Science.gov

Sample records for waste minimization applications

  1. Waste minimization applications at a remediation site

    SciTech Connect

    Allmon, L.A.

    1995-01-23

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) owned by the Department of Energy was used for the processing of uranium. In 1989 Fernald suspended production of uranium metals and was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL). The site`s mission has changed from one of production to environmental restoration. Many groups necessary for producing a product were deemed irrelevant for remediation work, including Waste Minimization. Waste Minimization does not readily appear to be applicable to remediation work. Environmental remediation is designed to correct adverse impacts to the environment from past operations and generates significant amounts of waste requiring management. The premise of pollution prevention is to avoid waste generation, thus remediation is in direct conflict with this premise. Although greater amounts of waste will be generated during environmental remediation, treatment capacities are not always available and disposal is becoming more difficult and costly. This creates the need for pollution prevention and waste minimization. Applying waste minimization principles at a remediation site is an enormous challenge. If the remediation site is also radiologically contaminated it is even a bigger challenge. Innovative techniques and ideas must be utilized to achieve reductions in the amount of waste that must be managed or dispositioned. At Fernald the waste minimization paradigm was shifted from focusing efforts on source reduction to focusing efforts on recycle/reuse by inverting the EPA waste management hierarchy. A fundamental difference at remediation sites is that source reduction has limited applicability to legacy wastes but can be applied successfully on secondary waste generation. The bulk of measurable waste reduction will be achieved by the recycle/reuse of primary wastes and by segregation and decontamination of secondary wastestreams. Each effort must be measured in terms of being economically and ecologically beneficial.

  2. Waste minimization handbook, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Boing, L.E.; Coffey, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    This technical guide presents various methods used by industry to minimize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated during decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities. Such activities generate significant amounts of LLW during their operations. Waste minimization refers to any measure, procedure, or technique that reduces the amount of waste generated during a specific operation or project. Preventive waste minimization techniques implemented when a project is initiated can significantly reduce waste. Techniques implemented during decontamination activities reduce the cost of decommissioning. The application of waste minimization techniques is not limited to D and D activities; it is also useful during any phase of a facility`s life cycle. This compendium will be supplemented with a second volume of abstracts of hundreds of papers related to minimizing low-level nuclear waste. This second volume is expected to be released in late 1996.

  3. WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR NON-AGRICULTURAL PESTICIDE APPLICATORS: EPA'S POLLUTION PREVENTION GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development is preparing a guide to be published later this year for non-agricultural pesticide applicators which will provide specific information about waste minimization for pesticide users in industries such as commercial lawn care, structura...

  4. POLLUTION BALANCE METHOD AND THE DEMONSTRATION OF ITS APPLICATION TO MINIMIZING WASTE IN A BIOCHEMICAL PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we introduced several modifications to the WAR (waste reduction) algorithm developed earlier. These modifications were made for systematically handling sensitivity analysis and various tasks of waste minimization. A design hierarchy was formulated to promote appro...

  5. POLLUTION BALANCE METHOD AND THE DEMONSTRATION OF ITS APPLICATION TO MINIMIZING WASTE IN A BIOCHEMICAL PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we introduced several modifications to the WAR (waste reduction) algorithm developed earlier. hese modifications were made for systematically handling sensitivity analysis and various tasks of waste minimization. esign hierarchy was formulated to promote appropriat...

  6. Guidelines for mixed waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, C.

    1992-02-01

    Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization.

  7. Development and test case application of a waste minimization project evaluation method

    SciTech Connect

    Kjeldgaard, E.A. ); Saloio, J.H.; Varnado, G.B. )

    1990-08-01

    The authors have developed and applied a methodology to evaluate and prioritize proposed waste minimization activities affecting Department of Energy (DOE) programs. The approach provides a systematic and defensible method for selecting a set of waste minimization proposals that maximizes the benefits to DOE while maintaining costs within a specified budget. The report discusses the development of a structured set of evaluation criteria to characterize waste minimization issues; techniques for documenting the anticipated and potential costs, risks, and benefits of waste minimization proposals; and a method of translating disparate data into a figure of merit for each proposal. A test case demonstration of this prioritization approach was applied to proposals currently being considered at two DOE weapons production facilities. Recommendations are provided for combining this approach with the existing DOE proposal selection process. 9 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Pollution balance method and the demonstration of its application to minimizing waste in a biochemical process

    SciTech Connect

    Hilaly, A.K.; Sikdar, S.K.

    1995-06-01

    In this study, the authors introduced several modifications to the WAR (waste reduction) algorithm developed earlier. These modifications were made for systematically handling sensitivity analysis and various tasks of waste minimization. A design hierarchy was formulated to promote appropriate waste reduction tasks at designated levels of the hierarchy. A sensitivity coefficient was used to measure the relative impacts of process variables on the pollution index of a process. The use of the WAR algorithm was demonstrated by a fermentation process for making penicillin.

  9. Development and test case application of a waste minimization project evaluation method

    SciTech Connect

    Kjeldgaard, E.A. ); Saloio, J.H.; Varnado, G.B. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a formal process for selecting, from a diverse set of proposed waste minimization activities, those activities that provide the greatest benefit to Department of Energy (DOE). A methodology for evaluating and prioritizing proposals was developed to illustrate how the selection process works and what types of data are required to characterize waste minimization activities. It is clearly impossible to remove all aspects of subjective judgment from the proposal selection process. With this important consideration in mind, the methodology presented is put forth to enhance, not replace, the traditional DOE decision-making process. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Analysis of the application of decontamination technologies to radioactive metal waste minimization using expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bayrakal, S.

    1993-09-30

    Radioactive metal waste makes up a significant portion of the waste currently being sent for disposal. Recovery of this metal as a valuable resource is possible through the use of decontamination technologies. Through the development and use of expert systems a comparison can be made of laser decontamination, a technology currently under development at Ames Laboratory, with currently available decontamination technologies for applicability to the types of metal waste being generated and the effectiveness of these versus simply disposing of the waste. These technologies can be technically and economically evaluated by the use of expert systems techniques to provide a waste management decision making tool that generates, given an identified metal waste, waste management recommendations. The user enters waste characteristic information as input and the system then recommends decontamination technologies, determines residual contamination levels and possible waste management strategies, carries out a cost analysis and then ranks, according to cost, the possibilities for management of the waste. The expert system was developed using information from literature and personnel experienced in the use of decontamination technologies and requires validation by human experts and assignment of confidence factors to the knowledge represented within.

  11. WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Waste minimization (WM) is a policy specifically mandated by the U.S. Congress in the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Wastes Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The RCRA regulations require that generators of hazardous waste have a program in place to reduce...

  12. LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-14

    This document is the February 14, 1990 version of the LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan (WMPP). The Waste Minimization Policy field has undergone continuous changes since its formal inception in the 1984 HSWA legislation. The first LLNL WMPP, Revision A, is dated March 1985. A series of informal revision were made on approximately a semi-annual basis. This Revision 2 is the third formal issuance of the WMPP document. EPA has issued a proposed new policy statement on source reduction and recycling. This policy reflects a preventative strategy to reduce or eliminate the generation of environmentally-harmful pollutants which may be released to the air, land surface, water, or ground water. In accordance with this new policy new guidance to hazardous waste generators on the elements of a Waste Minimization Program was issued. In response to these policies, DOE has revised and issued implementation guidance for DOE Order 5400.1, Waste Minimization Plan and Waste Reduction reporting of DOE Hazardous, Radioactive, and Radioactive Mixed Wastes, final draft January 1990. This WMPP is formatted to meet the current DOE guidance outlines. The current WMPP will be revised to reflect all of these proposed changes when guidelines are established. Updates, changes and revisions to the overall LLNL WMPP will be made as appropriate to reflect ever-changing regulatory requirements. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Foam application of oxalic acid as a decontamination waste minimization tool

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, K.D.

    1992-03-09

    The use of foam in applying decontamination solutions has proven to bc an effective waste minimization strategy. Initial trials in 299-H indicated a 70% reduction in waste volume. An overpressurization of the equipment during a decon operation. however, indicated the need to better define chemical compatibility and to develop inherently safer equipment. A foamer system with an open solution vessel and 1:1 ratio pneumatically actuated pump was modified, tested and found to operate satisfactorily. Laboratory tests indicate no significant incompatibilities between the foam agent and oxalic or dilute nitric acid solutions. Oxalic acid/foam agent compatibility was verified in the foamer vessel for concentrations up to 4 weight percent. It is recommended, however, that 1 weight percent oxalic acid be used in plant decon operations. The defoamer used previously is no longer in production. A new defoamer remains to be tested. Limited use of the foamer in 299-H can now be initiated. Long term use of foam and its impact on waste tank processes is being reviewed.

  14. WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: A PHOTOFINISHING FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A waste minimization opportunity assessment was performed which identified areas for waste reduction at a photofinishing facility. he study followed procedures in the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual. his report identifies potential options to achieve further ...

  15. National Institutes of Health: Mixed waste minimization and treatment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The Appalachian States Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission requested the US Department of Energy`s National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) to assist the biomedical community in becoming more knowledgeable about its mixed waste streams, to help minimize the mixed waste stream generated by the biomedical community, and to identify applicable treatment technologies for these mixed waste streams. As the first step in the waste minimization process, liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste (LLMW) streams generated at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) were characterized and combined into similar process categories. This report identifies possible waste minimization and treatment approaches for the LLMW generated by the biomedical community identified in DOE/LLW-208. In development of the report, on site meetings were conducted with NIH personnel responsible for generating each category of waste identified as lacking disposal options. Based on the meetings and general waste minimization guidelines, potential waste minimization options were identified.

  16. Waste minimization in analytical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.W.; Smith, L.L.; Crain, J.S.; Boparai, A.S.; Kiely, J.T.; Yaeger, J.S. Schilling, J.B.

    1995-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) will require a large number of waste characterizations over a multi-year period to accomplish the Department`s goals in environmental restoration and waste management. Estimates vary, but two million analyses annually are expected. The waste generated by the analytical procedures used for characterizations is a significant source of new DOE waste. Success in reducing the volume of secondary waste and the costs of handling this waste would significantly decrease the overall cost of this DOE program. Selection of appropriate analytical methods depends on the intended use of the resultant data. It is not always necessary to use a high-powered analytical method, typically at higher cost, to obtain data needed to make decisions about waste management. Indeed, for samples taken from some heterogeneous systems, the meaning of high accuracy becomes clouded if the data generated are intended to measure a property of this system. Among the factors to be considered in selecting the analytical method are the lower limit of detection, accuracy, turnaround time, cost, reproducibility (precision), interferences, and simplicity. Occasionally, there must be tradeoffs among these factors to achieve the multiple goals of a characterization program. The purpose of the work described here is to add waste minimization to the list of characteristics to be considered. In this paper the authors present results of modifying analytical methods for waste characterization to reduce both the cost of analysis and volume of secondary wastes. Although tradeoffs may be required to minimize waste while still generating data of acceptable quality for the decision-making process, they have data demonstrating that wastes can be reduced in some cases without sacrificing accuracy or precision.

  17. 40 CFR 262.27 - Waste minimization certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest ...Waste minimization certification. A generator who initiates a shipment of hazardous...manifest: (a) 的 am a large quantity generator. I have a program in place to...

  18. 40 CFR 262.27 - Waste minimization certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest ...Waste minimization certification. A generator who initiates a shipment of hazardous...manifest: (a) 的 am a large quantity generator. I have a program in place to...

  19. 40 CFR 262.27 - Waste minimization certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest ...Waste minimization certification. A generator who initiates a shipment of hazardous...manifest: (a) 的 am a large quantity generator. I have a program in place to...

  20. 40 CFR 262.27 - Waste minimization certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest ...Waste minimization certification. A generator who initiates a shipment of hazardous...manifest: (a) 的 am a large quantity generator. I have a program in place to...

  1. 40 CFR 262.27 - Waste minimization certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest ...Waste minimization certification. A generator who initiates a shipment of hazardous...manifest: (a) 的 am a large quantity generator. I have a program in place to...

  2. Annual Waste Minimization Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred J. Karns

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the waste minimization efforts undertaken by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), during CY06. This report was developed in accordance with the requirements of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Permit (No. NEV HW0021) and as clarified in a letter dated April 21, 1995, from Paul Liebendorfer of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to Donald Elle of the DOE, Nevada Operations Office. The NNSA/NSO Pollution Prevention (P2) Program establishes a process to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by the NNSA/NSO and ensures that proposed methods of treatment, storage, and/or disposal of waste minimize potential threats to human health and the environment. The following information provides an overview of the P2 Program, major P2 accomplishments during the reporting year, a comparison of the current year waste generation to prior years, and a description of efforts undertaken during the year to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by the NNSA/NSO.

  3. 40 CFR 262.27 - Waste minimization certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest ァ 262.27 Waste minimization certification. A generator who initiates a shipment of hazardous waste must certify to one of the following statements in Item 15 of the uniform hazardous waste manifest: (a) 的 am a large quantity generator. I have...

  4. 40 CFR 262.27 - Waste minimization certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest ァ 262.27 Waste minimization certification. A generator who initiates a shipment of hazardous waste must certify to one of the following statements in Item 15 of the uniform hazardous waste manifest: (a) 的 am a large quantity generator. I have...

  5. 40 CFR 262.27 - Waste minimization certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest ァ 262.27 Waste minimization certification. A generator who initiates a shipment of hazardous waste must certify to one of the following statements in Item 15 of the uniform hazardous waste manifest: (a) 的 am a large quantity generator. I have...

  6. 40 CFR 262.27 - Waste minimization certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest ァ 262.27 Waste minimization certification. A generator who initiates a shipment of hazardous waste must certify to one of the following statements in Item 15 of the uniform hazardous waste manifest: (a) 的 am a large quantity generator. I have...

  7. 40 CFR 262.27 - Waste minimization certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest ァ 262.27 Waste minimization certification. A generator who initiates a shipment of hazardous waste must certify to one of the following statements in Item 15 of the uniform hazardous waste manifest: (a) 的 am a large quantity generator. I have...

  8. Application of molten salt oxidation for the minimization and recovery of plutonium-238 contaminated wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents the technical and economic feasibility of molten salt oxidation technology as a volume reduction and recovery process for {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste. Combustible low-level waste material contaminated with {sup 238}Pu residue is destroyed by oxidation in a 900 C molten salt reaction vessel. The combustible waste is destroyed creating carbon dioxide and steam and a small amount of ash and insoluble {sup 2328}Pu in the spent salt. The valuable {sup 238}Pu is recycled using aqueous recovery techniques. Experimental test results for this technology indicate a plutonium recovery efficiency of 99%. Molten salt oxidation stabilizes the waste converting it to a non-combustible waste. Thus installation and use of molten salt oxidation technology will substantially reduce the volume of {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste. Cost-effectiveness evaluations of molten salt oxidation indicate a significant cost savings when compared to the present plans to package, or re-package, certify and transport these wastes to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for permanent disposal. Clear and distinct cost advantages exist for MSO when the monetary value of the recovered {sup 238}Pu is considered.

  9. Application of molten salt oxidation for the minimization and recovery of plutonium-238 contaminated wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wishau, R.

    1998-05-01

    Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is proposed as a {sup 238}Pu waste treatment technology that should be developed for volume reduction and recovery of {sup 238}Pu and as an alternative to the transport and permanent disposal of {sup 238}Pu waste to the WIPP repository. In MSO technology, molten sodium carbonate salt at 800--900 C in a reaction vessel acts as a reaction media for wastes. The waste material is destroyed when injected into the molten salt, creating harmless carbon dioxide and steam and a small amount of ash in the spent salt. The spent salt can be treated using aqueous separation methods to reuse the salt and to recover 99.9% of the precious {sup 238}Pu that was in the waste. Tests of MSO technology have shown that the volume of combustible TRU waste can be reduced by a factor of at least twenty. Using this factor the present inventory of 574 TRU drums of {sup 238}Pu contaminated wastes is reduced to 30 drums. Further {sup 238}Pu waste costs of $22 million are avoided from not having to repackage 312 of the 574 drums to a drum total of more than 4,600 drums. MSO combined with aqueous processing of salts will recover approximately 1.7 kilograms of precious {sup 238}Pu valued at 4 million dollars (at $2,500/gram). Thus, installation and use of MSO technology at LANL will result in significant cost savings compared to present plans to transport and dispose {sup 238}Pu TRU waste to the WIPP site. Using a total net present value cost for the MSO project as $4.09 million over a five-year lifetime, the project can pay for itself after either recovery of 1.6 kg of Pu or through volume reduction of 818 drums or a combination of the two. These savings show a positive return on investment.

  10. WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: A CLASS 8 TRUCK ASSEMBLY PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a systematic approach to identify and implement options to reduce or eliminate hazardous waste. he approach is presented in a report entitled, "Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual" (EPA/625/7-88/O03). his report describes the application of the wast...

  11. Waste minimization in the oil and gas industries

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    Recent legislative actions place an emphasis on waste minimization as opposed to traditional end-of-pipe waste management. This new philosophy, coupled with increasing waste disposal costs and associated liabilities, sets the stage for investigating waste minimization opportunities in all industries wastes generated by oil and gas exploration and production (E P) and refuting activities are regulated as non-hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Potential reclassification of these wastes as hazardous would make minimization of these waste streams even more desirable. Oil and gas E P activities generate a wide variety of wastes, although the bulk of the wastes (98%) consists of a single waste stream: produced water. Opportunities to minimize E P wastes through point source reduction activities are limited by the extractive nature of the industry. Significant waste minimization is possible, however, through recycling. Recycling activities include underground injection of produced water, use of closed-loop drilling systems, reuse of produced water and drilling fluids in other oilfield activities, use of solid debris as construction fill, use of oily wastes as substitutes for road mix and asphalt, landspreading of produced sand for soil enhancement, and roadspreading of suitable aqueous wastes for dust suppression or deicing. Like the E P wastes, wastes generated by oil and gas treatment and refining activities cannot be reduced substantially at the point source but can be reduced through recycling. For the most part, extensive recycling and reprocessing of many waste streams already occurs at most petroleum refineries. A variety of innovative waste treatment activities have been developed to minimize the toxicity or volume of oily wastes generated by both E P and refining activities. These treatments include bioremediation, oxidation, biooxidation, incineration, and separation. Application of these treatment processes is still limited.

  12. Waste minimization in the oil and gas industries

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.P.

    1992-09-01

    Recent legislative actions place an emphasis on waste minimization as opposed to traditional end-of-pipe waste management. This new philosophy, coupled with increasing waste disposal costs and associated liabilities, sets the stage for investigating waste minimization opportunities in all industries wastes generated by oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) and refuting activities are regulated as non-hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Potential reclassification of these wastes as hazardous would make minimization of these waste streams even more desirable. Oil and gas E&P activities generate a wide variety of wastes, although the bulk of the wastes (98%) consists of a single waste stream: produced water. Opportunities to minimize E&P wastes through point source reduction activities are limited by the extractive nature of the industry. Significant waste minimization is possible, however, through recycling. Recycling activities include underground injection of produced water, use of closed-loop drilling systems, reuse of produced water and drilling fluids in other oilfield activities, use of solid debris as construction fill, use of oily wastes as substitutes for road mix and asphalt, landspreading of produced sand for soil enhancement, and roadspreading of suitable aqueous wastes for dust suppression or deicing. Like the E&P wastes, wastes generated by oil and gas treatment and refining activities cannot be reduced substantially at the point source but can be reduced through recycling. For the most part, extensive recycling and reprocessing of many waste streams already occurs at most petroleum refineries. A variety of innovative waste treatment activities have been developed to minimize the toxicity or volume of oily wastes generated by both E&P and refining activities. These treatments include bioremediation, oxidation, biooxidation, incineration, and separation. Application of these treatment processes is still limited.

  13. Waste minimization in the automotive repair industry

    SciTech Connect

    Toy, W.M.

    1988-11-01

    Waste minimization in the automotive repair industry is characterized by the large numbers of small quantity generators producing solvent, alkaline and detergent hazardous wastes. On-site management of multiple processes which vary depending on the size of shop make the administration of hazardous waste policies particularly complex. This paper presents the quantities and types of hazardous materials typically produced. Guidelines are presented to allow generators to organize a waste minimization program.

  14. APPLICATIONS OF SUPERCRITICAL FLUID TECHNOLOGY TO POLLUTION PREVENTION AND WASTE MINIMIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The applications of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to environmental problems can yield significant benefits because of the solvent properties and low toxicity of the available solvents, e.g., carbon dioxide. his paper will discuss a new federal EPA program to investigate us...

  15. Department of Energy's waste minimization program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Waste minimization, as mandated by the Congress, requires, the elimination or reduction of the generation of waste as its source, that is, before it can become waste. This audit was made to determine the adequacy of DOE's efforts to minimize the generation of waste. The audit emphasized radioactive and other hazardous waste generation at DOE's nuclear weapons production plants and design laboratories. We included waste minimization activities and actions that can be taken now, in contrast to the long-range weapons complex modernization effort. We reviewed waste minimization activities within the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Defense Programs (DP), the Hazardous Waste Remedial Action Program Office, and the Waste Minimization Management Group (WMMG) in the Albuquerque Field Office. Waste minimization programs were examined in detail at the three largest nuclear weapons production facilities -- the Rocky Flats plant, which manufactures plutonium parts; the Y-12 facility, which produces uranium components; and the Savannah River site, which manufactures and loads tritium -- and two of DOE's weapons design laboratories, Los Alamos and Sandia.

  16. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A BOURBON DISTILLERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected un...

  17. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A DAIRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Ce...

  18. WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - FORT RILEY, KANSAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the Waste Reduction Evaluations at Federal Sites (WREAFS) Program, a waste minimization opportunity assessment was conducted at a maintenance operation carried out at one of the U.S. Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) Fort Riley, Kansas facilities. hese facilities generate waste...

  19. DUPONT CHAMBERS WORKS WASTE MINIMIZATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a joint U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and DuPont waste minimization project, fifteen waste streams were-selected for assessment. The intent was to develop assessments diverse in terms of process type, mode of operation, waste type, disposal needed, and relative s...

  20. DUPONT CHAMBERS WORKS WASTE MINIMIZATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a joint U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and DuPont waste minimization project, fifteen waste streams were-selected for assessment. he intent was to develop assessments diverse in terms of process type, mode of operation, waste type, disposal needed, and relative suc...

  1. Waste minimization in an autobody repair shop

    SciTech Connect

    Baria, D.N.; Dorland, D.; Bergeron, J.T.

    1994-12-31

    This work was done to document the waste minimization incorporated in a new autobody repair facility in Hermantown, Minnesota. Humes Collision Center incorporated new waste reduction techniques when it expanded its old facilities in 1992 and it was able to achieve the benefits of cost reduction and waste reduction. Humes Collision Center repairs an average of 500 cars annually and is a very small quantity generator (VSQG) of hazardous waste, as defined by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA). The hazardous waste consists of antifreeze, batteries, paint sludge, refrigerants, and used oil, while the nonhazardous waste consists of cardboard, glass, paint filters, plastic, sanding dust, scrap metal, and wastewater. The hazardous and nonhazardous waste output were decreased by 72%. In addition, there was a 63% reduction in the operating costs. The waste minimization includes antifreeze recovery and recycling, reduction in unused waste paint, reduction, recovery and recycle of waste lacquer thinner for cleaning spray guns and paint cups, elimination of used plastic car bags, recovery and recycle of refrigerant, reduction in waste sandpaper and elimination of sanding dust, and elimination of waste paint filters. The rate of return on the investment in waste minimization equipment is estimated from 37% per year for the distillation unit, 80% for vacuum sanding, 146% for computerized paint mixing, 211% for the refrigerant recycler, to 588% per year for the gun washer. The corresponding payback time varies from 3 years to 2 months.

  2. Waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-31

    The purpose of this plan is to document the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. The intent of this plan is to respond to and comply with (DOE's) policy and guidelines concerning the need for pollution prevention. The Plan is composed of a LLNL Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan and, as attachments, Program- and Department-specific waste minimization plans. This format reflects the fact that waste minimization is considered a line management responsibility and is to be addressed by each of the Programs and Departments. 14 refs.

  3. EXPERIENCE WITH THE EPA MANUAL FOR WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessments Manual (EPA/625/7-88/003) is designed to assist those responsible for planning, managing, and implementing waste minimization activities at the waste generating operation and at all management levels. The Manual defines waste minimizatio...

  4. EPA WASTE MINIMIZATION RESEARCH PROGRAM: AN OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established a waste minimization research program within the Office of Research and Development's Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory which is the primary contact for pollution prevention research efforts concentrating on source ...

  5. Utilization of biocatalysts in cellulose waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, J.; Evans, B.R.

    1996-09-01

    Cellulose, a polymer of glucose, is the principal component of biomass and, therefore, a major source of waste that is either buried or burned. Examples of biomass waste include agricultural crop residues, forestry products, and municipal wastes. Recycling of this waste is important for energy conservation as well as waste minimization and there is some probability that in the future biomass could become a major energy source and replace fossil fuels that are currently used for fuels and chemicals production. It has been estimated that in the United States, between 100-450 million dry tons of agricultural waste are produced annually, approximately 6 million dry tons of animal waste, and of the 190 million tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated annually, approximately two-thirds is cellulosic in nature and over one-third is paper waste. Interestingly, more than 70% of MSW is landfilled or burned, however landfill space is becoming increasingly scarce. On a smaller scale, important cellulosic products such as cellulose acetate also present waste problems; an estimated 43 thousand tons of cellulose ester waste are generated annually in the United States. Biocatalysts could be used in cellulose waste minimization and this chapter describes their characteristics and potential in bioconversion and bioremediation processes.

  6. Hazardous waste minimization. Part VI. Waste minimization in the foundry industry

    SciTech Connect

    Oman, D.E.

    1988-07-01

    The foundry industry is a major consumer of waste materials (scrap). Unfortunately, the recycling of these waste materials can result in the generation of hazardous wastes that must be properly managed at a significant cost. This article focuses on two waste streams in the foundry industry; calcium carbide desulfurization slag and melt emission control residuals. The author presents an overview of how foundries have evaluated different waste management options with the ultimate goal of minimizing the generation of hazardous waste.

  7. MULTIOBJECTIVE PARALLEL GENETIC ALGORITHM FOR WASTE MINIMIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this research we have developed an efficient multiobjective parallel genetic algorithm (MOPGA) for waste minimization problems. This MOPGA integrates PGAPack (Levine, 1996) and NSGA-II (Deb, 2000) with novel modifications. PGAPack is a master-slave parallel implementation of a...

  8. Environmental projects. Volume 16: Waste minimization assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC), located in the MoJave Desert, is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Deep Space Network (DSN), the world's largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation network. The Goldstone Complex is operated for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. At present, activities at the GDSCC support the operation of nine parabolic dish antennas situated at five separate locations known as 'sites.' Each of the five sites at the GDSCC has one or more antennas, called 'Deep Space Stations' (DSS's). In the course of operation of these DSS's, various hazardous and non-hazardous wastes are generated. In 1992, JPL retained Kleinfelder, Inc., San Diego, California, to quantify the various streams of hazardous and non-hazardous wastes generated at the GDSCC. In June 1992, Kleinfelder, Inc., submitted a report to JPL entitled 'Waste Minimization Assessment.' This present volume is a JPL-expanded version of the Kleinfelder, Inc. report. The 'Waste Minimization Assessment' report did not find any deficiencies in the various waste-management programs now practiced at the GDSCC, and it found that these programs are being carried out in accordance with environmental rules and regulations.

  9. Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S.; Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L.

    1991-07-01

    The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

  10. Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S. ); Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L. )

    1991-07-01

    The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

  11. Waste Minimization: A Hidden Energy Savings?

    E-print Network

    Good, R. L.; Hunt, K. E.

    1989-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-89-09-48.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 13640 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-89-09-48.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 WASTE MINIMIZATION... boilers and furnaces, are coming under increasing regulatory scrutiny and control. Even when the heat value of a waste material can be recovered, the energy used to manufacture that material is lost. The answers are becoming apparent: to (1...

  12. A tracking system for hazardous waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, L.E.; Chiu, Shen-Yann; Peters, R.W.; Wentz, C.A.; Habegger, L.J.; Donahue, B.

    1988-01-01

    A successful waste minimization program must include the development of a reliable system for tracking waste types, volumes, and generation points. Once such a system is in place, process engineers should be capable of developing minimization alternatives to achieve the program goals. This study involved the development of a waste tracking system based on bar code technology. The tracking system utilizes a dBase III Plus data base and a software program known as ''Barcode.'' The program assigns a bar code to each hazardous material container at the time of receipt for use in keeping track of its location at the facility. Bar codes can be similarly assigned for hazardous wastes at the time of generation. Handheld bar code readers are then used to read the labels whenever the items are shipped, received, or used. This tracking system differs from other commercially available tracking systems in that it permits collection of data at the unit operation level as well as at a plantwide level. 3 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Cultural change and support of waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Boylan, M.S.

    1991-12-31

    The process of bringing a subject like pollution prevention to top of mind awareness, where designed to prevent waste becomes part of business as usual, is called cultural change. With Department of Energy orders and management waste minimization commitment statements on file, the REAL work is just beginning at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); shaping the attitudes of 11,000+ employees. The difficulties of such a task are daunting. The 890 square mile INEL site and in-town support offices mean a huge diversity of employee jobs and waste streams; from cafeteria and auto maintenance wastes to high-level nuclear waste casks. INEL is pursuing a three component cultural change strategy: training, publicity, and public outreach. To meet the intent of DOE orders, all INEL employees are slated to receive pollution prevention orientation training. More technical training is given to targeted groups like purchasing and design engineering. To keep newly learned pollution prevention concepts top-of-mind, extensive site-wide publicity is being developed and conducted, culminating in the April Pollution Prevention Awareness Week coinciding with Earth Day 1992. Finally, news of INEL pollution prevention successes is shared with the public to increase their overall environmental awareness and their knowledge of INEL activities. An important added benefit is the sense of pride the program instills in INEL employees to have their successes displayed so publicly.

  14. Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention Crosscut Plan, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-28

    This plan establishes a Department-wide goal to reduce total releases of toxic chemicals to the environment and off-site transfers of such toxic chemicals by 50 percent by December 31, 1999, in compliance with Executive Order 12856. Each site that meets the threshold quantities of toxic chemicals established in the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) will participate in this goal. In addition, each DOE site will establish site-specific goals to reduce generation of hazardous, radioactive, radioactive mixed, and sanitary wastes and pollutants, as applicable. Implementation of this plan will represent a major step toward the environmental risks and costs associated with DOE operations and increasing the Department`s use of preventive environmental management practices. Investing in Waste Minimization Pollution Prevention (WMin/PP) steadily reduce hazardous and radioactive waste generation and will reduce the need for waste management and unnecessary expenditures for waste treatment, storage, and disposal. A preventive approach to waste management will help solve current environmental and regulatory issues and reduce the need for costly future corrective actions. The purpose of this plan is to establish the strategic framework for integrating WMin/PP into all DOE internal activities. This program includes setting DOE policy and goals for reducing the generation of wastes and pollutants, increasing recycling activities, and establishing an infrastructure to achieve and measure the goals throughout the DOE complex. Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Plans, submitted to Headquarters by DOE field sites, will incorporate the WMin/PP activities and goals outlined in this plan. Success of the DOE WMin/PP program is dependent upon each field operation becoming accountable for resources used, wastes and pollutants generated, and wastes recycled.

  15. WASTE MINIMIZATION AUDIT REPORT: CASE STUDIES OF MINIMIZATION OF SOLVENT WASTE FROM PARTS CLEANING AND FROM ELECTRONIC CAPACITOR MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To promote waste minimization activities in accordance with the national policy objectives established under the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), the Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Laboratory (HWERL) of ...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1213 - How can the compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? 63.1213 Section 63.1213 Protection... extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? (a) Applicability. You may request... pollution prevention or waste minimization measures will significantly reduce the amount and/or toxicity...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1213 - How can the compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? 63.1213 Section 63.1213 Protection... extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? (a) Applicability. You may request... pollution prevention or waste minimization measures will significantly reduce the amount and/or toxicity...

  18. Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) projections for present and future waste minimization and pollution prevention. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be used to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. It is intended to satisfy Department of Energy (DOE) requirements. This Plan provides an overview of projected activities from FY 1994 through FY 1999. The plans are broken into site-wide and problem-specific activities. All directorates at LLNL have had an opportunity to contribute input, to estimate budget, and to review the plan. In addition to the above, this plan records LLNL`s goals for pollution prevention, regulatory drivers for those activities, assumptions on which the cost estimates are based, analyses of the strengths of the projects, and the barriers to increasing pollution prevention activities.

  19. Waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness plan

    SciTech Connect

    1994-08-01

    The primary mission of DOE/NV is to manage and operate the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and other designated test locations, within and outside the United States; provide facilities and services to DOE and non-DOE NTS users; and plan. coordinate, and execute nuclear weapons tests and related test activities. DOE/NV also: (a) Supports operations under interagency agreements pertaining to tests, emergencies, and related functions/activities, (b) Plans, coordinates, and executes environmental restoration, (c) Provides support to the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office in conjunction with DOE/HQ oversight, (d) Manages the Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMS) for disposal of low-level and mixed wastes received from the NTS and off-site generators, and (e) Implements waste minimization programs to reduce the amount of hazardous, mixed, radioactive, and nonhazardous solid waste that is generated and disposed The NTS, which is the primary facility controlled by DOE/NV, occupies 1,350 square miles of restricted-access, federally-owned land located in Nye County in Southern Nevada. The NTS is located in a sparsely populated area, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada.

  20. Waste Minimization via Radiological Hazard Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, K.A.; Coffield, T.; Hooker, K.L.

    1998-03-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), a 803 km{sup 2} U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility in south-western South Carolina, incorporates pollution prevention as a fundamental component of its Environmental Management System. A comprehensive pollution prevention program was implemented as part of an overall business strategy to reduce waste generation and pollution releases, minimize environmental impacts, and to reduce future waste management and pollution control costs. In fiscal years 1995 through 1997, the Site focused on implementing specific waste reduction initiatives identified while benchmarking industry best practices. These efforts resulted in greater than $25 million in documented cost avoidance. While these results have been dramatic to date, the Site is further challenged to maximize resource utilization and deploy new technologies and practices to achieve further waste reductions. The Site has elected to target a site-wide reduction of contaminated work spaces in fiscal year 1998 as the primary source reduction initiative. Over 120,900 m{sup 2} of radiologically contaminated work areas (approximately 600 separate inside areas) exist at SRS. Reduction of these areas reduces future waste generation, minimizes worker exposure, and reduces surveillance and maintenance costs. This is a major focus of the Site`s As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) program by reducing sources of worker exposure. The basis for this approach was demonstrated during 1997 as part of a successful Enhanced Work Planning pilot conducted at several specific contamination areas at SRS. An economic-based prioritization process was utilized to develop a model for prioritizing areas to reclaim. In the H-Canyon Separation facility, over 3,900 m{sup 2} of potentially contaminated area was rolled back to a Radiation Buffer Area. The facility estimated nearly 420 m{sup 3} of low level radioactive waste will be avoided each year, and overall cost savings and productivity gains will reach approximately $1 million annually as a result of this effort. During fiscal year 1998, SRS will intensify the reclamation of contaminated work areas through implementation of the Site Rollback Plan. The economic based model was utilized to prioritize areas for reclamation based on achieving a return on investment of over 2:1. Generators have been challenged to exceed planned rollbacks through a DOE imposed Performance Based Incentive with the Site Operator. In the first quarter, over 1,580 m{sup 2} of contaminated areas have been reclaimed with approximately 7,720 m{sup 2} remaining to be done before the end of the fiscal year.

  1. Waste Minimization Study on Pyrochemical Reprocessing Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Boussier, H.; Conocar, O.; Lacquement, J.

    2006-07-01

    Ideally a new pyro-process should not generate more waste, and should be at least as safe and cost effective as the hydrometallurgical processes currently implemented at industrial scale. This paper describes the thought process, the methodology and some results obtained by process integration studies to devise potential pyro-processes and to assess their capability of achieving this challenging objective. As example the assessment of a process based on salt/metal reductive extraction, designed for the reprocessing of Generation IV carbide spent fuels, is developed. Salt/metal reductive extraction uses the capability of some metals, aluminum in this case, to selectively reduce actinide fluorides previously dissolved in a fluoride salt bath. The reduced actinides enter the metal phase from which they are subsequently recovered; the fission products remain in the salt phase. In fact, the process is not so simple, as it requires upstream and downstream subsidiary steps. All these process steps generate secondary waste flows representing sources of actinide leakage and/or FP discharge. In aqueous processes the main solvent (nitric acid solution) has a low boiling point and evaporate easily or can be removed by distillation, thereby leaving limited flow containing the dissolved substance behind to be incorporated in a confinement matrix. From the point of view of waste generation, one main handicap of molten salt processes, is that the saline phase (fluoride in our case) used as solvent is of same nature than the solutes (radionuclides fluorides) and has a quite high boiling point. So it is not so easy, than it is with aqueous solutions, to separate solvent and solutes in order to confine only radioactive material and limit the final waste flows. Starting from the initial block diagram devised two years ago, the paper shows how process integration studies were able to propose process fittings which lead to a reduction of the waste variety and flows leading at an 'ideal' new block diagram allowing internal solvent recycling, and self eliminating reactants. This new flowsheet minimizes the quantity of inactive inlet flows that would have inevitably to be incorporated in a final waste form. The study identifies all knowledge gaps to be filled and suggest some possible R and D issues to confirm or infirm the feasibility of the proposed process fittings. (authors)

  2. Waste Minimization- The Challenge of the 90's

    E-print Network

    Durham, R.

    1989-01-01

    Waste minimization is an environmental good news story that Dow enjoys going out and talking about. The purpose of this paper is to introduce you to Dow's Waste Reduction Program. First, some background information ...

  3. Trends and Opportunities in Industrial Hazardous Waste Minimization

    E-print Network

    Atlas, M.

    1998-01-01

    hazardous waste generated. It first describes trends in facilities' investigation of opportunities for source reduction or recycling, in their new or expanded waste minimization efforts, and in the barriers that these efforts confronted. Next, it describes...

  4. Waste-minimization opportunity assessment, Fort Riley, Kansas. Summary report, April 1989-December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Drabkin, M.; Bridges, J.S.

    1990-07-01

    Under the Waste Reduction Evaluations at Federal Sites (WREAFS) Program, a waste minimization opportunity assessment was conducted at a maintenance operation carried out at one of the U.S. Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) Fort Riley, Kansas facilities. These facilities generate waste battery acid and metals-contaminated alkaline wastewaters. The waste minimization assessment developed two recycling options for these RCRA wastes: (1) Filtration, restrengthening and recycling of waste battery acid as a replacement for virgin battery acid and, (2) purification and reuse of alkaline detergent solution for automotive parts cleaning. The payback periods for these two waste reduction options are very short and create the potential for application of similar waste minimization options in at least ten other U.S. Army FORSCOM installations.

  5. Ultra-fast plasma cleaning as a waste minimization tool and some applications in environmentally conscious manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, P.P.

    1995-12-31

    Plasmas have frequently been used in industry as a last step surface preparation technique in an otherwise predominantly wet-etch process. The limiting factor in the usefulness of plasma cleaning techniques has been the rate at which organic materials are removed. Recent research in the field of plasma chemistry has provided some understanding of plasma processes. By controlling plasma conditions and gas mixtures, ultra-fast plasma cleaning and etching is possible. With enhanced organic removal rates, plasma processes become more desirable as an environmentally sound alternative to traditional solvent or acid dominated process, not only as a cleaning tool, but also as a patterning and machining tool. In this paper, innovations in plasma processes are discussed including enhanced plasma etch rates via plasma environment control and aggressive gas mixtures. Applications that have not been possible with the limited usefulness of past plasma processes are now approaching the realm of possibility. Some of these possible applications will be discussed along with their impact to environmentally conscious manufacturing.

  6. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF CAULK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effor to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cente...

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF CAULK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

  8. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF SCREWDRIVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment C...

  9. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF AERIAL LIFTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their geneation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cente...

  10. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF COATED PARTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effeort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Ce...

  11. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PLIERS AND WRENCHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Cen...

  12. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF SURGICAL IMPLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Ce...

  13. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PAINTS AND LACQUERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Ce...

  14. Waste Minimization Assessment for Multilayered Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manu facturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at s...

  15. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD MANUFACTURER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected ...

  16. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF MILITARY FURNITURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established t selected u...

  17. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF MICROELECTRONIC COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Cen...

  18. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF SPEED REDUCTION EQUIPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF SCREWDRIVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

  20. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF ELECTRICAL ROTATING DEVICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Cen...

  1. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF REFURBISHED RAILCAR ASSEMBLIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected ...

  2. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF SHEET METAL COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization ssessment Cente...

  3. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PRINTED LABELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

  4. Foam technology as a decontamination/waste minimization tool

    SciTech Connect

    Guthrie, W.S.

    1993-07-01

    Foam decontamination technology is being developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as a waste minimization tool. Experience with foam decontamination technology has shown a significant waste reduction of up to 70% over current decontamination methods. Foam allows decontamination of a wide variety of surface geometries with a minimum of waste. Current decontamination practice at SRS for the removal of surface contamination on metal walls and complex parts is to spray repeated applications of decon solutions on the wall or part. As the solution runs off any vertical surface, contact time is minimal, requiring a large volume of the solution to complete the task. The process is labor intensive and often takes place in an area where a radiation field exits. In addition, there is the potential for exposure to contamination and exposure to the decon solution. Decon solutions with a foaming agent can be applied in a thin layer to a surface in any orientation, even to overhead surfaces. The decon solution is held within the foam, increasing dwell time, productivity, safety, and reducing personnel exposure.

  5. Material recycling and waste minimization by freeze crystallization. Final technical report, August 1993-April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Heist, J.A.; Hunt, K.M.

    1995-05-01

    Freeze crystallization is a generic separation technology that has a number of applications in treating wastes generated in DoD operations. A week spent with engineering support, operations, and environmental compliance groups at an Air Force Logistics Center resulted in the identification of six major waste streams that could be reduced or totally recycled using freeze crystallization. The wastes identified were benzyl alcohol paint stripping wastes; paint thinners and other F-wastes; spent caustic and acid baths; nickel plating rinse waters; electrolytic grinding wastes (0004 thru DO4O wastes); and contaminated fuels and calibration fluids. Savings in excess of $1 million per year could be achieved by recovering, recycling and/or minimizing these wastes. A program is presented that would demonstrate each of these applications with a mobile pilot plant, operating on actual wastes.

  6. Food waste minimization from a life-cycle perspective.

    PubMed

    Bernstad Saraiva Schott, A; Andersson, T

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates potentials and environmental impacts related to household food waste minimization, based on a case study in Southern Sweden. In the study, the amount of avoidable and unavoidable food waste currently being disposed of by households was assessed through waste composition analyses and the different types of avoidable food waste were classified. Currently, both avoidable and unavoidable food waste is either incinerated or treated through anaerobic digestion. A hypothetical scenario with no generation of avoidable food waste and either anaerobic digestion or incineration of unavoidable food waste was compared to the current situation using the life-cycle assessment method, limited to analysis of global warming potential (GWP). The results from the waste composition analyses indicate that an average of 35% of household food waste is avoidable. Minimization of this waste could result in reduction of greenhouse gas emissions of 800-1400 kg/tonne of avoidable food waste. Thus, a minimization strategy would result in increased avoidance of GWP compared to the current situation. The study clearly shows that although modern alternatives for food waste treatment can result in avoidance of GWP through nutrient and energy recovery, food waste prevention yields far greater benefits for GWP compared to both incineration and anaerobic digestion. PMID:25264296

  7. 2013 Los Alamos National Laboratory Hazardous Waste Minimization Report

    SciTech Connect

    Salzman, Sonja L.; English, Charles J.

    2015-08-24

    Waste minimization and pollution prevention are inherent goals within the operating procedures of Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). The US Department of Energy (DOE) and LANS are required to submit an annual hazardous waste minimization report to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) in accordance with the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit. The report was prepared pursuant to the requirements of Section 2.9 of the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit. This report describes the hazardous waste minimization program (a component of the overall Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention [WMin/PP] Program) administered by the Environmental Stewardship Group (ENV-ES). This report also supports the waste minimization and pollution prevention goals of the Environmental Programs Directorate (EP) organizations that are responsible for implementing remediation activities and describes its programs to incorporate waste reduction practices into remediation activities and procedures. LANS was very successful in fiscal year (FY) 2013 (October 1-September 30) in WMin/PP efforts. Staff funded four projects specifically related to reduction of waste with hazardous constituents, and LANS won four national awards for pollution prevention efforts from the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). In FY13, there was no hazardous, mixedtransuranic (MTRU), or mixed low-level (MLLW) remediation waste generated at the Laboratory. More hazardous waste, MTRU waste, and MLLW was generated in FY13 than in FY12, and the majority of the increase was related to MTRU processing or lab cleanouts. These accomplishments and analysis of the waste streams are discussed in much more detail within this report.

  8. Waste Minimization Policy at the Romanian Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Andrei, V.; Daian, I.

    2002-02-26

    The radioactive waste management system at Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in Romania was designed to maintain acceptable levels of safety for workers and to protect human health and the environment from exposure to unacceptable levels of radiation. In accordance with terminology of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), this system consists of the ''pretreatment'' of solid and organic liquid radioactive waste, which may include part or all of the following activities: collection, handling, volume reduction (by an in-drum compactor, if appropriate), and storage. Gaseous and aqueous liquid wastes are managed according to the ''dilute and discharge'' strategy. Taking into account the fact that treatment/conditioning and disposal technologies are still not established, waste minimization at the source is a priority environmental management objective, while waste minimization at the disposal stage is presently just a theoretical requirement for future adopted technologies . The necessary operational and maintenance procedures are in place at Cernavoda to minimize the production and contamination of waste. Administrative and technical measures are established to minimize waste volumes. Thus, an annual environmental target of a maximum 30 m3 of radioactive waste volume arising from operation and maintenance has been established. Within the first five years of operations at Cernavoda NPP, this target has been met. The successful implementation of the waste minimization policy has been accompanied by a cost reduction while the occupational doses for plant workers have been maintained at as low as reasonably practicable levels. This paper will describe key features of the waste management system along with the actual experience that has been realized with respect to minimizing the waste volumes at the Cernavoda NPP.

  9. Waste minimization via destruction of hazardous organics

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing technologies that are capable of destroying hazardous organics, that is, converting them basically to water and carbon dioxide. If these technologies were incorporated into the main processing operation where the waste is produced, then the volume and toxicity of the hazardous or mix hazardous waste generated would be significantly reduced. This presentation will briefly discuss some of the waste treatment technologies under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory focused on destroying hazardous organics.

  10. WASTE MINIMIZATION IN THE PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD INDUSTRY: CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents information on waste minimization practices currently employed in the printed circuit board (PCB) and semiconductor manufacturing industries. Case studies conducted at six facilities evaluated the technical, environmental and cost impacts associated with the i...

  11. Annual Waste Minimization Summary Report, Calendar Year 2008

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2009-02-01

    This report summarizes the waste minimization efforts undertaken by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), during calendar year 2008.

  12. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Waste Minimization Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Heckman, R.A. ); Tang, W.R. )

    1989-08-04

    This Program Plan document describes the background of the Waste Minimization field at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and refers to the significant studies that have impacted on legislative efforts, both at the federal and state levels. A short history of formal LLNL waste minimization efforts is provided. Also included are general findings from analysis of work to date, with emphasis on source reduction findings. A short summary is provided on current regulations and probable future legislation which may impact on waste minimization methodology. The LLN Waste Minimization Program Plan is designed to be dynamic and flexible so as to meet current regulations, and yet is able to respond to an everchanging regulatory environment. 19 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Process development accomplishments: Waste and hazard minimization, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Homan, D.A.

    1991-11-04

    This report summarizes significant technical accomplishments of the Mound Waste and Hazard Minimization Program for FY 1991. The accomplishments are in one of eight major areas: environmentally responsive cleaning program; nonhalogenated solvent trials; substitutes for volatile organic compounds; hazardous material exposure minimization; nonhazardous plating development; explosive processing waste reduction; tritium capture without conversion to water; and robotic assembly. Program costs have been higher than planned.

  14. WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: PHILADELPHIA NAVAL SHIPYARD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Waste Reduction Evaluation at Federal Sites (WREAFS) Program consists of a series of demonstration and evaluation projects for waste reduction conducted cooperatively by EPA and various parts of the Department of Defense (DOD), Department of Energy (DOE), and other Federal ag...

  15. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) MANUAL FOR WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Waste Minimization is a term that includes source reduction and recycling. Source reduction is defined as any activity that reduces or eliminates the generation of wastes at the source, usually within a process. Recycling is defined as the recovery and/or reuse of what would othe...

  16. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF FINISHED METAL COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected un...

  17. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER PRODUCING GALVANIZED STEEL PARTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at ...

  18. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF WATER ANALYSIS INSTRUMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-sized manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at...

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A BOURBON DISTILLERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected un...

  20. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR AN ALUMINUM EXTRUSIONS MANUFACTURERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected u...

  1. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF ALUMINUM EXTRUSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) are established at s...

  2. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER PRODUCING TREATED WOOD PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at ...

  3. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF MACHINED PARTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their-generation of waste bin who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected u...

  4. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER PRODUCING PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected u...

  5. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF INDUSTRIAL COATINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a' pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected u...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1213 - How can the compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? 63.1213 Section 63.1213 Protection... pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? (a) Applicability. You may request from the.... An extension may be granted if you can reasonably document that the installation of...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1213 - How can the compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? 63.1213 Section 63.1213 Protection of... pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? (a) Applicability. You may request from the.... An extension may be granted if you can reasonably document that the installation of...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1213 - How can the compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? 63.1213 Section 63.1213 Protection of... pollution prevention or waste minimization controls? (a) Applicability. You may request from the.... An extension may be granted if you can reasonably document that the installation of...

  9. Prioritization of ES and H activities: A waste minimization example

    SciTech Connect

    Kjeldgaard, E.A. ); Saloio, J.H.; Varnado, G.B. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a formal process for selecting, from a diverse set of proposed waste minimization activities, those activities that provide the greatest benefit to DOE. A methodology for evaluating and prioritizing proposals was developed to illustrate how the selection process works and what types of data are required to characterize waste minimization activities. It is clearly impossible to remove all aspects of subjective judgment from the proposal selection process. With this important consideration in mind, the methodology presented is put forth to enhance, not replace, the traditional DOE decision-making process. With relatively minor refinements, this methodology can be immediately useful to DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management and Defense Program organizations in preparing, evaluating, and prioritizing waste minimization proposals. 7 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  10. WASTE MINIMIZATION AUDIT REPORT: CASE STUDIES OF CORROSIVE AND HEAVY METAL WASTE MINIMIZATION AT A SPECIALTY STEEL MANUFACTURING COMPLEX

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is expanding its efforts to promote waste minimization activity in the private sector by providing technical assistance to generators of hazardous waste. As part of the effort, the EPA Office of Research and Development/Hazardous Was...

  11. Minimization and management of wastes from biomedical research.

    PubMed Central

    Rau, E H; Alaimo, R J; Ashbrook, P C; Austin, S M; Borenstein, N; Evans, M R; French, H M; Gilpin, R W; Hughes, J; Hummel, S J; Jacobsohn, A P; Lee, C Y; Merkle, S; Radzinski, T; Sloane, R; Wagner, K D; Weaner, L E

    2000-01-01

    Several committees were established by the National Association of Physicians for the Environment to investigate and report on various topics at the National Leadership Conference on Biomedical Research and the Environment held at the 1--2 November 1999 at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland. This is the report of the Committee on Minimization and Management of Wastes from Biomedical Research. Biomedical research facilities contribute a small fraction of the total amount of wastes generated in the United States, and the rate of generation appears to be decreasing. Significant reductions in generation of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes have recently been reported, even at facilities with rapidly expanding research programs. Changes in the focus of research, improvements in laboratory techniques, and greater emphasis on waste minimization (volume and toxicity reduction) explain the declining trend in generation. The potential for uncontrolled releases of wastes from biomedical research facilities and adverse impacts on the general environment from these wastes appears to be low. Wastes are subject to numerous regulatory requirements and are contained and managed in a manner protective of the environment. Most biohazardous agents, chemicals, and radionuclides that find significant use in research are not likely to be persistent, bioaccumulative, or toxic if they are released. Today, the primary motivations for the ongoing efforts by facilities to improve minimization and management of wastes are regulatory compliance and avoidance of the high disposal costs and liabilities associated with generation of regulated wastes. The committee concluded that there was no evidence suggesting that the anticipated increases in biomedical research will significantly increase generation of hazardous wastes or have adverse impacts on the general environment. This conclusion assumes the positive, countervailing trends of enhanced pollution prevention efforts by facilities and reductions in waste generation resulting from improvements in research methods will continue. PMID:11121362

  12. Waste minimization through microexperimentation: Barriers to implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Gatrone, R.C.

    1994-06-01

    In the past, synthesis of ligands and extractants for concentrating radwaste, often resulted in generating large amounts of hazardous wastes. Microexperimentation means handling amounts of organics on the scale of millimoles (10{sup {minus}3}) to micromoles (10{sup {minus}6}). More reliable analytical techniques allow one to obtain data nondestructively on the structure of a molecule on just a few milligrams of material. Obstacles to use of microscale techniques in laboratories include requirement of new, expensive equipment, and resistance of laboratory personnel to new techniques. It is emphasized that in the Argonne laboratory, of the 500 g of an extractant that was required in 1985, nearly 90% was ultimately discarded as waste after 5 years. DOE agreements and other Federal regulations require this be changed.

  13. Hanford site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkendall, J.R.

    1996-09-23

    This plan documents the requirements of the Hanford Site Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) Program. The plan specifies requirements for Hanford contractors to prevent pollution from entering the environment, to conserve resources and energy, and to reduce the quantity and toxicity of hazardous, radioactive, mixed, and sanitary waste generated at Hanford. The Pollution Prevention Awareness Program required by DOE 5400.1 (DOE 1988A) is included in the Hanford WMin/P2 Program.

  14. JSC Metal Finishing Waste Minimization Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Erica

    2003-01-01

    THe paper discusses the following: Johnson Space Center (JSC) has achieved VPP Star status and is ISO 9001 compliant. The Structural Engineering Division in the Engineering Directorate is responsible for operating the metal finishing facility at JSC. The Engineering Directorate is responsible for $71.4 million of space flight hardware design, fabrication and testing. The JSC Metal Finishing Facility processes flight hardware to support the programs in particular schedule and mission critical flight hardware. The JSC Metal Finishing Facility is operated by Rothe Joint Venture. The Facility provides following processes: anodizing, alodining, passivation, and pickling. JSC Metal Finishing Facility completely rebuilt in 1998. Total cost of $366,000. All new tanks, electrical, plumbing, and ventilation installed. Designed to meet modern safety, environmental, and quality requirements. Designed to minimize contamination and provide the highest quality finishes.

  15. WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: NAVAL UNDERSEA WARFARE ENGINEERING STATION - KEYPORT, WA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the application of EPA's waste minimization assessment procedures to a torpedo maintenance facility at the Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station, Keyport, WA. he assessment focused on the Mark 48 shop and the Mark 46 shop. hese shops service the Mark 48...

  16. Using benchmarking to minimize common DOE waste streams. Volume 1, Methodology and liquid photographic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, V.

    1994-04-01

    Finding innovative ways to reduce waste streams generated at Department of Energy (DOE) sites by 50% by the year 2000 is a challenge for DOE`s waste minimization efforts. This report examines the usefulness of benchmarking as a waste minimization tool, specifically regarding common waste streams at DOE sites. A team of process experts from a variety of sites, a project leader, and benchmarking consultants completed the project with management support provided by the Waste Minimization Division EM-352. Using a 12-step benchmarking process, the team examined current waste minimization processes for liquid photographic waste used at their sites and used telephone and written questionnaires to find ``best-in-class`` industrv partners willing to share information about their best waste minimization techniques and technologies through a site visit. Eastman Kodak Co., and Johnson Space Center/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) agreed to be partners. The site visits yielded strategies for source reduction, recycle/recovery of components, regeneration/reuse of solutions, and treatment of residuals, as well as best management practices. An additional benefit of the work was the opportunity for DOE process experts to network and exchange ideas with their peers at similar sites.

  17. Annual Report on Waste Generation and Waste Minimization Progress, 1991--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This report is DOE`s first annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress. Data presented in this report were collected from all DOE sites which met minimum threshold criteria established for this report. The fifty-seven site submittals contained herein represent data from over 100 reporting sites within 25 states. Radioactive, hazardous and sanitary waste quantities and the efforts to minimize these wastes are highlighted within the fifty-seven site submittals. In general, sites have made progress in moving beyond the planning phase of their waste minimization programs. This is evident by the overall 28 percent increase in the total amount of materials recycled from 1991 to 1992, as well as individual site initiatives. During 1991 and 1992, DOE generated a total of 279,000 cubic meters of radioactive waste and 243,000 metric tons of non-radioactive waste. These waste amounts include significant portions of process wastewater required to be reported to regulatory agencies in the state of Texas and the state of Tennessee. Specifically, the Pantex Plant in Texas treats an industrial wastewater that is considered by the Texas Water Commission to be a hazardous waste. In 1992, State regulated wastewater from the Pantex Plant represented 3,620 metric tons, 10 percent of the total hazardous waste generated by DOE. Similarly, mixed low-level wastewater from the TSCA Incinerator Facility at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site in Tennessee represented 55 percent of the total radioactive waste generated by DOE in 1992.

  18. Pollution prevention and waste minimization tools workshops: Proceedings. Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of the second workshop was to bring together representatives of DOE and DOE contractor organizations to discuss four topics: process waste assessments (PWAs), a continuation of one of the sessions held at the first workshop in Clearwater; waste minimization reporting requirements; procurement systems for waste minimization; and heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) and replacements for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The topics were discussed in four concurrent group sessions. Participants in each group were encouraged to work toward achieving two main objectives: establish a ``clear vision`` of the overall target for their session`s program, focusing not just on where the program is now but on where it should go in the long term; and determine steps to be followed to carry out the target program.

  19. Waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) projections for present and future waste minimization and pollution prevention. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be used to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. It is intended to satisfy Department of Energy (DOE) requirements. This Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Plan provides an overview of projected activities from FY 1994 through FY 1999. The plans are broken into site-wide and problem-specific activities. All directorates at LLNL have had an opportunity to contribute input, estimate budgets, and review the plan. In addition to the above, this plan records LLNL`s goals for pollution prevention, regulatory drivers for those activities, assumptions on which the cost estimates are based, analyses of the strengths of the projects, and the barriers to increasing pollution prevention activities.

  20. MINIMIZATION OF COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS: CHARACTERISTICS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    It has been well recognized that, although there are many potential solid waste treatment technologies, none are as universally applicable as incineration for the treatment of the many types of waste which are governed by the many different Federal laws and State regulations. owe...

  1. Good Practice Guide Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention

    SciTech Connect

    J Dorsey

    1999-10-14

    This Good Practice Guide provides tools, information, and examples for promoting the implementation of pollution prevention during the design phases of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) projects. It is one of several Guides for implementing DOE Order 430.1, Life-cycle Asset Management. DOE Order 430.1 provides requirements for DOE, in partnership with its contractors, to plan, acquire, operate, maintain, and dispose of physical assets. The goals of designing for pollution prevention are to minimize raw material consumption, energy consumption, waste generation, health and safety impacts, and ecological degradation over the entire life of the facility (EPA 1993a). Users of this Guide will learn to translate national policy and regulatory requirements for pollution prevention into action at the project level. The Guide was written to be applicable to all DOE projects, regardless of project size or design phase. Users are expected to interpret the Guide for their individual project's circumstances, applying a graded approach so that the effort is consistent with the anticipated waste generation and resource consumption of the physical asset. This Guide employs a combination of pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) methods and design for environment (DfE) philosophies. The PPOA process was primarily developed for existing products, processes, and facilities. The PPOA process has been modified in this Guide to address the circumstances of the DOE design process as delineated in DOE Order 430.1 and its associated Good Practice Guides. This modified form of the PPOA is termed the Pollution Prevention Design Assessment (P2DA). Information on current nationwide methods and successes in designing for the environment also have been reviewed and are integrated into this guidance.

  2. A survey of waste minimization recommendations for three industrial sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Dunning, S.; Martin, P.

    1998-12-31

    What changes can manufacturers make to reduce waste streams and save money? A recent modification to a successful Department of Energy energy audit program has included a focus on waste minimization for small and medium-sized manufacturers. The program change was incorporated over two years ago and approximately 2,000 assessments have been completed nationwide since the change. This article will examine the results of the combined energy/waste assessments. Most of the material contained is derived from a paper published at the ASEE 1997 Annual Meeting. The paper focuses on the typical waste recommendations made for three sectors of Standard Industrial Classifications (SIC) 20-39. Recommendations vary from typical conservation measures such as recycling pallets and cardboard to direct process modifications that reduce water or chemical usage. While some recommendations are general and can be applied to any industry, others are industry-specific.

  3. Annual Waste Minimization Summary Report Calendar Year 2007

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2008-02-01

    This report summarizes the waste minimization efforts undertaken by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), during calendar year (CY) 2007. This report was developed in accordance with the requirements of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Permit (number NEV HW0021), and as clarified in a letter dated April 21, 1995, from Paul Liebendorfer of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to Donald Elle of the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office. The NNSA/NSO Pollution Prevention (P2) Program establishes a process to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by the NNSA/NSO and ensures that proposed methods of treatment, storage, and/or disposal of waste minimize potential threats to human health and the environment. The following information provides an overview of the P2 Program, major P2 accomplishments during the reporting year, a comparison of the current year waste generation to prior years, and a description of efforts undertaken during the year to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by the NNSA/NSO.

  4. Annual Waste Minimization Summary Report, Calendar Year 2009

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-02-07

    This report summarizes the waste minimization efforts undertaken by National Security Technologies, LLC, for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), during calendar year 2009. This report was developed in accordance with the requirements of the Nevada Test Site Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit (No. NEV HW0021), and as clarified in a letter dated April 21, 1995, from Paul Liebendorfer of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to Donald Elle of the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office. The NNSA/NSO Pollution Prevention (P2) Program establishes a process to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by NNSA/NSO activities and ensures that proposed methods of treatment, storage, and/or disposal of waste minimize potential threats to human health and the environment. The following information provides an overview of the P2 Program, major P2 accomplishments during the reporting year, a comparison of the current year waste generation to prior years, and a description of efforts undertaken during the year to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by NNSA/NSO.

  5. Waste minimization/pollution prevention study of high-priority waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Ogle, R.B.

    1994-03-01

    Although waste minimization has been practiced by the Metals and Ceramics (M&C) Division in the past, the effort has not been uniform or formalized. To establish the groundwork for continuous improvement, the Division Director initiated a more formalized waste minimization and pollution prevention program. Formalization of the division`s pollution prevention efforts in fiscal year (FY) 1993 was initiated by a more concerted effort to determine the status of waste generation from division activities. The goal for this effort was to reduce or minimize the wastes identified as having the greatest impact on human health, the environment, and costs. Two broad categories of division wastes were identified as solid/liquid wastes and those relating to energy use (primarily electricity and steam). This report presents information on the nonradioactive solid and liquid wastes generated by division activities. More specifically, the information presented was generated by teams of M&C staff members empowered by the Division Director to study specific waste streams.

  6. Using benchmarking to minimize common DOE waste streams: Volume 5. Office paper waste

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, V.

    1995-10-01

    Finding innovative ways to reduce waste streams generated at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites by 50% by the year 2000 is a challenge for DOE`s waste minimization efforts. A team composed of members from several DOE facilities used the quality tool known as benchmarking to improve waste minimization efforts. First the team examined office waste generation and handling processes at their sites. Then team members developed telephone and written questionnaires to help identify potential ``best-in-class`` industry partners willing to share information about their best waste minimization techniques and technologies. The team identified two benchmarking partners, NIKE, Inc., in Beaverton, Oregon, and Microsoft, Inc., in Redmond, Washington. Both companies have proactive, employee-driven environmental issues programs. Both companies report strong employee involvement, management commitment, and readily available markets for recyclable materials such as white paper and nonwhite assorted paper. The availability of markets, the initiative and cooperation of employees, and management support are the main enablers for their programs. At both companies, recycling and waste reduction programs often cut across traditional corporate divisions such as procurement, janitorial services, environmental compliance, grounds maintenance, cafeteria operations, surplus sales, and shipping and receiving. These companies exhibited good cooperation between these functions to design and implement recycling and waste reduction programs.

  7. Waste minimization value engineering workshop for the Los Alamos National Laboratory Omega West Reactor Decommissioning Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hartnett, S.; Seguin, N.; Burns, M.

    1995-12-31

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Pollution Prevention Program Office sponsored a Value Engineering (VE) Workshop to evaluate recycling options and other pollution prevention and waste minimization (PP/WMin) practices to incorporate into the decommissioning of the Omega West Reactor (OWR) at the laboratory. The VE process is an organized, systematic approach for evaluating a process or design to identify cost saving opportunities, or in this application, waste reduction opportunities. This VE Workshop was a facilitated process that included a team of specialists in the areas of decontamination, decommissioning, PP/WMin, cost estimating, construction, waste management, recycling, Department of Energy representatives, and others. The uniqueness of this VE Workshop was that it used an interdisciplinary approach to focus on PP/WMin practices that could be included in the OWR Decommissioning Project Plans and specifications to provide waste reduction. This report discusses the VE workshop objectives, summarizes the OWR decommissioning project, and describes the VE workshop activities, results, and lessons learned.

  8. A model to minimize joint total costs for industrial waste producers and waste management companies.

    PubMed

    Tietze-Stckinger, Ingela; Fichtner, Wolf; Rentz, Otto

    2004-12-01

    The model LINKopt is a mixed-integer, linear programming model for mid- and long-term planning of waste management options on an inter-company level. There has been a large increase in the transportation of waste material in Germany, which has been attributed to the implementation of the European Directive 75/442/EEC on waste. Similar situations are expected to emerge in other European countries. The model LINKopt has been developed to determine a waste management system with minimal decision-relevant costs considering transportation, handling, storage and treatment of waste materials. The model can serve as a tool to evaluate various waste management strategies and to obtain the optimal combination of investment options. In addition to costs, ecological aspects are considered by determining the total mileage associated with the waste management system. The model has been applied to a German case study evaluating different investment options for a co-operation between Daimler-Chrysler AG at Rastatt, its suppliers, and the waste management company SITA P+R GmbH. The results show that the installation of waste management facilities at the premises of the waste producer would lead to significant reductions in costs and transportation. PMID:15666449

  9. Chelating water-soluble polymers for waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B.; Cournoyer, M.; Duran, B.; Ford, D.; Gibson, R.; Lin, M.; Meck, A.; Robinson, P.; Robison, T.

    1996-11-01

    Within the DOE complex and in industry there is a tremendous need for advanced metal ion recovery and waste minimization techniques. This project sought to employ capabilities for ligand-design and separations chemistry in which one can develop and evaluate water- soluble chelating polymers for recovering actinides and toxic metals from various process streams. Focus of this work was (1) to develop and select a set of water-soluble polymers suitable for a selected waste stream and (2) demonstrate this technology in 2 areas: removal of (a) actinides and toxic RCRA metals from waste water and (b) recovery of Cu and other precious metals from industrial process streams including from solid catalysts and aqueous waste streams. The R&D was done in 4 phases for each of the 2 target areas: polymer synthesis for scaleup, equipment assembly, process demonstration at a DOE or industrial site, and advanced ligand/polymer synthesis. The TA- 50 site at Los Alamos was thought to be appropriate due to logistics and to its being representative of similar problems throughout the DOE complex.

  10. 360 Degree Photography to Decrease Exposure, Increase Safety & Minimize Waste

    SciTech Connect

    LEBARON, G.J.

    2002-01-31

    High-resolution digital cameras, in conjunction with software techniques. make possible 360{sup o} photos that allow a person to look all around, up and dawn, and zoom in or out. The software provides the opportunity to attach other information to a 360{sup o} photo such as sound tiles, flat photos (providing additional detail about what is behind a panel or around a corner) and text (Information which can be used to show radiological conditions or identify other hazards not readily visible). The software also allows other 360{sup o} photos to be attached creating a virtual tour where the user can move from area to area, and stop, study and zoom in on areas of interest. A virtual tour of a building or room can be used for facility documentation, informing management and others, work planning and orientation, and training, thus minimizing the need to re-enter hazardous radioactive areas. Reducing entries decreases exposure, increases safety and minimizes waste.

  11. Pollution prevention and waste minimization in metal finishing

    SciTech Connect

    Stimetz, C.J.

    1994-12-01

    This study was done to identify pollution prevention and waste minimization opportunities in the general plating department and the printed circuit board processing department. Recommendations for certain recycle and recovery technologies were mad in order to reduce usage of acids and the volume of heavy metal sludge that is formed at the industrial Wastewater Pretreatment Facility (IWPF). Some of these technologies discussed were acid purification, electrowinning, and ion exchange. Specific technologies are prescribed for specific processes. Those plating processes where the metals can be recovered are copper, nickel, gold, cadmium, tin, lead, and rhodium.

  12. Gas cylinder disposal pit remediation waste minimization and management

    SciTech Connect

    Alas, C.A.; Solow, A.; Criswell, C.W.; Spengler, D.; Brannon, R.; Schwender, J.M.; Eckman, C.K.; Rusthoven, T.

    1995-02-01

    A remediation of a gas cylinder disposal pit at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico has recently been completed. The cleanup prevented possible spontaneous releases of hazardous gases from corroded cylinders that may have affected nearby active test areas at Sandia`s Technical Area III. Special waste management, safety, and quality plans were developed and strictly implemented for this project. The project was conceived from a waste management perspective, and waste minimization and management were built into the planning and implementation phases. The site layout was planned to accommodate light and heavy equipment, storage of large quantities of suspect soil, and special areas to stage and treat gases and reactive chemicals removed from the pit, as well as radiation protection areas. Excavation was a tightly controlled activity using experienced gas cylinder and reactive chemical specialists. Hazardous operations were conducted at night under lights, to allow nearby daytime operations to function unhindered. The quality assurance plan provided specific control of, and documentation for, critical decisions, as well as the record of daily operations. Both hand and heavy equipment excavation techniques were utilized. Hand excavation techniques were utilized. Hand excavation techniques allows sealed glass containers to be exhumed unharmed. In the end, several dozen thermal batteries; 5 pounds (2.3 kg) of lithium metal; 6.6 pounds (3.0 kg) of rubidium metal; several kilograms of unknown chemicals; 140 cubic yards (107 cubic meters) of thorium-contaminated soil; 270 cubic yards (205 cubic meters) of chromium-contaminated soil; and 450 gas cylinders, including 97 intact cylinders containing inert, flammable, toxic, corrosive, or oxidizing gases were removed and effectively managed to minimize waste.

  13. Hanford Site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Place, B.G.

    1998-09-24

    This plan, which is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400. 1, provides waste minimization and pollution prevention guidance for all Hanford Site contractors. The plan is primary in a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan, Prime contractor implementation plans, and the Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation (DOE-RL, 1997a) describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and 3005(h) (RCRA and EPA, 1994). Items discussed include the pollution prevention policy and regulatory background, organizational structure, the major objectives and goals of Hanford Site`s pollution prevention program, and an itemized description of the Hanford Site pollution prevention program. The document also includes US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office`s (RL`s) statement of policy on pollution prevention as well as a listing of regulatory drivers that require a pollution prevention program.

  14. RCRA Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility, Permit Number NEV HW0101, Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, Patrick

    2014-02-14

    This report summarizes the EPA identification number of each generator from which the Permittee received a waste stream, a description and quantity of each waste stream in tons and cubic feet received at the facility, the method of treatment, storage, and/or disposal for each waste stream, a description of the waste minimization efforts undertaken, a description of the changes in volume and toxicity of waste actually received, any unusual occurrences, and the results of tank integrity assessments. This Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report is prepared in accordance with Section 2.13.3 of Permit Number NEV HW0101.

  15. 40 CFR 63.1213 - How can the compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls...compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls...reasonably document that the installation of pollution prevention or waste...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1213 - How can the compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls...compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls...reasonably document that the installation of pollution prevention or waste...

  17. Applicability of a field-portable toxic heavy metal detector, using a radioisotope-tagged metalloprotein, to DOE environmental remediation and waste minimization initiatives

    SciTech Connect

    Randles, K.E.; Bragg, D.J.; Bodette, D.E.; Lipinski, R.J.; Luera, T.F.

    1998-08-01

    A system based on the metal-binding kidney protein, metallothionein, bound with a trace quantity of radioactive metal, has been shown to be capable of detecting parts-per-million (ppm) to parts-per-billion (ppb) concentrations of some heavy metals in liquid solution. The main objective of this study was to determine if this type of system has adequate sensitivity and selectivity for application in detecting a number of metallic species of concern to DOE, such as mercury, lead, and chromium. An affinity-displacement study is reported here using the heavy metal radiotracers {sup 65}Zn and {sup 109}Cd bound to metallothionein immobilized on an Affi-Gel 10 filter support. When a heavy metal solution with a greater affinity than the tracer for the protein is poured through the filter the radiotracer is displaced by a mechanism similar to ion exchange. The main objective of this study was to verify previous internal experimental parameters and results, and to determine the specific affinities of metallothionein for the metallic species of most concern to DOE.

  18. Proceedings of pollution prevention and waste minimization tools workshop

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Pollution Prevention (P2) has evolved into one of DOE`s sprime strategies to meet environmental, fiscal, and worker safety obligations. P2 program planning, opportunity identification, and implementation tools were developed under the direction of the Waste Minimization Division (EM-334). Forty experts from EM, DP, ER and DOE subcontractors attended this 2-day workshop to formulate the incentives to drive utilization of these tools. Plenary and small working group sessions were held both days. Working Group 1 identified incentives to overcoming barriers in the area of P2 program planning and resource allocation. Working Group 2 identified mechanisms to drive the completion of P2 assessments and generation of opportunities. Working Group 3 compiled and documented a broad range of potential P2 incentives that address fundamental barriers to implementation of cost effective opportunities.

  19. Waste minimization at Alpha -- A vehicle for progress

    SciTech Connect

    DiMartini, C.

    1994-12-31

    Alpha Metals, a Division of Cookson America, manufactures a full line of tin-lead solder alloy and soldering chemicals for the electronics industry. The solder alloys are produced at a facility in Jersey City, New Jersey. Raw materials are tin and lead purchased from primary producers and recycled and reclaimed alloy. Alpha also operates a facility in Alpharetta, Georgia which blends chemical intermediates to manufacture fluxes and cleaner sold to the printed circuit board and electronics assembly industries. Primary raw materials for the chemical blending operations are organic acids, solvents (mostly alcohols), rosin and surfactants. Both facilities generate hazardous wastes in these operations. These are collected, stored and directed to TSDs. The strategy of the federal government to encourage pollution prevention has been codified by the New Jersey and Georgia legislatives. As a consequent, both the Jersey City and Alpha facilities are actively pursuing changes in current operating practices and business objectives to minimize or eliminate hazardous non product output.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTUERE OF OUTDOOR ILLUMINATED SIGNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A BUMPER REFINISHING PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

  2. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF FELT TIP MARKERS, STAMP PADS, AND RUBBER CEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF COMPRESSED AIR EQUIPMENT COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

  4. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONING CONDENSERS AND EVAPORATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilotproject to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected u...

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF REBUILT RAILWAY CARS AND COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PRINTED PLASTIC BAGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established ...

  7. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF CORN SYRUP AND CORN STARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their geneation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

  8. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF FINISHED METAL AND PLASTIC PARTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Ce...

  9. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PARTS FOR TRUCK ENGINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PARTS FOR TRUCK ENGINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF MICROELECTRONIC COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

  12. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PROTOTYPE PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF MOUNTINGS FOR ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

  14. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF MOUNTINGS FOR ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A METAL PARTS COATING PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF CORN SYRUP AND CORN STARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF BRAZED ALUMINUM OIL COOLERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PAINTS AND LACQUERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF ALUMINUM CANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF SURGICAL IMPLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

  1. Waste-minimization opportunity assessment: US Coast Guard Support Center, Governors Island, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The report focuses on a waste minimization assessment of a U.S. Coast Guard facility located on Governors Island in New York. The assessment details both management initiatives and technical changes that can be made to minimize waste. The technical areas that were assessed were paint removal operations using blasting grit, buoy painting, and on-site solvent recovery.

  2. WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY: U.S. COAST GUARD SUPPORT CENTER, GOVERNORS ISLAND, NEW YORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report focuses on a waste minimization assessment of a U.S Coast Guard facility located on Governors Island in New York. he assessment details both management initiatives and technical changes that can be made to minimize waste. he technical areas that were assessed were pai...

  3. WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY: U.S. COAST GUARD SUPPORT CENTER - GOVERNORS ISLAND, NEW YORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report focuses on a waste minimization assessment of a U.S. Coast Guard facility located on Governors Island in New York. The assessment details both management initiatives and technical changes that can be made to minimize waste. The technical areas that were assessed were p...

  4. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF CUSTOM MOLDED PLASTIC PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected ...

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

  6. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF METAL-PLATED DISPLAY RACKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established t selected u...

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF FINISHED METAL AND PLASTIC PARTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PLIERS AND WRENCHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF COATED PARTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

  10. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF CUTTING AND WELDING EQUIPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot program to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so in an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF HEATING, VENTILATING, AND AIR CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

  12. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF COMPONENTS FOR AUTOMOBILE AIR CONDITIONERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected ...

  13. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF MOTOR VEHICLE EXTERIOR MIRRORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected ...

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF ELECTRICAL ROTATING DEVICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

  15. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A STEEL FABRICATOR (EPA/600/S-95/006)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected u...

  16. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PERMANENT-MAGNET DC ELECTRIC MOTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected ...

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF AERIAL LIFTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF LABELS AND FLEXIBLE PACKAGING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

  19. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF SILICON-CONTROLLED RECTIFIERS AND SCHOTTKY RECTIFIERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Ce...

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF ALUMINUM AND STEEL PARTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

  1. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF IRON CASTINGS AND FABRICATED SHEET METAL PARTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected u...

  2. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF ALUMINUM AND STEEL PARTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-sized manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Ce...

  3. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF LABELS AND FLEXIBLE PACKAGING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A PAINT MANUFACTURING PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

  5. Assessment of pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.K.; Fassbender, L.L.; Sen, R.K.

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the first phase of a study undertaken to define a role for the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Division of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) in developing waste minimization technologies for the industrial sector. The report describes the results of an industrial waste characterization based mainly on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) 1989 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) database. IN addition, it contains the results of interviews with personnel from trade associations, environmental advocacy groups, federal agencies, and industrial firms regarding pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization. Recommendations for future AIC waste minimization activities are provided.

  6. Assessment of pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.K.; Fassbender, L.L. ); Sen, R.K. and Associates, Washington, DC )

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the first phase of a study undertaken to define a role for the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Division of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) in developing waste minimization technologies for the industrial sector. The report describes the results of an industrial waste characterization based mainly on the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) 1989 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) database. IN addition, it contains the results of interviews with personnel from trade associations, environmental advocacy groups, federal agencies, and industrial firms regarding pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization. Recommendations for future AIC waste minimization activities are provided.

  7. Waste Minimization Improvements Achieved Through Six Sigma Analysis Result In Significant Cost Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Mousseau, Jeffrey, D.; Jansen, John, R.; Janke, David, H.; Plowman, Catherine, M.

    2003-02-26

    Improved waste minimization practices at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are leading to a 15% reduction in the generation of hazardous and radioactive waste. Bechtel, BWXT Idaho, LLC (BBWI), the prime management and operations contractor at the INEEL, applied the Six Sigma improvement process to the INEEL Waste Minimization Program to review existing processes and define opportunities for improvement. Our Six Sigma analysis team: composed of an executive champion, process owner, a black belt and yellow belt, and technical and business team members used this statistical based process approach to analyze work processes and produced ten recommendations for improvement. Recommendations ranged from waste generator financial accountability for newly generated waste to enhanced employee recognition programs for waste minimization efforts. These improvements have now been implemented to reduce waste generation rates and are producing positive results.

  8. FEDERAL EPA PROGRAMS FOR WASTE MINIMIZATION RESEARCH - AN OVERVIEW OF THE WREAFS PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the Waste Reduction Evaluations at Federal Sites (WREAFS) Program and to discuss the results of completed waste minimization opportunity assessments within the Federal community. he overview contains documentation of waste mi...

  9. Waste-minimization audit report: case studies of corrosive and heavy-metal waste minimization at a specialty steel-manufacturing complex

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is expanding its efforts to promote waste-minimization activity in the private sector by providing technical assistance to generators of hazardous waste. As part of the effort, the EPA Office of Research and Development/Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Laboratory (ORD/HWERL), Cincinnati, Ohio, is promoting the development of a generalized or model waste-minimization audit (WMA) procedure and testing this procedure in actual production facilities agreeing to cooperate with the audit teams selected for this task. In the report, results are presented of WMAs conducted at generators of corrosive heavy metals wastes. A specialty steel manufacturing complex employing electric arc furnaces (EAFs) for the manufacture of stainless and electrical steels, hot and cold rolling facilities for fabrication of the various steel grades into strip, and annealing and pickling facilities for finishing the strip, agreed to provide host facilities for the WMA effort reported herein.

  10. Environmental Restoration Program waste minimization and pollution prevention self-assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Program within Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. is currently developing a more active waste minimization and pollution prevention program. To determine areas of programmatic improvements within the ER Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program, the ER Program required an evaluation of the program across the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Paducah Environmental Restoration and Waste Minimization Site, and the Portsmouth Environmental Restoration and Waste Minimization Site. This document presents the status of the overall program as of fourth quarter FY 1994, presents pollution prevention cost avoidance data associated with FY 1994 activities, and identifies areas for improvement. Results of this assessment indicate that the ER Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program is firmly established and is developing rapidly. Several procedural goals were met in FY 1994 and many of the sites implemented ER waste minimization options. Additional growth is needed, however, for the ER Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program.

  11. Small-quantity generator's handbook for managing RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) wastes. Pesticide application

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    This RCRA Handbook was developed for pesticide applicators to provide assistance in complying with pertinent sections of the RCRA requirements. Section 2 summarizes operations of pesticide users and describes potential waste types that could be generated from these operations. Section 3 provides a guide for determining if a particular pesticide waste is subject to these regulations. Section 4 discusses the RCRA generator requirements, while Section 5 describes waste-management strategies for minimizing the amount of hazardous waste generated by the pesticide applicators. Appendix A lists hazardous wastes. Appendix B summarizes RCRA characteristic wastes. Appendix C contains a list of references and contacts for obtaining more information about hazardous wastes and their regulation.

  12. Waste minimization charges up recycling of spent lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Queneau, P.B.; Troutman, A.L. )

    1993-08-01

    Substantial strides are being made to minimize waste generated form spent lead-acid battery recycling. The Center for Hazardous Materials Research (Pittsburgh) recently investigated the potential for secondary lead smelters to recover lead from battery cases and other materials found at hazardous waste sites. Primary and secondary lead smelters in the U.S. and Canada are processing substantial tons of lead wastes, and meeting regulatory safeguards. Typical lead wastes include contaminated soil, dross and dust by-products from industrial lead consumers, tetraethyl lead residues, chemical manufacturing by-products, leaded glass, china clay waste, munitions residues and pigments. The secondary lead industry also is developing and installing systems to convert process inputs to products with minimum generation of liquid, solid and gaseous wastes. The industry recently has made substantial accomplishments that minimize waste generation during lead production from its bread and butter feedstock--spent lead-acid batteries.

  13. Zone Freezing Study for Pyrochemical Process Waste Minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Ammon Williams

    2012-05-01

    Pyroprocessing technology is a non-aqueous separation process for treatment of used nuclear fuel. At the heart of pyroprocessing lies the electrorefiner, which electrochemically dissolves uranium from the used fuel at the anode and deposits it onto a cathode. During this operation, sodium, transuranics, and fission product chlorides accumulate in the electrolyte salt (LiCl-KCl). These contaminates change the characteristics of the salt overtime and as a result, large volumes of contaminated salt are being removed, reprocessed and stored as radioactive waste. To reduce the storage volumes and improve recycling process for cost minimization, a salt purification method called zone freezing has been proposed at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Zone freezing is melt crystallization process similar to the vertical Bridgeman method. In this process, the eutectic salt is slowly cooled axially from top to bottom. As solidification occurs, the fission products are rejected from the solid interface and forced into the liquid phase. The resulting product is a grown crystal with the bulk of the fission products near the bottom of the salt ingot, where they can be easily be sectioned and removed. Despite successful feasibility report from KAERI on this process, there were many unexplored parameters to help understanding and improving its operational routines. Thus, this becomes the main motivation of this proposed study. The majority of this work has been focused on the CsCl-LiCl-KCl ternary salt. CeCl3-LiCl-KCl was also investigated to check whether or not this process is feasible for the trivalent species耀urrogate for rare-earths and transuranics. For the main part of the work, several parameters were varied, they are: (1) the retort advancement rate1.8, 3.2, and 5.0 mm/hr, (2) the crucible lid configurations様id versus no-lid, (3) the amount or size of mixture50 and 400 g, (4) the composition of CsCl in the salt1, 3, and 5 wt%, and (5) the temperature differences between the high and low furnace zones200 and 300 ?C. During each experiment, the temperatures at selected locations around the crucible were measured and recorded to provide temperature profiles. Following each experiment, samples were collected and elemental analysis was done to determine the composition of iii the salt. Several models溶on-mixed, well-mixed, Favier, and hybrid謡ere explored to describe the zone freezing process. For CsCl-LiCl-KCl system, experimental results indicate that through this process up to 90% of the used salt can be recycled, effectively reducing waste volume by a factor of ten. The optimal configuration was found to be a 5.0 mm/hr rate with a lid configuration and a ?T of 200ーC. The larger 400 g mixtures had recycle percentages similar to the 50 g mixtures; however, the throughput per time was greater for the 400 g case. As a result, the 400 g case is recommended. For the CeCl3-LiCl-KCl system, the result implies that it is possible to use this process to separate the rare-earth and transuranics chlorides. Different models were applied to only CsCl ternary system. The best fit model was the hybrid model as a result of a solute transport transition from non- mixed to well-mixed throughout the growing process.

  14. Reweighted Nuclear Norm Minimization with Application to System Identification

    E-print Network

    Fazel, Maryam

    Reweighted Nuclear Norm Minimization with Application to System Identification Karthik Mohan that satisfies given convex constraints. It is NP-hard in general and has applications in con- trol, system nuclear norm minimization, we propose an efficient gradient-based implementation that takes advantage

  15. HKUST Environmental Report 2003 Update Waste Recycling and Minimization

    E-print Network

    system helps to save about 8 reams or 4,000 sheets of A4 paper. 6:Color-coded bins have been provided paper. 9:CSO, EMO and SEPO together with the LG1 caterer launched the food waste collection and composting scheme at LG1 catering outlet. The program aims to reduce the amount of food waste being sent

  16. The Los Alamos National Laboratory Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Facility upgrades project - A model for waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, M.L.; Durrer, R.E.; Kennicott, M.A.

    1996-07-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Facility, constructed in 1952, is currently undergoing a major, multi-year construction project. Many of the operations required under this project (i.e., design, demolition, decontamination, construction, and waste management) mimic the processes required of a large scale decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) job and are identical to the requirements of any of several upgrades projects anticipated for LANL and other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. For these reasons the CMR Upgrades Project is seen as an ideal model facility - to test the application, and measure the success of - waste minimization techniques which could be brought to bear on any of the similar projects. The purpose of this paper will be to discuss the past, present, and anticipated waste minimization applications at the facility and will focus on the development and execution of the project`s {open_quotes}Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention Strategic Plan.{close_quotes}

  17. POLLUTION BALANCE: A NEW METHODOLOGY FOR MINIMIZING WASTE PRODUCTION IN MANUFACTURING PROCESSES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new methodolgy based on a generic pollution balance equation, has been developed for minimizing waste production in manufacturing processes. A "pollution index," defined as the mass of waste produced per unit mass of a product, has been introduced to provide a quantitative meas...

  18. An Exploration of Healthcare Inventory and Lean Management in Minimizing Medical Supply Waste in Healthcare Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Rodney

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how lean thinking and inventory management technology minimize expired medical supply waste in healthcare organizations. This study was guided by Toyota's theory of lean and Mintzberg's theory of management development to explain why the problem of medical supply waste exists. Government

  19. RESULTS FROM A COOPERATIVE FEDERAL, STATE, AND TRADE ASSOCIATION WASTE MINIMIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development supported a waste minimization research program in 1986-1988 for small and medium sized generators to develop and promote the use of innovative technologies and management practices to reduce the generation of hazardous wastes. his ...

  20. INTELLIGENT DECISION SUPPORT FOR WASTE MINIMIZATION IN ELECTROPLATING PLANTS. (R824732)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Wastewater, spent solvent, spent process solutions, and sludge are the major waste streams generated in large volumes daily in electroplating plants. These waste streams can be significantly minimized through process modification and operational improvement. I...

  1. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF METAL-CUTTING WHEELS AND COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) ere established at s...

  2. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PENNY BLANKS AND ZINC PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EnvIronmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected u...

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF ROTOGRAVURE PRINTING CYLINDERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACS) were established at selected un...

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PRODUCT CARRIERS AND PRINTED LABELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACS) were established at selected un...

  5. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF COMMERCIAL ICE MACHINES AND ICE STORAGE BINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at ...

  6. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF CAN-MANUFACTURING EQUIPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at ...

  7. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF SHEET METAL CABINETS AND PRECISION METAL PARTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at ...

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF NEW AND REWORKED ROTOGRAVURE PRINTING CYLINDERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected un...

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF BASEBALL BATS AND GOLF CLUBS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACS) were established at selected un...

  10. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF INJECTION-MOLDED CAR AND TRUCK MIRRORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected un...

  11. INVESTIGATION OF CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES TO MINIMIZE AUTOMOTIVE COOLANT WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the State of New Jersey evaluated chemical filtration and distillation technologies designed to recycle automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants. These evaluations addressed the product quality, waste reduction and econo...

  12. Six Strategies for Chemical Waste Minimization in Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matteson, Gary C.; Hadley, Cheri R.

    1991-01-01

    Guidelines are offered to research administrators for reducing the volume of hazardous laboratory waste. Suggestions include a chemical location inventory, a chemical reuse facility, progressive contracts with chemical suppliers, internal or external chemical recycling mechanisms, a "chemical conservation" campaign, and laboratory fees for

  13. WASTE MINIMIZATION INSIGHTS FOR THE POLYMER-INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The huge volumes of polymeric materials produced in this country can also result in the production of large volumes of wastes consisting of 1 "off spec" polymers, process solvents, additives, stabilizers, and gaseous emissions. he EPA has recently instituted an effort to work wit...

  14. EPA'S RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM FOR WASTE MINIMIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper was presented at the 7th Annual Virginia Waste Management Conference in Richmond, Virginia on April 26, 1989. he purpose of the presentation and paper was to discuss the results of two cooperative agreements describing a non-traditional approach to pollution prevention...

  15. 1994 Annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress as required by DOE Order 5400.1, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    Many Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention successes at the Hanford Site occur every day without formal recognition. A few of the successful projects are: T-Plant helps facilities reuse equipment by offering decontamination services for items such as gas cylinders, trucks, and railcars, thus saving disposal and equipment replacement costs. Custodial Services reviewed its use of 168 hazardous cleaning products, and, through a variety of measures, replaced them with 38 safer substitutes, one for each task. Scrap steel contaminated with low level radioactivity from the interim stabilization of 107-K and 107-C was decontaminated and sold to a vendor for recycling. Site-wide programs include the following: the Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (P2OA) program at the Hanford site was launched during 1994, including a training class, a guidance document, technical assistance, and goals; control over hazardous materials purchased was achieved by reviewing all purchase requisitions of a chemical nature; the Office Supply Reuse Program was established to redeploy unused or unwanted office supply items. In 1994, pollution prevention activities reduced approximately 274,000 kilograms of hazardous waste, 2,100 cubic meters of radioactive and mixed waste, 14,500,000 kilograms of sanitary waste, and 215,000 cubic meters off liquid waste and waste water. Pollution Prevention activities also saved almost $4.2 million in disposal, product, and labor costs. Overall waste generation increased in 1994 due to increased work and activity typical for a site with an environmental restoration mission. However, without any Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention activities, solid radioactive waste generation at Hanford would have been 25% higher, solid hazardous waste generation would have been 30% higher, and solid sanitary waste generation would have been 60% higher.

  16. The thrust minimization problem and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanyukhin, A. V.; Petukhov, V. G.

    2015-07-01

    An indirect approach to the optimization of trajectories with finite thrust based on Pontryagin's maximum principle is discussed. The optimization is aimed at calculating the minimum thrust for a point-to-point flight completed within a given interval of time with a constant exhaust velocity and a constant power. This may help calculate the region of existence of the optimum trajectory with thrust switching: it is evident that the latter problem may be solved if minimum thrust is lower than or equal to the available thrust in the problem with switching. A technique for calculating the optimum trajectories with a finite thrust by solving the problem of minimization of the thrust acceleration with a subsequent numerical continuation with respect to the mass flow towards the thrust minimization problem is proposed. This technique offers an opportunity to detect degeneracies associated with the lack of thrust or specific impulse. In effect, it allows one to calculate the boundaries of the region of existence of trajectories with thrust switching and thus makes it possible to automate the process of solving the problem of optimization of trajectories with thrust switching.

  17. An analysis of radioactive waste minimization efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Voit, S.L.; Boerigter, S.T.

    1997-09-30

    LANL will be the primary DOE facility for plutonium research and development and plutonium processing. A summary of the currently generated waste types, volumes, generating facilities or programs, and disposal costs are given in this report along with future waste generation projections. Several key existing technologies have been identified that could be introduced to reduce the generated waste at LANL. Four of these are discussed in detail in this report: (1) electrolytic surface decontamination, (2) electrochemical treatment of mixed wastes, (3) Long Range Alpha Detection (LRAD), and (4) Segmented Gate and Containerized Vat Leach System (SGS/CVL). These technologies may be implemented as modifications in upstream processes as well as more efficient volume reduction and segregation. The four technologies are mature enough to be implemented in the next two to three years and can be done so with the support for capital and operational costs. Also discussed in this report is a small sample of some of the recent waste minimization success stories that have been implemented. Several technologies are presented that are either currently being investigated or on hold due to lack of funding at LANL but show potential for making significant gains in waste minimization. This report is intended to provide a review of the waste minimization issues and analysis of the impact of implementing a few of these technologies.

  18. Sandia National Laboratories/Production Agency Weapon Waste Minimization Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Skinrood, A.C.; Radosevich, L.G.

    1991-07-01

    This Plan describes activities to reduce the usage of hazardous materials and the production of hazardous material waste during the development, production, stockpile, and retirement phases of war reserve nuclear weapons and nuclear weapon test units. Activities related to the development and qualification of more benign materials and processes for weapon production and the treatment and disposal of these materials from weapon retirement are described in separate plans.

  19. Potential pollution prevention and waste minimization for Department of Energy operations

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, J.; Ischay, C.; Kennicott, M.; Pemberton, S.; Tull, D.

    1995-10-01

    With the tightening of budgets and limited resources, it is important to ensure operations are carried out in a cost-effective and productive manner. Implementing an effective Pollution Prevention strategy can help to reduce the costs of waste management and prevent harmful releases to the environment. This document provides an estimate of the Department of Energy`s waste reduction potential from the implementation of Pollution Prevention opportunities. A team of Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention professionals was formed to collect the data and make the estimates. The report includes a list of specific reduction opportunities for various waste generating operations and waste types. A generic set of recommendations to achieve these reduction opportunities is also provided as well as a general discussion of the approach and assumptions made for each waste generating operation.

  20. Waste minimization plan construction and operation of the replacement cross-site transfer system, project W-058

    SciTech Connect

    Boucher, T.D.

    1996-04-01

    This report addresses the research and development of a waste minimization plan for the construction and operation of Project W-058, Replacement of the Cross-Site Transfer System, on the Hanford Site. The plan is based on Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-307, Plans. The waste minimization plan identifies areas where pollution prevention/waste minimization principles can be incorporated into the construction and operation of the cross-site transfer system.

  1. Waste minimization study for a printed circuit board manufacturing facility in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Shen-yann; Huang, Hann S.; Peters, R.W.; Tsai, S.Y. ); Tsai, Wen-Tien; Shieh, Shih-Shien; Hsieh, Te-Yuan; Hwang, Li-Shyong ); Liu, Solo; Peng, Chien-Tang ); Wu, Min H. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a demonstration of industrial waste minimization sponsored by the Environmental Protection Administration, Taiwan, Republic of China. Waste reduction opportunities are identified and evaluated for a printed circuit board manufacturing facility in Taiwan. Plant audits were conducted on various processes, such as deburring, alkaline etching, black oxidation, desmearing, electroless copper, and copper and tin/lead plating. Specific areas in which the wastes could be minimized, such as reducing the amount of dragout and rinse water requirements in the plating and etchant lines, and on-site treatment and reuse of spent bath solutions were identified, assessed, and implemented. Jar tests on the wastewater were performed, and the results were used to improve the efficiency of the wastewater treatment plant for removal of heavy metals and reduction of sludge generation. In addition, administrative controls of hazardous wastes designed to reduce associated health and environmental hazards were recommended. 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. Minimal Technologies Application Project: Planning and installation

    SciTech Connect

    Zellmer, S.D.; Hinchman, R.R.; Severinghaus, W.D.; Johnson, D.O.; Brent, J.J.

    1989-03-01

    Intensive and continuous tactical training during the last 35 years at the Hohenfels Training Area in West Germany has caused the loss of vegetative ground cover and has accelerated soil erosion rates, resulting in extensive environmental damage, safety hazards, and unrealistic training habitats. The objectives of this project are to develop and evaluate revegetation procedures for establishing adequate vegetative cover to control erosion at minimal costs and disruption to training activities. This project involved the development and installation of 12 revegetation procedures that combined four seedbed preparation methods and seeding options with three site-closure periods. In March 1987, the four seedbed preparation/seeding options and closure periods were selected, a study site design and location chosen, and specifications for the revegetation procedures developed. A German rehabilitation contractor attempted the specified seedbed preparation and seeding on the 13.5-ha site in June, but abnormally high rainfall, usually wet site conditions, and lack of adequate equipment prevented the contractor from completing six of the 12 planned procedures. Planning and execution of the project has nonetheless provided valuable information on the importance and use of soil analytical results, seed availability and cost data, contractor equipment requirements, and time required for planning future revegetation efforts. Continued monitoring of vegetative ground cover at the site for the next two years, combined with cost information, will provide necessary data to determine which of the six revegetation procedures is the most effective. These data will be used in planning future rehabilitation efforts on tactical training areas.

  3. Laboratory waste minimization during the operation startup phase

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, J.A.

    1995-05-01

    The Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) Laboratory was opened for occupancy in October, 1994. It is the first of its kind on the Hanford Site, a low level lab located in an area of high level radiological material. The mission of the facility is to analyze process samples from two on-line effluent treatment plants. One of these plants is operating and the other is due to begin operations by the end of 1995. The VSCF also performs air sampling analysis for routine radiological surveillance filter papers drawn from around the Hanford Site. Because this type of laboratory had not been in operation before, there was only speculation about the types and amounts of waste that would be generated. The laboratory personnel assigned to WSCF were assembled from existing labs on the Hanford Site and from outside the Hanford Site community. For some, it was a first time experience working on a site where a twenty mile drive is sometimes required to visit another building. For others, it was a change in the way business is conducted using state-of-the-art equipment, a new building, and a chance to approach issues as a team from the beginning. It is how this team came together and the issues that were discussed, sometimes uncomfortably, that lead to the current success. The outcome of this process is discussed in this paper.

  4. INNOVATIVE PRACTICES FOR TREATING WASTE STREAMS CONTAINING HEAVY METALS: A WASTE MINIMIZATION APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Innovative practices for treating waste streams containing heavy metals often involve technologies or systems that either reduce the amount of waste generated or recover reusable resources. With the land disposal of metal treatment residuals becoming less of an accepted waste man...

  5. RCRA Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility Permit Number NEV HW0101 Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report - Calendar Year 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, Patrick

    2015-02-17

    This report summarizes the EPA identification number of each generator from which the Permittee received a waste stream, a description and quantity of each waste stream in tons and cubic feet received at the facility, the method of treatment, storage, and/or disposal for each waste stream, a description of the waste minimization efforts undertaken, a description of the changes in volume and toxicity of waste actually received, any unusual occurrences, and the results of tank integrity assessments. This Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report is prepared in accordance with Section 2.13.3 of Permit Number NEV HW0101.

  6. RCRA Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility Permit Number NEV HW0101 Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report Calendar Year 2012, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, P. M.

    2013-02-21

    This report summarizes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identification number of each generator from which the Permittee received a waste stream, a description and quantity of each waste stream in tons and cubic feet received at the facility, the method of treatment, storage, and/or disposal for each waste stream, a description of the waste minimization efforts undertaken, a description of the changes in volume and toxicity of waste actually received, any unusual occurrences, and the results of tank integrity assessments. This Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report is prepared in accordance with Section 2.13.3 of Permit Number NEV HW0101, issued 10/17/10.

  7. RCRA Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility Permit Number NEV HW0101 Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report Calendar Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2012-02-16

    This report summarizes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identification number of each generator from which the Permittee received a waste stream; a description and quantity of each waste stream in tons and cubic feet received at the facility; the method of treatment, storage, and/or disposal for each waste stream; a description of the waste minimization efforts undertaken; a description of the changes in volume and toxicity of waste actually received; any unusual occurrences; and the results of tank integrity assessments. This Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report is prepared in accordance with Section 2.13.3 of Permit Number NEV HW0101.

  8. Trash-to-Gas: Using Waste Products to Minimize Logistical Mass During Long Duration Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hintze, Paul. E.; Caraccio, Anne J.; Anthony, Stephen M.; Tsoras, Alexandra N.; Nur, Monoita; Devor, Robert; Captain, James G.

    2013-01-01

    Just as waste-to-energy processes utilizing municipal landftll and biomass wastes are finding increased terrestrial uses, the Trash-to-Gas (TtG) project seeks to convert waste generated during spaceflight into high value commodities. These include methane for propulsion and water for life support in addition to a variety of other gasses. TtG is part of the Logistic Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project under the NASA Advanced Exploration Systems Program. The LRR project will enable a largely mission-independent approach to minimize logistics contributions to total mission architecture mass. LRR includes technologies that reduce the amount of consumables that need to be sent to space, repurpose items sent to space, or convert wastes to commodities. Currently, waste generated on the International Space Station is stored inside a logistic module which is de-orbited into Earth's atmosphere for destruction. The waste consists of food packaging, food, clothing and other items. This paper will discuss current results on incineration as a waste processing method. Incineration is part of a two step process to produce methane from waste: first the waste is converted to carbon oxides; second, the carbon oxides are fed to a Sabatier reactor where they are converted to methane. The quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane and water were measured under the different thermal degradation conditions. The overall carbon conversion efficiency and water recovery are discussed.

  9. Trash-to-Gas: Using Waste Products to Minimize Logistical Mass During Long Duration Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hintze, Paul E.; Caraccio, A. J.; Anthony, S. M.; Tsoras, A. N.; Devor, Robert; Captain, James G.; Nur, Mononita

    2013-01-01

    Just as waste-to-energy processes utilizing municipal landftll and biomass wastes are finding increased terrestrial uses, the Trash-to-Gas (TtG) project seeks to convert waste generated during spaceflight into high value commodities. These include methane for propulsion and water for life support in addition to a variety of other gasses. TtG is part of the Logistic Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project under the NASA Advanced Exploration Systems Program. The LRR project will enable a largely mission-independent approach to minimize logistics contributions to total mission architecture mass. LRR includes technologies that reduce the amount of consumables that need to be sent to space, repurpose items sent to space, or convert wastes to commodities. Currently, waste generated on the International Space Station is stored inside a logistic module which is de-orbited into Earth's atmosphere for destruction. The waste consists of food packaging, food, clothing and other items. This paper will discuss current results on incineration as a waste processing method. Incineration is part of a two step process to produce methane from waste: first the waste is converted to carbon oxides; second, the carbon oxides are fed to a Sabatier reactor where they are converted to methane. The quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane and water were measured under the different thermal degradation conditions. The overall carbon conversion efficiency and water recovery are discussed

  10. FY 1993 Projection Capability Assurance Program waste and hazard minimization. Quarterly report, October--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Haws, L.D.; Homan, D.A.

    1993-01-15

    Waste and hazard minimization efforts in the following areas are described: (1) environmentally responsive cleaning, (2) hazardous material exposure, (3) explosive processing, (4) flex circuit manufacturing, (5) tritium capture w/o conversion to water, (6) ES&H compatible pyrotechnic materials, and (7) remote explosive component assembly.

  11. Waste-minimization assessment for a manufacturer of rebuilt railway cars and components. Environmental research brief

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, F.W.; Looby, G.P.

    1991-07-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA/625/7-88/003, July 1988). The WMAC team at the University of Tennessee inspected a plant that rebuilds approximately 2,000 railway cars (open, flat, and freight) each year and that refurbishes wheel assemblies and air brake systems. The team's report, detailing their findings and recommendations, indicated that the greatest opportunities to minimize waste came from the railcar painting operation where paint and primer solids and sludge are generated. The team recommended installing an electrostatic spray paint system for priming and painting to reduce the overspray losses. The Research Brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA's Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from the authors.

  12. Waste minimization assessment for a manufacturer of iron castings and fabricated sheet metal parts

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischman, M.; Harris, J.J.; Handmaker, A.; Looby, G.P.

    1995-08-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual. That document has been superseded by the Facility Pollution Prevention Guide. The WMAC team at the University of Louisville performed an assessment at a plant that manufactures iron castings and fabricated sheet metal parts. Foundry operations include mixing and mold formation, core making, metal pouring, shakeout, finishing, and painting. Cutting, shaping, and welding are the principal metal fabrication operations. The team`s report, detailing findings and recommendations indicated that paint-related wastes are generated in large quantities, and that significant waste reduction and cost savings could be realized by installing a dry powder coating system or by replacing conventional air spray paint guns with high-volume low-pressure spray guns. This research brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA`s National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from University City Science Center.

  13. Waste-minimization assessment for a manufacturer producing galvanized-steel parts. Environmental research brief

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, F.W.; Maginn, J.C.

    1992-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA/625/7-88/003, July 1988). The WMAC team at Colorado State University performed an assessment at a plant producing galvanized steel parts - approximately 10,000 tons/yr. The major process operations are degreasing and rinsing, acid pickling and rinsing, prefluxing, and galvanizing. All these operations, except galvanizing, result in the formation of waste streams requiring off-site disposal. Bottom dross from the galvanizing kettle and zinc oxide skimmed from the surface of the molten zinc are sold as usable products. The team's report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that most waste was generated in acid pickling and rinsing and that the greatest savings could be obtained by continuous air agitation to extend the life of the pickling acid and rinse by enabling more complete removal of dissolved iron when those solutions are treated.

  14. Minimizing Characterization - Derived Waste at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Van Pelt, R. S.; Amidon, M. B.; Reboul, S. H.

    2002-02-25

    Environmental restoration activities at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS) utilize innovative site characterization approaches and technologies that minimize waste generation. Characterization is typically conducted in phases, first by collecting large quantities of inexpensive data, followed by targeted minimally invasive drilling to collect depth-discrete soil/groundwater data, and concluded with the installation of permanent multi-level groundwater monitoring wells. Waste-reducing characterization methods utilize non-traditional drilling practices (sonic drilling), minimally intrusive (geoprobe, cone penetrometer) and non-intrusive (3-D seismic, ground penetration radar, aerial monitoring) investigative tools. Various types of sensor probes (moisture sensors, gamma spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, laser induced and X-ray fluorescence) and hydrophobic membranes (FLUTe) are used in conjunction with depth-discrete sampling techniques to obtain high-resolution 3-D plume profiles. Groundwater monitoring (short/long-term) approaches utilize multi-level sampling technologies (Strata-Sampler, Cone-Sipper, Solinst Waterloo, Westbay) and low-cost diffusion samplers for seepline/surface water sampling. Upon collection of soil and groundwater data, information is portrayed in a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) format for interpretation and planning purposes. At the SRS, the use of non-traditional drilling methods and minimally/non intrusive investigation approaches along with in-situ sampling methods has minimized waste generation and improved the effectiveness and efficiency of characterization activities.

  15. Refuse and Recycling HPL/CA's recycling and waste minimization program currently includes all mixed office paper,

    E-print Network

    Boynton, Walter R.

    Refuse and Recycling HPL/CA's recycling and waste minimization program currently includes all Administration paper purchases for all copiers and printers currently are 100% post- consumer recycled. CA thermostats. キ Strict recycling and waste minimization programs. キ Replacement of non-energy efficient

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF FELT TIP MARKERS, STAMP PADS, AND RUBBER CEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

  17. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF NEW AND REWORKED ROTOGRAVURE PRINTING CYLINDERS (EPA/600/S-95/005)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected u...

  18. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PAPER ROLLS, INK ROLLS, INK RIBBONS, AND MAGNETIC AND THERMAL TRANSFER RIBBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected un...

  19. Waste minimization at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: A case study of environmentally conscious manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Steffani, C.P.; Dini, J.W.

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on what we`ve accomplished and have planned in our plating operation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in the area of waste minimization. Our efforts have included issues other than waste minimization and, therefore, fall under the wider umbrella entitled pollution prevention or environmentally conscious electroplating. Approximately one year has passed since our last report on pollution prevention and since this topic remains a high-effort activity much more has been accomplished. Our efforts to date fall under the first two generation categories of waste reduction. Good housekeeping practices, inventory control, and minor changes in operating practices (first generation) resulted in an impressive amount of waste reduction. In the second generation of waste reduction, current technology, separation technologies, and material substitutions were used to reduce emission and wastes. The third generation of improvements requires significant technological advances in process synthesis and engineering. We are presently starting some projects in this third generation phase and these will be discussed at the end of this paper.

  20. Chelation technology: a promising green approach for resource management and waste minimization.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Garima; Pant, K K; Nigam, K D P

    2015-01-01

    Green chemical engineering recognises the concept of developing innovative environmentally benign technologies to protect human health and ecosystems. In order to explore this concept for minimizing industrial waste and for reducing the environmental impact of hazardous chemicals, new greener approaches need to be adopted for the extraction of heavy metals from industrial waste. In this review, a range of conventional processes and new green approaches employed for metal extraction are discussed in brief. Chelation technology, a modern research trend, has shown its potential to develop sustainable technology for metal extraction from various metal-contaminated sites. However, the interaction mechanism of ligands with metals and the ecotoxicological risk associated with the increased bioavailability of heavy metals due to the formation of metal-chelant complexes is still not sufficiently explicated in the literature. Therefore, a need was felt to provide a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of all aspects associated with chelation technology to promote this process as a green chemical engineering approach. This article elucidates the mechanism and thermodynamics associated with metal-ligand complexation in order to have a better understanding of the metal extraction process. The effects of various process parameters on the formation and stability of complexes have been elaborately discussed with respect to optimizing the chelation efficiency. The non-biodegradable attribute of ligands is another important aspect which is currently of concern. Therefore, biotechnological approaches and computational tools have been assessed in this review to illustrate the possibility of ligand degradation, which will help the readers to look for new environmentally safe mobilizing agents. In addition, emerging trends and opportunities in the field of chelation technology have been summarized and the diverse applicability of chelation technology in metal extraction from contaminated sites has also been reviewed. PMID:25476956

  1. In situ vitrification: application analysis for stabilization of transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Oma, K.H.; Farnsworth, R.K.; Rusin, J.M.

    1982-09-01

    The in situ vitrification process builds upon the electric melter technology previously developed for high-level waste immobilization. In situ vitrification converts buried wastes and contaminated soil to an extremely durable glass and crystalline waste form by melting the materials, in place, using joule heating. Once the waste materials have been solidified, the high integrity waste form should not cause future ground subsidence. Environmental transport of the waste due to water or wind erosion, and plant or animal intrusion, is minimized. Environmental studies are currently being conducted to determine whether additional stabilization is required for certain in-ground transuranic waste sites. An applications analysis has been performed to identify several in situ vitrification process limitations which may exist at transuranic waste sites. Based on the process limit analysis, in situ vitrification is well suited for solidification of most in-ground transuranic wastes. The process is best suited for liquid disposal sites. A site-specific performance analysis, based on safety, health, environmental, and economic assessments, will be required to determine for which sites in situ vitrification is an acceptable disposal technique. Process economics of in situ vitrification compare favorably with other in-situ solidification processes and are an order of magnitude less than the costs for exhumation and disposal in a repository. Leachability of the vitrified product compares closely with that of Pyrex glass and is significantly better than granite, marble, or bottle glass. Total release to the environment from a vitrified waste site is estimated to be less than 10/sup -5/ parts per year. 32 figures, 30 tables.

  2. WESF hot cells waste minimization criteria hot cells window seals evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Walterskirchen, K.M.

    1997-03-31

    WESF will decouple from B Plant in the near future. WESF is attempting to minimize the contaminated solid waste in their hot cells and utilize B Plant to receive the waste before decoupling. WESF wishes to determine the minimum amount of contaminated waste that must be removed in order to allow minimum maintenance of the hot cells when they are placed in ''laid-up'' configuration. The remaining waste should not cause unacceptable window seal deterioration for the remaining life of the hot cells. This report investigates and analyzes the seal conditions and hot cell history and concludes that WESF should remove existing point sources, replace cerium window seals in F-Cell and refurbish all leaded windows (except for A-Cell). Work should be accomplished as soon as possible and at least within the next three years.

  3. Annual Waste Minimization Summary Report, Calendar Year 2010, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Identification No. NV3890090001

    SciTech Connect

    Haworth, D.M.

    2011-01-30

    This report summarizes the waste minimization efforts undertaken by National Security TechnoIogies, LLC, for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), during calendar year 2010. The NNSA/NSO Pollution Prevention Program establishes a process to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by NNSA/NSO activities and ensures that proposed methods of treatment, storage, and/or disposal of waste minimize potential threats to human health and the environment.

  4. Waste management models and their application to sustainable waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, A.J.; Browne, J

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the types of models that are currently being used in the area of municipal waste management and to highlight some major shortcomings of these models. Most of the municipal waste models identified in the literature are decision support models and for the purposes of this research, are divided into three categories--those based on cost benefit analysis, those based on life cycle assessment and those based on multicriteria decision making. Shortcomings of current waste management models include that they are concerned with refinements of the evaluation steps (e.g. stage four of AHP or the improvement of weight allocations in ELECTRE) rather than addressing the decision making process itself. In addition, while many models recognise that for a waste management model to be sustainable, it must consider environmental, economic and social aspects, no model examined considered all three aspects together in the application of the model.

  5. Minimizing Power Dissipation in Combinational Circuits During Test Application \\Lambda

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    , and adversely affect the reliability of systems that use periodic testing. Battery powered systems are finding testing could prevent field testing of such equipments. In addition, for such battery powered systemsMinimizing Power Dissipation in Combinational Circuits During Test Application \\Lambda V. P

  6. Waste-minimization assessment for a manufacturer of printed-circuit boards. Environmental research brief

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, F.W.; Looby, G.P.

    1991-07-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA/625/7-88/003, July 1988). The WMAC team at Colorado State University inspected a plant producing printed circuit boards -- a plant that already had taken steps to control its hazardous wastes. Producing a circuit board involves many major processes and subprocesses: preparing the board; depositing copper on the board by electroless plating; applying dry film; electrolytically plating copper; electrolytically plating tin; etching and stripping; applying solder; and, perhaps, plating gold on connectors. Each of these steps produces hazardous wastes, e.g., electrolytic copper plating results in acid soap dumps, copper and tin drag-out, and sulfuric acid. The main sources of metallic contamination (copper (both dissolved and metallic), tin, lead, gold) are the rinses after scrubbing, plating, and etching. Although the greatest amount of waste can be reduced by reusing effluent from the MEMTEK (with some further treatment), the greatest dollar savings can be found by changing the dry film developer. The present brand adheres strongly to the unexposed film and requires an aggressive acid soap; a less aggressive, nonhazardous soap could be used with a less-adhering dry film developer. The Research Brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA's Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from the authors.

  7. Unrestricted disposal of minimal activity levels of radioactive wastes: exposure and risk calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, D.E.; Emerson, C.J.

    1984-08-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is currently considering revision of rule 10 CFR Part 20, which covers disposal of solid wastes containing minimal radioactivity. In support of these revised rules, we have evaluated the consequences of disposing of four waste streams at four types of disposal areas located in three different geographic regions. Consequences are expressed in terms of human exposures and associated health effects. Each geographic region has its own climate and geology. Example waste streams, waste disposal methods, and geographic regions chosen for this study are clearly specified. Monetary consequences of minimal activity waste disposal are briefly discussed. The PRESTO methodology was used to evaluate radionuclide transport and health effects. This methodology was developed to assess radiological impacts to a static local population for a 1000-year period following disposal. Pathways and processes of transit from the trench to exposed populations included the following considerations: groundwater transport, overland flow, erosion, surface water dilution, resuspension, atmospheric transport, deposition, inhalation, and ingestion of contaminated beef, milk, crops, and water. 12 references, 2 figures, 8 tables.

  8. Waste minimization in the poultry processing industry. Process and water quality aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Gelman, S.R.; Scott, S.; Davis, H.

    1989-11-09

    The poultry processing industry is a large, water intensive industry. In a typical week in Alabama up to 15 million birds are processed, and Arkansas, Georgia, and North Carolina have similar processing volumes. This presentation will focus on issues surrounding waste minimization in the live processing industry as well as provide a brief look at the prepared foods segment, mainly cooked chicken products. The case study also reviews water quality issues that require us to examine waste treatment in a new light. This information will also apply to other industries facing more stringent treatment requirements as a result of stiffer water quality regulations.

  9. Waste minimization assessment for a manufacturer of baseball bats and golf clubs. Environmental research brief

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischman, M.; Kirsch, F.W.; Maginn, J.C.

    1993-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Center (WMAC) at the University of Louisville performed an assessment at a plant manufacturing baseball bats and golf clubs -- approximately 1,500,000 bats/yr and 550,000 golf clubs/yr. To make the bats, wood billets are oven-dried and machined to a standard dimension. After sanding they are branded and finished. The golf clubs are made by finishing and assembling purchased heads and shafts. The team's report detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that the most waste, other than rinse water discharged to the publicly owned treatment works (POTW) and wood turnings which are sold, consists of scrap cardboard and paper from the shop and offices, and that the greatest savings, including new income, could be obtained by segregating the cardboard and paper wastes for sale to a local recycler.

  10. Grout treatment facility dangerous waste permit application

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) will provide permanent disposal for approximately 43 Mgal of low-level radioactive liquid waste currently being stored in underground tanks on the Hanford Site. The first step in permanent disposal is accomplished by solidifying the liquid waste with cementitious dry materials. The resulting grout is cast within underground vaults. This report on the GTF contains information on the following: Geologic data, hydrologic data, groundwater monitoring program, information, detection monitoring program, groundwater characterization drawings, building emergency plan--grout treatment facility, response action plan for grout treatment facility, Hanford Facility contingency plan, training course descriptions, overview of the Hanford Facility Grout Performance, assessment, bland use and zoning map, waste minimization plan, cover design engineering report, and clay liners (ADMIXTURES) in semiarid environments.

  11. 1994 annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress as required by DOE Order 5400.1

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, E.F.; Poligone, S.E.

    1995-10-16

    The Y-12 Plant serves as a key manufacturing technology center for the development and demonstration of unique materials, components, and services of importance to the Department of Energy (DOE) and the nation. This is accomplished through the reclamation and storage of nuclear materials, manufacture of nuclear materials, manufacture of components for the nation`s defense capabilities, support to national security programs, and services provided to other customers as approved by DOE. We are recognized by our people, the community, and our customers as innovative, responsive, and responsible. We are a leader in worker health and safety, environmental protection, and stewardship of our national resources. As a DOE facility, Y-12 also supports DOE`s waste minimization mission. Data contained in this report represents waste generation in Tennessee.

  12. Evidence-Based Integrated Environmental Solutions For Secondary Lead Smelters: Pollution Prevention And Waste Minimization Technologies And Practices

    EPA Science Inventory

    An evidence-based methodology was adopted in this research to establish strategies to increase lead recovery and recycling via a systematic review and critical appraisal of the published literature. In particular, the research examines pollution prevention and waste minimization...

  13. Standard data report. 1997 annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress

    SciTech Connect

    Wilburn, D.

    1998-04-07

    The Laboratory`s central mission of Reducing the Global Nuclear Danger supports core competencies that enable the Laboratory to contribute to defense, civilian, and industrial needs. In turn, the intellectual challenges of civilian and industrial problems strengthen and help support the core competencies required for the national security mission. The ability to do great science underpins all of the applied work. There are five core competencies which support this mission: (1) Stockpile Stewardship ensures the US has safe, secure and reliable nuclear weapons; (2) Stockpile Management provides capabilities ranging from dismantling to remanufacturing of the enduring stockpile; (3) Nuclear Materials Management ensures the availability and safe disposition of plutonium, highly enriched uranium, and tritium; (4) Nonproliferation and Counterproliferation help to deter, detect, and respond to the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction; and (5) Environmental Stewardship provides for the remediation and reduction of wastes from the nuclear weapons complex. This report contains data on volumes of waste generated as part of routine and cleanup/stabilization activities of the lab.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF IRON CASTINGS AND FABRICATED SHEET METAL PARTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expense to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACS) were established at selected univ...

  15. Characterization, minimization and disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes during cleanup and rransition of the Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) at Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA)

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, T.B.; Gorman, T.P.

    1996-12-01

    This document provides an outline of waste handling practices used during the Sandia National Laboratory/California (SNL/CA), Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) Cleanup and Transition project. Here we provide background information concerning the history of the TRL and the types of operations that generated the waste. Listed are applicable SNL/CA site-wide and TRL local waste handling related procedures. We describe personnel training practices and outline methods of handling and disposal of compactible and non-compactible low level waste, solidified waste water, hazardous wastes and mixed wastes. Waste minimization, reapplication and recycling practices are discussed. Finally, we provide a description of the process followed to remove the highly contaminated decontamination systems. This document is intended as both a historical record and as a reference to other facilities who may be involved in similar work.

  16. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-18

    This document, Set 2, the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Part B Permit Application, consists of 15 chapters that address the content of the Part B checklists prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR 270), with additional information requirements mandated by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 and revisions of WAC 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology checklist section numbers, in brackets, follow the chapter headings and subheadings. This permit application contains umbrella- type'' documentation with overall application to the Hanford Facility. This documentation is broad in nature and applies to all TSD units that have final status under the Hanford Facility Permit.

  17. Waste minimization opportunity assessment, U.S. Coast Guard Support Center, Governors Island, New York. Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    1991-02-01

    The U.S. Coast Guard facility at Governors Island, New York, was chosen for a waste reduction assessment under the Waste Reduction Evaluations at Federal Sites (WREAFS) Program. The Coast Guard mission on the Island, which serves as a support center for Coast Guard activities in the New York area, generates a substantial amount of hazardous waste (e.g., lead-acid batteries, lead-contaminated blast grit, paint, and paint-related materials). Opportunities to minimize waste through technology included substituting plastic for steel shot when removing paint and rust from buoys and using high volume/low pressure paint guns to reduce overspray.

  18. A case-study of landfill minimization and material recovery via waste co-gasification in a new waste management scheme.

    PubMed

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Ishida, Yoshihiro; Osada, Morihiro

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluates municipal solid waste co-gasification technology and a new solid waste management scheme, which can minimize final landfill amounts and maximize material recycled from waste. This new scheme is considered for a region where bottom ash and incombustibles are landfilled or not allowed to be recycled due to their toxic heavy metal concentration. Waste is processed with incombustible residues and an incineration bottom ash discharged from existent conventional incinerators, using a gasification and melting technology (the Direct Melting System). The inert materials, contained in municipal solid waste, incombustibles and bottom ash, are recycled as slag and metal in this process as well as energy recovery. Based on this new waste management scheme with a co-gasification system, a case study of municipal solid waste co-gasification was evaluated and compared with other technical solutions, such as conventional incineration, incineration with an ash melting facility under certain boundary conditions. From a technical point of view, co-gasification produced high quality slag with few harmful heavy metals, which was recycled completely without requiring any further post-treatment such as aging. As a consequence, the co-gasification system had an economical advantage over other systems because of its material recovery and minimization of the final landfill amount. Sensitivity analyses of landfill cost, power price and inert materials in waste were also conducted. The higher the landfill costs, the greater the advantage of the co-gasification system has. The co-gasification was beneficial for landfill cost in the range of 80 Euro per ton or more. Higher power prices led to lower operation cost in each case. The inert contents in processed waste had a significant influence on the operating cost. These results indicate that co-gasification of bottom ash and incombustibles with municipal solid waste contributes to minimizing the final landfill amount and has great possibilities maximizing material recovery and energy recovery from waste. PMID:25182227

  19. Waste-minimization assessment for a manufacturer of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning equipment. Environmental research brief

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, F.W.; Looby, G.P.

    1991-07-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA/625/7-88/003, July 1988). The WMAC team at the University of Tennessee inspected a plant manufacturing heating, ventilating, and air conditioning equipment. Of the distinct process lines in the plant, three generated hazardous waste: the manufacture of fan coil units and air terminal units and the painting process. The manufacture of fan coil units generated the most and the greatest variety of these wastes. The team's report, detailing findings and recommendations, suggested that to reduce adhesive overspray, defectively glued insulation board, and adhesive carrier vapor, the plant should consider using nonferric screws instead of adhesives to attach insulation to sheet metal parts, or replace solvent-based adhesives (wholly or in part) with water-based adhesives. The amount of waste would be the same, but it would be nonhazardous and could be disposed of in municipal waste.

  20. Pollution prevention-waste minimization program 1998 fiscal year work plan -- WBS 1.11.2.1

    SciTech Connect

    Merry, D.S.

    1997-09-22

    Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) is the Department of Energy`s preferred approach to environmental management. The P2/WMin mission is to eliminate or minimize waste generation, pollutant releases to the environment, use of toxic substances, and to conserve resources by implementing cost-effective pollution prevention technologies, practices, and polices. Technical objectives are to: Coordinate the Hanford Site Pollution Prevention and Waste Minimization Program in support of Fluor Daniel Hanford (FDH) and the Department of Energy, Richland Operations office in the development and implementation of the Sitewide Program; Develop site-specific guidance for implementing P2 activities established by the US Department of Energy Headquarters in the 1996 P2 Program Plan and for ensuring consistent generator programs; Provide leadership to promote a Sitewide program to reduce both the volume and toxicity of radioactive, mixed, hazardous and sanitary waste types, to promote recycling, and resource conservation to reduce future risks and costs associated with managing wastes and pollutants; Maintain a program that complies with federal, state and DOE directives; Compile reports on Site P2 progress, including compliance reporting; Establish site-specific goals to minimize the generation of wastes and pollutants, including hazardous, radioactive, mixed, and sanitary from site operations; Establish performance measures to track P2/WMin progress against established goals; Support DOE-HQ performance measures issued in the Project Baseline Summary (PBS); Conduct site strategic waste stream analyses (Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments) that cross-cut major waste generating sources and provide recommendations for reduction/elimination; Develop and maintain a database tracking and reporting system for pollution prevention opportunities and waste stream identification; and Develop and implement tools to assist generators in achieving P2/WMin results and provide technical assistance and support.

  1. PUREX Storage Tunnels dangerous waste permit application

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The Hanford Site is operated by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office. The PUREX Storage Tunnels are a storage unit located on the Hanford Site. The unit consists of two earth-covered railroad tunnels that are used for storage of process equipment (some containing dangerous waste) removed from the PUREX Plant. Radioactively contaminated equipment is loaded on railroad cars and remotely transferred into the tunnels for long-term storage. Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and serves as a co-operator of the PUREX Storage Tunnels, the waste management unit addressed by this permit application. The PUREX Storage Tunnels Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Revision O) consists of both a Part A and Part B permit application and is based on information available as of August 31, 1990. An explanation of the Part A revision submitted with this document is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. In this Part A revision, the PUREX Storage Tunnels have been redesignated as a miscellaneous unit. The Part B consists of 15 chapters addressing the organization and content of the Part B checklist prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology.

  2. Establishing and Implementing a Waste Minimization Program in the Chemical and Oil Industries

    E-print Network

    Hollod, G. J.; Marton, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    chemicals and chemical processes, and are the best equipped to manage and reduce waste. It is the responsibility of all companies that manufacture a product or generate a waste to understand the meaning of proper waste management hierarchy, waste...

  3. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility. Revision 2A

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, R.C.

    1994-04-01

    This permit application for the 616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility consists for 15 chapters. Topics of discussion include the following: facility description and general provisions; waste characteristics; process information; personnel training; reporting and record keeping; and certification.

  4. Application to transfer radioactive waste to the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    1992-06-01

    All waste described in this application has been, and will be, generated by LANL in support of the nuclear weapons test program at the NTS. All waste originates on the NTS. DOE Order 5820.2A states that low-level radioactive waste shall be disposed of at the site where it is generated, when practical. Since the waste is produced at the NTS, it is cost effective for LANL to dispose of the waste at the NTS.

  5. PUREX Storage Tunnels dangerous waste permit application

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The Hanford Site is operated by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office. The PUREX Storage Tunnels are a storage unit located on the Hanford Site. The unit consists of two earth-covered railroad tunnels that are used for storage of process equipment (some containing dangerous waste) removed from the PUREX Plant. Radioactively contaminated equipment is loaded on railroad cars and remotely transferred into the tunnels for long-term storage. Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and serves as a co-operator of the PUREX Storage Tunnels, the waste management unit addressed by this permit application. This appendix contains Tunnel 1 Construction Specifications, HWS-5638, consisting of 49 pages.

  6. I-NERI-2007-004-K, DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NEW HIGH-LEVEL WASTE FORMS FOR ACHIEVING WASTE MINIMIZATION FROM PYROPROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    S.M. Frank

    2011-09-01

    Work describe in this report represents the final year activities for the 3-year International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (I-NERI) project: Development and Characterization of New High-Level Waste Forms for Achieving Waste Minimization from Pyroprocessing. Used electrorefiner salt that contained actinide chlorides and was highly loaded with surrogate fission products was processed into three candidate waste forms. The first waste form, a high-loaded ceramic waste form is a variant to the CWF produced during the treatment of Experimental Breeder Reactor-II used fuel at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The two other waste forms were developed by researchers at the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). These materials are based on a silica-alumina-phosphate matrix and a zinc/titanium oxide matrix. The proposed waste forms, and the processes to fabricate them, were designed to immobilize spent electrorefiner chloride salts containing alkali, alkaline earth, lanthanide, and halide fission products that accumulate in the salt during the processing of used nuclear fuel. This aspect of the I-NERI project was to demonstrate 'hot cell' fabrication and characterization of the proposed waste forms. The outline of the report includes the processing of the spent electrorefiner salt and the fabrication of each of the three waste forms. Also described is the characterization of the waste forms, and chemical durability testing of the material. While waste form fabrication and sample preparation for characterization must be accomplished in a radiological hot cell facility due to hazardous radioactivity levels, smaller quantities of each waste form were removed from the hot cell to perform various analyses. Characterization included density measurement, elemental analysis, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and the Product Consistency Test, which is a leaching method to measure chemical durability. Favorable results from this demonstration project will provide additional options for fission product immobilization and waste management associated the electrochemical/pyrometallurgical processing of used nuclear fuel.

  7. COMPARISON OF CHEMICAL SCREENING AND RANKING APPROACHES: THE WASTE MINIMIZATION PRIORITIZATION TOOL VERSUS TOXIC EQUIVALENCY POTENTIALS: JOURNAL ARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-STD-0014 Pennington*, D.W., and Bare*, J.C. Comparison of Chemical Screening and Ranking Approaches: The Waste Minimization Prioritization Tool versus Toxic Equivalency Potentials. Risk Analysis (Anderson, E.L. (Ed.), Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers) 21 (5):897-912 (2001)...

  8. Organic rankine cycle waste heat applications

    DOEpatents

    Brasz, Joost J.; Biederman, Bruce P.

    2007-02-13

    A machine designed as a centrifugal compressor is applied as an organic rankine cycle turbine by operating the machine in reverse. In order to accommodate the higher pressures when operating as a turbine, a suitable refrigerant is chosen such that the pressures and temperatures are maintained within established limits. Such an adaptation of existing, relatively inexpensive equipment to an application that may be otherwise uneconomical, allows for the convenient and economical use of energy that would be otherwise lost by waste heat to the atmosphere.

  9. USER'S GUIDE: Strategic Waste Minimization Initiative (SWAMI) Version 2.0 - A Software Tool to Aid in Process Analysis for Pollution Prevention

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Strategic WAste Minimization Initiative (SWAMI) Software, Version 2.0 is a tool for using process analysis for identifying waste minimization opportunities within an industrial setting. The software requires user-supplied information for process definition, as well as materia...

  10. REGULATORY STRATEGIES TO MINIMIZE GENERATION OF REGULATED WASTES FROM CLEANUP, CONTINUED USE OR DECOMMISSIONING OF NUCLEAR FACILITIES CONTAMINATED WITH POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) - 11198

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, N.

    2010-11-05

    Disposal costs for liquid PCB radioactive waste are among the highest of any category of regulated waste. The high cost is driven by the fact that disposal options are extremely limited. Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) regulations require most liquids with PCBs at concentration of {ge} 50 parts-per-million to be disposed by incineration or equivalent destructive treatment. Disposal fees can be as high as $200 per gallon. This figure does not include packaging and the cost to transport the waste to the disposal facility, or the waste generator's labor costs for managing the waste prior to shipment. Minimizing the generation of liquid radioactive PCB waste is therefore a significant waste management challenge. PCB spill cleanups often generate large volumes of waste. That is because the removal of PCBs typically requires the liberal use of industrial solvents followed by a thorough rinsing process. In a nuclear facility, the cleanup process may be complicated by the presence of radiation and other occupational hazards. Building design and construction features, e.g., the presence of open grating or trenches, may also complicate cleanup. In addition to the technical challenges associated with spill cleanup, selection of the appropriate regulatory requirements and approach may be challenging. The TSCA regulations include three different sections relating to the cleanup of PCB contamination or spills. EPA has also promulgated a separate guidance policy for fresh PCB spills that is published as Subpart G of 40 CFR 761 although it is not an actual regulation. Applicability is based on the circumstances of each contamination event or situation. Other laws or regulations may also apply. Identification of the allowable regulatory options is important. Effective communication with stakeholders, particularly regulators, is just as important. Depending on the regulatory path that is taken, cleanup may necessitate the generation of large quantities of regulated waste. Allowable options must be evaluated carefully in order to reduce compliance risks, protect personnel, limit potential negative impacts on facility operations, and minimize the generation of wastes subject to TSCA. This paper will identify critical factors in selecting the appropriate TSCA regulatory path in order to minimize the generation of radioactive PCB waste and reduce negative impacts to facilities. The importance of communicating pertinent technical issues with facility staff, regulatory personnel, and subsequently, the public, will be discussed. Key points will be illustrated by examples from five former production reactors at the DOE Savannah River Site. In these reactors a polyurethane sealant was used to seal piping penetrations in the biological shield walls. During the intense neutron bombardment that occurred during reactor operation, the sealant broke down into a thick, viscous material that seeped out of the piping penetrations over adjacent equipment and walls. Some of the walls were painted with a PCB product. PCBs from the paint migrated into the degraded sealant, creating PCB 'spill areas' in some of these facilities. The regulatory cleanup approach selected for each facility was based on its operational status, e.g., active, inactive or undergoing decommissioning. The selected strategies served to greatly minimize the generation of radioactive liquid PCB waste. It is expected that this information would be useful to other DOE sites, DOD facilities, and commercial nuclear facilities constructed prior to the 1979 TSCA ban on most manufacturing and uses of PCBs.

  11. A minimally invasive microchip for transdermal injection/sampling applications.

    PubMed

    Strambini, Lucanos M; Longo, Angela; Diligenti, Alessandro; Barillaro, Giuseppe

    2012-09-21

    The design, fabrication, and characterization of a minimally invasive silicon microchip for transdermal injection/sampling applications are reported and discussed. The microchip exploits an array of silicon-dioxide hollow microneedles with density of one million needles cm(-2) and lateral size of a few micrometers, protruding from the front-side chip surface for one hundred micrometers, to inject/draw fluids into/from the skin. The microneedles are in connection with independent reservoirs grooved on the back-side of the chip. Insertion experiments of the microchip in skin-like polymers (agarose hydrogels with concentrations of 2% and 4% wt) demonstrate that the microneedles successfully withstand penetration without breaking, despite their high density and small size, according to theoretical predictions. Operation of the microchip with different liquids of biomedical interest (deionized water, NaCl solution, and d-glucose solution) at different differential pressures, in the range 10-100 kPa, highlights that the flow-rate through the microneedles is linearly dependent on the pressure-drop, despite the small section area (about 13 ?m(2)) of the microneedle bore, and can be finely controlled from a few ml min(-1) up to tens of ml min(-1). Evaporation (at room temperature) and acceleration (up to 80 g) losses through the microneedles are also investigated to quantify the ability of the chip in storing liquids (drug to be delivered or collected fluid) in the reservoir, and result to be of the order of 70 nl min(-1) and 1300 nl min(-1), respectively, at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. PMID:22773092

  12. Natural gas applications in waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Tarman, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is engaged in several projects related to the use of natural gas for waste management. These projects can be classified into four categories: cyclonic incineration of gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes; fluidized-bed reclamation of solid wastes; two-stage incineration of liquid and solid wastes; natural gas injection for emissions control. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  13. Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program - Introduction and Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

    This is the introductory module to the Land Application of Wastes educational program. The module contains information on the content, structure, and dynamics of the program. Also included with the module is a script to accompany a slide presentation. The Land Application of Wastes program consists of twenty-five modules and audio-visual

  14. PUREX Storage Tunnels dangerous waste permit application

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The PUREX Storage Tunnels are a mixed waste storage unit consisting of two underground railroad tunnels: Tunnel Number 1 designated 218-E-14 and Tunnel Number 2 designated 218-E-15. The two tunnels are connected by rail to the PUREX Plant and combine to provide storage space for 48 railroad cars (railcars). The PUREX Storage Tunnels provide a long-term storage location for equipment removed from the PUREX Plant. Transfers into the PUREX Storage Tunnels are made on an as-needed basis. Radioactively contaminated equipment is loaded on railcars and remotely transferred by rail into the PUREX Storage Tunnels. Railcars act as both a transport means and a storage platform for equipment placed into the tunnels. This report consists of part A and part B. Part A reports on amounts and locations of the mixed water. Part B permit application consists of the following: Facility Description and General Provisions; Waste Characteristics; Process Information; Groundwater Monitoring; Procedures to Prevent Hazards; Contingency Plan; Personnel Training; Exposure Information Report.

  15. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 325 hazardous waste treatment units. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    This report contains the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application for the 325 Hazardous Waste Treatment Units (325 HWTUs) which consist of the Shielded Analytical Laboratory, the 325 Building, and the 325 Collection/Loadout Station Tank. The 325 HWTUs receive, store, and treat dangerous waste generated by Hanford Facility programs. Routine dangerous and/or mixed waste treatment that will be conducted in the 325 HWTUs will include pH adjustment, ion exchange, carbon absorption, oxidation, reduction, waste concentration by evaporation, precipitation, filtration, solvent extraction, solids washing, phase separation, catalytic destruction, and solidification/stabilization.

  16. EVALUATION OF FIVE WASTE MINIMIZATION TECHNOLOGIES AT THE GENERAL DYNAMICS POMONA DIVISION PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five technology areas encompassing eight waste reduction technologies at the General Dynamics Pomona Division (Southern California) were technically and economically evaluated under the California/EPA Waste Reduction Innovative Technology Evaluation (WRITE) Program. valuations we...

  17. Applications of minimal physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yanguang

    2012-01-01

    Conventional mammillary models are frequently used for pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis when only blood or plasma data are available. Such models depend on the quality of the drug disposition data and have vague biological features. An alternative minimal-physiologically-based PK (minimal-PBPK) modeling approach is proposed which inherits and lumps major physiologic attributes from whole-body PBPK models. The body and model are represented as actual blood and tissue usually total body weight) volumes, fractions (fd) of cardiac output with Fick痴 Law of Perfusion, tissue/blood partitioning (Kp), and systemic or intrinsic clearance. Analyzing only blood or plasma concentrations versus time, the minimal-PBPK models parsimoniously generate physiologically-relevant PK parameters which are more easily interpreted than those from mam-millary models. The minimal-PBPK models were applied to four types of therapeutic agents and conditions. The models well captured the human PK profiles of 22 selected beta-lactam antibiotics allowing comparison of fitted and calculated Kp values. Adding a classical hepatic compartment with hepatic blood flow allowed joint fitting of oral and intravenous (IV) data for four hepatic elimination drugs (dihydrocodeine, verapamil, repaglinide, midazolam) providing separate estimates of hepatic intrinsic clearance, non-hepatic clearance, and pre-hepatic bioavailability. The basic model was integrated with allometric scaling principles to simultaneously describe moxifloxacin PK in five species with common Kp and fd values. A basic model assigning clearance to the tissue compartment well characterized plasma concentrations of six monoclonal antibodies in human subjects, providing good concordance of predictions with expected tissue kinetics. The proposed minimal-PBPK modeling approach offers an alternative and more rational basis for assessing PK than compartmental models. PMID:23179857

  18. Waste Heat Boilers for Incineration Applications

    E-print Network

    Ganapathy, V.

    1998-01-01

    Incineration is a widely used process for disposing of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes generated in various types of industries. In addition to destroying pollutants, energy may also be recovered from the waste gas streams in the form of steam...

  19. Process for treating fission waste. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Rohrmann, C.A.; Wick, O.J.

    1981-11-17

    A method is described for the treatment of fission waste. A glass forming agent, a metal oxide, and a reducing agent are mixed with the fission waste and the mixture is heated. After melting, the mixture separates into a glass phase and a metal phase. The glass phase may be used to safely store the fission waste, while the metal phase contains noble metals recovered from the fission waste.

  20. Weighted TV minimization and applications to vortex density models

    E-print Network

    Prashant Athavale; Robert L. Jerrard; Matteo Novaga; Giandomenico Orlandi

    2015-09-12

    Motivated in part by models arising from mathematical descriptions of Bose-Einstein condensation, we consider total variation minimization problems in which the total variation is weighted by a function that may degenerate near the domain boundary, and the fidelity term contains a weight that may be both degenerate and singular. We develop a general theory for a class of such problems, with special attention to the examples arising from physical models.

  1. Log-det heuristic for matrix rank minimization with applications to Hankel and Euclidean distance matrices

    E-print Network

    Log-det heuristic for matrix rank minimization with applications to Hankel and Euclidean distance matrices Maryam Fazell Haitham Hindi2 Stephen P. Boyd3 Abstract We present a heuristic for minimizing to that of a corresponding positive semidef- inite one. Using this, we readily extend the proposed heuristic to handle

  2. An example of nonconvex minimization and an application to Newton's problem of the

    E-print Network

    Bath, University of

    of the body of minimal resistance was introduced by Sir Isaac Newton in Principia Mathematica [7, 5] and hisAn example of nonュconvex minimization and an application to Newton's problem of the body of least resistance as formulated by Newton (where f(p) = 1=(1+ jpj 2 ) and\\Omega is a ball), implying

  3. An example of non-convex minimization and an application to Newton's problem of the

    E-print Network

    Peletier, Mark

    .1 Newton's problem The problem of the body of minimal resistance was introduced by Sir Isaac NewtonAn example of non-convex minimization and an application to Newton's problem of the body of least is the problem of the body of least resistance as formulated by Newton (where f(p) = 1=(1+ jpj 2 ) and is a ball

  4. Virtual environmental applications for buried waste characterization technology evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The project, Virtual Environment Applications for Buried Waste Characterization, was initiated in the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program in fiscal year 1994. This project is a research and development effort that supports the remediation of buried waste by identifying and examining the issues, needs, and feasibility of creating virtual environments using available characterization and other data. This document describes the progress and results from this project during the past year.

  5. Investigation of Fission Product Transport into Zeolite-A for Pyroprocessing Waste Minimization

    SciTech Connect

    James R. Allensworth; Michael F. Simpson; Man-Sung Yim; Supathorn Phongikaroon

    2013-02-01

    Methods to improve fission product salt sorption into zeolite-A have been investigated in an effort to reduce waste associated with the electrochemical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. It was demonstrated that individual fission product chloride salts were absorbed by zeolite-A in a solid-state process. As a result, recycling of LiCl-KCl appears feasible via adding a zone-freezing technique to the current treatment process. Ternary salt molten-state experiments showed the limiting kinetics of CsCl and SrCl2 sorption into the zeolite. CsCl sorption occurred rapidly relative to SrCl2 with no observed dependence on zeolite particle size, while SrCl2 sorption was highly dependent on particle size. The application of experimental data to a developed reaction-diffusion-based sorption model yielded diffusivities of 8.04 ラ 10-6 and 4.04 ラ 10-7 cm2 /s for CsCl and SrCl2, respectively. Additionally, the chemical reaction term in the developed model was found to be insignificant compared to the diffusion term.

  6. Waste minimization measures associated with the analysis of {sup 137}Cs in coconut milk collected from the Marshall Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T.; Jones, H.; Wong, K.; Robinson, W.

    1998-05-01

    The Marshall Islands Environmental Characterization and Dose Assessment Program has recently implemented waste minimization measures to reduce low level radioactive (LLW) and low level mixed (LLWMIXED) waste streams at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Several thousand environmental samples are collected annually from former US nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands, and returned to LLNL for processing and radiometric analysis. In the past, we analyzed coconut milk directly by gamma-spectrometry after adding formaldehyde (as preservative) and sealing the fluid in metal cans. This procedure was not only tedious and time consuming but generated storage and waste disposal problems. We have now reduced the number of coconut milk samples required for analysis from 1500 per year to approximately 250, and developed a new analytical procedure which essentially eliminates the associated mixed radioactive waste stream. Coconut milk samples are mixed with a few grams of ammonium-molydophosphate (AMP) which quantitatively scavenges the target radionuclide cesium 137 in an ion-exchange process. The AMP is then separated from the mixture and sealed in a plastic container. The bulk sample material can be disposed of as a non- radioactive non-hazardous waste, and the relatively small amount of AMP conveniently counted by gamma-spectrometry, packaged and stored for future use.

  7. State Waste Discharge Permit application, 100-N Sewage Lagoon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Since the influent to the sewer lagoon is domestic waste water, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used. Although the 100-N Sewage Lagoon is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. The 100-N Sewage Lagoon serves the 100-N Area and other Hanford Site areas by receiving domestic waste from two sources. A network of sanitary sewer piping and lift stations transfers domestic waste water from the 100-N Area buildings directly to the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Waste is also received by trucks that transport domestic waste pumped from on site septic tanks and holding tanks. Three ponds comprise the 100-N Sewage Lagoon treatment system. These include a lined aeration pond and stabilization pond, as well as an unlined infiltration pond. Both piped-in and trucked-in domestic waste is discharged directly into the aeration pond.

  8. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS AND RISK MANAGEMENT: AN APPLICATION TO HAZARDOUS WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report evaluates the usefulness of economic analysis in designing effective and efficient hazardous waste regulations. In particular, it examines the applicability of cost/benefit analysis to the specific problems posed by hazardous waste mangement. The background for the ana...

  9. 1997 annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress as required by DOE Order 5400.1, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Segall, P.

    1998-04-13

    Hanford`s missions are to safely clean up and manage the site`s legacy wastes, and to develop and deploy science and technology. Through these missions Hanford will contribute to economic diversification of the region. Hanford`s environmental management or cleanup mission is to protect the health and safety of the public, workers, and the environment; control hazardous materials; and utilize the assets (people, infra structure, site) for other missions. Hanford`s science and technology mission is to develop and deploy science and technology in the service of the nation including stewardship of the Hanford Site. Pollution Prevention is a key to the success of these missions by reducing the amount of waste to be managed and identifying/implementing cost effective waste reduction projects. Hanford`s original mission, the production of nuclear materials for the nation`s defense programs, lasted more than 40 years, and like most manufacturing operations, Hanford`s operations generated large quantities of waste and pollution. However, the by-products from Hanford operations pose unique problems like radiation hazards, vast volumes of contaminated water and soil, and many contaminated structures including reactors, chemical plants and evaporation ponds. The cleanup activity is an immense and challenging undertaking, which includes characterization and decommissioning of 149 single shell storage tanks, treating 28 double shell tanks, safely disposing of over 2,100 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel stored on site, removing numerous structures, and dealing with significant solid waste, ground water, and land restoration issues.

  10. 40 CFR 403.19 - Provisions of specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. 403.19...specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. (a...User discharging to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment...

  11. 40 CFR 403.19 - Provisions of specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. 403.19...specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. (a...User discharging to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment...

  12. 40 CFR 403.19 - Provisions of specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. 403.19...specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. (a...User discharging to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment...

  13. 40 CFR 403.19 - Provisions of specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. 403.19...specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. (a...User discharging to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment...

  14. Decontamination of Nuclear Liquid Wastes Status of CEA and AREVA R and D: Application to Fukushima Waste Waters - 12312

    SciTech Connect

    Fournel, B.; Barre, Y.; Lepeytre, C.; Peycelon, H.; Grandjean, A.; Prevost, T.; Valery, J.F.; Shilova, E.; Viel, P.

    2012-07-01

    Liquid wastes decontamination processes are mainly based on two techniques: Bulk processes and the so called Cartridges processes. The first technique has been developed for the French nuclear fuel reprocessing industry since the 60's in Marcoule and La Hague. It is a proven and mature technology which has been successfully and quickly implemented by AREVA at Fukushima site for the processing of contaminated waters. The second technique, involving cartridges processes, offers new opportunities for the use of innovative adsorbents. The AREVA process developed for Fukushima and some results obtained on site will be presented as well as laboratory scale results obtained in CEA laboratories. Examples of new adsorbents development for liquid wastes decontamination are also given. A chemical process unit based on co-precipitation technique has been successfully and quickly implemented by AREVA at Fukushima site for the processing of contaminated waters. The asset of this technique is its ability to process large volumes in a continuous mode. Several chemical products can be used to address specific radioelements such as: Cs, Sr, Ru. Its drawback is the production of sludge (about 1% in volume of initial liquid volume). CEA developed strategies to model the co-precipitation phenomena in order to firstly minimize the quantity of added chemical reactants and secondly, minimize the size of co-precipitation units. We are on the way to design compact units that could be mobilized very quickly and efficiently in case of an accidental situation. Addressing the problem of sludge conditioning, cementation appears to be a very attractive solution. Fukushima accident has focused attention on optimizations that should be taken into account in future studies: - To better take account for non-typical aqueous matrixes like seawater; - To enlarge the spectrum of radioelements that can be efficiently processed and especially short lives radioelements that are usually less present in standard effluents resulting from nuclear activities; - To develop reversible solid adsorbents for cartridge-type applications in order to minimize wastes. (authors)

  15. Minimizing masses in explosively driven two-shockwave physics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttler, William; Cherne, Frank; Furlanetto, Michael; Payton, Jeremy; Stone, Joseph; Tabaka, Leonard; Vincent, Samuel

    2015-06-01

    We have experimentally investigated different two-shockwave high-explosives (HE) physics package designs to maximize the variability of the second shockwave peak stress, while minimizing the total HE load of the physics tool. A critical requirement is to also have a large radial diameter of the second shockwave to maintain its value as an HE driven two-shockwave drive. We have previously shown that we could vary the peak-stress of the second-shockwave with a 76 mm diameter HE lens driving different composite boosters of PBX 9501 and TNT. Here we report on our results with a 56- and 50-mm diameter HE lens driving Baritol. The results indicate that the 56-mm diameter HE lens works well, as does the Baritol, giving total HE loads of about 250 mg TNT equivalent explosives.

  16. A review of mechanochemistry applications in waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Xiuying; Xiang Dong; Duan Guanghong; Mou Peng

    2010-01-15

    Mechanochemistry is defined to describe the chemical and physicochemical transformation of substances during the aggregation caused by the mechanical energy. Mechanochemical technology has several advantages, such as simple process, ecological safety and the possibility of obtaining a product in the metastable state. It potentially has a prospective application in pollution remediation and waste management. Therefore, this paper aims to give an overall review of the mechanochemistry applications in waste management and the related mechanisms. Based on our study, the modification of fly ash and asbestos-containing wastes (ACWs) can be achieved by mechanochemical technology. Waste metal oxides can be transformed into easily recyclable sulfide by mechanochemical sulfidization. Besides, the waste plastics and rubbers, which are usually very difficult to be recycled, can also be recycled by mechanochemical technology.

  17. A review of mechanochemistry applications in waste management.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiuying; Xiang, Dong; Duan, Guanghong; Mou, Peng

    2010-01-01

    Mechanochemistry is defined to describe the chemical and physicochemical transformation of substances during the aggregation caused by the mechanical energy. Mechanochemical technology has several advantages, such as simple process, ecological safety and the possibility of obtaining a product in the metastable state. It potentially has a prospective application in pollution remediation and waste management. Therefore, this paper aims to give an overall review of the mechanochemistry applications in waste management and the related mechanisms. Based on our study, the modification of fly ash and asbestos-containing wastes (ACWs) can be achieved by mechanochemical technology. Waste metal oxides can be transformed into easily recyclable sulfide by mechanochemical sulfidization. Besides, the waste plastics and rubbers, which are usually very difficult to be recycled, can also be recycled by mechanochemical technology. PMID:19811900

  18. Proceedings of the tenth annual DOE low-level waste management conference: Session 4: Waste treatment minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    This document contains eleven papers on various aspects of low-level radioactive waste management. Topics in this volume include: volume reduction plans; incentitives; and cost proposals; acid detoxification and reclamation; decontamination of lead; leach tests; West Valley demonstration project status report; and DOE's regional management strategies. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base. (TEM)

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PAPER ROLLS, INK ROLLS, INK RIBBONS, AND MAGNETIC AND THERMAL TRANSFER RIBBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected un...

  20. BREGMAN ITERATIVE ALGORITHMS FOR 1-MINIMIZATION WITH APPLICATIONS TO COMPRESSED SENSING

    E-print Network

    Ferguson, Thomas S.

    BREGMAN ITERATIVE ALGORITHMS FOR 1-MINIMIZATION WITH APPLICATIONS TO COMPRESSED SENSING WOTAO YIN compressed sensing applications where matrix-vector operations involving A and A can be computed by fast for solving the above unconstrained sub-problem, we were able to solve huge instances of compressed sensing

  1. Abstract--To minimize the execution time of an iterative application in a heterogeneous parallel computing

    E-print Network

    Maciejewski, Anthony A. "Tony"

    Abstract--To minimize the execution time of an iterative application in a heterogeneous parallel a priori and will change from iteration to iteration during execution-time, a semi-static methodology can on the application's execution time. The objective of this study is to implement and evaluate such a semi

  2. A new multiple-drug applicator with minimal drug cross-talk, leakage, and consumption.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yosuke; Shimomura, Takeshi; Hosoguchi, Masafumi; Kano, Masanobu; Fukurotani, Kenkichi; Tabata, Toshihide

    2010-04-01

    The relative effects of multiple drugs give an important clue to dissect a neuronal mechanism and to seek for a candidate neurotherapeutical agent. Here we have devised a "flute" applicator which can deliver several drugs to a neural cell preparation. The applicator stands by, cleaning itself with bath perfusate and delivers drugs only during test applications. This minimizes drug cross-talk in and leakage from the applicator and drug consumption. Using the applicator, we successfully compared the relative effects of widely different doses of an agonist in single neurons. The flute applicator would be a useful tool for pharmacological analyses. PMID:20060427

  3. Minimal Technologies Application Project, Hohenfels Training Area, Germany: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zellmer, S.D.; Hinchman, R.R.; Johnson, D.O. . Energy Systems Div.); Severinghaus, W.D. ); Brent, J.J. )

    1991-12-01

    At the US Army Hohenfels Training Area in Germany, more than 30 years of continuous and intensive tactical training has caused extensive environmental damage because of the loss of vegetative cover and accelerated soil erosion. A project was conducted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and relative benefits of various revegetation procedures. These procedures involved amendment and seedbed preparation options that were combined with three different durations of site closure. The point-intercept method was used to measure the types and amounts of vegetation established and changes in the vegetative community. Over three growing seasons, applications of fertilizer and seed increased the percent grass, legume, and total vegetative cover. The duration of site closure had no influence on the types or amounts of ground cover established. Materials made up only 10% of the total cost of the fertilization and seeding operations. The results of the research indicate that less expensive methods of amendment application should be evaluated. The data also show that site closure is not practical, economical, or necessary. The results of this project suggest that a regular maintenance program consisting of seeding and fertilization is required to maintain adequate vegetative cover and control erosion on tactical training areas.

  4. Minimization of formation of wastes from the operation of Czechoslovak nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanek, J.; Mohyla, O.; Kniz, I.; Zboray, L.; Cada, K.; Wild, J.; Seifert, P.; Lastovicka, Z.

    1993-12-31

    The problem of generation of liquid radioactive wastes at VVER 440 reactor type nuclear power plants at Jaslovske Bohunice, and Dukovany is discussed. Treatment processes at the NPPs are described. The process during which the operating liquid radioactive wastes emerge is analyzed and the major contributors are identified. The technical approaches to the optimization of the performance of the purification stations that have been implemented at the NPPs with the aim to reduce the generation of radioactive wastes are outlined. The basic results of investigation into the potential of membrane processes are given, as are the results of pilot scale experiments concerned with the use of reverse osmosis in the purification of selected water streams. Attention is also devoted to technical solutions that have been introduced in the design of the Temelin NPP. These solutions are based on the acquired experience and recommendations of foreign experts.

  5. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, general information portion

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, C.B.

    1998-05-19

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needed by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in this report).

  6. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 2, Industrial liquid waste processing, industrial gaseous waste processing

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.E.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarize the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Individual reports are indexed separately.

  7. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 1, Industrial solid waste processing municipal waste reduction/recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.E.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarizes the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  8. Application of glove box robotics to hazardous waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Dennison, D.K.; Hurd, R.L.; Merrill, R.D.; Reitz, T.C.

    1995-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) is developing a semi-automated system for handling, characterizing, processing, sorting, and repackaging hazardous wastes containing tritium. The system combines an IBM developed gantry robot with a special glove box enclosure designed to protect the operators and minimize the potential release of tritium to the atmosphere. All hazardous waste handling and processing will be performed remotely using the robot in a telerobotic mode for one-of-a-kind functions and in an autonomous mode for repetitive type operations. The system will initially be used in conjunction with a portable gas system designed to capture any gaseous phase tritium released into the glove box. This paper presents the objectives of this program, provides background related to LLNL`s robotics and waste handling program, describes the major system components, outlines system operation, and discusses current status and plans.

  9. State Waste Discharge Permit application: 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit

    SciTech Connect

    Atencio, B.P.

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations; the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water discharges to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit via dedicated pipelines. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water is the only discharge to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse is a steam generation facility consisting of a coal-handling and preparation section and boilers.

  10. State Waste Discharge Permit application: 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit

    SciTech Connect

    Atencio, B.P.

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department and Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-E Powerhouse Ash Waste Water discharges to the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit via dedicated pipelines. The 200-E Ash Waste Water is the only discharge to the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-E Powerhouse is a steam generation facility consisting of a coal-handling and preparation section and boilers.

  11. WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: OPTICAL FABRICATION LABORATORY - FITZSIMMONS ARMY MEDICAL CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the Waste Reduction Evaluations at Federal Sites (WREAFS) program, RREL has taken the initiative to merge the experience and resources of the EPA with other Federal agencies. At the Fitzsimmons Army Medical Center (FAMC) in Aurora, Colorado, the Army and the EPA cooperated ...

  12. AN INNOVATIVE INTEGRATED APPROACH TO MINIMIZING GYPSUM AND PYRITE WASTES BY CONVERSION TO MARKETABLE PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Tao

    2000-06-27

    The objective of this research program is to develop a novel integrated process to eliminate millions of tons of gypsum and pyrite wastes generated annually by the U.S. energy industries and reduce the emission of millions of tons of greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. This was accomplished by converting gypsum and pyrite wastes to marketable products such as lime, direct reduced iron (DRI), and sulfur products and obviating the need to calcine millions of tons of limestone for use in utility scrubbers. Specific objectives included: (1) Develop a novel, integrated process for utilizing two major wastes generated by mining and energy industries to produce lime for recycling and other marketable products. (2) Study individual chemical reactions involved in pyrite decomposition, DRI production, and Muller-Kuhne process for lime regeneration to determine optimum process variables such as temperature, time, and reactant composition. (3) Investigate techniques for effective concentration of pyrite from tailing waste and methods for effective separation of DRI from calcium sulfide.

  13. Minimization of actinide waste by multi-recycling of thoriated fuels in the EPR reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, S. J.; Wilson, J. N.; Capellan, N.; David, S.; Guillemin, P.; Ivanov, E.; M駱lan, O.; Nuttin, A.; Siem, S.

    2012-02-01

    The multi-recycling of innovative uranium/thorium oxide fuels for use in the European Pressurized water Reactor (EPR) has been investigated. If increasing quantities of 238U, the fertile isotope in standard UO2 fuel, are replaced by 232Th, then a greater yield of new fissile material (233U) is produced during the cycle than would otherwise be the case. This leads to economies of natural uranium of around 45% if the uranium in the spent fuel is multi-recycled. In addition we show that minor actinide and plutonium waste inventories are reduced and hence waste radio-toxicities and decay heats are up to a factor of 20 lower after 103 years. Two innovative fuel types named S90 and S20, ThO2 mixed with 90% and 20% enriched UO2 respectively, are compared as an alternative to standard uranium oxide (UOX) and uranium/plutonium mixed oxide (MOX) fuels at the longest EPR fuel discharge burn-ups of 65 GWd/t. Fissile and waste inventories are examined, waste radio-toxicities and decay heats are extracted and safety feedback coefficients are calculated.

  14. WASTE MINIMIZATION EFFORTS - AN OVERVIEW OF THE U.S. EPA POLLUTIONPREVENTION RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper is to be presented at the Governmental Refuse,Collection, and Disposal Association's 28th Annual InternationalSolid Waste Exposition in Vancouver, B.C., Canada, August 20-24,1990. he paper's purpose is to describe the current pollutionprevention research program assign...

  15. Agent Regeneration and Hazardous Waste Minimization and Teaching Note. IBM Case Study. Doc #93-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliker, L. Richard; And Others

    The manufacturing process used to produce printbands for International Business Machines, Inc. involves a photolithographic process in which the stainless steel panels are chemically machined using strong ferric chloride etching solution containing hydrochloric acid. The waste material that results from this chemical reaction is a solution

  16. U.S. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) WASTE MINIMIZATION RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A program to encourage the development and adoption of new production and recycling technologies that result in the production of less hazardous waste was initiated by the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development in 1987. The program includes a broad spectrum of demonstratio...

  17. WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: OPTICAL FABRICATION LABORATORY - FITZSIMMONS ARMY MEDICAL CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the Waste Reduction Evaluations at Federal Sites (WREAFS) program, RREL has taken the initiative to merge the experience and resources of the EPA with other Federal agencies. t the Fitzsimmons Army Medical Center (FAMC) in Aurora, Colorado, the Army and the EPA cooperated i...

  18. On minimization of rad-waste carryover in an n-stage evaporator

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, K.P.; Holtz, M.; Luk, V.K.

    1984-01-01

    The mathematical problem of minimizing gross solids entrainment in an n-stage evaporator is formulated and solved using the method of Lagrange multipliers. The solution procedure enables direct comparison of the decontamination efficiencies of multistage evaporators as the number of stages (n) is varied. A numerical example is utilized to illustrate the method of solution. Equivalent expressions for batch distillation are also derived.

  19. Application of Epoxy Based Coating Instacote on Waste Tank Tops

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, J.A.

    1998-03-18

    This evaluation examines the compatibility of coating Instacote with existing High-Level Waste facilities and safety practices. No significant incompatibilities are identified. The following actions need to be completed as indicated when applying Instacote on waste tank tops:(1) Prior to application in ITP facilities, the final product should be tested for chemical resistance to sodium tetraphenylborate solutions or sodium titanate slurries.(2) Any waste contaminated with Part A or B that can not be removed by the vendor such as for radiological contamination, HLW must hold the waste until HLW completes a formal assessment of the waste, disposal criteria, and impact.(3) Prior to the start of any application of the coating, each riser needs to be evaluated for masking and masking applied if needed.(4) At the conclusion of an application actual total weight of material applied to a waste tank needs to documented and sent to the tank top loading files for reference purposes.(5) Verify that the final product contains less than 250 ppm chloride.

  20. 75 FR 79328 - Technical Corrections to the Standards Applicable to Generators of Hazardous Waste; Alternative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ...Corrections to the Standards Applicable to Generators of Hazardous Waste; Alternative Requirements...an alternative set of hazardous waste generator requirements known as the ``Academic...corrections to subpart K of the hazardous waste generator regulations. Although this...

  1. 75 FR 79304 - Technical Corrections to the Standards Applicable to Generators of Hazardous Waste; Alternative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ...Corrections to the Standards Applicable to Generators of Hazardous Waste; Alternative Requirements...an alternative set of hazardous waste generator requirements known as the ``Academic...reference to the RCRA hazardous waste generator regulations for what are typically...

  2. Pilot studies to achieve waste minimization and enhance radioactive liquid waste treatment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Freer, J.; Freer, E.; Bond, A.

    1996-07-01

    The Radioactive and Industrial Wastewater Science Group manages and operates the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The RLWTF treats low-level radioactive liquid waste generated by research and analytical facilities at approximately 35 technical areas throughout the 43-square-mile site. The RLWTF treats an average of 5.8 million gallons (21.8-million liters) of liquid waste annually. Clarifloculation and filtration is the primary treatment technology used by the RLWTF. This technology has been used since the RLWTF became operable in 1963. Last year the RLWTF achieved an average of 99.7% removal of gross alpha activity in the waste stream. The treatment process requires the addition of chemicals for the flocculation and subsequent precipitation of radionuclides. The resultant sludge generated during this process is solidified in drums and stored or disposed of at LANL.

  3. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, PUREX storage tunnels

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, C. R.

    1997-09-08

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the PUREX Storage Tunnels (this document, DOE/RL-90-24).

  4. Microwave technology for waste management applications: Treatment of discarded electronic circuitry

    SciTech Connect

    Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    Significant quantities of hazardous wastes are generated from a multitude of processes and products in today`s society. This waste inventory is not only very large and diverse, but is also growing at an alarming rate. In order to minimize the dangers presented by constituents in these wastes, microwave technologies are being investigated to render harmless the hazardous components and ultimately, to minimize their impact to individuals and the surrounding environment.

  5. Energy minimization using the classical density distribution: Application to sodium chloride clusters

    E-print Network

    Straub, John E.

    Energy minimization using the classical density distribution: Application to sodium chloride. In the case of sodium chloride, it has been shown that small clus- ters have, in general, two stable packings several potentials have been used to model sodium chloride clusters and for some clusters the identity

  6. 78 FR 36194 - Draft Guidance for Industry and FDA Staff: Investigational New Drug Applications for Minimally...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft document entitled ``Guidance for Industry and FDA Staff: Investigational New Drug Applications for Minimally Manipulated, Unrelated Allogeneic Placental/Umbilical Cord Blood Intended for Hematopoietic and Immunologic Reconstitution in Patients with Disorders Affecting the Hematopoietic System'' dated June 2013.......

  7. APPLICATION OF NONSPHERICAL FISSILE CONFIGURATION IN WASTE CONTAINERS AT SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Eghbali, D; Michelle Abney, M

    2007-01-03

    Transuranic (TRU) solid waste that has been generated as a result of the production of nuclear material for the United States defense program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has been stored in more than 30,000 55-gallon drums and carbon steel boxes since 1953. Nearly two thirds of those containers have been processed and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Among the containers assayed so far, the results indicate several drums with fissile inventories significantly higher (600-1000 fissile grams equivalent (FGE) {sup 239}Pu) than their original assigned values. While part of this discrepancy can be attributed to the past limited assay capabilities, human errors are believed to be the primary contributor. This paper summarizes the application of nonspherical fissile material configuration in waste containers, resulting in less restrictive mass and spacing limits, increased storage capacity, and several administrative controls for handling and storage of waste containers being modified without compromising safety.

  8. Evaluation of select trade-offs between ground-water remediation and waste minimization for petroleum refining industry

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, C.D.; McTernan, W.F.; Willett, K.K.

    1996-08-01

    An investigation comparing environmental remediation alternatives and attendant costs for a hypothetical refinery site located in the Arkansas River alluvium was completed. Transport from the land`s surface to and through the ground water of three spill sizes was simulated, representing a base case and two possible levels of waste minimization. Remediation costs were calculated for five alternative remediation options, for three possible regulatory levels and alternative site locations, for four levels of technology improvement, and for eight different years. It is appropriate from environmental and economic perspectives to initiate significant efforts and expenditures that are necessary to minimize the amount and type of waste produced and disposed during refinery operations; or conversely, given expected improvements in technology, is it better to wait until remediation technologies improve, allowing greater environmental compliance at lower costs? The present work used deterministic models to track a light nonaqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) spill through the unsaturated zone to the top of the water table. Benzene leaching from LNAPL to the ground water was further routed through the alluvial aquifer. Contaminant plumes were simulated over 50 yr of transport and remediation costs assigned for each of the five treatment options for each of these years. The results of these efforts show that active remediation is most cost effective after a set point or geochemical quasi-equilibrium is reached, where long-term improvements in technology greatly tilt the recommended option toward remediation. Finally, the impacts associated with increasingly rigorous regulatory levels present potentially significant penalties for the remediation option, but their likelihood of occurrence is difficult to define.

  9. 77 FR 62537 - Notice of Waste Management Permit Application Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ...SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Waste Management Permit Application Received...Foundation. ACTION: Notice of a Waste Management Permit Application Received...Foundation (NSF) has received a waste management permit application for...

  10. Application of cryogenic grinding to achieve homogenization of transuranic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, W.H.; Hill, D.D.; Lucero, M.E.; Jaramillo, L.; Martinez, H.E.

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes work done at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in collaboration with the Department of Energy Rocky Flats Field Office (DOE/RFFO) and with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, Colorado. Researchers on this project have developed a method for cryogenic grinding of mixed wastes to homogenize and, thereby, to acquire a representative sample of the materials. There are approximately 220,000 waste drums owned by the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS)-50,000 at RFETS and 170,000 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The cost of sampling the heterogeneous distribution of waste in each drum is prohibitive. In an attempt to produce a homogeneous mixture of waste that would reduce greatly the cost of sampling, researchers at NIST and RFETS are developing a cryogenic grinder. The Los Alamos work herein described addresses the implementation issues of the task. The first issue was to ascertain whether samples of the {open_quotes}small particle{close_quotes} mixtures of materials present in the waste drums at RFETS were representative of actual drum contents. Second, it was necessary to determine at what temperature the grinding operation must be performed in order to minimize or to eliminate the release of volatile organic compounds present in the waste. Last, it was essential to evaluate any effect the liquid cryogen might have on the structural integrity and ventilation capacity of the glovebox system. Results of this study showed that representative samples could be and had been obtained, that some release of organics occurred below freezing because of sublimation, and that operation of the cryogenic grinding equipment inside the glovebox was feasible.

  11. APPLICATION OF PULSE COMBUSTION TO SOLID AND HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the application of pulse combustion to solid and hazardous waste incineration. otary kiln incinerator simulator was retrofitted with a frequency-tunable pulse combustor to enhance the efficiency of combustion. he pulse combustor excites pulsations in the kiln ...

  12. FIELD APPLICATIONS OF ROBOTIC SYSTEMS IN HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The cleanup of hazardous waste sites is a challenging and complex field that offers numerous opportunities for the application of robotic technology. he contamination problem, long in the making, will take decades to resolve. ur ingenuity in developing robotic tools to assist in ...

  13. Waste disposal by hydrofracture and application of the technology to the management of hazardous wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Stow, S.H.; Haase, C.S.; Weeren, H.O.

    1985-01-01

    A unique disposal method, involving hydrofracturing, has been used for management of liquid low-level radioactive wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Wastes are mixed with cement and other solids and injected along bedding plane fractures into highly impermeable shale at a depth of 300 m forming a grout sheet. The process has operated successfully for 20 years and may be applicable to disposal of hazardous wastes. The cement grout represents the primary barrier for immobilization of the wastes; the hydrologically isolated injection horizon represents a secondary barrier. At ORNL work has been conducted to characterize the geology of the disposal site and to determine its relationship to the injection process. The site is structurally quite complex. Research has also been conducted on the development of methods for monitoring the extent and orientation of the grout sheets; these methods include gamma-ray logging of cased observation wells, leveling surveys of benchmarks, tiltmeter surveys, and microseismic arrays. These methods, some of which need further development, offer promise for real-time and post-injection monitoring. Initial suggestions are offered for possible application of the technology to hazardous waste management and technical and regulatory areas needing attention are addressed. 11 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Design Procedures for Land Application of Wastes - Module 6, Objectives, Script and Figures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

    The purpose of this module is to develop a general procedure to decide the feasibility of land application as a waste management alternative, given a specific problem situation. This information provides a framework within which to apply the information presented in all other modules in the program. An outline of the general procedure followed in

  15. ANIMAL WASTE SUBMISSION FORM FOR LAND APPLICATION

    E-print Network

    Radcliffe, David

    LAGOON Swine Dairy Layer Other Choose one Application Method Broadcast Surface Broadcast Incorporated Minerals + Nitrogen* + Nitrate-Nitrogen + Ammonium- Nitrogen Recommended for lagoons. (1 pint sample *Nitrogen is total nitrogen for litters or Kjeldahl nitrogen for manures and lagoons. For Lab Use Only Date

  16. State waste discharge permit application, 200-E chemical drain field

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect ground would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). The Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. This document presents the State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) application for the 200-E Chemical Drain Field. Waste water from the 272-E Building enters the process sewer line directly through a floor drain, while waste water from the 2703-E Building is collected in two floor drains, (north and south) that act as sumps and are discharged periodically. The 272-E and 2703-E Buildings constitute the only discharges to the process sewer line and the 200-E Chemical Drain Field.

  17. 40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. 273.8 Section 273.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....8 Applicability揺ousehold and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. (a) Persons... universal wastes defined at ァ 273.9; and/or (2) Conditionally exempt small quantity generator wastes...

  18. 40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. 273.8 Section 273.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....8 Applicability揺ousehold and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. (a) Persons... universal wastes defined at ァ 273.9; and/or (2) Conditionally exempt small quantity generator wastes...

  19. 40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. 273.8 Section 273.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....8 Applicability揺ousehold and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. (a) Persons... universal wastes defined at ァ 273.9; and/or (2) Conditionally exempt small quantity generator wastes...

  20. 40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. 273.8 Section 273.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....8 Applicability揺ousehold and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. (a) Persons... universal wastes defined at ァ 273.9; and/or (2) Conditionally exempt small quantity generator wastes...

  1. 40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. 273.8 Section 273.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....8 Applicability揺ousehold and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. (a) Persons... universal wastes defined at ァ 273.9; and/or (2) Conditionally exempt small quantity generator wastes...

  2. Evidence-based integrated environmental solutions for secondary lead smelters: pollution prevention and waste minimization technologies and practices.

    PubMed

    Genaidy, A M; Sequeira, R; Tolaymat, T; Kohler, J; Rinder, M

    2009-05-01

    An evidence-based methodology was adopted in this research to establish strategies to increase lead recovery and recycling via a systematic review and critical appraisal of the published literature. In particular, the research examines pollution prevention and waste minimization practices and technologies that meet the following criteria: (a) reduce/recover/recycle the largest quantities of lead currently being disposed of as waste, (b) technically and economically viable, that is, ready to be diffused and easily transferable, and (c) strong industry interest (i.e., industry would consider implementing projects with higher payback periods). The following specific aims are designed to achieve the study objectives: Aim 1 - To describe the recycling process of recovering refined lead from scrap; Aim 2 - To document pollution prevention and waste management technologies and practices adopted by US stakeholders along the trajectory of LAB and lead product life cycle; Aim 3 - To explore improved practices and technologies which are employed by other organizations with an emphasis on the aforementioned criteria; Aim 4 - To demonstrate the economic and environmental costs and benefits of applying improved technologies and practices to existing US smelting operations; and Aim 5 - To evaluate improved environmental technologies and practices using an algorithm that integrates quantitative and qualitative criteria. The process of identifying relevant articles and reports was documented. The description of evidence was presented for current practices and technologies used by US smelters as well as improved practices and technologies. Options for integrated environmental solutions for secondary smelters were introduced and rank ordered on the basis of costs (i.e., capital investment) and benefits (i.e., production increases, energy and flux savings, and reduction of SO(2) and slag). An example was provided to demonstrate the utility of the algorithm by detailing the costs and benefits associated with different combinations of practices and technologies. The evidence-based methodology documented in this research reveals that it is technically and economically feasible to implement integrated environmental solutions to increase lead recovery and recycling among US smelters. The working example presented in this research can be confirmed with US stakeholders and form the basis for implementable solutions in the lead smelter and product industries to help reverse the overall trend of declining life-cycle recycling rates. PMID:19232675

  3. Potential applications of nanostructured materials in nuclear waste management.

    SciTech Connect

    Braterman, Paul S. (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Phol, Phillip Isabio; Xu, Zhi-Ping (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Yang, Yi; Bryan, Charles R.; Yu, Kui; Xu, Huifang (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Wang, Yifeng; Gao, Huizhen

    2003-09-01

    This report summarizes the results obtained from a Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD) project entitled 'Investigation of Potential Applications of Self-Assembled Nanostructured Materials in Nuclear Waste Management'. The objectives of this project are to (1) provide a mechanistic understanding of the control of nanometer-scale structures on the ion sorption capability of materials and (2) develop appropriate engineering approaches to improving material properties based on such an understanding.

  4. Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, general information. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The current Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (this document, number DOE/RL-91-28) and a treatment, storage, and/or disposal Unit-Specific Portion, which includes documentation for individual TSD units (e.g., document numbers DOE/RL-89-03 and DOE/RL-90-01). Both portions consist of a Part A division and a Part B division. The Part B division consists of 15 chapters that address the content of the Part B checklists prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information requirements mandated by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology checklist section numbers, in brackets, follow the chapter headings and subheadings. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion (i.e., this document, number DOE/RL-91-28) is broader in nature and applies to all treatment, storage, and/or disposal units for which final status is sought. Because of its broad nature, the Part A division of the General Information Portion references the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Part A Permit Application (document number DOE/RL-88-21), a compilation of all Part A documentation for the Hanford Facility.

  5. Application of neural networks to waste site screening

    SciTech Connect

    Dabiri, A.E.; Garrett, M.; Kraft, T.; Hilton, J.; VanHammersveld, M.

    1993-02-01

    Waste site screening requires knowledge of the actual concentrations of hazardous materials and rates of flow around and below the site with time. The present approach consists primarily of drilling boreholes near contaminated sites and chemically analyzing the extracted physical samples and processing the data. This is expensive and time consuming. The feasibility of using neural network techniques to reduce the cost of waste site screening was investigated. Two neural network techniques, gradient descent back propagation and fully recurrent back propagation were utilized. The networks were trained with data received from Westinghouse Hanford Corporation. The results indicate that the network trained with the fully recurrent technique shows satisfactory generalization capability. The predicted results are close to the results obtained from a mathematical flow prediction model. It is possible to develop a new tool to predict the waste plume, thus substantially reducing the number of the bore sites and samplings. There are a variety of applications for this technique in environmental site screening and remediation. One of the obvious applications would be for optimum well siting. A neural network trained from the existing sampling data could be utilized to decide where would be the best position for the next bore site. Other applications are discussed in the report.

  6. Domestic applications for aerospace waste and water management technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disanto, F.; Murray, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Some of the aerospace developments in solid waste disposal and water purification, which are applicable to specific domestic problems are explored. Also provided is an overview of the management techniques used in defining the need, in utilizing the available tools, and in synthesizing a solution. Specifically, several water recovery processes will be compared for domestic applicability. Examples are filtration, distillation, catalytic oxidation, reverse osmosis, and electrodialysis. Solid disposal methods will be discussed, including chemical treatment, drying, incineration, and wet oxidation. The latest developments in reducing household water requirements and some concepts for reusing water will be outlined.

  7. Minimization of greenhouse gas emission by application of anaerobic digestion process with biogas utilization.

    PubMed

    Yasui, H; Komatsu, K; Goel, R; Matsuhashi, R; Ohashi, A; Harada, H

    2005-01-01

    To assess the impact on greenhouse gas emission, different process schemes for municipal sludge treatment were evaluated based on the data from pilot-scale experiments and review of annual operation reports. A modified anaerobic digestion process with partial ozonation of digested sludge to improve biological degradability and the conventional anaerobic digestion process were compared with respect to the energy demand in each process schemes. Options for beneficial use of biogas included (1) application of biogas for power production and (2) recovery as an alternative to natural gas utilization. The analysis indicated that the partial ozonation process with power production led to minimal greenhouse gas emission because the extra energy production from this scheme was expected to cover all of the energy demand for the plant operation. Moreover, the final amount of dewatered sludge cake was only 40% of that expected from the conventional process, this significantly minimizes the potential for greenhouse gas emission in the subsequent sludge incineration processes. PMID:16180476

  8. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, general information portion

    SciTech Connect

    Price, S.M., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-29

    The `Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application` is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (this document, DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit- Specific Portion. The scope of the General Information Portion includes information that could be used to discuss operating units, units undergoing closure, or units being dispositioned through other options. Documentation included in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units. A checklist indicating where information is contained in the General Information Portion, in relation to the Washington State Department of Ecology guidance documentation, is located in the Contents Section. The intent of the General Information Portion is: (1) to provide an overview of the Hanford Facility; and (2) to assist in streamlining efforts associated with treatment, storage, and/or disposal unit-specific Part B permit application, preclosure work plan, closure work plan, closure plan, closure/postclosure plan, or postclosure permit application documentation development, and the `Hanford Facility Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit` modification process. Revision 2 of the General Information Portion of the `Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application` contains information current as of May 1, 1996. This document is a complete submittal and supersedes Revision 1.

  9. 77 FR 73054 - Application for a License To Export Radioactive Waste

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ...COMMISSION Application for a License To Export Radioactive Waste Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70(b) ``Public...Canada. 2012, October 25, 2012, XW020, radioactive 1178 pounds disposal by the 11006061. waste in the (approximately original form...

  10. A Novel Minimized Dead-End Elimination Criterion and Its Application to Protein Redesign in a Hybrid

    E-print Network

    Richardson, David

    A Novel Minimized Dead-End Elimination Criterion and Its Application to Protein Redesign of the redesign prob- lem. A dominant algorithm for protein redesign is Dead-End Elimination (DEE), which prunes

  11. Application of Sequential Quadratic Programming to Minimize Smart Active Flap Rotor Hub Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kottapalli, Sesi; Leyland, Jane

    2014-01-01

    In an analytical study, SMART active flap rotor hub loads have been minimized using nonlinear programming constrained optimization methodology. The recently developed NLPQLP system (Schittkowski, 2010) that employs Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) as its core algorithm was embedded into a driver code (NLP10x10) specifically designed to minimize active flap rotor hub loads (Leyland, 2014). Three types of practical constraints on the flap deflections have been considered. To validate the current application, two other optimization methods have been used: i) the standard, linear unconstrained method, and ii) the nonlinear Generalized Reduced Gradient (GRG) method with constraints. The new software code NLP10x10 has been systematically checked out. It has been verified that NLP10x10 is functioning as desired. The following are briefly covered in this paper: relevant optimization theory; implementation of the capability of minimizing a metric of all, or a subset, of the hub loads as well as the capability of using all, or a subset, of the flap harmonics; and finally, solutions for the SMART rotor. The eventual goal is to implement NLP10x10 in a real-time wind tunnel environment.

  12. Importance of biological systems in industrial waste treatment potential application to the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Revis, Nathaniel; Holdsworth, George

    1990-01-01

    In addition to having applications for waste management issues on planet Earth, microbial systems have application in reducing waste volumes aboard spacecraft. A candidate for such an application is the space station. Many of the planned experiments generate aqueous waste. To recycle air and water the contaminants from previous experiments must be removed before the air and water can be used for other experiments. This can be achieved using microorganisms in a bioreactor. Potential bioreactors (inorganics, organics, and etchants) are discussed. Current technologies that may be applied to waste treatment are described. Examples of how biological systems may be used in treating waste on the space station.

  13. A mechanism to reduce energy waste in the post-execution of GPU applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carreo, Emmanuell D.; Sarates, Adiel S., Jr.; Navaux, Philippe O. A.

    2015-10-01

    With the increasing demand of GPU accelerators for general purpose in HPC, the impact of energy consumption of these resources cannot be overlooked. To reduce the power consumption some strategies have been applied, but their approaches have been mostly focused on power savings during the application execution. This work focuses on post-execution energy savings. When the post-execution behavior is analyzed in newer GPU cards, it is observed that the power draw does not return to the idle state in an efficient way, creating an unexpected power waste. To overcome this inefficient return to idle and power draw waste in the post-execution, we developed a strategy to reduce the energy consumption considering a minimal impact on global performance. Using this strategy, we achieved energy savings up to 73 percent in the post-execution phase of a single run of a GPU application. In the case of sequential runs, the energy saving percentage depends of the waiting time gap between executions.

  14. Sources and potential application of waste heat utilization at a gas processing facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alshehhi, Alyas Ali

    Waste heat recovery (WHR) has the potential to significantly improve the efficiency of oil and gas plants, chemical and other processing facilities, and reduce their environmental impact. In this Thesis a comprehensive energy audit at Abu Dhabi Gas Industries Ltd. (GASCO) ASAB gas processing facilities is undertaken to identify sources of waste heat and evaluate their potential for on-site recovery. Two plants are considered, namely ASAB0 and ASAB1. Waste heat evaluation criteria include waste heat grade (i.e., temperature), rate, accessibility (i.e., proximity) to potential on-site waste heat recovery applications, and potential impact of recovery on installation performance and safety. The operating parameters of key waste heat source producing equipment are compiled, as well as characteristics of the waste heat streams. In addition, potential waste heat recovery applications and strategies are proposed, focusing on utilities, i.e., enhancement of process cooling/heating, electrical/mechanical power generation, and steam production. The sources of waste heat identified at ASAB facilities consist of gas turbine and gas generator exhaust gases, flared gases, excess propane cooling capacity, excess process steam, process gas air-cooler heat dissipation, furnace exhaust gases and steam turbine outlet steam. Of the above waste heat sources, exhaust gases from five gas turbines and one gas generator at ASAB0 plant, as well as from four gas turbines at ASAB1 plant, were found to meet the rate (i.e., > 1 MW), grade (i.e., > 180ーC), accessibility (i.e., < 50 m from potential on-site WHR applications) and minimal impact criteria on the performance and safety of existing installations, for potential waste heat recovery. The total amount of waste heat meeting these criteria were estimated at 256 MW and 289 MW at ASAB0 and ASAB1 plants, respectively, both of which are substantial. Of the 289 MW waste generated at ASAB1, approximately 173 MW are recovered by waste heat recovery steam generators (WHRSGs), leaving 116 MW unutilized. The following strategies were developed to recover the above waste heat. At ASAB0, it is proposed that exhaust gases from all five gas turbines be used to power a WHRSG. The steam generated by the WHRSG would both i) drive an absorption refrigeration unit for gas turbine inlet air cooling, which would result in additional electric or mechanical power generation, and pre-cooling of process gas, which could reduce the need for or eliminate air coolers, as well as reduce propane chiller load, and ii) serve for heating of lean gas, which would reduce furnace load. At ASAB1, it is proposed that exhaust gases from all four gas turbines be used to generate steam in WHRSG that would drive an absorption refrigeration unit for either gas turbine inlet air cooling for additional electric or mechanical power generation, or pre-cooling of process gas to eliminate air-coolers and reduce propane chiller cooling load. Considering the smaller amount of waste heat available at ASAB1 (116 MW) relative to ASAB0 (237 MW), these above two recovery options could not be implemented simultaneously at ASAB0. To permit the detailed design and techno-economic feasibility evaluation of the proposed waste heat recovery strategies in a subsequent study, the cooling loads and associated electric power consumption of ASAB0 process gas air-coolers were estimated at 21 MW and 1.9 MW, respectively, and 67 MW and 2.2 MW, respectively for ASAB1 plant. In addition, the heating loads and fuel consumption of ASAB0 furnaces used for lean gas re-generation were estimated at 24 MW and 0.0653 MMSCMD, respectively. In modeling work undertaken in parallel with this study at the Petroleum Institute, the waste heat recovery strategies proposed here were found to be thermodynamically and economically feasible, and to lead to substantial energy and cost savings, hence environmental benefits.

  15. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 616 Nonradioactive dangerous waste storage facility

    SciTech Connect

    Price, S.M.

    1997-04-30

    This chapter provides information on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the waste stored at the 616 NRDWSF. A waste analysis plan is included that describes the methodology used for determining waste types.

  16. Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Waste Application Systems - Module 12, Objectives, and Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

    Land application systems are discussed with reference to the options available for applying wastewater and sludge to the site. Spray systems, surface flow methods, and sludge application schemes are all included with discussions of the advantages and disadvantages of each option within these categories. A distinction is made between the choice of

  17. 75 FR 79328 - Technical Corrections to the Standards Applicable to Generators of Hazardous Waste; Alternative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 262 Technical Corrections to the Standards Applicable to Generators of Hazardous Waste...: EPA is proposing six technical corrections to an alternative set of hazardous waste generator... requirements, but rather makes technical corrections to subpart K of the hazardous waste generator...

  18. 78 FR 45578 - Application For a License to Export Radioactive Waste

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... COMMISSION Application For a License to Export Radioactive Waste Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b) ``Public... quantity Storage or Canada. June 4, 2013, June 5, 2013, radioactive waste authorized for disposal by the XW021, 11006101. as contaminated export will not original secondary waste exceed quantities...

  19. State waste discharge permit application: 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (Project W-049H)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    As part of the original Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Concent Order negotiations, US DOE, US EPA and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground to the Hanford Site are subject to permitting in the State Waste Discharge Permit Program (SWDP). This document constitutes the SWDP Application for the 200 Area TEDF stream which includes the following streams discharged into the area: Plutonium Finishing Plant waste water; 222-S laboratory Complex waste water; T Plant waste water; 284-W Power Plant waste water; PUREX chemical Sewer; B Plant chemical sewer, process condensate, steam condensate; 242-A-81 Water Services waste water.

  20. State waste discharge permit application: 400 Area secondary cooling water

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This document constitutes the Washington Administrative Code 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit Application that serves as interim compliance as required by the Consent Order DE 91NM-177, for the 400 Area Secondary Cooling Water stream. As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permitting Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered in to Consent Order DE 91NM-177. The Consent Order DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges.

  1. State Waste Discharge Permit application, 183-N Backwash Discharge Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). The Consent Order No. DE91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. Liquid effluents on the Hanford Site have been classified as Phase I, Phase II, and Miscellaneous Streams. The Consent Order No. DE91NM-177 establishes milestones for State Waste Discharge Permit application submittals for all Phase I and Phase II streams, as well as the following 11 Miscellaneous Streams as identified in Table 4 of the Consent Order No. DE91NM-177.

  2. Atmospheric flux of ammonia from sprinkler application of dairy waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumburg, Brian; Mount, George H.; Yonge, David; Lamb, Brian; Westberg, Hal; Filipy, Jenny; Bays, Jay; Kincaid, Ron; Johnson, Kristen

    Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) emissions are a growing environmental and human health concern in the U.S. This paper describes an experiment to measure NH3 emissions from the sprinkler application of dairy slurry to a grass field. The slurry was from milking cows that are housed in a freestall barn that is scraped daily and the waste is stored in a series of anaerobic lagoons that are emptied annually. Atmospheric measurements of NH3 were made using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) and tracer ratio flux experiments were used to determine field fluxes after application. An area source tracer ratio method was used to determine NH3 field fluxes, it involved releasing SF6 as the tracer gas from the upwind edge of the applied slurry and measuring the tracer concentration downwind along with the DOAS NH3 measurements. The flux is calculated from the ratio of the NH3 and SF6 concentrations and the SF6 release rate and taking into account the differences in area and dispersion. An emissions model was also developed for NH3 volatilization after application based upon tracer flux data and modeling of the concentration data. Of the total ammonical nitrogen entering from the sprinkler pump, 18% volatilized before reaching the ground. The initial flux during the tracer experiment was 47?gm-2s-1 and this decreased to 17?gm-2s-1 during the experiment. Ambient measurements showed an exponential decay with time. An empirical exponential equation was fit to the measurement data and it had a mean bias of -0.10ppbv and a normalized mean bias of -0.050%. A theoretical model had a mean bias of -11ppbv and a normalized mean bias of -5.5%. Overall sprinkler waste application emissions for the 175 milking cows was 5900 kg NH3yr-1 or 34 kg NH3cow-1yr-1.

  3. Application of Design of Experiment Method for Thrust Force Minimization in Step-feed Micro Drilling

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Woo; Cho, Myeong-Woo; Seo, Tae-Il; Lee, Eung-Sug

    2008-01-01

    Micro drilled holes are utilized in many of today's fabrication processes. Precision production processes in industries are trending toward the use of smaller holes with higher aspect ratios, and higher speed operation for micro deep hole drilling. However, undesirable characteristics related to micro drilling such as small signal-to-noise ratios, wandering drill motion, high aspect ratio, and excessive cutting forces can be observed when cutting depth increases. In this study, the authors attempt to minimize the thrust forces in the step-feed micro drilling process by application of the DOE (Design of Experiment) method. Taking into account the drilling thrust, three cutting parameters, feedrate, step-feed, and cutting speed, are optimized based on the DOE method. For experimental studies, an orthogonal array L27(313) is generated and ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) is carried out. Based on the results it is determined that the sequence of factors affecting drilling thrusts corresponds to feedrate, step-feed, and spindle rpm. A combination of optimal drilling conditions is also identified. In particular, it is found in this study that the feedrate is the most important factor for micro drilling thrust minimization.

  4. Application of Microbial Fuel Cell technology for a Waste Water Treatment Alternative

    E-print Network

    Application of Microbial Fuel Cell technology for a Waste Water Treatment Alternative Eric A. Zielke February 15, 2006 #12;Application of Microbial Fuel Cell technology for a Waste Water Treatment Alternative Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are devices that use bacteria to generate electricity from organic

  5. Volume-Based Waste Fee (VBWF): Effect on Recycling and Applicability to New York City

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Volume-Based Waste Fee (VBWF): Effect on Recycling and Applicability to New York City by John sponsored by #12;2 Volume-Based Waste Fee (VBWF): Effect on Recycling and Applicability to New York City an effective way to improve recycling, VBWF can help municipalities generate additional funds and allocate

  6. The application of waste management systems for long duration spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Oglesby, James M

    2012-01-01

    In the future planned interplanetary expedition mission to Mars, spaceflight crewmembers will be exposed to an environment that is completely unique from anything they are accustomed to on Earth. Due to the characteristics of these missions, a challenge will be to design an environment that allows crewmembers to easily work and live in for extended durations. One of the challenges associated with these future missions is supplying the crew with essential resources for survivability such as food and water. In this case, the waste management system can play a role in a closed-loop life support system, as provisions sent with the crew will be severely limited with no opportunity for resupply. The following looks at the rationale of designing a system for collecting, storing, and recycling human bodily waste that (1) is considered user-friendly by crewmembers in regard to habitability in spaceflight, and (2) provides applications for a self sustaining closed-loop life support system that will aid the crew during the mission. Future design processes should consider adhering to these guidelines to help in the spaceflight crew's living environment and the conduction of the interplanetary expedition. PMID:22316723

  7. A Regulatory Analysis and Reassessment of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Listed Hazardous Waste Numbers for Applicability to the INTEC Liquid Waste System

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, K.L.; Venneman, T.E.

    1998-12-01

    This report concludes that there are four listed hazardous waste numbers (F001, F002, F005, and U134) applicable to the waste in the Process Equipment Waste Evaporator (PEWE) liquid waste system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The chemical constituents associated with these listed hazardous waste numbers, including those listed only for ignitability are identified. The RCRA Part A permit application hazardous waste numbers identify chemical constituents that may be treated or stored by the PEWE liquid waste system either as a result of a particular characteristic (40 CFR, Subpart C) or as a result of a specific process (40 CFR 261, Subpart D). The RCRA Part A permit application for the PEWE liquid waste system identifies the universe of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hazardous waste numbers [23 characteristic (hazardous waste codes) numbers and 105 listed numbers (four F-listed hazardous waste numbers, 20 P-listed hazardous waste numbers, and 81 U-listed hazardous waste numbers)] deemed acceptable for storage and treatment. This evaluation, however, identifies only listed wastes (and their chemical constituents) that have actually entered the PEWE liquid waste system and would, therefore, be assigned to the PEWE liquids and treatment residuals.

  8. Design and fabrication of an IPMC-embedded tube for minimally invasive surgery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiayu; Wang, Yanjie; Zhao, Dongxu; Zhang, Chi; Chen, Hualing; Li, Dichen

    2014-03-01

    Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) is receiving much attention for a number of reasons, including less trauma, faster recovery and enhanced precision. The traditional robotic actuators do not have the capabilities required to fulfill the demand for new applications in MIS. Ionic Polymer-Metal Composite (IPMC), one of the most promising smart materials, has extensive desirable characteristics such as low actuation voltage, large bending deformation and high functionality. Compared with traditional actuators, IPMCs can mimic biological muscle and are highly promising for actuation in robotic surgery. In this paper, a new approach which involves molding and integrating IPMC actuators into a soft silicone tube to create an active actuating tube capable of multi-degree-of-freedom motion is presented. First, according to the structure and performance requirements of the actuating tube, the biaxial bending IPMC actuators fabricated by using solution casting method have been implemented. The silicone was cured at a suitable temperature to form a flexible tube using molds fabricated by 3D Printing technology. Then an assembly based fabrication process was used to mold or integrate biaxial bending IPMC actuators into the soft silicone material to create an active control tube. The IPMC-embedded tube can generate multi-degree-of-freedom motions by controlling each IPMC actuator. Furthermore, the basic performance of the actuators was analyzed, including the displacement and the response speed. Experimental results indicate that IPMC-embedded tubes are promising for applications in MIS.

  9. Field scale manure born animal waste management : GIS application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intensive beef backgrounding often accumulate manure born soil nutrients, microbes, and pharmaceuticals at different site locations. Unless properly managed, such waste materials can pollute surrounding soil and water sources. Soil sampling from these sites helps determining waste material levels bu...

  10. I-NERI Annual Technical Progress Report 2007-004-K Development and Characterization of New High-Level Waste Forms for Achieving Waste Minimization from Pyroprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    S. Frank

    2010-09-01

    The current method for the immobilization of fission products that accumulate in electrorefiner salt during the electrochemical processing of used metallic nuclear fuel is to encapsulate the electrorefiner salt in a glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form. This process was developed by Argonne National Laboratory in the USA and is currently performed at the Idaho National Laboratory for the treatment of Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) used fuel. This process utilizes a 登nce-through option for the disposal of spent electrorefiner salt; where, after the treatment of the EBR-II fuel, the electrorefiner salt containing the active fission products will be disposed of in the ceramic waste form (CWF). The CWF produced will have low fission product loading of approximately 2 to 5 weight percent due to the limited fuel inventory currently being processed. However; the design and implementation of advanced electrochemical processing facilities to treat used fuel would process much greater quantities fuel. With an advanced processing facility, it would be necessary to selectively remove fission products from the electrorefiner salt for salt recycle and to concentrate the fission products to reduce the volume of high-level waste from the treatment facility. The Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute and the Idaho National Laboratory have been collaborating on I-NERI research projects for a number of years to investigate both aspects of selective fission product separation from electrorefiner salt, and to develop advanced waste forms for the immobilization of the collected fission products. The first joint KAERI/INL I-NERI project titled: 2006-002-K, Separation of Fission Products from Molten LiCl-KCl Salt Used for Electrorefining of Metal Fuels, was successfully completed in 2009 by concentrating and isolating fission products from actual electrorefiner salt used for the treated used EBR-II fuel. Two separation methods were tested and from these tests were produced concentrated salt products that acted as the feed material for development of advanced waste forms investigated in this proposal. Accomplishments from the first year activities associated with this I-NERI project included the down selection of candidate waste forms to immobilize fission products separated from electrorefiner salt, and the design of equipment to fabricate actual waste forms in the Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) at the INL. Reported in this document are accomplishments from the second year (FY10) work performed at the INL, and includes the testing of waste form fabrication equipment, repeating the fission product precipitation experiment, and initial waste form fabrication efforts.

  11. Applications of thermal energy storage to waste heat recovery in the food processing industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trebilcox, G. J.; Lundberg, W. L.

    1981-03-01

    The canning segment of the food processing industry is a major energy user within that industry. Most of its energy demand is met by hot water and steam and those fluids, in addition to product cooling water, eventually flow from the processes as warm waste water. To minimize the possibility of product contamination, a large percentage of that waste water is sent directly to factory drains and sewer systems without being recycled and in many cases the thermal energy contained by the waste streams also goes unreclaimed and is lost from further use. Waste heat recovery in canning facilities can be performed economically using systems that employ thermal energy storage (TES). A project was proposed in which a demonstration waste heat recovery system, including a TES feature, would be designed, installed and operated.

  12. Minimization of organic and metallic industrial waste via lemna minor concentration. Final report, 1 September 1991-1 December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers-Irons, G.L.

    1992-12-30

    In recent years, new strict environmental laws have required improved and cost-effective water purification methods by Air Force complexes. Naturally assisted primary units (microbiological) and secondary units (macrophyte) could bring waste treatment systems into tighter compliance. Aquatic macrophytes which have rapid growth rates and absorb large quantities of nutrients could provide a practical and economic method for more complete wastewater maintenance, hazardous waste clean-up or river, lake and ground water purification. This work has shown that Lemna minor, or Common Duckweed, can successfully and thoroughly accumulate organics and metals from Air Force wastewaters.

  13. WASTE MINIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: A CLASS 8 TRUCK ASSEMBLY PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a systematic approach to identify and implement options to reduce or eliminate hazardous waste. he approach is presented in a report entitled, "Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual" (EPA/625/7-88/O03). his report describes the application of the wast...

  14. Closing the Loop: Integrated Waste Management Activities for School & Home. K-12 Edition. A School-Based Waste Minimization and Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Environmental Education, Chagrin Falls, OH.

    Increased human population has led to more frequent interactions with the environment. The results of those interactions have affected the Earth's ecosystem. This manual contains hands-on, problem-centered activities to help students develop an environmental ethic and stewardship regarding waste management. The activities are grouped under three

  15. Use of depleted uranium silicate glass to minimize release of radionuclides from spent nuclear fuel waste packages

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1996-01-20

    A Depleted Uranium Silicate Container Backfill System (DUSCOBS) is proposed that would use small, isotopically-depleted uranium silicate glass beads as a backfill material inside repository waste packages containing spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The uranium silicate glass beads would fill the void space inside the package including the coolant channels inside SNF assemblies. Based on preliminary analysis, the following benefits have been identified. DUSCOBS improves repository waste package performance by three mechanisms. First, it reduces the radionuclide releases from SNF when water enters the waste package by creating a local uranium silicate saturated groundwater environment that suppresses (a) the dissolution and/or transformation of uranium dioxide fuel pellets and, hence, (b) the release of radionuclides incorporated into the SNF pellets. Second, the potential for long-term nuclear criticality is reduced by isotopic exchange of enriched uranium in SNF with the depleted uranium (DU) in the glass. Third, the backfill reduces radiation interactions between SNF and the local environment (package and local geology) and thus reduces generation of hydrogen, acids, and other chemicals that degrade the waste package system. Finally, DUSCOBS provides a potential method to dispose of significant quantities of excess DU from uranium enrichment plants at potential economic savings. DUSCOBS is a new concept. Consequently, the concept has not been optimized or demonstrated in laboratory experiments.

  16. A Novel Water Delivery System for Administering Volatile Chemicals while Minimizing Chemical Waste in Rodent Toxicity Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rodent toxicity studies typically use water bottles to administer test chemicals via drinking water. However, water bottles provide inconsistent exposure of volatile chemicals due to varying headspace, as well as lead to excessive waste of test material. In order to refine drin...

  17. A novel water delivery system for administering volatile chemicals while minimizing chemical waste in rodent toxicity sutdies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rodent toxicity studies typically use water bottles to administer test chemicals via drinking water. However, water bottles provide inconsistent exposure of volatile chemicals due to varying headspace, as well as lead to excessive waste of test material. In order to refine drinki...

  18. Controlled Landfill Project in Yolo County, California for Environmental Benefits of Waste Stabilization and Minimization of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdani, R.; Augenstein, D.; Kieffer, J.; Cohen, K.

    2003-12-01

    The Department of Public Works of Yolo County, California, USA has been testing an advanced approach to landfill bioreactors, controlled (or "enhanced") landfilling, at its Yolo County Central Landfill site near Davis, CA, since 1994. Overall objectives have been the management of waste landfilling for: (1) rapid completion of total gas generation; (2) maximum, high-efficiency gas capture; (3) waste volume reduction; and (4) maximum greenhouse gas and carbon sequestration benefits. Methane generation is controlled and enhanced through carefully managed moisture additions, and by taking advantage of landfill temperature elevation. The generated landfill methane, an important greenhouse gas, is recovered with high efficiency through extraction from a porous recovery layer beneath a surface geomembrane cover. Instrumentation included a total of 56 moisture and 15 temperature sensors in the two cells, gas flow monitoring by positive displacement gas meters, and accurate quantification of liquid inputs and outputs. Gas composition, waste volume reduction, base hydrostatic head, and a range of environmental compliance parameters has been monitored since 1995. Partitioning gas tracer tests using the injection of two gases at dilute concentrations in the landfill have also been initiated to compute the fraction of pore space occupied by water between the points of tracer injection and tracer measurement. There has been rapid waste volume reduction in the enhanced cell that corresponds to the solids' reduction to gas. Monitoring is planned for the next several years, until stabilization parameters are determined complete. Encouraging performance is indicated by: (1) sensor data; (2) gas generation results; (3) data from landfill cores; and (4) decomposition-related indicators including rapid volume reduction. When data are synthesized, project results have attractive implications for new approaches to landfill management. Over seven-years, methane recoveries have averaged over fivefold the "typical" values for comparable landfill waste. In terms of "greenhouse benefit," fractional VOC and methane energy recovery are estimated to exceed 90%, with corresponding methane and VOC emission reductions. Analyses done for the greenhouse gas mitigation program of the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory indicate favorable economics justified on landfill life extension, as well as environmental benefits. The "controlled landfill" project findings suggest potential for low-cost mitigation of waste greenhouse methane emissions, maximum landfill carbon sequestration, and maximization of beneficial energy capture from landfills. Details and results obtained since 1994 will be presented.

  19. FUEL CONTAMINANTS: VOLUME 4. APPLICATION OF OIL AGGLOMERATION TO COAL WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of the application of oil agglomeration to coal wastes. There are an estimated 3000-5000 sizeable active and abandoned coal waste piles and impoundments in the eastern U.S. coal fields alone, containing 3 billion tons of refuse, part of which a...

  20. Zero Waste Event Services Request Form Applicant Name: E-mail: Phone Number: _

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Zero Waste Event Services Request Form Applicant Name: E-mail: Phone Number: _ Department/Organization Hosting Event: Event Name: _ Date of Event: Start/End Time of Event: _ Location of Event: [Building: _ UC Santa Cruz Recycling Services is happy to provide Zero Waste services for your next event

  1. 77 FR 73054 - Application for a License To Export Radioactive Waste

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Application for a License To Export Radioactive Waste Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70(b) ``Public Notice of Receipt.... 2012, October 25, 2012, XW020, radioactive 1178 pounds disposal by the 11006061. waste in...

  2. Xenon Gamma-detector Applicability for Identification and Characterization of Radioactive Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyae, S. N.; Grachev, V. M.; Dmitrenko, V. V.; Ulin, S. E.; Vlasik, K. F.; Uteshev, Z. M.; Shustov, A. E.; Novikov, A. S.; Petrenko, D. V.; Chernysheva, I. V.

    In this paper described applicability of xenon gamma detector for identification and characterization of radioactive waste was researched. Standard calibration gamma ray sources were used to determine real physical and technical characteristics of xenon gamma spectrometer. Samples of radioactive waste were measured by xenon gamma detector for identification and characterization.

  3. Early detection and evaluation of waste through sensorized containers for a collection monitoring application.

    PubMed

    Rovetta, Alberto; Xiumin, Fan; Vicentini, Federico; Minghua, Zhu; Giusti, Alessandro; Qichang, He

    2009-12-01

    The present study describes a novel application for use in the monitoring of municipal solid waste, based on distributed sensor technology and geographical information systems. Original field testing and evaluation of the application were carried out in Pudong, Shanghai (PR China). The local waste management system in Pudong features particular requirements related to the rapidly increasing rate of waste production. In view of the fact that collected waste is currently deployed to landfills or to incineration plants within the context investigated, the key aspects to be taken into account in waste collection procedures include monitoring of the overall amount of waste produced, quantitative measurement of the waste present at each collection point and identification of classes of material present in the collected waste. The case study described herein focuses particularly on the above mentioned aspects, proposing the implementation of a network of sensorized waste containers linked to a data management system. Containers used were equipped with a set of sensors mounted onto standard waste bins. The design, implementation and validation procedures applied are subsequently described. The main aim to be achieved by data collection and evaluation was to provide for feasibility analysis of the final device. Data pertaining to the content of waste containers, sampled and processed by means of devices validated on two purpose-designed prototypes, were therefore uploaded to a central monitoring server using GPRS connection. The data monitoring and management modules are integrated into an existing application used by local municipal authorities. A field test campaign was performed in the Pudong area. The system was evaluated in terms of real data flow from the network nodes (containers) as well as in terms of optimization functions, such as collection vehicle routing and scheduling. The most important outcomes obtained were related to calculations of waste weight and volume. The latter data were subsequently used as parameters for the routing optimization of collection trucks and material density evaluation. PMID:19783420

  4. Early detection and evaluation of waste through sensorized containers for a collection monitoring application

    SciTech Connect

    Rovetta, Alberto; Fan Xiumin; Vicentini, Federico; Zhu Minghua; Giusti, Alessandro; He Qichang

    2009-12-15

    The present study describes a novel application for use in the monitoring of municipal solid waste, based on distributed sensor technology and geographical information systems. Original field testing and evaluation of the application were carried out in Pudong, Shanghai (PR China). The local waste management system in Pudong features particular requirements related to the rapidly increasing rate of waste production. In view of the fact that collected waste is currently deployed to landfills or to incineration plants within the context investigated, the key aspects to be taken into account in waste collection procedures include monitoring of the overall amount of waste produced, quantitative measurement of the waste present at each collection point and identification of classes of material present in the collected waste. The case study described herein focuses particularly on the above mentioned aspects, proposing the implementation of a network of sensorized waste containers linked to a data management system. Containers used were equipped with a set of sensors mounted onto standard waste bins. The design, implementation and validation procedures applied are subsequently described. The main aim to be achieved by data collection and evaluation was to provide for feasibility analysis of the final device. Data pertaining to the content of waste containers, sampled and processed by means of devices validated on two purpose-designed prototypes, were therefore uploaded to a central monitoring server using GPRS connection. The data monitoring and management modules are integrated into an existing application used by local municipal authorities. A field test campaign was performed in the Pudong area. The system was evaluated in terms of real data flow from the network nodes (containers) as well as in terms of optimization functions, such as collection vehicle routing and scheduling. The most important outcomes obtained were related to calculations of waste weight and volume. The latter data were subsequently used as parameters for the routing optimization of collection trucks and material density evaluation.

  5. A new process and equipment for waste minimization: Conversion of NO(x) scrubber liquor to fertilizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F.; Barile, Ronald G.; Gamble, Paul H.; Lueck, Dale E.; Young, Rebecca C.

    1995-01-01

    A new emissions control system for the oxidizer scrubbers that eliminates the current oxidizer liquor waste and lowers the NO(x) emissions is described. Since fueling and deservicing spacecraft constitute the primary operations in which environmental emissions occur, this will eliminate the second largest waste stream at KSC. This effort is in accord with Executive Order No. 12856 (Federal Compliance with Right-to-Know Laws and Pollution Prevention Requirements, data 6 Aug. 1993) and Executive Order No. 12873 (Federal Acquisition, Recycling, and Waste Prevention, dated 20 Oct. 1993). A recent study found that the efficiencies of the oxidizer scrubbers during normal operations ranged from 70 percent to 99 percent. The new scrubber liquor starts with 1% hydrogen peroxide at a pH of 7 and the process control system adds hydrogen peroxide and potassium hydroxide to the scrubber liquor to maintain those initial conditions. The result is the formation of a solution of potassium nitrate, which is sold as a fertilizer. This report describes the equipment and procedures used to monitor and control the conversion of the scrubber liquor to fertilizer, while reducing the scrubber emissions.

  6. EVALUATION OF THE APPLICABILITY OF SUBSIDENCE MODELS TO HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has discovered a number of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites in close proximity to abandoned underground mines. Further, several Resource Conservation and Recovery Act permit applications have been received for treatment, storage, or disposal facilities located in areas wher...

  7. Application of aircraft sequencing to minimize departure delays at a busy airport

    E-print Network

    Sahyoun, Alexandre Paul

    2014-01-01

    In the face of large increases in the number of passengers and flights, busy airports worldwide have been trying to optimize operating efficiency and throughput and minimize congestion on a daily basis. In the case of ...

  8. Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Legal Aspects - Module 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

    This module summarizes laws that are relevant to the land application of wastes, focusing on the applicable Federal laws and representative state regulations from different areas of the country. The module describes the 10 points of Public Law 92-500, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, that relate to land application. It

  9. Application of value of information of tank waste characterization: A new paradigm for defining tank waste characterization requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Fassbender, L.L.; Brewster, M.E.; Brothers, A.J.

    1996-11-01

    This report presents the rationale for adopting a recommended characterization strategy that uses a risk-based decision-making framework for managing the Tank Waste Characterization program at Hanford. The risk-management/value-of-information (VOI) strategy that is illustrated explicitly links each information-gathering activity to its cost and provides a mechanism to ensure that characterization funds are spent where they can produce the largest reduction in risk. The approach was developed by tailoring well-known decision analysis techniques to specific tank waste characterization applications. This report illustrates how VOI calculations are performed and demonstrates that the VOI approach can definitely be used for real Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) characterization problems.

  10. Certification Plan, Radioactive Mixed Waste Hazardous Waste Handling Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, R.

    1992-06-30

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of radioactive mixed waste (RMW) handled in the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). RMW is low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or transuranic (TRU) waste that is co-contaminated with dangerous waste as defined in the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and the Washington State Dangerous Waste Regulations, 173-303-040 (18). This waste is to be transferred to the Hanford Site Central Waste Complex and Burial Grounds in Hanford, Washington. This plan incorporates the applicable elements of waste reduction, which include both up-front minimization and end-product treatment to reduce the volume and toxicity of the waste; segregation of the waste as it applies to certification; an executive summary of the Waste Management Quality Assurance Implementing Management Plan (QAIMP) for the HWHF (Section 4); and a list of the current and planned implementing procedures used in waste certification.

  11. SITE DEMONSTRATION CAPSULE --MATCON MODIFIED ASPHALT FOR WASTE CONTAINMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    MatCon is a polymer modified asphalt material designed specifically for waste contaminment applications. The modifications to the material differentiate it from conventional paving asphalt by minimizing the damaging effects of environmental exposure that could detract from the d...

  12. Nonradioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction (NOC) Application for the Central Waste Complex (CSC) for Storage of Vented Waste Containers

    SciTech Connect

    KAMBERG, L.D.

    2000-04-01

    This Notice of Construction (NOC) application is submitted for the storage and management of waste containers at the Central Waste Complex (CWC) stationary source. The CWC stationary source consists of multiple sources of diffuse and fugitive emissions, as described herein. This NOC is submitted in accordance with the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-400-110 (criteria pollutants) and 173-460-040 (toxic air pollutants), and pursuant to guidance provided by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). Transuranic (TRU) mixed waste containers at CWC are vented to preclude the build up of hydrogen produced as a result of radionuclide decay, not as safety pressure releases. The following activities are conducted within the CWC stationary source: Storage and inspection; Transfer and staging; Packaging; Treatment; and Sampling. This NOC application is intended to cover all existing storage structures within the current CWC treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) boundary, as well as any storage structures, including waste storage pads and staging areas, that might be constructed in the future within the existing CWC boundary.

  13. Forage, soil and water quality responses to animal waste application

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Andrew Floyd

    1995-01-01

    Increases in number and size of dairy and poultry enterprises in Texas have contributed to concerns about potential hazards of waste management schemes to surface and groundwater quality. Results from two years of dairy effluent and poultry litter...

  14. CONSIDERATIONS IN SELECTING CONVEYORS FOR SOLID WASTE APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An engineering evaluation and experimental program involving several types of conveyors applied to processed fractions of municipal solid wastes was conducted by the National Center for Resource Recovery. This final project report discusses the properties and characteristics of w...

  15. Up-cycling waste glass to minimal water adsorption/absorption lightweight aggregate by rapid low temperature sintering: optimization by dual process-mixture response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Velis, Costas A; Franco-Salinas, Claudia; O'Sullivan, Catherine; Najorka, Jens; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2014-07-01

    Mixed color waste glass extracted from municipal solid waste is either not recycled, in which case it is an environmental and financial liability, or it is used in relatively low value applications such as normal weight aggregate. Here, we report on converting it into a novel glass-ceramic lightweight aggregate (LWA), potentially suitable for high added value applications in structural concrete (upcycling). The artificial LWA particles were formed by rapidly sintering (<10 min) waste glass powder with clay mixes using sodium silicate as binder and borate salt as flux. Composition and processing were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) modeling, and specifically (i) a combined process-mixture dual RSM, and (ii) multiobjective optimization functions. The optimization considered raw materials and energy costs. Mineralogical and physical transformations occur during sintering and a cellular vesicular glass-ceramic composite microstructure is formed, with strong correlations existing between bloating/shrinkage during sintering, density and water adsorption/absorption. The diametrical expansion could be effectively modeled via the RSM and controlled to meet a wide range of specifications; here we optimized for LWA structural concrete. The optimally designed LWA is sintered in comparatively low temperatures (825-835 ーC), thus potentially saving costs and lowering emissions; it had exceptionally low water adsorption/absorption (6.1-7.2% w/wd; optimization target: 1.5-7.5% w/wd); while remaining substantially lightweight (density: 1.24-1.28 g.cm(-3); target: 0.9-1.3 g.cm(-3)). This is a considerable advancement for designing effective environmentally friendly lightweight concrete constructions, and boosting resource efficiency of waste glass flows. PMID:24871934

  16. Application of L1 Minimization Technique to Image Super-Resolution and Surface Reconstruction

    E-print Network

    Talavatifard, Habiballah

    2013-05-06

    the minimization on ?1 while the solution is kept fixed in ?2. Solid points represent fixed nodal values, while hollow points represent the nodal values to be determined by the minimization algorithm. Degrees of freedoms are indexed from 0 to 12... Lagrangian method reduces L1 norm at an initial relatively fast rate but they slow down at fine tuning. 21 4.5?103 5.0?103 5.5?103 6.0?103 0 50 100 150 200 SolidTriangleTriangle SolidTriangleTriangle SolidTriangleTriangle Solid...

  17. Iron and aluminium oxides containing industrial wastes as adsorbents of heavy metals: Application possibilities and limitations.

    PubMed

    Jacukowicz-Sobala, Irena; Oci?ski, Daniel; Kocio?ek-Balawejder, El?bieta

    2015-07-01

    Industrial wastes with a high iron or aluminium oxide content are produced in huge quantities as by-products of water treatment (water treatment residuals), bauxite processing (red mud) and hard and brown coal burning in power plants (fly ash). Although they vary in their composition, the wastes have one thing in common--a high content of amorphous iron and/or aluminium oxides with a large specific surface area, whereby this group of wastes shows very good adsorbability towards heavy metals, arsenates, selenates, etc. But their physical form makes their utilisation quite difficult, since it is not easy to separate the spent sorbent from the solution and high bed hydraulic resistances occur in dynamic regime processes. Nevertheless, because of the potential benefits of utilising the wastes in industrial effluent treatment, this issue attracts much attention today. This study describes in detail the waste generation processes, the chemical structure of the wastes, their physicochemical properties, and the mechanisms of fixing heavy metals and semimetals on the surface of iron and aluminium oxides. Typical compositions of wastes generated in selected industrial plants are given. A detailed survey of the literature on the adsorption applications of the wastes, including methods of their thermal and chemical activation, as well as regeneration of the spent sorbents, is presented. The existing and potential ways of modifying the physical form of the discussed group of wastes, making it possible to overcome the basic limitation on their practical use, are discussed. PMID:26060197

  18. A methodology for optimal MSW management, with an application in the waste transportation of Attica Region, Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Economopoulou, M.A.; Economopoulou, A.A.; Economopoulos, A.P.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: A two-step (strategic and detailed optimal planning) methodology is used for solving complex MSW management problems. A software package is outlined, which can be used for generating detailed optimal plans. Sensitivity analysis compares alternative scenarios that address objections and/or wishes of local communities. A case study shows the application of the above procedure in practice and demonstrates the results and benefits obtained. - Abstract: The paper describes a software system capable of formulating alternative optimal Municipal Solid Wastes (MSWs) management plans, each of which meets a set of constraints that may reflect selected objections and/or wishes of local communities. The objective function to be minimized in each plan is the sum of the annualized capital investment and annual operating cost of all transportation, treatment and final disposal operations involved, taking into consideration the possible income from the sale of products and any other financial incentives or disincentives that may exist. For each plan formulated, the system generates several reports that define the plan, analyze its cost elements and yield an indicative profile of selected types of installations, as well as data files that facilitate the geographic representation of the optimal solution in maps through the use of GIS. A number of these reports compare the technical and economic data from all scenarios considered at the study area, municipality and installation level constituting in effect sensitivity analysis. The generation of alternative plans offers local authorities the opportunity of choice and the results of the sensitivity analysis allow them to choose wisely and with consensus. The paper presents also an application of this software system in the capital Region of Attica in Greece, for the purpose of developing an optimal waste transportation system in line with its approved waste management plan. The formulated plan was able to: (a) serve 113 Municipalities and Communities that generate nearly 2 million t/y of comingled MSW with distinctly different waste collection patterns, (b) take into consideration several existing waste transfer stations (WTS) and optimize their use within the overall plan, (c) select the most appropriate sites among the potentially suitable (new and in use) ones, (d) generate the optimal profile of each WTS proposed, and (e) perform sensitivity analysis so as to define the impact of selected sets of constraints (limitations in the availability of sites and in the capacity of their installations) on the design and cost of the ensuing optimal waste transfer system. The results show that optimal planning offers significant economic savings to municipalities, while reducing at the same time the present levels of traffic, fuel consumptions and air emissions in the congested Athens basin.

  19. A push-relabel framework for submodular function minimization and applications to

    E-print Network

    Fleischer, Lisa K.

    , Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA. Satoru Iwata 2 Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, University algorithms for submodular function minimization have been devised independently by Iwata, Fleischer by Iwata, Fleischer, and Fujishige [13] and by Schrijver [17]. These algorithms build on Cunningham's work

  20. A push-relabel framework for submodular function minimization and applications to

    E-print Network

    Fleischer, Lisa K.

    , Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA. Satoru Iwata 2 Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, University for submodular function minimization have been devised independently by Iwata, Fleischer, and Fujishige polynomial-time algorithms were de- veloped by Iwata, Fleischer, and Fujishige [13] and by Schrijver [17

  1. Minimality of Solution Update in Conflict Resolution: An Application of Revision

    E-print Network

    Pivkina, Inna

    as we stay inside the social norm, i.e., inside the state S). キ Second, if some coalition proposes Mexico State University Las Cruces, NM 88003 ipivkina@cs.nmsu.edu 2 Department of Computer Science of a solution as a collection of revision rules, we can produce a reasonable notion of minimality for which

  2. Minimality of Solution Update in Conflict Resolution: An Application of Revision

    E-print Network

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    as we stay inside the social norm, i.e., inside the state S). . Second, if some coalition proposes Mexico State University Las Cruces, NM 88003 ipivkina@cs.nmsu.edu 2 Department of Computer Science of a solution as a collection of revision rules, we can produce a reasonable notion of minimality for which

  3. Minimization of cost, sediment load, and sensitivity to climate change in a watershed management application

    E-print Network

    Eppstein, Margaret J.

    Minimization of cost, sediment load, and sensitivity to climate change in a watershed management (BMPs) Total maximum daily load (TMDL) a b s t r a c t One challenge of climate change adaptation and also take into consideration anticipated changes in future precipitation patterns. We present a multi

  4. Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application documentation consists of both Part A and a Part B permit application documentation. An explanation of the Part A revisions associated with this treatment and storage unit, including the current revision, is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. Once the initial Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit is issued, the following process will be used. As final, certified treatment, storage, and/or disposal unit-specific documents are developed, and completeness notifications are made by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology, additional unit-specific permit conditions will be incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit through the permit modification process. All treatment, storage, and/or disposal units that are included in the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application will operate under interim status until final status conditions for these units are incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit. The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility contains information current as of May 1, 1993.

  5. RCRA Part B Permit Application for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory - Volume 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Pamela R. Cunningham

    1992-07-01

    This section of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Part B permit application describes the waste characteristics Of the transuranic (TRU) mixed wastes at the RWMC waste management units to be permitted: the Intermediate-Level Transuranic Storage Facility (ILTSF) and the Waste Storage Facility (WSF). The ILTSF is used to store radioactive remote-handled (RH) wastes. The WSF will be used to store radioactive contact-handled (CH) wastes. The Transuranic Storage Area (TSA) was established at the RWMC to provide interim storage of TRU waste. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A defines TRU waste as waste contaminated with alpha-emitting transuranium radionuclides with half-lives greater than 20 years in concentrations greater than 100 nanocuries per gram (nCi/g) o f waste material. The TSA serves generators both on and off the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The ILTSF is located at the TSA, and the WSF will be located there also. Most of the wastes managed at the TSA are mixed wastes, which are radioactive wastes regulated under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) that also contain hazardous materials regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Idaho Hazardous Waste Management Regulations. These wastes include TRU mixed wastes and some low-level mixed wastes. Accordingly, the TSA is subject to the permitting requirements of RCRA and the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act (IDAPA). Prior to 1982, DOE orders defined TRU wastes as having transuranium radionuclides in concentrations greater than 10 nCi/g, The low-level mixed wastes managed at the TSA are those wastes with 10 to 100 nCi/g of TRU radionuclides that prior to 1982 were considered TRU waste.

  6. State waste discharge permit application for cooling water and condensate discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Haggard, R.D.

    1996-08-12

    The following presents the Categorical State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) Application for the Cooling Water and Condensate Discharges on the Hanford Site. This application is intended to cover existing cooling water and condensate discharges as well as similar future discharges meeting the criteria set forth in this document.

  7. Animal waste utilization: Effective use of manure as a soil resource

    SciTech Connect

    Hatfield, J.L.; Stewart, B.A.

    1998-12-31

    This unique book examines the beneficial aspects of animal waste as a soil resource--not simply as an agricultural by-product with minimal practical use. Topics include: types of livestock waste--swine, poultry, dairy; methods and management of waste utilization; storage, handling, processing and application of animal waste; economics of waste utilization; new modeling and management techniques; and nonpoint source pollution, water quality, leaching, and air quality.

  8. Water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications. Volume 1: Final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive study of advanced water recovery and solid waste processing techniques employed in both aerospace and domestic or commercial applications is reported. A systems approach was used to synthesize a prototype system design of an advanced water treatment/waste processing system. Household water use characteristics were studied and modified through the use of low water use devices and a limited amount of water reuse. This modified household system was then used as a baseline system for development of several water treatment waste processing systems employing advanced techniques. A hybrid of these systems was next developed and a preliminary design was generated to define system and hardware functions.

  9. Chemistry of application of calcination/dissolution to the Hanford tank waste inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, C.H.; Elcan, T.D.; Hey, B.E.

    1994-05-01

    Approximately 330,000 metric tons of sodium-rich radioactive waste originating from separation of plutonium from irradiated uranium fuel are stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Fractionation of the waste into low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW) streams is envisioned via partial water dissolution and limited radionuclide extraction operations. Under optimum conditions, LLW would contain most of the chemical bulk while HLW would contain virtually all of the transuranic and fission product activity. Calcination at around 850 C, followed by water dissolution, has been proposed as an alternative initial treatment of Hanford Site waste to improve waste dissolution and the envisioned LLW/HLW split. Results of literature and laboratory studies are reported on the application of calcination/dissolution (C/D) to the fractionation of the Hanford Site tank waste inventory. Both simulated and genuine Hanford Site waste materials were used in the lab tests. To evaluation confirmed that C/D processing reduced the amount of several components from the waste. The C/D dissolutions of aluminum and chromium allow redistribution of these waste components from the HLW to the LLW fraction. Comparisons of simple water-washing with C/D processing of genuine Hanford Site waste are also reported based on material (radionuclide and chemical) distributions to solution and solid residue phases. The lab results show that C/D processing yielded superior dissolution of aluminum and chromium sludges compared to simple water dissolution. 57 refs., 26 figs., 18 tabs.

  10. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 1, Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This volume includes the following chapters: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant RCRA A permit application; facility description; waste analysis plan; groundwater monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; RCRA contingency plan; personnel training; corrective action for solid waste management units; and other Federal laws.

  11. Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Pathogens - Module 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

    This module is intended to help engineers evaluate the relative health risks from pathogens at land treatment sites versus conventional waste treatment systems. Among the topics considered are the following: (1) the relationship between survival time of pathogens and the chance of disease transmission to humans; (2) the factors that favor survival

  12. APPLICATION OF PULSE COMBUSTION TO INCINERATION OF LIQUID HAZARDOUS WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to determine the effect of acoustic pulsations on the steady-state operation of a pulse combustor burning liquid hazardous waste. A horizontal tunnel furnace was retrofitted with a liquid injection pulse combustor that burned No. 2 fuel oil. Th...

  13. RCRA Part A Permit Application for Waste Management Activities at the Nevada Test Site, Part B Permit Application Hazardous Waste Storage Unit, Nevada Test Site, and Part B Permit Application - Explosives Ordnance Disposal Unit (EODU)

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-06-17

    The Area 5 Hazardous Waste Storage Unit (HWSU) was established to support testing, research, and remediation activities at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), a large-quantity generator of hazardous waste. The HWSU, located adjacent to the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS), is a prefabricated, rigid steel-framed, roofed shelter used to store hazardous nonradioactive waste generated on the NTS. No offsite generated wastes are managed at the HWSU. Waste managed at the HWSU includes the following categories: Flammables/Combustibles; Acid Corrosives; Alkali Corrosives; Oxidizers/Reactives; Toxics/Poisons; and Other Regulated Materials (ORMs). A list of the regulated waste codes accepted for storage at the HWSU is provided in Section B.2. Hazardous wastes stored at the HWSU are stored in U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) compliant containers, compatible with the stored waste. Waste transfer (between containers) is not allowed at the HWSU and containers remain closed at all times. Containers are stored on secondary containment pallets and the unit is inspected monthly. Table 1 provides the metric conversion factors used in this application. Table 2 provides a list of existing permits. Table 3 lists operational Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) units at the NTS and their respective regulatory status.

  14. The application of reused powdered wastes as adsorbent for treating arsenic containing mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Park, Youn-Jong; Yang, Jae-Kyu; Choi, Sang-Il

    2008-07-15

    This study examined the potential reuse of powdered wastes (PW) generated during the sanding and sawing process in a local chemical company in Korea with the viewpoint of the recycling these wastes and minimizing the level of contamination. The PW contained 40-60% aluminum hydroxide and 30-45% matrix resin. As a potential adsorbent, the suitability of thermal treated PW to remove arsenic from synthetic and real wastewater was investigated. As a pretreatment process, the reused adsorbent from PW was calcined at 550 degrees C for 3 hrs in a furnace. The calcination characteristics of PW were examined both quantitatively and qualitatively by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and qualitatively by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The major inorganic composition of the calcined PW (CPW) was aluminum oxide with poor crystallinity. The CPW contained well developed meso-pores (0.143 cm(3) g(-1)) and showed a specific surface area of 234 m(2) g(-1). The pH of the zero point charge (pH(pzc)) of the CPW was determined to be 7.8 by acid-base titration. From the batch adsorption tests, the complete removal of arsenic (up to 20 mg L(-1)) was observed with CPW (2 g) at pH ranging from 3.0 to 8.0. However, there was a significant decrease in arsenate adsorption at higher pH. A kinetics study indicated that the uptake of arsenate followed a second-order rate equation. In the presence of sulfate, the removal of arsenate was increasingly affected by the sulfate concentration. The application of CPW to the removal of 4 different real mine drainages was also carried out. Mine drainage contains a relatively high arsenate concentration as well as sulfate. Whilst the amount of arsenic removed from real mine drainage by CPW was slightly lower than that removed from synthetic wastewater due to competitive sorption by multiple ions, the adsorption of arsenate showed rapid removal within 10 min with good removal efficiency, which meets the national wastewater discharge limits. These results suggest that CPW is a good adsorbent for removing arsenic from synthetic and real mine drainage. PMID:18569325

  15. State Waste Discharge Permit application for industrial discharge to land: 200 East Area W-252 streams

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This document constitutes the WAC 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit application for six W-252 liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site. Appendices B through H correspond to Section B through H in the permit application form. Within each appendix, sections correspond directly to the respective questions on the application form. The appendices include: Product or service information; Plant operational characteristics; Water consumption and waterloss; Wastewater information; Stormwater; Other information; and Site assessment.

  16. Monte-Carlo Application for Nondestructive Nuclear Waste Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carasco, C.; Engels, R.; Frank, M.; Furletov, S.; Furletova, J.; Genreith, C.; Havenith, A.; Kemmerling, G.; Kettler, J.; Krings, T.; Ma, J.-L.; Mauerhofer, E.; Neike, D.; Payan, E.; Perot, B.; Rossbach, M.; Schitthelm, O.; Schumann, M.; Vasquez, R.

    2014-06-01

    Radioactive waste has to undergo a process of quality checking in order to check its conformance with national regulations prior to its transport, intermediate storage and final disposal. Within the quality checking of radioactive waste packages non-destructive assays are required to characterize their radio-toxic and chemo-toxic contents. The Institute of Energy and Climate Research - Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety of the Forschungszentrum Jlich develops in the framework of cooperation nondestructive analytical techniques for the routine characterization of radioactive waste packages at industrial-scale. During the phase of research and development Monte Carlo techniques are used to simulate the transport of particle, especially photons, electrons and neutrons, through matter and to obtain the response of detection systems. The radiological characterization of low and intermediate level radioactive waste drums is performed by segmented ?-scanning (SGS). To precisely and accurately reconstruct the isotope specific activity content in waste drums by SGS measurement, an innovative method called SGSreco was developed. The Geant4 code was used to simulate the response of the collimated detection system for waste drums with different activity and matrix configurations. These simulations allow a far more detailed optimization, validation and benchmark of SGSreco, since the construction of test drums covering a broad range of activity and matrix properties is time consuming and cost intensive. The MEDINA (Multi Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation) test facility was developed to identify and quantify non-radioactive elements and substances in radioactive waste drums. MEDINA is based on prompt and delayed gamma neutron activation analysis (P&DGNAA) using a 14 MeV neutron generator. MCNP simulations were carried out to study the response of the MEDINA facility in terms of gamma spectra, time dependence of the neutron energy spectrum, neutron flux distribution. The validation of the measurements simulations with Mont-Carlo transport codes for the design, optimization and data analysis of further P&DGNAA facilities is performed in collaboration with LMN CEA Cadarache. The performance of the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) for the nondestructive determination of actinides in small samples is investigated. The quantitative determination of actinides relies on the precise knowledge of partial neutron capture cross sections. Up to today these cross sections are not very accurate for analytical purpose. The goal of the TANDEM (Trans-uranium Actinides' Nuclear Data - Evaluation and Measurement) Collaboration is the evaluation of these cross sections. Cross sections are measured using prompt gamma activation analysis facilities in Budapest and Munich. Geant4 is used to optimally design the detection system with Compton suppression. Furthermore, for the evaluation of the cross sections it is strongly needed to correct the results to the self-attenuation of the prompt gammas within the sample. In the framework of cooperation RWTH Aachen University, Forschungszentrum Jlich and the Siemens AG will study the feasibility of a compact Neutron Imaging System for Radioactive waste Analysis (NISRA). The system is based on a 14 MeV neutron source and an advanced detector system (a-Si flat panel) linked to an exclusive converter/scintillator for fast neutrons. For shielding and radioprotection studies the codes MCNPX and Geant4 were used. The two codes were benchmarked in processing time and accuracy in the neutron and gamma fluxes. Also the detector response was simulated with Geant4 to optimize components of the system.

  17. Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a research and development facility for the demonstration of the permanent isolation of transuranic radioactive wastes in a geologic formation. The facility was constructed in southeastern New Mexico in a manner intended to meet criteria established by the scientific and regulatory community for the safe, long-term disposal of transuranic wastes. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing an application to demonstrate compliance with the requirements outlined in Title 40, Part 191 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) for the permanent disposal of transuranic wastes. As mandated by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Land Withdrawal Act of 1992, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must evaluate this compliance application and provide a determination regarding compliance with the requirements within one year of receiving a complete application. Because the WIPP is a very complex program, the DOE has planned to submit the application as a draft in two parts. This strategy will allow for the DOE and the EPA to begin technical discussions on critical WIPP issues before the one-year compliance determination period begins. This report is the first of these two draft submittals.

  18. Application of the microbiological method DEFT/APC to detect minimally processed vegetables treated with gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arajo, M. M.; Duarte, R. C.; Silva, P. V.; Marchioni, E.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.

    2009-07-01

    Marketing of minimally processed vegetables (MPV) are gaining impetus due to its convenience, freshness and apparent health effect. However, minimal processing does not reduce pathogenic microorganisms to safe levels. Food irradiation is used to extend the shelf life and to inactivate food-borne pathogens. In combination with minimal processing it could improve safety and quality of MPV. A microbiological screening method based on the use of direct epifluorescent filter technique (DEFT) and aerobic plate count (APC) has been established for the detection of irradiated foodstuffs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of this technique in detecting MPV irradiation. Samples from retail markets were irradiated with 0.5 and 1.0 kGy using a 60Co facility. In general, with a dose increment, DEFT counts remained similar independent of the irradiation while APC counts decreased gradually. The difference of the two counts gradually increased with dose increment in all samples. It could be suggested that a DEFT/APC difference over 2.0 log would be a criteria to judge if a MPV was treated by irradiation. The DEFT/APC method could be used satisfactorily as a screening method for indicating irradiation processing.

  19. Recycled Water Reuse Permit Renewal Application for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    No Name

    2014-10-01

    ABSTRACT This renewal application for the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (IWRP) WRU-I-0160-01 at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Industrial Waste Ditch (IWD) and Industrial Waste Pond (IWP) is being submitted to the State of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ). This application has been prepared in compliance with the requirements in IDAPA 58.01.17, Recycled Water Rules. Information in this application is consistent with the IDAPA 58.01.17 rules, pre-application meeting, and the Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater (September 2007). This application is being submitted using much of the same information contained in the initial permit application, submitted in 2007, and modification, in 2012. There have been no significant changes to the information and operations covered in the existing IWRP. Summary of the monitoring results and operation activity that has occurred since the issuance of the WRP has been included. MFC has operated the IWP and IWD as regulated wastewater land treatment facilities in compliance with the IDAPA 58.01.17 regulations and the IWRP. Industrial wastewater, consisting primarily of continuous discharges of nonhazardous, nonradioactive, routinely discharged noncontact cooling water and steam condensate, periodic discharges of industrial wastewater from the MFC facility process holdup tanks, and precipitation runoff, are discharged to the IWP and IWD system from various MFC facilities. Wastewater goes to the IWP and IWD with a permitted annual flow of up to 17 million gallons/year. All requirements of the IWRP are being met. The Operations and Maintenance Manual for the Industrial Wastewater System will be updated to include any new requirements.

  20. Compaction of Space Mission Wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John; Pisharody, Suresh; Wignarajah, K.

    2004-01-01

    The current solid waste management system employed on the International Space Station (ISS) consists of compaction, storage, and disposal. Wastes such plastic food packaging and trash are compacted manually and wrapped in duct tape footballs by the astronauts. Much of the waste is simply loaded either into the empty Russian Progress vehicle for destruction on reentry or into Shuttle for return to Earth. This manual method is wasteful of crew time and does not transition well to far term missions. Different wastes onboard spacecraft vary considerably in their characteristics and in the appropriate method of management. In advanced life support systems for far term missions, recovery of resources such as water from the wastes becomes important. However waste such as plastic food packaging, which constitutes a large fraction of solid waste (roughly 21% on ISS, more on long duration missions), contains minimal recoverable resource. The appropriate management of plastic waste is waste stabilization and volume minimization rather than resource recovery. This paper describes work that has begun at Ames Research Center on development of a heat melt compactor that can be used on near term and future missions, that can minimize crew interaction, and that can handle wastes with a significant plastic composition. The heat melt compactor takes advantage of the low melting point of plastics to compact plastic materials using a combination of heat and pressure. The US Navy has demonstrated successful development of a similar unit for shipboard application. Ames is building upon the basic approach demonstrated by the Navy to develop an advanced heat melt type compactor for space mission type wastes.

  1. Waste Collector System Technology Comparisons for Constellation Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2006-01-01

    The Waste Collection Systems (WCS) for space vehicles have utilized a variety of hardware for collecting human metabolic wastes. It has typically required multiple missions to resolve crew usability and hardware performance issues that are difficult to duplicate on the ground. New space vehicles should leverage off past WCS systems. Past WCS hardware designs are substantially different and unique for each vehicle. However, each WCS can be analyzed and compared as a subset of technologies which encompass fecal collection, urine collection, air systems, pretreatment systems. Technology components from the WCS of various vehicles can then be combined to reduce hardware mass and volume while maximizing use of previous technology and proven human-equipment interfaces. Analysis of past US and Russian WCS are compared and extrapolated to Constellation missions.

  2. National Institutes of Health: Mixed waste stream analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kirner, N.P.; Faison, G.P.; Johnson, D.R.

    1994-08-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 requires that the US Department of Energy (DOE) provide technical assistance to host States, compact regions, and unaffiliated States to fulfill their responsibilities under the Act. The National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) operated for DOE by EG&G Idaho, Inc. provides technical assistance in the development of new commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal capacity. The NLLWMP has been requested by the Appalachian Compact to help the biomedical community become better acquainted with its mixed waste streams, to help minimize the mixed waste streams generated by the biomedical community, and to provide applicable treatment technologies to those particular mixed waste streams. Mixed waste is waste that satisfies the definition of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (LLRWPA) and contains hazardous waste that either (a) is listed as a hazardous waste in Subpart D of 40 CFR 261, or (b) causes the LLW to exhibit any of the hazardous waste characteristics identified in 40 CFR 261. The purpose of this report is to clearly define and characterize the mixed waste streams generated by the biomedical community so that an identification can be made of the waste streams that can and cannot be minimized and treated by current options. An understanding of the processes and complexities of generation of mixed waste in the biomedical community may encourage more treatment and storage options to become available.

  3. Imaging data analyses for hazardous waste applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    David, N.; Ginsberg, I.W.

    1995-12-01

    The paper presents some examples of the use of remote sensing products for characterization of hazardous waste sites. The sites are located at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) where materials associated with past weapons testing are buried. Problems of interest include delineation of strata for soil sampling, detection and delineation of buried trenches containing contaminants, seepage from capped areas and old septic drain fields, and location of faults and fractures relative to hazardous waste areas. Merging of site map and other geographic information with imagery was found by site managers to produce useful products. Merging of hydrographic and soil contaminant data aided soil sampling strategists. Overlays of suspected trench on multispectral and thermal images showed correlation between image signatures and trenches. Overlays of engineering drawings on recent and historical photos showed error in trench location and extent. A thermal image showed warm anomalies suspected to be areas of water seepage through an asphalt cap. Overlays of engineering drawings on multispectral and thermal images showed correlation between image signatures and drain fields. Analysis of aerial photography and spectral signatures of faults/fractures improved geologic maps of mixed waste areas.

  4. Application of gaseous core reactors for transmutation of nuclear waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnitzler, B. G.; Paternoster, R. R.; Schneider, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    An acceptable management scheme for high-level radioactive waste is vital to the nuclear industry. The hazard potential of the trans-uranic actinides and of key fission products is high due to their nuclear activity and/or chemical toxicity. Of particular concern are the very long-lived nuclides whose hazard potential remains high for hundreds of thousands of years. Neutron induced transmutation offers a promising technique for the treatment of problem wastes. Transmutation is unique as a waste management scheme in that it offers the potential for "destruction" of the hazardous nuclides by conversion to non-hazardous or more manageable nuclides. The transmutation potential of a thermal spectrum uranium hexafluoride fueled cavity reactor was examined. Initial studies focused on a heavy water moderated cavity reactor fueled with 5% enriched U-235-F6 and operating with an average thermal flux of 6 times 10 to the 14th power neutrons/sq cm-sec. The isotopes considered for transmutation were I-129, Am-241, Am-242m, Am-243, Cm-243, Cm-244, Cm-245, and Cm-246.

  5. The applicability of different waste materials for the production of lightweight aggregates.

    PubMed

    Ducman, V; Mirtic, B

    2009-08-01

    The applicability of different waste materials for the production of lightweight aggregates has been studied. The following waste materials were investigated: silica sludge, superfluous clay in the quarry, waste glass, and residue from the polishing process of different types of stone. SiC and MnO(2) were selected as foaming agents. Feldspar containing minerals and scrap glass were added in order to lower the softening point of the waste materials. The granules were prepared by mixing together finely ground waste with one or both of the selected foaming agents. The granules were then fired at different temperatures above the softening point of the glassy phase within the temperature range from 1150 to 1220 degrees C, where the foaming agent degasses, and the resulting gasses remain trapped in the glassy structure. The foaming process was observed by hot-stage microscopy. The properties of the so-obtained granules, such as their apparent density and compressive strength, were determined, and their microstructures were evaluating using SEM and polarizing microscopy. With the addition to clay of polishing residue from granite-like rocks, after firing at 1220 degrees C homogeneously porous granules with a density down to 0.42 g/cm(3) were obtained, whereas with the addition to waste silica sludge of polishing residue from granite-like rocks and waste glass with a foaming agent, after firing at 1220 degrees C densities from 0.57 to 0.82 g/cm(3) were obtained. PMID:19345083

  6. Application of macro material flow modeling to the decision making process for integrated waste management systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, S.A.; Holter, G.M.

    1995-04-01

    Computer models have been used for almost a decade to model and analyze various aspects of solid waste management Commercially available models exist for estimating the capital and operating costs of landfills, waste-to-energy facilities and compost systems and for optimizing system performance along a single dimension (e.g. cost or transportation distance). An alternative to the use of currently available models is the more flexible macro material flow modeling approach in which a macro scale or regional level approach is taken. Waste materials are tracked through the complete integrated waste management cycle from generation through recycling and reuse, and finally to ultimate disposal. Such an approach has been applied by the authors to two different applications. The STELLA simulation language (for Macintosh computers) was used to model the solid waste management system of Puerto Rico. The model incorporated population projections for all 78 municipalities in Puerto Rico from 1990 to 2010, solid waste generation factors, remaining life for the existing landfills, and projected startup time for new facilities. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has used the SimScript simulation language (for Windows computers) to model the management of solid and hazardous wastes produced during cleanup and remediation activities at the Hanford Nuclear Site.

  7. Survey of systems safety analysis methods and their application to nuclear waste management systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pelto, P.J.; Winegardner, W.K.; Gallucci, R.H.V.

    1981-11-01

    This report reviews system safety analysis methods and examines their application to nuclear waste management systems. The safety analysis methods examined include expert opinion, maximum credible accident approach, design basis accidents approach, hazard indices, preliminary hazards analysis, failure modes and effects analysis, fault trees, event trees, cause-consequence diagrams, G0 methodology, Markov modeling, and a general category of consequence analysis models. Previous and ongoing studies on the safety of waste management systems are discussed along with their limitations and potential improvements. The major safety methods and waste management safety related studies are surveyed. This survey provides information on what safety methods are available, what waste management safety areas have been analyzed, and what are potential areas for future study.

  8. The Auburn Engineering Technical Assistance Program investigation of polyvinyl alcohol film developments pertaining to radioactive particle decontamination and industrial waste minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mole, Tracey Lawrence

    In this work, an effective and systematic model is devised to synthesize the optimal formulation for an explicit engineering application in the nuclear industry, i.e. radioactive decontamination and waste reduction. Identification of an optimal formulation that is suitable for the desired system requires integration of all the interlacing behaviors of the product constituents. This work is unique not only in product design, but also in these design techniques. The common practice of new product development is to design the optimized product for a particular industrial niche and then subsequent research for the production process is conducted, developed and optimized separately from the product formulation. In this proposed optimization design technique, the development process, disposal technique and product formulation is optimized simultaneously to improve production profit, product behavior and disposal emissions. This "cradle to grave" optimization approach allowed a complex product formulation development process to be drastically simplified. The utilization of these modeling techniques took an industrial idea to full scale testing and production in under 18 months by reducing the number of subsequent laboratory trials required to optimize the formula, production and waste treatment aspects of the product simultaneously. This particular development material involves the use of a polymer matrix that is applied to surfaces as part of a decontamination system. The polymer coating serves to initially "fix" the contaminants in place for detection and ultimate elimination. Upon mechanical entrapment and removal, the polymer coating containing the radioactive isotopes can be dissolved in a solvent processor, where separation of the radioactive metallic particles can take place. Ultimately, only the collection of divided solids should be disposed of as nuclear waste. This creates an attractive alternative to direct land filling or incineration. This philosophy also provides waste generators a way to significantly reduce waste and associated costs, and help meet regulatory, safety and environmental requirements. In order for the polymeric film exhibit the desired performance, a combination of discrete constraints must be fulfilled. These interacting characteristics include the choice of polymer used for construction, drying time, storage constraints, decontamination ability, removal behavior, application process, coating strength and dissolvability processes. Identification of an optimized formulation that is suitable for this entire decontamination system requires integration of all the interlacing characteristics of the coating composition that affect the film behavior. A novel systematic method for developing quantitative values for theses qualitative characteristics is being developed in order to simultaneously optimize the design formulation subject to the discrete product specifications. This synthesis procedure encompasses intrinsic characteristics vital to successful product development, which allows for implementation of the derived model optimizations to operate independent of the polymer film application. This contribution illustrates the optimized synthesis example by which a large range of polymeric compounds and mixtures can be completed. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  9. Citizens guide to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Compliance Certification Application to the EPA

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has submitted an application to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for a certificate showing that the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) complies with strict environmental regulations designed to safeguard humans and the environment for at least 10,000 years. Congress gave the EPA authority to regulate the WIPP site for disposal of transuranic waste under the 1992 WIPP Land Withdrawal Act. The EPA has one year to review the Compliance Certification Application (CCA) before determining whether the DOE has successfully documented the WIPP`s compliance with federal environmental standards. The application presents the conclusions of more than 20 years of scientific and engineering work specifically dedicated to disposal of transuranic waste at the WIPP. The application thoroughly documents how the natural characteristics of the WIPP site, along with engineered features, comply with the regulations. In the application, the DOE responds fully to the federal standards and to the EPA`s certification criteria. This Citizens` Guide provides an overview of the CCA and its role in moving toward final disposal of transuranic waste.

  10. Application of advanced cytometric and molecular technologies to minimal residual disease monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leary, James F.; He, Feng; Reece, Lisa M.

    2000-04-01

    Minimal residual disease monitoring presents a number of theoretical and practical challenges. Recently it has been possible to meet some of these challenges by combining a number of new advanced biotechnologies. To monitor the number of residual tumor cells requires complex cocktails of molecular probes that collectively provide sensitivities of detection on the order of one residual tumor cell per million total cells. Ultra-high-speed, multi parameter flow cytometry is capable of analyzing cells at rates in excess of 100,000 cells/sec. Residual tumor selection marker cocktails can be optimized by use of receiver operating characteristic analysis. New data minimizing techniques when combined with multi variate statistical or neural network classifications of tumor cells can more accurately predict residual tumor cell frequencies. The combination of these techniques can, under at least some circumstances, detect frequencies of tumor cells as low as one cell in a million with an accuracy of over 98 percent correct classification. Detection of mutations in tumor suppressor genes requires insolation of these rare tumor cells and single-cell DNA sequencing. Rare residual tumor cells can be isolated at single cell level by high-resolution single-cell cell sorting. Molecular characterization of tumor suppressor gene mutations can be accomplished using a combination of single- cell polymerase chain reaction amplification of specific gene sequences followed by TA cloning techniques and DNA sequencing. Mutations as small as a single base pair in a tumor suppressor gene of a single sorted tumor cell have been detected using these methods. Using new amplification procedures and DNA micro arrays it should be possible to extend the capabilities shown in this paper to screening of multiple DNA mutations in tumor suppressor and other genes on small numbers of sorted metastatic tumor cells.

  11. Application to ship nonmixed transuranic waste to the Nevada Test Site for interim storage. Waste Cerification Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This report documents various regulations on radioactive waste processing and discusses how the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant will comply with and meet these requirements. Specific procedures are discussed concerning transuranic, metal scrap, salt block, solid, and glove box wastes.

  12. Hanford facility dangerous waste Part A, Form 3 and Part B permit application documentation, Central Waste Complex (WA7890008967)(TSD: TS-2-4)

    SciTech Connect

    Saueressig, D.G.

    1998-05-20

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, operating, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the Central Waste Complex (this document, DOE/RL-91-17). Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needed by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is contained in the Central Waste Complex permit application documentation, in relation to the Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents section. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever appropriate, the Central Waste Complex permit application documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. Information provided in this Central Waste Complex permit application documentation is current as of May 1998.

  13. Comparative study of different waste biomass for energy application.

    PubMed

    Motghare, Kalyani A; Rathod, Ajit P; Wasewar, Kailas L; Labhsetwar, Nitin K

    2016-01-01

    Biomass is available in many varieties, consisting of crops as well as its residues from agriculture, forestry, and the agro-industry. These different biomass find their way as freely available fuel in rural areas but are also responsible for air pollution. Emissions from such solid fuel combustion to indoor, regional and global air pollution largely depend on fuel types, combustion device, fuel properties, fuel moisture, amount of air supply for combustion and also on climatic conditions. In both economic and environment point of view, gasification constitutes an attractive alternative for the use of biomass as a fuel, than the combustion process. A large number of studies have been reported on a variety of biomass and agriculture residues for their possible use as renewable fuels. Considering the area specific agriculture residues and biomass availability and related transportation cost, it is important to explore various local biomass for their suitability as a fuel. Maharashtra (India) is the mainstay for the agriculture and therefore, produces a significant amount of waste biomass. The aim of the present research work is to analyze different local biomass wastes for their proximate analysis and calorific value to assess their potential as fuel. The biomass explored include cotton waste, leaf, soybean waste, wheat straw, rice straw, coconut coir, forest residues, etc. mainly due to their abundance. The calorific value and the proximate analysis of the different components of the biomass helped in assessing its potential for utilization in different industries. It is observed that ash content of these biomass species is quite low, while the volatile matter content is high as compared to Indian Coal. This may be appropriate for briquetting and thus can be used as a domestic fuel in biomass based gasifier cook stoves. Utilizing these biomass species as fuel in improved cook-stove and domestic gasifier cook-stoves would be a perspective step in the rural energy and environmental sectors. This is important considering that the cleaner fuel like LPG is still not available in rural areas of many parts of the world. PMID:26303650

  14. Minimizing errors from linear and nonlinear weights of WENO scheme for broadband applications with shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshed, Ghulam M.; Hoffmann, Klaus A.

    2013-08-01

    Improvements in the numerical algorithm for the dynamics of flows that involve discontinuities and broadband fluctuations simultaneously are proposed. These two flow features suggest numerical strategies of a paradoxical nature because the discontinuities demand dissipation, and the small-scale smooth features require the opposite. There may be several ways to approach such a complicated issue, but the natural choice is a numerical technique that can adjust adaptively with flow regimes. The weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme may be this choice. However, there are two sources of dissipation associated with the WENO procedure: the upwind optimal stencil and the nonlinear adaption mechanism. The current work suggests a robust and comprehensive treatment for the minimization of dissipation error from these two sources. The optimization technique, which is guided by restriction on the linear optimal weights derived from stability and consistency requirement, is used to delay the dissipation of the upwind optimal stencil to those wavenumbers for which the dispersion error is large. The parallel advantage of this technique is the improvement of the dispersion property. Nevertheless, optimization decreases the formal order of accuracy of the optimal stencil from fifth order to third order. This loss of accuracy is derived by Taylor series expansion. Using Taylor-series expansion and WENO procedure, the third-order accuracy is verified in the smooth region, except at the critical point of order two, where the order of accuracy reduces to at least second order. This possible loss of accuracy at the second-order critical point is restored in an attempt to reduce the dissipation induced by the nonlinear adaptive weights. Modification of the nonlinear weights to reduce the dissipation is introduced by redefining them with an additional smoothness indicator. Other suggestions to minimize the dissipation of the nonlinear weights are also reviewed. The numerical approximation of the spatial derivative is performed by means of a conservative and consistent finite difference method based on monotone local Lax-Friedrichs Riemann solver. The resulting scheme is then integrated by the optimal third-order TVD Runge-Kutta method to ensure the nonlinear stability of the overall numerical method. A variety of benchmark problems, ranging from non-broadband to broadband, are solved using the proposed schemes and compared with the existing ones. Most test problems are validated against exact or reference data. The numerical results with bandwidth optimization and modification of the nonlinear weights are consistently superior.

  15. Evaluation and application of cost estimates for hazardous waste remediation

    SciTech Connect

    LeBoeuf, E.J.; Roberts, P.V.; McCarty, P.L.

    1996-11-01

    The remediation of sites contaminated by hazardous wastes is often a very difficult and frustrating task for all parties involved. The public rightfully demands quick elimination of possible health threats caused by the contamination of the subsurface with hazardous chemicals. The government demands the same, but is also concerned with permanence of the remediation process, and ensuring the potentially responsible parties (PRP), are held fully liable for the cleanup. Finally, the PRP is concerned about all of the aforementioned factors, its reputation, and, as important, costs. It is this final aspect of hazardous waste remediation projects that has caused the largest concern. Because business and government often evaluate costs with differing criteria, it is necessary that both parties understand each other`s position, and especially the limitations and uncertainties associated with the preparation or preliminary remediation project cost estimates. Often it is these preliminary estimates that are used to determine which available technology will be employed at a specific site. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of remediation cost estimates, evaluate available cost assessment programs, and finally compare remediation technologies using the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Cost of Remedial Action (CORA) program in an actual remedial action case study.

  16. Reaction of catalytic oxidation by liquid water and its application to waste water purification

    SciTech Connect

    Ioffe, I.I.; Rubinskaya, E.V.

    1997-06-01

    In this paper the results of experiments and some considerations of theoretical and practical problems devoted to a new type of chemical reaction--oxidation of organic substances by liquid water with the aid of noble metal catalyst--are given. Some problems of application such as reaction to self-purification of industrial waste waters are also considered.

  17. Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Climate and Wastewater Storage - Module 8, Objectives, and Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

    This module discusses the hydrologic considerations that apply to land application of wastes. These are precipitation, infiltration and percolation, evapotranspiration, runoff, and groundwater. Climatic considerations that relate to wastewater storage are also discussed. Particular emphasis is given to wastewater flow, precipitation, evaporation,

  18. Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Nitrogen Considerations - Module 15, Objectives, Script and Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

    This module expands on the introductory discussion of nitrogen in other modules. The various chemical forms of nitrogen found in land treatment systems are defined. Inputs from waste application as well as natural sources are quantified for typical situations. A discussion of nitrogen transformations in the soil includes mineralization and

  19. Microwave applicator for in-drum processing of radioactive waste slurry

    DOEpatents

    White, Terry L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A microwave applicator for processing of radioactive waste slurry uses a waveguide network which splits an input microwave of TE.sub.10 rectangular mode to TE.sub.01 circular mode. A cylindrical body has four openings, each receiving 1/4 of the power input. The waveguide network includes a plurality of splitters to effect the 1/4 divisions of power.

  20. Mobile MapReduce: Minimizing Response Time of Computing Intensive Mobile Applications

    E-print Network

    Chen, Songqing

    on mobile devices, can result in poor performance. For example, an OpenGL application on an Android phone intensive tasks to external resources [10, 18, 26]. For example, the virtual machine-based cloning approach [12] has been explored to clone the entire mobile environment to the cloud without worrying about

  1. Unconstrained and Constrained Minimization, Linear Scaling, and the Grassmann Manifold: Theory and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    RACZKOWSKI,DAVID; FONG,C.Y.; SCHULTZ,PETER A.; LIPPERT,ROSS A.; STECHEL,E.B.

    2000-07-19

    An unconstrained minimization algorithm for electronic structure calculations using density functional for systems with a gap is developed to solve for nonorthogonal Wannier-like orbitals in the spirit of E. B. Stechel, A. R. Williams, and P. J. Feibelman, Phys. Rev. B 49, 10,008 (1994). The search for the occupied sub-space is a Grassmann conjugate gradient algorithm generalized from the algorithm of A. Edelman, T.A. Arias, and S. T. Smith, SIAM J. on Matrix Anal. Appl. 20, 303 (1998). The gradient takes into account the nonorthogonality of a local atom-centered basis, gaussian in their implementation. With a localization constraint on the Wannier-like orbitals, well-constructed sparse matrix multiplies lead to O(N) scaling of the computationally intensive parts of the algorithm. Using silicon carbide as a test system, the accuracy, convergence, and implementation of this algorithm as a quantitative alternative to diagonalization are investigated. Results up to 1,458 atoms on a single processor are presented.

  2. Constrained TpV Minimization for Enhanced Exploitation of Gradient Sparsity: Application to CT Image Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Sidky, Emil Y; Chartrand, Rick; Boone, John M; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2014-06-30

    Exploiting sparsity in the image gradient magnitude has proved to be an effective means for reducing the sampling rate in the projection view angle in computed tomography (CT). Most of the image reconstruction algorithms, developed for this purpose, solve a nonsmooth convex optimization problem involving the image total variation (TV). The TV seminorm is the ? 1 norm of the image gradient magnitude, and reducing the ? 1 norm is known to encourage sparsity in its argument. Recently, there has been interest in employing nonconvex ?p quasinorms with 0minimization of the total p-variation (TpV), ?p of the image gradient. Use of the algorithms is illustrated in the context of breast CT-an imaging modality that is still in the research phase and for which constraints on X-ray dose are extremely tight. The TpV-based image reconstruction algorithms are demonstrated on computer simulated data for exploiting gradient magnitude sparsity to reduce the projection view angle sampling. The proposed algorithms are applied to projection data from a realistic breast CT simulation, where the total X-ray dose is equivalent to two-view digital mammography. Following the simulation survey, the algorithms are then demonstrated on a clinical breast CT data set. PMID:25401059

  3. Constrained TpV Minimization for Enhanced Exploitation of Gradient Sparsity: Application to CT Image Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    SIDKY, EMIL Y.; CHARTRAND, RICK; BOONE, JOHN M.; PAN, XIAOCHUAN

    2014-01-01

    Exploiting sparsity in the image gradient magnitude has proved to be an effective means for reducing the sampling rate in the projection view angle in computed tomography (CT). Most of the image reconstruction algorithms, developed for this purpose, solve a nonsmooth convex optimization problem involving the image total variation (TV). The TV seminorm is the ?1 norm of the image gradient magnitude, and reducing the ?1 norm is known to encourage sparsity in its argument. Recently, there has been interest in employing nonconvex ?p quasinorms with 0minimization of the total p-variation (TpV), ?p of the image gradient. Use of the algorithms is illustrated in the context of breast CT預n imaging modality that is still in the research phase and for which constraints on X-ray dose are extremely tight. The TpV-based image reconstruction algorithms are demonstrated on computer simulated data for exploiting gradient magnitude sparsity to reduce the projection view angle sampling. The proposed algorithms are applied to projection data from a realistic breast CT simulation, where the total X-ray dose is equivalent to two-view digital mammography. Following the simulation survey, the algorithms are then demonstrated on a clinical breast CT data set. PMID:25401059

  4. Application of fly ash as an adsorbent for Estradiol in animal waste.

    PubMed

    Norris, Pauline; Hagan, Stephanie; Cohron, Martin; Zhao, Houying; Pan, Wei-Ping; Li, Kawang

    2015-09-15

    The contamination of agricultural ground with estrogen compounds through application of animal wastes is a present concern. At the same time, current uses for waste fly ash having high carbon content are limited. To help mitigate these problems, we examine using waste fly ash as a useful adsorbent for Estradiol in pig waste digests. In this study, Estradiol was added to vials containing water and fly ash from several different power plants. After an extraction process, the amount of Estradiol in the water was measured. Commercial activated carbon was also used for comparison purposes. Vials containing varying concentrations of Estradiol and no trapping material were used as a control. The results from this study indicate that fly ash can be used as a trapping material for Estradiol in water, but that commercially available activated carbon can trap about an order of magnitude more Estradiol than the fly ash and that the effects of the fly ash matrix can both inhibit and promote the solvation of Estradiol into water depending possibly upon pH and cation concentration effects. In addition, preliminary extraction studies using pig waste digest indicate that fly ash can be used as adsorbent for Estradiol present in pig waste. PMID:26150373

  5. Lyophilization -Solid Waste Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litwiller, Eric; Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Reinhard, Martin

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a solid waste treatment system that has been designed for a Mars transit exploration mission. The technology described is an energy-efficient lyophilization technique that is designed to recover water from spacecraft solid wastes. Candidate wastes include feces, concentrated brines from water processors, and other solid wastes that contain free water. The system is designed to operate as a stand-alone process or to be integrated into the International Space Station Waste Collection System. In the lyophilization process, water in an aqueous waste is frozen and then sublimed, separating the waste into a dried solid material and liquid water. The sublimed water is then condensed in a solid ice phase and then melted to generate a liquid product. In the subject system the waste solids are contained within a 0.2 micron bio-guard bag and after drying are removed from the system and stored in a secondary container. This technology is ideally suited to applications such as the Mars Reference Mission, where water recovery rates approaching 100% are desirable but production of CO2 is not. The system is designed to minimize power consumption through the use of thermoelectric heat pumps. The results of preliminary testing of a prototype system and testing of the final configuration are provided. A mathematical model of the system is also described.

  6. Potential Application Of Radionuclide Scaling Factors To High Level Waste Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Reboul, S. H.

    2013-09-30

    Production sources, radiological properties, relative solubilities in waste, and laboratory analysis techniques for the forty-five radionuclides identified in Hanford?s Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Feed Acceptance Data Quality Objectives (DQO) document are addressed in this report. Based on Savannah River Site (SRS) experience and waste characteristics, thirteen of the radionuclides are judged to be candidates for potential scaling in High Level Waste (HLW) based on the concentrations of other radionuclides as determined through laboratory measurements. The thirteen radionuclides conducive to potential scaling are: Ni-59, Zr-93, Nb-93m, Cd-113m, Sn-121m, Sn-126, Cs-135, Sm-151, Ra-226, Ra-228, Ac-227, Pa-231, and Th-229. The ability to scale radionuclides is useful from two primary perspectives: 1) it provides a means of checking the radionuclide concentrations that have been determined by laboratory analysis; and 2) it provides a means of estimating radionuclide concentrations in the absence of a laboratory analysis technique or when a complex laboratory analysis technique fails. Along with the rationale for identifying and applying the potential scaling factors, this report also provides examples of using the scaling factors to estimate concentrations of radionuclides in current SRS waste and into the future. Also included in the report are examples of independent laboratory analysis techniques that can be used to check results of key radionuclide analyses. Effective utilization of radionuclide scaling factors requires understanding of the applicable production sources and the chemistry of the waste. As such, the potential scaling approaches identified in this report should be assessed from the perspective of the Hanford waste before reaching a decision regarding WTP applicability.

  7. Waste Minimization Plan Prepared by

    E-print Network

    to the discovery and recovery of the Earth's resources, their conversion to materials and energy their prudent and provident use in a sustainable global society. This mission is achieved by the creation of Colorado, the nation, and the global community by promoting stewardship of the Earth upon which all life

  8. Application of poultry processing industry waste: a strategy for vegetation growth in degraded soil.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Carla Danielle Vasconcelos; Pontes Filho, Roberto Albuquerque; Artur, Adriana Guirado; Costa, Mirian Cristina Gomes

    2015-02-01

    The disposal of poultry processing industry waste into the environment without proper care, can cause contamination. Agricultural monitored application is an alternative for disposal, considering its high amount of organic matter and its potential as a soil fertilizer. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of poultry processing industry waste to improve the conditions of a degraded soil from a desertification hotspot, contributing to leguminous tree seedlings growth. The study was carried out under greenhouse conditions in a randomized blocks design and a 4 ラ 2 factorial scheme with five replicates. The treatments featured four amounts of poultry processing industry waste (D1 = control 0 kg ha(-1); D2 = 1020.41 kg ha(-1); D3 = 2040.82 kg ha(-1); D4 = 4081.63 kg ha(-1)) and two leguminous tree species (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit). The poultry processing industry waste was composed of poultry blood, grease, excrements and substances from the digestive system. Plant height, biomass production, plant nutrient accumulation and soil organic carbon were measured forty days after waste application. Leguminous tree seedlings growth was increased by waste amounts, especially M. caesalpiniaefolia Benth, with height increment of 29.5 cm for the waste amount of 1625 kg ha(-1), and L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit, with maximum height increment of 20 cm for the waste amount of 3814.3 kg ha(-1). M. caesalpiniaefolia Benth had greater initial growth, as well as greater biomass and nutrient accumulation compared with L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. However, belowground biomass was similar between the evaluated species, resulting in higher root/shoot ratio for L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Soil organic carbon did not show significant response to waste amounts, but it did to leguminous tree seedlings growth, especially L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Poultry processing industry waste contributes to leguminous tree seedlings growth, indicating that it can be part of a long-term strategy to increase soil organic carbon in degraded soil from a desertification hotspot. PMID:25464939

  9. Minimally invasive drug delivery to the cochlea through application of nanoparticles to the round window membrane.

    PubMed

    Buckiov, Daniela; Ranjan, Sanjeev; Newman, Tracey A; Johnston, Alexander H; Sood, Rohit; Kinnunen, Paavo K J; Popel?, Ji?; Chumak, Tetyana; Syka, Josef

    2012-09-01

    Direct drug delivery to the cochlea is associated with the risk of irreversible damage to the ear. In this study, liposome and polymersome nanoparticles (NPs), both formed from amphiphilic molecules (lipids in liposomes and block copolymers in polymersomes), were tested as potential tools for drug delivery to the cochlea via application onto the round window membrane in adult mice (strain C3H). One day after round window membrane application, both types of NPs labeled with fluorescent markers were identified in the spiral ganglion in all cochlear turns without producing any distinct morphological or functional damage to the inner ear. NPs were detected, although to a lesser extent, in the organ of Corti and the lateral wall. The potential of liposome and polymersome NPs as therapeutic delivery systems into the cochlea via the round window membrane was evaluated using disulfiram, a neurotoxic agent, as a model payload. Disulfiram-loaded NP delivery resulted in a significant decrease in the number of spiral ganglion cells starting 2 days postapplication, with associated pronounced hearing loss reaching 20-35 dB 2 weeks postapplication as assessed through auditory brainstem responses. No changes in hair cell morphology and function (as assessed by recording otoacoustic emissions) were detected after disulfiram-loaded NP application. No effects were observed in controls where solution of free disulfiram was similarly administered. The results demonstrate that liposome and polymersome NPs are capable of carrying a payload into the inner ear that elicits a biological effect, with consequences measurable by a functional readout. PMID:22475648

  10. Modelling biogas production of solid waste: application of the BGP model to a synthetic landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo-Ilarri, Javier; Segura-Sobrino, Francisco

    2013-04-01

    Production of biogas as a result of the decomposition of organic matter included on solid waste landfills is still an issue to be understood. Reports on this matter are rarely included on the engineering construction projects of solid waste landfills despite it can be an issue of critical importance while operating the landfill and after its closure. This paper presents an application of BGP (Bio-Gas-Production) model to a synthetic landfill. The evolution in time of the concentrations of the different chemical compounds of biogas is studied. Results obtained show the impact on the air quality of different management alternatives which are usually performed in real landfills.

  11. WASTE OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: A PHOTOFINISHING FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A waste minimization opportunity assessment was performed which identified areas for waste reduction at a photofinishing facility. The study followed procedures in the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual. The report identifies potential options to achieve further...

  12. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, general information portion. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnichsen, J.C.

    1997-08-21

    For purposes of the Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, the US Department of Energy`s contractors are identified as ``co-operators`` and sign in that capacity (refer to Condition I.A.2. of the Dangerous Waste Portion of the Hanford Facility Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit). Any identification of these contractors as an ``operator`` elsewhere in the application is not meant to conflict with the contractors` designation as co-operators but rather is based on the contractors` contractual status with the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. The Dangerous Waste Portion of the initial Hanford Facility Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit, which incorporated five treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, was based on information submitted in the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application and in closure plan and closure/postclosure plan documentation. During 1995, the Dangerous Waste Portion was modified twice to incorporate another eight treatment, storage, and/or disposal units; during 1996, the Dangerous Waste Portion was modified once to incorporate another five treatment, storage, and/or disposal units. The permit modification process will be used at least annually to incorporate additional treatment, storage, and/or disposal units as permitting documentation for these units is finalized. The units to be included in annual modifications are specified in a schedule contained in the Dangerous Waste Portion of the Hanford Facility Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit. Treatment, storage, and/or disposal units will remain in interim status until incorporated into the Permit. The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (this document, DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to individual operating treatment, storage, and/or disposal units for which Part B permit application documentation has been, or is anticipated to be, submitted. Documentation for treatment, storage, and/or disposal units undergoing closure, or for units that are, or are anticipated to be, dispositioned through other options, will continue to be submitted by the Permittees in accordance with the provisions of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. However, the scope of the General Information Portion includes information that could be used to discuss operating units, units undergoing closure, or units being dispositioned through other options. Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the contents of the Part B permit application guidance documentation prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, with additional information needs defined by revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303 and by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (i.e., either operating units, units undergoing closure, or units being dispositioned through other options).

  13. Minimization of thermal impact by application of electrode cooling in a co-linear PEF treatment chamber.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Nicolas; Jaeger, Henry; Knorr, Dietrich

    2011-10-01

    A co-linear pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment chamber was analyzed and optimized considering electrical process conditions, temperature, and retention of heat-sensitive compounds during a continuous PEF treatment of peach juice. The applicability of a jacket heat-exchanger device surrounding the ground electrode was studied in order to provide active cooling and to avoid temperature peaks within the treatment chamber thus reducing the total thermal load to which the product is exposed. Simulation of the PEF process was performed using a finite element method prior to experimental verification. Inactivation of polyphenoloxydase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) as well as the degradation of ascorbic acid (AA) in peach juice was quantified and used as indirect indicators for the temperature distribution. Peaks of product temperature within the treatment chamber were reduced, that is, from 98 to 75 ーC and retention of the indicators PPO, POD, and AA increased by more than 10% after application of the active electrode cooling device. Practical Application:? The co-linear PEF treatment chamber is widely used for continuous PEF treatment of liquid products and also suitable for industrial scale application; however, Joule heating in combination with nonuniform electric field distribution may lead to unwanted thermal effects. The proposed design showed potential to reduce the thermal load, to which the food is exposed, allowing the retention of heat-sensitive components. The design is applicable at laboratory or industrial scale to perform PEF trials avoiding temperature peaks, which is also the basis for obtaining inactivation kinetic models with minimized thermal impact on the kinetic variables. PMID:22417588

  14. Functional analysis, a resilience improvement tool applied to a waste management system - application to the "household waste management chain"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beraud, H.; Barroca, B.; Hubert, G.

    2012-12-01

    A waste management system plays a leading role in the capacity of an area to restart after flooding, as their impact on post-crisis management can be very considerable. Improving resilience, i.e. enabling it to maintain or recover acceptable operating levels after flooding is primordial. To achieve this, we must understand how the system works for bringing any potential dysfunctions to light and taking preventive measures. Functional analysis has been used for understanding the complexity of this type of system. The purpose of this article is to show the interest behind this type of method and the limits in its use for improving resilience of waste management system as well as other urban technical systems1, by means of theoretical modelling and its application on a study site. 1In a systemic vision of the city, urban technical systems combine all the user service systems that are essential for the city to operate (electricity, water supplies, transport, sewerage, etc.). These systems are generally organised in the form of networks (Coutard, 2010; CERTU, 2005).

  15. RCRA Part A and Part B Permit Application for Waste Management Activities at the Nevada Test Site: Proposed Mixed Waste Disposal Unit (MWSU)

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-07-19

    The proposed Mixed Waste Storage Unit (MWSU) will be located within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Existing facilities at the RWMC will be used to store low-level mixed waste (LLMW). Storage is required to accommodate offsite-generated LLMW shipped to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal in the new Mixed Waste Disposal Unit (MWDU) currently in the design/build stage. LLMW generated at the NTS (onsite) is currently stored on the Transuranic (TRU) Pad (TP) in Area 5 under a Mutual Consent Agreement (MCA) with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Federal Facilities (NDEP/BFF). When the proposed MWSU is permitted, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will ask that NDEP revoke the MCA and onsite-generated LLMW will fall under the MWSU permit terms and conditions. The unit will also store polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste and friable and non-friable asbestos waste that meets the acceptance criteria in the Waste Analysis Plan (Exhibit 2) for disposal in the MWDU. In addition to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements, the proposed MWSU will also be subject to Department of Energy (DOE) orders and other applicable state and federal regulations. Table 1 provides the metric conversion factors used in this application. Table 2 provides a list of existing permits. Table 3 lists operational RCRA units at the NTS and their respective regulatory status.

  16. Method for minimizing the cost/Watt of complete photovoltaic systems and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redfield, D.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes an optimization method and some applications in which the design criterion for every part of a photovoltaic system is the minimum power cost for the complete system. The various parts of a photovoltaic system are grouped so that all costs fall into four classes: fabrication steps of the active solar cells; steps associated with the collector array and its complete structure; power-handling elements such as switchgear, storage, etc.; and fixed costs that do not vary directly with any of the system parts, such as factory-level overhead. It is assumed that the total collector area is independent of any of the optimization processes. A general equation is found to be capable of optimizing all parts of a system, although the cell and array steps are basically different from the power-handling elements. It is shown that the optimization of any step in the system requires inclusion of the properties of the other parts of the system.

  17. Management considerations to minimize environmental impacts of arsenic following monosodium methylarsenate (MSMA) applications to turfgrass.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Denis J; Gannon, Travis W; Jeffries, Matthew D; Matteson, Audrey R; Polizzotto, Matthew L

    2015-03-01

    Monosodium methylarsenate (MSMA) is an organic arsenical herbicide currently utilized in turfgrass and cotton systems. In recent years, concerns over adverse impacts of arsenic (As) from MSMA applications have emerged; however, little research has been conducted in controlled field experiments using typical management practices. To address this knowledge gap, a field lysimeter experiment was conducted during 2012-2013 to determine the fate of As following MSMA applications to a bareground and an established turfgrass system. Arsenic concentrations in soil, porewater, and aboveground vegetation, were measured through one yr after treatment. Aboveground vegetation As concentration was increased compared to nontreated through 120 d after initial treatment (DAIT). In both systems, increased soil As concentrations were observed at 0-4 cm at 30 and 120 DAIT and 0-8 cm at 60 and 365 DAIT, suggesting that As was bound in shallow soil depths. Porewater As concentrations in MSMA-treated lysimeters from a 30-cm depth (22.0-83.8 ?g L(-1)) were greater than those at 76-cm depth (0.4-5.1 ?g L(-1)). These results were combined with previous research to devise management considerations in systems where MSMA is utilized. MSMA should not be applied if rainfall is forecasted within 7 DAIT and/or in areas with shallow water tables. Further, disposing of MSMA-treated turfgrass aboveground vegetation in a confined area - a common management practice for turfgrass clippings - may be of concern due to As release to surface water or groundwater as the vegetation decomposes. Finally, long-term MSMA use may cause soil As accumulation and thus downward migration of As over time; therefore, MSMA should be used in rotation with other herbicides. PMID:25556868

  18. Agricultural Waste as Sources for Mercury Adsorbents in Gas Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased emphasis on reduction of mercury emissions from coal fired electric power plants have resulted in environmental regulations that may in the future require application of activated carbons as mercury sorbents. The sorbents could be injected into the flue gas stream where it adsorbs the mer...

  19. Assessment of TEES reg sign applications for Wet Industrial Wastes: Energy benefit and economic analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.C.; Scheer, T.H.

    1992-02-01

    Fundamental work is catalyzed biomass pyrolysis/gasification led to the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg sign}) concept, a means of converting moist biomass feedstocks to high-value fuel gases such as methane. A low-temperature (350{degrees}C), pressurized (3100 psig) reaction environment and a nickel catalyst are used to reduce volumes of very high-moisture wastes such as food processing byproducts while producing useful quantities of energy. A study was conducted to assess the economic viability of a range of potential applications of the process. Cases examined included feedstocks of cheese whey, grape pomace, spent grain, and an organic chemical waste stream. The analysis indicated that only the organic chemical waste process is economically attractive in the existing energy/economic environment. However, food processing cases will become attractive as alternative disposal practices are curtailed and energy prices rise.

  20. WITS - WASTE DATA COLLECTION WITH OUR PALMS AT OUR FINGERTIPS

    SciTech Connect

    B. MARTINEZ

    2000-11-01

    The waste management and environmental compliance group (NMT-7) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has initiated a project to build a computer-based system for tracking inventory, storage and disposal information for hazardous and radioactive waste and contaminated byproducts. This project, the Waste Inventory Tracking System (WITS), will initially be used in TA-55 (which includes the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility) and the Chemical and Metallurgy Research (CMR) building where wastes are generated. The system handles numerous waste types with variation in size, disposal method, and hazard classification including: low level waste such as room trash (compactable waste), SEG waste (non-compactable), and over-sized waste, mixed waste, hazardous and chemical waste, universal waste, and waste containing asbestos and PCB's. WITS is designed to provide up-to-date location, status, content information, radioactivity analyses, and other inventory information for every waste item and container managed by NMT-7. The system will support comprehensive reporting capabilities and cradle-to-grave audit trails. WITS is intended to facilitate handling of waste by NMT-7 staff to help minimize waste disposal costs, ensure compliance with applicable regulations, and standardize waste management methodologies and practices. This paper compares current management practices with revised methodologies supported by WITS. It shows how automating inventory tracking helps achieve these goals.

  1. Application of Direct Assessment Approaches and Methodologies to Cathodically Protected Nuclear Waste Transfer Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, Megan M.; Pikas, Joseph; Edgemon, Glenn L.; Philo, Sarah

    2013-01-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site is responsible for the safe storage, retrieval, treatment, and disposal of approximately 54 million gallons (204 million liters) of radioactive waste generated since the site's inception in 1943. Today, the major structures involved in waste management at Hanford include 149 carbon steel single-shell tanks, 28 carbon-steel double-shell tanks, plus a network of buried metallic transfer lines and ancillary systems (pits, vaults, catch tanks, etc.) required to store, retrieve, and transfer waste within the tank farm system. Many of the waste management systems at Hanford are still in use today. In response to uncertainties regarding the structural integrity of these systems,' an independent, comprehensive integrity assessment of the Hanford Site piping system was performed. It was found that regulators do not require the cathodically protected pipelines located within the Hanford Site to be assessed by External Corrosion Direct Assessment (ECDA) or any other method used to ensure integrity. However, a case study is presented discussing the application of the direct assessment process on pipelines in such a nuclear environment. Assessment methodology and assessment results are contained herein. An approach is described for the monitoring, integration of outside data, and analysis of this information in order to identify whether coating deterioration accompanied by external corrosion is a threat for these waste transfer lines.

  2. Solid waste disposal permit request for Construction/demolition landfill 6. Permit application Part 1 and Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    This is an application for a Tennessee Solid Waste Disposal Permit for a construction/demolition landfill at the Y-12 Plant. The permit application meets all the requirements defined by the Tennessee Department of Conversation (TDC), Division of Solid Waste Management, for a new Class 4 solid waste disposal facility. The application consists of a notebook which includes the following: (1) ``Geologic and Hydrogeologic Conditions at Y-12 Construction/Demolition Landfill-6 Site``; (2) ``Design and Operating Procedure for Y-12 Construction/Demolition Landfill 6`` (Y/WM-070); (3) ``Design Calculations for Y-12 Construction and Demolition Landfill 6``; and, (4) Engineering Design Drawings. This facility will allow disposal of wastes resulting from construction, remodeling, repair and demolition of structures and road construction. Such wastes include, but are not limited to, bricks, concrete and other masonry materials, soil, rock and lumber, road spoils, rebar, and paving material.

  3. SITE PROGRAM APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT, INTERNATIONAL WASTE TECHNOLOGIES/GEO CON IN-SITU STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An evaluation was performed of the International Waste Technologies (IWT) HWT-20 additive and the Geo-Con, Inc. deep-soil-mixing equipment for an in situ stabilization/solidification process and its applicability as an on-site treatment method for waste site cleanup. emonstration...

  4. RCRA Part A and Part B Permit Application for Waste Management Activities at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Protection and Technical Services

    2009-09-30

    This permit application provides facility information on the design, processes, and security features associated with the proposed Mixed Waste Disposal Unit. The unit will receive and dispose of onsite and offsite containerized low-level mixed waste (LLMW) that has an approved U.S. Department of Energy nexus.

  5. Photocatalysis for the treatment of waste water: Applications involving the removal of metals

    SciTech Connect

    Prairie, M.R.; Stange, B.M.

    1993-04-01

    This paper describes laboratory work investigating the applicability of solar-powered photocatalysis for the treatment of water contaminated with heavy metals and organics. It was found that Ag(I), Au (HI), Cr(VI), Hg(H), Pd(H), and PT(IV) are easily treated while Cd(U), Cu(II), and NI(II) are not. The importance of the entire photocatalytic redox cycle is demonstrated by showing that the rates of oxidation (of organics) and reduction (of metals) are intrinsically interrelated. Data are presented showing that photoefficiency decreases as light intensity increases in the range of 0 to 17 suns UV. This result suggests that one-sun systems are more efficient than those using concentrated solar radiation. Preliminary data for three samples of actual waste: (1) gold mining leachate, (2) precious metals mining extract, and (3) photographic waste, are described. In general, actual applications are less effective than predicted using laboratory data for clean systems.

  6. Waste reduction at a propellant manufacturing site

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, L.A.

    1994-12-31

    It is the US Army policy to reduce the volume and toxicity of hazardous waste generated by its operations and activities. The Army established a goal to reduce 1985 waste generation levels by 50% by the year 1992, with additional reductions proposed through 1999 per Army guidance. To assist in accomplishing this goal, the Production Base Modernization Activity under a program sponsored by the US Army Materiel Command contracted Science Applications International Corporation to conduct a waste minimization audit at Radford Army Ammunition Plant. This study addressed hazardous wastes as well as non-hazardous oily wastes. The investigation was conducted in three phases to document how hazardous and oily wastes are produced and to recommend waste reduction alternatives. Radford Army Ammunition Plant (RAAP) produces in-process materials such as nitric and sulfuric acids, and propellant components including nitrocellulose and nitroglycerin. In addition, to propellants, the explosives trinitrotoluene and diethylene glycol dinitrate can be produced. The manufacture of military propellants generates the majority of waste at the facility. This paper will present the results of the RAAP Hazmin study, focusing on the major waste generating processes involved with propellant manufacture, Hazmin options suggested to minimize waste generation, and lessons learned.

  7. Microwave applicator for in-drum processing of radioactive waste slurry

    DOEpatents

    White, T.L.

    1994-06-28

    A microwave applicator for processing of radioactive waste slurry uses a waveguide network which splits an input microwave of TE[sub 10] rectangular mode to TE[sub 01] circular mode. A cylindrical body has four openings, each receiving 1/4 of the power input. The waveguide network includes a plurality of splitters to effect the 1/4 divisions of power. 4 figures.

  8. 40 CFR 266.205 - Standards applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions ァ 266.205...

  9. 40 CFR 266.206 - Standards applicable to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions ァ 266.206...

  10. 40 CFR 266.206 - Standards applicable to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions ァ 266.206...

  11. 40 CFR 266.206 - Standards applicable to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions ァ 266.206...

  12. 40 CFR 266.203 - Standards applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions ァ 266.203...

  13. 40 CFR 266.205 - Standards applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions ァ 266.205...

  14. 40 CFR 266.203 - Standards applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions ァ 266.203...

  15. 40 CFR 266.203 - Standards applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions ァ 266.203...

  16. 40 CFR 266.205 - Standards applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions ァ 266.205...

  17. 40 CFR 266.203 - Standards applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions ァ 266.203...

  18. 40 CFR 266.205 - Standards applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions ァ 266.205...

  19. 40 CFR 266.206 - Standards applicable to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions ァ 266.206...

  20. 40 CFR 266.205 - Standards applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions ァ 266.205...

  1. 40 CFR 266.206 - Standards applicable to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions ァ 266.206...

  2. 40 CFR 266.203 - Standards applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions ァ 266.203...

  3. Assessment of two thermally treated drill mud wastes for landfill containment applications.

    PubMed

    Carignan, Marie-Pierre; Lake, Craig B; Menzies, Todd

    2007-10-01

    Offshore oil and gas drilling operations generate significant amounts of drill mud waste, some of which is transported onshore for subsequent thermal treatment (i.e. via thermal remediation). This treatment process results in a mineral waste by-product (referred to as thermally treated drill mud waste; TTDMW). Bentonites are originally present in many of the drill mud products and it is hypothesized that TTDMW can be utilized in landfill containment applications (i.e. cover or base liner). The objective of this paper is to examine the feasibility of this application by performing various physical and chemical tests on two TTDMW samples. It is shown that the two TTDMW samples contained relatively small amounts of clay-sized minerals although hydraulic conductivity values are found to be less than 10(-8) m/s. Organic carbon contents of the samples were approximately 2%. Mineralogy characterization of the samples confirmed varying amounts of smectite, however, peak friction angles for a TTDMW sample was greater than 36 degrees. Chemical characterization of the TTDMW samples show potential leaching of barium and small amounts of other heavy metals. Discussion is provided in the paper on suggestions to assist in overcoming regulatory issues associated with utilization of TTDMW in landfill containment applications. PMID:17985664

  4. Combined Municipal Solid Waste and biomass system optimization for district energy applications.

    PubMed

    Rentizelas, Athanasios A; Tolis, Athanasios I; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P

    2014-01-01

    Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal has been a controversial issue in many countries over the past years, due to disagreement among the various stakeholders on the waste management policies and technologies to be adopted. One of the ways of treating/disposing MSW is energy recovery, as waste is considered to contain a considerable amount of bio-waste and therefore can lead to renewable energy production. The overall efficiency can be very high in the cases of co-generation or tri-generation. In this paper a model is presented, aiming to support decision makers in issues relating to Municipal Solid Waste energy recovery. The idea of using more fuel sources, including MSW and agricultural residue biomass that may exist in a rural area, is explored. The model aims at optimizing the system specifications, such as the capacity of the base-load Waste-to-Energy facility, the capacity of the peak-load biomass boiler and the location of the facility. Furthermore, it defines the quantity of each potential fuel source that should be used annually, in order to maximize the financial yield of the investment. The results of an energy tri-generation case study application at a rural area of Greece, using mixed MSW and biomass, indicate positive financial yield of investment. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the effect of the most important parameters of the model on the optimum solution, pinpointing the parameters of interest rate, investment cost and heating oil price, as those requiring the attention of the decision makers. Finally, the sensitivity analysis is enhanced by a stochastic analysis to determine the effect of the volatility of parameters on the robustness of the model and the solution obtained. PMID:24140378

  5. 40 CFR 62.15400 - When must I submit a title V permit application for my existing small municipal waste combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... application for my existing small municipal waste combustion unit? 62.15400 Section 62.15400 Protection of... STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Small Municipal Waste... a title V permit application for my existing small municipal waste combustion unit? (a) You...

  6. Tank Waste Transport, Pipeline Plugging, and the Prospects for Reducing the Risk of Waste Transfers

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, T.D.

    2001-09-27

    This report provides an overview of the capabilities and limitations of some current models being applied to the analysis of waste transfers; identifies the modeling capabilities needed to reduce the risk of pipeline plugging during tank waste transfers; and summarizes ongoing, planned, and future work needed to add these capabilities. Development of improved waste transport modeling tools with these capabilities will also help with waste transfer planning and evaluation, process control, and diagnosis of plugging events. Other potential applications include evaluation of waste-mixing scenarios, analysis of waste transfer stability, analysis of waste-unplugging alternatives, minimization of water addition, maximization of system availability, evaluation of risk-reduction strategies, and evaluation of cost-reduction strategies.

  7. Computer-Aided Design & Applications, Vol. 4, No. 5, 2007, pp 607-617 Energy Minimizers for Curvature-Based Surface Functionals

    E-print Network

    Frey, Pascal

    Computer-Aided Design & Applications, Vol. 4, No. 5, 2007, pp 607-617 607 Energy Minimizers) or a shape that can be transformed into a Lawson surface by a conformal #12;Computer-Aided Design, and automotive shapes. With ever increasing computing power, surface designers will soon be able to use

  8. Use of swelling clays to reduce permeability and its potential application to nuclear waste repository sealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, D. E.; Morrow, C. A.; Byerlee, J. D.

    1982-09-01

    The injection of swelling-clay slurries into joints or faults at a deep-burial nuclear waste disposal site may result in significant permeability reductions for the effective containment of radioactive wastes. In an experiment conducted to illustrate the permeability change accompanying clay swelling, a coarse stone with interconnected pore spaces was injected with a clay-electrolyte slurry, modelling the pressure-grouting of a fractured repository rock. Subsequently, solutions with lower electrolyte concentrations were driven through the clay-filled stone, corresponding to migration of lower salinity ground-waters through the clay-grouted fracture. The initial injection procedure reduced the permeability of the stone from 1-10 darcies to 700 nanodarcies; the changes in solution composition decreased permeability by more than 2 additional orders of magnitude to 3 nanodarcies. For application at a nuclear waste repository, the electrolyte concentration of the injected clay slurry should be made higher than that of the ground-water in the host rock. Subsequent interaction of the ground-water with the clays would initiate swelling and create the additional, post-injection permeability reductions that may be important in preventing the escape of buried radioactive wastes. The measured permeability of the clay filling is considerably lower than that of cement tested for borehole plugging. Clays also have the advantage over cement and chemical grouts in that they are geologically stable at relatively low temperatures and have a high capacity for radionuclide adsorption.

  9. Investigation of potential waste material insulating properties at different temperature for thermal storage application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, T. Z. S.; Rosli, A. B.; Gan, L. M.; Billy, A. S.; Farid, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Thermal energy storage system (TES) is developed to extend the operation of power generation. TES system is a key component in a solar energy power generation plant, but the main issue in designing the TES system is its thermal capacity of storage materials, e.g. insulator. This study is focusing on the potential waste material acts as an insulator for thermal energy storage applications. As the insulator is used to absorb heat, it is needed to find suitable material for energy conversion and at the same time reduce the waste generation. Thus, a small-scale experimental testing of natural cooling process of an insulated tank within a confined room is conducted. The experiment is repeated by changing the insulator from the potential waste material and also by changing the heat transfer fluid (HTF). The analysis presented the relationship between heat loss and the reserved period by the insulator. The results show the percentage of period of the insulated tank withstands compared to tank insulated by foam, e.g. newspaper reserved the period of 84.6% as much as foam insulated tank to withstand the heat transfer of cooking oil to the surrounding. The paper finally justifies the most potential waste material as an insulator for different temperature range of heat transfer fluid.

  10. Shifting Paradigms in Minimally Invasive Surgery: Applications of Transanal Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery in Colorectal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Grace Clara; Sylla, Patricia

    2015-09-01

    Since the advent of laparoscopy, minimally invasive techniques such as single port laparoscopy, robotics, endoscopically assisted laparoscopy, and transanal endoscopic surgery continue to revolutionize the field of colorectal surgery. Transanal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) represents a further paradigm shift by combining the advantages of these earlier techniques to reduce the size and number of abdominal incisions and potentially optimize rectal dissection, especially with respect to performance of an oncologically adequate total mesorectal excision (TME) for rectal cancer. Since the first experimental report of transanal rectosigmoid resection in 2007, the potential impact of transanal NOTES in colorectal surgery has been extensively investigated in experimental models and recently transitioned to clinical application. There have been 14 clinical trials of transanal TME (taTME) for rectal cancer that have demonstrated the feasibility and preliminary oncologic safety of this approach in carefully selected patients, with results comparable to outcomes after laparoscopic and open TME, including cumulative intraoperative and postoperative complication rates of 5.5 and 35.5%, respectively, 97.3% rate of complete or near-complete specimens, and 93.6% rate of negative margins. Transanal NOTES has also been safely applied to proctectomy and colectomy for benign indications. The consensus among published series suggests that taTME is most safely performed with transabdominal assistance by surgeons experienced with laparoscopic TME, transanal endoscopic surgery, and sphincter-preserving techniques including intersphincteric resection. Future applications of transanal NOTES may include evolution to a pure endoscopic transanal approach for TME, colectomy, and sentinel lymph node biopsy for rectal cancer, with a potential role for robotic assistance. PMID:26491411

  11. Contaminated Groundwater N flux to Surface Waters from Biosolid Waste Application Fields at a Waste Water Treatment Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showers, W. J.; Fountain, M.; Fountain, J. C.

    2006-05-01

    Biosolids have been land applied at the Neuse River Waste Water Treatment Plant (NRWWTP) since 1980. The long biosolid application history at this site has resulted in a build up of nitrate in the ground water beneath the Waste Application Fields (WAFs). We have used an innovative river monitoring system that measures in situ nitrate concentrations and discharge above and below the plant to determine the amount of nitrate gained in the reach from the WAFs. The nitrogen and oxygen isotopic composition of nitrate in the WAF groundwater indicates that 18% of the monitoring wells are impacted by fertilizer N, 57% of the wells are impacted by biosolid N, 22% of the wells are affected by denitrification, and one well is impacted by A.D.N. The net daily contribution of surface / ground water and nitrate to the reach was calculated from the sum of the flux into the reach at the upper RiverNet station plus the plant discharge minus the flux out of the reach at the lower RiverNet station. The difference between the flux into the reach and plant discharge minus the flux out of the reach is termed the non-point source gain (NPS gain). The NPS gain could come from groundwater and/or surface drainage additions to the reach. On an annual basis, daily integrated NPS nitrate gains were ~70,000 kg in year 2004 and ~27,900 kg in 2005. This represents an average over the two year period of ~12% of the total nitrate flux out of the reach and 43% of the nitrate discharged from the plant. During the past year groundwater wells were installed in the river riparian buffer and N Flux was measured in a surface water drainage in the WAF. The results indicate that N is not migrating through the shallow groundwater, and most of the NPS gains in the reach can come from surface drainages which have nitrate concentrations of 30-80 mg/l. Over the next year wetlands will be reconstructed in the surface drainages to attenuate the N flux and protect river water quality.

  12. Summary of Technical resource document on solidification/stabilization and its application to waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Means, J.L.; Smith, L.A.; Nehring, K.W.; Brauning, S.E.; Mashni, C.I.; Wiles, C.C.

    1996-12-31

    The Technical Resource Document on Solidification/Stabilization and Its Application to Waste Materials (TRD) is a technical resource for the S/S user community and a guide to promote the best future applications of S/S processes. A potential hurdle for any S/S project is the fact that although the standard bulk materials handling and mixing equipment processes used in S/S processes make the technology appear simple, there are significant technical challenges to the successful application of S/S processes. In order to help users meet such challenges, the TRD describes technology screening procedures and summarizes the status of S/S processes to assist users and reviewers in their selection, planning, and application of S/S technology.

  13. 40 CFR 266.205 - Standards applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... munitions and that exhibit a hazardous waste characteristic or are listed as hazardous waste under 40 CFR... munitions and that exhibit a hazardous waste characteristic or are listed as hazardous waste under 40 CFR... hazardous waste characteristic or are listed as hazardous waste under 40 CFR Part 261, are listed...

  14. 40 CFR 266.205 - Standards applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... munitions and that exhibit a hazardous waste characteristic or are listed as hazardous waste under 40 CFR... munitions and that exhibit a hazardous waste characteristic or are listed as hazardous waste under 40 CFR... hazardous waste characteristic or are listed as hazardous waste under 40 CFR Part 261, are listed...

  15. 40 CFR 266.205 - Standards applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... munitions and that exhibit a hazardous waste characteristic or are listed as hazardous waste under 40 CFR... munitions and that exhibit a hazardous waste characteristic or are listed as hazardous waste under 40 CFR... hazardous waste characteristic or are listed as hazardous waste under 40 CFR Part 261, are listed...

  16. 40 CFR 266.205 - Standards applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... munitions and that exhibit a hazardous waste characteristic or are listed as hazardous waste under 40 CFR... munitions and that exhibit a hazardous waste characteristic or are listed as hazardous waste under 40 CFR... hazardous waste characteristic or are listed as hazardous waste under 40 CFR Part 261, are listed...

  17. 40 CFR 266.205 - Standards applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... munitions and that exhibit a hazardous waste characteristic or are listed as hazardous waste under 40 CFR... munitions and that exhibit a hazardous waste characteristic or are listed as hazardous waste under 40 CFR... hazardous waste characteristic or are listed as hazardous waste under 40 CFR Part 261, are listed...

  18. Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, liquid effluent retention facility and 200 area effluent treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    Coenenberg, J.G.

    1997-08-15

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to 10 be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document 11 number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the 12 Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation 13 submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal 14 units, such as the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 15 Treatment Facility (this document, DOE/RL-97-03). 16 17 Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford 18 Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B 19 permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of 20 Ecology (Ecology 1987 and 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 21 (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs 22 defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of 23 Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington 24 State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit 25 application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the 26 chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is 27 contained in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 28 Treatment Facility permit application documentation, in relation to the 29 Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents 30 Section. 31 32 Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in 33 nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units 34 (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever 35 appropriate, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 36 Treatment Facility permit application documentation makes cross-reference to 37 the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. 38 39 Information provided in this Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 40 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility permit application documentation is 41 current as of June 1, 1997.

  19. The application of magnetic gradiometry and electromagnetic induction at a former radioactive waste disposal site.

    PubMed

    Rucker, Dale Franklin

    2010-04-01

    A former radioactive waste disposal site is surveyed with two non-intrusive geophysical techniques, including magnetic gradiometry and electromagnetic induction. Data were gathered over the site by towing the geophysical equipment mounted to a non-electrically conductive and non-magnetic fibre-glass cart. Magnetic gradiometry, which detects the location of ferromagnetic material, including iron and steel, was used to map the existence of a previously unknown buried pipeline formerly used in the delivery of liquid waste to a number of surface disposal trenches and concrete vaults. The existence of a possible pipeline is reinforced by historical engineering drawing and photographs. The electromagnetic induction (EMI) technique was used to map areas of high and low electrical conductivity, which coincide with the magnetic gradiometry data. The EMI also provided information on areas of high electrical conductivity unrelated to a pipeline network. Both data sets demonstrate the usefulness of surface geophysical surveillance techniques to minimize the risk of exposure in the event of future remediation efforts. PMID:20124318

  20. CONTAMINATION CONTROL DURING IN SITU JET GROUTING FOR APPLICATION IN A BURIED TRANSURANIC WASTE SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, Guy G.; Jessmore, Jim J.

    2003-02-27

    Engineers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) have developed means of contamination control associated with jet-grouting buried radioactive mixed waste sites. Finely divided plutonium/americium oxide particulate can escape as the drill stem of the jet-grouting apparatus exits a waste deposit in preparation for insertion in another injection hole. In studying various options for controlling this potential contamination, engineers found that an elaborate glovebox/drill string shroud system prevents contaminants from spreading. Researchers jet-grouted a pit with nonradioactive tracers to simulate the movement of plutonium fines during an actual application. Data from the testing indicate that the grout immobilizes the tracer material by locking it up in particles large enough to resist aerosolization.