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1

Technology applications for radioactive waste minimization  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear power industry has achieved one of the most successful examples of waste minimization. The annual volume of low-level radioactive waste shipped for disposal per reactor has decreased to approximately one-fifth the volume about a decade ago. In addition, the curie content of the total waste shipped for disposal has decreased. This paper will discuss the regulatory drivers and economic factors for waste minimization and describe the application of technologies for achieving waste minimization for low-level radioactive waste with examples from the nuclear power industry.

Devgun, J.S.

1994-07-01

2

Waste minimization applications at a remediation site  

SciTech Connect

The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) owned by the Department of Energy was used for the processing of uranium. In 1989 Fernald suspended production of uranium metals and was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL). The site`s mission has changed from one of production to environmental restoration. Many groups necessary for producing a product were deemed irrelevant for remediation work, including Waste Minimization. Waste Minimization does not readily appear to be applicable to remediation work. Environmental remediation is designed to correct adverse impacts to the environment from past operations and generates significant amounts of waste requiring management. The premise of pollution prevention is to avoid waste generation, thus remediation is in direct conflict with this premise. Although greater amounts of waste will be generated during environmental remediation, treatment capacities are not always available and disposal is becoming more difficult and costly. This creates the need for pollution prevention and waste minimization. Applying waste minimization principles at a remediation site is an enormous challenge. If the remediation site is also radiologically contaminated it is even a bigger challenge. Innovative techniques and ideas must be utilized to achieve reductions in the amount of waste that must be managed or dispositioned. At Fernald the waste minimization paradigm was shifted from focusing efforts on source reduction to focusing efforts on recycle/reuse by inverting the EPA waste management hierarchy. A fundamental difference at remediation sites is that source reduction has limited applicability to legacy wastes but can be applied successfully on secondary waste generation. The bulk of measurable waste reduction will be achieved by the recycle/reuse of primary wastes and by segregation and decontamination of secondary wastestreams. Each effort must be measured in terms of being economically and ecologically beneficial.

Allmon, L.A.

1995-01-23

3

Waste minimization handbook, Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This technical guide presents various methods used by industry to minimize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated during decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities. Such activities generate significant amounts of LLW during their operations. Waste minimization refers to any measure, procedure, or technique that reduces the amount of waste generated during a specific operation or project. Preventive waste minimization techniques implemented when a project is initiated can significantly reduce waste. Techniques implemented during decontamination activities reduce the cost of decommissioning. The application of waste minimization techniques is not limited to D and D activities; it is also useful during any phase of a facility`s life cycle. This compendium will be supplemented with a second volume of abstracts of hundreds of papers related to minimizing low-level nuclear waste. This second volume is expected to be released in late 1996.

Boing, L.E.; Coffey, M.J.

1995-12-01

4

Waste Minimization Plan Prepared by  

E-print Network

Waste Minimization Plan Prepared by: Environmental Health and Safety Department Revised February 2012 #12;Waste Minimization Plan Table of Contents Policy Statement........................................................... 3 Centralized Waste Management Program

5

WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR NON-AGRICULTURAL PESTICIDE APPLICATORS: EPA'S POLLUTION PREVENTION GUIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development is preparing a guide to be published later this year for non-agricultural pesticide applicators which will provide specific information about waste minimization for pesticide users in industries such as commercial lawn care, structura...

6

POLLUTION BALANCE METHOD AND THE DEMONSTRATION OF ITS APPLICATION TO MINIMIZING WASTE IN A BIOCHEMICAL PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

In this study, we introduced several modifications to the WAR (waste reduction) algorithm developed earlier. hese modifications were made for systematically handling sensitivity analysis and various tasks of waste minimization. esign hierarchy was formulated to promote appropriat...

7

POLLUTION BALANCE METHOD AND THE DEMONSTRATION OF ITS APPLICATION TO MINIMIZING WASTE IN A BIOCHEMICAL PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

In this study, we introduced several modifications to the WAR (waste reduction) algorithm developed earlier. These modifications were made for systematically handling sensitivity analysis and various tasks of waste minimization. A design hierarchy was formulated to promote appro...

8

Guidelines for mixed waste minimization  

SciTech Connect

Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization.

Owens, C.

1992-02-01

9

Development and test case application of a waste minimization project evaluation method  

SciTech Connect

The authors have developed and applied a methodology to evaluate and prioritize proposed waste minimization activities affecting Department of Energy (DOE) programs. The approach provides a systematic and defensible method for selecting a set of waste minimization proposals that maximizes the benefits to DOE while maintaining costs within a specified budget. The report discusses the development of a structured set of evaluation criteria to characterize waste minimization issues; techniques for documenting the anticipated and potential costs, risks, and benefits of waste minimization proposals; and a method of translating disparate data into a figure of merit for each proposal. A test case demonstration of this prioritization approach was applied to proposals currently being considered at two DOE weapons production facilities. Recommendations are provided for combining this approach with the existing DOE proposal selection process. 9 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Kjeldgaard, E.A. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Saloio, J.H.; Varnado, G.B. (ERC Environmental and Energy Services Co., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1990-08-01

10

Minimizing waste in environmental restoration  

SciTech Connect

Environmental restoration, decontamination and decommissioning and facility dismantelment projects are not typically known for their waste minimization and pollution prevention efforts. Typical projects are driven by schedules and milestones with little attention given to cost or waste minimization. Conventional wisdom in these projects is that the waste already exists and cannot be reduced or minimized. In fact, however, there are three significant areas where waste and cost can be reduced. Waste reduction can occur in three ways: beneficial reuse or recycling; segregation of waste types; and reducing generation of secondary waste. This paper will discuss several examples of reuse, recycle, segregation, and secondary waste reduction at ANL restoration programs.

Moos, L.; Thuot, J.R.

1996-07-01

11

Pollution balance method and the demonstration of its application to minimizing waste in a biochemical process  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the authors introduced several modifications to the WAR (waste reduction) algorithm developed earlier. These modifications were made for systematically handling sensitivity analysis and various tasks of waste minimization. A design hierarchy was formulated to promote appropriate waste reduction tasks at designated levels of the hierarchy. A sensitivity coefficient was used to measure the relative impacts of process variables on the pollution index of a process. The use of the WAR algorithm was demonstrated by a fermentation process for making penicillin.

Hilaly, A.K.; Sikdar, S.K. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1995-06-01

12

Development and test case application of a waste minimization project evaluation method  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a formal process for selecting, from a diverse set of proposed waste minimization activities, those activities that provide the greatest benefit to Department of Energy (DOE). A methodology for evaluating and prioritizing proposals was developed to illustrate how the selection process works and what types of data are required to characterize waste minimization activities. It is clearly impossible to remove all aspects of subjective judgment from the proposal selection process. With this important consideration in mind, the methodology presented is put forth to enhance, not replace, the traditional DOE decision-making process. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Kjeldgaard, E.A. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Saloio, J.H.; Varnado, G.B. (ERC Environmental and Energy Services Co., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1990-01-01

13

Transuranic waste minimization and avoidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the effectiveness of existing, planned and proposed waste avoidance and minimization projects in reducing the amount of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Transuranic (TRU) waste requiring disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The majority of the TRU wastes generated at LANL are associated with the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program, the Milliwatt Heat Source Program,

R. L. Dodge; A. J. Montoya

2001-01-01

14

Analysis of the application of decontamination technologies to radioactive metal waste minimization using expert systems  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive metal waste makes up a significant portion of the waste currently being sent for disposal. Recovery of this metal as a valuable resource is possible through the use of decontamination technologies. Through the development and use of expert systems a comparison can be made of laser decontamination, a technology currently under development at Ames Laboratory, with currently available decontamination technologies for applicability to the types of metal waste being generated and the effectiveness of these versus simply disposing of the waste. These technologies can be technically and economically evaluated by the use of expert systems techniques to provide a waste management decision making tool that generates, given an identified metal waste, waste management recommendations. The user enters waste characteristic information as input and the system then recommends decontamination technologies, determines residual contamination levels and possible waste management strategies, carries out a cost analysis and then ranks, according to cost, the possibilities for management of the waste. The expert system was developed using information from literature and personnel experienced in the use of decontamination technologies and requires validation by human experts and assignment of confidence factors to the knowledge represented within.

Bayrakal, S.

1993-09-30

15

Transuranic waste minimization and avoidance.  

SciTech Connect

This paper assesses the effectiveness of existing, planned and proposed waste avoidance and minimization projects in reducing the amount of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Transuranic (TRU) waste requiring disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The majority of the TRU wastes generated at LANL are associated with the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program, the Milliwatt Heat Source Program, and nuclear materials R&D. NMT Division is the principal waste generator responsible for these programs, which are conducted at the Plutonium Facility (TA-55-PF4) and the CMR Facility (TA-3, Building SM-29). The DOE 2005 Pollution Prevention goals require that the DOE complex reduce 'routine' TRU/MTRU waste generation by 80% to <141 m{sup 3} by 2005. LANL's allocation of that 141 m{sup 3} has not been determined. However, LANL must reduce its present generation rate if the DOE is to achieve that goal. Between 1993 and 1998, the amount of TRU waste generated by LANL increased from 76.7 to 121.7 m{sup 3} (58%). The volume of routine TRU waste produced by LANL has been increasing recently as a result of increased mission activities. The effectiveness of the minimization technologies was applied against a base case rate. Since many of the processing systems are not yet operational, assumptions were made about the their operational startup, waste processing rates and minimization capabilities.

Dodge, R. L. (Robert L.); Montoya, A. J. (Andrew J.)

2001-01-01

16

LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

This document is the February 14, 1990 version of the LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan (WMPP). The Waste Minimization Policy field has undergone continuous changes since its formal inception in the 1984 HSWA legislation. The first LLNL WMPP, Revision A, is dated March 1985. A series of informal revision were made on approximately a semi-annual basis. This Revision 2 is the third formal issuance of the WMPP document. EPA has issued a proposed new policy statement on source reduction and recycling. This policy reflects a preventative strategy to reduce or eliminate the generation of environmentally-harmful pollutants which may be released to the air, land surface, water, or ground water. In accordance with this new policy new guidance to hazardous waste generators on the elements of a Waste Minimization Program was issued. In response to these policies, DOE has revised and issued implementation guidance for DOE Order 5400.1, Waste Minimization Plan and Waste Reduction reporting of DOE Hazardous, Radioactive, and Radioactive Mixed Wastes, final draft January 1990. This WMPP is formatted to meet the current DOE guidance outlines. The current WMPP will be revised to reflect all of these proposed changes when guidelines are established. Updates, changes and revisions to the overall LLNL WMPP will be made as appropriate to reflect ever-changing regulatory requirements. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Not Available

1990-02-14

17

Waste minimization in analytical methods  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) will require a large number of waste characterizations over a multi-year period to accomplish the Department`s goals in environmental restoration and waste management. Estimates vary, but two million analyses annually are expected. The waste generated by the analytical procedures used for characterizations is a significant source of new DOE waste. Success in reducing the volume of secondary waste and the costs of handling this waste would significantly decrease the overall cost of this DOE program. Selection of appropriate analytical methods depends on the intended use of the resultant data. It is not always necessary to use a high-powered analytical method, typically at higher cost, to obtain data needed to make decisions about waste management. Indeed, for samples taken from some heterogeneous systems, the meaning of high accuracy becomes clouded if the data generated are intended to measure a property of this system. Among the factors to be considered in selecting the analytical method are the lower limit of detection, accuracy, turnaround time, cost, reproducibility (precision), interferences, and simplicity. Occasionally, there must be tradeoffs among these factors to achieve the multiple goals of a characterization program. The purpose of the work described here is to add waste minimization to the list of characteristics to be considered. In this paper the authors present results of modifying analytical methods for waste characterization to reduce both the cost of analysis and volume of secondary wastes. Although tradeoffs may be required to minimize waste while still generating data of acceptable quality for the decision-making process, they have data demonstrating that wastes can be reduced in some cases without sacrificing accuracy or precision.

Green, D.W.; Smith, L.L.; Crain, J.S.; Boparai, A.S.; Kiely, J.T.; Yaeger, J.S. Schilling, J.B.

1995-05-01

18

The OTD Robotics Waste Minimization Program  

SciTech Connect

The danger to human health and safety posed by exposure to transuranic (TRU) and Pu contaminated materials necessitates remote processing in confined environments. Currently these operations are carried out in gloveboxes and hot-cells by human operators using lead- lined gloves or teleoperated manipulators. Protective clothing worn by operators during gloved operations has contributed significantly to the waste problems currently facing site remediators. The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER/WM) Program is in the process of developing and demonstrating technologies to assist in the remediation of sites that have accumulated wastes generated using these processes over the past five decades. Recognizing that continued use of existing production, recovery and waste treatment systems will compound the remediation problem, DOE has made a commitment to waste minimization. To reduce waste generation during weapons production and waste processing operations, automated processes are being developed and demonstrated for use in future DOE processing facilities as part of OTD's Robotics Technology Development Program. These technologies are currently being applied to pyrochemical processing systems to demonstrate conversion of plutonium oxide to metal. However, these technologies are expected to have applications in a variety of waste processing systems including those used to treat high-level tank wastes, buried wastes requiring remote processing, mixed wastes, and unknown hazardous materials. In addition to reducing the future waste burden of DOE, automated processes are an effective way to comply with existing and anticipated federal, state, and local regulations related to personal health and safety and the health of the environment.

Couture, S.A.

1992-04-01

19

40 CFR 262.27 - Waste minimization certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest ...Waste minimization certification. A generator who initiates a shipment of hazardous...manifest: (a) 的 am a large quantity generator. I have a program in place to...

2011-07-01

20

40 CFR 262.27 - Waste minimization certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest ...Waste minimization certification. A generator who initiates a shipment of hazardous...manifest: (a) 的 am a large quantity generator. I have a program in place to...

2012-07-01

21

40 CFR 262.27 - Waste minimization certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest ...Waste minimization certification. A generator who initiates a shipment of hazardous...manifest: (a) 的 am a large quantity generator. I have a program in place to...

2013-07-01

22

40 CFR 262.27 - Waste minimization certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest ...Waste minimization certification. A generator who initiates a shipment of hazardous...manifest: (a) 的 am a large quantity generator. I have a program in place to...

2014-07-01

23

40 CFR 262.27 - Waste minimization certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest ...Waste minimization certification. A generator who initiates a shipment of hazardous...manifest: (a) 的 am a large quantity generator. I have a program in place to...

2010-07-01

24

Annual Waste Minimization Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the waste minimization efforts undertaken by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), during CY06. This report was developed in accordance with the requirements of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Permit (No. NEV HW0021) and as clarified in a letter dated April 21, 1995, from Paul Liebendorfer of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to Donald Elle of the DOE, Nevada Operations Office. The NNSA/NSO Pollution Prevention (P2) Program establishes a process to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by the NNSA/NSO and ensures that proposed methods of treatment, storage, and/or disposal of waste minimize potential threats to human health and the environment. The following information provides an overview of the P2 Program, major P2 accomplishments during the reporting year, a comparison of the current year waste generation to prior years, and a description of efforts undertaken during the year to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by the NNSA/NSO.

Alfred J. Karns

2007-01-01

25

The OTD Robotics Waste Minimization Program  

SciTech Connect

The danger to human health and safety posed by exposure to transuranic (TRU) and Pu contaminated materials necessitates remote processing in confined environments. Currently these operations are carried out in gloveboxes and hot-cells by human operators using lead- lined gloves or teleoperated manipulators. Protective clothing worn by operators during gloved operations has contributed significantly to the waste problems currently facing site remediators. The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER/WM) Program is in the process of developing and demonstrating technologies to assist in the remediation of sites that have accumulated wastes generated using these processes over the past five decades. Recognizing that continued use of existing production, recovery and waste treatment systems will compound the remediation problem, DOE has made a commitment to waste minimization. To reduce waste generation during weapons production and waste processing operations, automated processes are being developed and demonstrated for use in future DOE processing facilities as part of OTD`s Robotics Technology Development Program. These technologies are currently being applied to pyrochemical processing systems to demonstrate conversion of plutonium oxide to metal. However, these technologies are expected to have applications in a variety of waste processing systems including those used to treat high-level tank wastes, buried wastes requiring remote processing, mixed wastes, and unknown hazardous materials. In addition to reducing the future waste burden of DOE, automated processes are an effective way to comply with existing and anticipated federal, state, and local regulations related to personal health and safety and the health of the environment.

Couture, S.A.

1992-04-01

26

Waste minimization in the oil and gas industries  

SciTech Connect

Recent legislative actions place an emphasis on waste minimization as opposed to traditional end-of-pipe waste management. This new philosophy, coupled with increasing waste disposal costs and associated liabilities, sets the stage for investigating waste minimization opportunities in all industries wastes generated by oil and gas exploration and production (E P) and refuting activities are regulated as non-hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Potential reclassification of these wastes as hazardous would make minimization of these waste streams even more desirable. Oil and gas E P activities generate a wide variety of wastes, although the bulk of the wastes (98%) consists of a single waste stream: produced water. Opportunities to minimize E P wastes through point source reduction activities are limited by the extractive nature of the industry. Significant waste minimization is possible, however, through recycling. Recycling activities include underground injection of produced water, use of closed-loop drilling systems, reuse of produced water and drilling fluids in other oilfield activities, use of solid debris as construction fill, use of oily wastes as substitutes for road mix and asphalt, landspreading of produced sand for soil enhancement, and roadspreading of suitable aqueous wastes for dust suppression or deicing. Like the E P wastes, wastes generated by oil and gas treatment and refining activities cannot be reduced substantially at the point source but can be reduced through recycling. For the most part, extensive recycling and reprocessing of many waste streams already occurs at most petroleum refineries. A variety of innovative waste treatment activities have been developed to minimize the toxicity or volume of oily wastes generated by both E P and refining activities. These treatments include bioremediation, oxidation, biooxidation, incineration, and separation. Application of these treatment processes is still limited.

Smith, K.P.

1992-01-01

27

Waste minimization in the oil and gas industries  

SciTech Connect

Recent legislative actions place an emphasis on waste minimization as opposed to traditional end-of-pipe waste management. This new philosophy, coupled with increasing waste disposal costs and associated liabilities, sets the stage for investigating waste minimization opportunities in all industries wastes generated by oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) and refuting activities are regulated as non-hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Potential reclassification of these wastes as hazardous would make minimization of these waste streams even more desirable. Oil and gas E&P activities generate a wide variety of wastes, although the bulk of the wastes (98%) consists of a single waste stream: produced water. Opportunities to minimize E&P wastes through point source reduction activities are limited by the extractive nature of the industry. Significant waste minimization is possible, however, through recycling. Recycling activities include underground injection of produced water, use of closed-loop drilling systems, reuse of produced water and drilling fluids in other oilfield activities, use of solid debris as construction fill, use of oily wastes as substitutes for road mix and asphalt, landspreading of produced sand for soil enhancement, and roadspreading of suitable aqueous wastes for dust suppression or deicing. Like the E&P wastes, wastes generated by oil and gas treatment and refining activities cannot be reduced substantially at the point source but can be reduced through recycling. For the most part, extensive recycling and reprocessing of many waste streams already occurs at most petroleum refineries. A variety of innovative waste treatment activities have been developed to minimize the toxicity or volume of oily wastes generated by both E&P and refining activities. These treatments include bioremediation, oxidation, biooxidation, incineration, and separation. Application of these treatment processes is still limited.

Smith, K.P.

1992-09-01

28

EPA'S (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S) WASTE MINIMIZATION RESEARCH PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

Waste minimization is viewed by the Environmental Protection Agency as a desirable and viable alternative to hazardous waste disposal. The Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Laboratory, in conjunction with the Office of Solid Waste, is developing a Waste Minimization Program fo...

29

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A BOURBON DISTILLERY  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected un...

30

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A DAIRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Ce...

31

WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - FORT RILEY, KANSAS  

EPA Science Inventory

Under the Waste Reduction Evaluations at Federal Sites (WREAFS) Program, a waste minimization opportunity assessment was conducted at a maintenance operation carried out at one of the U.S. Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) Fort Riley, Kansas facilities. hese facilities generate waste...

32

DUPONT CHAMBERS WORKS WASTE MINIMIZATION PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

In a joint U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and DuPont waste minimization project, fifteen waste streams were-selected for assessment. he intent was to develop assessments diverse in terms of process type, mode of operation, waste type, disposal needed, and relative suc...

33

DUPONT CHAMBERS WORKS WASTE MINIMIZATION PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

In a joint U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and DuPont waste minimization project, fifteen waste streams were-selected for assessment. The intent was to develop assessments diverse in terms of process type, mode of operation, waste type, disposal needed, and relative s...

34

Waste minimization in an autobody repair shop  

SciTech Connect

This work was done to document the waste minimization incorporated in a new autobody repair facility in Hermantown, Minnesota. Humes Collision Center incorporated new waste reduction techniques when it expanded its old facilities in 1992 and it was able to achieve the benefits of cost reduction and waste reduction. Humes Collision Center repairs an average of 500 cars annually and is a very small quantity generator (VSQG) of hazardous waste, as defined by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA). The hazardous waste consists of antifreeze, batteries, paint sludge, refrigerants, and used oil, while the nonhazardous waste consists of cardboard, glass, paint filters, plastic, sanding dust, scrap metal, and wastewater. The hazardous and nonhazardous waste output were decreased by 72%. In addition, there was a 63% reduction in the operating costs. The waste minimization includes antifreeze recovery and recycling, reduction in unused waste paint, reduction, recovery and recycle of waste lacquer thinner for cleaning spray guns and paint cups, elimination of used plastic car bags, recovery and recycle of refrigerant, reduction in waste sandpaper and elimination of sanding dust, and elimination of waste paint filters. The rate of return on the investment in waste minimization equipment is estimated from 37% per year for the distillation unit, 80% for vacuum sanding, 146% for computerized paint mixing, 211% for the refrigerant recycler, to 588% per year for the gun washer. The corresponding payback time varies from 3 years to 2 months.

Baria, D.N.; Dorland, D.; Bergeron, J.T. [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1994-12-31

35

Waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this plan is to document the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. The intent of this plan is to respond to and comply with (DOE's) policy and guidelines concerning the need for pollution prevention. The Plan is composed of a LLNL Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan and, as attachments, Program- and Department-specific waste minimization plans. This format reflects the fact that waste minimization is considered a line management responsibility and is to be addressed by each of the Programs and Departments. 14 refs.

Not Available

1991-05-31

36

EXPERIENCE WITH THE EPA MANUAL FOR WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessments Manual (EPA/625/7-88/003) is designed to assist those responsible for planning, managing, and implementing waste minimization activities at the waste generating operation and at all management levels. The Manual defines waste minimizatio...

37

Utilization of biocatalysts in cellulose waste minimization  

SciTech Connect

Cellulose, a polymer of glucose, is the principal component of biomass and, therefore, a major source of waste that is either buried or burned. Examples of biomass waste include agricultural crop residues, forestry products, and municipal wastes. Recycling of this waste is important for energy conservation as well as waste minimization and there is some probability that in the future biomass could become a major energy source and replace fossil fuels that are currently used for fuels and chemicals production. It has been estimated that in the United States, between 100-450 million dry tons of agricultural waste are produced annually, approximately 6 million dry tons of animal waste, and of the 190 million tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated annually, approximately two-thirds is cellulosic in nature and over one-third is paper waste. Interestingly, more than 70% of MSW is landfilled or burned, however landfill space is becoming increasingly scarce. On a smaller scale, important cellulosic products such as cellulose acetate also present waste problems; an estimated 43 thousand tons of cellulose ester waste are generated annually in the United States. Biocatalysts could be used in cellulose waste minimization and this chapter describes their characteristics and potential in bioconversion and bioremediation processes.

Woodward, J.; Evans, B.R.

1996-09-01

38

Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization  

SciTech Connect

This chapter offers pollution prevention techniques for design, industrial process, maintenance, and environmental remediation activities. It provides examples of waste reduction, tools for identifying pollution prevention opportunities, and ways of calculating the payback or return on investment associated with the opportunities.

Fowler, Kimberly M.; Hyman, Marvin H.

2002-06-15

39

Waste minimization in the Los Alamos Medical Radioisotope Program  

SciTech Connect

Since the mid-1970s the Los Alamos Medical Radioisotope Program has been irradiating target materials to produce and recover radioisotopes for applications in medicine, environmental science, biology, physics, materials research, and other disciplines where radiotracers find utility. By necessity, the chemical processing of targets and the isolation of radioisotopes generates radioactive waste materials. Recent years have brought pressure to discontinue the use of hazardous materials and to minimize radioactive waste volumes. Substantial waste reduction measures have been introduced at the irradiation facility, in processing approaches, and even in the ways the product isotopes are supplied to users.

Taylor, W.A.; Jamriska, D.J.; Hamilton, V.T.; Heaton, R.C.; Phillips, D.R.; Staroski, R.C.; Garcia, J.B.; Garcia, J.G.; Ott, M.A.

1994-04-01

40

Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1991-07-01

41

Drilling waste minimization in the Hugoton field, southwest Kansas  

SciTech Connect

The described drilling waste minimization program implemented by Mobil in the Hugoton gas field is significant because it represents a successful application of technology previously unseen in the Kansas Mid-Continent area. This drilling waste minimization program significantly reduces pollution potential, improves compliance assurance, and decreases overall waste-related costs. The key element of this program is a mechanical solids control system consisting of a semi-closed loop centrifuge flocculation dewatering process that removes drilling solids for burial on location. The system provides environmental (80 percent reduced waste volumes and 70 percent reduction in fresh water usage) and economic ($307,000/358 well program) incentives, as well as numerous indirect benefits over conventionally used drilling solids control methods. Indirect benefits include more accurate formation evaluation (less solids interference with wireline logs), minimized wellbore damage (reduced fluid loss and washout), and goodwill and improved relations with regulators and landowners. The described drilling program is complemented by other operations-oriented waste management initiatives and validated by tracking waste volumes and costs. Mobil and its drilling and mud contractors partnered the initiative. The described improved drilling solids control technology is now available for use in the Kansas Mid-Continent area by Mobil and other operators and has resulted in improved operations efficiency.

Robb, A.J. III [Mobil Business Resources Corp., Dallas, TX (United States). Remediation Services; Beaty, T.D. [Miller and Associates, Evangeline, LA (United States)

1997-07-01

42

Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention Crosscut Plan, 1994  

SciTech Connect

This plan establishes a Department-wide goal to reduce total releases of toxic chemicals to the environment and off-site transfers of such toxic chemicals by 50 percent by December 31, 1999, in compliance with Executive Order 12856. Each site that meets the threshold quantities of toxic chemicals established in the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) will participate in this goal. In addition, each DOE site will establish site-specific goals to reduce generation of hazardous, radioactive, radioactive mixed, and sanitary wastes and pollutants, as applicable. Implementation of this plan will represent a major step toward the environmental risks and costs associated with DOE operations and increasing the Department`s use of preventive environmental management practices. Investing in Waste Minimization Pollution Prevention (WMin/PP) steadily reduce hazardous and radioactive waste generation and will reduce the need for waste management and unnecessary expenditures for waste treatment, storage, and disposal. A preventive approach to waste management will help solve current environmental and regulatory issues and reduce the need for costly future corrective actions. The purpose of this plan is to establish the strategic framework for integrating WMin/PP into all DOE internal activities. This program includes setting DOE policy and goals for reducing the generation of wastes and pollutants, increasing recycling activities, and establishing an infrastructure to achieve and measure the goals throughout the DOE complex. Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Plans, submitted to Headquarters by DOE field sites, will incorporate the WMin/PP activities and goals outlined in this plan. Success of the DOE WMin/PP program is dependent upon each field operation becoming accountable for resources used, wastes and pollutants generated, and wastes recycled.

Not Available

1994-02-28

43

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PRINTED LABELS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

44

Waste Minimization Assessment for Multilayered Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manu facturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at s...

45

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF SCREWDRIVERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment C...

46

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PLIERS AND WRENCHES  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Cen...

47

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist mall- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Cen...

48

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF CAULK  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effor to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cente...

49

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PAINTS AND LACQUERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Ce...

50

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF MICROELECTRONIC COMPONENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Cen...

51

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF CAULK  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

52

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF AERIAL LIFTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their geneation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cente...

53

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF SCREWDRIVERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

54

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF SPEED REDUCTION EQUIPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

55

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF SHEET METAL COMPONENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization ssessment Cente...

56

Computer simulated plant design for waste minimization\\/pollution prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The book discusses several paths to pollution prevention and waste minimization by using computer simulation programs. It explains new computer technologies used in the field of pollution prevention and waste management; provides information pertaining to overcoming technical, economic, and environmental barriers to waste reduction; gives case-studies from industries; and covers computer aided flow sheet design and analysis for nuclear fuel

Bumble

2000-01-01

57

Computer simulated plant design for waste minimization/pollution prevention  

SciTech Connect

The book discusses several paths to pollution prevention and waste minimization by using computer simulation programs. It explains new computer technologies used in the field of pollution prevention and waste management; provides information pertaining to overcoming technical, economic, and environmental barriers to waste reduction; gives case-studies from industries; and covers computer aided flow sheet design and analysis for nuclear fuel reprocessing.

Bumble, S.

2000-07-01

58

Food waste minimization from a life-cycle perspective.  

PubMed

This article investigates potentials and environmental impacts related to household food waste minimization, based on a case study in Southern Sweden. In the study, the amount of avoidable and unavoidable food waste currently being disposed of by households was assessed through waste composition analyses and the different types of avoidable food waste were classified. Currently, both avoidable and unavoidable food waste is either incinerated or treated through anaerobic digestion. A hypothetical scenario with no generation of avoidable food waste and either anaerobic digestion or incineration of unavoidable food waste was compared to the current situation using the life-cycle assessment method, limited to analysis of global warming potential (GWP). The results from the waste composition analyses indicate that an average of 35% of household food waste is avoidable. Minimization of this waste could result in reduction of greenhouse gas emissions of 800-1400 kg/tonne of avoidable food waste. Thus, a minimization strategy would result in increased avoidance of GWP compared to the current situation. The study clearly shows that although modern alternatives for food waste treatment can result in avoidance of GWP through nutrient and energy recovery, food waste prevention yields far greater benefits for GWP compared to both incineration and anaerobic digestion. PMID:25264296

Bernstad Saraiva Schott, A; Andersson, T

2015-01-01

59

Waste Minimization: A Hidden Energy Savings?  

E-print Network

" manufacturing p 0 cesses that produce more than a certain percen waste (typically starts at 5% waste and decreases wi h time). Though it may be argued that present 1 wand subsequent regulation is sufficient, the trend is clearly set toward mandatory waste...

Good, R. L.; Hunt, K. E.

60

Minimization of mixed waste in explosive testing operations  

SciTech Connect

In the 1970s and 1980s, efforts to manage mixed waste and reduce pollution focused largely on post-process measures. In the late 1980s, the approach to waste management and pollution control changed, focusing on minimization and prevention rather than abatement, treatment, and disposal. The new approach, and the formulated guidance from the US Department of Energy, was to take all necessary measures to minimize waste and prevent the release of pollutants to the environment. Two measures emphasized in particular were source reduction (reducing the volume and toxicity of the waste source) and recycling. In 1988, a waste minimization and pollution prevention program was initiated at Site 300, where the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) conducts explosives testing. LLNL`s Defense Systems/Nuclear Design (DS/ND) Program has adopted a variety of conservation techniques to minimize waste generation and cut disposal costs associated with ongoing operations. The techniques include minimizing the generation of depleted uranium and lead mixed waste through inventory control and material substitution measures and through developing a management system to recycle surplus explosives. The changes implemented have reduced annual mixed waste volumes by more than 95% and reduced overall radioactive waste generation (low-level and mixed) by more than 75%. The measures employed were cost-effective and easily implemented.

Gonzalez, M.A.; Sator, F.E.; Simmons, L.F.

1993-02-01

61

Minimization of mixed waste in explosive testing operations  

SciTech Connect

In the 1970s and 1980s, efforts to manage mixed waste and reduce pollution focused largely on post-process measures. In the late 1980s, the approach to waste management and pollution control changed, focusing on minimization and prevention rather than abatement, treatment, and disposal. The new approach, and the formulated guidance from the US Department of Energy, was to take all necessary measures to minimize waste and prevent the release of pollutants to the environment. Two measures emphasized in particular were source reduction (reducing the volume and toxicity of the waste source) and recycling. In 1988, a waste minimization and pollution prevention program was initiated at Site 300, where the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) conducts explosives testing. LLNL's Defense Systems/Nuclear Design (DS/ND) Program has adopted a variety of conservation techniques to minimize waste generation and cut disposal costs associated with ongoing operations. The techniques include minimizing the generation of depleted uranium and lead mixed waste through inventory control and material substitution measures and through developing a management system to recycle surplus explosives. The changes implemented have reduced annual mixed waste volumes by more than 95% and reduced overall radioactive waste generation (low-level and mixed) by more than 75%. The measures employed were cost-effective and easily implemented.

Gonzalez, M.A.; Sator, F.E.; Simmons, L.F.

1993-02-01

62

Savannah River Site Radiological Technology Center's Efforts Supporting Waste Minimization  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the efforts of the newly formed Radiological Technology Center (RTC) at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) to support waste minimization. The formation of the RTC was based upon the highly successful ALARA Center at the DOE Hanford Site. The RTC is tasked with evaluation and dissemination of new technologies and techniques for radiological hazard reduction and waste minimization. Initial waste minimization efforts have focused on the promotion of SRS containment fabrication capabilities, new personal protective equipment and use of recyclable versus disposable materials.

Rosenberger, K. H.; Smith, L. S.; Bates, R. L.

2003-02-25

63

New analytical methods to minimize secondary waste  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) will require a large number of waste characterizations over a multi-year period to accomplish the Department`s goals in environmental restoration and waste management. Estimates vary, but two million analyses annually are expected. The waste generated by the analytical procedures used for characterizations is a significant source of new DOE waste. Success in reducing the volume of secondary waste and the costs of handling this waste would significantly decrease the overall cost of this DOE program. We have chosen to review the analytical procedures in three areas -- sample injection for inorganic analysis, dissolution of waste samples for radiochemical analysis, and sample preparation for analysis of organic constituents.

Green, D.W.; Smith, L.L.; Cain, J.S.; Boparai, A.S.; Kiely, J.T.; Yaeger, J.S.; Schilling, J.B.

1995-07-01

64

WASTE MINIMIZATION IN THE PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD INDUSTRY: CASE STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents information on waste minimization practices currently employed in the printed circuit board (PCB) and semiconductor manufacturing industries. Case studies conducted at six facilities evaluated the technical, environmental and cost impacts associated with the i...

65

Trends and Opportunities in Industrial Hazardous Waste Minimization  

E-print Network

This paper describes trends and opportunities in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act hazardous waste minimization. It uses U.S. Environmental Protection Agency data gathered since 1989 from over 20,000 facilities that account for almost all...

Atlas, M.

66

Annual Waste Minimization Summary Report, Calendar Year 2008  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the waste minimization efforts undertaken by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), during calendar year 2008.

NSTec Environmental Management

2009-02-01

67

EXAMPLES OF BIOLOGICAL WASTE MINIMIZATION TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of biological means to treat waste has been a mainstay of industrial and municipal wastewater treatment technology. ecovery of waste materials or conversion to other economically useful forms of commercial products has provoked considerable scrutiny but few genuine commer...

68

RESEARCH IN WASTE MINIMIZATION: EPA'S PERSPECTIVE  

EPA Science Inventory

Reducing the generation of industrial and other wastes can be achieved in many ways. rocess chemistry can be changed, potential waste streams can be recycled within a manufacturing process or back into the process: process technology and/or equipment can be modified to produce pr...

69

Analytical procedures for waste minimization and pollution prevention  

SciTech Connect

Procedures exist for waste characterization, but waste minimization and pollution prevention have not usually played a role in development of these procedures. The US Department of Energy (DOE) expects to require several million characterizations over a 30-year period to accomplish the Department`s goals in environmental restoration and waste management. The waste generated by the analytical procedures used for characterizations is a significant source of new DOE waste. We have begun investigating ways to reduce these secondary wastes, focusing on three areas: microanalysis using flow injection; reduction of solvent volume required for dissolution of waste samples for radiochemical analysis; and alternative samples preparation for analysis of organic constituents in waste samples. Preliminary results are reported.

Green, D.W.; Smith, L.L.; Crain, J.S.; Boparai, A.S.; Schilling, J.B.

1994-05-01

70

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR AN ALUMINUM EXTRUSIONS MANUFACTURERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected u...

71

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER PRODUCING GALVANIZED STEEL PARTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at ...

72

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER PRODUCING TREATED WOOD PRODUCTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at ...

73

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A BOURBON DISTILLERY  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected un...

74

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF FINISHED METAL COMPONENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected un...

75

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF WATER ANALYSIS INSTRUMENTATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-sized manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at...

76

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A STEEL FABRICATOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected un...

77

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF INDUSTRIAL COATINGS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a' pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected u...

78

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF ALUMINUM EXTRUSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) are established at s...

79

WASTE MINIMIZATION AUDIT REPORT: CASE STUDIES OF CORROSIVE AND HEAVY METAL WASTE MINIMIZATION AT A SPECIALTY STEEL MANUFACTURING COMPLEX  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is expanding its efforts to promote waste minimization activity in the private sector by providing technical assistance to generators of hazardous waste. As part of the effort, the EPA Office of Research and Development/Hazardous Was...

80

Secondary waste minimization in analytical methods  

SciTech Connect

The characterization phase of site remediation is an important and costly part of the process. Because toxic solvents and other hazardous materials are used in common analytical methods, characterization is also a source of new waste, including mixed waste. Alternative analytical methods can reduce the volume or form of hazardous waste produced either in the sample preparation step or in the measurement step. The authors are examining alternative methods in the areas of inorganic, radiological, and organic analysis. For determining inorganic constituents, alternative methods were studied for sample introduction into inductively coupled plasma spectrometers. Figures of merit for the alternative methods, as well as their associated waste volumes, were compared with the conventional approaches. In the radiological area, the authors are comparing conventional methods for gross {alpha}/{beta} measurements of soil samples to an alternative method that uses high-pressure microwave dissolution. For determination of organic constituents, microwave-assisted extraction was studied for RCRA regulated semivolatile organics in a variety of solid matrices, including spiked samples in blank soil; polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in soils, sludges, and sediments; and semivolatile organics in soil. Extraction efficiencies were determined under varying conditions of time, temperature, microwave power, moisture content, and extraction solvent. Solvent usage was cut from the 300 mL used in conventional extraction methods to about 30 mL. Extraction results varied from one matrix to another. In most cases, the microwave-assisted extraction technique was as efficient as the more common Soxhlet or sonication extraction techniques.

Green, D.W.; Smith, L.L.; Crain, J.S.; Boparai, A.S.; Kiely, J.T.; Yaeger, J.S.; Schilling, J.B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Analytical Chemistry Lab.

1995-07-01

81

Minimization and management of wastes from biomedical research.  

PubMed Central

Several committees were established by the National Association of Physicians for the Environment to investigate and report on various topics at the National Leadership Conference on Biomedical Research and the Environment held at the 1--2 November 1999 at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland. This is the report of the Committee on Minimization and Management of Wastes from Biomedical Research. Biomedical research facilities contribute a small fraction of the total amount of wastes generated in the United States, and the rate of generation appears to be decreasing. Significant reductions in generation of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes have recently been reported, even at facilities with rapidly expanding research programs. Changes in the focus of research, improvements in laboratory techniques, and greater emphasis on waste minimization (volume and toxicity reduction) explain the declining trend in generation. The potential for uncontrolled releases of wastes from biomedical research facilities and adverse impacts on the general environment from these wastes appears to be low. Wastes are subject to numerous regulatory requirements and are contained and managed in a manner protective of the environment. Most biohazardous agents, chemicals, and radionuclides that find significant use in research are not likely to be persistent, bioaccumulative, or toxic if they are released. Today, the primary motivations for the ongoing efforts by facilities to improve minimization and management of wastes are regulatory compliance and avoidance of the high disposal costs and liabilities associated with generation of regulated wastes. The committee concluded that there was no evidence suggesting that the anticipated increases in biomedical research will significantly increase generation of hazardous wastes or have adverse impacts on the general environment. This conclusion assumes the positive, countervailing trends of enhanced pollution prevention efforts by facilities and reductions in waste generation resulting from improvements in research methods will continue. PMID:11121362

Rau, E H; Alaimo, R J; Ashbrook, P C; Austin, S M; Borenstein, N; Evans, M R; French, H M; Gilpin, R W; Hughes, J; Hummel, S J; Jacobsohn, A P; Lee, C Y; Merkle, S; Radzinski, T; Sloane, R; Wagner, K D; Weaner, L E

2000-01-01

82

Technologies and methods for waste minimization in the analytical laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Routine environmental and waste analytical methods are quite prescriptive and often do not include the principles of waste minimization and pollution prevention. A classic example is the procedure currently approved and in use for the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure published in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations. This procedure tests materials for the leachability of toxic components. The approved procedure requires that a 100-g sample of the unknown be leached with a solvent 20 times its weight. This procedure generates 2 L of liquid waste, which becomes hazardous waste if any one of 40 inorganic or organic contaminants exceeds the established regulatory level. Add to this level any secondary waste associated with instrument calibration and quality control for the analysis, and the waste stream has multiplied over 20-fold. Only a small percentage of the sample generated in the previous scenario is actually used for the analysis. This example is by no means unique.

Erickson, M.D.; Alvarado, J.S.; Lu, Cheng-Shen [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31

83

Hanford site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program  

SciTech Connect

This plan documents the requirements of the Hanford Site Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) Program. The plan specifies requirements for Hanford contractors to prevent pollution from entering the environment, to conserve resources and energy, and to reduce the quantity and toxicity of hazardous, radioactive, mixed, and sanitary waste generated at Hanford. The Pollution Prevention Awareness Program required by DOE 5400.1 (DOE 1988A) is included in the Hanford WMin/P2 Program.

Kirkendall, J.R.

1996-09-23

84

Minimization of mixed waste in explosive testing operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1970s and 1980s, efforts to manage mixed waste and reduce pollution focused largely on post-process measures. In the late 1980s, the approach to waste management and pollution control changed, focusing on minimization and prevention rather than abatement, treatment, and disposal. The new approach, and the formulated guidance from the US Department of Energy, was to take all necessary

M. A. Gonzalez; F. E. Sator; L. F. Simmons

1993-01-01

85

A reverse logistics cost minimization model for the treatment of hazardous wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents a cost-minimization model for a multi-time-step, multi-type hazardous-waste reverse logistics system. A discrete-time linear analytical model is formulated that minimizes total reverse logistics operating costs subject to constraints that take into account such internal and external factors as business operating strategies and governmental regulations. Application cases are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach. By

Tung-Lai Hu; Jiuh-Biing Sheu; Kuan-Hsiung Huang

2002-01-01

86

JSC Metal Finishing Waste Minimization Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

THe paper discusses the following: Johnson Space Center (JSC) has achieved VPP Star status and is ISO 9001 compliant. The Structural Engineering Division in the Engineering Directorate is responsible for operating the metal finishing facility at JSC. The Engineering Directorate is responsible for $71.4 million of space flight hardware design, fabrication and testing. The JSC Metal Finishing Facility processes flight hardware to support the programs in particular schedule and mission critical flight hardware. The JSC Metal Finishing Facility is operated by Rothe Joint Venture. The Facility provides following processes: anodizing, alodining, passivation, and pickling. JSC Metal Finishing Facility completely rebuilt in 1998. Total cost of $366,000. All new tanks, electrical, plumbing, and ventilation installed. Designed to meet modern safety, environmental, and quality requirements. Designed to minimize contamination and provide the highest quality finishes.

Sullivan, Erica

2003-01-01

87

Opportunity assessments: A tool for waste minimization and pollution prevention  

SciTech Connect

Waste costs, liabilities, and regulations continue to be growing concerns for government and industry. Pollution prevention opportunity assessments (PPOAs) are a tool which proactively manages these concerns. The Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the benefits of PPOAs in the DOE Waste Minimization Pollution Prevention Crosscut Plan which states that the completion of opportunity assessments is of critical importance to DOE because they are an essential management decision-making tool that tell DOE: (1) how much waste and environmental releases can be avoided; (2) through what activity/process changes waste reduction can be achieved; (3) what it will cost to implement a pollution prevention opportunity; and (4) what will be the long-term savings in avoided waste management costs. Before exploring what a PPOA is, a brief discussion of pollution prevention is necessary. Pollution prevention (P2) may also be referred to as waste minimization, source reduction, and/or recycling. The definition used in the DOE-sponsored PPOA training class is: {open_quotes}Pollution prevention reduces or eliminates material releases to air, water, and/or land.{close_quotes} The benefits of pollution prevention include a proactive approach to waste management, compliance issues, and liability concerns; economic incentives; improved employee and public health; and environmental stewardship. Basically it all boils down to the phrase, {open_quotes}It`s the right thing to do.{close_quotes}

Pemberton, S.E.; Schlosberg, W.H.

1995-03-01

88

Waste minimization and pollution prevention at a plutonium processing facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

If nuclear facilities are to achieve public acceptance, they must develop strong programs in waste minimization, pollution prevention, and environmentally sound recycling. These programs are specially essential for defense production facilities that process large quantities of special nuclear materials. The plutonium processing facility at Los Alamos has initiated a focused research and development program with a strategic goal of becoming

K PILLAY; K. K. S

1994-01-01

89

WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: NAVAL UNDERSEA WARFARE ENGINEERING STATION - KEYPORT, WA  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes the application of EPA's waste minimization assessment procedures to a torpedo maintenance facility at the Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station, Keyport, WA. he assessment focused on the Mark 48 shop and the Mark 46 shop. hese shops service the Mark 48...

90

Annual Report on Waste Generation and Waste Minimization Progress, 1991--1992  

SciTech Connect

This report is DOE`s first annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress. Data presented in this report were collected from all DOE sites which met minimum threshold criteria established for this report. The fifty-seven site submittals contained herein represent data from over 100 reporting sites within 25 states. Radioactive, hazardous and sanitary waste quantities and the efforts to minimize these wastes are highlighted within the fifty-seven site submittals. In general, sites have made progress in moving beyond the planning phase of their waste minimization programs. This is evident by the overall 28 percent increase in the total amount of materials recycled from 1991 to 1992, as well as individual site initiatives. During 1991 and 1992, DOE generated a total of 279,000 cubic meters of radioactive waste and 243,000 metric tons of non-radioactive waste. These waste amounts include significant portions of process wastewater required to be reported to regulatory agencies in the state of Texas and the state of Tennessee. Specifically, the Pantex Plant in Texas treats an industrial wastewater that is considered by the Texas Water Commission to be a hazardous waste. In 1992, State regulated wastewater from the Pantex Plant represented 3,620 metric tons, 10 percent of the total hazardous waste generated by DOE. Similarly, mixed low-level wastewater from the TSCA Incinerator Facility at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site in Tennessee represented 55 percent of the total radioactive waste generated by DOE in 1992.

Not Available

1994-02-01

91

Using benchmarking to minimize common DOE waste streams. Volume 1, Methodology and liquid photographic waste  

SciTech Connect

Finding innovative ways to reduce waste streams generated at Department of Energy (DOE) sites by 50% by the year 2000 is a challenge for DOE`s waste minimization efforts. This report examines the usefulness of benchmarking as a waste minimization tool, specifically regarding common waste streams at DOE sites. A team of process experts from a variety of sites, a project leader, and benchmarking consultants completed the project with management support provided by the Waste Minimization Division EM-352. Using a 12-step benchmarking process, the team examined current waste minimization processes for liquid photographic waste used at their sites and used telephone and written questionnaires to find ``best-in-class`` industrv partners willing to share information about their best waste minimization techniques and technologies through a site visit. Eastman Kodak Co., and Johnson Space Center/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) agreed to be partners. The site visits yielded strategies for source reduction, recycle/recovery of components, regeneration/reuse of solutions, and treatment of residuals, as well as best management practices. An additional benefit of the work was the opportunity for DOE process experts to network and exchange ideas with their peers at similar sites.

Levin, V.

1994-04-01

92

Pollution prevention and waste minimization tools workshops: Proceedings. Part 2  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the second workshop was to bring together representatives of DOE and DOE contractor organizations to discuss four topics: process waste assessments (PWAs), a continuation of one of the sessions held at the first workshop in Clearwater; waste minimization reporting requirements; procurement systems for waste minimization; and heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) and replacements for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The topics were discussed in four concurrent group sessions. Participants in each group were encouraged to work toward achieving two main objectives: establish a ``clear vision`` of the overall target for their session`s program, focusing not just on where the program is now but on where it should go in the long term; and determine steps to be followed to carry out the target program.

Not Available

1993-12-31

93

MINIMIZATION OF COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS: CHARACTERISTICS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

It has been well recognized that, although there are many potential solid waste treatment technologies, none are as universally applicable as incineration for the treatment of the many types of waste which are governed by the many different Federal laws and State regulations. owe...

94

A survey of waste minimization recommendations for three industrial sectors  

SciTech Connect

What changes can manufacturers make to reduce waste streams and save money? A recent modification to a successful Department of Energy energy audit program has included a focus on waste minimization for small and medium-sized manufacturers. The program change was incorporated over two years ago and approximately 2,000 assessments have been completed nationwide since the change. This article will examine the results of the combined energy/waste assessments. Most of the material contained is derived from a paper published at the ASEE 1997 Annual Meeting. The paper focuses on the typical waste recommendations made for three sectors of Standard Industrial Classifications (SIC) 20-39. Recommendations vary from typical conservation measures such as recycling pallets and cardboard to direct process modifications that reduce water or chemical usage. While some recommendations are general and can be applied to any industry, others are industry-specific.

Dunning, S.; Martin, P.

1998-12-31

95

Annual Waste Minimization Summary Report Calendar Year 2007  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the waste minimization efforts undertaken by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), during calendar year (CY) 2007. This report was developed in accordance with the requirements of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Permit (number NEV HW0021), and as clarified in a letter dated April 21, 1995, from Paul Liebendorfer of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to Donald Elle of the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office. The NNSA/NSO Pollution Prevention (P2) Program establishes a process to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by the NNSA/NSO and ensures that proposed methods of treatment, storage, and/or disposal of waste minimize potential threats to human health and the environment. The following information provides an overview of the P2 Program, major P2 accomplishments during the reporting year, a comparison of the current year waste generation to prior years, and a description of efforts undertaken during the year to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by the NNSA/NSO.

NSTec Environmental Management

2008-02-01

96

Waste minimization/pollution prevention study of high-priority waste streams  

SciTech Connect

Although waste minimization has been practiced by the Metals and Ceramics (M&C) Division in the past, the effort has not been uniform or formalized. To establish the groundwork for continuous improvement, the Division Director initiated a more formalized waste minimization and pollution prevention program. Formalization of the division`s pollution prevention efforts in fiscal year (FY) 1993 was initiated by a more concerted effort to determine the status of waste generation from division activities. The goal for this effort was to reduce or minimize the wastes identified as having the greatest impact on human health, the environment, and costs. Two broad categories of division wastes were identified as solid/liquid wastes and those relating to energy use (primarily electricity and steam). This report presents information on the nonradioactive solid and liquid wastes generated by division activities. More specifically, the information presented was generated by teams of M&C staff members empowered by the Division Director to study specific waste streams.

Ogle, R.B. [comp.

1994-03-01

97

Application of value stream mapping (VSM) for minimization of wastes in the processing side of supply chain of cottonseed oil industry in Indian context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to identify and address various wastes in the supply chain of the edible cottonseed oil industry (specifically the processing side) using a value stream mapping (VSM) approach to improve productivity and capacity utilization in an Indian context. Design\\/methodology\\/approach Critical observations and interviewing techniques were used with open-ended questions to understand the

Dinesh Seth; Nitin Seth; Deepak Goel

2008-01-01

98

Bourgain algebras, minimal envelopes, minimal support sets, and some applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explicitly compute certain Douglas algebras that are invariant under both the Bourgain map and the minimal envelope map. We also compute the Bourgain algebra and the minimal envelope of the maximal subalgebras of a certain singly generated Douglas algebra.

CARROLL J. GUILLORY

1995-01-01

99

Using benchmarking to minimize common DOE waste streams: Volume 5. Office paper waste  

SciTech Connect

Finding innovative ways to reduce waste streams generated at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites by 50% by the year 2000 is a challenge for DOE`s waste minimization efforts. A team composed of members from several DOE facilities used the quality tool known as benchmarking to improve waste minimization efforts. First the team examined office waste generation and handling processes at their sites. Then team members developed telephone and written questionnaires to help identify potential ``best-in-class`` industry partners willing to share information about their best waste minimization techniques and technologies. The team identified two benchmarking partners, NIKE, Inc., in Beaverton, Oregon, and Microsoft, Inc., in Redmond, Washington. Both companies have proactive, employee-driven environmental issues programs. Both companies report strong employee involvement, management commitment, and readily available markets for recyclable materials such as white paper and nonwhite assorted paper. The availability of markets, the initiative and cooperation of employees, and management support are the main enablers for their programs. At both companies, recycling and waste reduction programs often cut across traditional corporate divisions such as procurement, janitorial services, environmental compliance, grounds maintenance, cafeteria operations, surplus sales, and shipping and receiving. These companies exhibited good cooperation between these functions to design and implement recycling and waste reduction programs.

Levin, V.

1995-10-01

100

Metal decontamination for waste minimization using liquid metal refining technology  

SciTech Connect

The current Department of Energy Mixed Waste Treatment Project flowsheet indicates that no conventional technology, other than surface decontamination, exists for metal processing. Current Department of Energy guidelines require retrievable storage of all metallic wastes containing transuranic elements above a certain concentration. This project is in support of the National Mixed Low Level Waste Treatment Program. Because of the high cost of disposal, it is important to develop an effective decontamination and volume reduction method for low-level contaminated metals. It is important to be able to decontaminate complex shapes where surfaces are hidden or inaccessible to surface decontamination processes and destruction of organic contamination. These goals can be achieved by adapting commercial metal refining processes to handle radioactive and organic contaminated metal. The radioactive components are concentrated in the slag, which is subsequently vitrified; hazardous organics are destroyed by the intense heat of the bath. The metal, after having been melted and purified, could be recycled for use within the DOE complex. In this project, we evaluated current state-of-the-art technologies for metal refining, with special reference to the removal of radioactive contaminants and the destruction of hazardous organics. This evaluation was based on literature reports, industrial experience, plant visits, thermodynamic calculations, and engineering aspects of the various processes. The key issues addressed included radioactive partitioning between the metal and slag phases, minimization of secondary wastes, operability of the process subject to widely varying feed chemistry, and the ability to seal the candidate process to prevent the release of hazardous species.

Joyce, E.L. Jr.; Lally, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1993-09-01

101

Pollution prevention and waste minimization in metal finishing  

SciTech Connect

This study was done to identify pollution prevention and waste minimization opportunities in the general plating department and the printed circuit board processing department. Recommendations for certain recycle and recovery technologies were mad in order to reduce usage of acids and the volume of heavy metal sludge that is formed at the industrial Wastewater Pretreatment Facility (IWPF). Some of these technologies discussed were acid purification, electrowinning, and ion exchange. Specific technologies are prescribed for specific processes. Those plating processes where the metals can be recovered are copper, nickel, gold, cadmium, tin, lead, and rhodium.

Stimetz, C.J.

1994-12-01

102

1993 Annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress as required by DOE Order 5400.1, Hanford Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

More important than waste generation numbers, the pollution prevention and waste minimization successes achieved at Hanford in 1993 have reduced waste and improved operations at the Site. Just a few of these projects are: A small research nuclear reactor, unused and destined for disposal as low level radioactive waste, was provided to a Texas University for their nuclear research program,

J. R. Kirkendall; J. A. Engel

1994-01-01

103

Hanford Site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan  

SciTech Connect

This plan, which is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400. 1, provides waste minimization and pollution prevention guidance for all Hanford Site contractors. The plan is primary in a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan, Prime contractor implementation plans, and the Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation (DOE-RL, 1997a) describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and 3005(h) (RCRA and EPA, 1994). Items discussed include the pollution prevention policy and regulatory background, organizational structure, the major objectives and goals of Hanford Site`s pollution prevention program, and an itemized description of the Hanford Site pollution prevention program. The document also includes US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office`s (RL`s) statement of policy on pollution prevention as well as a listing of regulatory drivers that require a pollution prevention program.

Place, B.G.

1998-09-24

104

Industrial flue gas desulfurization waste may offer an opportunity to facilitate SANIョ application for significant sludge minimization in freshwater wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

This paper reports an exploratory study on the use of a sulfite-rich industrial effluent to enable the integration of a sulfite-sulfide-sulfate cycle to the conventional carbon and nitrogen cycles in wastewater treatment to achieve sludge minimization through the non-sludge-producing Sulfate reduction, Autotrophic denitri?cation and Nitri?cation Integrated (SANI) process. A laboratory-scale sulfite reduction reactor was set up for treating sulfite-rich synthetic wastewater simulating the wastewater from industrial flue gas desulfurization (FGD) units. The results indicated that the sulfite reduction reactor can be started up within 11 d, which was much faster than that using sulfate. Thiosulfate was found to be the major sulfite reduction intermediate, accounting for about 30% of the total reduced sulfur in the reactor effluent, which may enable additional footprint reduction of the autotrophic denitrification reactor in the SANI process. This study indicated that it was possible to make use of the FGD effluent for applying the FGD-SANI process in treating freshwater-based sewage. PMID:23787323

Qian, J; Jiang, F; Chui, H K; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Chen, G H

2013-01-01

105

Waste minimization in analytical chemistry through innovative sample preparation techniques.  

SciTech Connect

Because toxic solvents and other hazardous materials are commonly used in analytical methods, characterization procedures result in significant and costly amount of waste. We are developing alternative analytical methods in the radiological and organic areas to reduce the volume or form of the hazardous waste produced during sample analysis. For the radiological area, we have examined high-pressure, closed-vessel microwave digestion as a way to minimize waste from sample preparation operations. Heated solutions of strong mineral acids can be avoided for sample digestion by using the microwave approach. Because reactivity increases with pressure, we examined the use of less hazardous solvents to leach selected contaminants from soil for subsequent analysis. We demonstrated the feasibility of this approach by extracting plutonium from a NET reference material using citric and tartaric acids with microwave digestion. Analytical results were comparable to traditional digestion methods, while hazardous waste was reduced by a factor often. We also evaluated the suitability of other natural acids, determined the extraction performance on a wider variety of soil types, and examined the extraction efficiency of other contaminants. For the organic area, we examined ways to minimize the wastes associated with the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in environmental samples. Conventional methods for analyzing semivolatile organic compounds are labor intensive and require copious amounts of hazardous solvents. For soil and sediment samples, we have a method to analyze PCBs that is based on microscale extraction using benign solvents (e.g., water or hexane). The extraction is performed at elevated temperatures in stainless steel cells containing the sample and solvent. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to quantitate the analytes in the isolated extract. More recently, we developed a method utilizing solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for natural water samples. In this SPME technique, a fused-silica fiber coated with a polymeric film is exposed to the sample, extraction is allowed to take place, and then the analytes are thermally desorbed for GC analysis. Unlike liquid-liquid extraction or solid-phase extraction, SPME consumes all of the extracted sample in the analysis, significantly reducing the required sample volume.

Smith, L. L.

1998-05-28

106

In situ vitrification: Application analysis for stabilization transuranic waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The in situ vitrification process builds upon the electric melter technology previously developed for high-level waste immobilization. In situ vitrification converts buried wastes and contaminated soil to an extremely durable glass and crystalline waste form by melting the materials, in place, using joule heating. Once the waste materials have been solidified, the high integrity waste form should not cause future ground subsidence. Environmental transport of the waste due to water or wind erosion, and plant or animal intrusion, is minimized. Environmental studies are currently being conducted to determine whether additional stabilization is required for certain in-ground transuranic waste sites. An applications analysis was performed to identify several in situ vitrification process limitations which may exist at transuranic waste sites. Based on the process limit analysis, in situ vitrification is well suited for solidification of most in-ground transuranic wastes.

Oma, K. H.; Farnsworth, R. K.; Rusin, J. M.

1982-09-01

107

RCRA Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility, Permit Number NEV HW0101, Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the EPA identification number of each generator from which the Permittee received a waste stream, a description and quantity of each waste stream in tons and cubic feet received at the facility, the method of treatment, storage, and/or disposal for each waste stream, a description of the waste minimization efforts undertaken, a description of the changes in volume and toxicity of waste actually received, any unusual occurrences, and the results of tank integrity assessments. This Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report is prepared in accordance with Section 2.13.3 of Permit Number NEV HW0101.

Arnold, Patrick [NSTec] [NSTec

2014-02-14

108

40 CFR 63.1213 - How can the compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls...compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls...reasonably document that the installation of pollution prevention or waste...

2012-07-01

109

40 CFR 63.1213 - How can the compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls...compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls...reasonably document that the installation of pollution prevention or waste...

2013-07-01

110

40 CFR 63.1213 - How can the compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls...compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls...reasonably document that the installation of pollution prevention or waste...

2014-07-01

111

40 CFR 63.1213 - How can the compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls...compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls...reasonably document that the installation of pollution prevention or waste...

2011-07-01

112

INTELLIGENT DECISION SUPPORT FOR WASTE MINIMIZATION IN ELECTROPLATING PLANTS. (R824732)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Wastewater, spent solvent, spent process solutions, and sludge are the major waste streams generated in large volumes daily in electroplating plants. These waste streams can be significantly minimized through process modification and operational improvement. I...

113

Industrial waste minimization initiatives in Thailand: concepts, examples and pilot scale trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial waste pollution control is a major issue in waste management. To comply with the specific effluent standards, industries are forced to treat their waste before discharge. This is neither a cost effective nor an environmentally friendly solution. The first part of this paper presents different techniques by which the waste minimization can be achieved with examples. The second part

S. Vigneswaran; V. Jegatheesan; C. Visvanathan

1999-01-01

114

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF CORN SYRUP AND CORN STARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

115

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF CORN SYRUP AND CORN STARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their geneation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

116

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF COMPONENTS FOR AUTOMOBILE AIR CONDITIONERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected ...

117

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONING CONDENSERS AND EVAPORATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilotproject to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected u...

118

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF HEATING, VENTILATING, AND AIR CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

119

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PARTS FOR TRUCK ENGINES  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

120

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF ELECTRICAL ROTATING DEVICES  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

121

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF AERIAL LIFTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

122

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR MANUFACTURER OF GRAVUER-COATED METALIZED PAPER AND METALIZED FILM  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cen...

123

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF REBUILT RAILWAY CARS AND COMPONENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

124

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PLIERS AND WRENCHES  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

125

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A BUMPER REFINISHING PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

126

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF SURGICAL IMPLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

127

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PRE-WASHED JEANS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

128

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A PAINT MANUFACTURING PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

129

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR ROTOGRAVURE PRINTING CYLINDER MANUFACTURING (EPA/600/S-95/007)  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project ot assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cen...

130

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR ROTOGRAVURE PRINTING CYLINDER MANUFACTURING  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expense to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Center...

131

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PAINTS AND LACQUERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

132

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF FELT TIP MARKERS, STAMP PADS, AND RUBBER CEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

133

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PARTS FOR TRUCK ENGINES  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

134

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF FINISHED METAL AND PLASTIC PARTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Ce...

135

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PRINTED PLASTIC BAGS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established ...

136

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF MICROELECTRONIC COMPONENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

137

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF MOTOR VEHICLE EXTERIOR MIRRORS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected ...

138

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF ALUMINUM CANS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

139

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF MOUNTINGS FOR ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT COMPONENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

140

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF SILICON-CONTROLLED RECTIFIERS AND SCHOTTKY RECTIFIERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Ce...

141

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTUERE OF OUTDOOR ILLUMINATED SIGNS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

142

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF BRAZED ALUMINUM OIL COOLERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

143

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PERMANENT-MAGNET DC ELECTRIC MOTORS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected ...

144

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF CUSTOM MOLDED PLASTIC PRODUCTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected ...

145

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF LABELS AND FLEXIBLE PACKAGING  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

146

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF FINISHED METAL AND PLASTIC PARTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

147

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF CUTTING AND WELDING EQUIPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot program to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so in an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

148

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF ALUMINUM AND STEEL PARTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

149

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF ALUMINUM AND STEEL PARTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-sized manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Ce...

150

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF IRON CASTINGS AND FABRICATED SHEET METAL PARTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected u...

151

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A STEEL FABRICATOR (EPA/600/S-95/006)  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected u...

152

Assessment of pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the findings of the first phase of a study undertaken to define a role for the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Division of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) in developing waste minimization technologies for the industrial sector. The report describes the results of an industrial waste characterization based mainly on the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) 1989 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) database. IN addition, it contains the results of interviews with personnel from trade associations, environmental advocacy groups, federal agencies, and industrial firms regarding pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization. Recommendations for future AIC waste minimization activities are provided.

Young, J.K.; Fassbender, L.L. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Sen, R.K. (Sen (R.K.) and Associates, Washington, DC (United States))

1992-02-01

153

Assessment of pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the findings of the first phase of a study undertaken to define a role for the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Division of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) in developing waste minimization technologies for the industrial sector. The report describes the results of an industrial waste characterization based mainly on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) 1989 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) database. IN addition, it contains the results of interviews with personnel from trade associations, environmental advocacy groups, federal agencies, and industrial firms regarding pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization. Recommendations for future AIC waste minimization activities are provided.

Young, J.K.; Fassbender, L.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Sen, R.K. [Sen (R.K.) and Associates, Washington, DC (United States)

1992-02-01

154

ALPHA WASTE MINIMIZATION IN TERMS OF VOLUME AND RADIOACTIVITY AT COGEMA'S MELOX AND LA HAGUE PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the management of alpha waste that cannot be stored in surface repositories under current French regulations. The aim of the paper is to provide an overview of COGEMA's Integrated Waste Management Strategy. The topics discussed include primary waste minimization, from facility design to operating feedback; primary waste management by the plant operator, including waste characterization; waste treatment options that led to building waste treatment industrial facilities for plutonium decontamination, compaction and cement solidification; and optimization of industrial tools, which is strongly influenced by safety and financial considerations.

ARSLAN, M.; DUMONT, J.C.; LONDRES, V.; PONCELET, F.J.

2003-02-27

155

Implementation of Waste Minimization at a complex R&D site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the 1994 Waste Minimization\\/Pollution Prevention Crosscut Plan, the Department of Energy (DOE) has set a goal of 50% reduction in waste at its facilities by the end of 1999. Each DOE site is required to set site-specific goals to reduce generation of all types of waste including hazardous, radioactive, and mixed. To meet these goals, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL),

R. E. Lang; J. R. Thuot; J. S. Devgun

1995-01-01

156

FEDERAL EPA PROGRAMS FOR WASTE MINIMIZATION RESEARCH - AN OVERVIEW OF THE WREAFS PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the Waste Reduction Evaluations at Federal Sites (WREAFS) Program and to discuss the results of completed waste minimization opportunity assessments within the Federal community. he overview contains documentation of waste mi...

157

Environmental Restoration Program waste minimization and pollution prevention self-assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Restoration (ER) Program within Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. is currently developing a more active waste minimization and pollution prevention program. To determine areas of programmatic improvements within the ER Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program, the ER Program required an evaluation of the program across the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Paducah Environmental Restoration and Waste Minimization Site, and the Portsmouth Environmental Restoration and Waste Minimization Site. This document presents the status of the overall program as of fourth quarter FY 1994, presents pollution prevention cost avoidance data associated with FY 1994 activities, and identifies areas for improvement. Results of this assessment indicate that the ER Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program is firmly established and is developing rapidly. Several procedural goals were met in FY 1994 and many of the sites implemented ER waste minimization options. Additional growth is needed, however, for the ER Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program.

Not Available

1994-10-01

158

[Integrating technologies for urban communities' municipal solid waste minimization].  

PubMed

Municipal solid waste management of urban communities has difficulties of insufficient source separation and food waste's high moisture content, an integrating technology of manual separation, simple compression of food waste, reclaim of food waste and composting leachate was studied. Manual separating rate was 36.8 kg/h, and would increase when the worker became sophisticated. Community separated food waste had high organic matter content of 44.493%, nutrients N, P, K contents of 2.586%, 0.649% and 1.274%, C/N ratio of 17.427, but 0.07-0.82 times lower heavy metals contents compared to centralized separation of mixed municipal solid waste. Moisture content of food waste was still 78.7%, high enough to have negative impacts of composting processes. Composting leachate processing with biological stabilization and dilution showed a fertilizer efficiency, and dry weight of impatiens irrigated with composting leachate was 1.46-2.49 times of tap water irrigation. Integrating technology based on community's manual separation could decrease 52.6% municipal solid waste. PMID:21250464

Zhou, Chuan-Bin; Liu, Jing-Ru; Wang, Ru-Song; Zhang, Yi-Shan

2010-11-01

159

An Integrated Policy Framework for minimizing industrial wastes at-source Enabling Cleaner Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste minimization is one of the most important interventions that can help sustain industrial production without compounding onslaughts due to pollution on environmental sinks. The importance of this intervention cannot be overemphaiszed. This has been proved by several instances across different sectors clearly highlighting economic benefits of resource conservation and avoidance of waste. Several rules and regulations have tended to

R. Gopichandran; Praveen Prakash; Jigar Deliwala; Shalin Shah; Shaliesh Patwari

160

Depleted uranium manufacturing waste minimization at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Y-12 Plant, managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems for the Department of Energy has a comprehensive waste minimization program associated with the depleted uranium manufacturing. The program addresses all phases of the depleted uranium manufacturing from the initial casting to the finished product. The program addresses both by-product and waste in the manufacturing operations. Investigations are ongoing for process

J. E. Thompson; J. W. Koger

1992-01-01

161

An Exploration of Healthcare Inventory and Lean Management in Minimizing Medical Supply Waste in Healthcare Organizations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to understand how lean thinking and inventory management technology minimize expired medical supply waste in healthcare organizations. This study was guided by Toyota's theory of lean and Mintzberg's theory of management development to explain why the problem of medical supply waste exists. Government

Hicks, Rodney

2013-01-01

162

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF METAL-CUTTING WHEELS AND COMPONENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) ere established at s...

163

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PENNY BLANKS AND ZINC PRODUCTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EnvIronmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected u...

164

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF BASEBALL BATS AND GOLF CLUBS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACS) were established at selected un...

165

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF ROTOGRAVURE PRINTING CYLINDERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACS) were established at selected un...

166

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF SHEET METAL CABINETS AND PRECISION METAL PARTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at ...

167

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF CAN-MANUFACTURING EQUIPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at ...

168

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PRODUCT CARRIERS AND PRINTED LABELS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACS) were established at selected un...

169

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF INJECTION-MOLDED CAR AND TRUCK MIRRORS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected un...

170

INVESTIGATION OF CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES TO MINIMIZE AUTOMOTIVE COOLANT WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The US Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the State of New Jersey evaluated chemical filtration and distillation technologies designed to recycle automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants. These evaluations addressed the product quality, waste reduction and econo...

171

Waste Minimization- The Challenge of the 90's  

E-print Network

1n F1gure 1. EMISSION REDUCTION WASTE REDUCTION [.~.:.. ] .. -?Ole IWO TMIIOIl [' -J - ......~....~.~ .. ? Figure 1 I ESL-IE-89-09-47 Proceedings from the Eleventh National Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, September...

Durham, R.

172

Sanitizing And Minimizing Databases For Software Application Test Outsourcing  

E-print Network

Sanitizing And Minimizing Databases For Software Application Test Outsourcing Boyang Li College approach for Protecting and mInimizing databases for Software TestIng taSks (PISTIS) that both sanitizes of the data in the cluster. Doing so also sanitizes information, since these centroid objects replace

Poshyvanyk, Denys

173

1993 Annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress as required by DOE Order 5400.1, Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

More important than waste generation numbers, the pollution prevention and waste minimization successes achieved at Hanford in 1993 have reduced waste and improved operations at the Site. Just a few of these projects are: A small research nuclear reactor, unused and destined for disposal as low level radioactive waste, was provided to a Texas University for their nuclear research program, avoiding 25 cubic meters of waste and saving $116,000. By changing the slope on a asphalt lot in front of a waste storage pad, run-off rainwater was prevented from becoming mixed low level waste water, preventing 40 cubic meters of waste and saving $750,000. Through more efficient electrostatic paint spraying equipment and a solvent recovery system, a paint shop reduced hazardous waste by 3,500 kilograms, saving $90,800. During the demolition of a large decommissioned building, more than 90% of the building`s material was recycled by crushing the concrete for use on-Site and selling the steel to an off-Site recycler, avoiding a total of 12,600 metric tons of waste and saving $450,000. Additionally, several site-wide programs have avoided large quantities of waste, including the following: Through expansion of the paper and office waste recycling program which includes paper, cardboard, newspaper, and phone books, 516 metric tons of sanitary waste was reduced, saving $68,000. With the continued success of the excess chemicals program, which finds on-Site and off-Site customers for excess chemical materials, hazardous waste was reduced by 765,000 liters of liquid chemicals and 50 metric tons of solid chemicals, saving over $700,000 in disposal costs.

Kirkendall, J.R.; Engel, J.A.

1994-10-24

174

INVESTIGATION OF CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES TO MINIMIZE AUTOMOTIVE COOLANT WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the State of New Jersey evaluated chemical filtration and distillation technologies designed to recycle automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants. hese evaluations addressed the product quality, waste reduction, and eco...

175

Locating waste pipelines to minimize their impact on marine environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A waste pipeline, considered as an undesirable facility, is to be located in a coastal region. Two criteria are taken into account, the Euclidean distance from a given set of protected areas (coral reefs and sandbanks) and a utility function related to the pipe length, both to be maximized. The paper describes a methodology to obtain an efficient set of

Teresa C當eres; Juan A. Mesa; Francisco A. Ortega

2007-01-01

176

Six Strategies for Chemical Waste Minimization in Laboratories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guidelines are offered to research administrators for reducing the volume of hazardous laboratory waste. Suggestions include a chemical location inventory, a chemical reuse facility, progressive contracts with chemical suppliers, internal or external chemical recycling mechanisms, a "chemical conservation" campaign, and laboratory fees for

Matteson, Gary C.; Hadley, Cheri R.

1991-01-01

177

Waste minimization plan construction and operation of the replacement cross-site transfer system, project W-058  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the research and development of a waste minimization plan for the construction and operation of Project W-058, Replacement of the Cross-Site Transfer System, on the Hanford Site. The plan is based on Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-307, Plans. The waste minimization plan identifies areas where pollution prevention/waste minimization principles can be incorporated into the construction and operation of the cross-site transfer system.

Boucher, T.D.

1996-04-01

178

Establishing and Implementing a Waste Minimization Program in the Chemical and Oil Industries  

E-print Network

with generating and managing wast reduce waste. second, corporate pol ic ies, procedures and wa te reduction goals; third, realizing that wa te It is the responsibility of all companies minimization will improve a compan es that manufacture a product... for the organization to "march" to. At DuPont, we The first step as the individual at the established a policy in 1980 which stated tha we Corporate level or at the manufacturing site faced intend "to minimize the generation of the with the challenge of establishing...

Hollod, G. J.; Marton, R. J.

179

RCRA Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility Permit Number NEV HW0101 Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report Calendar Year 2011  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identification number of each generator from which the Permittee received a waste stream; a description and quantity of each waste stream in tons and cubic feet received at the facility; the method of treatment, storage, and/or disposal for each waste stream; a description of the waste minimization efforts undertaken; a description of the changes in volume and toxicity of waste actually received; any unusual occurrences; and the results of tank integrity assessments. This Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report is prepared in accordance with Section 2.13.3 of Permit Number NEV HW0101.

NSTec Environmental Restoration

2012-02-16

180

RCRA Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility Permit Number NEV HW0101 Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report Calendar Year 2012, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identification number of each generator from which the Permittee received a waste stream, a description and quantity of each waste stream in tons and cubic feet received at the facility, the method of treatment, storage, and/or disposal for each waste stream, a description of the waste minimization efforts undertaken, a description of the changes in volume and toxicity of waste actually received, any unusual occurrences, and the results of tank integrity assessments. This Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report is prepared in accordance with Section 2.13.3 of Permit Number NEV HW0101, issued 10/17/10.

,

2013-02-21

181

An operational waste minimization chargeback system at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, (SNL/NM) has made a commitment to achieve significant reductions in the amount of hazardous wastes generated throughout its operations. The success of the SNL/NM Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention Program depends primarily on: (1) adequate program funding, and (2) comprehensive collection and dissemination of information pertaining to SNL/NM`s waste. This paper describes the chargeback system that SNL/NM has chosen for funding the implementation of the Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention program, as well as the waste reporting system that follows naturally from the chargeback system. Both the chargeback and reporting systems have been fully implemented. The details of implementation are discussed, including: the physical means by which waste is managed and data collected; the database systems which have been linked; the flow of data through both human hands and electronic systems; the quality assurance of that data; and the waste report format now in use. Also discussed are intended improvements in the system that are currently planned for the coming years.

Horak, K. [Creative Computer Services, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Peek, D.W. [Ogden Environmental and Energy Services, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stermer, D.; Dailleboust, L.; Reilly, H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-05-01

182

Trash-to-Gas: Using Waste Products to Minimize Logistical Mass During Long Duration Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Just as waste-to-energy processes utilizing municipal landftll and biomass wastes are finding increased terrestrial uses, the Trash-to-Gas (TtG) project seeks to convert waste generated during spaceflight into high value commodities. These include methane for propulsion and water for life support in addition to a variety of other gasses. TtG is part of the Logistic Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project under the NASA Advanced Exploration Systems Program. The LRR project will enable a largely mission-independent approach to minimize logistics contributions to total mission architecture mass. LRR includes technologies that reduce the amount of consumables that need to be sent to space, repurpose items sent to space, or convert wastes to commodities. Currently, waste generated on the International Space Station is stored inside a logistic module which is de-orbited into Earth's atmosphere for destruction. The waste consists of food packaging, food, clothing and other items. This paper will discuss current results on incineration as a waste processing method. Incineration is part of a two step process to produce methane from waste: first the waste is converted to carbon oxides; second, the carbon oxides are fed to a Sabatier reactor where they are converted to methane. The quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane and water were measured under the different thermal degradation conditions. The overall carbon conversion efficiency and water recovery are discussed.

Hintze, Paul. E.; Caraccio, Anne J.; Anthony, Stephen M.; Tsoras, Alexandra N.; Nur, Monoita; Devor, Robert; Captain, James G.

2013-01-01

183

Trash-to-Gas: Using Waste Products to Minimize Logistical Mass During Long Duration Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Just as waste-to-energy processes utilizing municipal landftll and biomass wastes are finding increased terrestrial uses, the Trash-to-Gas (TtG) project seeks to convert waste generated during spaceflight into high value commodities. These include methane for propulsion and water for life support in addition to a variety of other gasses. TtG is part of the Logistic Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project under the NASA Advanced Exploration Systems Program. The LRR project will enable a largely mission-independent approach to minimize logistics contributions to total mission architecture mass. LRR includes technologies that reduce the amount of consumables that need to be sent to space, repurpose items sent to space, or convert wastes to commodities. Currently, waste generated on the International Space Station is stored inside a logistic module which is de-orbited into Earth's atmosphere for destruction. The waste consists of food packaging, food, clothing and other items. This paper will discuss current results on incineration as a waste processing method. Incineration is part of a two step process to produce methane from waste: first the waste is converted to carbon oxides; second, the carbon oxides are fed to a Sabatier reactor where they are converted to methane. The quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane and water were measured under the different thermal degradation conditions. The overall carbon conversion efficiency and water recovery are discussed

Hintze, Paul E.; Caraccio, A. J.; Anthony, S. M.; Tsoras, A. N.; Devor, Robert; Captain, James G.; Nur, Mononita

2013-01-01

184

RCRA Waste Minimization and Recycling Initiatives at the Health Center (Rev. 12/09)  

E-print Network

RCRA Waste Minimization and Recycling Initiatives at the Health Center 1/11/08 (Rev. 12/09) PURPOSE and the environment by making source reduction a priority for every aspect of Agency decision- making and planning, with environmentally-sound recycling as a second and higher priority over treatment and disposal. Section 3002(b

Kim, Duck O.

185

Minimizing Characterization - Derived Waste at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina  

SciTech Connect

Environmental restoration activities at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS) utilize innovative site characterization approaches and technologies that minimize waste generation. Characterization is typically conducted in phases, first by collecting large quantities of inexpensive data, followed by targeted minimally invasive drilling to collect depth-discrete soil/groundwater data, and concluded with the installation of permanent multi-level groundwater monitoring wells. Waste-reducing characterization methods utilize non-traditional drilling practices (sonic drilling), minimally intrusive (geoprobe, cone penetrometer) and non-intrusive (3-D seismic, ground penetration radar, aerial monitoring) investigative tools. Various types of sensor probes (moisture sensors, gamma spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, laser induced and X-ray fluorescence) and hydrophobic membranes (FLUTe) are used in conjunction with depth-discrete sampling techniques to obtain high-resolution 3-D plume profiles. Groundwater monitoring (short/long-term) approaches utilize multi-level sampling technologies (Strata-Sampler, Cone-Sipper, Solinst Waterloo, Westbay) and low-cost diffusion samplers for seepline/surface water sampling. Upon collection of soil and groundwater data, information is portrayed in a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) format for interpretation and planning purposes. At the SRS, the use of non-traditional drilling methods and minimally/non intrusive investigation approaches along with in-situ sampling methods has minimized waste generation and improved the effectiveness and efficiency of characterization activities.

Van Pelt, R. S.; Amidon, M. B.; Reboul, S. H.

2002-02-25

186

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF GRAVURE-COATED METALIZED PAPER AND METALIZED FILM  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

187

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF FELT TIP MARKERS, STAMP PADS, AND RUBBER CEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

188

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PAPER ROLLS, INK ROLLS, INK RIBBONS, AND MAGNETIC AND THERMAL TRANSFER RIBBON  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected un...

189

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF NEW AND REWORKED ROTOGRAVURE PRINTING CYLINDERS (EPA/600/S-95/005)  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected u...

190

In situ vitrification: application analysis for stabilization of transuranic waste  

SciTech Connect

The in situ vitrification process builds upon the electric melter technology previously developed for high-level waste immobilization. In situ vitrification converts buried wastes and contaminated soil to an extremely durable glass and crystalline waste form by melting the materials, in place, using joule heating. Once the waste materials have been solidified, the high integrity waste form should not cause future ground subsidence. Environmental transport of the waste due to water or wind erosion, and plant or animal intrusion, is minimized. Environmental studies are currently being conducted to determine whether additional stabilization is required for certain in-ground transuranic waste sites. An applications analysis has been performed to identify several in situ vitrification process limitations which may exist at transuranic waste sites. Based on the process limit analysis, in situ vitrification is well suited for solidification of most in-ground transuranic wastes. The process is best suited for liquid disposal sites. A site-specific performance analysis, based on safety, health, environmental, and economic assessments, will be required to determine for which sites in situ vitrification is an acceptable disposal technique. Process economics of in situ vitrification compare favorably with other in-situ solidification processes and are an order of magnitude less than the costs for exhumation and disposal in a repository. Leachability of the vitrified product compares closely with that of Pyrex glass and is significantly better than granite, marble, or bottle glass. Total release to the environment from a vitrified waste site is estimated to be less than 10/sup -5/ parts per year. 32 figures, 30 tables.

Oma, K.H.; Farnsworth, R.K.; Rusin, J.M.

1982-09-01

191

Rapid plasma cleaning as a waste minimization tool  

SciTech Connect

Although plasma cleaning is a recognized substitute for solvent cleaning in removing organic contaminants, current cleaning rates are impractically low for many applications. A set of experiments is described which demonstrate that the rate of plasma removal of organic contaminants can be greatly increased by modification of the plasma chemistry. A comparison of plasma cleaning rates of argon, oxygen and oxygen/sulfur hexafluoride gases shows that the fluorine containing plasma is at least an order of magnitude faster at etching organics. Rates are reported for the removal of polymer films and of A-9 Aluminum cutting fluid. 7 refs.

Ward, P.P.; Buss, R.J.

1992-04-01

192

Chelation technology: a promising green approach for resource management and waste minimization.  

PubMed

Green chemical engineering recognises the concept of developing innovative environmentally benign technologies to protect human health and ecosystems. In order to explore this concept for minimizing industrial waste and for reducing the environmental impact of hazardous chemicals, new greener approaches need to be adopted for the extraction of heavy metals from industrial waste. In this review, a range of conventional processes and new green approaches employed for metal extraction are discussed in brief. Chelation technology, a modern research trend, has shown its potential to develop sustainable technology for metal extraction from various metal-contaminated sites. However, the interaction mechanism of ligands with metals and the ecotoxicological risk associated with the increased bioavailability of heavy metals due to the formation of metal-chelant complexes is still not sufficiently explicated in the literature. Therefore, a need was felt to provide a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of all aspects associated with chelation technology to promote this process as a green chemical engineering approach. This article elucidates the mechanism and thermodynamics associated with metal-ligand complexation in order to have a better understanding of the metal extraction process. The effects of various process parameters on the formation and stability of complexes have been elaborately discussed with respect to optimizing the chelation efficiency. The non-biodegradable attribute of ligands is another important aspect which is currently of concern. Therefore, biotechnological approaches and computational tools have been assessed in this review to illustrate the possibility of ligand degradation, which will help the readers to look for new environmentally safe mobilizing agents. In addition, emerging trends and opportunities in the field of chelation technology have been summarized and the diverse applicability of chelation technology in metal extraction from contaminated sites has also been reviewed. PMID:25476956

Chauhan, Garima; Pant, K K; Nigam, K D P

2015-01-23

193

WESF hot cells waste minimization criteria hot cells window seals evaluation  

SciTech Connect

WESF will decouple from B Plant in the near future. WESF is attempting to minimize the contaminated solid waste in their hot cells and utilize B Plant to receive the waste before decoupling. WESF wishes to determine the minimum amount of contaminated waste that must be removed in order to allow minimum maintenance of the hot cells when they are placed in ''laid-up'' configuration. The remaining waste should not cause unacceptable window seal deterioration for the remaining life of the hot cells. This report investigates and analyzes the seal conditions and hot cell history and concludes that WESF should remove existing point sources, replace cerium window seals in F-Cell and refurbish all leaded windows (except for A-Cell). Work should be accomplished as soon as possible and at least within the next three years.

Walterskirchen, K.M.

1997-03-31

194

Annual Waste Minimization Summary Report, Calendar Year 2010, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Identification No. NV3890090001  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the waste minimization efforts undertaken by National Security TechnoIogies, LLC, for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), during calendar year 2010. The NNSA/NSO Pollution Prevention Program establishes a process to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by NNSA/NSO activities and ensures that proposed methods of treatment, storage, and/or disposal of waste minimize potential threats to human health and the environment.

Haworth, D.M.

2011-01-30

195

Controlling Minimally-Actuated Vehicles for Applications in Ocean Observation  

E-print Network

-scale ocean processes requires a unique sensor platform. In this paper, we propose a strategy that utilizesControlling Minimally-Actuated Vehicles for Applications in Ocean Observation Ryan N. Smith: Establishing a persistent presence in the ocean with an AUV to observe temporal variability of large

Smith, Ryan N.

196

Waste minimization and pollution prevention techniques for equipment decontamination during refinery shutdowns  

SciTech Connect

Pyrophoric iron is a concern for most refineries. It is formed when sulfide laden hydrocarbon streams come in contact with any source of iron. During normal plant operations, pyrophoric iron does not cause a problem. However, when specific units are opened for inspection and maintenance, the potential for a pyrophoric iron fire is significant. Previous methods for decontamination have included the use of steam, caustic soda and in some cases sodium hypochlorite or hydrogen peroxide. Each of these methods has drawbacks. The use of steam is time consuming and generates a significant amount of wastewater contaminated with organics. Sodium hypochlorite has the potential to generate toxic gases in addition to chlorinated organics in the wastewater. Hydrogen peroxide, although an environmentally friendly chemical, can violently decompose if not applied properly resulting in a potential explosive situation. The full paper will describe the successful use of potassium permanganate for the elimination of pyrophoric iron and odors (e.g. sulfides, mercaptans) in a refinery environment. A case study on the application of potassium permanganate for a crude unit and coker will be presented. Advantages of this decontamination process in terms of waste minimization (less wastewater generated), safer and non toxic by-products (direct discharge to a POTW possible), shorter downtimes and cost savings will also be discussed.

Vella, P.A. [Carus Chemical Company, LaSalle, IL (United States)

1995-12-31

197

Unrestricted disposal of minimal activity levels of radioactive wastes: exposure and risk calculations  

SciTech Connect

The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is currently considering revision of rule 10 CFR Part 20, which covers disposal of solid wastes containing minimal radioactivity. In support of these revised rules, we have evaluated the consequences of disposing of four waste streams at four types of disposal areas located in three different geographic regions. Consequences are expressed in terms of human exposures and associated health effects. Each geographic region has its own climate and geology. Example waste streams, waste disposal methods, and geographic regions chosen for this study are clearly specified. Monetary consequences of minimal activity waste disposal are briefly discussed. The PRESTO methodology was used to evaluate radionuclide transport and health effects. This methodology was developed to assess radiological impacts to a static local population for a 1000-year period following disposal. Pathways and processes of transit from the trench to exposed populations included the following considerations: groundwater transport, overland flow, erosion, surface water dilution, resuspension, atmospheric transport, deposition, inhalation, and ingestion of contaminated beef, milk, crops, and water. 12 references, 2 figures, 8 tables.

Fields, D.E.; Emerson, C.J.

1984-08-01

198

Waste minimization assessment for a manufacturer of baseball bats and golf clubs. Environmental research brief  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Center (WMAC) at the University of Louisville performed an assessment at a plant manufacturing baseball bats and golf clubs -- approximately 1,500,000 bats/yr and 550,000 golf clubs/yr. To make the bats, wood billets are oven-dried and machined to a standard dimension. After sanding they are branded and finished. The golf clubs are made by finishing and assembling purchased heads and shafts. The team's report detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that the most waste, other than rinse water discharged to the publicly owned treatment works (POTW) and wood turnings which are sold, consists of scrap cardboard and paper from the shop and offices, and that the greatest savings, including new income, could be obtained by segregating the cardboard and paper wastes for sale to a local recycler.

Fleischman, M.; Kirsch, F.W.; Maginn, J.C.

1993-09-01

199

Application of visible spectroscopy in waste sorting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today, waste recycling, (bottles, papers...), is a mechanical operation: the waste are crushed, fused and agglomerated in order to obtain new manufactured products (e.g. new bottles, clothes ...). The plastics recycling is the main application in the color sorting process. The colorless plastics recovered are more valuable than the colored plastics. Other emergent applications are in the paper sorting, where the main goal is to sort dyed paper from white papers. Up to now, Pellenc Selective Technologies has manufactured color sorting machines based on RGB cameras. Three dimensions (red, green and blue) are no longer sufficient to detect low quantities of dye in the considered waste. In order to increase the efficiency of the color detection, a new sorting machine, based on visible spectroscopy, has been developed. This paper presents the principles of the two approaches and their difference in terms of sorting performance, making visible spectroscopy a clear winner.

Spiga, Philippe; Bourely, Antoine

2011-10-01

200

Standard data report. 1997 annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress  

SciTech Connect

The Laboratory`s central mission of Reducing the Global Nuclear Danger supports core competencies that enable the Laboratory to contribute to defense, civilian, and industrial needs. In turn, the intellectual challenges of civilian and industrial problems strengthen and help support the core competencies required for the national security mission. The ability to do great science underpins all of the applied work. There are five core competencies which support this mission: (1) Stockpile Stewardship ensures the US has safe, secure and reliable nuclear weapons; (2) Stockpile Management provides capabilities ranging from dismantling to remanufacturing of the enduring stockpile; (3) Nuclear Materials Management ensures the availability and safe disposition of plutonium, highly enriched uranium, and tritium; (4) Nonproliferation and Counterproliferation help to deter, detect, and respond to the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction; and (5) Environmental Stewardship provides for the remediation and reduction of wastes from the nuclear weapons complex. This report contains data on volumes of waste generated as part of routine and cleanup/stabilization activities of the lab.

Wilburn, D.

1998-04-07

201

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF IRON CASTINGS AND FABRICATED SHEET METAL PARTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expense to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACS) were established at selected univ...

202

Waste minimization and the goal of an environmentally benign plutonium processing facility: A strategic plan  

SciTech Connect

To maintain capabilities in nuclear weapons technologies, the Department of Energy (DOE) has to maintain a plutonium processing facility that meets all the current and emerging standards of environmental regulations. A strategic goal to transform the Plutonium Processing Facility at Los Alamos into an environmentally benign operation is identified. A variety of technologies and systems necessary to meet this goal are identified. Two initiatives now in early stages of implementation are described in some detail. A highly motivated and trained work force and a systems approach to waste minimization and pollution prevention are necessary to maintain technical capabilities, to comply with regulations, and to meet the strategic goal.

Pillay, K.K.S.

1994-02-01

203

Characterization, minimization and disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes during cleanup and rransition of the Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) at Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA)  

SciTech Connect

This document provides an outline of waste handling practices used during the Sandia National Laboratory/California (SNL/CA), Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) Cleanup and Transition project. Here we provide background information concerning the history of the TRL and the types of operations that generated the waste. Listed are applicable SNL/CA site-wide and TRL local waste handling related procedures. We describe personnel training practices and outline methods of handling and disposal of compactible and non-compactible low level waste, solidified waste water, hazardous wastes and mixed wastes. Waste minimization, reapplication and recycling practices are discussed. Finally, we provide a description of the process followed to remove the highly contaminated decontamination systems. This document is intended as both a historical record and as a reference to other facilities who may be involved in similar work.

Garcia, T.B.; Gorman, T.P.

1996-12-01

204

Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application  

SciTech Connect

This document, Set 2, the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Part B Permit Application, consists of 15 chapters that address the content of the Part B checklists prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR 270), with additional information requirements mandated by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 and revisions of WAC 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology checklist section numbers, in brackets, follow the chapter headings and subheadings. This permit application contains umbrella- type'' documentation with overall application to the Hanford Facility. This documentation is broad in nature and applies to all TSD units that have final status under the Hanford Facility Permit.

none,

1991-09-18

205

Minimizing Waste from the Oil Industry: Scale Treatment and Scrap Recycling  

SciTech Connect

Naturally occurring radioactive material is technologically concentrated in the piping in systems in the oil and gas industry, especially in the offshore facilities. The activity, mainly Ra-226, in the scales in the systems are often at levels classified as low level radioactive waste (LSA) in the industry. When the components and pipes are descaled for maintenance or recycling purposes, usually by high-pressure water jetting, the LSA scales arising constitute a significant quantity of radioactive waste for disposal. A new process is under development for the treatment of scales, where the radioactive solids are separated from the inactive. This would result in a much smaller fraction to be deposited as radioactive waste. The radioactive part recovered from the scales will be reduced to a stable non-metallic salt and because the volume is significantly smaller then the original material, will minimize the cost for disposal. The pipes, that have been cleaned by high pressure water jetting can either be reused or free released by scrapping and melting for recycling.

Lindberg, M.

2002-02-26

206

A case-study of landfill minimization and material recovery via waste co-gasification in a new waste management scheme.  

PubMed

This study evaluates municipal solid waste co-gasification technology and a new solid waste management scheme, which can minimize final landfill amounts and maximize material recycled from waste. This new scheme is considered for a region where bottom ash and incombustibles are landfilled or not allowed to be recycled due to their toxic heavy metal concentration. Waste is processed with incombustible residues and an incineration bottom ash discharged from existent conventional incinerators, using a gasification and melting technology (the Direct Melting System). The inert materials, contained in municipal solid waste, incombustibles and bottom ash, are recycled as slag and metal in this process as well as energy recovery. Based on this new waste management scheme with a co-gasification system, a case study of municipal solid waste co-gasification was evaluated and compared with other technical solutions, such as conventional incineration, incineration with an ash melting facility under certain boundary conditions. From a technical point of view, co-gasification produced high quality slag with few harmful heavy metals, which was recycled completely without requiring any further post-treatment such as aging. As a consequence, the co-gasification system had an economical advantage over other systems because of its material recovery and minimization of the final landfill amount. Sensitivity analyses of landfill cost, power price and inert materials in waste were also conducted. The higher the landfill costs, the greater the advantage of the co-gasification system has. The co-gasification was beneficial for landfill cost in the range of 80 Euro per ton or more. Higher power prices led to lower operation cost in each case. The inert contents in processed waste had a significant influence on the operating cost. These results indicate that co-gasification of bottom ash and incombustibles with municipal solid waste contributes to minimizing the final landfill amount and has great possibilities maximizing material recovery and energy recovery from waste. PMID:25182227

Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Ishida, Yoshihiro; Osada, Morihiro

2014-08-30

207

Processing of historic high radioactive waste coming from nuclear applications  

SciTech Connect

At ECN-NRG irradiations of materials have been performed with the aid of the High Flux Reactor at the site for investigations of their properties under different conditions as well for nuclear isotope productions since 1967 e.g. molybdenum. The high radioactive waste (HRW) coming from these nuclear applications are stored since the start in an interim storage facility located at the site. Due to the site license the HRW has to be transported to COVRA. Therefore a project has been set-up to transport all the HRW to COVRA. However, COVRA accepts a limited number of HLW containers among the CASTOR{sup R} MTR-2 container and thus all temporary stored drums have to be over packed. As the existing infra structure at the site is not suited a new facility has to be build. This also creates the opportunity to minimize, by separation of the HRW in low- and intermediate level waste, the amount of waste that has to be classified as HLW. The applied methodology, design and specifications of the HRW-ILW non-destructive assay characterization and separation system will be described. (authors)

Van Velzen, L.P.M.; Vos, R.M. de; Roobol, L.P. [Nuclear Research and consultancy Group - NRG, PO Box 25, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); IJpelaan, R.; Van Tongeren, R. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

2007-07-01

208

Application of L1 Minimization Technique to Image Super-Resolution and Surface Reconstruction  

E-print Network

to improve the performance of this algorithm in two fronts: first, local L1- minimization, which allows parallel implementation; second, application of the Augmented Lagrangian method to solve the minimization problem. We show that local solution...

Talavatifard, Habiballah

2013-05-06

209

Waste minimization through high-pressure microwave digestion of soils for gross {alpha}/{beta} analyses  

SciTech Connect

As a result of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) environmental restoration and waste management activities, laboratories receive numerous analytical requests for gross {alpha}/{beta} analyses. Traditional sample preparation methods for gross {alpha}/{beta} analysis of environmental and mixed waste samples require repetitive leaching, which is time consuming and generates large volumes of secondary wastes. An alternative to leaching is microwave digestion. In the past. microwave technology has had limited application in the radiochemical laboratory because of restrictions on sample size resulting from vessel pressure limitations. However, new microwave vessel designs allow for pressures on the order of 11 MPa (1500 psi). A procedure is described in which microwave digestion is used to prepare environmental soil samples for gross {alpha}/{beta} analysis. Results indicate that the described procedure meets performance requirements for several soil types and is equivalent to traditional digestion techniques. No statistical differences at the 95% confidence interval exist between the measurement on samples prepared from the hot plate and microwave digestion procedures for those soils tested. Moreover, microwave digestion allows samples to be prepared in a fraction of the time with significantly less acid and with lower potential of cross-contamination. In comparison to the traditional hot plate method, the waste volumes required for the microwave procedure are a factor of 10 lower, while the analyst time for sample processing is at least a factor of three lower.

Yaeger, J.S.; Smith, L.L.

1995-04-01

210

Annual Waste Minimization Summary Report, Calendar Year 2010, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Identification No. NV3890090001  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the waste minimization efforts undertaken by National Security TechnoIogies, LLC, for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear;\\u000aSecurity Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA\\/NSO), during calendar year 2010. The NNSA\\/NSO Pollution Prevention Program establishes a process to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by NNSA\\/NSO activities and ensures that proposed methods of treatment, storage,

2011-01-01

211

I-NERI-2007-004-K, DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NEW HIGH-LEVEL WASTE FORMS FOR ACHIEVING WASTE MINIMIZATION FROM PYROPROCESSING  

SciTech Connect

Work describe in this report represents the final year activities for the 3-year International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (I-NERI) project: Development and Characterization of New High-Level Waste Forms for Achieving Waste Minimization from Pyroprocessing. Used electrorefiner salt that contained actinide chlorides and was highly loaded with surrogate fission products was processed into three candidate waste forms. The first waste form, a high-loaded ceramic waste form is a variant to the CWF produced during the treatment of Experimental Breeder Reactor-II used fuel at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The two other waste forms were developed by researchers at the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). These materials are based on a silica-alumina-phosphate matrix and a zinc/titanium oxide matrix. The proposed waste forms, and the processes to fabricate them, were designed to immobilize spent electrorefiner chloride salts containing alkali, alkaline earth, lanthanide, and halide fission products that accumulate in the salt during the processing of used nuclear fuel. This aspect of the I-NERI project was to demonstrate 'hot cell' fabrication and characterization of the proposed waste forms. The outline of the report includes the processing of the spent electrorefiner salt and the fabrication of each of the three waste forms. Also described is the characterization of the waste forms, and chemical durability testing of the material. While waste form fabrication and sample preparation for characterization must be accomplished in a radiological hot cell facility due to hazardous radioactivity levels, smaller quantities of each waste form were removed from the hot cell to perform various analyses. Characterization included density measurement, elemental analysis, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and the Product Consistency Test, which is a leaching method to measure chemical durability. Favorable results from this demonstration project will provide additional options for fission product immobilization and waste management associated the electrochemical/pyrometallurgical processing of used nuclear fuel.

S.M. Frank

2011-09-01

212

Lessons Learned at Envirocare of Utah's Containerized Waste Facility (CWF): Dose Minimization Through ALARA Techniques and Tools  

SciTech Connect

Envirocare of Utah, Inc. (Envirocare) commenced operation of its Class A Containerized Waste Facility (CWF) on October 25, 2001. The opening of this facility began a new era for Envirocare, in that; their core business had always been low level, high volume, bulk radioactive waste. The CWF commenced operations to dispose of low level, low volume, high activity, containerized radioactive waste. Due to the potential for high dose rates on the waste disposal containers, the ALARA principle (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) plays an important role in the operation of the CWF and its mission to properly dispose of waste while minimizing doses to the workers, public, and the environment. This paper will enumerate some of the efforts made by the management and staff of the CWF that have contributed to significant dose reductions.

Heckman, J.; Gardner, J.; Ledoux, M. R.

2003-02-24

213

COMPARISON OF CHEMICAL SCREENING AND RANKING APPROACHES: THE WASTE MINIMIZATION PRIORITIZATION TOOL VERSUS TOXIC EQUIVALENCY POTENTIALS: JOURNAL ARTICLE  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-STD-0014 Pennington*, D.W., and Bare*, J.C. Comparison of Chemical Screening and Ranking Approaches: The Waste Minimization Prioritization Tool versus Toxic Equivalency Potentials. Risk Analysis (Anderson, E.L. (Ed.), Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers) 21 (5):897-912 (2001)...

214

DISCRISET: a battery of tests for fast waste classification--application of tests on waste extracts.  

PubMed

The Hazardous Waste Directive (HWD, Council Directive 91/689/EC, 1991) provides a framework for classification of hazardous waste, based on 15 Hazard (H)-criteria. For complex wastes the HWD foresees the application of toxicity tests on the waste material itself to assess its toxic properties. However, these proposed test methods often involve mammalian testing, which is not acceptable from an ethical point of view, nor is it feasible economically. The DISCRISET project was initiated to investigate the use of alternative chemical and biological fast screening tests for waste hazard classification. In the first part of the project, different methods were reviewed and a testing strategy was proposed to minimize time and cost of analysis by a tiered approach. This includes as a first tier chemical analysis followed by a general acute toxicity screen as a second tier and as a third tier mechanistic toxicity tests to assess chronic toxicity (genotoxicity, hormone disturbance, teratogenic effects, immunologic activity). In this phase of the project, selected methods were applied to 16 different waste samples from various sources and industries. The first tier chemical tests are recommended for the full characterization of the leachate fraction (inorganics) but not for the organic fraction of samples. Here the chemical characterization is only useful if toxic content is known or suspected. As second tier the fast bacterial test Microtox is validated as a general toxicity screen for the organic fraction (worst case organic extract). Samples that are not classified in tier 1 or 2 are then further investigated in the third tier by the mechanistic toxicity tests and tested for their potential chronic toxicity: immune activity (TNF-? upregulation) is indicative for corrosive, irritating or sensitising effects (H4/H8/H15), reproductive effects (H10) are indicated by hormone disturbance and early life stage abnormalities in fish larvae when exposed to the extracts and mutagenicity and carcinogenicity (H7, H11) are indicated by SOS response induction and increased mutation frequency in the Ames test when exposed to the extracts. Results indicate that the combination of chemical tests and bioassays allows important hazardous properties to be addressed and the tiered approach ensures that the tests are performed quickly and economically. The suggested strategy provides a solid and ethical alternative to the methods described in the HWD and is a vast improvement on the current, arbitrary classification. PMID:22770807

Deprez, K; Robbens, J; Nobels, I; Vanparys, C; Vanermen, G; Tirez, K; Michiels, L; Weltens, R

2012-12-01

215

USER'S GUIDE: Strategic Waste Minimization Initiative (SWAMI) Version 2.0 - A Software Tool to Aid in Process Analysis for Pollution Prevention  

EPA Science Inventory

The Strategic WAste Minimization Initiative (SWAMI) Software, Version 2.0 is a tool for using process analysis for identifying waste minimization opportunities within an industrial setting. The software requires user-supplied information for process definition, as well as materia...

216

REGULATORY STRATEGIES TO MINIMIZE GENERATION OF REGULATED WASTES FROM CLEANUP, CONTINUED USE OR DECOMMISSIONING OF NUCLEAR FACILITIES CONTAMINATED WITH POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) - 11198  

SciTech Connect

Disposal costs for liquid PCB radioactive waste are among the highest of any category of regulated waste. The high cost is driven by the fact that disposal options are extremely limited. Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) regulations require most liquids with PCBs at concentration of {ge} 50 parts-per-million to be disposed by incineration or equivalent destructive treatment. Disposal fees can be as high as $200 per gallon. This figure does not include packaging and the cost to transport the waste to the disposal facility, or the waste generator's labor costs for managing the waste prior to shipment. Minimizing the generation of liquid radioactive PCB waste is therefore a significant waste management challenge. PCB spill cleanups often generate large volumes of waste. That is because the removal of PCBs typically requires the liberal use of industrial solvents followed by a thorough rinsing process. In a nuclear facility, the cleanup process may be complicated by the presence of radiation and other occupational hazards. Building design and construction features, e.g., the presence of open grating or trenches, may also complicate cleanup. In addition to the technical challenges associated with spill cleanup, selection of the appropriate regulatory requirements and approach may be challenging. The TSCA regulations include three different sections relating to the cleanup of PCB contamination or spills. EPA has also promulgated a separate guidance policy for fresh PCB spills that is published as Subpart G of 40 CFR 761 although it is not an actual regulation. Applicability is based on the circumstances of each contamination event or situation. Other laws or regulations may also apply. Identification of the allowable regulatory options is important. Effective communication with stakeholders, particularly regulators, is just as important. Depending on the regulatory path that is taken, cleanup may necessitate the generation of large quantities of regulated waste. Allowable options must be evaluated carefully in order to reduce compliance risks, protect personnel, limit potential negative impacts on facility operations, and minimize the generation of wastes subject to TSCA. This paper will identify critical factors in selecting the appropriate TSCA regulatory path in order to minimize the generation of radioactive PCB waste and reduce negative impacts to facilities. The importance of communicating pertinent technical issues with facility staff, regulatory personnel, and subsequently, the public, will be discussed. Key points will be illustrated by examples from five former production reactors at the DOE Savannah River Site. In these reactors a polyurethane sealant was used to seal piping penetrations in the biological shield walls. During the intense neutron bombardment that occurred during reactor operation, the sealant broke down into a thick, viscous material that seeped out of the piping penetrations over adjacent equipment and walls. Some of the walls were painted with a PCB product. PCBs from the paint migrated into the degraded sealant, creating PCB 'spill areas' in some of these facilities. The regulatory cleanup approach selected for each facility was based on its operational status, e.g., active, inactive or undergoing decommissioning. The selected strategies served to greatly minimize the generation of radioactive liquid PCB waste. It is expected that this information would be useful to other DOE sites, DOD facilities, and commercial nuclear facilities constructed prior to the 1979 TSCA ban on most manufacturing and uses of PCBs.

Lowry, N.

2010-11-05

217

State Waste Discharge Permit application: 400 Area Septic System  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affects groundwater or has the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 400 Area Septic System. The influent to the system is domestic waste water. Although the 400 Area Septic System is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. Therefore, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used.

Not Available

1994-06-01

218

Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program - Introduction and Script.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the introductory module to the Land Application of Wastes educational program. The module contains information on the content, structure, and dynamics of the program. Also included with the module is a script to accompany a slide presentation. The Land Application of Wastes program consists of twenty-five modules and audio-visual

Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

219

PUREX Storage Tunnels dangerous waste permit application  

SciTech Connect

The PUREX Storage Tunnels are a mixed waste storage unit consisting of two underground railroad tunnels: Tunnel Number 1 designated 218-E-14 and Tunnel Number 2 designated 218-E-15. The two tunnels are connected by rail to the PUREX Plant and combine to provide storage space for 48 railroad cars (railcars). The PUREX Storage Tunnels provide a long-term storage location for equipment removed from the PUREX Plant. Transfers into the PUREX Storage Tunnels are made on an as-needed basis. Radioactively contaminated equipment is loaded on railcars and remotely transferred by rail into the PUREX Storage Tunnels. Railcars act as both a transport means and a storage platform for equipment placed into the tunnels. This report consists of part A and part B. Part A reports on amounts and locations of the mixed water. Part B permit application consists of the following: Facility Description and General Provisions; Waste Characteristics; Process Information; Groundwater Monitoring; Procedures to Prevent Hazards; Contingency Plan; Personnel Training; Exposure Information Report.

Not Available

1991-12-01

220

Process for treating fission waste. [Patent application  

DOEpatents

A method is described for the treatment of fission waste. A glass forming agent, a metal oxide, and a reducing agent are mixed with the fission waste and the mixture is heated. After melting, the mixture separates into a glass phase and a metal phase. The glass phase may be used to safely store the fission waste, while the metal phase contains noble metals recovered from the fission waste.

Rohrmann, C.A.; Wick, O.J.

1981-11-17

221

EVALUATION OF FIVE WASTE MINIMIZATION TECHNOLOGIES AT THE GENERAL DYNAMICS POMONA DIVISION PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

Five technology areas encompassing eight waste reduction technologies at the General Dynamics Pomona Division (Southern California) were technically and economically evaluated under the California/EPA Waste Reduction Innovative Technology Evaluation (WRITE) Program. valuations we...

222

Virtual environmental applications for buried waste characterization technology evaluation report  

SciTech Connect

The project, Virtual Environment Applications for Buried Waste Characterization, was initiated in the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program in fiscal year 1994. This project is a research and development effort that supports the remediation of buried waste by identifying and examining the issues, needs, and feasibility of creating virtual environments using available characterization and other data. This document describes the progress and results from this project during the past year.

NONE

1995-05-01

223

Research and Application of Minimal-Oil Ignition Technology on Pulverized Coal Fired Boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is of great significance to reduce the consumption of fuel oil for pulverized coal fired boilers in China even throughout the world. Minimal-oil ignition technology is an effective solution to save fuel oil. The principal, system components and industrial applications of the minimal-oil ignition technology are introduced in this paper. Numerical simulation data shows that the newly designed coal

Wei Zhang; Hong-Qiang Wei; Li-Hai Xu; Jing-Tao Li; Fu-Ming Li

2009-01-01

224

State Waste Discharge Permit application, 100-N Sewage Lagoon  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Since the influent to the sewer lagoon is domestic waste water, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used. Although the 100-N Sewage Lagoon is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. The 100-N Sewage Lagoon serves the 100-N Area and other Hanford Site areas by receiving domestic waste from two sources. A network of sanitary sewer piping and lift stations transfers domestic waste water from the 100-N Area buildings directly to the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Waste is also received by trucks that transport domestic waste pumped from on site septic tanks and holding tanks. Three ponds comprise the 100-N Sewage Lagoon treatment system. These include a lined aeration pond and stabilization pond, as well as an unlined infiltration pond. Both piped-in and trucked-in domestic waste is discharged directly into the aeration pond.

Not Available

1994-06-01

225

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS AND RISK MANAGEMENT: AN APPLICATION TO HAZARDOUS WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report evaluates the usefulness of economic analysis in designing effective and efficient hazardous waste regulations. In particular, it examines the applicability of cost/benefit analysis to the specific problems posed by hazardous waste mangement. The background for the ana...

226

40 CFR 403.19 - Provisions of specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. 403.19 Section...applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. (a) For the...discharging to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility in...

2012-07-01

227

40 CFR 403.19 - Provisions of specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. 403.19 Section...applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. (a) For the...discharging to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility in...

2014-07-01

228

40 CFR 403.19 - Provisions of specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. 403.19 Section...applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. (a) For the...discharging to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility in...

2013-07-01

229

Investigation of Fission Product Transport into Zeolite-A for Pyroprocessing Waste Minimization  

SciTech Connect

Methods to improve fission product salt sorption into zeolite-A have been investigated in an effort to reduce waste associated with the electrochemical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. It was demonstrated that individual fission product chloride salts were absorbed by zeolite-A in a solid-state process. As a result, recycling of LiCl-KCl appears feasible via adding a zone-freezing technique to the current treatment process. Ternary salt molten-state experiments showed the limiting kinetics of CsCl and SrCl2 sorption into the zeolite. CsCl sorption occurred rapidly relative to SrCl2 with no observed dependence on zeolite particle size, while SrCl2 sorption was highly dependent on particle size. The application of experimental data to a developed reaction-diffusion-based sorption model yielded diffusivities of 8.04 ラ 10-6 and 4.04 ラ 10-7 cm2 /s for CsCl and SrCl2, respectively. Additionally, the chemical reaction term in the developed model was found to be insignificant compared to the diffusion term.

James R. Allensworth; Michael F. Simpson; Man-Sung Yim; Supathorn Phongikaroon

2013-02-01

230

Waste minimization measures associated with the analysis of {sup 137}Cs in coconut milk collected from the Marshall Islands  

SciTech Connect

The Marshall Islands Environmental Characterization and Dose Assessment Program has recently implemented waste minimization measures to reduce low level radioactive (LLW) and low level mixed (LLWMIXED) waste streams at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Several thousand environmental samples are collected annually from former US nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands, and returned to LLNL for processing and radiometric analysis. In the past, we analyzed coconut milk directly by gamma-spectrometry after adding formaldehyde (as preservative) and sealing the fluid in metal cans. This procedure was not only tedious and time consuming but generated storage and waste disposal problems. We have now reduced the number of coconut milk samples required for analysis from 1500 per year to approximately 250, and developed a new analytical procedure which essentially eliminates the associated mixed radioactive waste stream. Coconut milk samples are mixed with a few grams of ammonium-molydophosphate (AMP) which quantitatively scavenges the target radionuclide cesium 137 in an ion-exchange process. The AMP is then separated from the mixture and sealed in a plastic container. The bulk sample material can be disposed of as a non- radioactive non-hazardous waste, and the relatively small amount of AMP conveniently counted by gamma-spectrometry, packaged and stored for future use.

Hamilton, T.; Jones, H.; Wong, K.; Robinson, W.

1998-05-01

231

On Minimization of Test Application Time for RAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional random access scan (RAS) for testing has lower test application time, low power dissipation, and low test data volume compared to standard serial scan chain based design. In this paper, we present two cluster based techniques, namely, serial input random access scan and variable word length random access scan to reduce test application time even further by exploiting the

Raghavendra Adiga; Gandhi Arpit; Virendra Singh; Kewal K. Saluja; Hideo Fujiwara; Adit D. Singh

2010-01-01

232

Decontamination of Nuclear Liquid Wastes Status of CEA and AREVA R and D: Application to Fukushima Waste Waters - 12312  

SciTech Connect

Liquid wastes decontamination processes are mainly based on two techniques: Bulk processes and the so called Cartridges processes. The first technique has been developed for the French nuclear fuel reprocessing industry since the 60's in Marcoule and La Hague. It is a proven and mature technology which has been successfully and quickly implemented by AREVA at Fukushima site for the processing of contaminated waters. The second technique, involving cartridges processes, offers new opportunities for the use of innovative adsorbents. The AREVA process developed for Fukushima and some results obtained on site will be presented as well as laboratory scale results obtained in CEA laboratories. Examples of new adsorbents development for liquid wastes decontamination are also given. A chemical process unit based on co-precipitation technique has been successfully and quickly implemented by AREVA at Fukushima site for the processing of contaminated waters. The asset of this technique is its ability to process large volumes in a continuous mode. Several chemical products can be used to address specific radioelements such as: Cs, Sr, Ru. Its drawback is the production of sludge (about 1% in volume of initial liquid volume). CEA developed strategies to model the co-precipitation phenomena in order to firstly minimize the quantity of added chemical reactants and secondly, minimize the size of co-precipitation units. We are on the way to design compact units that could be mobilized very quickly and efficiently in case of an accidental situation. Addressing the problem of sludge conditioning, cementation appears to be a very attractive solution. Fukushima accident has focused attention on optimizations that should be taken into account in future studies: - To better take account for non-typical aqueous matrixes like seawater; - To enlarge the spectrum of radioelements that can be efficiently processed and especially short lives radioelements that are usually less present in standard effluents resulting from nuclear activities; - To develop reversible solid adsorbents for cartridge-type applications in order to minimize wastes. (authors)

Fournel, B.; Barre, Y.; Lepeytre, C.; Peycelon, H. [CEA Marcoule, DTCD, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Grandjean, A. [Institut de Chimie Separative de Marcoule, UMR5257 CEA-CNRS-UM2-ENSCM, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Prevost, T.; Valery, J.F. [AREVA NC, Paris La Defense (France); Shilova, E.; Viel, P. [CEA Saclay, DSM/IRAMIS/SPCSI, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

2012-07-01

233

1997 annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress as required by DOE Order 5400.1, Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

Hanford`s missions are to safely clean up and manage the site`s legacy wastes, and to develop and deploy science and technology. Through these missions Hanford will contribute to economic diversification of the region. Hanford`s environmental management or cleanup mission is to protect the health and safety of the public, workers, and the environment; control hazardous materials; and utilize the assets (people, infra structure, site) for other missions. Hanford`s science and technology mission is to develop and deploy science and technology in the service of the nation including stewardship of the Hanford Site. Pollution Prevention is a key to the success of these missions by reducing the amount of waste to be managed and identifying/implementing cost effective waste reduction projects. Hanford`s original mission, the production of nuclear materials for the nation`s defense programs, lasted more than 40 years, and like most manufacturing operations, Hanford`s operations generated large quantities of waste and pollution. However, the by-products from Hanford operations pose unique problems like radiation hazards, vast volumes of contaminated water and soil, and many contaminated structures including reactors, chemical plants and evaporation ponds. The cleanup activity is an immense and challenging undertaking, which includes characterization and decommissioning of 149 single shell storage tanks, treating 28 double shell tanks, safely disposing of over 2,100 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel stored on site, removing numerous structures, and dealing with significant solid waste, ground water, and land restoration issues.

Segall, P.

1998-04-13

234

U.S. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) HAZARDOUS WASTE MINIMIZATION PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The passage of the 1984 Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act marked a strong change in the United States' policies concerning hazardous wastes. In order to carry out the intention of the Amendments to reduce the generation of hazardous waste in the U.S., the E...

235

Potential industrial applications for direct contact waste heat recuperator systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four potential applications were chosen for economic analysis. They are: stack gas from diesel electric generation, boiler stack gas, waste heat stream from the hydraulic cement dry process dryer, and stack gas from the fire polishing of glass. The waste heat streams studied ranged from 175 to 7500 F. A physical analogue of the direct contact waste heat recuperator system was devised and used for costing purposes. Payback calculations were performed for these applications. Only the stack gas from the fire polishing of glass failed to show significant economic promise. A waste heat stream regime of greater than 10,000 cfm and between 400 and 7500 F was identified as most economically promising for direct contact waste heat recuperation and hot process water delivery.

Semler, T. T.

1981-02-01

236

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PAPER ROLLS, INK ROLLS, INK RIBBONS, AND MAGNETIC AND THERMAL TRANSFER RIBBON  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected un...

237

1997 annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress as required by DOE Order 5400.1, Hanford Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hanford`s missions are to safely clean up and manage the site`s legacy wastes, and to develop and deploy science and technology. Through these missions Hanford will contribute to economic diversification of the region. Hanford`s environmental management or cleanup mission is to protect the health and safety of the public, workers, and the environment; control hazardous materials; and utilize the assets

Segall

1998-01-01

238

Minimal Technologies Application Project, Hohenfels Training Area, Germany: Final report  

SciTech Connect

At the US Army Hohenfels Training Area in Germany, more than 30 years of continuous and intensive tactical training has caused extensive environmental damage because of the loss of vegetative cover and accelerated soil erosion. A project was conducted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and relative benefits of various revegetation procedures. These procedures involved amendment and seedbed preparation options that were combined with three different durations of site closure. The point-intercept method was used to measure the types and amounts of vegetation established and changes in the vegetative community. Over three growing seasons, applications of fertilizer and seed increased the percent grass, legume, and total vegetative cover. The duration of site closure had no influence on the types or amounts of ground cover established. Materials made up only 10% of the total cost of the fertilization and seeding operations. The results of the research indicate that less expensive methods of amendment application should be evaluated. The data also show that site closure is not practical, economical, or necessary. The results of this project suggest that a regular maintenance program consisting of seeding and fertilization is required to maintain adequate vegetative cover and control erosion on tactical training areas.

Zellmer, S.D.; Hinchman, R.R.; Johnson, D.O. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.; Severinghaus, W.D. [Corps of Engineers, Champaign, IL (United States); Brent, J.J. [Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States)

1991-12-01

239

Application of glove box robotics to hazardous waste management  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) is developing a semi-automated system for handling, characterizing, processing, sorting, and repackaging hazardous wastes containing tritium. The system combines an IBM developed gantry robot with a special glove box enclosure designed to protect the operators and minimize the potential release of tritium to the atmosphere. All hazardous waste handling and processing will be performed remotely using the robot in a telerobotic mode for one-of-a-kind functions and in an autonomous mode for repetitive type operations. The system will initially be used in conjunction with a portable gas system designed to capture any gaseous phase tritium released into the glove box. This paper presents the objectives of this program, provides background related to LLNL`s robotics and waste handling program, describes the major system components, outlines system operation, and discusses current status and plans.

Dennison, D.K.; Hurd, R.L.; Merrill, R.D.; Reitz, T.C.

1995-02-01

240

State Waste Discharge Permit application: 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department and Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-E Powerhouse Ash Waste Water discharges to the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit via dedicated pipelines. The 200-E Ash Waste Water is the only discharge to the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-E Powerhouse is a steam generation facility consisting of a coal-handling and preparation section and boilers.

Atencio, B.P.

1994-06-01

241

State Waste Discharge Permit application: 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations; the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water discharges to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit via dedicated pipelines. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water is the only discharge to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse is a steam generation facility consisting of a coal-handling and preparation section and boilers.

Atencio, B.P.

1994-06-01

242

Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 1, Industrial solid waste processing municipal waste reduction/recycling  

SciTech Connect

This two-volume proceedings summarizes the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Lee, V.E. [ed.; Watts, R.L.

1993-04-01

243

Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 2, Industrial liquid waste processing, industrial gaseous waste processing  

SciTech Connect

This two-volume proceedings summarize the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Individual reports are indexed separately.

Lee, V.E. [ed.; Watts, R.L.

1993-04-01

244

40 CFR 266.205 - Standards applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Standards applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions. 266.205 Section...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS...

2013-07-01

245

40 CFR 266.205 - Standards applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Standards applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions. 266.205 Section...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS...

2014-07-01

246

40 CFR 266.205 - Standards applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Standards applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions. 266.205 Section...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS...

2011-07-01

247

40 CFR 266.203 - Standards applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions. 266.203 Section...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS...

2013-07-01

248

40 CFR 266.203 - Standards applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions. 266.203 Section...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS...

2014-07-01

249

40 CFR 266.205 - Standards applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Standards applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions. 266.205 Section...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS...

2012-07-01

250

40 CFR 266.203 - Standards applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions. 266.203 Section...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS...

2011-07-01

251

40 CFR 266.203 - Standards applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions. 266.203 Section...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS...

2012-07-01

252

40 CFR 266.203 - Standards applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions. 266.203 Section...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS...

2010-07-01

253

40 CFR 266.205 - Standards applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Standards applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions. 266.205 Section...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS...

2010-07-01

254

WASTE MINIMIZATION EFFORTS - AN OVERVIEW OF THE U.S. EPA POLLUTIONPREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper is to be presented at the Governmental Refuse,Collection, and Disposal Association's 28th Annual InternationalSolid Waste Exposition in Vancouver, B.C., Canada, August 20-24,1990. he paper's purpose is to describe the current pollutionprevention research program assign...

255

Agent Regeneration and Hazardous Waste Minimization and Teaching Note. IBM Case Study. Doc #93-1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The manufacturing process used to produce printbands for International Business Machines, Inc. involves a photolithographic process in which the stainless steel panels are chemically machined using strong ferric chloride etching solution containing hydrochloric acid. The waste material that results from this chemical reaction is a solution

Oliker, L. Richard; And Others

256

Minimization of actinide waste by multi-recycling of thoriated fuels in the EPR reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The multi-recycling of innovative uranium/thorium oxide fuels for use in the European Pressurized water Reactor (EPR) has been investigated. If increasing quantities of 238U, the fertile isotope in standard UO2 fuel, are replaced by 232Th, then a greater yield of new fissile material (233U) is produced during the cycle than would otherwise be the case. This leads to economies of natural uranium of around 45% if the uranium in the spent fuel is multi-recycled. In addition we show that minor actinide and plutonium waste inventories are reduced and hence waste radio-toxicities and decay heats are up to a factor of 20 lower after 103 years. Two innovative fuel types named S90 and S20, ThO2 mixed with 90% and 20% enriched UO2 respectively, are compared as an alternative to standard uranium oxide (UOX) and uranium/plutonium mixed oxide (MOX) fuels at the longest EPR fuel discharge burn-ups of 65 GWd/t. Fissile and waste inventories are examined, waste radio-toxicities and decay heats are extracted and safety feedback coefficients are calculated.

Rose, S. J.; Wilson, J. N.; Capellan, N.; David, S.; Guillemin, P.; Ivanov, E.; M駱lan, O.; Nuttin, A.; Siem, S.

2012-02-01

257

AN INNOVATIVE INTEGRATED APPROACH TO MINIMIZING GYPSUM AND PYRITE WASTES BY CONVERSION TO MARKETABLE PRODUCTS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research program is to develop a novel integrated process to eliminate millions of tons of gypsum and pyrite wastes generated annually by the U.S. energy industries and reduce the emission of millions of tons of greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. This was accomplished by converting gypsum and pyrite wastes to marketable products such as lime, direct reduced iron (DRI), and sulfur products and obviating the need to calcine millions of tons of limestone for use in utility scrubbers. Specific objectives included: (1) Develop a novel, integrated process for utilizing two major wastes generated by mining and energy industries to produce lime for recycling and other marketable products. (2) Study individual chemical reactions involved in pyrite decomposition, DRI production, and Muller-Kuhne process for lime regeneration to determine optimum process variables such as temperature, time, and reactant composition. (3) Investigate techniques for effective concentration of pyrite from tailing waste and methods for effective separation of DRI from calcium sulfide.

Daniel Tao

2000-06-27

258

Impact of Climate Change on Soil and Groundwater Chemistry Subject to Process Waste Land Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonhazardous aqueous process waste streams from food and beverage industry operations are often discharged via managed land application in a manner designed to minimize impacts to underlying groundwater. Process waste streams are typically characterized by elevated concentrations of solutes such as ammonium, organic nitrogen, potassium, sodium, and organic acids. Land application involves the mixing of process waste streams with irrigation water which is subsequently applied to crops. The combination of evapotranspiration and crop salt uptake reduces the downward mass fluxes of percolation water and salts. By carefully managing application schedules in the context of annual climatological cycles, growing seasons, and process requirements, potential adverse environmental impacts to groundwater can be mitigated. However, climate change poses challenges to future process waste land application efforts because the key factors that determine loading rates - temperature, evapotranspiration, seasonal changes in the quality and quantity of applied water, and various crop factors - are all likely to deviate from current averages. To assess the potential impact of future climate change on the practice of land application, coupled process modeling entailing transient unsaturated fluid flow, evapotranspiration, crop salt uptake, and multispecies reactive chemical transport was used to predict changes in salt loading if current practices are maintained in a warmer, drier setting. As a first step, a coupled process model (Hydrus-1D, combined with PHREEQC) was calibrated to existing data sets which summarize land application loading rates, soil water chemistry, and crop salt uptake for land disposal of process wastes from a food industry facility in the northern San Joaquin Valley of California. Model results quantify, for example, the impacts of evapotranspiration on both fluid flow and soil water chemistry at shallow depths, with secondary effects including carbonate mineral precipitation and ion exchange. The calibrated model was then re-run assuming different evapotranspiration and crop growth regimes, and different seasonally-adjusted applied water compositions, to elucidate possible impacts to salt loading reactive chemistry. The results of the predictive modeling indicate the extent to which salts could be redistributed within the soil column as a consequence of climate change. The degree to which these findings are applicable to process waste land application operations at other sites was explored by varying the soil unsaturated flow parameters as a model sensitivity assessment. Taken together, the model results help to quantify operational changes to land application that may be necessary to avoid future adverse environmental impacts to soil and groundwater.

McNab, W. W.

2013-12-01

259

Pilot studies to achieve waste minimization and enhance radioactive liquid waste treatment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Radioactive and Industrial Wastewater Science Group manages and operates the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The RLWTF treats low-level radioactive liquid waste generated by research and analytical facilities at approximately 35 technical areas throughout the 43-square-mile site. The RLWTF treats an average of 5.8 million gallons (21.8-million liters) of liquid waste annually. Clarifloculation and filtration is the primary treatment technology used by the RLWTF. This technology has been used since the RLWTF became operable in 1963. Last year the RLWTF achieved an average of 99.7% removal of gross alpha activity in the waste stream. The treatment process requires the addition of chemicals for the flocculation and subsequent precipitation of radionuclides. The resultant sludge generated during this process is solidified in drums and stored or disposed of at LANL.

Freer, J.; Freer, E.; Bond, A. [and others

1996-07-01

260

Implementing waste minimization at an active plutonium processing facility: Successes and progress at technical area (TA) -55 of the Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory has ongoing national security missions that necessitate increased plutonium processing. The bulk of this activity occurs at Technical Area -55 (TA-55), the nations only operable plutonium facility. TA-55 has developed and demonstrated a number of technologies that significantly minimize waste generation in plutonium processing (supercritical CO{sub 2}, Mg(OH){sub 2} precipitation, supercritical H{sub 2}O oxidation, WAND), disposition of excess fissile materials (hydride-dehydride, electrolytic decontamination), disposition of historical waste inventories (salt distillation), and Decontamination & Decommissioning (D&D) of closed nuclear facilities (electrolytic decontamination). Furthermore, TA-55 is in the process of developing additional waste minimization technologies (molten salt oxidation, nitric acid recycle, americium extraction) that will significantly reduce ongoing waste generation rates and allow volume reduction of existing waste streams. Cost savings from reduction in waste volumes to be managed and disposed far exceed development and deployment costs in every case. Waste minimization is also important because it reduces occupational exposure to ionizing radiation, risks of transportation accidents, and transfer of burdens from current nuclear operations to future generations.

Balkey, J.J.; Robinson, M.A.; Boak, J.

1997-12-01

261

Microwave technology for waste management applications: Treatment of discarded electronic circuitry  

SciTech Connect

Significant quantities of hazardous wastes are generated from a multitude of processes and products in today`s society. This waste inventory is not only very large and diverse, but is also growing at an alarming rate. In order to minimize the dangers presented by constituents in these wastes, microwave technologies are being investigated to render harmless the hazardous components and ultimately, to minimize their impact to individuals and the surrounding environment.

Wicks, G.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken, SC (United States); Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

1997-01-01

262

APPLICATION OF NONSPHERICAL FISSILE CONFIGURATION IN WASTE CONTAINERS AT SRS  

SciTech Connect

Transuranic (TRU) solid waste that has been generated as a result of the production of nuclear material for the United States defense program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has been stored in more than 30,000 55-gallon drums and carbon steel boxes since 1953. Nearly two thirds of those containers have been processed and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Among the containers assayed so far, the results indicate several drums with fissile inventories significantly higher (600-1000 fissile grams equivalent (FGE) {sup 239}Pu) than their original assigned values. While part of this discrepancy can be attributed to the past limited assay capabilities, human errors are believed to be the primary contributor. This paper summarizes the application of nonspherical fissile material configuration in waste containers, resulting in less restrictive mass and spacing limits, increased storage capacity, and several administrative controls for handling and storage of waste containers being modified without compromising safety.

Eghbali, D; Michelle Abney, M

2007-01-03

263

Incremental Majorization-Minimization Optimization with Application to Large-Scale Machine Learning  

E-print Network

Incremental Majorization-Minimization Optimization with Application to Large-Scale Machine Learning sum of continuous functions, a problem of utmost importance in machine learning. We present large- scale machine learning problems such as logistic regression, and we demonstrate its usefulness

Paris-Sud XI, Universitテゥ de

264

Mobile MapReduce: Minimizing Response Time of Computing Intensive Mobile Applications  

E-print Network

to exter- nal resources (e.g., public clouds) by considering insufficient computing resources on mobile that outsourcing to nearby residential computers may be more advantageous than pub- lic clouds for mobileMobile MapReduce: Minimizing Response Time of Computing Intensive Mobile Applications Mohammed

Chen, Songqing

265

Camouflage Traffic: Minimizing Message Delay for Smart Grid Applications under Jamming  

E-print Network

1 Camouflage Traffic: Minimizing Message Delay for Smart Grid Applications under Jamming Zhuo Lu, Student Member, IEEE, Wenye Wang, Senior Member, IEEE, and Cliff Wang, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--Smart in the smart grid. However, the jamming attack that constantly broadcasts radio interference is a primary

Wang, Wenye

266

FIELD APPLICATIONS OF ROBOTIC SYSTEMS IN HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE OPERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The cleanup of hazardous waste sites is a challenging and complex field that offers numerous opportunities for the application of robotic technology. he contamination problem, long in the making, will take decades to resolve. ur ingenuity in developing robotic tools to assist in ...

267

Polyethylene Terephthalate Waste Recycling and Application Possibilities: a Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a review of works that cover PET post-consumer waste recycling and application during last twenty years. It is shown that physically recycled PET can be used in the blends with other polymers, such as high and low density polyethylene, polycarbonates, polyvinyl chloride, etc. The compatibilizers and other additives often are used to obtain valuable blends of recycled

Gintaras MACIJAUSKAS

268

APPLICATION OF PULSE COMBUSTION TO SOLID AND HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the application of pulse combustion to solid and hazardous waste incineration. otary kiln incinerator simulator was retrofitted with a frequency-tunable pulse combustor to enhance the efficiency of combustion. he pulse combustor excites pulsations in the kiln ...

269

A Novel and Cost Effective Approach to the Decommissioning and Decontamination of Legacy Glove Boxes - Minimizing TRU Waste and Maximizing LLW Waste - 13634  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the process of decommissioning two gloveboxes at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) that were employed for work with plutonium and other radioactive materials. The decommissioning process involved an initial phase of clearing tools and materials from the glove boxes and disconnecting them from the laboratory infrastructure. The removed materials, assessed as Transuranic (TRU) waste, were packaged into 55 gallon (200 litre) drums and prepared for ultimate disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) at Carlsbad New Mexico. The boxes were then sampled to determine the radioactive contents by means of smears that were counted with alpha and beta detectors to determine the residual surface contamination, especially in terms of alpha particle emitters that are an indicator of TRU activity. Paint chip samples were also collected and sent for laboratory analysis in order to ascertain the radioactive contamination contributing to the TRU activity as a fixed contamination. The investigations predicted that it may be feasible to reduce the residual surface contamination and render the glovebox structure low level waste (LLW) for disposal. In order to reduce the TRU activity a comprehensive decontamination process was initiated using chemical compounds that are particularly effective for lifting and dissolving radionuclides that adhere to the inner surfaces of the gloveboxes. The result of the decontamination process was a reduction in the TRU surface activity on the inner surfaces of the gloveboxes by four orders of magnitude in terms of disintegrations per unit area (DPA). The next phase of the process involved a comprehensive assay of the gloveboxes using a combination of passive neutron and gamma ray scintillation detectors and a shielded and collimated high purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma ray detector. The HPGe detector was used to obtain gamma ray spectra for a variety of measurement positions within the glovebox. The spectra were used to determine the TRU content of the boxes by assessing the activity of Am-241 (59 keV) and Pu-241 (414 keV). Using the data generated it was possible for qualified subject matter experts (SME) to assess that the gloveboxes could be consigned for disposition as LLW and not as TRU. Once this determination was assessed and accepted the gloveboxes were prepared for final disposition to the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) - formerly the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This preparation involved fixing any remaining radioactive contamination within the gloveboxes by filling them with a foam compound, prior to transportation. Once the remaining contamination was fixed the gloveboxes were removed from the laboratory and prepared for transported by road to NNSS. This successful glovebox decontamination and decommissioning process illustrates the means by which TRU waste generation has been minimized, LLW generation has been maximized, and risk has been effectively managed. The process minimizes the volume of TRU waste and reduced the decommissioning time with significant cost savings as the result. (authors)

Pancake, Daniel; Rock, Cynthia M.; Creed, Richard [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)] [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Donohoue, Tom; Martin, E. Ray; Mason, John A. [ANTECH Corporation 9050 Marshall Court, Westminster, CO, 80031 (United States)] [ANTECH Corporation 9050 Marshall Court, Westminster, CO, 80031 (United States); Norton, Christopher J.; Crosby, Daniel [Environmental Alternatives, Inc., 149 Emerald Street, Suite R, Keene, NH 03431 (United States)] [Environmental Alternatives, Inc., 149 Emerald Street, Suite R, Keene, NH 03431 (United States); Nachtman, Thomas J. [InstaCote, Inc., 160 C. Lavoy Road, Erie, MI, 48133 (United States)] [InstaCote, Inc., 160 C. Lavoy Road, Erie, MI, 48133 (United States)

2013-07-01

270

Minimizing draining waste through extending the lifetime of pilot jobs in Grid environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computing landscape is moving at an accelerated pace to many-core computing. Nowadays, it is not unusual to get 32 cores on a single physical node. As a consequence, there is increased pressure in the pilot systems domain to move from purely single-core scheduling and allow multi-core jobs as well. In order to allow for a gradual transition from single-core to multi-core user jobs, it is envisioned that pilot jobs will have to handle both kinds of user jobs at the same time, by requesting several cores at a time from Grid providers and then partitioning them between the user jobs at runtime. Unfortunately, the current Grid ecosystem only allows for relatively short lifetime of pilot jobs, requiring frequent draining, with the relative waste of compute resources due to varying lifetimes of the user jobs. Significantly extending the lifetime of pilot jobs is thus highly desirable, but must come without any adverse effects for the Grid resource providers. In this paper we present a mechanism, based on communication between the pilot jobs and the Grid provider, that allows for pilot jobs to run for extended periods of time when there are available resources, but also allows the Grid provider to reclaim the resources in a short amount of time when needed. We also present the experience of running a prototype system using the above mechanism on a few US-based Grid sites.

Sfiligoi, I.; Martin, T.; Bockelman, B. P.; Bradley, D. C.; Wrthwein, F.

2014-06-01

271

State waste discharge permit application, 200-E chemical drain field  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect ground would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). The Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. This document presents the State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) application for the 200-E Chemical Drain Field. Waste water from the 272-E Building enters the process sewer line directly through a floor drain, while waste water from the 2703-E Building is collected in two floor drains, (north and south) that act as sumps and are discharged periodically. The 272-E and 2703-E Buildings constitute the only discharges to the process sewer line and the 200-E Chemical Drain Field.

Not Available

1994-06-01

272

Optimization of a piezoelectric bimorph grasper for use in minimally invasive surgical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential use of piezoelectric bimorph actuators in minimally invasive surgery suture-needle grasper\\/holder applications is explored computationally. Upon defining the design\\/functional requirements for such surgical tools, a finite element analysis of the underlying piezoelectric boundary value problem is combined with the genetic algorithm optimization routine to arrive at an optimal morphology of the suture-needle grasper\\/holder. The results obtained show that,

M Grujicic; C L Zhao; E M Austin

2005-01-01

273

Potential applications of nanostructured materials in nuclear waste management.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results obtained from a Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD) project entitled 'Investigation of Potential Applications of Self-Assembled Nanostructured Materials in Nuclear Waste Management'. The objectives of this project are to (1) provide a mechanistic understanding of the control of nanometer-scale structures on the ion sorption capability of materials and (2) develop appropriate engineering approaches to improving material properties based on such an understanding.

Braterman, Paul S. (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Phol, Phillip Isabio; Xu, Zhi-Ping (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Yang, Yi (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Bryan, Charles R.; Yu, Kui; Xu, Huifang (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Wang, Yifeng; Gao, Huizhen

2003-09-01

274

Application of neural networks to waste site screening  

SciTech Connect

Waste site screening requires knowledge of the actual concentrations of hazardous materials and rates of flow around and below the site with time. The present approach consists primarily of drilling boreholes near contaminated sites and chemically analyzing the extracted physical samples and processing the data. This is expensive and time consuming. The feasibility of using neural network techniques to reduce the cost of waste site screening was investigated. Two neural network techniques, gradient descent back propagation and fully recurrent back propagation were utilized. The networks were trained with data received from Westinghouse Hanford Corporation. The results indicate that the network trained with the fully recurrent technique shows satisfactory generalization capability. The predicted results are close to the results obtained from a mathematical flow prediction model. It is possible to develop a new tool to predict the waste plume, thus substantially reducing the number of the bore sites and samplings. There are a variety of applications for this technique in environmental site screening and remediation. One of the obvious applications would be for optimum well siting. A neural network trained from the existing sampling data could be utilized to decide where would be the best position for the next bore site. Other applications are discussed in the report.

Dabiri, A.E.; Garrett, M.; Kraft, T.; Hilton, J.; VanHammersveld, M.

1993-02-01

275

Evidence-based integrated environmental solutions for secondary lead smelters: pollution prevention and waste minimization technologies and practices.  

PubMed

An evidence-based methodology was adopted in this research to establish strategies to increase lead recovery and recycling via a systematic review and critical appraisal of the published literature. In particular, the research examines pollution prevention and waste minimization practices and technologies that meet the following criteria: (a) reduce/recover/recycle the largest quantities of lead currently being disposed of as waste, (b) technically and economically viable, that is, ready to be diffused and easily transferable, and (c) strong industry interest (i.e., industry would consider implementing projects with higher payback periods). The following specific aims are designed to achieve the study objectives: Aim 1 - To describe the recycling process of recovering refined lead from scrap; Aim 2 - To document pollution prevention and waste management technologies and practices adopted by US stakeholders along the trajectory of LAB and lead product life cycle; Aim 3 - To explore improved practices and technologies which are employed by other organizations with an emphasis on the aforementioned criteria; Aim 4 - To demonstrate the economic and environmental costs and benefits of applying improved technologies and practices to existing US smelting operations; and Aim 5 - To evaluate improved environmental technologies and practices using an algorithm that integrates quantitative and qualitative criteria. The process of identifying relevant articles and reports was documented. The description of evidence was presented for current practices and technologies used by US smelters as well as improved practices and technologies. Options for integrated environmental solutions for secondary smelters were introduced and rank ordered on the basis of costs (i.e., capital investment) and benefits (i.e., production increases, energy and flux savings, and reduction of SO(2) and slag). An example was provided to demonstrate the utility of the algorithm by detailing the costs and benefits associated with different combinations of practices and technologies. The evidence-based methodology documented in this research reveals that it is technically and economically feasible to implement integrated environmental solutions to increase lead recovery and recycling among US smelters. The working example presented in this research can be confirmed with US stakeholders and form the basis for implementable solutions in the lead smelter and product industries to help reverse the overall trend of declining life-cycle recycling rates. PMID:19232675

Genaidy, A M; Sequeira, R; Tolaymat, T; Kohler, J; Rinder, M

2009-05-01

276

Domestic applications for aerospace waste and water management technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some of the aerospace developments in solid waste disposal and water purification, which are applicable to specific domestic problems are explored. Also provided is an overview of the management techniques used in defining the need, in utilizing the available tools, and in synthesizing a solution. Specifically, several water recovery processes will be compared for domestic applicability. Examples are filtration, distillation, catalytic oxidation, reverse osmosis, and electrodialysis. Solid disposal methods will be discussed, including chemical treatment, drying, incineration, and wet oxidation. The latest developments in reducing household water requirements and some concepts for reusing water will be outlined.

Disanto, F.; Murray, R. W.

1972-01-01

277

77 FR 73054 - Application for a License To Export Radioactive Waste  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...COMMISSION Application for a License To Export Radioactive Waste Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70(b) ``Public...Canada. 2012, October 25, 2012, XW020, radioactive 1178 pounds disposal by the 11006061. waste in the (approximately original form...

2012-12-07

278

78 FR 45578 - Application For a License to Export Radioactive Waste  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...REGULATORY COMMISSION Application For a License to Export Radioactive Waste Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b) ``Public Notice...Storage or Canada. June 4, 2013, June 5, 2013, radioactive waste authorized for disposal by the XW021,...

2013-07-29

279

Application of Sequential Quadratic Programming to Minimize Smart Active Flap Rotor Hub Loads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In an analytical study, SMART active flap rotor hub loads have been minimized using nonlinear programming constrained optimization methodology. The recently developed NLPQLP system (Schittkowski, 2010) that employs Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) as its core algorithm was embedded into a driver code (NLP10x10) specifically designed to minimize active flap rotor hub loads (Leyland, 2014). Three types of practical constraints on the flap deflections have been considered. To validate the current application, two other optimization methods have been used: i) the standard, linear unconstrained method, and ii) the nonlinear Generalized Reduced Gradient (GRG) method with constraints. The new software code NLP10x10 has been systematically checked out. It has been verified that NLP10x10 is functioning as desired. The following are briefly covered in this paper: relevant optimization theory; implementation of the capability of minimizing a metric of all, or a subset, of the hub loads as well as the capability of using all, or a subset, of the flap harmonics; and finally, solutions for the SMART rotor. The eventual goal is to implement NLP10x10 in a real-time wind tunnel environment.

Kottapalli, Sesi; Leyland, Jane

2014-01-01

280

Implementing waste minimization at an active plutonium processing facility: Successes and progress at technical area (TA) -55 of the Los Alamos National Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Los Alamos National Laboratory has ongoing national security missions that necessitate increased plutonium processing. The bulk of this activity occurs at Technical Area -55 (TA-55), the nations only operable plutonium facility. TA-55 has developed and demonstrated a number of technologies that significantly minimize waste generation in plutonium processing (supercritical CO, Mg(OH) precipitation, supercritical H祕 oxidation, WAND), disposition of excess

J. J. Balkey; M. A. Robinson; J. Boak

1997-01-01

281

Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Waste Application Systems - Module 12, Objectives, and Script.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Land application systems are discussed with reference to the options available for applying wastewater and sludge to the site. Spray systems, surface flow methods, and sludge application schemes are all included with discussions of the advantages and disadvantages of each option within these categories. A distinction is made between the choice of

Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

282

Pollution prevention assessment manual. A guide for large quantity generators and TRI reporters in preparing a source reduction and waste minimization plan  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Reduction Policy Act (WRPA) of 1991 requires certain industries and businesses that generate hazardous waste or release toxics to prepare a source reduction and waste minimization (SR/WM) plan and a SR/WM annual progress report. This manual is organized to accomplish two objectives: to assist in preparing a pollution prevention plan as required under the WRPA; to aid in planning, developing, and implementing a successful pollution prevention program. Each chapter in this manual contains worksheets, detailed descriptions explaining the worksheets, and advice on how to complete a pollution prevention assessment and plan. Chapter 2 presents instructions and approaches for preparing a pollution prevention plan as required by the WRPA. Chapters 3 through 6 present worksheets that will help to prepare a plan.

NONE

1998-07-01

283

Application for CALS-CCE 2013 Summer Internship Title of project: Food Waste and Consumer Outreach  

E-print Network

Application for CALS-CCE 2013 Summer Internship Title of project: Food Waste and Consumer Outreach outcomes (no more than 5-10 sentences): This project will address the problem of food losses and food waste neglected is the area of food loss and food waste. Food losses account for approximately 40% of food

Keinan, Alon

284

Light Duty Utility Arm System applications for tank waste remediation  

SciTech Connect

The Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System is being developed by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Technology Development (OTD, EM-50) to obtain information about the conditions and contents of the DOE`s underground storage tanks. Many of these tanks are deteriorating and contain hazardous, radioactive waste generated over the past 50 years as a result of defense materials production at a member of DOE sites. Stabilization and remediation of these waste tanks is a high priority for the DOE`s environmental restoration program. The LDUA System will provide the capability to obtain vital data needed to develop safe and cost-effective tank remediation plans, to respond to ongoing questions about tank integrity and leakage, and to quickly investigate tank events that raise safety concerns. In-tank demonstrations of the LDUA System are planned for three DOE sites in 1996 and 1997: Hanford, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This paper provides a general description of the system design and discusses a number of planned applications of this technology to support the DOE`s environmental restoration program, as well as potential applications in other areas. Supporting papers by other authors provide additional in-depth technical information on specific areas of the system design.

Carteret, B.A.

1994-10-01

285

Waste load allocation in rivers under uncertainty: application of social choice procedures.  

PubMed

In this paper, a waste load allocation model is developed which can incorporate uncertainties due to randomness as well as vagueness regarding some variables and parameters. A probabilistic water quality index is also presented and used in the waste load allocation model. For any discharger of the system, different wastewater treatment scenarios are defined. All possible combinations of these scenarios make different wastewater treatment alternatives for the system. An optimization model having the objectives of minimizing total treatment cost as well as water quality violation risk is also developed for finding the optimum treatment alternatives. The uncertainty related to the upstream river flow is addressed through considering probability distribution functions with fuzzy parameters. To deal with fuzzy and random inputs, the fuzzy transformation technique and Monte Carlo analysis are respectively used, and for each alternative, fuzzy membership function of the violation risk is obtained. The optimization model only takes into account the economic and environmental objectives and does not specifically consider the stakeholders satisfaction. To consider this and help the decision maker choose a final alternative among non-dominated solutions, three different social choice procedures which focus on stakeholders priorities are employed. The applicability and effectiveness of the methodology are evaluated by applying it to the Zarjub River in Iran facing serious water quality issues. The results indicate that the presented methodology can effectively take account of priorities of various decision makers as well as economic and environmental considerations, while incorporating multiple forms of uncertainties. PMID:25604063

Mahjouri, Najmeh; Abbasi, Mohammad-Reza

2015-02-01

286

Risk Reduction from Minimization of Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic Waste Materials Within the U.S. Industrial Solid Waste Management System  

EPA Science Inventory

This study addressed three questions of interest in national-scale solid and hazardous waste management decision-making within the United States: 1) can we quantify the reduction in risk to human and ecological receptors resulting from the reduction of certain industrial waste s...

287

Novel hydrogel application in minimally invasive surgical approaches to spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Report of 2 cases.  

PubMed

The authors report 2 cases of orthostatic headaches associated with spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) secondary to CSF leaks that were successfully treated with an alternative dural repair technique in which a tubular retractor system and a hydrogel dural sealant were used. The 2 patients, a 63-year-old man and a 45-year-old woman, presented with orthostatic headache associated with SIH secondary to suspected lumbar and lower cervical CSF leaks, respectively, as indicated by bony defects or epidural fluid collection. Epidural blood patch repair failed in both cases, but both were successfully treated with the minimally invasive application of a hydrogel dural sealant as a novel adjunct to traditional dural repair techniques. Both patients tolerated the procedure well. Moreover, SIH symptoms and MRI signs were completely resolved at 1-month follow-up in both patients. The minimally invasive dural repair procedure with hydrogel dural sealant described here offers a viable alternative in patients in whom epidural blood patches have failed, with obscure recalcitrant CSF leaks at the cervical as well as lumbar spinal level. The authors demonstrate that the adjuvant use of sealant is a safe and efficient repair method regardless of dural defect location. PMID:25084466

Chai, Casey M; Banu, Matei A; Cobb, William; Mehta, Neel; Heier, Linda; Boockvar, John A

2014-10-01

288

Department of ENENG/ME Spring 2012 Waste Heat Recovery for Small Engine Applications  

E-print Network

PENNSTATE Department of ENENG/ME Spring 2012 Waste Heat Recovery for Small Engine Applications Overview The purpose of this capstone project is to research, test, and apply waste heat recovery, engine temperatures, and various applications. These explored heat recovery technologies were

Demirel, Melik C.

289

The application of waste management systems for long duration spaceflight.  

PubMed

In the future planned interplanetary expedition mission to Mars, spaceflight crewmembers will be exposed to an environment that is completely unique from anything they are accustomed to on Earth. Due to the characteristics of these missions, a challenge will be to design an environment that allows crewmembers to easily work and live in for extended durations. One of the challenges associated with these future missions is supplying the crew with essential resources for survivability such as food and water. In this case, the waste management system can play a role in a closed-loop life support system, as provisions sent with the crew will be severely limited with no opportunity for resupply. The following looks at the rationale of designing a system for collecting, storing, and recycling human bodily waste that (1) is considered user-friendly by crewmembers in regard to habitability in spaceflight, and (2) provides applications for a self sustaining closed-loop life support system that will aid the crew during the mission. Future design processes should consider adhering to these guidelines to help in the spaceflight crew's living environment and the conduction of the interplanetary expedition. PMID:22316723

Oglesby, James M

2012-01-01

290

Ion selective resins: Development and applications for nuclear waste management  

SciTech Connect

Organic based ion selective resins have some similar attributes: ease of synthesis, high metal ion complexation ability, and flexibility for different nuclear waste management applications. For most chelating polymers, the ligand is deemed to be of primary importance for the interaction with the targeted metal ion. The role of the polymer matrix is usually ignored. For ion specific resins, the polymer structure is formed to a specific metal ion. Using the molecular imprinting technique, resins can be formed with functional groups and cavities for a target metal ion. Ion selective resins have been developed for the separation of Cs. The methods and concepts used for the development of the Cs specific resins have been applied to the development of selective resins for Eu (a trivalent actinide model). The resulting resins are characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, moisture regain, and ion exchange capacity. The incorporation of 8-hydroxyquinoline into the resin increases selectivity for Eu over La. The results for the Eu study indicate ion specific resins can be developed for the separation of trivalent actinides from nuclear waste.

Czerwinski, K.R.; Draye, M.; Favre-Reguillon, A.; Foos, J.; Guy, A.; Lemaire, M.

1999-07-01

291

A Regulatory Analysis and Reassessment of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Listed Hazardous Waste Numbers for Applicability to the INTEC Liquid Waste System  

SciTech Connect

This report concludes that there are four listed hazardous waste numbers (F001, F002, F005, and U134) applicable to the waste in the Process Equipment Waste Evaporator (PEWE) liquid waste system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The chemical constituents associated with these listed hazardous waste numbers, including those listed only for ignitability are identified. The RCRA Part A permit application hazardous waste numbers identify chemical constituents that may be treated or stored by the PEWE liquid waste system either as a result of a particular characteristic (40 CFR, Subpart C) or as a result of a specific process (40 CFR 261, Subpart D). The RCRA Part A permit application for the PEWE liquid waste system identifies the universe of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hazardous waste numbers [23 characteristic (hazardous waste codes) numbers and 105 listed numbers (four F-listed hazardous waste numbers, 20 P-listed hazardous waste numbers, and 81 U-listed hazardous waste numbers)] deemed acceptable for storage and treatment. This evaluation, however, identifies only listed wastes (and their chemical constituents) that have actually entered the PEWE liquid waste system and would, therefore, be assigned to the PEWE liquids and treatment residuals.

Gilbert, K.L.; Venneman, T.E.

1998-12-01

292

Global error minimization in image mosaicing using graph connectivity and its applications in microscopy.  

PubMed

Several applications such as multiprojector displays and microscopy require the mosaicing of images (tiles) acquired by a camera as it traverses an unknown trajectory in 3D space. A homography relates the image coordinates of a point in each tile to those of a reference tile provided the 3D scene is planar. Our approach in such applications is to first perform pairwise alignment of the tiles that have imaged common regions in order to recover a homography relating the tile pair. We then find the global set of homographies relating each individual tile to a reference tile such that the homographies relating all tile pairs are kept as consistent as possible. Using these global homographies, one can generate a mosaic of the entire scene. We derive a general analytical solution for the global homographies by representing the pair-wise homographies on a connectivity graph. Our solution can accommodate imprecise prior information regarding the global homographies whenever such information is available. We also derive equations for the special case of translation estimation of an X-Y microscopy stage used in histology imaging and present examples of stitched microscopy slices of specimens obtained after radical prostatectomy or prostate biopsy. In addition, we demonstrate the superiority of our approach over tree-structured approaches for global error minimization. PMID:22811964

Khurd, Parmeshwar; Grady, Leo; Oketokoun, Rafiou; Sundar, Hari; Gajera, Tejas; Gibbs-Strauss, Summer; Frangioni, John V; Kamen, Ali

2011-01-01

293

Scale-up and waste-minimization of the Los Alamos process for 1,3,3-trinitroazetidine (TNAZ)  

SciTech Connect

The original synthesis of TNAZ (1,3,3-trinitroazetidine) was developed by T.G. Archibald in 1983 and was scaled up to produce several hundred kg of TNAZ for evaluation by the DoD. Although the synthesis method utilizes inexpensive starting materials, it is a multi-step process that gives less than 20% overall yields and produces significant chemical waste including large quantities of halogenated solvents. An alternative synthesis, which gives much higher yields of TNAZ and less waste than obtained from the original process, was developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The technology was transferred to Aerojet, Sacramento, where it was scaled up to production-plant quantities to give TNAZ in 57% overall yield. The new process produced about 10% of the waste produced in the original process without recycle of solvents or reagents. It is estimated that recycle of solvents and reagents will reduce the chemical waste to 15.7 kg kg{sup {minus}1} of TNAZ. Further improvements in waste reduction have been demonstrated that may eventually lead to a process giving little more than 3.7 kg of chemical waste kg{sup {minus}1} of TNAZ in addition to the energy burden encountered with any industrial process.

Coburn, M.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); [Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States); Hiskey, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Archibald, T.G. [Aerojet, Sacramento, CA (United States)] [Aerojet, Sacramento, CA (United States)

1998-07-01

294

I-NERI Annual Technical Progress Report 2007-004-K Development and Characterization of New High-Level Waste Forms for Achieving Waste Minimization from Pyroprocessing  

SciTech Connect

The current method for the immobilization of fission products that accumulate in electrorefiner salt during the electrochemical processing of used metallic nuclear fuel is to encapsulate the electrorefiner salt in a glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form. This process was developed by Argonne National Laboratory in the USA and is currently performed at the Idaho National Laboratory for the treatment of Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) used fuel. This process utilizes a 登nce-through option for the disposal of spent electrorefiner salt; where, after the treatment of the EBR-II fuel, the electrorefiner salt containing the active fission products will be disposed of in the ceramic waste form (CWF). The CWF produced will have low fission product loading of approximately 2 to 5 weight percent due to the limited fuel inventory currently being processed. However; the design and implementation of advanced electrochemical processing facilities to treat used fuel would process much greater quantities fuel. With an advanced processing facility, it would be necessary to selectively remove fission products from the electrorefiner salt for salt recycle and to concentrate the fission products to reduce the volume of high-level waste from the treatment facility. The Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute and the Idaho National Laboratory have been collaborating on I-NERI research projects for a number of years to investigate both aspects of selective fission product separation from electrorefiner salt, and to develop advanced waste forms for the immobilization of the collected fission products. The first joint KAERI/INL I-NERI project titled: 2006-002-K, Separation of Fission Products from Molten LiCl-KCl Salt Used for Electrorefining of Metal Fuels, was successfully completed in 2009 by concentrating and isolating fission products from actual electrorefiner salt used for the treated used EBR-II fuel. Two separation methods were tested and from these tests were produced concentrated salt products that acted as the feed material for development of advanced waste forms investigated in this proposal. Accomplishments from the first year activities associated with this I-NERI project included the down selection of candidate waste forms to immobilize fission products separated from electrorefiner salt, and the design of equipment to fabricate actual waste forms in the Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) at the INL. Reported in this document are accomplishments from the second year (FY10) work performed at the INL, and includes the testing of waste form fabrication equipment, repeating the fission product precipitation experiment, and initial waste form fabrication efforts.

S. Frank

2010-09-01

295

Radiolytically-induced novel materials and their application to waste processing  

SciTech Connect

In the present NEER project we investigated two different types of gel materials with respect to potential applications in environmental remediation, including mixed waste generated from the nuclear fuel cycles. The materials under study were: (1) silica-polymer based aerogel composites into which specific metallic cations diffuse into and remain, and (2) polymer gels made of thermo-sensitive polymer networks, whose functional groups can be ''tailored'' to have a preferred affinity for specific cations, again diffusing into and remaining in the network under a volumetrically, contractive phase-transition. The molecular, diffusion of specific cations, including those of concern in low-level waste streams, into the gel materials studied here indicates that a scaled, engineered system can be designed so that it is passive; that is, minimal (human) intervention and risk would be involved in encapsulating LLW species. In addition, the gel materials hold potential significance in environmental remediation of and recovery of metallic cations identified in respective domains and physico-chemical processes. In brief, silica gels start as aqueous/liquid solutions of base catalyzed silica hydrogels and metal ions (targeted species), such as silver. The metal ions are reduced radiolytically and migrate through the solution to form clusters. Upon post-irradiation processing, aerogel monoliths, extremely lightweight but mechanically strong, that encapsulate the metals are produced. Interestingly the radiolytic or photonic source can be gamma-rays and/or other rays from ''artificial sources'', such as reactors, or ''inherent sources'' like those characterizing mixed waste. Polymer gels, in contrast exhibit thermally-induced volumetric contraction at 20-50 C by expelling water from the gels physical state. Further, some functional groups that capture di- or tri-valent cations from aqueous solutions can be incorporated into the polymer networks on synthesis, including by radiolytic means. These polymer gels retain cations after volumetric contraction and have the ability to trap solid particulates in liquid waste streams. With both silica and polymer gels, functional design of a prototypic ''recovery'' systems, such as by natural convection in a rectangular cell, appears possible. Additional and specific details are provided in the rest of this Final Report.

Massimo Bertino, Akira Tokuhiro, Tadashi Tokuhiro

2007-12-05

296

Closing the Loop: Integrated Waste Management Activities for School & Home. K-12 Edition. A School-Based Waste Minimization and Education Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increased human population has led to more frequent interactions with the environment. The results of those interactions have affected the Earth's ecosystem. This manual contains hands-on, problem-centered activities to help students develop an environmental ethic and stewardship regarding waste management. The activities are grouped under three

Institute for Environmental Education, Chagrin Falls, OH.

297

A novel water delivery system for administering volatile chemicals while minimizing chemical waste in rodent toxicity sutdies  

EPA Science Inventory

Rodent toxicity studies typically use water bottles to administer test chemicals via drinking water. However, water bottles provide inconsistent exposure of volatile chemicals due to varying headspace, as well as lead to excessive waste of test material. In order to refine drinki...

298

Listed below are specific requirements to review for those areas that generate and/or store hazardous waste as applicable  

E-print Network

hazardous waste as applicable: 1) The work area generating hazardous waste must be under the control and supervision of personnel who have successfully completed the University Hazardous Waste Training course. 2) The hazardous waste Satellite Accumulation Area (SAA) is: A) located at or near the point of generation (where

Movileanu, Liviu

299

Early detection and evaluation of waste through sensorized containers for a collection monitoring application  

SciTech Connect

The present study describes a novel application for use in the monitoring of municipal solid waste, based on distributed sensor technology and geographical information systems. Original field testing and evaluation of the application were carried out in Pudong, Shanghai (PR China). The local waste management system in Pudong features particular requirements related to the rapidly increasing rate of waste production. In view of the fact that collected waste is currently deployed to landfills or to incineration plants within the context investigated, the key aspects to be taken into account in waste collection procedures include monitoring of the overall amount of waste produced, quantitative measurement of the waste present at each collection point and identification of classes of material present in the collected waste. The case study described herein focuses particularly on the above mentioned aspects, proposing the implementation of a network of sensorized waste containers linked to a data management system. Containers used were equipped with a set of sensors mounted onto standard waste bins. The design, implementation and validation procedures applied are subsequently described. The main aim to be achieved by data collection and evaluation was to provide for feasibility analysis of the final device. Data pertaining to the content of waste containers, sampled and processed by means of devices validated on two purpose-designed prototypes, were therefore uploaded to a central monitoring server using GPRS connection. The data monitoring and management modules are integrated into an existing application used by local municipal authorities. A field test campaign was performed in the Pudong area. The system was evaluated in terms of real data flow from the network nodes (containers) as well as in terms of optimization functions, such as collection vehicle routing and scheduling. The most important outcomes obtained were related to calculations of waste weight and volume. The latter data were subsequently used as parameters for the routing optimization of collection trucks and material density evaluation.

Rovetta, Alberto [Robotics Lab, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, via La Masa 34, 20156 Milan (Italy); Fan Xiumin [Computer Integrated Manufacturing Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Shanghai Key Lab of Advanced Manufacturing Environment, Shanghai 200030 (China); Vicentini, Federico, E-mail: federico.vicentini@polimi.i [Robotics Lab, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, via La Masa 34, 20156 Milan (Italy); Zhu Minghua [Computer Integrated Manufacturing Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Shanghai Key Lab of Advanced Manufacturing Environment, Shanghai 200030 (China); Giusti, Alessandro [Robotics Lab, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, via La Masa 34, 20156 Milan (Italy); He Qichang [Computer Integrated Manufacturing Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Shanghai Key Lab of Advanced Manufacturing Environment, Shanghai 200030 (China)

2009-12-15

300

Controlled Landfill Project in Yolo County, California for Environmental Benefits of Waste Stabilization and Minimization of Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Department of Public Works of Yolo County, California, USA has been testing an advanced approach to landfill bioreactors, controlled (or "enhanced") landfilling, at its Yolo County Central Landfill site near Davis, CA, since 1994. Overall objectives have been the management of waste landfilling for: (1) rapid completion of total gas generation; (2) maximum, high-efficiency gas capture; (3) waste volume reduction; and (4) maximum greenhouse gas and carbon sequestration benefits. Methane generation is controlled and enhanced through carefully managed moisture additions, and by taking advantage of landfill temperature elevation. The generated landfill methane, an important greenhouse gas, is recovered with high efficiency through extraction from a porous recovery layer beneath a surface geomembrane cover. Instrumentation included a total of 56 moisture and 15 temperature sensors in the two cells, gas flow monitoring by positive displacement gas meters, and accurate quantification of liquid inputs and outputs. Gas composition, waste volume reduction, base hydrostatic head, and a range of environmental compliance parameters has been monitored since 1995. Partitioning gas tracer tests using the injection of two gases at dilute concentrations in the landfill have also been initiated to compute the fraction of pore space occupied by water between the points of tracer injection and tracer measurement. There has been rapid waste volume reduction in the enhanced cell that corresponds to the solids' reduction to gas. Monitoring is planned for the next several years, until stabilization parameters are determined complete. Encouraging performance is indicated by: (1) sensor data; (2) gas generation results; (3) data from landfill cores; and (4) decomposition-related indicators including rapid volume reduction. When data are synthesized, project results have attractive implications for new approaches to landfill management. Over seven-years, methane recoveries have averaged over fivefold the "typical" values for comparable landfill waste. In terms of "greenhouse benefit," fractional VOC and methane energy recovery are estimated to exceed 90%, with corresponding methane and VOC emission reductions. Analyses done for the greenhouse gas mitigation program of the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory indicate favorable economics justified on landfill life extension, as well as environmental benefits. The "controlled landfill" project findings suggest potential for low-cost mitigation of waste greenhouse methane emissions, maximum landfill carbon sequestration, and maximization of beneficial energy capture from landfills. Details and results obtained since 1994 will be presented.

Yazdani, R.; Augenstein, D.; Kieffer, J.; Cohen, K.

2003-12-01

301

EVALUATION OF THE APPLICABILITY OF SUBSIDENCE MODELS TO HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has discovered a number of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites in close proximity to abandoned underground mines. Further, several Resource Conservation and Recovery Act permit applications have been received for treatment, storage, or disposal facilities located in areas wher...

302

Nuclear microprobe applications to radioactive waste management basic research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive waste management is one of the major technical and scientific challenge to be solved by industrialized countries near the beginning of the 21st century. Relevant questions arise about the extrapolation of the long term-behavior of materials from waste package, engineered barriers and near field repository. Whatever the strategical option might be, wet atmosphere or water intrusion through the different

P. Trocellier; V Badillo; N Barr; L Bois; C Cachoir; J. P Gallien; S Guilbert; F Mercier; C Tiffreau

1999-01-01

303

Scale-up and waste-minimization of the Los Alamos process for 1,3,3-trinitroazetidine (TNAZ)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The original synthesis of TNAZ (1,3,3-trinitroazetidine) was developed by T. G. Archibald in 1983 and was scaled up to produce several hundred kg of TNAZ for evaluation by the DoD. Although the synthesis method utilizes inexpensive starting materials, it is a multi-step process that gives less than 20% overall yields and produces significant chemical waste (over 1200 kg kg?1 of

Michael D. Coburn; Michael A. Hiskey; Thomas G. Archibald

1998-01-01

304

A new process and equipment for waste minimization: Conversion of NO(x) scrubber liquor to fertilizer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new emissions control system for the oxidizer scrubbers that eliminates the current oxidizer liquor waste and lowers the NO(x) emissions is described. Since fueling and deservicing spacecraft constitute the primary operations in which environmental emissions occur, this will eliminate the second largest waste stream at KSC. This effort is in accord with Executive Order No. 12856 (Federal Compliance with Right-to-Know Laws and Pollution Prevention Requirements, data 6 Aug. 1993) and Executive Order No. 12873 (Federal Acquisition, Recycling, and Waste Prevention, dated 20 Oct. 1993). A recent study found that the efficiencies of the oxidizer scrubbers during normal operations ranged from 70 percent to 99 percent. The new scrubber liquor starts with 1% hydrogen peroxide at a pH of 7 and the process control system adds hydrogen peroxide and potassium hydroxide to the scrubber liquor to maintain those initial conditions. The result is the formation of a solution of potassium nitrate, which is sold as a fertilizer. This report describes the equipment and procedures used to monitor and control the conversion of the scrubber liquor to fertilizer, while reducing the scrubber emissions.

Parrish, Clyde F.; Barile, Ronald G.; Gamble, Paul H.; Lueck, Dale E.; Young, Rebecca C.

1995-01-01

305

Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Legal Aspects - Module 16.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module summarizes laws that are relevant to the land application of wastes, focusing on the applicable Federal laws and representative state regulations from different areas of the country. The module describes the 10 points of Public Law 92-500, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, that relate to land application. It

Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

306

Alkali metal ions through glass: a possible radioactive waste management application  

E-print Network

ALKALI METAL IONS THROUGH GLASS: A POSSIBLE RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT APPLICATION A Thesis by ROBERT ALLAN JONES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1996 Major Subject: Health Physics ALKALI METAL IONS THROUGH GLASS: A POSSIBLE RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT APPLICATION A Thesis by ROBERT ALLAN JONES Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

Jones, Robert Allan

1996-01-01

307

Nonradioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction (NOC) Application for the Central Waste Complex (CSC) for Storage of Vented Waste Containers  

SciTech Connect

This Notice of Construction (NOC) application is submitted for the storage and management of waste containers at the Central Waste Complex (CWC) stationary source. The CWC stationary source consists of multiple sources of diffuse and fugitive emissions, as described herein. This NOC is submitted in accordance with the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-400-110 (criteria pollutants) and 173-460-040 (toxic air pollutants), and pursuant to guidance provided by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). Transuranic (TRU) mixed waste containers at CWC are vented to preclude the build up of hydrogen produced as a result of radionuclide decay, not as safety pressure releases. The following activities are conducted within the CWC stationary source: Storage and inspection; Transfer and staging; Packaging; Treatment; and Sampling. This NOC application is intended to cover all existing storage structures within the current CWC treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) boundary, as well as any storage structures, including waste storage pads and staging areas, that might be constructed in the future within the existing CWC boundary.

KAMBERG, L.D.

2000-04-01

308

Overview of resuspension model: application to low level waste management  

SciTech Connect

Resuspension is one of the potential pathways to man for radioactive or chemical contaminants that are in the biosphere. In waste management, spills or other surface contamination can serve as a source for resuspension during the operational phase. After the low-level waste disposal area is closed, radioactive materials can be brought to the surface by animals or insects or, in the long term, the surface can be removed by erosion. Any of these methods expose the material to resuspension in the atmosphere. Intrusion into the waste mass can produce resuspension of potential hazard to the intruder. Removal of items from the waste mass by scavengers or archeologists can result in potential resuspension exposure to others handling or working with the object. The ways in which resuspension can occur are wind resuspension, mechanical resuspension and local resuspension. While methods of predicting exposure are not accurate, they include the use of the resuspension factor, the resuspension rate and mass loading of the air.

Healy, J.W.

1980-01-01

309

NOX CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES APPLICABLE TO MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report documents the key design and operating parameters, commercial status, demonstrated performance, and cost of three technologies available for reducing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs), and identifies technology research and developme...

310

CONSIDERATIONS IN SELECTING CONVEYORS FOR SOLID WASTE APPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

An engineering evaluation and experimental program involving several types of conveyors applied to processed fractions of municipal solid wastes was conducted by the National Center for Resource Recovery. This final project report discusses the properties and characteristics of w...

311

SITE DEMONSTRATION CAPSULE --MATCON MODIFIED ASPHALT FOR WASTE CONTAINMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

MatCon is a polymer modified asphalt material designed specifically for waste contaminment applications. The modifications to the material differentiate it from conventional paving asphalt by minimizing the damaging effects of environmental exposure that could detract from the d...

312

Up-cycling waste glass to minimal water adsorption/absorption lightweight aggregate by rapid low temperature sintering: optimization by dual process-mixture response surface methodology.  

PubMed

Mixed color waste glass extracted from municipal solid waste is either not recycled, in which case it is an environmental and financial liability, or it is used in relatively low value applications such as normal weight aggregate. Here, we report on converting it into a novel glass-ceramic lightweight aggregate (LWA), potentially suitable for high added value applications in structural concrete (upcycling). The artificial LWA particles were formed by rapidly sintering (<10 min) waste glass powder with clay mixes using sodium silicate as binder and borate salt as flux. Composition and processing were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) modeling, and specifically (i) a combined process-mixture dual RSM, and (ii) multiobjective optimization functions. The optimization considered raw materials and energy costs. Mineralogical and physical transformations occur during sintering and a cellular vesicular glass-ceramic composite microstructure is formed, with strong correlations existing between bloating/shrinkage during sintering, density and water adsorption/absorption. The diametrical expansion could be effectively modeled via the RSM and controlled to meet a wide range of specifications; here we optimized for LWA structural concrete. The optimally designed LWA is sintered in comparatively low temperatures (825-835 ーC), thus potentially saving costs and lowering emissions; it had exceptionally low water adsorption/absorption (6.1-7.2% w/wd; optimization target: 1.5-7.5% w/wd); while remaining substantially lightweight (density: 1.24-1.28 g.cm(-3); target: 0.9-1.3 g.cm(-3)). This is a considerable advancement for designing effective environmentally friendly lightweight concrete constructions, and boosting resource efficiency of waste glass flows. PMID:24871934

Velis, Costas A; Franco-Salinas, Claudia; O'Sullivan, Catherine; Najorka, Jens; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Cheeseman, Christopher R

2014-07-01

313

A methodology for optimal MSW management, with an application in the waste transportation of Attica Region, Greece  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: A two-step (strategic and detailed optimal planning) methodology is used for solving complex MSW management problems. A software package is outlined, which can be used for generating detailed optimal plans. Sensitivity analysis compares alternative scenarios that address objections and/or wishes of local communities. A case study shows the application of the above procedure in practice and demonstrates the results and benefits obtained. - Abstract: The paper describes a software system capable of formulating alternative optimal Municipal Solid Wastes (MSWs) management plans, each of which meets a set of constraints that may reflect selected objections and/or wishes of local communities. The objective function to be minimized in each plan is the sum of the annualized capital investment and annual operating cost of all transportation, treatment and final disposal operations involved, taking into consideration the possible income from the sale of products and any other financial incentives or disincentives that may exist. For each plan formulated, the system generates several reports that define the plan, analyze its cost elements and yield an indicative profile of selected types of installations, as well as data files that facilitate the geographic representation of the optimal solution in maps through the use of GIS. A number of these reports compare the technical and economic data from all scenarios considered at the study area, municipality and installation level constituting in effect sensitivity analysis. The generation of alternative plans offers local authorities the opportunity of choice and the results of the sensitivity analysis allow them to choose wisely and with consensus. The paper presents also an application of this software system in the capital Region of Attica in Greece, for the purpose of developing an optimal waste transportation system in line with its approved waste management plan. The formulated plan was able to: (a) serve 113 Municipalities and Communities that generate nearly 2 million t/y of comingled MSW with distinctly different waste collection patterns, (b) take into consideration several existing waste transfer stations (WTS) and optimize their use within the overall plan, (c) select the most appropriate sites among the potentially suitable (new and in use) ones, (d) generate the optimal profile of each WTS proposed, and (e) perform sensitivity analysis so as to define the impact of selected sets of constraints (limitations in the availability of sites and in the capacity of their installations) on the design and cost of the ensuing optimal waste transfer system. The results show that optimal planning offers significant economic savings to municipalities, while reducing at the same time the present levels of traffic, fuel consumptions and air emissions in the congested Athens basin.

Economopoulou, M.A. [Hellenic Statistical Authority, Pireos 46 and Eponiton, Pireus 185 10 (Greece); Economopoulou, A.A. [Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climatic Change, 15 Amaliados Street, Athens 11523 (Greece); Economopoulos, A.P., E-mail: eco@otenet.gr [Environmental Engineering Dept., Technical University of Crete, Chania 73100 (Greece)

2013-11-15

314

Strategies to enhance waste minimization and energy conservation within organizations: a case study from the UK construction sector.  

PubMed

Strategies for enhancing environmental management are a key focus for the government in the UK. Using a manufacturing company from the construction sector as a case study, this paper evaluates selected interventionist techniques, including environmental teams, awareness raising and staff training to improve environmental performance. The study employed a range of methods including questionnaire surveys and audits of energy consumption and generation of waste to examine the outcomes of the selected techniques. The results suggest that initially environmental management was not a focus for either the employees or the company. However, as a result of employing the techniques, the company was able to reduce energy consumption, increase recycling rates and achieve costs savings in excess of 」132,000. PMID:22843348

Jones, Jo; Jackson, Janet; Tudor, Terry; Bates, Margaret

2012-09-01

315

Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility  

SciTech Connect

The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application documentation consists of both Part A and a Part B permit application documentation. An explanation of the Part A revisions associated with this treatment and storage unit, including the current revision, is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. Once the initial Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit is issued, the following process will be used. As final, certified treatment, storage, and/or disposal unit-specific documents are developed, and completeness notifications are made by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology, additional unit-specific permit conditions will be incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit through the permit modification process. All treatment, storage, and/or disposal units that are included in the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application will operate under interim status until final status conditions for these units are incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit. The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility contains information current as of May 1, 1993.

Not Available

1993-08-01

316

Application of the Acoustic Integration Model (AIM) to predict and minimize environmental impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minimizing and mitigating the potential effect of sound upon the environment is an increasing concern for many activities. Naval operations, seismic exploration, vessel and aircraft operations, and scientific investigations now need to consider the potential effect of underwater acoustic sources. Marine mammals are usually the primary concern, due to their widespread distribution and excellent hearing. Predicting the exposure of marine

Adam S. Frankel; William T. Ellison; Jacquin Buchanan

2002-01-01

317

RCRA Part B Permit Application for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory - Volume 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex  

SciTech Connect

This section of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Part B permit application describes the waste characteristics Of the transuranic (TRU) mixed wastes at the RWMC waste management units to be permitted: the Intermediate-Level Transuranic Storage Facility (ILTSF) and the Waste Storage Facility (WSF). The ILTSF is used to store radioactive remote-handled (RH) wastes. The WSF will be used to store radioactive contact-handled (CH) wastes. The Transuranic Storage Area (TSA) was established at the RWMC to provide interim storage of TRU waste. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A defines TRU waste as waste contaminated with alpha-emitting transuranium radionuclides with half-lives greater than 20 years in concentrations greater than 100 nanocuries per gram (nCi/g) o f waste material. The TSA serves generators both on and off the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The ILTSF is located at the TSA, and the WSF will be located there also. Most of the wastes managed at the TSA are mixed wastes, which are radioactive wastes regulated under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) that also contain hazardous materials regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Idaho Hazardous Waste Management Regulations. These wastes include TRU mixed wastes and some low-level mixed wastes. Accordingly, the TSA is subject to the permitting requirements of RCRA and the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act (IDAPA). Prior to 1982, DOE orders defined TRU wastes as having transuranium radionuclides in concentrations greater than 10 nCi/g, The low-level mixed wastes managed at the TSA are those wastes with 10 to 100 nCi/g of TRU radionuclides that prior to 1982 were considered TRU waste.

Pamela R. Cunningham

1992-07-01

318

Status and prospect of the application of municipal solid waste incineration in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The municipal solid waste (MSW) problem in China is expanding rapidly, and China痴 government is paying more attention to the MSW incineration. This paper discusses the basic characteristics of MSW in China and outlines the status application of MSW incineration technology. Emphasis is put on the prospect application of retrofitting cement rotary kilns into MSW incineration in China, also together

Zhiqiang Liu; Zhihua Liu; Xiaolin Li

2006-01-01

319

State waste discharge permit application for cooling water and condensate discharges  

SciTech Connect

The following presents the Categorical State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) Application for the Cooling Water and Condensate Discharges on the Hanford Site. This application is intended to cover existing cooling water and condensate discharges as well as similar future discharges meeting the criteria set forth in this document.

Haggard, R.D.

1996-08-12

320

Water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications. Volume 1: Final report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive study of advanced water recovery and solid waste processing techniques employed in both aerospace and domestic or commercial applications is reported. A systems approach was used to synthesize a prototype system design of an advanced water treatment/waste processing system. Household water use characteristics were studied and modified through the use of low water use devices and a limited amount of water reuse. This modified household system was then used as a baseline system for development of several water treatment waste processing systems employing advanced techniques. A hybrid of these systems was next developed and a preliminary design was generated to define system and hardware functions.

Murray, R. W.

1973-01-01

321

Waste minimization and pollution prevention initiatives within Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) boiler house operations  

SciTech Connect

The mission of ANL-E Plant Facility and Services-Utilities and Systems (PFS-US) is to operate and maintain utility services in a cost-effective manner, while utilizing new and innovative methods whenever possible. PFS-US operates an on-site coal burning boiler plant that generates steam for use throughout the Laboratory as a source to heat buildings, as well as for use in research experiments. In the recent past, PFS-US has embarked upon a series of initiatives to improve operating efficiency of boiler house operations. The results of these projects have had the following impacts on boiler house performance and operations: (1) boiler house efficiency and operations have improved, (2) boiler house operating costs have been reduced, (3) specific operating and maintenance costs have been avoided or eliminated, and (4) the amount of waste and pollution generated has been reduced. Through the implementation of these initiatives, over $250,000 of revenue and cost savings have been incurred by ANL-E. In addition, the Laboratory and DOE will benefit annually from revenues, cost savings, and the reduction of environmental liability resulting from these initiatives.

NONE

1996-08-01

322

Survey of agents and techniques applicable to the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

A review of the various solidification agents and techniques that are currently available or potentially applicable for the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes is presented. An overview of the types and quantities of low-level wastes produced is presented. Descriptions of waste form matrix materials, the wastes types for which they have been or may be applied and available information concerning relevant waste form properties and characteristics follow. Also included are descriptions of the processing techniques themselves with an emphasis on those operating parameters which impact upon waste form properties. The solidification agents considered in this survey include: hydraulic cements, thermoplastic materials, thermosetting polymers, glasses, synthetic minerals and composite materials. This survey is part of a program supported by the United States Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program (LLWMP). This work provides input into LLWMP efforts to develop and compile information relevant to the treatment and processing of low-level wastes and their disposal by shallow land burial.

Fuhrmann, M.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Colombo, P.

1981-12-01

323

A pelletizing model and its application to radioactive waste treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pelletizing mechanism was studied theoretically and experimentally to transform radioactive waste powders into dense and hard pellets in conjunction with the development of a new volume reduction system, a drying and pelletizing system. A pelletizing model was proposed based on plastic deformation of powder particles. Its validity was confirmed by fundamental experiments. From the model, such pellet properties as

K. Chino; S. Horiuchi; F. Kawamura; M. Kikuchi; M. Matsuda; H. Yusa

1984-01-01

324

Potential application of ettringite generating systems for hazardous waste stabilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of ettringite generating systems in hazardous waste stabilization processes is studied by means of a mixture of anhydrous calcium sulphoaluminate and anhydrite doped with the nitrates of the six heavy metals Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn and Fe. The study has been carried out by means of differential thermal and X-ray diffraction analyses, infra-red spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy

V. Albino; R. Cioffi; M. Marroccoli; L. Santoro

1996-01-01

325

APPLICATION OF PULSE COMBUSTION TO INCINERATION OF LIQUID HAZARDOUS WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to determine the effect of acoustic pulsations on the steady-state operation of a pulse combustor burning liquid hazardous waste. A horizontal tunnel furnace was retrofitted with a liquid injection pulse combustor that burned No. 2 fuel oil. Th...

326

Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Pathogens - Module 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module is intended to help engineers evaluate the relative health risks from pathogens at land treatment sites versus conventional waste treatment systems. Among the topics considered are the following: (1) the relationship between survival time of pathogens and the chance of disease transmission to humans; (2) the factors that favor survival

Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

327

POULTRY WASTE MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES: A DESIGN AND APPLICATION MANUAL  

EPA Science Inventory

Changes in the egg production industry during the past 20-30 years have produced waste management problems which threaten both water and air quality. Results from a number of research studies have identified two processes--aerobic biological stabilization and drying--that provide...

328

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 1, Revision 3  

SciTech Connect

This volume includes the following chapters: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant RCRA A permit application; facility description; waste analysis plan; groundwater monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; RCRA contingency plan; personnel training; corrective action for solid waste management units; and other Federal laws.

Not Available

1993-03-01

329

Prodrug enzymes and their applications in image-guided therapy of cancer: tracking prodrug enzymes to minimize collateral damage  

PubMed Central

Many cytotoxic therapies are available to kill cancer cells. Unfortunately, these also inflict significant damage on normal cells. Identifying highly effective cancer treatments that have minimal or no side effects continues to be a major challenge. One of the strategies to minimize damage to normal tissue is to deliver an activating enzyme that localizes only in the tumor and converts a nontoxic prodrug to a cytotoxic agent locally in the tumor. Such strategies have been previously tested but with limited success due in large part to the uncertainty in the delivery and distribution of the enzyme. Imaging the delivery of the enzyme to optimize timing of the prodrug administration to achieve image-guided prodrug therapy would be of immense benefit for this strategy. Here, we have reviewed advances in the incorporation of image guidance in the applications of prodrug enzymes in cancer treatment. These advances demonstrate the feasibility of using clinically translatable imaging in these prodrug enzyme strategies. PMID:23646292

Penet, Marie-France; Chen, Zhihang; Li, Cong; Winnard, Paul T.

2013-01-01

330

Davidon-Broyden rank-one minimization methods in Hilbert space with application to optimal control problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Davidon-Broyden class of rank one, quasi-Newton minimization methods is extended from Euclidean spaces to infinite-dimensional, real Hilbert spaces. For several techniques of choosing the step size, conditions are found which assure convergence of the associated iterates to the location of the minimum of a positive definite quadratic functional. For those techniques, convergence is achieved without the problem of the computation of a one-dimensional minimum at each iteration. The application of this class of minimization methods for the direct computation of the solution of an optimal control problem is outlined. The performance of various members of the class are compared by solving a sample optimal control problem. Finally, the sample problem is solved by other known gradient methods, and the results are compared with those obtained with the rank one quasi-Newton methods.

Straeter, T. A.

1972-01-01

331

Adaptive Simulated Annealing for Energy Minimization Problem in a Marked Point Process Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We use marked point processes to detect an unknown number of trees from high resolution aerial images. This is in fact an\\u000a energy minimization problem, where the energy contains a prior term which takes into account the geometrical properties of\\u000a the objects, and a data term to match these objects to the image. This stochastic process is simulated via a

Guillaume Perrin; Xavier Descombes; Josiane Zerubia

2005-01-01

332

Advanced silicon diode temperature sensors with minimized self-heating and noise for cryogenic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Original results are presented on the development of new stable and reproducible silicon diode temperature sensors (DTSs), characterized by high interchangeability, with the temperature response curve controlled by the current. For these sensors, in a broadened range of temperatures 4.2-500 K, the influence of Joule heating and p-n junction noise on the accuracy of temperature measurement has been minimized. The

Yu. M. Shwarts; V. N. Sokolov; M. M. Shwarts; I. A. Fedorov; E. F. Venger

2000-01-01

333

Monte-Carlo Application for Nondestructive Nuclear Waste Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radioactive waste has to undergo a process of quality checking in order to check its conformance with national regulations prior to its transport, intermediate storage and final disposal. Within the quality checking of radioactive waste packages non-destructive assays are required to characterize their radio-toxic and chemo-toxic contents. The Institute of Energy and Climate Research - Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety of the Forschungszentrum Jlich develops in the framework of cooperation nondestructive analytical techniques for the routine characterization of radioactive waste packages at industrial-scale. During the phase of research and development Monte Carlo techniques are used to simulate the transport of particle, especially photons, electrons and neutrons, through matter and to obtain the response of detection systems. The radiological characterization of low and intermediate level radioactive waste drums is performed by segmented ?-scanning (SGS). To precisely and accurately reconstruct the isotope specific activity content in waste drums by SGS measurement, an innovative method called SGSreco was developed. The Geant4 code was used to simulate the response of the collimated detection system for waste drums with different activity and matrix configurations. These simulations allow a far more detailed optimization, validation and benchmark of SGSreco, since the construction of test drums covering a broad range of activity and matrix properties is time consuming and cost intensive. The MEDINA (Multi Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation) test facility was developed to identify and quantify non-radioactive elements and substances in radioactive waste drums. MEDINA is based on prompt and delayed gamma neutron activation analysis (P&DGNAA) using a 14 MeV neutron generator. MCNP simulations were carried out to study the response of the MEDINA facility in terms of gamma spectra, time dependence of the neutron energy spectrum, neutron flux distribution. The validation of the measurements simulations with Mont-Carlo transport codes for the design, optimization and data analysis of further P&DGNAA facilities is performed in collaboration with LMN CEA Cadarache. The performance of the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) for the nondestructive determination of actinides in small samples is investigated. The quantitative determination of actinides relies on the precise knowledge of partial neutron capture cross sections. Up to today these cross sections are not very accurate for analytical purpose. The goal of the TANDEM (Trans-uranium Actinides' Nuclear Data - Evaluation and Measurement) Collaboration is the evaluation of these cross sections. Cross sections are measured using prompt gamma activation analysis facilities in Budapest and Munich. Geant4 is used to optimally design the detection system with Compton suppression. Furthermore, for the evaluation of the cross sections it is strongly needed to correct the results to the self-attenuation of the prompt gammas within the sample. In the framework of cooperation RWTH Aachen University, Forschungszentrum Jlich and the Siemens AG will study the feasibility of a compact Neutron Imaging System for Radioactive waste Analysis (NISRA). The system is based on a 14 MeV neutron source and an advanced detector system (a-Si flat panel) linked to an exclusive converter/scintillator for fast neutrons. For shielding and radioprotection studies the codes MCNPX and Geant4 were used. The two codes were benchmarked in processing time and accuracy in the neutron and gamma fluxes. Also the detector response was simulated with Geant4 to optimize components of the system.

Carasco, C.; Engels, R.; Frank, M.; Furletov, S.; Furletova, J.; Genreith, C.; Havenith, A.; Kemmerling, G.; Kettler, J.; Krings, T.; Ma, J.-L.; Mauerhofer, E.; Neike, D.; Payan, E.; Perot, B.; Rossbach, M.; Schitthelm, O.; Schumann, M.; Vasquez, R.

2014-06-01

334

State Waste Discharge Permit application for industrial discharge to land: 200 East Area W-252 streams  

SciTech Connect

This document constitutes the WAC 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit application for six W-252 liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site. Appendices B through H correspond to Section B through H in the permit application form. Within each appendix, sections correspond directly to the respective questions on the application form. The appendices include: Product or service information; Plant operational characteristics; Water consumption and waterloss; Wastewater information; Stormwater; Other information; and Site assessment.

Not Available

1993-12-01

335

Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a research and development facility for the demonstration of the permanent isolation of transuranic radioactive wastes in a geologic formation. The facility was constructed in southeastern New Mexico in a manner intended to meet criteria established by the scientific and regulatory community for the safe, long-term disposal of transuranic wastes. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing an application to demonstrate compliance with the requirements outlined in Title 40, Part 191 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) for the permanent disposal of transuranic wastes. As mandated by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Land Withdrawal Act of 1992, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must evaluate this compliance application and provide a determination regarding compliance with the requirements within one year of receiving a complete application. Because the WIPP is a very complex program, the DOE has planned to submit the application as a draft in two parts. This strategy will allow for the DOE and the EPA to begin technical discussions on critical WIPP issues before the one-year compliance determination period begins. This report is the first of these two draft submittals.

NONE

1995-03-31

336

Application of integrated methods in mapping waste disposal areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated suite of environmental methods was used to characterize the hydrogeological, geological and tectonic regime of the largest waste disposal landfill of Crete Island, the Fodele municipal solid waste site (MSW), to determine the geometry of the landfill (depth and spatial extent of electrically conductive anomalies), to define the anisotropy caused by bedrock fabric fractures and to locate potential zones of electrically conductive contamination. A combination of geophysical methods and chemical analysis was implemented for the characterization and management of the landfill. Five different types of geophysical surveys were performed: (1) 2D electrical resistance tomography (ERT), (2) electromagnetic measurements using very low frequencies (VLF), (3) electromagnetic conductivity (EM31), (4) seismic refraction measurements (SR), and (5) ambient noise measurements (HVSR). The above geophysical methods were used with the aim of studying the subsurface properties of the landfill and to define the exact geometrical characteristics of the site under investigation.

Soupios, Pantelis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Papadopoulos, Ilias; Kouli, Maria; Vallianatos, Filippos; Sarris, Apostolos; Manios, Thrassyvoulos

2007-11-01

337

Waste Collector System Technology Comparisons for Constellation Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Waste Collection Systems (WCS) for space vehicles have utilized a variety of hardware for collecting human metabolic wastes. It has typically required multiple missions to resolve crew usability and hardware performance issues that are difficult to duplicate on the ground. New space vehicles should leverage off past WCS systems. Past WCS hardware designs are substantially different and unique for each vehicle. However, each WCS can be analyzed and compared as a subset of technologies which encompass fecal collection, urine collection, air systems, pretreatment systems. Technology components from the WCS of various vehicles can then be combined to reduce hardware mass and volume while maximizing use of previous technology and proven human-equipment interfaces. Analysis of past US and Russian WCS are compared and extrapolated to Constellation missions.

Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

2006-01-01

338

Recycled Water Reuse Permit Renewal Application for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond  

SciTech Connect

ABSTRACT This renewal application for the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (IWRP) WRU-I-0160-01 at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Industrial Waste Ditch (IWD) and Industrial Waste Pond (IWP) is being submitted to the State of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ). This application has been prepared in compliance with the requirements in IDAPA 58.01.17, Recycled Water Rules. Information in this application is consistent with the IDAPA 58.01.17 rules, pre-application meeting, and the Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater (September 2007). This application is being submitted using much of the same information contained in the initial permit application, submitted in 2007, and modification, in 2012. There have been no significant changes to the information and operations covered in the existing IWRP. Summary of the monitoring results and operation activity that has occurred since the issuance of the WRP has been included. MFC has operated the IWP and IWD as regulated wastewater land treatment facilities in compliance with the IDAPA 58.01.17 regulations and the IWRP. Industrial wastewater, consisting primarily of continuous discharges of nonhazardous, nonradioactive, routinely discharged noncontact cooling water and steam condensate, periodic discharges of industrial wastewater from the MFC facility process holdup tanks, and precipitation runoff, are discharged to the IWP and IWD system from various MFC facilities. Wastewater goes to the IWP and IWD with a permitted annual flow of up to 17 million gallons/year. All requirements of the IWRP are being met. The Operations and Maintenance Manual for the Industrial Wastewater System will be updated to include any new requirements.

No Name

2014-10-01

339

Applications of multiphysical geomechanics in underground nuclear waste storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep geological disposal in suitable host rocks is the favoured strategy for the storage and disposal of heat-emitting high level nuclear waste. A rational design of repositories requires a good understanding of the interacting thermo-hydro-mechanical phenomena that occur in the engineered barrier and adjacent rock. To this end, a multiphysical formulation is described that allows the performance of coupled THM

Antonio Gens; Benoit Garitte; Sebasti Olivella; Jean Vaunat

2009-01-01

340

Imaging data analyses for hazardous waste applications. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents some examples of the use of remote sensing products for characterization of hazardous waste sites. The sites are located at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) where materials associated with past weapons testing are buried. Problems of interest include delineation of strata for soil sampling, detection and delineation of buried trenches containing contaminants, seepage from capped areas and old septic drain fields, and location of faults and fractures relative to hazardous waste areas. Merging of site map and other geographic information with imagery was found by site managers to produce useful products. Merging of hydrographic and soil contaminant data aided soil sampling strategists. Overlays of suspected trench on multispectral and thermal images showed correlation between image signatures and trenches. Overlays of engineering drawings on recent and historical photos showed error in trench location and extent. A thermal image showed warm anomalies suspected to be areas of water seepage through an asphalt cap. Overlays of engineering drawings on multispectral and thermal images showed correlation between image signatures and drain fields. Analysis of aerial photography and spectral signatures of faults/fractures improved geologic maps of mixed waste areas.

David, N.; Ginsberg, I.W.

1995-12-01

341

Application of gaseous core reactors for transmutation of nuclear waste  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An acceptable management scheme for high-level radioactive waste is vital to the nuclear industry. The hazard potential of the trans-uranic actinides and of key fission products is high due to their nuclear activity and/or chemical toxicity. Of particular concern are the very long-lived nuclides whose hazard potential remains high for hundreds of thousands of years. Neutron induced transmutation offers a promising technique for the treatment of problem wastes. Transmutation is unique as a waste management scheme in that it offers the potential for "destruction" of the hazardous nuclides by conversion to non-hazardous or more manageable nuclides. The transmutation potential of a thermal spectrum uranium hexafluoride fueled cavity reactor was examined. Initial studies focused on a heavy water moderated cavity reactor fueled with 5% enriched U-235-F6 and operating with an average thermal flux of 6 times 10 to the 14th power neutrons/sq cm-sec. The isotopes considered for transmutation were I-129, Am-241, Am-242m, Am-243, Cm-243, Cm-244, Cm-245, and Cm-246.

Schnitzler, B. G.; Paternoster, R. R.; Schneider, R. T.

1976-01-01

342

Nuclear microprobe applications to radioactive waste management basic research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radioactive waste management is one of the major technical and scientific challenge to be solved by industrialized countries near the beginning of the 21st century. Relevant questions arise about the extrapolation of the long term-behavior of materials from waste package, engineered barriers and near field repository. Whatever the strategical option might be, wet atmosphere or water intrusion through the different barriers constitute the two main remobilization factors for radionuclides in the geosphere and the biosphere. The study of solid alteration processes and elemental sorption phenomena on mineral surfaces is one of the most efficient basic research approaches to assess the long term performance of waste materials. Ion beam analysis and more recently nuclear microprobe techniques have been applied to investigate exchange mechanisms near representative solid/liquid interfaces such as glass/deionized water, uranium dioxide/granitic or clay water or mineral surface/aqueous solution doped with chemical elements analogue to actinide or fission products. This paper intends to describe the different works that have been carried out in Saclay using the nuclear microprobe facility. The coupling of ?RBS, ?PIXE and ?NRA permits to determine the evolution of the surface composition induced by chemical reactions involved. Complementary observation of solid morphology and solution analysis allows to obtain a complete elemental balance on exchange processes.

Trocellier, P.; Badillo, V.; Barr, N.; Bois, L.; Cachoir, C.; Gallien, J. P.; Guilbert, S.; Mercier, F.; Tiffreau, C.

1999-10-01

343

The applicability of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy in waste management  

SciTech Connect

State and stability or reactivity of waste materials are important properties that must be determined to obtain information about the future behavior and the emission potential of the materials. Different chemical and biological parameters are used to describe the stage of organic matter in waste materials. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy provides information about the chemistry of waste materials in a general way. Several indicator bands that are referred to functional groups represent components or metabolic products. Their presence and intensity or their absence shed light on the phase of degradation or stabilization. The rapid assessment of the stage of organic matter decomposition is a very important field of application. Therefore, infrared spectroscopy is an appropriate tool for process and quality control, for the assessment of abandoned landfills and for checking of the successful landfill remediation. A wide range of applications are presented in this study for different waste materials. Progressing stages of a typical yard/kitchen waste composting process are shown. The fate of anaerobically 'stabilized' leftovers in a subsequent liquid aerobic process is revealed by spectroscopic characteristics. A compost that underwent the biological stabilization process is distinguished from a 'substrate' that comprises immature biogenic waste mixed with mineral compounds. Infrared spectra of freeze-dried leachate from untreated and aerated landfill material prove the effect of the aerobic treatment during 10 weeks in laboratory-scale experiments.

Smidt, Ena [BOKU - University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Institute of Waste Management, Department of Water, Atmosphere and Environment, Muthgasse 107, 1190 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: ena.smidt@boku.ac.at; Meissl, Katharina [BOKU - University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Institute of Waste Management, Department of Water, Atmosphere and Environment, Muthgasse 107, 1190 Vienna (Austria)

2007-07-01

344

Compaction of Space Mission Wastes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current solid waste management system employed on the International Space Station (ISS) consists of compaction, storage, and disposal. Wastes such plastic food packaging and trash are compacted manually and wrapped in duct tape footballs by the astronauts. Much of the waste is simply loaded either into the empty Russian Progress vehicle for destruction on reentry or into Shuttle for return to Earth. This manual method is wasteful of crew time and does not transition well to far term missions. Different wastes onboard spacecraft vary considerably in their characteristics and in the appropriate method of management. In advanced life support systems for far term missions, recovery of resources such as water from the wastes becomes important. However waste such as plastic food packaging, which constitutes a large fraction of solid waste (roughly 21% on ISS, more on long duration missions), contains minimal recoverable resource. The appropriate management of plastic waste is waste stabilization and volume minimization rather than resource recovery. This paper describes work that has begun at Ames Research Center on development of a heat melt compactor that can be used on near term and future missions, that can minimize crew interaction, and that can handle wastes with a significant plastic composition. The heat melt compactor takes advantage of the low melting point of plastics to compact plastic materials using a combination of heat and pressure. The US Navy has demonstrated successful development of a similar unit for shipboard application. Ames is building upon the basic approach demonstrated by the Navy to develop an advanced heat melt type compactor for space mission type wastes.

Fisher, John; Pisharody, Suresh; Wignarajah, K.

2004-01-01

345

AC induction servo sizing for motion control applications via loss minimizing real-time flux control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A design procedure for induction machine servo motion control applications that can be used to optimally select the minimum size machine and\\/or to obtain optimal time performance from a given machine is presented. The basis of the technique is in modeling and controlling of machine losses. In motion control servo applications, the position and velocity trajectories are often specified. For

Robert D. Lorenz; Sheng-Ming Yang

1992-01-01

346

A fixed point method for homotopic l 0-minimization with application to MR image recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel method for highly-undersampled Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) reconstruction is presented. One of the principal challenges faced in clinical MR imaging is the fundamental linear relation between net exam duration and admissible spatial resolution. Increased scan duration diminishes patient comfort while increasing the risk of susceptibility to motion artifact and limits the ability to depict many physiological events at high temporal rates. With the recent development of Compressive Sampling theory, several authors have successfully demonstrated that clinical MR images possessing a sparse representation in some transform domain can be accurately reconstructed even when sampled at rates well below the Nyquist limit by casting the recovery as a convex l I-minimization problem. While l I-based techniques offer a sizeable advantage over Nyquist-limited methods, they nonetheless require a modest degree of over-sampling above the true theoretical minimum sampling rate in order to guarantee the achievability of exact reconstruction. In this work, we present a reconstruction model based on homotopic approximation of the l 0 quasi-norm and discuss the ability of this technique to reconstruct undersampled MR images at rates even lower than are achievable than with l I-minimization and arbitrarily close to the true minimum sampling rate. A semi-implicit numerical solver is presented for efficient numerical computation of the reconstruction process and several examples depicting the capability for accurate MRI reconstructions from highly-undersampled K-space data are presented.

Trzasko, Joshua D.; Manduca, Armando

2008-03-01

347

Activated carbon from leather shaving wastes and its application in removal of toxic materials.  

PubMed

In this study, utilization of a solid waste as raw material for activated carbon production was investigated. For this purpose, activated carbons were produced from chromium and vegetable tanned leather shaving wastes by physical and chemical activation methods. A detailed analysis of the surface properties of the activated carbons including acidity, total surface area, extent of microporosity and mesoporosity was presented. The activated carbon produced from vegetable tanned leather shaving waste produced has a higher surface area and micropore volume than the activated carbon produced from chromium tanned leather shaving waste. The potential application of activated carbons obtained from vegetable tanned shavings as adsorbent for removal of water pollutants have been checked for phenol, methylene blue, and Cr(VI). Adsorption capacities of activated carbons were found to be comparable to that of activated carbons derived from biomass. PMID:20382474

Kantarli, Ismail Cem; Yanik, Jale

2010-07-15

348

Survey of systems safety analysis methods and their application to nuclear waste management systems  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews system safety analysis methods and examines their application to nuclear waste management systems. The safety analysis methods examined include expert opinion, maximum credible accident approach, design basis accidents approach, hazard indices, preliminary hazards analysis, failure modes and effects analysis, fault trees, event trees, cause-consequence diagrams, G0 methodology, Markov modeling, and a general category of consequence analysis models. Previous and ongoing studies on the safety of waste management systems are discussed along with their limitations and potential improvements. The major safety methods and waste management safety related studies are surveyed. This survey provides information on what safety methods are available, what waste management safety areas have been analyzed, and what are potential areas for future study.

Pelto, P.J.; Winegardner, W.K.; Gallucci, R.H.V.

1981-11-01

349

Hanford facility dangerous waste Part A, Form 3 and Part B permit application documentation, Central Waste Complex (WA7890008967)(TSD: TS-2-4)  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, operating, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the Central Waste Complex (this document, DOE/RL-91-17). Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needed by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is contained in the Central Waste Complex permit application documentation, in relation to the Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents section. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever appropriate, the Central Waste Complex permit application documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. Information provided in this Central Waste Complex permit application documentation is current as of May 1998.

Saueressig, D.G.

1998-05-20

350

Collision-minimizing CSMA and its applications to wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research in sensor networks, wireless location systems, and power-saving in ad hoc networks suggests that some applications' wireless traffic be modeled as an event-driven workload: a workload where many nodes send traffic at the time of an event, not all reports of the event are needed by higher-level protocols and applications, and events occur infrequently relative to the time

Y. C. Tay; Kyle Jamieson; Hari Balakrishnan

2004-01-01

351

Unconstrained and constrained minimization, localization, and the Grassmann manifold: Theory and application to electronic structure  

SciTech Connect

An unconstrained minimization algorithm for electronic structure calculations using density functional for systems with a gap is developed to solve for nonorthogonal Wannier-like orbitals in the spirit of E. B. Stechel, A. R. Williams, and P. J. Feibelman [Phys. Rev. B 49, 10 008 (1994)]. The search for the occupied subspace is a Grassmann conjugate gradient algorithm generalized from the algorithm of A. Edelman, T. A. Arias, and S. T. Smith [SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl. 20, 303 (1998)]. The gradient takes into account the nonorthogonality of a local atom-centered basis, Gaussian in our implementation. With a localization constraint on the Wannier-like orbitals, well-constructed sparse matrix multiplies lead to O(N) scaling of the computationally intensive parts of the algorithm. Using silicon carbide as a test system, the accuracy, convergence, and implementation of this algorithm as a quantitative alternative to diagonalization are investigated. Results up to 1458 atoms on a single processor are presented.

Raczkowski, David; Fong, C. Y.; Schultz, Peter A.; Lippert, R. A.; Stechel, E. B.

2001-10-15

352

Unconstrained and constrained minimization, localization, and the Grassmann manifold: Theory and application to electronic structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An unconstrained minimization algorithm for electronic structure calculations using density functional for systems with a gap is developed to solve for nonorthogonal Wannier-like orbitals in the spirit of E. B. Stechel, A. R. Williams, and P. J. Feibelman [Phys. Rev. B 49, 10 008 (1994)]. The search for the occupied subspace is a Grassmann conjugate gradient algorithm generalized from the algorithm of A. Edelman, T. A. Arias, and S. T. Smith [SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl. 20, 303 (1998)]. The gradient takes into account the nonorthogonality of a local atom-centered basis, Gaussian in our implementation. With a localization constraint on the Wannier-like orbitals, well-constructed sparse matrix multiplies lead to O(N) scaling of the computationally intensive parts of the algorithm. Using silicon carbide as a test system, the accuracy, convergence, and implementation of this algorithm as a quantitative alternative to diagonalization are investigated. Results up to 1458 atoms on a single processor are presented.

Raczkowski, David; Fong, C. Y.; Schultz, Peter A.; Lippert, R. A.; Stechel, E. B.

2001-10-01

353

The potential application of military fleet scheduling tools to the Federal Waste Management System Transportation System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the feasibility of adapting concepts and tools that were developed for the US military`s transportation management systems to the management of the Federal Waste Management System`s (FWMS) Transportation System. Many of the lessons in the development of the planning and scheduling software for the US military are applicable to the development of similar software for the FWMS

I. G. Harrison; R. B. Pope; R. D. Kraemer; M. R. Hilliard

1991-01-01

354

The potential application of military fleet scheduling tools to the Federal Waste Management System Transportation System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the feasibility of adapting concepts and tools that were developed for the US military's transportation management systems to the management of the Federal Waste Management System's (FWMS) Transportation System. Many of the lessons in the development of the planning and scheduling software for the US military are applicable to the development of similar software for the FWMS

I. G. Harrison; R. B. Pope; R. D. Kraemer; M. R. Hilliard

1991-01-01

355

Microwave applicator for in-drum processing of radioactive waste slurry  

DOEpatents

A microwave applicator for processing of radioactive waste slurry uses a waveguide network which splits an input microwave of TE.sub.10 rectangular mode to TE.sub.01 circular mode. A cylindrical body has four openings, each receiving 1/4 of the power input. The waveguide network includes a plurality of splitters to effect the 1/4 divisions of power.

White, Terry L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01

356

APPLICATION OF STAGED COMBUSTION AND REBURNING TO THE CO-FIRING OF NITROGEN-CONTAINING WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of an evaluation of a 0.6 MW precombustion chamber burner, designed for in-furnace NOx control, high combustion efficiency, and retrofit applications, for use with high nitrogen content fuel/waste mixtures. he 250- to 750- ms residence time precombustion c...

357

APPLICATION OF LOW NOX PRECOMBUSTOR TECHNOLOGY TO THE INCINERATION OF NITROGENATED WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of an evaluation of a 0.6 precombustion chamber burner/package boiler simulator, designed for in-furnace NOx control and high combustion efficiency, for high nitrogen content fuel combustion/waste incineration application. The 250-750 ms residence time pre...

358

Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Climate and Wastewater Storage - Module 8, Objectives, and Script.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module discusses the hydrologic considerations that apply to land application of wastes. These are precipitation, infiltration and percolation, evapotranspiration, runoff, and groundwater. Climatic considerations that relate to wastewater storage are also discussed. Particular emphasis is given to wastewater flow, precipitation, evaporation,

Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

359

Membrane Lipid Analysis Applications to Monitoring Land Application of Food Processing Waste Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land application of food processing waste is a common treatment technique relying on the soil assimilation capacity, including biological activity, for effective treatment. This treatment technique poses implications for ground water associated with metal leaching when excess loading occurs resulting in oxygen limitations. Determining prescriptive loadings that are protective of groundwater for food processors who dispose of wastewater by land application can be difficult due to site variability related to environmental conditions, application techniques, and varying wastewater characteristics. In an effort to responsibly practice wastewater land application, the use of soil sensors, soil leachate water quality parameters, and phospholipids measurements were researched to determine if assimilation could be predicted. Laboratory sand soil columns were constructed to mimic the conditions represented by food processing wastewater irrigation systems. Soil sensors for temperature, oxygen, and soil moisture were installed in the column and relayed semi-continuous data for the soil conditions within the soil columns. Results indicate the sensors predicted over loading that would result in metal leaching. Soil samples analyzed for phospholipid fatty acids further supported this data by categorizing the soil microbial community which indicates the treatment processes occurring within three depths (3, 12, and 20 inches) of the soil columns sampled before and after impact from excessive loading. Membrane lipid analyses uses GC/MS and HPLC/ES/MS/MS to provide estimates of biomass, phospholipid community profiles and respiratory quinone profiles. Biomasss estimates showed declining biomass with depth in the column. At the 3" depth the biomass averaged ~68,000 pmole/gdw, while biomass averaged ~500 and ~30 pmol/gdw for 12" and 20" depths, respectively. Specific phospholipids indicated the presence of fungi (18:2's) in the 3" depth and the presence of sulfate- reducing bacteria (10Me16) at 12 and 20" depths. Menaquinones (MK4, MK5 and MK6) dominated the respiratory quinone profiles while UQ6 represented the most abundant ubiquinone. Biomass and community profiles varied with column treatment. In combination with the sensor and leachate data, the membrane lipid results were able to further identify the underlying processes and serve as an indicator of loading that may result in metal leaching. Continuing field scale research will provide a better understanding of these biogeochemical processes for improve treatment strategies.

Larson, R. A.; Fernandez-Torres, I.; Safferman, S. I.; Pfiffner, S. M.

2008-12-01

360

Three-chip LED illumination system for laparoscopy and minimal access surgery applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) bring great flexibility in color choice and high luminous efficacy design for biomedical illumination. Based on the state-of-the-art LED chips, a three-chip LED illumination system was developed specially for laparoscopy and minimal access surgery. White light is produced by mixing three specific wavelengths of amber red, true green and blue, and then coupled into a fiber-optic light guide with 2mm diameter. The whole device has a compact size of 145mm ラ 92mm ラ 84 mm which is more suitable than a conventional xenon lamp source for portable endoscopes. The illuminance and color characteristic of the three-chip model were analyzed, compared to those of traditional light source. A maximum illuminance of 1960 lux was obtained at the distance of 100 mm, with the average current of 450 mA of the LEDs. Additionally, a simulation environment had been set up to find out the performance of the endo-illuminator in the specific circumstance, which was closer distance and crawl space. Experiments showed that images taken under the three-chip LED illumination had better contrast and saturation. With the temperature of 31.5 degrees Celsius at the end of the fiber bundle, the endo-illuminator is also a cold light source.

Ye, Bin; Wang, Liqiang; Duan, Huilong

2010-11-01

361

Sestamibi scintigraphy for the application of minimally invasive surgery of hyperfunctioning parathyroid lesions.  

PubMed

Complete surgical resection of hyperfunctioning parathyroid tissue is essential for the curative treatment of hyperparathyroidism. It is very important to identify the accurate location of the affected parathyroid glands by imaging tests to successfully achieve this surgical treatment. Tc-99m labeled sestamibi is a radiopharmaceutical with high affinity for endocrinologically active parathyroid tissue, and scintigraphic evaluation using this radioactive agent is very useful in confirming the location of the affected parathyroid glands. The recent remarkable development of hand-held gamma-ray detectors makes it easy to perform radio-guided surgery, which is a combination of a preoperative intravenous injection of sestamibi and intraoperative navigation by the gamma-rays radiating from the pathological sites. This strategy can be easily applied to the resection of the ectopically located gland and is also useful to confirm the absence of endocrinologically active tissue after the operation. Additional chest SPECT imaging might be effective in the risk assessment of cardiac incidence in the perioperative period, as sestamibi was originally developed for the evaluation of myocardial perfusion. In conclusion, Tc-99m sestamibi will be more popularly applied to the treatment of hyperparathyroidism as minimally invasive surgery increases in favor. PMID:12487242

Fujii, Hirofumi; Kubo, Atsushi

2002-01-01

362

Applicability of PM3 to transphosphorylation reaction path: Toward designing a minimal ribozyme  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A growing body of evidence shows that RNA can catalyze many of the reactions necessary both for replication of genetic material and the possible transition into the modern protein-based world. However, contemporary ribozymes are too large to have self-assembled from a prebiotic oligonucleotide pool. Still, it is likely that the major features of the earliest ribozymes have been preserved as molecular fossils in the catalytic RNA of today. Therefore, the search for a minimal ribozyme has been aimed at finding the necessary structural features of a modern ribozyme (Beaudry and Joyce, 1990). Both a three-dimensional model and quantum chemical calculations are required to quantitatively determine the effects of structural features of the ribozyme on the reaction it catalyzes. Using this model, quantum chemical calculations must be performed to determine quantitatively the effects of structural features on catalysis. Previous studies of the reaction path have been conducted at the ab initio level, but these methods are limited to small models due to enormous computational requirements. Semiempirical methods have been applied to large systems in the past; however, the accuracy of these methods depends largely on a simple model of the ribozyme-catalyzed reaction, or hydrolysis of phosphoric acid. We find that the results are qualitatively similar to ab initio results using large basis sets. Therefore, PM3 is suitable for studying the reaction path of the ribozyme-catalyzed reaction.

Manchester, John I.; Shibata, Masayuki; Setlik, Robert F.; Ornstein, Rick L.; Rein, Robert

1993-01-01

363

Unconstrained and Constrained Minimization, Linear Scaling, and the Grassmann Manifold: Theory and Applications  

SciTech Connect

An unconstrained minimization algorithm for electronic structure calculations using density functional for systems with a gap is developed to solve for nonorthogonal Wannier-like orbitals in the spirit of E. B. Stechel, A. R. Williams, and P. J. Feibelman, Phys. Rev. B 49, 10,008 (1994). The search for the occupied sub-space is a Grassmann conjugate gradient algorithm generalized from the algorithm of A. Edelman, T.A. Arias, and S. T. Smith, SIAM J. on Matrix Anal. Appl. 20, 303 (1998). The gradient takes into account the nonorthogonality of a local atom-centered basis, gaussian in their implementation. With a localization constraint on the Wannier-like orbitals, well-constructed sparse matrix multiplies lead to O(N) scaling of the computationally intensive parts of the algorithm. Using silicon carbide as a test system, the accuracy, convergence, and implementation of this algorithm as a quantitative alternative to diagonalization are investigated. Results up to 1,458 atoms on a single processor are presented.

RACZKOWSKI,DAVID; FONG,C.Y.; SCHULTZ,PETER A.; LIPPERT,ROSS A.; STECHEL,E.B.

2000-07-19

364

Finite element based stability-constrained weight minimization of sandwich composite ducts for airship applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) airships are platform of interest due to their persistent observation and persistent communication capabilities. A novel HALE airship design configuration incorporates a composite sandwich propulsive hull duct between the front and the back of the hull for significant drag reduction via blown wake effects. The sandwich composite shell duct is subjected to hull pressure on its outer walls and flow suction on its inner walls which result in in-plane wall compressive stress, which may cause duct buckling. An approach based upon finite element stability analysis combined with a ply layup and foam thickness determination weight minimization search algorithm is utilized. Its goal is to achieve an optimized solution for the configuration of the sandwich composite as a solution to a constrained minimum weight design problem, for which the shell duct remains stable with a prescribed margin of safety under prescribed loading. The stability analysis methodology is first verified by comparing published analytical results for a number of simple cylindrical shell configurations with FEM counterpart solutions obtained using the commercially available code ABAQUS. Results show that the approach is effective in identifying minimum weight composite duct configurations for a number of representative combinations of duct geometry, composite material and foam properties, and propulsive duct applied pressure loading.

Khode, Urmi B.

365

Application of poultry processing industry waste: A strategy for vegetation growth in degraded soil.  

PubMed

The disposal of poultry processing industry waste into the environment without proper care, can cause contamination. Agricultural monitored application is an alternative for disposal, considering its high amount of organic matter and its potential as a soil fertilizer. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of poultry processing industry waste to improve the conditions of a degraded soil from a desertification hotspot, contributing to leguminous tree seedlings growth. The study was carried out under greenhouse conditions in a randomized blocks design and a 4ラ2 factorial scheme with five replicates. The treatments featured four amounts of poultry processing industry waste (D1=control 0kgha(-1); D2=1020.41kgha(-1); D3=2040.82kgha(-1); D4=4081.63kgha(-1)) and two leguminous tree species (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit). The poultry processing industry waste was composed of poultry blood, grease, excrements and substances from the digestive system. Plant height, biomass production, plant nutrient accumulation and soil organic carbon were measured forty days after waste application. Leguminous tree seedlings growth was increased by waste amounts, especially M. caesalpiniaefolia Benth, with height increment of 29.5cm for the waste amount of 1625kgha(-1), and L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit, with maximum height increment of 20cm for the waste amount of 3814.3kgha(-1). M. caesalpiniaefolia Benth had greater initial growth, as well as greater biomass and nutrient accumulation compared with L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. However, belowground biomass was similar between the evaluated species, resulting in higher root/shoot ratio for L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Soil organic carbon did not show significant response to waste amounts, but it did to leguminous tree seedlings growth, especially L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Poultry processing industry waste contributes to leguminous tree seedlings growth, indicating that it can be part of a long-term strategy to increase soil organic carbon in degraded soil from a desertification hotspot. PMID:25464939

do Nascimento, Carla Danielle Vasconcelos; Filho, Roberto Albuquerque Pontes; Artur, Adriana Guirado; Costa, Mirian Cristina Gomes

2015-02-01

366

Lyophilization -Solid Waste Treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the development of a solid waste treatment system that has been designed for a Mars transit exploration mission. The technology described is an energy-efficient lyophilization technique that is designed to recover water from spacecraft solid wastes. Candidate wastes include feces, concentrated brines from water processors, and other solid wastes that contain free water. The system is designed to operate as a stand-alone process or to be integrated into the International Space Station Waste Collection System. In the lyophilization process, water in an aqueous waste is frozen and then sublimed, separating the waste into a dried solid material and liquid water. The sublimed water is then condensed in a solid ice phase and then melted to generate a liquid product. In the subject system the waste solids are contained within a 0.2 micron bio-guard bag and after drying are removed from the system and stored in a secondary container. This technology is ideally suited to applications such as the Mars Reference Mission, where water recovery rates approaching 100% are desirable but production of CO2 is not. The system is designed to minimize power consumption through the use of thermoelectric heat pumps. The results of preliminary testing of a prototype system and testing of the final configuration are provided. A mathematical model of the system is also described.

Litwiller, Eric; Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Reinhard, Martin

2004-01-01

367

Microwave Technology for Waste Management Applications Including Disposition of Electronic Circuitry  

SciTech Connect

Advanced microwave technology is being developed nationally and internationally for a variety of waste management and environmental remediation purposes. These efforts include treatment and destruction of a vast array of gaseous, liquid and solid hazardous wastes as well as subsequent immobilization of hazardous components into leach resistant forms. Microwave technology provides an important contribution to an arsenal of existing remediation methods that are designed to protect the public and environment from the undesirable consequences of hazardous materials. One application of special interest is the treatment of discarded electronic circuitry using a new hybrid microwave treatment process and subsequent reclamation of the precious metals within.

Wicks, G.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Clark, D.E. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Schulz, R.L. [University of Flordia, Gainesville, FL (United States)

1998-06-01

368

Modelling biogas production of solid waste: application of the BGP model to a synthetic landfill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Production of biogas as a result of the decomposition of organic matter included on solid waste landfills is still an issue to be understood. Reports on this matter are rarely included on the engineering construction projects of solid waste landfills despite it can be an issue of critical importance while operating the landfill and after its closure. This paper presents an application of BGP (Bio-Gas-Production) model to a synthetic landfill. The evolution in time of the concentrations of the different chemical compounds of biogas is studied. Results obtained show the impact on the air quality of different management alternatives which are usually performed in real landfills.

Rodrigo-Ilarri, Javier; Segura-Sobrino, Francisco

2013-04-01

369

Impact of Animal Waste Application on Runoff Water Quality in Field Experimental Plots  

PubMed Central

Animal waste from dairy and poultry operations is an economical and commonly used fertilizer in the state of Louisiana. The application of animal waste to pasture lands not only is a source of fertilizer, but also allows for a convenient method of waste disposal. The disposal of animal wastes on land is a potential nonpoint source of water degradation. Water degradation and human health is a major concern when considering the disposal of large quantities of animal waste. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of animal waste application on biological (fecal coliform, Enterobacter spp. and Escherichia coli) and physical/chemical (temperature, pH, nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, phosphate, copper, zinc, and sulfate) characteristics of runoff water in experimental plots. The effects of the application of animal waste have been evaluated by utilizing experimental plots and simulated rainfall events. Samples of runoff water were collected and analyzed for fecal coliforms. Fecal coliforms isolated from these samples were identified to the species level. Chemical analysis was performed following standard test protocols. An analysis of temperature, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, iron, copper, phosphate, potassium, sulfate, zinc and bacterial levels was performed following standard test protocols as presented in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater [1]. In the experimental plots, less time was required in the tilled broiler litter plots for the measured chemicals to decrease below the initial pre-treatment levels. A decrease of over 50% was noted between the first and second rainfall events for sulfate levels. This decrease was seen after only four simulated rainfall events in tilled broiler litter plots whereas broiler litter plots required eight simulated rainfall events to show this same type of reduction. A reverse trend was seen in the broiler litter plots and the tilled broiler plots for potassium. Bacteria numbers present after the simulated rainfall events were above 200/100 ml of sample water. It can be concluded that: 1) non-point source pollution has a significant effect on bacterial and nutrients levels in runoff water and in water resources; 2) land application of animal waste for soil fertilization makes a significant contribution to water pollution; 3) the use of tilling can significantly reduce the amount of nutrients available in runoff water. PMID:16705834

Hill, Dagne D.; Owens, William E.; Tchounwou, Paul B.

2005-01-01

370

Hazardous Waste Certification Plan: Hazardous Waste Handling Facility, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of hazardous waste (HW) handled in the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). The plan also incorporates the applicable elements of waste reduction, which include both up-front minimization and end- product treatment to reduce the volume and toxicity of the waste; segregation of the waste as it applies to certification; and executive summary of the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the HWHF and a list of the current and planned implementing procedures used in waste certification. The plan provides guidance from the HWHF to waste generators, waste handlers, and the Systems Group Manager to enable them to conduct their activities and carry out their responsibilities in a manner that complies with several requirements of the Federal Resource Conservation and Resource Recovery Act (RCRA), the Federal Department of Transportation (DOT), and the State of California, Code of Regulations (CCR), Title 22.

Not Available

1992-02-01

371

Functional analysis, a resilience improvement tool applied to a waste management system - application to the "household waste management chain"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A waste management system plays a leading role in the capacity of an area to restart after flooding, as their impact on post-crisis management can be very considerable. Improving resilience, i.e. enabling it to maintain or recover acceptable operating levels after flooding is primordial. To achieve this, we must understand how the system works for bringing any potential dysfunctions to light and taking preventive measures. Functional analysis has been used for understanding the complexity of this type of system. The purpose of this article is to show the interest behind this type of method and the limits in its use for improving resilience of waste management system as well as other urban technical systems1, by means of theoretical modelling and its application on a study site. 1In a systemic vision of the city, urban technical systems combine all the user service systems that are essential for the city to operate (electricity, water supplies, transport, sewerage, etc.). These systems are generally organised in the form of networks (Coutard, 2010; CERTU, 2005).

Beraud, H.; Barroca, B.; Hubert, G.

2012-12-01

372

Agricultural Waste as Sources for Mercury Adsorbents in Gas Applications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increased emphasis on reduction of mercury emissions from coal fired electric power plants have resulted in environmental regulations that may in the future require application of activated carbons as mercury sorbents. The sorbents could be injected into the flue gas stream where it adsorbs the mer...

373

Applicability of Pneumatic Capsule Pipeline System to Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility  

SciTech Connect

Various transport systems have been studied for the transportation of waste packages and buffer materials from the ground surface to the underground radioactive waste disposal facility, such as a lift (vertical shaft type) and a vehicle (inclined tunnel type)(1). This paper introduces pneumatic capsule pipeline system as a new method for the transportation. The system is designed to transport pneumatically waste packages and buffer materials between the surface and the underground as shown in Fig. 1. The system is also used to transport excavated debris, equipment and materials during construction. It is economical to utilize the system for air ventilation in addition to be used for transportation. The capsule moving in the shaft can be controlled at appropriate speed by adjusting the air pressure in the shaft. This paper discusses the applicability of the system to the geological disposal based on analytical simulation and experimental study.

Hane, K.; Okutsu, K.; Matsui, N.; Kosugi, S.

2002-02-25

374

Assessment of TEES reg sign applications for Wet Industrial Wastes: Energy benefit and economic analysis report  

SciTech Connect

Fundamental work is catalyzed biomass pyrolysis/gasification led to the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg sign}) concept, a means of converting moist biomass feedstocks to high-value fuel gases such as methane. A low-temperature (350{degrees}C), pressurized (3100 psig) reaction environment and a nickel catalyst are used to reduce volumes of very high-moisture wastes such as food processing byproducts while producing useful quantities of energy. A study was conducted to assess the economic viability of a range of potential applications of the process. Cases examined included feedstocks of cheese whey, grape pomace, spent grain, and an organic chemical waste stream. The analysis indicated that only the organic chemical waste process is economically attractive in the existing energy/economic environment. However, food processing cases will become attractive as alternative disposal practices are curtailed and energy prices rise.

Elliott, D.C.; Scheer, T.H.

1992-02-01

375

Management considerations to minimize environmental impacts of arsenic following monosodium methylarsenate (MSMA) applications to turfgrass.  

PubMed

Monosodium methylarsenate (MSMA) is an organic arsenical herbicide currently utilized in turfgrass and cotton systems. In recent years, concerns over adverse impacts of arsenic (As) from MSMA applications have emerged; however, little research has been conducted in controlled field experiments using typical management practices. To address this knowledge gap, a field lysimeter experiment was conducted during 2012-2013 to determine the fate of As following MSMA applications to a bareground and an established turfgrass system. Arsenic concentrations in soil, porewater, and aboveground vegetation, were measured through one yr after treatment. Aboveground vegetation As concentration was increased compared to nontreated through 120d after initial treatment (DAIT). In both systems, increased soil As concentrations were observed at 0-4cm at 30 and 120 DAIT and 0-8cm at 60 and 365 DAIT, suggesting that As was bound in shallow soil depths. Porewater As concentrations in MSMA-treated lysimeters from a 30-cm depth (22.0-83.8?gL(-1)) were greater than those at 76-cm depth (0.4-5.1?gL(-1)). These results were combined with previous research to devise management considerations in systems where MSMA is utilized. MSMA should not be applied if rainfall is forecasted within 7 DAIT and/or in areas with shallow water tables. Further, disposing of MSMA-treated turfgrass aboveground vegetation in a confined area - a common management practice for turfgrass clippings - may be of concern due to As release to surface water or groundwater as the vegetation decomposes. Finally, long-term MSMA use may cause soil As accumulation and thus downward migration of As over time; therefore, MSMA should be used in rotation with other herbicides. PMID:25556868

Mahoney, Denis J; Gannon, Travis W; Jeffries, Matthew D; Matteson, Audrey R; Polizzotto, Matthew L

2015-03-01

376

WITS - WASTE DATA COLLECTION WITH OUR PALMS AT OUR FINGERTIPS  

SciTech Connect

The waste management and environmental compliance group (NMT-7) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has initiated a project to build a computer-based system for tracking inventory, storage and disposal information for hazardous and radioactive waste and contaminated byproducts. This project, the Waste Inventory Tracking System (WITS), will initially be used in TA-55 (which includes the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility) and the Chemical and Metallurgy Research (CMR) building where wastes are generated. The system handles numerous waste types with variation in size, disposal method, and hazard classification including: low level waste such as room trash (compactable waste), SEG waste (non-compactable), and over-sized waste, mixed waste, hazardous and chemical waste, universal waste, and waste containing asbestos and PCB's. WITS is designed to provide up-to-date location, status, content information, radioactivity analyses, and other inventory information for every waste item and container managed by NMT-7. The system will support comprehensive reporting capabilities and cradle-to-grave audit trails. WITS is intended to facilitate handling of waste by NMT-7 staff to help minimize waste disposal costs, ensure compliance with applicable regulations, and standardize waste management methodologies and practices. This paper compares current management practices with revised methodologies supported by WITS. It shows how automating inventory tracking helps achieve these goals.

B. MARTINEZ

2000-11-01

377

Identification of integrated airframe: Propulsion effects on an F-15 aircraft for application to drag minimization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of an adaptive real-time measurement-based performance optimization technique is being explored for a future flight research program. The key technical challenge of the approach is parameter identification, which uses a perturbation-search technique to identify changes in performance caused by forced oscillations of the controls. The controls on the NASA F-15 highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) aircraft were perturbed using inlet cowl rotation steps at various subsonic and supersonic flight conditions to determine the effect on aircraft performance. The feasibility of the perturbation-search technique for identifying integrated airframe-propulsion system performance effects was successfully shown through flight experiments and postflight data analysis. Aircraft response and control data were analyzed postflight to identify gradients and to determine the minimum drag point. Changes in longitudinal acceleration as small as 0.004 g were measured, and absolute resolution was estimated to be 0.002 g or approximately 50 lbf of drag. Two techniques for identifying performance gradients were compared: a least-squares estimation algorithm and a modified maximum likelihood estimator algorithm. A complementary filter algorithm was used with the least squares estimator.

Schkolnik, Gerard S.

1993-01-01

378

Estimation and Selection via Absolute Penalized Convex Minimization And Its Multistage Adaptive Applications.  

PubMed

The ?1-penalized method, or the Lasso, has emerged as an important tool for the analysis of large data sets. Many important results have been obtained for the Lasso in linear regression which have led to a deeper understanding of high-dimensional statistical problems. In this article, we consider a class of weighted ?1-penalized estimators for convex loss functions of a general form, including the generalized linear models. We study the estimation, prediction, selection and sparsity properties of the weighted ?1-penalized estimator in sparse, high-dimensional settings where the number of predictors p can be much larger than the sample size n. Adaptive Lasso is considered as a special case. A multistage method is developed to approximate concave regularized estimation by applying an adaptive Lasso recursively. We provide prediction and estimation oracle inequalities for single- and multi-stage estimators, a general selection consistency theorem, and an upper bound for the dimension of the Lasso estimator. Important models including the linear regression, logistic regression and log-linear models are used throughout to illustrate the applications of the general results. PMID:24348100

Huang, Jian; Zhang, Cun-Hui

2012-06-01

379

SITE PROGRAM APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT, INTERNATIONAL WASTE TECHNOLOGIES/GEO CON IN-SITU STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

An evaluation was performed of the International Waste Technologies (IWT) HWT-20 additive and the Geo-Con, Inc. deep-soil-mixing equipment for an in situ stabilization/solidification process and its applicability as an on-site treatment method for waste site cleanup. emonstration...

380

Mixed waste storage: What comes after?  

SciTech Connect

Removal of mixed waste from storage may trigger the regulatory process known as RCRA Corrective Action. Corrective action entails a detailed environmental assessment of any facility which treats, stores, or disposes of hazardous (mixed) waste. Regulatory scrutiny associated with the corrective action process could create many pitfalls for the mixed waste generator discontinuing mixed waste storage. The purpose of this paper is to address the regulatory requirements associated with corrective action and to assist the mixed waste generator in understanding the ramifications of post mixed waste storage. The objective of this paper is to provide guidance to the mixed waste generator who is able to discontinue mixed waste storage. The objective of this paper will be met by addressing the following issues: (1) Understanding the corrective action process. (2) Applicability of the corrective action process. (3) Actions the regulatory agencies will take. (4) What the mixed waste generator can do to prepare for the process. Ramifications of post mixed waste storage for mixed waste generators who are not affected by corrective action will also be addressed. Case studies will be presented to illustrate key issues, and to highlight opportunities for mixed waste generators minimize scrutiny of past and present mixed waste management.

MacLeod, M.D.; Lewis, K.A. [Black & Veatch Waste Science, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

1995-05-01

381

State waste discharge permit application for the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility and the State-Approved Land Disposal Site  

SciTech Connect

Application is being made for a permit pursuant to Chapter 173--216 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC), to discharge treated waste water and cooling tower blowdown from the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) to land at the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). The ETF is located in the 200 East Area and the SALDS is located north of the 200 West Area. The ETF is an industrial waste water treatment plant that will initially receive waste water from the following two sources, both located in the 200 Area on the Hanford Site: (1) the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and (2) the 242-A Evaporator. The waste water discharged from these two facilities is process condensate (PC), a by-product of the concentration of waste from DSTs that is performed in the 242-A Evaporator. Because the ETF is designed as a flexible treatment system, other aqueous waste streams generated at the Hanford Site may be considered for treatment at the ETF. The origin of the waste currently contained in the DSTs is explained in Section 2.0. An overview of the concentration of these waste in the 242-A Evaporator is provided in Section 3.0. Section 4.0 describes the LERF, a storage facility for process condensate. Attachment A responds to Section B of the permit application and provides an overview of the processes that generated the wastes, storage of the wastes in double-shell tanks (DST), preliminary treatment in the 242-A Evaporator, and storage at the LERF. Attachment B addresses waste water treatment at the ETF (under construction) and the addition of cooling tower blowdown to the treated waste water prior to disposal at SALDS. Attachment C describes treated waste water disposal at the proposed SALDS.

Not Available

1993-08-01

382

Assessment of two thermally treated drill mud wastes for landfill containment applications.  

PubMed

Offshore oil and gas drilling operations generate significant amounts of drill mud waste, some of which is transported onshore for subsequent thermal treatment (i.e. via thermal remediation). This treatment process results in a mineral waste by-product (referred to as thermally treated drill mud waste; TTDMW). Bentonites are originally present in many of the drill mud products and it is hypothesized that TTDMW can be utilized in landfill containment applications (i.e. cover or base liner). The objective of this paper is to examine the feasibility of this application by performing various physical and chemical tests on two TTDMW samples. It is shown that the two TTDMW samples contained relatively small amounts of clay-sized minerals although hydraulic conductivity values are found to be less than 10(-8) m/s. Organic carbon contents of the samples were approximately 2%. Mineralogy characterization of the samples confirmed varying amounts of smectite, however, peak friction angles for a TTDMW sample was greater than 36 degrees. Chemical characterization of the TTDMW samples show potential leaching of barium and small amounts of other heavy metals. Discussion is provided in the paper on suggestions to assist in overcoming regulatory issues associated with utilization of TTDMW in landfill containment applications. PMID:17985664

Carignan, Marie-Pierre; Lake, Craig B; Menzies, Todd

2007-10-01

383

Investigation of potential waste material insulating properties at different temperature for thermal storage application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal energy storage system (TES) is developed to extend the operation of power generation. TES system is a key component in a solar energy power generation plant, but the main issue in designing the TES system is its thermal capacity of storage materials, e.g. insulator. This study is focusing on the potential waste material acts as an insulator for thermal energy storage applications. As the insulator is used to absorb heat, it is needed to find suitable material for energy conversion and at the same time reduce the waste generation. Thus, a small-scale experimental testing of natural cooling process of an insulated tank within a confined room is conducted. The experiment is repeated by changing the insulator from the potential waste material and also by changing the heat transfer fluid (HTF). The analysis presented the relationship between heat loss and the reserved period by the insulator. The results show the percentage of period of the insulated tank withstands compared to tank insulated by foam, e.g. newspaper reserved the period of 84.6% as much as foam insulated tank to withstand the heat transfer of cooking oil to the surrounding. The paper finally justifies the most potential waste material as an insulator for different temperature range of heat transfer fluid.

Ali, T. Z. S.; Rosli, A. B.; Gan, L. M.; Billy, A. S.; Farid, Z.

2013-12-01

384

Performance assessment in support of the 1996 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.  

PubMed

The conceptual and computational structure of a performance assessment (PA) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is described. Important parts of this structure are (1) maintenance of a separation between stochastic (i.e., aleatory) and subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty, with stochastic uncertainty arising from the many possible disruptions that could occur over the 10,000-year regulatory period that applies to the WIPP, and subjective uncertainty arising from the imprecision with which many of the quantities required in the analysis are known, (2) use of Latin hypercube sampling to incorporate the effects of subjective uncertainty, (3) use of Monte Carlo (i.e., random) sampling to incorporate the effects of stochastic uncertainty, and (4) efficient use of the necessarily limited number of mechanistic calculations that can be performed to support the analysis. The WIPP is under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the geologic (i.e., deep underground) disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste, with the indicated PA supporting a Compliance Certification Application (CCA) by the DOE to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October 1996 for the necessary certifications for the WIPP to begin operation. The EPA certified the WIPP for the disposal of TRU waste in May 1998, with the result that the WIPP will be the first operational facility in the United States for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste. PMID:10765441

Helton, J C; Anderson, D R; Jow, H N; Marietta, M G; Basabilvazo, G

1999-10-01

385

Selecting suitable sites for animal waste application using a raster GIS.  

PubMed

Rapid growth of intensive animal industries in southeast Queensland, Australia, has led to large volumes of animal waste production, which possess serious environmental problems in the Murray Darling Basin (MDB). This study presents a method of selecting sites for the safe application of animal waste as fertiliser to agricultural land. A site suitability map for the Westbrook subcatchment within the MDB was created using a geographic information system (GIS)-based weighted linear combination (WLC) model. The factors affecting the suitability of a site for animal waste application were selected, and digital data sets derived from up to 1:50,000 scale maps were acquired. After initial preprocessing, digital data sets were clipped to the size of the delineated subcatchment boundary producing input factors. These input factors were weighted using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) that employed an objectives-oriented comparison (OOC) technique to formulate the pairwise comparison matrix. The OOC technique, which is capable of deriving factor weight independently, formulated the weight derivation process by making it more logical and systematic. The factor attributes were classified into multiple classes and weighted using the AHP. The effects of the number of input factors and factor weighting on the areal extent and the degree of site suitability were examined. Due to the presence of large nonagricultural and residential areas in the subcatchment, only 16% of the area was found suitable for animal waste application. The areal extent resulting from this site suitability assessment was found to be dependent on the areal constraints imposed on each input factor, while the degree of suitability was principally a function of the weight distribution between the factors. PMID:11494070

Basnet, B B; Apan, A A; Raine, S R

2001-10-01

386

Contaminated Groundwater N flux to Surface Waters from Biosolid Waste Application Fields at a Waste Water Treatment Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biosolids have been land applied at the Neuse River Waste Water Treatment Plant (NRWWTP) since 1980. The long biosolid application history at this site has resulted in a build up of nitrate in the ground water beneath the Waste Application Fields (WAFs). We have used an innovative river monitoring system that measures in situ nitrate concentrations and discharge above and below the plant to determine the amount of nitrate gained in the reach from the WAFs. The nitrogen and oxygen isotopic composition of nitrate in the WAF groundwater indicates that 18% of the monitoring wells are impacted by fertilizer N, 57% of the wells are impacted by biosolid N, 22% of the wells are affected by denitrification, and one well is impacted by A.D.N. The net daily contribution of surface / ground water and nitrate to the reach was calculated from the sum of the flux into the reach at the upper RiverNet station plus the plant discharge minus the flux out of the reach at the lower RiverNet station. The difference between the flux into the reach and plant discharge minus the flux out of the reach is termed the non-point source gain (NPS gain). The NPS gain could come from groundwater and/or surface drainage additions to the reach. On an annual basis, daily integrated NPS nitrate gains were ~70,000 kg in year 2004 and ~27,900 kg in 2005. This represents an average over the two year period of ~12% of the total nitrate flux out of the reach and 43% of the nitrate discharged from the plant. During the past year groundwater wells were installed in the river riparian buffer and N Flux was measured in a surface water drainage in the WAF. The results indicate that N is not migrating through the shallow groundwater, and most of the NPS gains in the reach can come from surface drainages which have nitrate concentrations of 30-80 mg/l. Over the next year wetlands will be reconstructed in the surface drainages to attenuate the N flux and protect river water quality.

Showers, W. J.; Fountain, M.; Fountain, J. C.

2006-05-01

387

Vitrification of high sulfate wastes  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) through the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is investigating the application of vitrification technology to mixed wastes within the DOE system This work involves identifying waste streams, laboratory testing to identify glass formulations and characterize the vitrified product, and demonstration testing with the actual waste in a pilot-scale system. Part of this program is investigating process limits for various waste components, specifically those components that typically create problems for the application of vitrification, such as sulfate, chloride, and phosphate. This work describes results from vitrification testing for a high-sulfate waste, the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basin waste at Hanford. A low melting phosphate glass formulation has been developed for a waste stream high in sodium and sulfate. At melt temperatures in the range of 1,000 C to 1,200 C, sulfate in the waste is decomposed to gaseous oxides and driven off during melting, while the remainder of the oxides stay in the melt. Decomposition of the sulfates eliminates the processing problems typically encountered in vitrification of sulfate-containing wastes, resulting in separation of the sulfate from the remainder of the waste and allowing the sulfate to be collected in the off-gas system and treated as a secondary waste stream. Both the vitreous product and intentionally devitrified samples are durable when compared to reference glasses by TCLP and DI water leach tests. Simple, short tests to evaluate the compatibility of the glasses with potential melter materials found minimal corrosion with most materials.

Merrill, R.A.; Whittington, K.F.; Peters, R.D.

1994-09-01

388

Summary of Technical resource document on solidification/stabilization and its application to waste materials  

SciTech Connect

The Technical Resource Document on Solidification/Stabilization and Its Application to Waste Materials (TRD) is a technical resource for the S/S user community and a guide to promote the best future applications of S/S processes. A potential hurdle for any S/S project is the fact that although the standard bulk materials handling and mixing equipment processes used in S/S processes make the technology appear simple, there are significant technical challenges to the successful application of S/S processes. In order to help users meet such challenges, the TRD describes technology screening procedures and summarizes the status of S/S processes to assist users and reviewers in their selection, planning, and application of S/S technology.

Means, J.L.; Smith, L.A.; Nehring, K.W.; Brauning, S.E. [Battelle Memorial Inst. (BMI), Columbus, OH (United States). Environmental Technology Dept.; Mashni, C.I.; Wiles, C.C. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Risk Reduction Engineering Lab.

1996-12-31

389

Contamination Control During In Situ Jet Grouting for Application in a Buried Transuranic Waste Site  

SciTech Connect

Engineers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) have developed means of contamination control associated with jet-grouting buried radioactive mixed waste sites. Finely divided plutonium/americium oxide particulate can escape as the drill stem of the jet-grouting apparatus exits a waste deposit in preparation for insertion in another injection hole. In studying various options for controlling this potential contamination, engineers found that an elaborate glovebox/drill string shroud system prevents contaminants from spreading. Researchers jet-grouted a pit with nonradioactive tracers to simulate the movement of plutonium fines during an actual application. Data from the testing indicate that the grout immobilizes the tracer material by locking it up in particles large enough to resist aerosolization.

Loomis, Guy George; Jessmore, James Joseph

2003-02-01

390

CONTAMINATION CONTROL DURING IN SITU JET GROUTING FOR APPLICATION IN A BURIED TRANSURANIC WASTE SITE  

SciTech Connect

Engineers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) have developed means of contamination control associated with jet-grouting buried radioactive mixed waste sites. Finely divided plutonium/americium oxide particulate can escape as the drill stem of the jet-grouting apparatus exits a waste deposit in preparation for insertion in another injection hole. In studying various options for controlling this potential contamination, engineers found that an elaborate glovebox/drill string shroud system prevents contaminants from spreading. Researchers jet-grouted a pit with nonradioactive tracers to simulate the movement of plutonium fines during an actual application. Data from the testing indicate that the grout immobilizes the tracer material by locking it up in particles large enough to resist aerosolization.

Loomis, Guy G.; Jessmore, Jim J.

2003-02-27

391

The application of magnetic gradiometry and electromagnetic induction at a former radioactive waste disposal site.  

PubMed

A former radioactive waste disposal site is surveyed with two non-intrusive geophysical techniques, including magnetic gradiometry and electromagnetic induction. Data were gathered over the site by towing the geophysical equipment mounted to a non-electrically conductive and non-magnetic fibre-glass cart. Magnetic gradiometry, which detects the location of ferromagnetic material, including iron and steel, was used to map the existence of a previously unknown buried pipeline formerly used in the delivery of liquid waste to a number of surface disposal trenches and concrete vaults. The existence of a possible pipeline is reinforced by historical engineering drawing and photographs. The electromagnetic induction (EMI) technique was used to map areas of high and low electrical conductivity, which coincide with the magnetic gradiometry data. The EMI also provided information on areas of high electrical conductivity unrelated to a pipeline network. Both data sets demonstrate the usefulness of surface geophysical surveillance techniques to minimize the risk of exposure in the event of future remediation efforts. PMID:20124318

Rucker, Dale Franklin

2010-04-01

392

Large volume single crystal growth of cadmium zinc telluride with minimal secondary phases for room temperature radiation detector application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two major aspects of Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe) crystal growth for room temperature radiation detection application namely tellurium rich second phase defects and single crystal yield have been addressed. Various approaches were considered towards the minimization of these defects both during growth and post growth thermal treatment in cadmium environment. Since the issue of retrograde solubility in CdZnTe pseudo binary alloy system causes tellurium precipitation, different cooling mechanisms were also devised to achieve minimal secondary phases. Some important and encouraging results were obtained relative to the size and distribution of secondary phases upon growing the crystal with different growth rate and different cooling rate of the crystal after growth. Thermomigration of tellurium were also observed while post processing samples in a temperature gradient, in (Cd,Zn) atmosphere. Results indicated orders of magnitude reduction on secondary phases at the expense of sample resistivity. Apart from the issue of secondary phases, CdZnTe also suffers from low single crystal yield. Since grain boundaries and twins are known to hinder the transport properties of charge carriers, it is necessary to have large single crystal volumes with good uniformity for better charge collection efficiency. In our crystal growth facility, single crystal volumes up to 25x25x20 mm3 have been grown using unseeded vertical Bridgman technique. However reproducibility has been a major issue as far as single crystal yield is concerned. In order to consistently produce large volume detector grade material, seeding was attempted in vertical Bridgman set up in which crystals are grown on top of another appropriately oriented seed crystal. Certain important requirements for successful seeded growth are partial melting of the seed from top, proper melt mixing before starting growth and maintaining a convex interface shape to promote outward grain growth. To achieve these conditions, extreme care was taken in designing our experimental set up. Seed crystals with various orientations have been used in different growths. Preliminary results on these growths indicate success in achieving partial seed melting and proper control on the thermal environment. The grown crystals exhibited large number of twins suggesting that the use of seed crystal with proper orientation is critical.

Swain, Santosh Kumar

393

Combined Municipal Solid Waste and biomass system optimization for district energy applications  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Combined energy conversion of MSW and agricultural residue biomass is examined. The model optimizes the financial yield of the investment. Several system specifications are optimally defined by the optimization model. The application to a case study in Greece shows positive financial yield. The investment is mostly sensitive on the interest rate, the investment cost and the heating oil price. - Abstract: Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal has been a controversial issue in many countries over the past years, due to disagreement among the various stakeholders on the waste management policies and technologies to be adopted. One of the ways of treating/disposing MSW is energy recovery, as waste is considered to contain a considerable amount of bio-waste and therefore can lead to renewable energy production. The overall efficiency can be very high in the cases of co-generation or tri-generation. In this paper a model is presented, aiming to support decision makers in issues relating to Municipal Solid Waste energy recovery. The idea of using more fuel sources, including MSW and agricultural residue biomass that may exist in a rural area, is explored. The model aims at optimizing the system specifications, such as the capacity of the base-load Waste-to-Energy facility, the capacity of the peak-load biomass boiler and the location of the facility. Furthermore, it defines the quantity of each potential fuel source that should be used annually, in order to maximize the financial yield of the investment. The results of an energy tri-generation case study application at a rural area of Greece, using mixed MSW and biomass, indicate positive financial yield of investment. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the effect of the most important parameters of the model on the optimum solution, pinpointing the parameters of interest rate, investment cost and heating oil price, as those requiring the attention of the decision makers. Finally, the sensitivity analysis is enhanced by a stochastic analysis to determine the effect of the volatility of parameters on the robustness of the model and the solution obtained.

Rentizelas, Athanasios A., E-mail: arent@central.ntua.gr; Tolis, Athanasios I., E-mail: atol@central.ntua.gr; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P., E-mail: itat@central.ntua.gr

2014-01-15

394

Development programs in the United States of America for the application of cement-based grouts in radioactive waste management  

SciTech Connect

This paper briefly reviews seven cement-based waste form development programs at six of the US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. These sites have developed a variety of processes that range from producing 25 mm (1 in.) diameter pellets in a glove box to producing 240 m (800 ft.) diameter grout sheets within the bedding planes of a deep shale formation. These successful applications of cement-based waste forms to the many radioactive waste streams from nuclear facilities bear witness to the flexibility and reliability of this class of materials. This paper also discusses the major issues regarding the application of cement-based waste forms to radioactive waste management problems. These issues are (1) leachability, (2) radiation stability, (3) thermal stability, (4) phase complexity of the matrix, and (5) effects of the waste stream composition. A cursory review of current research in each of these areas is given This paper also discusses future trends in cement-based waste form development and applications. 31 references, 11 figures.

Dole, L.R.; Row, T.H.

1984-01-01

395

Minimal Surfaces in the Roto-Translation Group with Applications to a Neuro-Biological Image Completion Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate solutions to the minimal surface problem with Dirichlet boundary con- ditions in the roto-translation group equipped with a subRiemannian metric. By work of G. Citti and A. Sarti, such solutions are amodal completions of occluded visual data when using a model of the first layer of the visual cortex. Using a characterization of smooth minimal surfaces as ruled

Robert K. Hladky; Scott D. Pauls

2010-01-01

396

Microwave technology for waste management applications including disposition of electronic circuitry  

SciTech Connect

Microwave technology is being developed nationally and internationally for a variety of environmental remediation purposes. These efforts include treatment and destruction of a vast array of gaseous, liquid and solid hazardous wastes as well as subsequent immobilization of selected components. Microwave technology provides an important contribution to an arsenal of existing remediation methods that are designed to protect the public and environment from undesirable consequences of hazardous materials. Applications of microwave energy for environmental remediation will be discussed. Emphasized will be a newly developed microwave process designed to treat discarded electronic circuitry and reclaim the precious metals within for reuse.

Wicks, G.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L.; Folz, D.C. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

1995-09-01

397

Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Non-Crop and Forest Systems - Module 13, Objectives, and Script.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module discusses the characteristics of alternate sites and management schemes and attempts to evaluate the efficiency of each alternative in terms of waste treatment. Three types of non-crop land application are discussed: (1) forest lands; (2) park and recreational application; and (3) land reclamation in surface or strip mined areas. (BB)

Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

398

Waste Handeling Building Conceptual Study  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the ''Waste Handling Building Conceptual Study'' is to develop proposed design requirements for the repository Waste Handling System in sufficient detail to allow the surface facility design to proceed to the License Application effort if the proposed requirements are approved by DOE. Proposed requirements were developed to further refine waste handling facility performance characteristics and design constraints with an emphasis on supporting modular construction, minimizing fuel inventory, and optimizing facility maintainability and dry handling operations. To meet this objective, this study attempts to provide an alternative design to the Site Recommendation design that is flexible, simple, reliable, and can be constructed in phases. The design concept will be input to the ''Modular Design/Construction and Operation Options Report'', which will address the overall program objectives and direction, including options and issues associated with transportation, the subsurface facility, and Total System Life Cycle Cost. This study (herein) is limited to the Waste Handling System and associated fuel staging system.

G.W. Rowe

2000-11-06

399

Feasibility of an earth-to-space rail launcher system. [emphasizing nuclear waste disposal application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of earth-to-space electromagnetic (railgun) launchers (ESRL) is considered, in order to determine their technical practicality and economic viability. The potential applications of the launcher include nuclear waste disposal into space, deep space probe launches, and atmospheric research. Examples of performance requirements of the ESRL system are a maximum acceleration of 10,000 g's for nuclear waste disposal in space (NWDS) missions and 2,500 g's for earth orbital missions, a 20 km/sec launch velocity for NWDS missions, and a launch azimuth of 90 degrees E. A brief configuration description is given, and test results indicate that for the 2020-2050 time period, as much as 3.0 MT per day of bulk material could be launched, and about 0.5 MT per day of high-level nuclear waste could be launched. For earth orbital missions, a significant projectile mass was approximately 6.5 MT, and an integral distributed energy store launch system demonstrated a good potential performance. ESRL prove to be economically and environmentally feasible, but an operational ESRL of the proposed size is not considered achievable before the year 2020.

Rice, E. E.; Miller, L. A.; Marshall, R. A.; Kerslake, W. R.

1982-01-01

400

In situ vitrification application to buried waste: Final report of intermediate field tests at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This report describes two in situ vitrification field tests conducted on simulated buried waste pits during June and July 1990 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In situ vitrification, an emerging technology for in place conversion of contaminated soils into a durable glass and crystalline waste form, is being investigated as a potential remediation technology for buried waste. The overall objective of the two tests was to access the general suitability of the process to remediate waste structures representative of buried waste found at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In particular, these tests, as part of a treatability study, were designed to provide essential information on the field performance of the process under conditions of significant combustible and metal wastes and to test a newly developed electrode feed technology. The tests were successfully completed, and the electrode feed technology successfully processed the high metal content waste. Test results indicate the process is a feasible technology for application to buried waste. 33 refs., 109 figs., 39 tabs.

Callow, R.A.; Weidner, J.R.; Loehr, C.A.; Bates, S.O. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Thompson, L.E.; McGrail, B.P. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

1991-08-01

401

40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. 273.8 Section 273.8...and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. (a) Persons managing the...Conditionally exempt small quantity generator wastes that are exempt under ァ...

2014-07-01

402

40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. 273.8 Section 273.8...and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. (a) Persons managing the...Conditionally exempt small quantity generator wastes that are exempt under ァ...

2013-07-01

403

40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. 273.8 Section 273.8...and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. (a) Persons managing the...Conditionally exempt small quantity generator wastes that are exempt under ァ...

2012-07-01

404

40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. 273.8 Section 273.8...and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. (a) Persons managing the...Conditionally exempt small quantity generator wastes that are exempt under ァ...

2010-07-01

405

40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. 273.8 Section 273.8...and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. (a) Persons managing the...Conditionally exempt small quantity generator wastes that are exempt under ァ...

2011-07-01

406

78 FR 34380 - Biennial Determination of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With Applicable Federal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the management and storage of radioactive waste (40 CFR Part 191, Subpart A...of compliance with the Solid Waste Disposal Act to the State of...disposal regulations for transuranic radioactive waste at 40 CFR part 191....

2013-06-07

407

76 FR 31611 - Biennial Determination of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance with Applicable Federal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the management and storage of radioactive waste (40 CFR part 191, subpart A...of compliance with the Solid Waste Disposal Act to the State of...disposal regulations for transuranic radioactive waste at 40 CFR Part 191....

2011-06-01

408

40 CFR 266.206 - Standards applicable to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions...munitions. The treatment and disposal of hazardous waste military munitions are subject to the...

2011-07-01

409

40 CFR 266.206 - Standards applicable to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions...munitions. The treatment and disposal of hazardous waste military munitions are subject to the...

2012-07-01

410

40 CFR 266.206 - Standards applicable to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions...munitions. The treatment and disposal of hazardous waste military munitions are subject to the...

2014-07-01

411

40 CFR 266.206 - Standards applicable to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions...munitions. The treatment and disposal of hazardous waste military munitions are subject to the...

2013-07-01

412

40 CFR 266.206 - Standards applicable to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions...munitions. The treatment and disposal of hazardous waste military munitions are subject to the...

2010-07-01

413

Preliminary assessment of geologic materials to minimize biological intrusion of low-level waste trench covers and plans for the future  

SciTech Connect

The long-term integrity of low-level waste shallow land burial sites is dependent on the interaction of physical, chemical, and biological factors that modify the waste containment system. Past research on low-level waste shallow land burial methods has emphasized physical (i.e., water infiltration, soil erosion) and chemical (radionuclide leaching) processes that can cause radionuclide transport from a waste site. Preliminary results demonstrate that a sandy backfill material offers little resistance to root and animal intrusion through the cover profile. However, bentonite clay, cobble, and cobble-gravel combinations do reduce plant root and animal intrusion through cover profiles compared with sandy backfill soil. However, bentonite clay barrier systems appear to be degraded by plant roots through time. Desiccation of the clay barrier by invading plant roots may limit the usefulness of bentonite clay as a moisture and/or biological carrier unless due consideration is given to this interaction. Future experiments are described that further examine the effect of plant roots on clay barrier systems and that determine the effectiveness of proposed biological barriers on larger scales and under various stress conditions.

Hakonson, T.E.; White, G.C.; Gladney, E.S.; Muller, M.

1981-01-01

414

Controlling Phosphorus in Runoff From Long Term Dairy Waste Application Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus (P) in runoff from long term animal waste application fields can contribute to accelerated eutrophication of surface waters. Manure when applied at nitrogen (N) agronomic rates generally increases soil P concentrations, which can increase runoff of soluble P. Along the North Bosque River in central Texas, dairy waste application fields are identified as the most controllable nonpoint source of soluble P in a total maximum daily load. To evaluate P reduction practices for fields high in soil extractable P, edgeof-field runoff was measured from paired plots of Coastal bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)/ winter wheat (Triticum spp.). Plots (about 0.4 ha) received manure at P agronomic rates following Texas permit guidelines and commercial N during the pretreatment period. During the posttreatment period, control plots continued to receive manure at P agronomic rates and commercial N. Treatment plots received only commercial N during the post-treatment period. Use of only commercial N on soils with high extractable P levels significantly decreased P loadings in edge-of-field runoff by at least 40 percent, but runoff concentrations sometimes increased. No notable changes in extractable soil P concentrations were observed after five years of monitoring due to drought conditions limiting forage uptake and removal.

McFarland, Anne M. S.; Hauck, Larry M.

2004-10-01

415

Combined long reach and dexterous manipulation for waste storage tank applications  

SciTech Connect

One of the highest priority environmental restoration tasks within the Department of Energy (DOE) is the remediation of single-shell waste storage tanks (WSTs), especially those suspected of, or documented as, leakers. Most currently proposed approaches for remediation of large underground WSTs require application of remotely operated long-reach (greater than 10 m), high-lift capacity (greater than 200 kg) manipulator systems. Because of the complexity of in-tank hardware, waste forms, remediation tasks, and variety of end-effector tools, these manipulator systems must also be capable of performing a diverse set of dexterous manipulations. This presentation will describe the integration of a Spar RMS 2500 manipulator system, a Schilling Titan-7F manipulator, and control systems developed at ORNL and SNL to provide a combined long reach and dexterous manipulation system. The purpose of integrating these two manipulator systems was to study and demonstrate their combined performance, evaluate design requirements for a deployed system, and provide a testbed for control and end-effector technologies that might be applicable to remediation of WSTs. 5 refs.

Burks, B.L.; Armstrong, G.A.; Butler, P.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Boissiere, P. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1991-01-01

416

Investigation of metallic, ceramic, and polymeric materials for engineered barrier applications in nuclear-waste packages  

SciTech Connect

An effort to develop licensable engineered barrier systems for the long-term (about 1000 yr) containment of nuclear wastes under conditions of deep continental geologic disposal has been underway at Pacific Northwest Laboratory since January 1979, under the auspices of the High-Level Waste Immobilization Program. In the present work, the barrier system comprises the hard or structural elements of the package: the canister, the overpack(s), and the hole sleeve. A number of candidate metallic, ceramic, and polymeric materials were put through mechanical, corrosion, and leaching screening tests to determine their potential usefulness in barrier-system applications. Materials demonstrating adequate properties in the screening tests will be subjected to more detailed property tests, and, eventually, cost/benefit analyses, to determine their ultimate applicability to barrier-system design concepts. The following materials were investigated: two titanium alloys of Grade 2 and Grade 12; 300 and 400 series stainless steels, Inconels, Hastelloy C-276, titanium, Zircoloy, copper-nickel alloys and cast irons; total of 14 ceramic materials, including two grades of alumina, plus graphite and basalt; and polymers such as polyamide-imide, polyarylene, polyimide, polyolefin, polyphenylene sulfide, polysulfone, fluoropolymer, epoxy, furan, silicone, and ethylene-propylene terpolymer (EPDM) rubber. The most promising candidates for further study and potential use in engineered barrier systems were found to be rubber, filled polyphenylene sulfide, fluoropolymer, and furan derivatives.

Westerman, R.E.

1980-10-01

417

PRETREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the waste applicability and performance characteristics of hazardous waste pretreatment processes. Pretreatment processes are those unit operations which must often be carried out on hazardous wastes to make them amenable to subsequent materials or energy rec...

418

Review article Potential uses and applications of treated wine waste: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Recently, there has been an upsurge in the exploitation of the waste materials generated by the wine industry. Wine waste is characterised by the presence of natural antioxidants much safer than synthetic antioxidants. Wine waste-derived antioxidants have been recently used in the food industry. Moreover, wine waste can be potentially used as soil conditioner, as adsorbent for heavy metals,

Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis; Demetrios Ladas; Athanasios Mavromatis

2006-01-01

419

Eleventh annual U.S. DOE low-level radioactive waste management conference: Executive summary, opening plenary, technical session summaries, and attendees  

SciTech Connect

The conference consisted of ten technical sessions, with three sessions running simultaneously each day. Session topics included: regulatory updates; performance assessment;understanding remedial action efforts; low-level waste strategy and planning (Nuclear Energy); low-level waste strategy and planning (Defense); compliance monitoring; decontamination and decommissioning; waste characterization; waste reduction and minimization; and prototype licensing application workshop. Summaries are presented for each of these sessions.

NONE

1990-01-01

420

Development of a pyrolysis waste recovery model with designs, test plans, and applications for space-based habitats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extensive literature searches revealed the numerous advantages of using pyrolysis as a means of recovering usable resources from inedible plant biomass, paper, plastics, other polymers, and human waste. A possible design of a pyrolysis reactor with test plans and applications for use on a space-based habitat are proposed. The proposed system will accommodate the wastes generated by a four-person crew while requiring solar energy as the only power source. Waste materials will be collected and stored during the 15-day lunar darkness periods. Resource recovery will occur during the daylight periods. Usable gases such as methane and hydrogen and a solid char will be produced while reducing the mass and volume of the waste to almost infinitely small levels. The system will be operated economically, safely, and in a non-polluting manner.

Roberson, Bobby J.

1992-01-01

421

Cradle-to-cradle stewardship of drugs for minimizing their environmental disposition while promoting human health. II. Drug disposal, waste reduction, and future directions.  

PubMed Central

Since the 1980s, the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as trace environmental pollutants, originating primarily from consumer use and actions rather than manufacturer effluents, continues to become more firmly established. The growing, worldwide importance of freshwater resources underscores the need for ensuring that any aggregate or cumulative impacts on (or from) water supplies are minimized. Despite a paucity of effects data from long-term, simultaneous exposure at low doses to multiple xenobiotics (particularly non-target-organism exposure to PPCPs), a wide range of proactive actions could be implemented for reducing or minimizing the introduction of PPCPs to the environment. Most of these actions fall under what could be envisioned as a holistic stewardship program--overseen by the health care industry and consumers alike. Significantly, such a stewardship program would benefit not just the environment--additional, collateral benefits could automatically accrue, including the lessening of medication expense for the consumer and improving patient health and consumer safety. In this article (the second of two parts describing the "green pharmacy") I focus on those actions and activities tied more closely to the end user (e.g., the patient) and issues associated with drug disposal/recycling that could prove useful in minimizing the environmental disposition of PPCPs. I also outline some recommendations and suggestions for further research and pose some considerations regarding the future. In this mini-monograph I attempt to capture cohesively for the first time the wide spectrum of actions available for minimizing the release of PPCPs to the environment. A major objective is to generate an active dialog or debate across the many disciplines that must become actively involved to design and implement a successful approach to life-cycle stewardship of PPCPs. PMID:12727607

Daughton, Christian G

2003-01-01

422

Equilibrium modeling of gasification: a free energy minimization approach and its application to a circulating fluidized bed coal gasifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

A non-stoichiometric equilibrium model based on free energy minimization is developed to predict the performance of gasifiers. The model considers five elements and 44 species in both the gas and solid phases. The gas composition and heating values vary primarily with temperature and the relative abundance of key elements, especially carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Pressure only influences the result significantly

X Li; J. R Grace; A. P Watkinson; C. J Lim; A Ergdenler

2001-01-01

423

Hospital waste management and toxicity evaluation: A case study  

SciTech Connect

Hospital waste management is an imperative environmental and public safety issue, due to the waste's infectious and hazardous character. This paper examines the existing waste strategy of a typical hospital in Greece with a bed capacity of 400-600. The segregation, collection, packaging, storage, transportation and disposal of waste were monitored and the observed problematic areas documented. The concentrations of BOD, COD and heavy metals were measured in the wastewater the hospital generated. The wastewater's toxicity was also investigated. During the study, omissions and negligence were observed at every stage of the waste management system, particularly with regard to the treatment of infectious waste. Inappropriate collection and transportation procedures for infectious waste, which jeopardized the safety of staff and patients, were recorded. However, inappropriate segregation practices were the dominant problem, which led to increased quantities of generated infectious waste and hence higher costs for their disposal. Infectious waste production was estimated using two different methods: one by weighing the incinerated waste (880 kg day{sup -1}) and the other by estimating the number of waste bags produced each day (650 kg day{sup -1}). Furthermore, measurements of the EC{sub 50} parameter in wastewater samples revealed an increased toxicity in all samples. In addition, hazardous organic compounds were detected in wastewater samples using a gas chromatograph/mass spectrograph. Proposals recommending the application of a comprehensive hospital waste management system are presented that will ensure that any potential risks hospital wastes pose to public health and to the environment are minimized.

Tsakona, M.; Anagnostopoulou, E. [Laboratory of Toxic and Hazardous Waste Management, Department of Environmental Engineers, Technical University of Crete, GR-73100 Polytechnioupolis, Chania, Crete (Greece); Gidarakos, E. [Laboratory of Toxic and Hazardous Waste Management, Department of Environmental Engineers, Technical University of Crete, GR-73100 Polytechnioupolis, Chania, Crete (Greece)], E-mail: gidarako@mred.tuc.gr

2007-07-01

424

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: Part B, Permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 1, Revison 1.0  

SciTech Connect

This report contains information related to the permit application for the WIPP facility. Information is presented on solid waste management; personnel safety; emergency plans; site characterization; applicable regulations; decommissioning; and ground water monitoring requirements.

Not Available

1992-03-01

425

New separation chemistry techniques for radioactive waste and other specific applications  

SciTech Connect

This book includes papers presented at a technical seminar jointly organized by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), Directorate-General for Science, Research and Development, and the Italian Commission for Nuclear and Alternative Energy Sources (ENEA). It examines the current state-of-the-art technology for the separation of various metal ions from mixtures, with an emphasis on the separation of radionuclides from radioactive waste. The seminar was comprised of five technical sessions, each devoted to the discussion of the merits of one family of new extractants, exchangers, and absorbers. Section I examines the use of various amine/amide based extractants on several metal cations. Section II discusses bidentate organophosphorus-based extractants, actinides, lanthanides, and other metal ions from liquid waste. Sections III and IV over the application of cyclic phenol-formaldehyde condensates or calixarenes and crown-ethers as complexing agents. Sections V and VI cover other types of extractants (macrocyclic ligands, alkylpyridinium nitrates, and phosphomethyl substitutes phenols) and ion exchanger/absorbers.

Cecille, L.; Casarci, M.; Pietrelli, L. (eds.)

1991-01-01

426

PUREX Storage Tunnels dangerous waste permit application. Revision 1, Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The PUREX Storage Tunnels are a mixed waste storage unit consisting of two underground railroad tunnels: Tunnel Number 1 designated 218-E-14 and Tunnel Number 2 designated 218-E-15. The two tunnels are connected by rail to the PUREX Plant and combine to provide storage space for 48 railroad cars (railcars). The PUREX Storage Tunnels provide a long-term storage location for equipment removed from the PUREX Plant. Transfers into the PUREX Storage Tunnels are made on an as-needed basis. Radioactively contaminated equipment is loaded on railcars and remotely transferred by rail into the PUREX Storage Tunnels. Railcars act as both a transport means and a storage platform for equipment placed into the tunnels. This report consists of part A and part B. Part A reports on amounts and locations of the mixed water. Part B permit application consists of the following: Facility Description and General Provisions; Waste Characteristics; Process Information; Groundwater Monitoring; Procedures to Prevent Hazards; Contingency Plan; Personnel Training; Exposure Information Report.

Not Available

1991-12-01

427

Neutron Monitoring Systems for the Characterisation of Nuclear Fuel and Waste - Methodology and Applications - 12055  

SciTech Connect

The most characteristic behaviour of nuclear fuel or waste contaminated by fission material or isotopes resulting from fissile processes is the emission of neutrons. At the same time because of the high penetration of the material by neutrons, they are an ideal probe for measurement by non-destructive assay. The detection and data analysis in this case is quite different compared to methods using gamma measuring techniques. Neutron detection monitors have been in routine operation for a long time, showing their excellent detection capabilities. The neutron monitors designed for different applications have demonstrated their capabilities during daily operation in the field of burned up fuel elements and for nuclear waste with alpha activity. Lately the data analysis was refined and the quality of the results was improved by using MCNP calculations. Last but not least the layout and the calibration of neutron monitors are nowadays unfeasible without support by MCNP simulations. In the field of non-destructive assay the neutron monitors are undisputed. (authors)

Sokcic-Kostic, M.; Langer, F.; Schultheis, R.; Braehler, G. [NUKEM Technologies GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)

2012-07-01

428

State waste discharge permit application 400 Area secondary cooling water. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

This document constitutes the Washington Administrative Code 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit Application that serves as interim compliance as required by Consent Order DE 91NM-177, for the 400 Area Secondary Cooling Water stream. As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site that affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permitting Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order DE 91NM-177. The Consent Order DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. Based upon compositional and flow rate characteristics, liquid effluent streams on the Hanford Site have been categorized into Phase 1, Phase 2, and Miscellaneous streams. This document only addresses the 400 Area Secondary Cooling Water stream, which has been identified as a Phase 2 stream. The 400 Area Secondary Cooling Water stream includes contribution streams from the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility, the Maintenance and Storage Facility, the 481-A pump house, and the Fast Flux Test Facility.

NONE

1996-01-01

429

Application of pulse combustion to solid and hazardous-waste incineration  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the application of pulse combustion to solid and hazardous waste incineration. A rotary kiln incinerator simulator was retrofitted with a frequency-tunable pulse combustor to enhance the efficiency of combustion. The pulse combustor excites pulsations in the kiln and increases the completeness of combustion by promoting better mixing within the system. Tests were performed using toluene sorbed onto a ground corn cob sorbent and placed in cardboard containers. The burner was operated in a non-pulse mode as a baseline condition, and then in a pulse mode in which the frequency of the pulse combustor was adjusted to the natural frequency of the combustion chamber, creating resonant pulsations of large magnitude. The test was also performed using polyethylene tube bundles to simulate a solid waste and to investigate a surrogate which produces different puff characteristics. The addition of turbulence in the rotary kiln due to high amplitude acoustic pulsations has a strong tendency to reduce the amount of soot and/or semivolatile and non-volatile hydrocarbons. Mass emissions of soot were consistently reduced in all tests. Carbon monoxide increased during acoustic pulsations in the toluene tests. The paper also discusses unsatisfied oxygen demand and carbon penetration and how pulsations affect them.

Stewart, C.R.; Lemieux, P.M.; Zinn, B.T.

1991-01-01

430

Applicability of federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs to waste chemical weapons and chemical warfare agents.  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs that govern the management of chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents. It addresses state programs in the eight states with chemical weapon storage facilities managed by the U.S. Army: Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Oregon, and Utah. It also includes discussions on 32 additional states or jurisdictions with known or suspected chemical weapons or chemical warfare agent presence (e.g., disposal sites containing chemical agent identification sets): Alaska, Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Virginia, Washington, Washington, D.C., and Wyoming. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste programs are reviewed to determine whether chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents are listed hazardous wastes or otherwise defined or identified as hazardous wastes. Because the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) military munitions rule specifically addresses the management of chemical munitions, this report also indicates whether a state has adopted the rule and whether the resulting state regulations have been authorized by EPA. Many states have adopted parts or all of the EPA munitions rule but have not yet received authorization from EPA to implement the rule. In these cases, the states may enforce the adopted munitions rule provisions under state law, but these provisions are not federally enforceable.

Haffenden, R.; Kimmell, T.

2002-02-20

431

Main principles of radiation protection and their applications in waste management  

SciTech Connect

The average exposure for an individual from such background in the United States is about 300 mrem per year with approximately 200 mrem of this coming from radon exposure alone. In addition to the natural sources of background radiation, a very small amount of the background radiation occurs due to the nuclear weapons test fallout. Manmade sources of radiation also include certain consumer products, industrial and research use of radioisotopes, medical X-rays, and radiopharmaceuticals. When all sources, natural and man-made, are taken into account, the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has estimated that the average annual dose to individuals in the US population is 360 mrem (NCRP Report No. 93). In this report the fundamental principles of radiation protection are reviewed, as well as the relevant laws and regulations in the United States and discuss application of radiation protection in radioactive waste management.

Devgun, J.S.

1993-09-01

432

Clean energy from sugarcane waste: feasibility study of an innovative application of bagasse and barbojo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the existing difficulty of finding energy sources and reducing pollution, the use of renewable sources and highly efficient technologies for electrical energy production stands out as one of the promising solutions for the future. This paper shows the results of the combination of these two aspects, namely, a molten carbonate fuel cell system fed with biomass derived syngas. In particular, the biogas comes from bagasse and barbojo, the sugarcane residues. So far in developing countries they have been wasted or partly used with poorly efficient technology. The feasibility of such an application is studied by means of the process simulator Aspen Plus ゥ in which a detailed Fortran model has been integrated for the electrochemical reactor simulation. The results of the predictive model are presented and discussed; in particular, the substantial economic and environmental advantages obtainable by applying the technical solution here proposed to the Peruvian energy scenario, are shown.

Dellepiane, Daniela; Bosio, Barbara; Arato, Elisabetta

433

Properties of bacterial laccases and their application in bioremediation of industrial wastes.  

PubMed

The bioremediation process of industrial waste can be made more efficient using ligninolytic laccase enzymes, which are obtained from fungi, bacteria, higher plants, insects, and also in lichen. Laccase are catalyzed in the mono-electronic oxidation of a substrate from the expenditure of molecular oxygen. This enzyme belongs to the multicopper oxidases and participates in the cross linking of monomers, involved in the degradation of wide range industrial pollutants. In recent years, these enzymes have gained application in pulp and paper, textile and food industries. There are numerous reviews on laccases; however, a lot of information is still unknown due to their broad range of functions and applications. In this review, the bacterial laccases are focused for the bioremediation of various industrial pollutants. A brief description on structural molecular and physicochemical properties has been made. Moreover, the mechanism by which the reaction is catalyzed, the physical basis of thermostability and enantioselectivity, which requires more attention from researchers, and applications of laccase in various fields of biotechnology are pointed out. PMID:25590782

Chandra, Ram; Chowdhary, Pankaj

2015-02-11

434

Three-level spin system under decoherence-minimizing driving fields: Application to nitrogen-vacancy spin dynamics  

E-print Network

Within the framework of a general three-level problem, the dynamics of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) spin is studied for the case of a special type of external driving consisting of a set of continuous fields with decreasing intensities. Such a set has been proposed for minimizing coherence losses. Each new driving field with smaller intensity is designed to protect against the fluctuations induced by the driving field at the preceding step with larger intensity. We show that indeed this particular type of external driving minimizes the loss of coherence, using purity and entropy as quantifiers for this purpose. As an illustration, we study the coherence loss of an NV spin due to a surrounding spin bath of $^{13}$C nuclei.

Sunil K. Mishra; L. Chotorlishvili; A. R. P. Rau; J. Berakdar

2014-09-06

435

Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Crop Selection and Management Alternatives - Module 20, Objectives, and Script.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module enumerates the benefits to be derived from cropping at a waste application site and criteria to be used in selecting a crop for use in a particular situation. Following basic discussions of the requirements of various crops for water, soil-plant-air moisture potentials, crop water tolerance, nutrient removals by various crops, and

Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

436

APPLICATION OF A HAZARD-ASSESSMENT RESEARCH STRATEGY FOR WASTE DISPOSAL AT 106-MILE OCEAN DISPOSAL SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

An application of a hazard-assessment research strategy was made using waste disposal at Deepwater Dumpsite-l06 (DWD-106) as an example. The strategy involved the synthesis of results from separate exposure and effects components in order to provide a scientific basis for estimat...

437

Surgery benefits from defense technology: dual use applications of Wright Laboratory Avionics technologies to Computer Assisted Minimally Invasive Surgery (CAMIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wright Laboratory Avionics Directorate is helping to assemble a team of defense and civilian researchers to transition defense avionics and related technologies to the medical community with the goal of improving the Computer Assisted Minimally invasive Surgery (CAMIS) concept. Key partners include Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI), a not-for-profit state-chartered agency, Cleveland Clinic Foundation hospital, and Picker International, medical equipment manufacturer.

R. Williams; J. Leonard

1994-01-01

438

Separation of CsCl from a Ternary CsCl-LiCl-KCl Salt via a Melt Crystallization Technique for Pyroprocessing Waste Minimization  

SciTech Connect

A parametric study has been conducted to identify the effects of several parameters on the separation of CsCl from molten LiCl-KCl salt via a melt crystallization process. A reverse vertical Bridgman technique was used to grow the salt crystals. The investigated parameters were: (1) the advancement rate, (2) the crucible lid configuration, (3) the amount of salt mixture, (4) the initial composition of CsCl, and (5) the temperature difference between the high and low furnace zones. From each grown crystal, samples were taken axially and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results show that CsCl concentrations at the top of the crystals were low and increased to a maximum at the bottom of the salt. Salt (LiCl-KCl) recycle percentages for the experiments ranged from 50% to 75% and the CsCl composition in the waste salt was low. To increase the recycle percentage and the concentration of CsCl in the waste form, the possibility of using multiple crystallization stages was explored to further optimize the process. Results show that multiple crystallization stages are practical and the optimal experimental conditions should be operated at 5.0 mm/hr rate with a lid configuration and temperature difference of 200 ーC for a total of five crystallization stages. Under these conditions, up to 88% of the salt can be recycled.

Ammon Williams; Supathorn Phongikaroon; Michael Simpson

2013-02-01

439

Application of wet waste from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) with or without sea mud to feeding sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, the applicability of the wet waste collected from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) to the culture of sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus) was determined. The effects of dietary wet shrimp waste on the survival, specific growth rate (SGR), fecal production rate (FPR), ammonia- and nitrite-nitrogen productions of sea cucumber were studied. The total organic matter (TOM) level in the feces of sea cucumber was compared with that in corresponding feeds. Diet C (50% wet shrimp waste and 50% sea mud mash) made sea cucumber grow faster than other diets. Sea cucumber fed with either diet D (25% wet shrimp waste and 75% sea mud mash) or sole sea mud exhibited negative growth. The average lowest total FPR of sea cucumber occurred in diet A (wet shrimp waste), and there was no significant difference in total FPR between diet C and diet E (sea mud mash) ( P > 0.05). The average ammonia-nitrogen production of sea cucumber in different diet treatments decreased gradually with the decrease of crude protein content in different diets. The average highest nitrite-nitrogen production occurred in diet E treatment, and there was no significant difference in nitrite-nitrogen production among diet A, diet B (75% wet shrimp waste and 25% sea mud mash) and diet C treatments ( P > 0.05). In each diet treatment, the total organic matter (TOM) level in feces decreased to different extent compared with that in corresponding feeds.

Chen, Yanfeng; Hu, Chaoqun; Ren, Chunhua

2015-02-01

440

Minimally invasive osteotomies.  

PubMed

As orthopedic surgery continues to head in the direction of less invasive surgical techniques, this article explores the application and evolution of minimally invasive/percutaneous techniques in the surgical correction of hallux valgus deformities. Modern techniques are described and available literature is reviewed. PMID:24878408

Redfern, David; Perera, Anthony Michael

2014-06-01

441

Lattice neural network minimization. Application of neural network optimization for locating the global-minimum conformations of proteins.  

PubMed

A way of formulating the protein-folding problem in neural network optimization terms is presented in this paper. This is accomplished by representing the conformation of a protein as an array of the amino acid sequence versus position on a three-dimensional face-centered cubic lattice with an energy function defined in terms of the array variables. The method is called lattice neural network minimization (LNNM). Using the neural network minimization method, the energy function is minimized to locate the global minimum energy for the conformation of the protein. The energy function consisted of site exclusion and bond connectivity penalty terms and a pairwise contact energy potential. The contact energy potential used in the procedure is the united-residue potential of Miyazawa, Jernigan and Covell. The LNNM method found the global minimum for a seven-residue peptide in all of the 15 runs carried out. The time for each run was approximately 30 seconds on one processor of an IBM 3090 computer. For a nine-residue peptide, the global minimum was found in 7 out of 15 runs (47%) in approximately 50 seconds per run. For this peptide, LNNM found the global minimum or the second lowest minimum in 10 of the runs. In the same total CPU times (approximately 750 seconds), a Monte Carlo simulated annealing method found the global minimum or the second lowest minimum in only two runs, demonstrating the superiority of LNNM over the standard Monte Carlo simulated annealing method for this nine-residue peptide. Starting from a uniform array for the protein crambin (46 residues) on the lattice, the energy of the crambin array was minimized and a compact low-energy structure was found in approximately 25 minutes of CPU time. Its energy was much lower than that of the native protein, suggesting that there are inadequacies in the Miyazawa-Jernigan-Covell potential. The LNNM method was applied to the prediction of what was previously called nucleation but more properly called chain-folding initiation sites (CFIS) of a protein. LNNM correctly predicted the CFIS for the two proteins examined, RNase S and T4 lysozyme. The LNNM method was also applied to another chain optimization problem, minimization of the root-mean-square distance error (r.m.s.d.) (a measure similar to r.m.s. deviation) in fitting X-ray structures to a lattice, with good results. PMID:8371272

Rabow, A A; Scheraga, H A

1993-08-20

442

CHEMICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT POWWER EVAPORATION-CATALYTIC OXIDATION TECHNOLOGY - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report evaluates the ability of the Chemical Waste Management POWWER System to reduce the volume of aqueous waste and catalytically oxidize volatile contaminants. his evaluation is based on treatment performance and cost data from the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluati...

443

Treatment of Radioactive Metallic Waste from Operation of Nuclear Power Plants by Melting - The German Way for a Consistent Recycling to Minimize the Quantity of Radioactive Waste from Operation and Dismantling for Disposal - 12016  

SciTech Connect

During maintenance of nuclear power plants, and during their decommissioning period, a large quantity of radioactive metallic waste will accrue. On the other hand the capacity for final disposal of radioactive waste in Germany is limited as well as that in the US. That is why all procedures related to this topic should be handled with a maximum of efficiency. The German model of consistent recycling of the radioactive metal scrap within the nuclear industry therefore also offers high capabilities for facilities in the US. The paper gives a compact overview of the impressive results of melting treatment, the current potential and further developments. Thousands of cubic metres of final disposal capacity have been saved. The highest level of efficiency and safety by combining general surface decontamination by blasting and nuclide specific decontamination by melting associated with the typical effects of homogenization. An established process - nationally and internationally recognized. Excellent connection between economy and ecology. (authors)

Wegener, Dirk [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany); Kluth, Thomas [Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH, Krefeld (Germany)

2012-07-01

444

Application of reutilization technology to waste from liquid crystal display (LCD) industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation studies the recycling utility of two major waste products from the liquid crystal display (LCD) industry, panel glass and calcium fluoride sludge, which remain after the treatment of waste water. Waste panel glass was mixed with calcium fluoride sludge in various ratios and then subject to conditioning and melting treatment in order to yield glass-ceramics. Heavy metal leaching

Wei T. Liu; Kung C. Li

2010-01-01

445

Application of oil exploration techniques toward finding a nuclear waste repository site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through its National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program, the U.S. Department of Energy is responsible for providing facilities to permanently dispose of high-level nuclear waste in a manner that will ensure public health and safety and that will be environmentally acceptable. Three separately coordinated projects, which have placed emphasis on deep, underground repositories are described. They are the Basalt Waste

Laughon

1982-01-01

446

Application of the risk-based strategy to the Hanford tank waste organic-nitrate safety issue  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results from application of the Risk-Based Decision Management Approach for Justifying Characterization of Hanford Tank Waste to the organic-nitrate safety issue in Hanford single-shell tanks (SSTs). Existing chemical and physical models were used, taking advantage of the most current (mid-1997) sampling and analysis data. The purpose of this study is to make specific recommendations for planning characterization to help ensure the safety of each SST as it relates to the organic-nitrate safety issue. An additional objective is to demonstrate the viability of the Risk-Based Strategy for addressing Hanford tank waste safety issues.

Hunter, V.L.; Colson, S.D.; Ferryman, T.; Gephart, R.E.; Heasler, P.; Scheele, R.D.

1997-12-01

447

An image-intensive ePR for image-guided minimally invasive spine surgery applications including real-time intra-operative image acquisition, archival, and display  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments in medical imaging informatics have improved clinical workflow in Radiology enterprise but gaps remain in the clinical workflow from diagnosis to surgical treatment through post-operative follow-up. One solution to bridge this gap is the development of an electronic patient record (ePR) that integrates key imaging and informatics data during the pre, intra, and post-operative phases of clinical workflow. We present an ePR system based on standards and tailored to the clinical application for image-guided minimally invasive spinal surgery (MISS). The ePR system has been implemented in a clinical environment for a half-year.

Documet, Jorge R.; Le, Anh; Liu, Brent; Huang, H. K.; Chiu, John

2009-02-01

448

New three-dimensional head-mounted display system, TMDU-S-3D system, for minimally invasive surgery application: procedures for gasless single-port radical nephrectomy.  

PubMed

We present an application of a new three-dimensional head-mounted display system that combines a high-definition three-dimensional organic electroluminescent head-mounted display with a high-definition three-dimensional endoscope to minimally invasive surgery, using gasless single-port radical nephrectomy procedures as a model. This system presents the surgeon with a higher quality of magnified three-dimensional imagery in front of the eyes regardless of head position, and simultaneously allows direct vision by moving the angle of sight downward. It is also significantly less expensive than the current robotic surgery system. While carrying out gasless single-port radical nephrectomy, the system provided the surgeon with excellent three-dimensional imagery of the operative field, direct vision of the outside and inside of the patient, and depth perception and tactile feedback through the devices. All four nephrectomies were safely completed within the operative time, blood loss was within usual limits and there were no complications. The display was light enough to comfortably be worn for a long operative time. Our experiences show that the three-dimensional head-mounted display system might facilitate maneuverability and safety in minimally invasive procedures, without prohibitive cost, and thus might mitigate the drawbacks of other three-dimensional vision systems. Because of the potential benefits that this system offers, it deserves further refinements of its role in various minimally invasive surgeries. PMID:22587397

Kihara, Kazunori; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Masuda, Hitoshi; Saito, Kazutaka; Koga, Fumitaka; Matsuoka, Yoh; Numao, Noboru; Kojima, Kazuyuki

2012-09-01

449

The Component Slope Linear Model for Calculating Intensive Partial Molar Properties: Application to Waste Glasses  

SciTech Connect

Partial molar properties are the changes occurring when the fraction of one component is varied while the fractions of all other component mole fractions change proportionally. They have many practical and theoretical applications in chemical thermodynamics. Partial molar properties of chemical mixtures are difficult to measure because the component mole fractions must sum to one, so a change in fraction of one component must be offset with a change in one or more other components. Given that more than one component fraction is changing at a time, it is difficult to assign a change in measured response to a change in a single component. In this study, the Component Slope Linear Model (CSLM), a model previously published in the statistics literature, is shown to have coefficients that correspond to the intensive partial molar properties. If a measured property is plotted against the mole fraction of a component while keeping the proportions of all other components constant, the slope at any given point on a graph of this curve is the partial molar property for that constituent. Actually plotting this graph has been used to determine partial molar properties for many years. The CSLM directly includes this slope in a model that predicts properties as a function of the component mole fractions. This model is demonstrated by applying it to the constant pressure heat capacity data from the NaOH-NaAl(OH{sub 4}H{sub 2}O system, a system that simplifies Hanford nuclear waste. The partial molar properties of H{sub 2}O, NaOH, and NaAl(OH){sub 4} are determined. The equivalence of the CSLM and the graphical method is verified by comparing results detennined by the two methods. The CSLM model has been previously used to predict the liquidus temperature of spinel crystals precipitated from Hanford waste glass. Those model coefficients are re-interpreted here as the partial molar spinel liquidus temperature of the glass components.

Reynolds, Jacob G. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States)

2013-01-11

450

Applicability of petroleum horizontal drilling technology to hazardous waste site characterization and remediation  

SciTech Connect

Horizontal wells have the potential to become an important tool for use in characterization, remediation and monitoring operations at hazardous waste disposal, chemical manufacturing, refining and other sites where subsurface pollution may develop from operations or spills. Subsurface pollution of groundwater aquifers can occur at these sites by leakage of surface disposal ponds, surface storage tanks, underground storage tanks (UST), subsurface pipelines or leakage from surface operations. Characterization and remediation of aquifers at or near these sites requires drilling operations that are typically shallow, less than 500-feet in depth. Due to the shallow nature of polluted aquifers, waste site subsurface geologic formations frequently consist of unconsolidated materials. Fractured, jointed and/or layered high compressive strength formations or compacted caliche type formations can also be encountered. Some formations are unsaturated and have pore spaces that are only partially filled with water. Completely saturated underpressured aquifers may be encountered in areas where the static ground water levels are well below the ground surface. Each of these subsurface conditions can complicate the drilling and completion of wells needed for monitoring, characterization and remediation activities. This report describes some of the equipment that is available from petroleum drilling operations that has direct application to groundwater characterization and remediation activities. A brief discussion of petroleum directional and horizontal well drilling methodologies is given to allow the reader to gain an understanding of the equipment needed to drill and complete horizontal wells. Equipment used in river crossing drilling technology is also discussed. The final portion of this report is a description of the drilling equipment available and how it can be applied to groundwater characterization and remediation activities.

Goranson, C.

1992-09-01

451

B Plant complex hazardous, mixed and low level waste certification plan  

SciTech Connect

This plan describes the administrative steps and handling methodology for certification of hazardous waste, mixed waste, and low level waste generated at B Plant Complex. The plan also provides the applicable elements of waste reduction and pollution prevention, including up front minimization and end product reduction of volume and/or toxicity. The plan is written to satisfy requirements for Hanford Site waste generators to have a waste certification program in place at their facility. This plan, as described, applies only to waste which is generated at, or is the responsibility of, B Plant Complex. The scope of this plan is derived from the requirements found in WHC-EP-0063, Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria.

Beam, T.G.

1994-11-01

452

Life-cycle assessment of municipal solid waste management alternatives with consideration of uncertainty: SIWMS development and application  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the development and application of the Stochastic Integrated Waste Management Simulator (SIWMS) model. SIWMS provides a detailed view of the environmental impacts and associated costs of municipal solid waste (MSW) management alternatives under conditions of uncertainty. The model follows a life-cycle inventory approach extended with compensatory systems to provide more equitable bases for comparing different alternatives. Economic performance is measured by the net present value. The model is verified against four publicly available models under deterministic conditions and then used to study the impact of uncertainty on Sydney's MSW management 'best practices'. Uncertainty has a significant effect on all impact categories. The greatest effect is observed in the global warming category where a reversal of impact direction is predicted. The reliability of the system is most sensitive to uncertainties in the waste processing and disposal. The results highlight the importance of incorporating uncertainty at all stages to better understand the behaviour of the MSW system.

El Hanandeh, Ali, E-mail: alel5804@uni.sydney.edu.a [School of Civil Engineering, Building J05, University of Sydney NSW 2006 (Australia); El-Zein, Abbas [School of Civil Engineering, Building J05, University of Sydney NSW 2006 (Australia)

2010-05-15

453

Assessment of TEES{reg_sign} applications for Wet Industrial Wastes: Energy benefit and economic analysis report  

SciTech Connect

Fundamental work is catalyzed biomass pyrolysis/gasification led to the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg_sign}) concept, a means of converting moist biomass feedstocks to high-value fuel gases such as methane. A low-temperature (350{degrees}C), pressurized (3100 psig) reaction environment and a nickel catalyst are used to reduce volumes of very high-moisture wastes such as food processing byproducts while producing useful quantities of energy. A study was conducted to assess the economic viability of a range of potential applications of the process. Cases examined included feedstocks of cheese whey, grape pomace, spent grain, and an organic chemical waste stream. The analysis indicated that only the organic chemical waste process is economically attractive in the existing energy/economic environment. However, food processing cases will become attractive as alternative disposal practices are curtailed and energy prices rise.

Elliott, D.C.; Scheer, T.H.

1992-02-01

454

Waste minimization/pollution prevention at R&D facilities: A cradle-to-grave tracking and information system that will be implemented at Sandia National Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive environment, safety and health (ES&H) program allocates an extensive portion of its resources to information collection, management, and manipulation. Much of these resources are difficult to obtain and even more costly to ensure that they are sufficiently accurate; however, a system which collects information at the point which a process begins or a material enters a facility and maintains that information throughout its entire life-cycle is a more efficient approach to providing the data necessary to meet ES&H requirements. These data requirements for all the various groups within an ES&H program are associated with the properties and interactions among materials, personnel, facilities, hazards, waste and processes. Although each group is charged with addressing a particular aspect of these properties and interactions, the information they require can be aggregated into a coherent set of common data fields. It is these common data fields that the Cradle-to-Grave Tracking and Information System (CGTIS) is designed to satisfy. Research and development laboratories such as Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) are diverse in nature and, therefore, present a complex challenge to ES&H professionals. The remainder of this paper will describe the CGTIS as envisioned and implemented at SNL, define the requirements of a complete CGTIS, and review the current status of each system module at SNL.

Hollingsworth, M.W. [Rinchem Co., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kjeldgaard, E.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Navarrete, R. [AT and T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (United States)

1993-09-01

455

Improvement of chemical and biological characteristics of gossan mine wastes following application of amendments and growth of Cistus ladanifer L.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cistus ladanifer is considered a good option for phytostabilization of mine wastes, composed of several materials, but its growth is very slow due to substrata conditions (acidic pH, low fertility and water availability, high total concentrations of hazardous elements). To enhance the growth of C. ladanifer with application of organic/inorganic amendments can be a strategy to speed up remediation. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of different rates of amendments and C. ladanifer growth on the improvement of chemical and biological characteristics of gossan wastes. Composite samples of mining wastes (gossan+host rocks) were collected at the S縊 Domingos mine. Amendments used were mixtures (30, 75, 150 Mg/ha) of rockwool, agriculture wastes and wastes from liquor distillation obtained from fruits of Arbutus unedo. Four treatments (n=6 replicates) were carried out (control and three amended treatments) under controlled conditions in a greenhouse. After one month of incubation at 70% of water holding capacity, C. ladanifer was sown in half of the pots from each treatment (n=3), and the other three pots remained in the same conditions without plant. Chemical and biological characteristics of the wastes (with/without plants) were analysed after incubation and fifteen months. Gossan wastes had great total concentrations of several elements (g/kg; Al: 24.8, As: 3.03, Cu: 0.23, Pb; 9.21) whereas in an extracting solution (diluted solution of organic acids) these were small (0.5 units), fertility (Corganic, Pextractable, Ntotal) and dehydrogenase activity of mine wastes, principally with the rate of 150 Mg/ha, even after one month of incubation and after the plants be sown. In both sampling periods (beginning/end of the experiment), Kextractable concentrations increased only with the high application rates (control and 30 Mg/ha treatment: 1.02-1.88 mg/kg; other amended treatments: 2.13-3.55 mg/kg). At the end of the experiment, the presence of the plant increased Corganic and Pextractable concentrations, compared to treatments without plants, reaching the highest values in the treatments combining amendments and plants. After one month of incubation, the dehydrogenase activities in wastes were more than twice in the amended treatments (1.71-33.55 ?g TPF g sample 16h-1, depending on amendments application rate and sampling period). Nevertheless, wastes from treatments with plants had higher dehydrogenase activities (9.66-33.55 ?g TPF g sample 16h-1, depending on amendments application rate) than in treatments using only amendments (4.98-22.30 ?g TPF g sample 16h-1), but both were higher than control. The plants in control presented lower fresh biomass than in amended treatments. Plants growth in control was not sufficient to enhance dehydrogenase activity of mine wastes (1.51 and 1.72 ?g TPF g sample 16h-1, with/without plants, respectively). The extractable nutrients (Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Zn) increased with amendment application, an advantage for remediation purposes. Although extractable Al, As, Na also increased in the same treatments, they remained small. In contrast, extractable Cu and Pb were, generally, lower in amended treatments than in control. The presence of the plant did not increase the concentration of elemental in the extractant solution.

Santos, Erika; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Macas, Felipe; de Varennes, Amarilis

2013-04-01

456

An LCA model for waste incineration enhanced with new technologies for metal recovery and application to the case of Switzerland.  

PubMed

A process model of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) and new technologies for metal recovery from combustion residues was developed. The environmental impact is modeled as a function of waste composition as well as waste treatment and material recovery technologies. The model includes combustion with a grate incinerator, several flue gas treatment technologies, electricity and steam production from waste heat recovery, metal recovery from slag and fly ash, and landfilling of residues and can be tailored to specific plants and sites (software tools can be downloaded free of charge). Application of the model to Switzerland shows that the treatment of one tonne of municipal solid waste results on average in 425 kg CO2-eq. generated in the incineration process, and 54 kg CO2-eq. accrue in upstream processes such as waste transport and the production of operating materials. Downstream processes, i.e. residue disposal, generates 5 kg CO2-eq. Savings from energy recovery are in the range of 67 to 752 kg CO2-eq. depending on the assumptions regarding the substituted energy production, while the recovery of metals from slag and fly ash currently results in a net saving of approximately 35 kg CO2-eq. A similar impact pattern is observed when assessing the MSWI model for aggregated environmental impacts (ReCiPe) and for non-renewable resource consumption (cumulative exergy demand), except that direct emissions have less and no relevance, respectively, on the total score. The study illustrates that MSWI plants can be an important element of industrial ecology as they provide waste disposal services and can help to close material and energetic cycles. PMID:24315553

Boesch, Michael E; Vadenbo, Carl; Saner, Dominik; Huter, Christoph; Hellweg, Stefanie

2014-02-01

457

Selenium Waste  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides general information about selenium including its occurrence, industrial applications, toxicology, and regulations and practices regarding industrial waste disposal. The site also features links to more detailed information about each of these topics.

2007-01-26

458

The entropy formula of black holes in Minimal Massive Gravity and its application for BTZ black holes  

E-print Network

In this paper we obtain the entropy formula of black hole solutions of Minimal Massive Gravity (MMG) by Tachikawa method \\cite{a}. Then we apply this formula for BTZ black hole solution. We find that the usual Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is modified. The modification come from Chern-Simons (CS) term and new term in MMG. The contribution of CS term, which is proportional with inner radius of horizon is not new, but last term which is due to the new term of MMG, as usual is proportional to the outer radius of horizon and is new result. Then we show that the total entropy exactly can be reproduced by Cardy formula for entropy of the dual boundary CFT.

Setare, M R

2015-01-01

459

Minimally Invasive Dentistry  

MedlinePLUS

... to your desktop! more... What Is Minimally Invasive Dentistry? Article Chapters What Is Minimally Invasive Dentistry? Minimally ... techniques. Reviewed: January 2012 Related Articles: Minimally Invasive Dentistry Minimally Invasive Veneers Dramatically Change Smiles What Patients ...

460

Application of Geographic Information System and Remotesensing in effective solid waste disposal sites selection in Wukro town, Tigray, Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identifying solid waste disposal sites and appropriately managing them is a challenging task to many developing countries. This is a critical problem too in Ethiopia in general and in Wukro town in particular. The existing site for Wukro town is not sufficient in its capacity and it is damaging the environment due to its location, and the type of waste dumped, while the surrounding area is being irrigated. Due to the swift expansion and urbanization developments in Wukro town, it badly needs to develop controlled solid waste dumping site to prevent several contamination problems. This study was conducted first, to assess the existing waste management strategies in Wukro town; and second, to find out the potential waste disposal sites for the town, using GIS and Remote Sensing techniques. The study exploited the Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) methods to combine necessary factors considered for dumping site selection. The selected method also uses various geographical data including remote sensing data, with GIS spatial analysis tools. Accordingly, site suitability maps for each of the factors were developed in a GIS environment. Results indicate that 12 dumping sites were appropriate and they were further ranked against their suitability in terms of wind direction, proximity to settlement area and distance from the center of the town. Finally, two sites are the best suitable for dumping site. This study indicated that the application of Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing techniques are efficient and low cost tools to study and select appropriate dumping site so as to facilitate decision making processes.

Mohammedshum, A. A.; Gebresilassie, M. A.; Rulinda, C. M.; Kahsay, G. H.; Tesfay, M. S.

2014-11-01

461

Hanford tank waste simulants specification and their applicability for the retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification processes  

SciTech Connect

A wide variety of waste simulants were developed over the past few years to test various retrieval, pretreatment and waste immobilization technologies and unit operations. Experiments can be performed cost-effectively using non-radioactive waste simulants in open laboratories. This document reviews the composition of many previously used waste simulants for remediation of tank wastes at the Hanford reservation. In this review, the simulants used in testing for the retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification processes are compiled, and the representative chemical and physical characteristics of each simulant are specified. The retrieval and transport simulants may be useful for testing in-plant fluidic devices and in some cases for filtration technologies. The pretreatment simulants will be useful for filtration, Sr/TRU removal, and ion exchange testing. The vitrification simulants will be useful for testing melter, melter feed preparation technologies, and for waste form evaluations.

GR Golcar; NG Colton; JG Darab; HD Smith

2000-04-04

462

Aerobic biodegradation kinetics of solid organic wastes on earth and for applications in space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerobic biodegradation plays an important role in recycling organic matter and nutrients on earth. It is also a candidate technology for waste processing and resource recovery in Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems, such as a proposed planetary base on Mars. Important questions are how long should wastes be treated, and what is the quality (stability/maturity) of the product. To address these questions two aerobic composting systems were evaluated. One treated (252 days) horse manure and cranberry fruit in duplicate open windrows (HCC) as a reference earth application. The other was a pilot-scale (330 L) enclosed, in-vessel system treating (162 days) inedible biomass collected from plant growth systems at NASA, amended with food and human wastes simulant for potential space application (ALSC). Samples were taken from both systems over time and product quality assessed with a range of physical, chemical, biological, toxicological, respirometry and plant growth analyses that were developed and standardized. Because plant growth analyses take so long, a hypothesis was that some parameters could be used to predict compost quality and suitability for growing plants. Maximum temperatures in the thermophilic range were maintained for both systems (HCC > 60ーC for >129 days, ALSC > 55ーC for >40 days. Fecal streptococci were reduced by 4.8 log-units for HCC and 7.8 for ALSC. Volume/mass reductions achieved were 63%/62% for HCC and 79%/67% for ALSC. Phytotoxicity tests performed on aqueous extracts to recover plant nutrients found decreasing sensitivity: arabidopsis > lettuce > tomato > wheat > cucumber, corresponding with seed size and food reserve capacity. The germination index (GI) of HCC increased over composting time indicating decreasing phytotoxicity. However, GIs for ALSC leachate decreased or fluctuated over composting time. Selected samples of HCC at 31, 157 and 252 days alone and combined with promix (1:1), and of ALSC at 7, 14, 21, 28, 40 and 84 days, or fresh (FL) or dried and leached (DL), alone and combined with promix or "Martian" regolith simulant (1:1) were assessed as plant growth media. For HCC, plants were tallest and heaviest HCC-252 > HCC-157 > HCC-31 days for HCC and FL-ALSC:promix > DL-ALSC > ALSC:regolith > ALSC:promix > ALSC. Whereas phytotoxicity decreased for HCC over composting time, for ALSC it increased. A hypothesis that increasingly high free ammonia concentration in ALSC may have been the cause of toxicity was confirmed on promix adjusted to different NH4+-N concentrations and pHs. Very good, consistent correlations for selected HCC parameters with plant growth were found. However, poor and inconsistent correlations were found for ALSC due to ammonia toxicity. Maximum oxygen uptake rate (new parameter) and GI are recommended as the best indicators of compost stability/maturity and suitability for plant growth.

Ramirez Perez, Javier Christian

463

INTEGRATED MULTIMEDIA DECISION-MAKING FOR HUMAN AND ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT: A NATIONAL-SCALE STUDY OF LAND APPLICATION OF ARSENIC-BEARING WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Requisite to the development and application of sound waste management policies, decision-makers must discern the impact of a given waste management approach upon both human and ecological receptors. To configure such policies solely upon the assessment of impact to humans, for ...

464

Long-Term Integrity of Waste Package Final Closure for HLW Geological Disposal, (V) Applicability of MAG Welding Method to Overpack Final Closure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overpack, a high-level radioactive waste package for Japan's geological disposal program, is required for preventing the sealed vitrified waste from contact with groundwater for 1,000 years. In this study, metal active gas (MAG) welding, a typical arc welding method, was evaluated for its applicability in sealing a carbon steel overpack lid with a thickness of 190 mm. Welding conditions and

Hidekazu ASANO; Takashi ITO

2008-01-01

465

The application of biotechnology to the treatment of wastes produced from the nuclear fuel cycle: Biodegradation and bioaccumulation as a means of treating radionuclide-containing streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent concerns on the radiotoxicity and longevity of nuclides have prompted the development of new technologies for their removal from wastes produced from nuclear power programs and nuclear fuel reprocessing activities. Alongside developments from traditional chemical treatment processes, interest has also centered on the application of biotechnology for efficient waste treatment. Many biological techniques have relied on empirical approaches in

Lynne E. Macaskie

1991-01-01

466

Waste reduction using carbon dioxide: A solvent substitute for precision cleaning applications  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Industrial Waste Program (IWP) has been sponsoring the research, development, and commercialization of supercritical fluid cleaning technology for replacement of traditional solvent cleaning processes. Los Alamos National Laboratory and Pacific Northwest Laboratory have been working through this collaborative effort to test the efficacy of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) cleaning. Tests were performed on a variety of substrates at various solvent conditions for a large number of common contaminants to characteri