of soft wastes. All PSP radioactive wastes were shipped to the Hanford Site for disposal. As part of the waste disposal process, a detailed plan was formulated for handling and tracking of PSP radioactive wastes, from the point of generation through shipping. In addition, a waste minimization program was implemented to reduce the waste volume or quantity. Included in this document are discussions of the applicable regulations, the types of PSP wastes, the selection of the preferred waste disposal approach and disposal site, the analysis and classification of PSP wastes, the processing and ultimate disposition of PSP wastes, the handling and tracking of PSP wastes, and the implementation of the PSP waste minimization program. 9 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

Not Available

1989-07-01

443

Recycle of Papermill Waste Waters and Application of Reverse Osmosis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pilot plant reverse osmosis (R.O.) units were operated on weak waste waters from a pulp and paperboard mill to obtain further data on R.O. as an integral part of a closed water system within the mill. Of the many equipment types tested, the one selected w...

D. C. Morris W. R. Nelson G. O. Walraven

1972-01-01

444

Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Pathogens - Module 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This module is intended to help engineers evaluate the relative health risks from pathogens at land treatment sites versus conventional waste treatment systems. Among the topics considered are the following: (1) the relationship between survival time of pathogens and the chance of disease transmission to humans; (2) the factors that favor

Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

445

An MCNP simulation for API applications to waste management issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Issues associated with waste management have increasingly become a focal point of attention for both the government and private sector since the end of the cold war. The problem are difficult to solve; the solutions are expensive to implement. Consequently, the development of a data simulation system capable of predicting the performance of a real system can save many thousands

Tunnell

1994-01-01

446

POULTRY WASTE MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES: A DESIGN AND APPLICATION MANUAL  

EPA Science Inventory

Changes in the egg production industry during the past 20-30 years have produced waste management problems which threaten both water and air quality. Results from a number of research studies have identified two processes--aerobic biological stabilization and drying--that provide...

447

APPLICATION OF PULSE COMBUSTION TO INCINERATION OF LIQUID HAZARDOUS WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to determine the effect of acoustic pulsations on the steady-state operation of a pulse combustor burning liquid hazardous waste. A horizontal tunnel furnace was retrofitted with a liquid injection pulse combustor that burned No. 2 fuel oil. Th...

448

IMPROVED COMBUSTION PROCESSES IN MEDICAL WASTES INCINERATORS FOR RURAL APPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of sustainable development programmes and the problem associated with continued steady increase in population have increased public awareness and concern for the environment. In particular, the demand for health services has increased to an extent that the health sector produces large quantities of biomedical wastes that can have severe impact on the environment if not properly disposed. Although

C. Ketlogetswe; M. T. Oladiran; J. Foster

449

Metal binding by bacteria from uranium mining waste piles and its technological applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uranium mining waste piles, heavily polluted with radionuclides and other toxic metals, are a reservoir for bacteria that have evolved special strategies to survive in these extreme environments. Understanding the mechanisms of bacterial adaptation may enable the development of novel bioremediation strategies and other technological applications.Cell isolates of Bacillus sphaericus JG-A12 from a uranium mining waste pile in Germany are

K. Pollmann; J. Raff; M. Merroun; K. Fahmy; S. Selenska-Pobell

2006-01-01

450

Chemistry of application of calcination/dissolution to the Hanford tank waste inventory  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 330,000 metric tons of sodium-rich radioactive waste originating from separation of plutonium from irradiated uranium fuel are stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Fractionation of the waste into low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW) streams is envisioned via partial water dissolution and limited radionuclide extraction operations. Under optimum conditions, LLW would contain most of the chemical bulk while HLW would contain virtually all of the transuranic and fission product activity. Calcination at around 850 C, followed by water dissolution, has been proposed as an alternative initial treatment of Hanford Site waste to improve waste dissolution and the envisioned LLW/HLW split. Results of literature and laboratory studies are reported on the application of calcination/dissolution (C/D) to the fractionation of the Hanford Site tank waste inventory. Both simulated and genuine Hanford Site waste materials were used in the lab tests. To evaluation confirmed that C/D processing reduced the amount of several components from the waste. The C/D dissolutions of aluminum and chromium allow redistribution of these waste components from the HLW to the LLW fraction. Comparisons of simple water-washing with C/D processing of genuine Hanford Site waste are also reported based on material (radionuclide and chemical) distributions to solution and solid residue phases. The lab results show that C/D processing yielded superior dissolution of aluminum and chromium sludges compared to simple water dissolution. 57 refs., 26 figs., 18 tabs.

Delegard, C.H.; Elcan, T.D.; Hey, B.E.

1994-05-01

451

Certification Plan, Radioactive Mixed Waste Hazardous Waste Handling Facility  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of radioactive mixed waste (RMW) handled in the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). RMW is low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or transuranic (TRU) waste that is co-contaminated with dangerous waste as defined in the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and the Washington State Dangerous Waste Regulations, 173-303-040 (18). This waste is to be transferred to the Hanford Site Central Waste Complex and Burial Grounds in Hanford, Washington. This plan incorporates the applicable elements of waste reduction, which include both up-front minimization and end-product treatment to reduce the volume and toxicity of the waste; segregation of the waste as it applies to certification; an executive summary of the Waste Management Quality Assurance Implementing Management Plan (QAIMP) for the HWHF (Section 4); and a list of the current and planned implementing procedures used in waste certification.

Albert, R.

1992-06-30

452

State Waste Discharge Permit application for industrial discharge to land: 200 East Area W-252 streams  

SciTech Connect

This document constitutes the WAC 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit application for six W-252 liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site. Appendices B through H correspond to Section B through H in the permit application form. Within each appendix, sections correspond directly to the respective questions on the application form. The appendices include: Product or service information; Plant operational characteristics; Water consumption and waterloss; Wastewater information; Stormwater; Other information; and Site assessment.

Not Available

1993-12-01

453

The application of reused powdered wastes as adsorbent for treating arsenic containing mine drainage.  

PubMed

This study examined the potential reuse of powdered wastes (PW) generated during the sanding and sawing process in a local chemical company in Korea with the viewpoint of the recycling these wastes and minimizing the level of contamination. The PW contained 40-60% aluminum hydroxide and 30-45% matrix resin. As a potential adsorbent, the suitability of thermal treated PW to remove arsenic from synthetic and real wastewater was investigated. As a pretreatment process, the reused adsorbent from PW was calcined at 550 degrees C for 3 hrs in a furnace. The calcination characteristics of PW were examined both quantitatively and qualitatively by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and qualitatively by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The major inorganic composition of the calcined PW (CPW) was aluminum oxide with poor crystallinity. The CPW contained well developed meso-pores (0.143 cm(3) g(-1)) and showed a specific surface area of 234 m(2) g(-1). The pH of the zero point charge (pH(pzc)) of the CPW was determined to be 7.8 by acid-base titration. From the batch adsorption tests, the complete removal of arsenic (up to 20 mg L(-1)) was observed with CPW (2 g) at pH ranging from 3.0 to 8.0. However, there was a significant decrease in arsenate adsorption at higher pH. A kinetics study indicated that the uptake of arsenate followed a second-order rate equation. In the presence of sulfate, the removal of arsenate was increasingly affected by the sulfate concentration. The application of CPW to the removal of 4 different real mine drainages was also carried out. Mine drainage contains a relatively high arsenate concentration as well as sulfate. Whilst the amount of arsenic removed from real mine drainage by CPW was slightly lower than that removed from synthetic wastewater due to competitive sorption by multiple ions, the adsorption of arsenate showed rapid removal within 10 min with good removal efficiency, which meets the national wastewater discharge limits. These results suggest that CPW is a good adsorbent for removing arsenic from synthetic and real mine drainage. PMID:18569325

Park, Youn-Jong; Yang, Jae-Kyu; Choi, Sang-Il

2008-07-15

454

Large volume single crystal growth of cadmium zinc telluride with minimal secondary phases for room temperature radiation detector application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two major aspects of Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe) crystal growth for room temperature radiation detection application namely tellurium rich second phase defects and single crystal yield have been addressed. Various approaches were considered towards the minimization of these defects both during growth and post growth thermal treatment in cadmium environment. Since the issue of retrograde solubility in CdZnTe pseudo binary alloy system causes tellurium precipitation, different cooling mechanisms were also devised to achieve minimal secondary phases. Some important and encouraging results were obtained relative to the size and distribution of secondary phases upon growing the crystal with different growth rate and different cooling rate of the crystal after growth. Thermomigration of tellurium were also observed while post processing samples in a temperature gradient, in (Cd,Zn) atmosphere. Results indicated orders of magnitude reduction on secondary phases at the expense of sample resistivity. Apart from the issue of secondary phases, CdZnTe also suffers from low single crystal yield. Since grain boundaries and twins are known to hinder the transport properties of charge carriers, it is necessary to have large single crystal volumes with good uniformity for better charge collection efficiency. In our crystal growth facility, single crystal volumes up to 25x25x20 mm3 have been grown using unseeded vertical Bridgman technique. However reproducibility has been a major issue as far as single crystal yield is concerned. In order to consistently produce large volume detector grade material, seeding was attempted in vertical Bridgman set up in which crystals are grown on top of another appropriately oriented seed crystal. Certain important requirements for successful seeded growth are partial melting of the seed from top, proper melt mixing before starting growth and maintaining a convex interface shape to promote outward grain growth. To achieve these conditions, extreme care was taken in designing our experimental set up. Seed crystals with various orientations have been used in different growths. Preliminary results on these growths indicate success in achieving partial seed melting and proper control on the thermal environment. The grown crystals exhibited large number of twins suggesting that the use of seed crystal with proper orientation is critical.

Swain, Santosh Kumar

455

A methodology for optimal MSW management, with an application in the waste transportation of Attica Region, Greece.  

PubMed

The paper describes a software system capable of formulating alternative optimal Municipal Solid Wastes (MSWs) management plans, each of which meets a set of constraints that may reflect selected objections and/or wishes of local communities. The objective function to be minimized in each plan is the sum of the annualized capital investment and annual operating cost of all transportation, treatment and final disposal operations involved, taking into consideration the possible income from the sale of products and any other financial incentives or disincentives that may exist. For each plan formulated, the system generates several reports that define the plan, analyze its cost elements and yield an indicative profile of selected types of installations, as well as data files that facilitate the geographic representation of the optimal solution in maps through the use of GIS. A number of these reports compare the technical and economic data from all scenarios considered at the study area, municipality and installation level constituting in effect sensitivity analysis. The generation of alternative plans offers local authorities the opportunity of choice and the results of the sensitivity analysis allow them to choose wisely and with consensus. The paper presents also an application of this software system in the capital Region of Attica in Greece, for the purpose of developing an optimal waste transportation system in line with its approved waste management plan. The formulated plan was able to: (a) serve 113 Municipalities and Communities that generate nearly 2 milliont/y of comingled MSW with distinctly different waste collection patterns, (b) take into consideration several existing waste transfer stations (WTS) and optimize their use within the overall plan, (c) select the most appropriate sites among the potentially suitable (new and in use) ones, (d) generate the optimal profile of each WTS proposed, and (e) perform sensitivity analysis so as to define the impact of selected sets of constraints (limitations in the availability of sites and in the capacity of their installations) on the design and cost of the ensuing optimal waste transfer system. The results show that optimal planning offers significant economic savings to municipalities, while reducing at the same time the present levels of traffic, fuel consumptions and air emissions in the congested Athens basin. PMID:23871734

Economopoulou, M A; Economopoulou, A A; Economopoulos, A P

2013-07-18

456

LCA application to integrated waste management planning in Gipuzkoa (Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal, Scope and BackgroundGipuzkoa is a department of the Vasque Country (Spain) with a population of about 700,000 people. By the year 2000 approximately\\u000a 85% of municipal solid waste in this area was managed by landfilling, and only 15% was recycled. Due to environmental law\\u000a restrictions and landfill capacity being on its limit, a planning process was initiated by the

Ivan Mufioz; Joan Rieradevall; Xavier Domnech; Lloren Mil

2004-01-01

457

Minimal surfaces in the roto-translation group with applications to a neuro-biological image completion model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate solutions to the minimal surface problem with Dirichlet boundary conditions in the roto-translation group equipped with a subRiemannian metric. By work of G. Citti and A. Sarti, such solutions are amodal completions of occluded visual data when using a model of the first layer of the visual cortex. Using a characterization of smooth minimal surfaces as ruled surfaces,

Robert K. Hladky; Scott D. Pauls

2005-01-01

458

Minimal Surfaces in the Roto-Translation Group with Applications to a Neuro-Biological Image Completion Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate solutions to the minimal surface problem with Dirichlet boundary con- ditions in the roto-translation group equipped with a subRiemannian metric. By work of G. Citti and A. Sarti, such solutions are amodal completions of occluded visual data when using a model of the first layer of the visual cortex. Using a characterization of smooth minimal surfaces as ruled

Robert K. Hladky; Scott D. Pauls

2010-01-01

459

S. 2773: A bill Waste Minimization and Control Act of 1988. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session, September 9, 1988  

SciTech Connect

A bill has been introduced in the Senate to amend the Solid Waste Disposal Act and extend the authorization through 1992, since the nation continues to generate enormous amounts of hazardous and solid waste each year which present human health and environmental problems from hazardous substances in waste and leachate.

Not Available

1988-01-01

460

The applicability of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy in waste management  

SciTech Connect

State and stability or reactivity of waste materials are important properties that must be determined to obtain information about the future behavior and the emission potential of the materials. Different chemical and biological parameters are used to describe the stage of organic matter in waste materials. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy provides information about the chemistry of waste materials in a general way. Several indicator bands that are referred to functional groups represent components or metabolic products. Their presence and intensity or their absence shed light on the phase of degradation or stabilization. The rapid assessment of the stage of organic matter decomposition is a very important field of application. Therefore, infrared spectroscopy is an appropriate tool for process and quality control, for the assessment of abandoned landfills and for checking of the successful landfill remediation. A wide range of applications are presented in this study for different waste materials. Progressing stages of a typical yard/kitchen waste composting process are shown. The fate of anaerobically 'stabilized' leftovers in a subsequent liquid aerobic process is revealed by spectroscopic characteristics. A compost that underwent the biological stabilization process is distinguished from a 'substrate' that comprises immature biogenic waste mixed with mineral compounds. Infrared spectra of freeze-dried leachate from untreated and aerated landfill material prove the effect of the aerobic treatment during 10 weeks in laboratory-scale experiments.

Smidt, Ena [BOKU - University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Institute of Waste Management, Department of Water, Atmosphere and Environment, Muthgasse 107, 1190 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: ena.smidt@boku.ac.at; Meissl, Katharina [BOKU - University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Institute of Waste Management, Department of Water, Atmosphere and Environment, Muthgasse 107, 1190 Vienna (Austria)

2007-07-01

461

The applicability of different waste materials for the production of lightweight aggregates.  

PubMed

The applicability of different waste materials for the production of lightweight aggregates has been studied. The following waste materials were investigated: silica sludge, superfluous clay in the quarry, waste glass, and residue from the polishing process of different types of stone. SiC and MnO(2) were selected as foaming agents. Feldspar containing minerals and scrap glass were added in order to lower the softening point of the waste materials. The granules were prepared by mixing together finely ground waste with one or both of the selected foaming agents. The granules were then fired at different temperatures above the softening point of the glassy phase within the temperature range from 1150 to 1220 degrees C, where the foaming agent degasses, and the resulting gasses remain trapped in the glassy structure. The foaming process was observed by hot-stage microscopy. The properties of the so-obtained granules, such as their apparent density and compressive strength, were determined, and their microstructures were evaluating using SEM and polarizing microscopy. With the addition to clay of polishing residue from granite-like rocks, after firing at 1220 degrees C homogeneously porous granules with a density down to 0.42 g/cm(3) were obtained, whereas with the addition to waste silica sludge of polishing residue from granite-like rocks and waste glass with a foaming agent, after firing at 1220 degrees C densities from 0.57 to 0.82 g/cm(3) were obtained. PMID:19345083

Ducman, V; Mirtic, B

2009-04-02

462

Citizens guide to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Compliance Certification Application to the EPA  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has submitted an application to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for a certificate sh