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1

Waste minimization handbook, Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This technical guide presents various methods used by industry to minimize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated during decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities. Such activities generate significant amounts of LLW during their operations. Waste minimization refers to any measure, procedure, or technique that reduces the amount of waste generated during a specific operation or project. Preventive waste minimization techniques implemented when a project is initiated can significantly reduce waste. Techniques implemented during decontamination activities reduce the cost of decommissioning. The application of waste minimization techniques is not limited to D and D activities; it is also useful during any phase of a facility`s life cycle. This compendium will be supplemented with a second volume of abstracts of hundreds of papers related to minimizing low-level nuclear waste. This second volume is expected to be released in late 1996.

Boing, L.E.; Coffey, M.J.

1995-12-01

2

WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR NON-AGRICULTURAL PESTICIDE APPLICATORS: EPA'S POLLUTION PREVENTION GUIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development is preparing a guide to be published later this year for non-agricultural pesticide applicators which will provide specific information about waste minimization for pesticide users in industries such as commercial lawn care, structura...

3

Waste minimization, McMurdo  

NSF Publications Database

... Action Memorandum (Waste Minimization, Treatment and Disposal Program for McMurdo Station Including ... two major projects: (1) waste minimization, treatment and disposal; and, (2) preliminary assessment ...

4

Development and test case application of a waste minimization project evaluation method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors have developed and applied a methodology to evaluate and prioritize proposed waste minimization activities affecting Department of Energy (DOE) programs. The approach provides a systematic and defensible method for selecting a set of waste min...

E. A. Kjeldgaard J. H. Saloio G. B. Varnado

1990-01-01

5

Legal incentives for minimizing waste  

SciTech Connect

Waste minimization, or pollution prevention, has become an integral component of federal and state environmental regulation. Minimizing waste offers many economic and public relations benefits. In addition, waste minimization efforts can also dramatically reduce potential criminal requirements. This paper addresses the legal incentives for minimizing waste under current and proposed environmental laws and regulations.

Clearwater, S.W.; Scanlon, J.M. (Winston and Strawn, Washington, DC (United States))

1991-08-01

6

Guidelines for mixed waste minimization  

SciTech Connect

Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization.

Owens, C.

1992-02-01

7

Pollution balance method and the demonstration of its application to minimizing waste in a biochemical process  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the authors introduced several modifications to the WAR (waste reduction) algorithm developed earlier. These modifications were made for systematically handling sensitivity analysis and various tasks of waste minimization. A design hierarchy was formulated to promote appropriate waste reduction tasks at designated levels of the hierarchy. A sensitivity coefficient was used to measure the relative impacts of process variables on the pollution index of a process. The use of the WAR algorithm was demonstrated by a fermentation process for making penicillin.

Hilaly, A.K.; Sikdar, S.K. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1995-06-01

8

Development and test case application of a waste minimization project evaluation method  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a formal process for selecting, from a diverse set of proposed waste minimization activities, those activities that provide the greatest benefit to Department of Energy (DOE). A methodology for evaluating and prioritizing proposals was developed to illustrate how the selection process works and what types of data are required to characterize waste minimization activities. It is clearly impossible to remove all aspects of subjective judgment from the proposal selection process. With this important consideration in mind, the methodology presented is put forth to enhance, not replace, the traditional DOE decision-making process. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Kjeldgaard, E.A. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Saloio, J.H.; Varnado, G.B. (ERC Environmental and Energy Services Co., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1990-01-01

9

Analysis of the application of decontamination technologies to radioactive metal waste minimization using expert systems  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive metal waste makes up a significant portion of the waste currently being sent for disposal. Recovery of this metal as a valuable resource is possible through the use of decontamination technologies. Through the development and use of expert systems a comparison can be made of laser decontamination, a technology currently under development at Ames Laboratory, with currently available decontamination technologies for applicability to the types of metal waste being generated and the effectiveness of these versus simply disposing of the waste. These technologies can be technically and economically evaluated by the use of expert systems techniques to provide a waste management decision making tool that generates, given an identified metal waste, waste management recommendations. The user enters waste characteristic information as input and the system then recommends decontamination technologies, determines residual contamination levels and possible waste management strategies, carries out a cost analysis and then ranks, according to cost, the possibilities for management of the waste. The expert system was developed using information from literature and personnel experienced in the use of decontamination technologies and requires validation by human experts and assignment of confidence factors to the knowledge represented within.

Bayrakal, S.

1993-09-30

10

TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE FOR WASTE MINIMIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Many metal finishing facilities are small businesses which lack in-house expertise or resources to initiate waste minimization programs. n 1988 the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory began a pilot project with the University City Science Center to provide waste minimization as...

11

Waste minimization in analytical methods  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) will require a large number of waste characterizations over a multi-year period to accomplish the Department`s goals in environmental restoration and waste management. Estimates vary, but two million analyses annually are expected. The waste generated by the analytical procedures used for characterizations is a significant source of new DOE waste. Success in reducing the volume of secondary waste and the costs of handling this waste would significantly decrease the overall cost of this DOE program. Selection of appropriate analytical methods depends on the intended use of the resultant data. It is not always necessary to use a high-powered analytical method, typically at higher cost, to obtain data needed to make decisions about waste management. Indeed, for samples taken from some heterogeneous systems, the meaning of high accuracy becomes clouded if the data generated are intended to measure a property of this system. Among the factors to be considered in selecting the analytical method are the lower limit of detection, accuracy, turnaround time, cost, reproducibility (precision), interferences, and simplicity. Occasionally, there must be tradeoffs among these factors to achieve the multiple goals of a characterization program. The purpose of the work described here is to add waste minimization to the list of characteristics to be considered. In this paper the authors present results of modifying analytical methods for waste characterization to reduce both the cost of analysis and volume of secondary wastes. Although tradeoffs may be required to minimize waste while still generating data of acceptable quality for the decision-making process, they have data demonstrating that wastes can be reduced in some cases without sacrificing accuracy or precision.

Green, D.W.; Smith, L.L.; Crain, J.S.; Boparai, A.S.; Kiely, J.T.; Yaeger, J.S. Schilling, J.B.

1995-05-01

12

WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: A PHOTOFINISHING FACILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

A waste minimization opportunity assessment was performed which identified areas for waste reduction at a photofinishing facility. he study followed procedures in the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual. his report identifies potential options to achieve further ...

13

EPA issues interim final waste minimization guidance  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has released a new and detailed interim final guidance to assist hazardous waste generators in certifying they have a waste minimization program in place under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). EPA's guidance identifies the basic elements of a waste minimization program in place that, if present, will allow people to certify they have implemented a program to reduce the volume and toxicity of hazardous waste to the extent economically practical. The guidance is directly applicable to generators of 1000 or more kilograms per month of hazardous waste, or large-quantity generators, and to owners and operators of hazardous waste treatment, storage or disposal facilities who manage their own hazardous waste on site. Small-quantity generators that generate more than 100 kilograms, but less than 1,000 kilograms, per month of hazardous waste are not subject to the same program in place certification requirement. Rather, they must certify on their manifests that they have made a good faith effort to minimize their waste generation.

Bergeson, L.L.

1993-08-01

14

Plastic wastes and the potential for waste minimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines plastic waste minimization from an economic perspective and addresses several issues: the definition and measurement of plastic waste minimization, projections of quantities and sources of future plastic wastes, the role of government in promoting plastic waste minimization. For the purposes of this paper, plastic waste minimization is defined as any activity at the manufacturing level that (1)

Curlee

1990-01-01

15

National Institutes of Health: Mixed waste minimization and treatment  

SciTech Connect

The Appalachian States Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission requested the US Department of Energy`s National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) to assist the biomedical community in becoming more knowledgeable about its mixed waste streams, to help minimize the mixed waste stream generated by the biomedical community, and to identify applicable treatment technologies for these mixed waste streams. As the first step in the waste minimization process, liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste (LLMW) streams generated at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) were characterized and combined into similar process categories. This report identifies possible waste minimization and treatment approaches for the LLMW generated by the biomedical community identified in DOE/LLW-208. In development of the report, on site meetings were conducted with NIH personnel responsible for generating each category of waste identified as lacking disposal options. Based on the meetings and general waste minimization guidelines, potential waste minimization options were identified.

NONE

1995-08-01

16

The OTD Robotics Waste Minimization Program  

SciTech Connect

The danger to human health and safety posed by exposure to transuranic (TRU) and Pu contaminated materials necessitates remote processing in confined environments. Currently these operations are carried out in gloveboxes and hot-cells by human operators using lead- lined gloves or teleoperated manipulators. Protective clothing worn by operators during gloved operations has contributed significantly to the waste problems currently facing site remediators. The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER/WM) Program is in the process of developing and demonstrating technologies to assist in the remediation of sites that have accumulated wastes generated using these processes over the past five decades. Recognizing that continued use of existing production, recovery and waste treatment systems will compound the remediation problem, DOE has made a commitment to waste minimization. To reduce waste generation during weapons production and waste processing operations, automated processes are being developed and demonstrated for use in future DOE processing facilities as part of OTD's Robotics Technology Development Program. These technologies are currently being applied to pyrochemical processing systems to demonstrate conversion of plutonium oxide to metal. However, these technologies are expected to have applications in a variety of waste processing systems including those used to treat high-level tank wastes, buried wastes requiring remote processing, mixed wastes, and unknown hazardous materials. In addition to reducing the future waste burden of DOE, automated processes are an effective way to comply with existing and anticipated federal, state, and local regulations related to personal health and safety and the health of the environment.

Couture, S.A.

1992-04-01

17

Annual Waste Minimization Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the waste minimization efforts undertaken by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), during CY06. This report was developed in accordance with the requirements of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Permit (No. NEV HW0021) and as clarified in a letter dated April 21, 1995, from Paul Liebendorfer of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to Donald Elle of the DOE, Nevada Operations Office. The NNSA/NSO Pollution Prevention (P2) Program establishes a process to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by the NNSA/NSO and ensures that proposed methods of treatment, storage, and/or disposal of waste minimize potential threats to human health and the environment. The following information provides an overview of the P2 Program, major P2 accomplishments during the reporting year, a comparison of the current year waste generation to prior years, and a description of efforts undertaken during the year to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by the NNSA/NSO.

Alfred J. Karns

2007-01-01

18

40 CFR 262.27 - Waste minimization certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest ...Waste minimization certification. A generator who initiates a shipment of hazardous...manifest: (a) âI am a large quantity generator. I have a program in place to...

2013-07-01

19

Application of molten salt oxidation for the minimization and recovery of plutonium-238 contaminated wastes  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the technical and economic feasibility of molten salt oxidation technology as a volume reduction and recovery process for {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste. Combustible low-level waste material contaminated with {sup 238}Pu residue is destroyed by oxidation in a 900 C molten salt reaction vessel. The combustible waste is destroyed creating carbon dioxide and steam and a small amount of ash and insoluble {sup 2328}Pu in the spent salt. The valuable {sup 238}Pu is recycled using aqueous recovery techniques. Experimental test results for this technology indicate a plutonium recovery efficiency of 99%. Molten salt oxidation stabilizes the waste converting it to a non-combustible waste. Thus installation and use of molten salt oxidation technology will substantially reduce the volume of {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste. Cost-effectiveness evaluations of molten salt oxidation indicate a significant cost savings when compared to the present plans to package, or re-package, certify and transport these wastes to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for permanent disposal. Clear and distinct cost advantages exist for MSO when the monetary value of the recovered {sup 238}Pu is considered.

Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.

1998-12-31

20

Mixed waste and waste minimization: The effect of regulations and waste minimization on the laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site is located in the State of Washington and is subject to state and federal environmental regulations that hamper waste minimization efforts. This paper addresses the negative effect of these regulations on waste minimization and mixed waste issues related to the Hanford Site. Also, issues are addressed concerning the regulations becoming more lenient. In addition to field operations, the Hanford Site is home to the Pacific Northwest Laboratory which has many ongoing waste minimization activities of particular interest to laboratories.

Dagan, E.B. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Selby, K.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-08-01

21

Waste minimization in chrome plating  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a one year laboratory directed research and development project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Traditional wet chemical electroplating techniques utilize toxic materials and pose environmental hazards in the disposal of primary baths and waste waters. Pollutants include metals and nonmetals, such as oil, grease, phosphates, and toxic and organic compounds. This project is focused on development of plasma source ion implantation (PSII), a novel and cost-effective surface modification technique, to minimize and ultimately eliminate waste generated in chrome plating. We are collaborating with and industrial partner to design material systems, utilize the PSII processes in existing Los Alamos experimental facilities, and analyze both material and performance characteristics.

Scheuer, J.; Walter, K.; Nastasi, M.

1996-09-01

22

The OTD Robotics Waste Minimization Program  

SciTech Connect

The danger to human health and safety posed by exposure to transuranic (TRU) and Pu contaminated materials necessitates remote processing in confined environments. Currently these operations are carried out in gloveboxes and hot-cells by human operators using lead- lined gloves or teleoperated manipulators. Protective clothing worn by operators during gloved operations has contributed significantly to the waste problems currently facing site remediators. The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER/WM) Program is in the process of developing and demonstrating technologies to assist in the remediation of sites that have accumulated wastes generated using these processes over the past five decades. Recognizing that continued use of existing production, recovery and waste treatment systems will compound the remediation problem, DOE has made a commitment to waste minimization. To reduce waste generation during weapons production and waste processing operations, automated processes are being developed and demonstrated for use in future DOE processing facilities as part of OTD`s Robotics Technology Development Program. These technologies are currently being applied to pyrochemical processing systems to demonstrate conversion of plutonium oxide to metal. However, these technologies are expected to have applications in a variety of waste processing systems including those used to treat high-level tank wastes, buried wastes requiring remote processing, mixed wastes, and unknown hazardous materials. In addition to reducing the future waste burden of DOE, automated processes are an effective way to comply with existing and anticipated federal, state, and local regulations related to personal health and safety and the health of the environment.

Couture, S.A.

1992-04-01

23

Applications of Supercritical Fluid Technology to Pollution Prevention and Waste Minimization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The applications of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to environmental problems can yield significant benefits because of the solvent properties and low toxicity of the available solvents, e.g., carbon dioxide. This paper will discuss a new federal EPA...

R. J. Turner

1995-01-01

24

APPLICATIONS OF SUPERCRITICAL FLUID TECHNOLOGY TO POLLUTION PREVENTION AND WASTE MINIMIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The applications of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to environmental problems can yield significant benefits because of the solvent properties and low toxicity of the available solvents, e.g., carbon dioxide. his paper will discuss a new federal EPA program to investigate us...

25

WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: A CLASS 8 TRUCK ASSEMBLY PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has developed a systematic approach to identify and implement options to reduce or eliminate hazardous waste. he approach is presented in a report entitled, "Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual" (EPA/625/7-88/O03). his report describes the application of the wast...

26

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A DAIRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Ce...

27

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A BOURBON DISTILLERY  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected un...

28

Dupont Chambers Works Waste Minimization project  

SciTech Connect

In a joint U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and DuPont waste minimization project, fifteen waste streams were selected for assessment. The intent was to develop assessments diverse in terms of process type, mode of operation, waste type, disposal needed, and relative success in identifying good waste reduction options. The fifteen case study reports describe the wastes and the processes that produce them, incentives for reducing the wastes, the options generated by the assessment teams, the technical and economic evaluation of the best options, and what others can learn from these efforts. The options were grouped into four types of waste streams: solvent wash waste, solvent waste other than wash waste, waste from reaction byproducts, and tar waste.

Not Available

1993-11-01

29

WASTE MINIMIZATION AUDIT REPORT: CASE STUDIES OF MINIMIZATION OF CYANIDE WASTE FROM ELECTROPLATING OPERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

To promote waste minimization activities in accordance with the national policy objectives established under the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), the Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Laboratory (HWERL) of ...

30

DUPONT CHAMBERS WORKS WASTE MINIMIZATION PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

In a joint U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and DuPont waste minimization project, fifteen waste streams were-selected for assessment. The intent was to develop assessments diverse in terms of process type, mode of operation, waste type, disposal needed, and relative s...

31

DUPONT CHAMBERS WORKS WASTE MINIMIZATION PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

In a joint U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and DuPont waste minimization project, fifteen waste streams were-selected for assessment. he intent was to develop assessments diverse in terms of process type, mode of operation, waste type, disposal needed, and relative suc...

32

WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - FORT RILEY, KANSAS  

EPA Science Inventory

Under the Waste Reduction Evaluations at Federal Sites (WREAFS) Program, a waste minimization opportunity assessment was conducted at a maintenance operation carried out at one of the U.S. Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) Fort Riley, Kansas facilities. hese facilities generate waste...

33

Waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this plan is to document the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. The intent of this plan is to respond to and comply with (DOE's) policy and guidelines concerning the need for pollution prevention. The Plan is composed of a LLNL Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan and, as attachments, Program- and Department-specific waste minimization plans. This format reflects the fact that waste minimization is considered a line management responsibility and is to be addressed by each of the Programs and Departments. 14 refs.

Not Available

1991-05-31

34

Environmental projects. Volume 16: Waste minimization assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC), located in the MoJave Desert, is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Deep Space Network (DSN), the world's largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation network. The Goldstone Complex is operated for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. At present, activities at the GDSCC support the operation of nine parabolic dish antennas situated at five separate locations known as 'sites.' Each of the five sites at the GDSCC has one or more antennas, called 'Deep Space Stations' (DSS's). In the course of operation of these DSS's, various hazardous and non-hazardous wastes are generated. In 1992, JPL retained Kleinfelder, Inc., San Diego, California, to quantify the various streams of hazardous and non-hazardous wastes generated at the GDSCC. In June 1992, Kleinfelder, Inc., submitted a report to JPL entitled 'Waste Minimization Assessment.' This present volume is a JPL-expanded version of the Kleinfelder, Inc. report. The 'Waste Minimization Assessment' report did not find any deficiencies in the various waste-management programs now practiced at the GDSCC, and it found that these programs are being carried out in accordance with environmental rules and regulations.

1994-01-01

35

Waste minimization in the Los Alamos Medical Radioisotope Program  

SciTech Connect

Since the mid-1970s the Los Alamos Medical Radioisotope Program has been irradiating target materials to produce and recover radioisotopes for applications in medicine, environmental science, biology, physics, materials research, and other disciplines where radiotracers find utility. By necessity, the chemical processing of targets and the isolation of radioisotopes generates radioactive waste materials. Recent years have brought pressure to discontinue the use of hazardous materials and to minimize radioactive waste volumes. Substantial waste reduction measures have been introduced at the irradiation facility, in processing approaches, and even in the ways the product isotopes are supplied to users.

Taylor, W.A.; Jamriska, D.J.; Hamilton, V.T.; Heaton, R.C.; Phillips, D.R.; Staroski, R.C.; Garcia, J.B.; Garcia, J.G.; Ott, M.A.

1994-04-01

36

Mixed low-level waste minimization at Los Alamos  

SciTech Connect

During the first six months of University of California 98 Fiscal Year (July--December) Los Alamos National Laboratory has achieved a 57% reduction in mixed low-level waste generation. This has been accomplished through a systems approach that identified and minimized the largest MLLW streams. These included surface-contaminated lead, lead-lined gloveboxes, printed circuit boards, and activated fluorescent lamps. Specific waste minimization projects have been initiated to address these streams. In addition, several chemical processing equipment upgrades are being implemented. Use of contaminated lead is planned for several high energy proton beam stop applications and stainless steel encapsulated lead is being evaluated for other radiological control area applications. INEEL is assisting Los Alamos with a complete systems analysis of analytical chemistry derived mixed wastes at the CMR building and with a minimum life-cycle cost standard glovebox design. Funding for waste minimization upgrades has come from several sources: generator programs, waste management, the generator set-aside program, and Defense Programs funding to INEEL.

Starke, T.P.

1998-12-01

37

Waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness plan  

SciTech Connect

The primary mission of DOE/NV is to manage and operate the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and other designated test locations, within and outside the United States; provide facilities and services to DOE and non-DOE NTS users; and plan. coordinate, and execute nuclear weapons tests and related test activities. DOE/NV also: (a) Supports operations under interagency agreements pertaining to tests, emergencies, and related functions/activities, (b) Plans, coordinates, and executes environmental restoration, (c) Provides support to the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office in conjunction with DOE/HQ oversight, (d) Manages the Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMS) for disposal of low-level and mixed wastes received from the NTS and off-site generators, and (e) Implements waste minimization programs to reduce the amount of hazardous, mixed, radioactive, and nonhazardous solid waste that is generated and disposed The NTS, which is the primary facility controlled by DOE/NV, occupies 1,350 square miles of restricted-access, federally-owned land located in Nye County in Southern Nevada. The NTS is located in a sparsely populated area, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada.

NONE

1994-08-01

38

WASTE MINIMIZATION AUDIT REPORT: CASE STUDIES OF MINIMIZATION OF SOLVENT WASTE FROM PARTS CLEANING AND FROM ELECTRONIC CAPACITOR MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

To promote waste minimization activities in accordance with the national policy objectives established under the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), the Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Laboratory (HWERL) of ...

39

Minimierung von Abfallmassen durch gezielte Decommissioning-Massnahmen. (Minimizing decommissioning wastes by appropriate tailoring and application of decommissioning techniques).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The applicability and efficiency of selected methods and instruments for the decontamination of structural surfaces in controlled areas of nuclear power plant have been tested. The decommissioning task plan finally established for the decontamination of l...

L. Kanitz K. Henschel W. Jacobs

1993-01-01

40

A proposed method to minimize waste from institutional radiation safety surveillance programs through the application of expected value statistics.  

PubMed

Institutional radiation safety programs routinely use wipe test sampling and liquid scintillation counting analysis to indicate the presence of removable radioactive contamination. Significant volumes of liquid waste can be generated by such surveillance activities, and the subsequent disposal of these materials can sometimes be difficult and costly. In settings where large numbers of negative results are regularly obtained, the limited grouping of samples for analysis based on expected value statistical techniques is possible. To demonstrate the plausibility of the approach, single wipe samples exposed to varying amounts of contamination were analyzed concurrently with nine non-contaminated samples. Although the sample grouping inevitably leads to increased quenching with liquid scintillation counting systems, the effect did not impact the ability to detect removable contamination in amounts well below recommended action levels. Opportunities to further improve this cost effective semi-quantitative screening procedure are described, including improvements in sample collection procedures, enhancing sample-counting media contact through mixing and extending elution periods, increasing sample counting times, and adjusting institutional action levels. PMID:9030850

Emery, R J

1997-03-01

41

Industrial response to a waste minimization survey in Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Hazardous waste minimization is becoming increasingly important as the United States struggles to safely treat and dispose of existing wastes. The extent to which hazardous wastes will be minimized-in either volume and/or toxicity-in the production process depends largely upon the response of industrial waste generators. A survey of large Tennessee waste generators was carried out in the summer of 1987. It found that industry has begun to implement a number of waste minimization practices and that the overall attitude of generators toward waste minimization was positive. There were some statistically significant differences in the survey responses from generators of differing volumes. These differences are important and indicated that among large waste generators, the larger have taken more significant steps to date than have smaller waste generators.

Barkenbus, J.N. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (USA)); Barkenbus, B.D. (Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

1989-07-01

42

Foam technology as a decontamination/waste minimization tool.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Foam decontamination technology is being developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as a waste minimization tool. Experience with foam decontamination technology has shown a significant waste reduction of up to 70% over current decontamination methods. Fo...

W. S. Guthrie

1993-01-01

43

Waste Minimization Audit Report: Case Studies of Minimization of Mercury-Bearing Wastes at a Mercury Cell Chloralkali Plant,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report documents the results of waste minimization audits carried out at two mercury cell chloralkali plants in 1987. The audit addressed to waste streams, K-071-brine purification muds, and K-106-wastewater treatment sludges from Mercury cell process...

M. Drabkin E. Rissmann

1988-01-01

44

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF SCREWDRIVERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

45

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF SCREWDRIVERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment C...

46

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF MICROELECTRONIC COMPONENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Cen...

47

Cellar waste minimization in the wine industry: a systems approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste minimization is slowly being adopted in the wine industry, owing to a combination of powerful drivers, which are either internally or externally motivated. However, these waste minimization practices in the wine industry are still carried out in an ad hoc fashion and have proven to be inefficient in many cases. The lack of a systematic methodology of synthesizing and

Ndeke Musee; Leon Lorenzen; Chris Aldrich

2007-01-01

48

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF CAULK  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effor to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cente...

49

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PRINTED LABELS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

50

Waste Minimization Assessment for an Aluminum Extrusions Manufacturer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were...

G. P. Looby F. W. Kirsch

1992-01-01

51

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF COATED PARTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effeort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Ce...

52

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF SURGICAL IMPLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Ce...

53

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF CAULK  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

54

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF MILITARY FURNITURE  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established t selected u...

55

Waste Minimization Assessment for Multilayered Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manu facturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at s...

56

Computer simulated plant design for waste minimization\\/pollution prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The book discusses several paths to pollution prevention and waste minimization by using computer simulation programs. It explains new computer technologies used in the field of pollution prevention and waste management; provides information pertaining to overcoming technical, economic, and environmental barriers to waste reduction; gives case-studies from industries; and covers computer aided flow sheet design and analysis for nuclear fuel

Bumble

2000-01-01

57

Minimization of mixed waste in explosive testing operations  

SciTech Connect

In the 1970s and 1980s, efforts to manage mixed waste and reduce pollution focused largely on post-process measures. In the late 1980s, the approach to waste management and pollution control changed, focusing on minimization and prevention rather than abatement, treatment, and disposal. The new approach, and the formulated guidance from the US Department of Energy, was to take all necessary measures to minimize waste and prevent the release of pollutants to the environment. Two measures emphasized in particular were source reduction (reducing the volume and toxicity of the waste source) and recycling. In 1988, a waste minimization and pollution prevention program was initiated at Site 300, where the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) conducts explosives testing. LLNL's Defense Systems/Nuclear Design (DS/ND) Program has adopted a variety of conservation techniques to minimize waste generation and cut disposal costs associated with ongoing operations. The techniques include minimizing the generation of depleted uranium and lead mixed waste through inventory control and material substitution measures and through developing a management system to recycle surplus explosives. The changes implemented have reduced annual mixed waste volumes by more than 95% and reduced overall radioactive waste generation (low-level and mixed) by more than 75%. The measures employed were cost-effective and easily implemented.

Gonzalez, M.A.; Sator, F.E.; Simmons, L.F.

1993-02-01

58

Minimization of mixed waste in explosive testing operations  

SciTech Connect

In the 1970s and 1980s, efforts to manage mixed waste and reduce pollution focused largely on post-process measures. In the late 1980s, the approach to waste management and pollution control changed, focusing on minimization and prevention rather than abatement, treatment, and disposal. The new approach, and the formulated guidance from the US Department of Energy, was to take all necessary measures to minimize waste and prevent the release of pollutants to the environment. Two measures emphasized in particular were source reduction (reducing the volume and toxicity of the waste source) and recycling. In 1988, a waste minimization and pollution prevention program was initiated at Site 300, where the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) conducts explosives testing. LLNL`s Defense Systems/Nuclear Design (DS/ND) Program has adopted a variety of conservation techniques to minimize waste generation and cut disposal costs associated with ongoing operations. The techniques include minimizing the generation of depleted uranium and lead mixed waste through inventory control and material substitution measures and through developing a management system to recycle surplus explosives. The changes implemented have reduced annual mixed waste volumes by more than 95% and reduced overall radioactive waste generation (low-level and mixed) by more than 75%. The measures employed were cost-effective and easily implemented.

Gonzalez, M.A.; Sator, F.E.; Simmons, L.F.

1993-02-01

59

Waste minimization opportunity assessment: A photofinishing facility. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A waste minimization opportunity assessment was performed which identified areas for waste reduction at a photofinishing facility. The study followed procedures in the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual. The report identifies potential options to achieve further waste minimization progress. A number of waste producing processes were initially screened, and detailed technical evaluations were performed on wastes associated with process solutions and wash waters. Options identified were as follows: (1) wash water control; (2) silver recovery--metal replacement cartridges; (3) silver recovery--electrowinning (4) electrowinning with MRC tailing; (5) recovery of silver--ion exchange; (6) recovery of fixer; (7) recovery of bleach fix; and (8) recovery of developer. Based on the results of the assessment phase, Options 1-4 and 7 were selected for further evaluation in the feasibility phase. The results of the study indicate the fastest payback would be realized from Options 1 and 7 assuming Accuphoto's willingness to recycle bleach and no production increases.

Not Available

1991-08-01

60

WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: PHILADELPHIA NAVAL SHIPYARD  

EPA Science Inventory

The Waste Reduction Evaluation at Federal Sites (WREAFS) Program consists of a series of demonstration and evaluation projects for waste reduction conducted cooperatively by EPA and various parts of the Department of Defense (DOD), Department of Energy (DOE), and other Federal ag...

61

EXAMPLES OF BIOLOGICAL WASTE MINIMIZATION TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of biological means to treat waste has been a mainstay of industrial and municipal wastewater treatment technology. ecovery of waste materials or conversion to other economically useful forms of commercial products has provoked considerable scrutiny but few genuine commer...

62

Waste minimization opportunity assessment: Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station, Keyport, Washington. Project summary  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed a systematic approach to identify, select and implement options to reduce or eliminate hazardous waste. The report describes the application of the waste minimization assessment procedures to a torpedo maintenance facility at the Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station in Keyport, WA (NUWES Keyport).

NONE

1991-09-01

63

Waste-minimization opportunity assessment: Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station, Keyport, Washington. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The report describes the application of EPA's waste minimization assessment procedures to a torpedo maintenance facility at the Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station, Keyport, WA. The assessment focused on the Mark 48 shop and the Mark 46 shop. These shops service the Mark 48 torpedo and the Mark 46 torpedo respectively. The five waste minimization options presented are volume reduction of contaminated clothing, automated cleaning of parts, automated fuel tank draining, modification of the deep sink draining schedule and recycling of mineral spirits.

Not Available

1991-07-01

64

Waste Minimization Policy at the Romanian Nuclear Power Plant  

SciTech Connect

The radioactive waste management system at Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in Romania was designed to maintain acceptable levels of safety for workers and to protect human health and the environment from exposure to unacceptable levels of radiation. In accordance with terminology of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), this system consists of the ''pretreatment'' of solid and organic liquid radioactive waste, which may include part or all of the following activities: collection, handling, volume reduction (by an in-drum compactor, if appropriate), and storage. Gaseous and aqueous liquid wastes are managed according to the ''dilute and discharge'' strategy. Taking into account the fact that treatment/conditioning and disposal technologies are still not established, waste minimization at the source is a priority environmental management objective, while waste minimization at the disposal stage is presently just a theoretical requirement for future adopted technologies . The necessary operational and maintenance procedures are in place at Cernavoda to minimize the production and contamination of waste. Administrative and technical measures are established to minimize waste volumes. Thus, an annual environmental target of a maximum 30 m3 of radioactive waste volume arising from operation and maintenance has been established. Within the first five years of operations at Cernavoda NPP, this target has been met. The successful implementation of the waste minimization policy has been accompanied by a cost reduction while the occupational doses for plant workers have been maintained at as low as reasonably practicable levels. This paper will describe key features of the waste management system along with the actual experience that has been realized with respect to minimizing the waste volumes at the Cernavoda NPP.

Andrei, V.; Daian, I.

2002-02-26

65

WASTE MINIMIZATION IN THE PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD INDUSTRY: CASE STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents information on waste minimization practices currently employed in the printed circuit board (PCB) and semiconductor manufacturing industries. Case studies conducted at six facilities evaluated the technical, environmental and cost impacts associated with the i...

66

Annual Waste Minimization Summary Report, Calendar Year 2008  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the waste minimization efforts undertaken by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), during calendar year 2008.

NSTec Environmental Management

2009-02-01

67

Waste Minimization Assessment for a Manufacturer of Prewashed Jeans.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Waste Minimization Assessment Center (WMAC) team at the University of Tennessee performed an assessment at a plant that prewashes denim jeans prior to retail sale. The assessment team's report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that th...

R. J. Jendrucko T. N. Coleman G. P. Looby

1994-01-01

68

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Waste Minimization Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Program Plan document describes the background of the Waste Minimization field at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and refers to the significant studies that have impacted on legislative efforts, both at the federal and state levels. A short history of formal LLNL waste minimization efforts is provided. Also included are general findings from analysis of work to date, with emphasis on source reduction findings. A short summary is provided on current regulations and probable future legislation which may impact on waste minimization methodology. The LLN Waste Minimization Program Plan is designed to be dynamic and flexible so as to meet current regulations, and yet is able to respond to an everchanging regulatory environment. 19 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

Heckman, R.A. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Tang, W.R. (Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA))

1989-08-04

69

Foam is a decon waste minimization tool.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of foam in decontamination operations offers significant reductions in waste generation. Initial use has confirmed its effectiveness. Issues being resolved at Savannah River Site (SRS) include compatibility of foam generating solutions with decont...

K. D. Peterson J. F. McGlynn W. N. Rankin

1991-01-01

70

When less is less: Waste minimization at Diablo Canyon  

SciTech Connect

At Diablo Canyon power plant, Pacific Gas and Electric has implemented a minimization plan to reduce the generation of radioactive waste. The plan encompasses wastes generated from plant systems, from the modification of plant systems and structures, and from the use of protective clothing and contamination control consumables.

Miller, C.C. [Pacific Gas & Electric Company, Avila Beach, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

71

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER PRODUCING TREATED WOOD PRODUCTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at ...

72

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER PRODUCING GALVANIZED STEEL PARTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at ...

73

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF FINISHED METAL COMPONENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected un...

74

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER PRODUCING PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected u...

75

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A STEEL FABRICATOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected un...

76

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF MACHINED PARTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their-generation of waste bin who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected u...

77

Secondary waste minimization in analytical methods  

SciTech Connect

The characterization phase of site remediation is an important and costly part of the process. Because toxic solvents and other hazardous materials are used in common analytical methods, characterization is also a source of new waste, including mixed waste. Alternative analytical methods can reduce the volume or form of hazardous waste produced either in the sample preparation step or in the measurement step. The authors are examining alternative methods in the areas of inorganic, radiological, and organic analysis. For determining inorganic constituents, alternative methods were studied for sample introduction into inductively coupled plasma spectrometers. Figures of merit for the alternative methods, as well as their associated waste volumes, were compared with the conventional approaches. In the radiological area, the authors are comparing conventional methods for gross {alpha}/{beta} measurements of soil samples to an alternative method that uses high-pressure microwave dissolution. For determination of organic constituents, microwave-assisted extraction was studied for RCRA regulated semivolatile organics in a variety of solid matrices, including spiked samples in blank soil; polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in soils, sludges, and sediments; and semivolatile organics in soil. Extraction efficiencies were determined under varying conditions of time, temperature, microwave power, moisture content, and extraction solvent. Solvent usage was cut from the 300 mL used in conventional extraction methods to about 30 mL. Extraction results varied from one matrix to another. In most cases, the microwave-assisted extraction technique was as efficient as the more common Soxhlet or sonication extraction techniques.

Green, D.W.; Smith, L.L.; Crain, J.S.; Boparai, A.S.; Kiely, J.T.; Yaeger, J.S.; Schilling, J.B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Analytical Chemistry Lab.

1995-07-01

78

WASTE MINIMIZATION AUDIT REPORT: CASE STUDIES OF CORROSIVE AND HEAVY METAL WASTE MINIMIZATION AT A SPECIALTY STEEL MANUFACTURING COMPLEX  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is expanding its efforts to promote waste minimization activity in the private sector by providing technical assistance to generators of hazardous waste. As part of the effort, the EPA Office of Research and Development/Hazardous Was...

79

WASTE MINIMIZATION AUDIT REPORT: CASE STUDIES OF MINIMIZATION OF MERCURY-BEARING WASTES AT A MERCURY CELL CHLORALKALI PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report documents the results of waste minimization audits carried out at two mercury cell chloralkali plants in 1987. The audit addressed to waste streams, K-071-brine purification muds, and K-106-wastewater treatment sludges from Mercury cell processes in chlorine production...

80

JSC Metal Finishing Waste Minimization Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

THe paper discusses the following: Johnson Space Center (JSC) has achieved VPP Star status and is ISO 9001 compliant. The Structural Engineering Division in the Engineering Directorate is responsible for operating the metal finishing facility at JSC. The Engineering Directorate is responsible for $71.4 million of space flight hardware design, fabrication and testing. The JSC Metal Finishing Facility processes flight hardware to support the programs in particular schedule and mission critical flight hardware. The JSC Metal Finishing Facility is operated by Rothe Joint Venture. The Facility provides following processes: anodizing, alodining, passivation, and pickling. JSC Metal Finishing Facility completely rebuilt in 1998. Total cost of $366,000. All new tanks, electrical, plumbing, and ventilation installed. Designed to meet modern safety, environmental, and quality requirements. Designed to minimize contamination and provide the highest quality finishes.

Sullivan, Erica

2003-01-01

81

Hazardous waste treatment, minimization guidelines for technology selection  

SciTech Connect

For some time, industry has been deluged with articles and news items about new technologies for hazardous waste treatment. The sheer number of such innovations makes for an overwhelming selection process. By contrast, a few years ago, only two options existed - bury or burn. This article outlines a generalized method to evaluate and choose technical approaches to treatment and waste reduction. Use of a checklist is helpful when a cold, unbiased approach is desired. It also helps weed out unsuitable approaches. Hazardous waste minimization, or waste reduction, as it is coming to be called, involves process changes to reduce the amounts of hazardous materials generated. Technology selection guidelines for waste reduction are similar to those for treatment. The main difference between the two is that waste reduction programs generally are performed on clean in-house process equipment, while treatment programs tend to be conducted outdoors, and involve soils and other dirty components.

Pearl, J.P.

1991-10-01

82

Lessons in waste minimization from nuclear industry experience  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear power industry has been very successful at reducing waste volumes and waste sources. The success has been driven by escalating cost, decreasing disposal ability, and a desire by the industry to achieve excellence. The result has been a cycle of continuing improvement resulting in reduced cost. Many of the examples of Dry Active Waste reduction are applicable to the Department of Energy in both operations and remedial activities. This paper discusses several successful examples of utility applications in this area.

Devgun, J.S.; Thuot, J.R.; Vrtis, J.

1996-07-01

83

MINIMIZATION OF COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS: CHARACTERISTICS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

It has been well recognized that, although there are many potential solid waste treatment technologies, none are as universally applicable as incineration for the treatment of the many types of waste which are governed by the many different Federal laws and State regulations. owe...

84

Minimization of Combustion By-Products: Characteristics of Hazardous Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It has been well recognized that, although there are many potential solid waste treatment technologies, none are as universally applicable as incineration for the treatment of the many types of waste which are governed by the many different Federal laws a...

C. C. Lee G. L. Huffman

1990-01-01

85

WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: NAVAL UNDERSEA WARFARE ENGINEERING STATION - KEYPORT, WA  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes the application of EPA's waste minimization assessment procedures to a torpedo maintenance facility at the Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station, Keyport, WA. he assessment focused on the Mark 48 shop and the Mark 46 shop. hese shops service the Mark 48...

86

Molten salt treatment to minimize and optimize waste  

SciTech Connect

A combination molten salt oxidizer (MSO) and molten salt reactor (MSR) is described for treatment of waste. The MSO is proposed for contained oxidization of organic hazardous waste, for reduction of mass and volume of dilute waste by evaporation of the water. The NTSO residue is to be treated to optimize the waste in terms of its composition, chemical form, mixture, concentration, encapsulation, shape, size, and configuration. Accumulations and storage are minimized, shipments are sized for low risk. Actinides, fissile material, and long-lived isotopes are separated and completely burned or transmuted in an MSR. The MSR requires no fuel element fabrication, accepts the materials as salts in arbitrarily small quantities enhancing safety, security, and overall acceptability.

Gat, U.; Crosley, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Gay, R.L. [Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States)

1993-07-01

87

A survey of waste minimization recommendations for three industrial sectors  

SciTech Connect

What changes can manufacturers make to reduce waste streams and save money? A recent modification to a successful Department of Energy energy audit program has included a focus on waste minimization for small and medium-sized manufacturers. The program change was incorporated over two years ago and approximately 2,000 assessments have been completed nationwide since the change. This article will examine the results of the combined energy/waste assessments. Most of the material contained is derived from a paper published at the ASEE 1997 Annual Meeting. The paper focuses on the typical waste recommendations made for three sectors of Standard Industrial Classifications (SIC) 20-39. Recommendations vary from typical conservation measures such as recycling pallets and cardboard to direct process modifications that reduce water or chemical usage. While some recommendations are general and can be applied to any industry, others are industry-specific.

Dunning, S.; Martin, P.

1998-12-31

88

Annual Report on Waste Generation and Waste Minimization Progress, 1991--1992  

SciTech Connect

This report is DOE`s first annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress. Data presented in this report were collected from all DOE sites which met minimum threshold criteria established for this report. The fifty-seven site submittals contained herein represent data from over 100 reporting sites within 25 states. Radioactive, hazardous and sanitary waste quantities and the efforts to minimize these wastes are highlighted within the fifty-seven site submittals. In general, sites have made progress in moving beyond the planning phase of their waste minimization programs. This is evident by the overall 28 percent increase in the total amount of materials recycled from 1991 to 1992, as well as individual site initiatives. During 1991 and 1992, DOE generated a total of 279,000 cubic meters of radioactive waste and 243,000 metric tons of non-radioactive waste. These waste amounts include significant portions of process wastewater required to be reported to regulatory agencies in the state of Texas and the state of Tennessee. Specifically, the Pantex Plant in Texas treats an industrial wastewater that is considered by the Texas Water Commission to be a hazardous waste. In 1992, State regulated wastewater from the Pantex Plant represented 3,620 metric tons, 10 percent of the total hazardous waste generated by DOE. Similarly, mixed low-level wastewater from the TSCA Incinerator Facility at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site in Tennessee represented 55 percent of the total radioactive waste generated by DOE in 1992.

Not Available

1994-02-01

89

Annual Waste Minimization Summary Report Calendar Year 2007  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the waste minimization efforts undertaken by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), during calendar year (CY) 2007. This report was developed in accordance with the requirements of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Permit (number NEV HW0021), and as clarified in a letter dated April 21, 1995, from Paul Liebendorfer of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to Donald Elle of the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office. The NNSA/NSO Pollution Prevention (P2) Program establishes a process to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by the NNSA/NSO and ensures that proposed methods of treatment, storage, and/or disposal of waste minimize potential threats to human health and the environment. The following information provides an overview of the P2 Program, major P2 accomplishments during the reporting year, a comparison of the current year waste generation to prior years, and a description of efforts undertaken during the year to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by the NNSA/NSO.

NSTec Environmental Management

2008-02-01

90

Hazardous Waste Minimization through Life Cycle Cost Analysis at Federal Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments, many federal facilities are carefully examining hazardous waste minimization issues. A hazardous waste minimization assessment was conducted recently at five military installations. Sources and types of waste somewhat varied among the installations. Major waste sources included motor pools and vehicle maintenance facilities; industrial maintenance and small arms shops; aviation maintenance facilities;

Chittaranjan Ray; Ravi K. Jain; Bernard A. Donahue; E. Dean Smith

1999-01-01

91

WASTE MINIMIZATION AUDIT REPORT: CASE STUDIES OF MINIMIZATION OF SOLVENT WASTES AND ELECTROPLATING WASTES AT A DOD (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE) INSTALLATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report results of a waste minimization audit carried out in 1987 at a tank reconditioning facility operated by the DOD. The audit team developed recommendations for reducing the generation FOO6 wastewater treatment sludge, and FOO2, and FOO4 solvent wastes. In addition to det...

92

1993 Annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress as required by DOE Order 5400.1, Hanford Site.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

More important than waste generation numbers, the pollution prevention and waste minimization successes achieved at Hanford in 1993 have reduced waste and improved operations at the Site. Just a few of these projects are: A small research nuclear reactor,...

J. R. Kirkendall J. A. Engel

1994-01-01

93

Using benchmarking to minimize common DOE waste streams: Volume 5. Office paper waste  

SciTech Connect

Finding innovative ways to reduce waste streams generated at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites by 50% by the year 2000 is a challenge for DOE`s waste minimization efforts. A team composed of members from several DOE facilities used the quality tool known as benchmarking to improve waste minimization efforts. First the team examined office waste generation and handling processes at their sites. Then team members developed telephone and written questionnaires to help identify potential ``best-in-class`` industry partners willing to share information about their best waste minimization techniques and technologies. The team identified two benchmarking partners, NIKE, Inc., in Beaverton, Oregon, and Microsoft, Inc., in Redmond, Washington. Both companies have proactive, employee-driven environmental issues programs. Both companies report strong employee involvement, management commitment, and readily available markets for recyclable materials such as white paper and nonwhite assorted paper. The availability of markets, the initiative and cooperation of employees, and management support are the main enablers for their programs. At both companies, recycling and waste reduction programs often cut across traditional corporate divisions such as procurement, janitorial services, environmental compliance, grounds maintenance, cafeteria operations, surplus sales, and shipping and receiving. These companies exhibited good cooperation between these functions to design and implement recycling and waste reduction programs.

Levin, V.

1995-10-01

94

360 Degree Photography to Decrease Exposure, Increase Safety & Minimize Waste  

SciTech Connect

High-resolution digital cameras, in conjunction with software techniques. make possible 360{sup o} photos that allow a person to look all around, up and dawn, and zoom in or out. The software provides the opportunity to attach other information to a 360{sup o} photo such as sound tiles, flat photos (providing additional detail about what is behind a panel or around a corner) and text (Information which can be used to show radiological conditions or identify other hazards not readily visible). The software also allows other 360{sup o} photos to be attached creating a virtual tour where the user can move from area to area, and stop, study and zoom in on areas of interest. A virtual tour of a building or room can be used for facility documentation, informing management and others, work planning and orientation, and training, thus minimizing the need to re-enter hazardous radioactive areas. Reducing entries decreases exposure, increases safety and minimizes waste.

LEBARON, G.J.

2002-01-31

95

Chelating water-soluble polymers for waste minimization  

SciTech Connect

Within the DOE complex and in industry there is a tremendous need for advanced metal ion recovery and waste minimization techniques. This project sought to employ capabilities for ligand-design and separations chemistry in which one can develop and evaluate water- soluble chelating polymers for recovering actinides and toxic metals from various process streams. Focus of this work was (1) to develop and select a set of water-soluble polymers suitable for a selected waste stream and (2) demonstrate this technology in 2 areas: removal of (a) actinides and toxic RCRA metals from waste water and (b) recovery of Cu and other precious metals from industrial process streams including from solid catalysts and aqueous waste streams. The R&D was done in 4 phases for each of the 2 target areas: polymer synthesis for scaleup, equipment assembly, process demonstration at a DOE or industrial site, and advanced ligand/polymer synthesis. The TA- 50 site at Los Alamos was thought to be appropriate due to logistics and to its being representative of similar problems throughout the DOE complex.

Smith, B.; Cournoyer, M.; Duran, B.; Ford, D.; Gibson, R.; Lin, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Meck, A.; Robinson, P. [N,P Energy, Inc. (United States); Robison, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-11-01

96

Metal decontamination for waste minimization using liquid metal refining technology  

SciTech Connect

The current Department of Energy Mixed Waste Treatment Project flowsheet indicates that no conventional technology, other than surface decontamination, exists for metal processing. Current Department of Energy guidelines require retrievable storage of all metallic wastes containing transuranic elements above a certain concentration. This project is in support of the National Mixed Low Level Waste Treatment Program. Because of the high cost of disposal, it is important to develop an effective decontamination and volume reduction method for low-level contaminated metals. It is important to be able to decontaminate complex shapes where surfaces are hidden or inaccessible to surface decontamination processes and destruction of organic contamination. These goals can be achieved by adapting commercial metal refining processes to handle radioactive and organic contaminated metal. The radioactive components are concentrated in the slag, which is subsequently vitrified; hazardous organics are destroyed by the intense heat of the bath. The metal, after having been melted and purified, could be recycled for use within the DOE complex. In this project, we evaluated current state-of-the-art technologies for metal refining, with special reference to the removal of radioactive contaminants and the destruction of hazardous organics. This evaluation was based on literature reports, industrial experience, plant visits, thermodynamic calculations, and engineering aspects of the various processes. The key issues addressed included radioactive partitioning between the metal and slag phases, minimization of secondary wastes, operability of the process subject to widely varying feed chemistry, and the ability to seal the candidate process to prevent the release of hazardous species.

Joyce, E.L. Jr.; Lally, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1993-09-01

97

Electroplating waste minimization at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes efforts on waste minimization in the electroplating facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Issues that are covered include: elimination of cadmium plating, copper cyanide plating, hexavalent chromium plating and vapor degreasing, segregation of cyanide solutions, changing rinsing practices, recycling of rinse water, changing cleaning of aluminum parts and rejuvenation of gold plating solutions. Discussion is also presented on other issues currently being worked and these include: combining electroplating and physical vapor deposition, elimination of all cyanide plating processes, and recycling of electroless nickel and spent acid solutions.

Dini, J.W.; Steffani, C.P.

1992-04-01

98

Pollution prevention and waste minimization in metal finishing  

SciTech Connect

This study was done to identify pollution prevention and waste minimization opportunities in the general plating department and the printed circuit board processing department. Recommendations for certain recycle and recovery technologies were mad in order to reduce usage of acids and the volume of heavy metal sludge that is formed at the industrial Wastewater Pretreatment Facility (IWPF). Some of these technologies discussed were acid purification, electrowinning, and ion exchange. Specific technologies are prescribed for specific processes. Those plating processes where the metals can be recovered are copper, nickel, gold, cadmium, tin, lead, and rhodium.

Stimetz, C.J.

1994-12-01

99

Waste minimization in analytical chemistry through innovative sample preparation techniques.  

SciTech Connect

Because toxic solvents and other hazardous materials are commonly used in analytical methods, characterization procedures result in significant and costly amount of waste. We are developing alternative analytical methods in the radiological and organic areas to reduce the volume or form of the hazardous waste produced during sample analysis. For the radiological area, we have examined high-pressure, closed-vessel microwave digestion as a way to minimize waste from sample preparation operations. Heated solutions of strong mineral acids can be avoided for sample digestion by using the microwave approach. Because reactivity increases with pressure, we examined the use of less hazardous solvents to leach selected contaminants from soil for subsequent analysis. We demonstrated the feasibility of this approach by extracting plutonium from a NET reference material using citric and tartaric acids with microwave digestion. Analytical results were comparable to traditional digestion methods, while hazardous waste was reduced by a factor often. We also evaluated the suitability of other natural acids, determined the extraction performance on a wider variety of soil types, and examined the extraction efficiency of other contaminants. For the organic area, we examined ways to minimize the wastes associated with the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in environmental samples. Conventional methods for analyzing semivolatile organic compounds are labor intensive and require copious amounts of hazardous solvents. For soil and sediment samples, we have a method to analyze PCBs that is based on microscale extraction using benign solvents (e.g., water or hexane). The extraction is performed at elevated temperatures in stainless steel cells containing the sample and solvent. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to quantitate the analytes in the isolated extract. More recently, we developed a method utilizing solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for natural water samples. In this SPME technique, a fused-silica fiber coated with a polymeric film is exposed to the sample, extraction is allowed to take place, and then the analytes are thermally desorbed for GC analysis. Unlike liquid-liquid extraction or solid-phase extraction, SPME consumes all of the extracted sample in the analysis, significantly reducing the required sample volume.

Smith, L. L.

1998-05-28

100

Applicability of a field-portable toxic heavy metal detector, using a radioisotope-tagged metalloprotein, to DOE environmental remediation and waste minimization initiatives  

SciTech Connect

A system based on the metal-binding kidney protein, metallothionein, bound with a trace quantity of radioactive metal, has been shown to be capable of detecting parts-per-million (ppm) to parts-per-billion (ppb) concentrations of some heavy metals in liquid solution. The main objective of this study was to determine if this type of system has adequate sensitivity and selectivity for application in detecting a number of metallic species of concern to DOE, such as mercury, lead, and chromium. An affinity-displacement study is reported here using the heavy metal radiotracers {sup 65}Zn and {sup 109}Cd bound to metallothionein immobilized on an Affi-Gel 10 filter support. When a heavy metal solution with a greater affinity than the tracer for the protein is poured through the filter the radiotracer is displaced by a mechanism similar to ion exchange. The main objective of this study was to verify previous internal experimental parameters and results, and to determine the specific affinities of metallothionein for the metallic species of most concern to DOE.

Randles, K.E. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States); Bragg, D.J.; Bodette, D.E.; Lipinski, R.J.; Luera, T.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-08-01

101

Selected waste minimization opportunities for the Koziarske Zavody Leather Tanning facility. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The report, written by ICF, Inc., was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of the Slovak Ministry of Economy. This volume of the report discusses the possibilities for waste minimization at the Koziarske Zavody Leather Tanning Facility. It is divided into the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Description of the Processes and Current Status of the Facility; (3) Waste Minimization Options and Recommendations; (4) Potential Suppliers of Required Equipment and Materials; (5) Establishing a Waste Minimization Program.

Not Available

1994-01-28

102

Waste-minimization assessment for multilayered printed-circuit-board manufacturing. Environmental research brief  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA\\/625\\/7-88\\/003, July 1988). The

F. W. Kirsch; G. P. Looby

1991-01-01

103

Development and pilot demonstration program of a waste minimization plan at Argonne National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

In response to US Department of Energy directives, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed a waste minimization plan aimed at reducing the amount of wastes at this national research and development laboratory. Activities at ANL are primarily research- oriented and as such affect the amount and type of source reduction that can be achieved at this facility. The objective of ANL's waste minimization program is to cost-effectively reduce all types of wastes, including hazardous, mixed, radioactive, and nonhazardous wastes. The ANL Waste Minimization Plan uses a waste minimization audit as a systematic procedure to determine opportunities to reduce or eliminate waste. To facilitate these audits, a computerized bar-coding procedure is being implemented at ANL to track hazardous wastes from where they are generated to their ultimate disposal. This paper describes the development of the ANL Waste Minimization Plan and a pilot demonstration of the how the ANL Plan audited the hazardous waste generated within a selected divisions of ANL. It includes quantitative data on the generation and disposal of hazardous waste at ANL and describes potential ways to minimize hazardous wastes. 2 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

Peters, R.W.; Wentz, C.A.; Thuot, J.R.

1991-01-01

104

Development and pilot demonstration program of a waste minimization plan at Argonne National Laboratory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In response to US Department of Energy directives, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed a waste minimization plan aimed at reducing the amount of wastes at this national research and development laboratory. Activities at ANL are primarily resea...

R. W. Peters C. A. Wentz J. R. Thuot

1991-01-01

105

INTELLIGENT DECISION SUPPORT FOR WASTE MINIMIZATION IN ELECTROPLATING PLANTS. (R824732)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Wastewater, spent solvent, spent process solutions, and sludge are the major waste streams generated in large volumes daily in electroplating plants. These waste streams can be significantly minimized through process modification and operational improvement. I...

106

40 CFR 63.1213 - How can the compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls...compliance date be extended to install pollution prevention or waste minimization controls...reasonably document that the installation of pollution prevention or waste...

2013-07-01

107

From waste minimization to resources use optimization: Definitions and legislative background  

Microsoft Academic Search

When discussing waste and waste policy, every effort should be made to have a common understanding of terminology. The purpose of this paper is to define the most important concepts such as waste prevention, waste minimization, re-use, recycling and recovery.

Eva Pongrácz; Paul S. Phillips; Riitta L. Keiski

108

Waste minimization: hazardous and non-hazardous solid waste (1980 to present). Information guide 1980-87  

Microsoft Academic Search

The minimization of hazardous and non-hazardous solid waste has become an increasingly important topic in recent years. More and more, people are becoming concerned that the country's landfills are nearing capacity, and that hazardous and non-hazardous solid wastes pose a severe threat to human health and the environment. Federal, State, and local governments have been grappling with methods for minimizing

S. A. Richard; A. Berger

1987-01-01

109

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF COATED PARTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

110

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF CORN SYRUP AND CORN STARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

111

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PAINTS AND LACQUERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

112

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF FINISHED METAL AND PLASTIC PARTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

113

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR ROTOGRAVURE PRINTING CYLINDER MANUFACTURING  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expense to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Center...

114

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF ELECTRICAL ROTATING DEVICES  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

115

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF AERIAL LIFTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

116

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF BRAZED ALUMINUM OIL COOLERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

117

Waste Minimization Assessment for a Manufacturer of Automotive Air Conditioning Condensers and Evaporators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were...

G. P. Looby F. W. Kirsch

1992-01-01

118

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF CORN SYRUP AND CORN STARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their geneation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

119

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF LABELS AND FLEXIBLE PACKAGING  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

120

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF FELT TIP MARKERS, STAMP PADS, AND RUBBER CEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

121

Waste Minimization Assessment for a Manufacturer of Baseball Bats and Golf Clubs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Center (WMAC) at the ...

M. Fleischman F. W. Kirsch J. C. Maginn

1993-01-01

122

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PERMANENT-MAGNET DC ELECTRIC MOTORS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected ...

123

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF MOUNTINGS FOR ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT COMPONENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

124

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR MANUFACTURER OF GRAVUER-COATED METALIZED PAPER AND METALIZED FILM  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cen...

125

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONING CONDENSERS AND EVAPORATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilotproject to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected u...

126

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A BUMPER REFINISHING PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

127

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF MOTOR VEHICLE EXTERIOR MIRRORS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected ...

128

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF COMPRESSED AIR EQUIPMENT COMPONENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

129

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PROTOTYPE PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at sel...

130

Waste minimization case histories at three US Air Force Air Training Command bases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste minimization audits are being carried out at three US Air Force Air Training Command bases: Randolph Air Force Base (AFB) near San Antonio, Texas; Lowry AFB near Denver, Colorado; and Keesler AFB near Biloxi, Mississippi. These audits include detailed surveys of base operations and processes, detailed analytical reports that contain recommendations for waste minimization actions, guidelines to allow bases

J. S. Suffern; R. A. Vogel

1988-01-01

131

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A PAINT MANUFACTURING PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

132

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PRE-WASHED JEANS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

133

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF ALUMINUM CANS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

134

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF ALUMINUM AND STEEL PARTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

135

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF SURGICAL IMPLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

136

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PLIERS AND WRENCHES  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

137

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF MOUNTINGS FOR ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT COMPONENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

138

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTUERE OF OUTDOOR ILLUMINATED SIGNS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

139

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF MICROELECTRONIC COMPONENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

140

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

141

Waste Minimization Assessment for a Manufacturer of Mountings for Electronic Circuit Components.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. The Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) t...

R. J. Jendrucko K. L. Binkley G. P. Looby

1994-01-01

142

Industrial reprocessing and waste minimization at COGEMA, La Hague  

Microsoft Academic Search

COGEMA is making significant progress in waste volume reduction at the UP3 reprocessing plant. The plant was designed to generate three-quarters of a canister of vitrified high-level waste and three drums of bitumenized medium-level waste per metric ton of reprocessed uranium. With the ongoing plant modifications and new waste management practices, the need for bitumen waste form will disappear by

Ledermann

1993-01-01

143

Bioreactor applications in waste treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of bioreactor applications in treatment of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes is presented with emphasis on newer technologies. Waste treatment is considered in a broad context including concentration by bioaccumulation, degradation to substances with reduced environmental impact and upgrading to such useful products as feeds, foods and fuels. Biofilters and bioscrubbers for gas- eous pollutants, high-rate municipal and

Murray Moo-Young; Yusuf Chisti

1994-01-01

144

Hanford Site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan, May 1991. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this plan is to establish the Hanford Site Waste Minimization Program. The plan specifies activities and methods that will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. A waste minimization program is an organized, comprehensive, and continual effort to systematically reduce waste generation. The Hanford Site Waste Minimization Program is designed to eliminate or minimize pollutant releases to all environmental media from all aspects of the site's operations and offers increased protection of public health and the environment. These efforts also yield the following additional benefits: reduce waste management and compliance costs; reduce resource usage; improve product yields; reduce or eliminate inventories and releases of hazardous chemicals reportable under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act''; and reduce or eliminate civil and criminal liabilities under environmental laws. The program reflects the goals and policies for waste minimization of this organization and represents an ongoing effort to make waste minimization part of the site's operating philosophy. In accordance with DOE policy, a hierarchical approach to waste management has been adopted and is applied to all types of waste. 11 refs., 3 figs.

Not Available

1991-01-01

145

In situ vitrification: Application analysis for stabilization transuranic waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The in situ vitrification process builds upon the electric melter technology previously developed for high-level waste immobilization. In situ vitrification converts buried wastes and contaminated soil to an extremely durable glass and crystalline waste form by melting the materials, in place, using joule heating. Once the waste materials have been solidified, the high integrity waste form should not cause future ground subsidence. Environmental transport of the waste due to water or wind erosion, and plant or animal intrusion, is minimized. Environmental studies are currently being conducted to determine whether additional stabilization is required for certain in-ground transuranic waste sites. An applications analysis was performed to identify several in situ vitrification process limitations which may exist at transuranic waste sites. Based on the process limit analysis, in situ vitrification is well suited for solidification of most in-ground transuranic wastes.

Oma, K. H.; Farnsworth, R. K.; Rusin, J. M.

1982-09-01

146

Waste Minimization Improvements Achieved Through Six Sigma Analysis Result In Significant Cost Savings  

SciTech Connect

Improved waste minimization practices at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are leading to a 15% reduction in the generation of hazardous and radioactive waste. Bechtel, BWXT Idaho, LLC (BBWI), the prime management and operations contractor at the INEEL, applied the Six Sigma improvement process to the INEEL Waste Minimization Program to review existing processes and define opportunities for improvement. Our Six Sigma analysis team: composed of an executive champion, process owner, a black belt and yellow belt, and technical and business team members used this statistical based process approach to analyze work processes and produced ten recommendations for improvement. Recommendations ranged from waste generator financial accountability for newly generated waste to enhanced employee recognition programs for waste minimization efforts. These improvements have now been implemented to reduce waste generation rates and are producing positive results.

Mousseau, Jeffrey, D.; Jansen, John, R.; Janke, David, H.; Plowman, Catherine, M.

2003-02-26

147

WESF hot cells waste minimization criteria hot cells window seals evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

WESF will decouple from B Plant in the near future. WESF is attempting to minimize the contaminated solid waste in their hot cells and utilize B Plant to receive the waste before decoupling. WESF wishes to determine the minimum amount of contaminated wast...

K. M. Walterskirchen

1997-01-01

148

FEDERAL EPA PROGRAMS FOR WASTE MINIMIZATION RESEARCH - AN OVERVIEW OF THE WREAFS PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the Waste Reduction Evaluations at Federal Sites (WREAFS) Program and to discuss the results of completed waste minimization opportunity assessments within the Federal community. he overview contains documentation of waste mi...

149

Waste minimization charges up recycling of spent lead-acid batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substantial strides are being made to minimize waste generated form spent lead-acid battery recycling. The Center for Hazardous Materials Research (Pittsburgh) recently investigated the potential for secondary lead smelters to recover lead from battery cases and other materials found at hazardous waste sites. Primary and secondary lead smelters in the U.S. and Canada are processing substantial tons of lead wastes,

P. B. Queneau; A. L. Troutman

1993-01-01

150

Results from a cooperative federal, state, and trade association waste minimization research program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development supported a waste minimization research program in 1986-1988 for small and medium sized generators to develop and promote the use of innovative technologies and management practices to reduce the generation of hazardous wastes. This program was established in response to the needs of small quantity hazardous waste generators in the areas of

J. S. Bridges; C. A. McComas; T. Foecke; L. Swain

2009-01-01

151

Metal decontamination for waste minimization using liquid metal refining technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current Department of Energy Mixed Waste Treatment Project flowsheet indicates that no conventional technology, other than surface decontamination, exists for metal processing. Current Department of Energy guidelines require retrievable storage of all metallic wastes containing transuranic elements above a certain concentration. This project is in support of the National Mixed Low Level Waste Treatment Program. Because of the high

E. L. Jr. Joyce; B. Lally; B. Ozturk; R. J. Fruehan

1993-01-01

152

Environmental Restoration Program waste minimization and pollution prevention self-assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Restoration (ER) Program within Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. is currently developing a more active waste minimization and pollution prevention program. To determine areas of programmatic improvements within the ER Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program, the ER Program required an evaluation of the program across the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Paducah Environmental Restoration and Waste Minimization Site, and the Portsmouth Environmental Restoration and Waste Minimization Site. This document presents the status of the overall program as of fourth quarter FY 1994, presents pollution prevention cost avoidance data associated with FY 1994 activities, and identifies areas for improvement. Results of this assessment indicate that the ER Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program is firmly established and is developing rapidly. Several procedural goals were met in FY 1994 and many of the sites implemented ER waste minimization options. Additional growth is needed, however, for the ER Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program.

Not Available

1994-10-01

153

Waste-minimization assessment for a manufacturer of can-manufacturing equipment. Environmental research brief  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA/625/7-88/003, July 1988). The WMAC team at Colorado State University performed an assessment for a plant that produces equipment for manufacturing and decorating aluminum beverage cans. Each component manufactured undergoes a unique series of operations including cutting, machining, welding, and painting. The team's report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that spent cutting fluid and contaminated hydraulic fluid are the largest wastes generated by the plant and that significant savings could result from instituting a recycling program for the waste cutting fluid.

Kirsch, F.W.; Looby, G.P.

1992-04-01

154

INVESTIGATION OF CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES TO MINIMIZE AUTOMOTIVE COOLANT WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The US Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the State of New Jersey evaluated chemical filtration and distillation technologies designed to recycle automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants. These evaluations addressed the product quality, waste reduction and econo...

155

Radioactive waste minimization at a large academic medical facility.  

PubMed

The University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) at Galveston is a large academic medical center with about 12,700 employees, 350 radioisotope research labs and 200 permitted radioactive materials users. Consequently, UTMB generates a fairly large amount of radioactive waste. The majority of this waste contains short-lived radionuclides, such as 32P, 33P, and 35S, which are held for decay and then disposed at a sanitary landfill. However, some waste, including long-lived waste and stock vials, is compacted into drums and stored in a warehouse facility, on-site, until disposal at a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) facility. Space in the warehouse is limited but disposal is currently cost prohibitive. A reevaluation of our program was conducted to see if volumes of LLRW requiring disposal at a commercial LLRW facility could be reduced. A reevaluation of the waste streams resulted in the shifting of most of the material that was being drummed for shipment to a LLRW facility to disposal by landfill or incineration. Materials that were previously assumed to be radioactive are now being evaluated prior to disposal to determine if they may be disposed of as non-radioactive waste. Following the initial evaluation, the amount of compacted dry solids assumed to contain long-lived radionuclides was reduced. The space that was saved due to the decrease in drumming for disposal is now used to hold the increased volume of decay-in-storage material. The monetary savings will amount to about $45,000 per year. This program is currently being expanded to reduce other waste streams at the university. PMID:12003027

Krieger, Kenneth; Van Baalen, Mary; Walters, Christopher

2002-05-01

156

Waste minimization case histories at three US Air Force Air Training Command bases  

SciTech Connect

Waste minimization audits are being carried out at three US Air Force Air Training Command bases: Randolph Air Force Base (AFB) near San Antonio, Texas; Lowry AFB near Denver, Colorado; and Keesler AFB near Biloxi, Mississippi. These audits include detailed surveys of base operations and processes, detailed analytical reports that contain recommendations for waste minimization actions, guidelines to allow bases to maintain and change their own waste minimization programs, and training programs for base personnel. The operations and processes are described in detail, as are the recommendations for waste minimization actions. The cost savings and efficiency increases associated with each recommended action are discussed. The cost savings identified vary in amount from base to base, depending on base size and mission; and range from $42,000 to $644,000 per year. The annualized Return on Investment for the audits varies between 0.4 and 6.4, making them an extremely attractive investment for the sponsoring agency. Payback period for recommended waste minimization options varies from immediate to 10 years, the average being less than 1 year. The institutional factors affecting the success of waste minimization programs are discussed, especially the need for involvement of supply and logistics functions. 2 refs., 3 tabs.

Suffern, J.S.; Vogel, R.A.

1988-01-01

157

RESULTS FROM A COOPERATIVE FEDERAL, STATE, AND TRADE ASSOCIATION WASTE MINIMIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development supported a waste minimization research program in 1986-1988 for small and medium sized generators to develop and promote the use of innovative technologies and management practices to reduce the generation of hazardous wastes. his ...

158

Implementation of Waste Minimization at a complex R&D site  

SciTech Connect

Under the 1994 Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention Crosscut Plan, the Department of Energy (DOE) has set a goal of 50% reduction in waste at its facilities by the end of 1999. Each DOE site is required to set site-specific goals to reduce generation of all types of waste including hazardous, radioactive, and mixed. To meet these goals, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL, has developed and implemented a comprehensive Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization (PP/WMin) Program. The facilities and activities at the site vary from research into basic sciences and research into nuclear fuel cycle to high energy physics and decontamination and decommissioning projects. As a multidisciplinary R&D facility and a multiactivity site, ANL generates waste streams that are varied, in physical form as well as in chemical constituents. This in turn presents a significant challenge to put a cohesive site-wide PP/WMin Program into action. In this paper, we will describe ANL`s key activities and waste streams, the regulatory drivers for waste minimization, and the DOE goals in this area, and we will discuss ANL`s strategy for waste minimization and it`s implementation across the site.

Lang, R.E. [USDOE Chicago Operations Office, Argonne, IL (United States); Thuot, J.R.; Devgun, J.S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1995-03-01

159

POLLUTION BALANCE: A NEW METHODOLOGY FOR MINIMIZING WASTE PRODUCTION IN MANUFACTURING PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

A new methodology based on a generic pollution balance equation, has been developed for minimizing waste production in manufacturing processes. pollution index," defined as the mass of waste produced per unit mass of a product, has been introduced to provide a quantitative measur...

160

POLLUTION BALANCE: A NEW METHODOLOGY FOR MINIMIZING WASTE PRODUCTION IN MANUFACTURING PROCESSES.  

EPA Science Inventory

A new methodolgy based on a generic pollution balance equation, has been developed for minimizing waste production in manufacturing processes. A "pollution index," defined as the mass of waste produced per unit mass of a product, has been introduced to provide a quantitative meas...

161

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF ROTOGRAVURE PRINTING CYLINDERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACS) were established at selected un...

162

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF METAL-CUTTING WHEELS AND COMPONENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) ere established at s...

163

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PRODUCT CARRIERS AND PRINTED LABELS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACS) were established at selected un...

164

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF METAL BANDS, CLAMPS, RETAINERS, AND TOOLING  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at ...

165

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF COMMERCIAL ICE MACHINES AND ICE STORAGE BINS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at ...

166

EPA'S RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM FOR WASTE MINIMIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper was presented at the 7th Annual Virginia Waste Management Conference in Richmond, Virginia on April 26, 1989. he purpose of the presentation and paper was to discuss the results of two cooperative agreements describing a non-traditional approach to pollution prevention...

167

INVESTIGATION OF CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES TO MINIMIZE AUTOMOTIVE COOLANT WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the State of New Jersey evaluated chemical filtration and distillation technologies designed to recycle automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants. hese evaluations addressed the product quality, waste reduction, and eco...

168

Hanford Site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site WMin/P2 program is an organized, comprehensive, and continual effort to systematically reduce the quantity and toxicity of hazardous, radioactive, mixed, and sanitary wastes; conserve resources; and prevent or minimize pollutant releases to all environmental media from all Site activities. The Hanford Site WMin/P2 program plan reflects national and DOE waste minimization and pollution prevention goals and policies, and represents an ongoing effort to make WMin/P2 part of the Site operating philosophy. In accordance with these policies, a hierarchical approach to environmental management has been adopted and is applied to all types of polluting and waste generating activities. Pollution prevention and waste minimization through source reduction are first priority in the Hanford WMin/P2 program, followed by environmentally safe recycling. Treatment to reduce the quantity, toxicity, and/or mobility will be considered only when prevention or recycling are not possible or practical. Environmentally safe disposal is the last option.

Not Available

1994-05-01

169

Transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS): applications beyond local excision.  

PubMed

Transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS) is a new technique for the local excision of rectal neoplasia. This platform employs ordinary laparoscopic instruments to achieve high-quality local excision. The TAMIS platform, however, is quite versatile. Described here are applications of TAMIS beyond local excision, ranging from repair of a rectourethral fistula to reverse proctectomy. PMID:23207713

Atallah, S; Albert, M; Debeche-Adams, T; Larach, S

2013-04-01

170

Waste-minimization assessment for a manufacturer of aluminum cans. Environmental research brief  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA/625/7-88/003, July 1988). The WMAC team at Colorado State University inspected a plant producing more than one billion aluminum cans each year for a local beverage producer. After the cans have been formed, they are cleaned and painted. These two operations generate the waste: most can cleaning wastes are treated and sewered, and the hazardous painting and inking operations' wastes are shipped to a hazardous waste disposal facility. The on-site treatment facility treats the can washing effluent so that the oil can be hauled to an oil recycler, the sludge disposed of off-site, and the clarified liquid discharged to the sewer. Because the plant had already initiated many steps to minimize and manage its wastes, the WMAC's team report, detailing their findings and recommendations, was only able to suggest that a nonhazardous reagent be substituted for the presently used reagent that contains from 2% to 4% ammonium fluozirconate. The can washing sludge would then be nonhazardous, and all of the hazardous waste disposal costs could be saved. The Research Brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA's Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from the authors.

Kirsch, F.W.; Looby, G.P.

1991-07-01

171

Potential pollution prevention and waste minimization for Department of Energy operations  

SciTech Connect

With the tightening of budgets and limited resources, it is important to ensure operations are carried out in a cost-effective and productive manner. Implementing an effective Pollution Prevention strategy can help to reduce the costs of waste management and prevent harmful releases to the environment. This document provides an estimate of the Department of Energy`s waste reduction potential from the implementation of Pollution Prevention opportunities. A team of Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention professionals was formed to collect the data and make the estimates. The report includes a list of specific reduction opportunities for various waste generating operations and waste types. A generic set of recommendations to achieve these reduction opportunities is also provided as well as a general discussion of the approach and assumptions made for each waste generating operation.

Griffin, J.; Ischay, C.; Kennicott, M.; Pemberton, S.; Tull, D.

1995-10-01

172

Application of the entropy generation minimization method to solid mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on a study that explored the application of the entropy generation minimization method to solid mechanics. After reviewing the definition of thermodynamic process and the principles of continuum mechanics, the constitutive equations of four categories of solid behaviors namely thermoelasticity, thermoviscoelasticity, thermoplasticity, and thermoviscoplasticity are discussed. Based on the computation of entropy generation due to mechanical harmonic loading in these four categories, a problem is presented. Several nondimensional parameters are defined using material, loading, and geometric parameters. The effects of nondimensional parameters on entropy generation due to heat conduction and internal dissipation are obtained and the solutions to minimize entropy generation are discussed.

Baneshi, Mehdi; Jafarpur, Khosrow; Mahzoon, Mojtaba

2009-12-01

173

Function of nurses and other staff to minimize hospital waste in selected hospitals in Isfahan  

PubMed Central

Context: Medical waste (MW) is all waste materials generated at health care facilities. MW naturally is hazardous for environment and subsequently for human. Waste minimization (WM) is the latest alternative for risk reduction. All hospital staff generally and nurses specially can play an active role through education and the implementation of measures to reduce medical wastage and their environmental effects. Aims: This study is aimed to compare nurses and other staff functions in selected hospitals in Isfahan about waste minimization strategies. Settings and Design: This is a descriptive analytical study. The study tool was a researcher -designed questionnaire in five area of waste minimization based on WHO recommendation. Materials and Methods: There were 90 nurses and other staff from randomized selected public and private hospitals of Isfahan as the sample of this research. This study was done in 2009. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed by t-test using SPSS16. Results: Nurses mean score of WM performance was 58.16 (12), and others was 58.56 (12.18) (of max 100). There was no significant difference between nurses and others mean score of WM performance according to t-test. There was not significant difference between WM performances of two studied groups in public and private hospitals based on t-test. Comparing between two studied groups mean scores by waste minimization areas indicated that nurses have done significantly better in source reduction area and other staffs have acted better in waste segregation (P < 0.05). Conclusions: All of hospital staff specially, nurses have an important role in qualified waste management practice of hospitals. Totally mean score of WM performance in hospitals (nurses and other) was average. With regard to other countries activities, this result is disappointing. So, it is necessary to plan educational programs for hospital staff, especially nurses.

Maroufi, Maryam; Javadi, Marzieh; yaghoubi, Maryam; Karimi, Saied

2012-01-01

174

Uranium Mill Tailings remedial action project waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this plan is to establish a waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness (WM/PPA) program for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The program satisfies DOE requirements mandated by DOE Order 5400.1. This plan establishes planning objectives and strategies for conserving resources and reducing the quantity and toxicity of wastes and other environmental releases.

Not Available

1994-07-01

175

Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill permit application.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Daily activities at the Hanford Site generate sanitary solid waste (nonhazardous and nonradioactive) that is transported to and permanently disposed of at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill. This permit application describes the manner in which the sol...

1991-01-01

176

Rapid plasma cleaning as a waste minimization tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although plasma cleaning is a recognized substitute for solvent cleaning in removing organic contaminants, current cleaning rates are impractically low for many applications. A set of experiments is described which demonstrate that the rate of plasma removal of organic contaminants can be greatly increased by modification of the plasma chemistry. A comparison of plasma cleaning rates of argon, oxygen and

P. P. Ward; R. J. Buss

1992-01-01

177

Identifying industrial best practices for the waste minimization of low-level radioactive materials  

SciTech Connect

In US DOE, changing circumstances are affecting the management and disposal of solid, low-level radioactive waste (LLW). From 1977 to 1991, the nuclear power industry achieved major reductions in solid waste disposal, and DOE is interested in applying those practices to reduce solid waste at DOE facilities. Project focus was to identify and document commercial nuclear industry best practices for radiological control programs supporting routine operations, outages, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The project team (DOE facility and nuclear power industry representatives) defined a Work Control Process Model, collected nuclear power industry Best Practices, and made recommendations to minimize LLW at DOE facilities.

Levin, V.

1996-04-01

178

INNOVATIVE PRACTICES FOR TREATING WASTE STREAMS CONTAINING HEAVY METALS: A WASTE MINIMIZATION APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

Innovative practices for treating waste streams containing heavy metals often involve technologies or systems that either reduce the amount of waste generated or recover reusable resources. With the land disposal of metal treatment residuals becoming less of an accepted waste man...

179

An operational waste minimization chargeback system at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, (SNL/NM) has made a commitment to achieve significant reductions in the amount of hazardous wastes generated throughout its operations. The success of the SNL/NM Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention Program depends primarily on: (1) adequate program funding, and (2) comprehensive collection and dissemination of information pertaining to SNL/NM`s waste. This paper describes the chargeback system that SNL/NM has chosen for funding the implementation of the Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention program, as well as the waste reporting system that follows naturally from the chargeback system. Both the chargeback and reporting systems have been fully implemented. The details of implementation are discussed, including: the physical means by which waste is managed and data collected; the database systems which have been linked; the flow of data through both human hands and electronic systems; the quality assurance of that data; and the waste report format now in use. Also discussed are intended improvements in the system that are currently planned for the coming years.

Horak, K. [Creative Computer Services, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Peek, D.W. [Ogden Environmental and Energy Services, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stermer, D.; Dailleboust, L.; Reilly, H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-05-01

180

Trash-to-Gas: Using Waste Products to Minimize Logistical Mass During Long Duration Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Just as waste-to-energy processes utilizing municipal landftll and biomass wastes are finding increased terrestrial uses, the Trash-to-Gas (TtG) project seeks to convert waste generated during spaceflight into high value commodities. These include methane for propulsion and water for life support in addition to a variety of other gasses. TtG is part of the Logistic Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project under the NASA Advanced Exploration Systems Program. The LRR project will enable a largely mission-independent approach to minimize logistics contributions to total mission architecture mass. LRR includes technologies that reduce the amount of consumables that need to be sent to space, repurpose items sent to space, or convert wastes to commodities. Currently, waste generated on the International Space Station is stored inside a logistic module which is de-orbited into Earth's atmosphere for destruction. The waste consists of food packaging, food, clothing and other items. This paper will discuss current results on incineration as a waste processing method. Incineration is part of a two step process to produce methane from waste: first the waste is converted to carbon oxides; second, the carbon oxides are fed to a Sabatier reactor where they are converted to methane. The quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane and water were measured under the different thermal degradation conditions. The overall carbon conversion efficiency and water recovery are discussed.

Hintze, Paul. E.; Caraccio, Anne J.; Anthony, Stephen M.; Tsoras, Alexandra N.; Nur, Monoita; Devor, Robert; Captain, James G.

2013-01-01

181

Trash-to-Gas: Using Waste Products to Minimize Logistical Mass During Long Duration Space Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Just as waste-to-energy processes utilizing municipal landftll and biomass wastes are finding increased terrestrial uses, the Trash-to-Gas (TtG) project seeks to convert waste generated during spaceflight into high value commodities. These include methane for propulsion and water for life support in addition to a variety of other gasses. TtG is part of the Logistic Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project under the NASA Advanced Exploration Systems Program. The LRR project will enable a largely mission-independent approach to minimize logistics contributions to total mission architecture mass. LRR includes technologies that reduce the amount of consumables that need to be sent to space, repurpose items sent to space, or convert wastes to commodities. Currently, waste generated on the International Space Station is stored inside a logistic module which is de-orbited into Earth's atmosphere for destruction. The waste consists of food packaging, food, clothing and other items. This paper will discuss current results on incineration as a waste processing method. Incineration is part of a two step process to produce methane from waste: first the waste is converted to carbon oxides; second, the carbon oxides are fed to a Sabatier reactor where they are converted to methane. The quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane and water were measured under the different thermal degradation conditions. The overall carbon conversion efficiency and water recovery are discussed

Hintze, Paul E.; Caraccio, A. J.; Anthony, S. M.; Tsoras, A. N.; Devor, Robert; Captain, James G.; Nur, Mononita

2013-01-01

182

FY 1993 Projection Capability Assurance Program waste and hazard minimization. Quarterly report, October--December 1993  

SciTech Connect

Waste and hazard minimization efforts in the following areas are described: (1) environmentally responsive cleaning, (2) hazardous material exposure, (3) explosive processing, (4) flex circuit manufacturing, (5) tritium capture w/o conversion to water, (6) ES&H compatible pyrotechnic materials, and (7) remote explosive component assembly.

Haws, L.D.; Homan, D.A.

1993-01-15

183

Minimizing Characterization - Derived Waste at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina  

SciTech Connect

Environmental restoration activities at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS) utilize innovative site characterization approaches and technologies that minimize waste generation. Characterization is typically conducted in phases, first by collecting large quantities of inexpensive data, followed by targeted minimally invasive drilling to collect depth-discrete soil/groundwater data, and concluded with the installation of permanent multi-level groundwater monitoring wells. Waste-reducing characterization methods utilize non-traditional drilling practices (sonic drilling), minimally intrusive (geoprobe, cone penetrometer) and non-intrusive (3-D seismic, ground penetration radar, aerial monitoring) investigative tools. Various types of sensor probes (moisture sensors, gamma spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, laser induced and X-ray fluorescence) and hydrophobic membranes (FLUTe) are used in conjunction with depth-discrete sampling techniques to obtain high-resolution 3-D plume profiles. Groundwater monitoring (short/long-term) approaches utilize multi-level sampling technologies (Strata-Sampler, Cone-Sipper, Solinst Waterloo, Westbay) and low-cost diffusion samplers for seepline/surface water sampling. Upon collection of soil and groundwater data, information is portrayed in a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) format for interpretation and planning purposes. At the SRS, the use of non-traditional drilling methods and minimally/non intrusive investigation approaches along with in-situ sampling methods has minimized waste generation and improved the effectiveness and efficiency of characterization activities.

Van Pelt, R. S.; Amidon, M. B.; Reboul, S. H.

2002-02-25

184

RCRA Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility Permit Number NEV HW0101 Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report Calendar Year 2012, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identification number of each generator from which the Permittee received a waste stream, a description and quantity of each waste stream in tons and cubic feet received at the facility, the method of treatment, storage, and/or disposal for each waste stream, a description of the waste minimization efforts undertaken, a description of the changes in volume and toxicity of waste actually received, any unusual occurrences, and the results of tank integrity assessments. This Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report is prepared in accordance with Section 2.13.3 of Permit Number NEV HW0101, issued 10/17/10.

,

2013-02-21

185

RCRA Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility Permit Number NEV HW0101 Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report Calendar Year 2011  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identification number of each generator from which the Permittee received a waste stream; a description and quantity of each waste stream in tons and cubic feet received at the facility; the method of treatment, storage, and/or disposal for each waste stream; a description of the waste minimization efforts undertaken; a description of the changes in volume and toxicity of waste actually received; any unusual occurrences; and the results of tank integrity assessments. This Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report is prepared in accordance with Section 2.13.3 of Permit Number NEV HW0101.

NSTec Environmental Restoration

2012-02-16

186

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF NEW AND REWORKED ROTOGRAVURE PRINTING CYLINDERS (EPA/600/S-95/005)  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected u...

187

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF GRAVURE-COATED METALIZED PAPER AND METALIZED FILM  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

188

WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PAPER ROLLS, INK ROLLS, INK RIBBONS, AND MAGNETIC AND THERMAL TRANSFER RIBBON  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected un...

189

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION FOR A MANUFACTURER OF FELT TIP MARKERS, STAMP PADS, AND RUBBER CEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Cent...

190

REDUCING WASTE IN THE PHOTO LAB WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT MAKE IT EASY  

EPA Science Inventory

As the attention given to waste disposal and pollution prevention increases, so does the possibility of regulation. wners and operators of small photo processing labs are among the many who must be concerned about waste disposal and pollution prevention. he U.S. EPA conducted a w...

191

A particle-bed gas cooled fast reactor core design for waste minimization.  

SciTech Connect

The issue of waste minimization in advanced reactor systems has been investigated using the Particle-Bed Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (PB-GCFR) design being developed and funded under the U.S. Department of Energy Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (USDOE NERI) Program. Results indicate that for the given core power density and constraint on the maximum TRU enrichment allowable, the lowest amount of radiotoxic transuranics to be processed and hence sent to the repository is obtained for long-life core designs. Calculations were additionally done to investigate long-life core designs using LWR spent fuel TRU and recycle TRU, and different feed, matrix and reflector materials. The recycled TRU and LWR spent TRU fuels give similar core behaviors, because of the fast spectrum environment which does not significantly degrade the TRU composition. Using light elements as reflector material was found to be unattractive because of power peaking problems and large reactivity swings. The application of a lead reflector gave the longest cycle length and lowest TRU processing requirement. Materials compatibility and performance issues require additional investigation.

Hoffman, E. A.; Taiwo, T. A.; Yang, W. S.; Fatone, M.

2002-10-11

192

Waste-minimization assessment for a manufacturer producing treated wood products. Environmental research brief  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA/625/7-88/003, July 1988). The WMAC team at Colorado State University performed an assessment at a plant producing treated wood products--approximately 1,700,000 cu.ft./yr. Railroad crossties and poles are treated with creosote in pressure cylinders to increase their serviceability under conditions that promote decay, weathering, insect destruction, or exposure to fire. Lumber is treated by Wolmanizing, a closed loop process in which a 2% chromated copper arsenate solution is used for treatment in a pressure cylinder. The team's report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that most waste was generated in the creosote treatment process, and also that cost savings could be obtained by arranging an exchange of accumulated bark and wood chips with others who use wood scrap as a raw material.

Kirsch, F.W.; Maginn, J.C.

1992-05-01

193

Waste minimization in the poultry processing industry. Process and water quality aspects  

SciTech Connect

The poultry processing industry is a large, water intensive industry. In a typical week in Alabama up to 15 million birds are processed, and Arkansas, Georgia, and North Carolina have similar processing volumes. This presentation will focus on issues surrounding waste minimization in the live processing industry as well as provide a brief look at the prepared foods segment, mainly cooked chicken products. The case study also reviews water quality issues that require us to examine waste treatment in a new light. This information will also apply to other industries facing more stringent treatment requirements as a result of stiffer water quality regulations.

Gelman, S.R.; Scott, S.; Davis, H.

1989-11-09

194

In situ vitrification: application analysis for stabilization of transuranic waste  

SciTech Connect

The in situ vitrification process builds upon the electric melter technology previously developed for high-level waste immobilization. In situ vitrification converts buried wastes and contaminated soil to an extremely durable glass and crystalline waste form by melting the materials, in place, using joule heating. Once the waste materials have been solidified, the high integrity waste form should not cause future ground subsidence. Environmental transport of the waste due to water or wind erosion, and plant or animal intrusion, is minimized. Environmental studies are currently being conducted to determine whether additional stabilization is required for certain in-ground transuranic waste sites. An applications analysis has been performed to identify several in situ vitrification process limitations which may exist at transuranic waste sites. Based on the process limit analysis, in situ vitrification is well suited for solidification of most in-ground transuranic wastes. The process is best suited for liquid disposal sites. A site-specific performance analysis, based on safety, health, environmental, and economic assessments, will be required to determine for which sites in situ vitrification is an acceptable disposal technique. Process economics of in situ vitrification compare favorably with other in-situ solidification processes and are an order of magnitude less than the costs for exhumation and disposal in a repository. Leachability of the vitrified product compares closely with that of Pyrex glass and is significantly better than granite, marble, or bottle glass. Total release to the environment from a vitrified waste site is estimated to be less than 10/sup -5/ parts per year. 32 figures, 30 tables.

Oma, K.H.; Farnsworth, R.K.; Rusin, J.M.

1982-09-01

195

Evidence-Based Integrated Environmental Solutions For Secondary Lead Smelters: Pollution Prevention And Waste Minimization Technologies And Practices  

EPA Science Inventory

An evidence-based methodology was adopted in this research to establish strategies to increase lead recovery and recycling via a systematic review and critical appraisal of the published literature. In particular, the research examines pollution prevention and waste minimization...

196

Knowledge-based and model-based hybrid methodology for comprehensive waste minimization in electroplating plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electroplating industry of over 10,000 planting plants nationwide is one of the major waste generators in the industry. Large quantities of wastewater, spent solvents, spent process solutions, and sludge are the major wastes generated daily in plants, which costs the industry tremendously for waste treatment and disposal and hinders the further development of the industry. It becomes, therefore, an urgent need for the industry to identify technically most effective and economically most attractive methodologies and technologies to minimize the waste, while the production competitiveness can be still maintained. This dissertation aims at developing a novel WM methodology using artificial intelligence, fuzzy logic, and fundamental knowledge in chemical engineering, and an intelligent decision support tool. The WM methodology consists of two parts: the heuristic knowledge-based qualitative WM decision analysis and support methodology and fundamental knowledge-based quantitative process analysis methodology for waste reduction. In the former, a large number of WM strategies are represented as fuzzy rules. This becomes the main part of the knowledge base in the decision support tool, WMEP-Advisor. In the latter, various first-principles-based process dynamic models are developed. These models can characterize all three major types of operations in an electroplating plant, i.e., cleaning, rinsing, and plating. This development allows us to perform a thorough process analysis on bath efficiency, chemical consumption, wastewater generation, sludge generation, etc. Additional models are developed for quantifying drag-out and evaporation that are critical for waste reduction. The models are validated through numerous industrial experiments in a typical plating line of an industrial partner. The unique contribution of this research is that it is the first time for the electroplating industry to (i) use systematically available WM strategies, (ii) know quantitatively and accurately what is going on in each tank, and (iii) identify all WM opportunities through process improvement. This work has formed a solid foundation for the further development of powerful WM technologies for comprehensive WM in the following decade.

Luo, Keqin

1999-11-01

197

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF IRON CASTINGS AND FABRICATED SHEET METAL PARTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expense to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACS) were established at selected univ...

198

A minimally invasive microchip for transdermal injection/sampling applications.  

PubMed

The design, fabrication, and characterization of a minimally invasive silicon microchip for transdermal injection/sampling applications are reported and discussed. The microchip exploits an array of silicon-dioxide hollow microneedles with density of one million needles cm(-2) and lateral size of a few micrometers, protruding from the front-side chip surface for one hundred micrometers, to inject/draw fluids into/from the skin. The microneedles are in connection with independent reservoirs grooved on the back-side of the chip. Insertion experiments of the microchip in skin-like polymers (agarose hydrogels with concentrations of 2% and 4% wt) demonstrate that the microneedles successfully withstand penetration without breaking, despite their high density and small size, according to theoretical predictions. Operation of the microchip with different liquids of biomedical interest (deionized water, NaCl solution, and d-glucose solution) at different differential pressures, in the range 10-100 kPa, highlights that the flow-rate through the microneedles is linearly dependent on the pressure-drop, despite the small section area (about 13 ?m(2)) of the microneedle bore, and can be finely controlled from a few ml min(-1) up to tens of ml min(-1). Evaporation (at room temperature) and acceleration (up to 80 g) losses through the microneedles are also investigated to quantify the ability of the chip in storing liquids (drug to be delivered or collected fluid) in the reservoir, and result to be of the order of 70 nl min(-1) and 1300 nl min(-1), respectively, at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. PMID:22773092

Strambini, Lucanos M; Longo, Angela; Diligenti, Alessandro; Barillaro, Giuseppe

2012-09-21

199

Application of Kick Minimization to the RTML 'Front End'  

SciTech Connect

The ''front end'' of the ILC RTML constitutes the sections of the RTML which are upstream of the first RF cavity of the first stage bunch compressor: specifically, the SKEW, COLL, TURN, SPIN, and EMIT sections. Although in principle it should be easy to transport the beam through these sections with low emittance growth, since the energy spread of the beam is relatively low, in practice it is difficult because of the large number of betatron wavelengths and strong focusing, especially in the TURN section. We report here on the use of the Kick Minimization Method for limiting the emittance growth in the ''front end'' of the RTML. Kick Minimization (KM) is a steering method which balances two optima: minimization of the RMS measured orbit on the BPMs (often called 1:1 steering), and minimization of the RMS corrector strength [1]. The simulation program used for these studies is Lucretia [2].

Tenenbaum, P.; /SLAC

2007-02-03

200

Applications of minimal physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models  

PubMed Central

Conventional mammillary models are frequently used for pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis when only blood or plasma data are available. Such models depend on the quality of the drug disposition data and have vague biological features. An alternative minimal-physiologically-based PK (minimal-PBPK) modeling approach is proposed which inherits and lumps major physiologic attributes from whole-body PBPK models. The body and model are represented as actual blood and tissue usually total body weight) volumes, fractions (fd) of cardiac output with Fick’s Law of Perfusion, tissue/blood partitioning (Kp), and systemic or intrinsic clearance. Analyzing only blood or plasma concentrations versus time, the minimal-PBPK models parsimoniously generate physiologically-relevant PK parameters which are more easily interpreted than those from mam-millary models. The minimal-PBPK models were applied to four types of therapeutic agents and conditions. The models well captured the human PK profiles of 22 selected beta-lactam antibiotics allowing comparison of fitted and calculated Kp values. Adding a classical hepatic compartment with hepatic blood flow allowed joint fitting of oral and intravenous (IV) data for four hepatic elimination drugs (dihydrocodeine, verapamil, repaglinide, midazolam) providing separate estimates of hepatic intrinsic clearance, non-hepatic clearance, and pre-hepatic bioavailability. The basic model was integrated with allometric scaling principles to simultaneously describe moxifloxacin PK in five species with common Kp and fd values. A basic model assigning clearance to the tissue compartment well characterized plasma concentrations of six monoclonal antibodies in human subjects, providing good concordance of predictions with expected tissue kinetics. The proposed minimal-PBPK modeling approach offers an alternative and more rational basis for assessing PK than compartmental models.

Cao, Yanguang

2012-01-01

201

An analysis of UK waste minimization clubs: key requirements for future cost effective developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The UK waste strategy is based upon use of the best practicable environmental option (BPEO), by those making waste management decisions. BPEO is supported by the use of the waste hierarchy, with its range of preferable options for dealing with waste, and the proximity principle, where waste is treated\\/disposed of as close to its point of origin as possible. The

Paul S Phillips; Rachel M Pratt; Karen Pike

2001-01-01

202

Applications and mechanisms of laser ablation for elemental analysis of nuclear wastes and contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survey methods for compositional analysis of nuclear wastes and contaminated soils are under development to support characterization prior to treatment and continued monitoring during remediation. Laser ablation in conjunction with optical spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy are attractive because of the safety and convenience of minimal sample handling and very small sampling volume. However, the signal intensities in analytic applications depend

Steven C. Langford; Tom Dickinson

1996-01-01

203

In-situ vitrification of transuranic wastes: systems evaluation and applications assessment  

SciTech Connect

Major advantages of in-situ vitrification (ISV) as a means of stabilizing radioactive waste are: long term durability of the waste form; cost effectiveness; safety in terms of minimizing worker and public exposure; and applicability to different kinds of soils and buried wastes. This document describes ISV technology that is available as another viable tool for in place stabilization of waste sites. The following sections correspond to the chapters in the body of this document: description of the ISV process; analysis of the performane of the ISV tests conducted thus far; parameters of the ISV process; cost analysis for the ISV process; analysis of occupational and public exposure; and assessment of waste site applications.

Oma, K.H.; Brown, D.R.; Buelt, J.L.; FitzPatrick, V.F.; Hawley, K.A.; Mellinger, G.B.; Napier, B.A.; Silviera, D.J.; Stein, S.L.; Timmerman, C.L.

1983-09-01

204

USER'S GUIDE: Strategic Waste Minimization Initiative (SWAMI) Version 2.0 - A Software Tool to Aid in Process Analysis for Pollution Prevention  

EPA Science Inventory

The Strategic WAste Minimization Initiative (SWAMI) Software, Version 2.0 is a tool for using process analysis for identifying waste minimization opportunities within an industrial setting. The software requires user-supplied information for process definition, as well as materia...

205

Processing of historic high radioactive waste coming from nuclear applications  

SciTech Connect

At ECN-NRG irradiations of materials have been performed with the aid of the High Flux Reactor at the site for investigations of their properties under different conditions as well for nuclear isotope productions since 1967 e.g. molybdenum. The high radioactive waste (HRW) coming from these nuclear applications are stored since the start in an interim storage facility located at the site. Due to the site license the HRW has to be transported to COVRA. Therefore a project has been set-up to transport all the HRW to COVRA. However, COVRA accepts a limited number of HLW containers among the CASTOR{sup R} MTR-2 container and thus all temporary stored drums have to be over packed. As the existing infra structure at the site is not suited a new facility has to be build. This also creates the opportunity to minimize, by separation of the HRW in low- and intermediate level waste, the amount of waste that has to be classified as HLW. The applied methodology, design and specifications of the HRW-ILW non-destructive assay characterization and separation system will be described. (authors)

Van Velzen, L.P.M.; Vos, R.M. de; Roobol, L.P. [Nuclear Research and consultancy Group - NRG, PO Box 25, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); IJpelaan, R.; Van Tongeren, R. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

2007-07-01

206

Minimal form factor digital-image sensor for endoscopic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a digital image sensor SOC featuring a total chip area (including dicing tolerances) of 0.34mm2 for endoscopic applications. Due to this extremely small form factor the sensor enables integration in endoscopes, guide wires and locater devices of less than 1mm outer diameter. The sensor embeds a pixel matrix of 10'000 pixels with a pitch of 3um x

Martin Wäny; Stephan Voltz; Fabio Gaspar; Lei Chen

2009-01-01

207

ANL progress in minimizing effects of LEU conversion on calcination of fission-product {sup 99}Mo acid waste solution.  

SciTech Connect

A partnership between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), MDS Nordion (MDSN), Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL) and SGN (France) has addressed the conversion of the MAPLE Reactor 99Mo production process from high-enriched uranium (HEU) targets to low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets. One effect of the conversion would be to increase the amount of solid uranium waste five-fold; we have worked to minimize the effect of the additional waste on the overall production process and, in particular, solid waste storage. Two processes were investigated for the treatment of the uranium-rich acidic waste solution: direct calcination, and oxalate precipitation as a prelude to calcination. Direct calcination generates a dense UO3 solid that should allow a significantly greater amount of uranium in one waste container than is planned for the HEU process, but doing so results in undesirable sputtering. These results suggest that direct calcination could be adapted for use with LEU targets without a large effect on the uranium waste treatment procedures. The oxalate-calcination generates a lower-density granular U3O8 product; sputtering is not significant during calcination of the uranyl oxalate precipitate. A physical means to densify the product would need to be developed to increase the amount of uranium in each waste container. Future work will focus on the specific chemical reactions that occur during the direct and oxalate calcination processes.

Bakel, A.; Vandegrift, G.; Quigley, K.; Aase, S.; Neylon, M.; Carney, K.

2003-01-01

208

Selected problems of minimization and management of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plant decommissioning. Part 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The processing prior to storage of radioactive wastes produced in nuclear power plant decommissioning is described as are the types of containers employed for waste transport and/or disposal. Data are summarized on exposure of personnel to radioactivity r...

M. Kyrs A. Moravec

1988-01-01

209

Alpha Waste Minimization in Terms of Volume and Radioactivity at COGMA'S Melox and La Hague Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the management of alpha waste that cannot be stored in surface repositories under current French regulations. The aim of the paper is to provide an overview of COGEMA's Integrated Waste Management Strategy. The topics discussed includ...

M. Arslan J. C. Dumont

2003-01-01

210

EVALUATION OF FIVE WASTE MINIMIZATION TECHNOLOGIES AT THE GENERAL DYNAMICS POMONA DIVISION PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

Five technology areas encompassing eight waste reduction technologies at the General Dynamics Pomona Division (Southern California) were technically and economically evaluated under the California/EPA Waste Reduction Innovative Technology Evaluation (WRITE) Program. valuations we...

211

Minimal form factor digital-image sensor for endoscopic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a digital image sensor SOC featuring a total chip area (including dicing tolerances) of 0.34mm2 for endoscopic applications. Due to this extremely small form factor the sensor enables integration in endoscopes, guide wires and locater devices of less than 1mm outer diameter. The sensor embeds a pixel matrix of 10'000 pixels with a pitch of 3um x 3um covered with RGB filters in Bayer pattern. The sensor operates fully autonomous, controlled by an on chip ring oscillator and readout state machine, which controls integration AD conversion and data transmission, thus the sensor only requires 4 pin's for power supply and data communication. The sensor provides a frame rate of 40Frames per second over a LVDS serial data link. The endoscopic application requires that the sensor must work without any local power decoupling capacitances at the end of up to 2m cabling and be able to sustain data communication over the same wire length without deteriorating image quality. This has been achieved by implementation of a current mode successive approximation ADC and current steering LVDS data transmission. An band gap circuit with -40dB PSRR at the data frequency was implemented as on chip reference to improve robustness against power supply ringing due to the high series inductance of the long cables. The B&W versions of the sensor provides a conversion gain of 30DN/nJ/cm2 at 550nm with a read noise in dark of 1.2DN when operated at 2m cable. Using the photon transfer method according to EMVA1288 standard the full well capacity was determined to be 18ke-. According to our knowledge the presented work is the currently world smallest fully digital image sensor. The chip was designed along with a aspheric single surface lens to assemble on the chip without increasing the form factor. The extremely small form factor of the resulting camera permit's to provide visualization with much higher than state of the art spatial resolution in sub 1mm endoscopic applications, where so far only optical fiber bundles providing 1k - 3k image points could be used. In many applications, such as guide wires and locater devices the small form factor permits to implement visualization for the first time.

Wäny, Martin; Voltz, Stephan; Gaspar, Fabio; Chen, Lei

2009-02-01

212

PC proliferation: Minimizing corporate risk through planning for application maintenance  

SciTech Connect

The rapid proliferation of personal computers, offering tremendous productivity gains for the knowledge worker, often creates new application maintenance tasks. Specific concerns include security, data integrity, and access authorization. Distributed networks require security and communication systems. Distributed data entry requires file servers, network support personnel, and synchronization methods to preserve the integrity of corporate data. Much PC software which must be maintained will be developed outside of standard-imposing environments and without benefit of formal training. A recommended method for limiting future maintenance problems is the formation of a staff possessing skills specific to problem solving in the areas mentioned and functioning as PC consultants for the area of the knowledge worker.

Shafer, L.I.

1987-01-01

213

Minimal Technologies Application Project, Hohenfels Training Area, Germany: Final report  

SciTech Connect

At the US Army Hohenfels Training Area in Germany, more than 30 years of continuous and intensive tactical training has caused extensive environmental damage because of the loss of vegetative cover and accelerated soil erosion. A project was conducted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and relative benefits of various revegetation procedures. These procedures involved amendment and seedbed preparation options that were combined with three different durations of site closure. The point-intercept method was used to measure the types and amounts of vegetation established and changes in the vegetative community. Over three growing seasons, applications of fertilizer and seed increased the percent grass, legume, and total vegetative cover. The duration of site closure had no influence on the types or amounts of ground cover established. Materials made up only 10% of the total cost of the fertilization and seeding operations. The results of the research indicate that less expensive methods of amendment application should be evaluated. The data also show that site closure is not practical, economical, or necessary. The results of this project suggest that a regular maintenance program consisting of seeding and fertilization is required to maintain adequate vegetative cover and control erosion on tactical training areas.

Zellmer, S.D.; Hinchman, R.R.; Johnson, D.O. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.); Severinghaus, W.D. (Corps of Engineers, Champaign, IL (United States)); Brent, J.J. (Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States))

1991-12-01

214

Minimizing N 2O fluxes from full-scale municipal solid waste landfill with properly selected cover soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Municipal solid waste landfills emit nitrous oxide (N2O) gas. Assuming that the soil cover is the primary N2O source from landfills, this study tested, during a four-year project, the hypothesis that the proper use of chosen soils with fine texture minimizes N2O emissions. A full-scale sanitary landfill, a full-scale bioreactor landfill and a cell planted with Nerium indicum or Festuca

Houhu ZHANG; Pinjing HE; Liming SHAO; Xian QU; Duujong LEE

2008-01-01

215

ANL progress in minimizing effects of LEU conversion on calcination of fission-product Mo acid waste solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A partnership between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), MDS Nordion (MDSN), Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL) and SGN (France) has addressed the conversion of the MAPLE Reactor 99Mo production process from high-enriched uranium (HEU) targets to low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets. One effect of the conversion would be to increase the amount of solid uranium waste five-fold; we have worked to minimize

A. Bakel; G. Vandegrift; K. Quigley; S. Aase; M. Neylon; K. Carney

2003-01-01

216

Application of the iron-enriched basalt waste form for immobilizing commercial transuranic waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principal sources of commercial transuranic (TRU) waste in the United States are identified. The physical and chemical nature of the wastes from these sources are discussed. The fabrication technique and properties of iron enriched basalt, a rock-like waste from developd for immobilizing defense TRU wastes, are discussed. The application of iron enriched basalt to commercial TRU wastes is discussed. Commercial TRU wastes from mixed oxide fuel fabrication, light water reactor fuel reprocessing, and miscellaneous medical, research, and industrial sources are reviewed. These indicate that iron enriched basalt is suitable for most types of commercial TRU wastes. Noncombustible TRU wastes are dissolved in the high temperature, oxidizing iron enriched basalt melt. Combustible TRU wastes are immobilized in iron enriched basalt by incinerating the wastes and adding the TRU bearing ash to the melt. Casting and controlled cooling of the melt produces a devitrified, rock like iron enriched basalt monolith.

Owen, D. E.

1981-08-01

217

Military Wastes-to-Energy Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This analysis focuses on the military waste material and byproduct stream and the potential for energy recovery and utilization. Feedstock material includes municipal-type solid waste, selected installation hazardous waste, and biomass residue. The study ...

K. E. Kawaoka

1980-01-01

218

Liquid effluent retention facility dangerous waste permit application  

SciTech Connect

This appendix to the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application contains pumps, piping, leak detection systems, geomembranes, leachate collection systems, earthworks and floating cover systems. (GHH)

Not Available

1991-06-01

219

DISCRISET: a battery of tests for fast waste classification--application of tests on waste extracts.  

PubMed

The Hazardous Waste Directive (HWD, Council Directive 91/689/EC, 1991) provides a framework for classification of hazardous waste, based on 15 Hazard (H)-criteria. For complex wastes the HWD foresees the application of toxicity tests on the waste material itself to assess its toxic properties. However, these proposed test methods often involve mammalian testing, which is not acceptable from an ethical point of view, nor is it feasible economically. The DISCRISET project was initiated to investigate the use of alternative chemical and biological fast screening tests for waste hazard classification. In the first part of the project, different methods were reviewed and a testing strategy was proposed to minimize time and cost of analysis by a tiered approach. This includes as a first tier chemical analysis followed by a general acute toxicity screen as a second tier and as a third tier mechanistic toxicity tests to assess chronic toxicity (genotoxicity, hormone disturbance, teratogenic effects, immunologic activity). In this phase of the project, selected methods were applied to 16 different waste samples from various sources and industries. The first tier chemical tests are recommended for the full characterization of the leachate fraction (inorganics) but not for the organic fraction of samples. Here the chemical characterization is only useful if toxic content is known or suspected. As second tier the fast bacterial test Microtox is validated as a general toxicity screen for the organic fraction (worst case organic extract). Samples that are not classified in tier 1 or 2 are then further investigated in the third tier by the mechanistic toxicity tests and tested for their potential chronic toxicity: immune activity (TNF-? upregulation) is indicative for corrosive, irritating or sensitising effects (H4/H8/H15), reproductive effects (H10) are indicated by hormone disturbance and early life stage abnormalities in fish larvae when exposed to the extracts and mutagenicity and carcinogenicity (H7, H11) are indicated by SOS response induction and increased mutation frequency in the Ames test when exposed to the extracts. Results indicate that the combination of chemical tests and bioassays allows important hazardous properties to be addressed and the tiered approach ensures that the tests are performed quickly and economically. The suggested strategy provides a solid and ethical alternative to the methods described in the HWD and is a vast improvement on the current, arbitrary classification. PMID:22770807

Deprez, K; Robbens, J; Nobels, I; Vanparys, C; Vanermen, G; Tirez, K; Michiels, L; Weltens, R

2012-12-01

220

1997 annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress as required by DOE Order 5400.1, Hanford Site.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hanford's missions are to safely clean up and manage the site's legacy wastes, and to develop and deploy science and technology. Through these missions Hanford will contribute to economic diversification of the region. Hanford's environmental management o...

P. Segall

1998-01-01

221

Natural gas applications in waste management  

SciTech Connect

The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is engaged in several projects related to the use of natural gas for waste management. These projects can be classified into four categories: cyclonic incineration of gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes; fluidized-bed reclamation of solid wastes; two-stage incineration of liquid and solid wastes; natural gas injection for emissions control. 5 refs., 8 figs.

Tarman, P.B.

1991-01-01

222

U.S. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) HAZARDOUS WASTE MINIMIZATION PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The passage of the 1984 Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act marked a strong change in the United States' policies concerning hazardous wastes. In order to carry out the intention of the Amendments to reduce the generation of hazardous waste in the U.S., the E...

223

State Waste Discharge Permit application: 400 Area Septic System  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affects groundwater or has the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 400 Area Septic System. The influent to the system is domestic waste water. Although the 400 Area Septic System is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. Therefore, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used.

Not Available

1994-06-01

224

Waste minimization measures associated with the analysis of {sup 137}Cs in coconut milk collected from the Marshall Islands  

SciTech Connect

The Marshall Islands Environmental Characterization and Dose Assessment Program has recently implemented waste minimization measures to reduce low level radioactive (LLW) and low level mixed (LLWMIXED) waste streams at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Several thousand environmental samples are collected annually from former US nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands, and returned to LLNL for processing and radiometric analysis. In the past, we analyzed coconut milk directly by gamma-spectrometry after adding formaldehyde (as preservative) and sealing the fluid in metal cans. This procedure was not only tedious and time consuming but generated storage and waste disposal problems. We have now reduced the number of coconut milk samples required for analysis from 1500 per year to approximately 250, and developed a new analytical procedure which essentially eliminates the associated mixed radioactive waste stream. Coconut milk samples are mixed with a few grams of ammonium-molydophosphate (AMP) which quantitatively scavenges the target radionuclide cesium 137 in an ion-exchange process. The AMP is then separated from the mixture and sealed in a plastic container. The bulk sample material can be disposed of as a non- radioactive non-hazardous waste, and the relatively small amount of AMP conveniently counted by gamma-spectrometry, packaged and stored for future use.

Hamilton, T.; Jones, H.; Wong, K.; Robinson, W.

1998-05-01

225

Environmental Document:Master Permit Application for Waste Management  

NSF Publications Database

Title : Environmental Document:Master Permit Application for Waste Management Type : Antarctic EAM NSF Org: OD / OPP Date : March 7, 1994 File : opp94018 National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs ENVIRONMENTAL DOCUMENT AND FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT AND NOT MORE THAN MINOR OR TRANSITORY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT MASTER PERMIT APPLICATION for MATERIALS AND WASTE MANAGEMENT AND WASTE DISPOSAL March 2, 1994 FINDING The National Science Foundation (NSF) has prepared an Initial Environmental ...

226

Minimizing asynchronism to improve the performances of anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and corn stover.  

PubMed

To investigate the existence of the asynchronism during the anaerobic co-digestion of different substrates, two typical substrates of food waste and corn stover were anaerobically digested with altering organic loadings (OL). The results indicated that the biodegradability of food waste and corn stover was calculated to be 81.5% and 55.1%, respectively, which was main reason causing the asynchronism in the co-digestion. The asynchronism was minimized by NaOH-pretreatment for corn stover, which could improve the biodegradability by 36.6%. The co-digestion with pretreatment could increase the biomethane yield by 12.2%, 3.2% and 0.6% comparing with the co-digestion without pretreatment at C/N ratios of 20, 25 and 30 at OL of 35g-VS/L, respectively. The results indicated that the digestibility synchronism of food waste and corn stover was improved through enhancing the accessibility and digestibility of corn stover. The biomethane production could be increased by minimizing the asynchronism of two substrates in co-digestion. PMID:24880810

Zhou, Qi; Shen, Fei; Yuan, Hairong; Zou, Dexun; Liu, Yanping; Zhu, Baoning; Jaffu, Muhanmad; Chufo, Akiber; Li, Xiujin

2014-08-01

227

A New Approach to Rigid Body Minimization with Application to Molecular Docking*  

PubMed Central

Our work is motivated by energy minimization in the space of rigid affine transformations of macromolecules, an essential step in computational protein-protein docking. We introduce a novel representation of rigid body motion that leads to a natural formulation of the energy minimization problem as an optimization on the SO(3)×R3 manifold, rather than the commonly used SE(3). The new representation avoids the complications associated with optimization on the SE(3) manifold and provides additional flexibilities for optimization not available in that formulation. The approach is applicable to general rigid body minimization problems. Our computational results for a local optimization algorithm developed based on the new approach show that it is about an order of magnitude faster than a state of art local minimization algorithms for computational protein-protein docking.

Mirzaei, Hanieh; Kozakov, Dima; Beglov, Dmitri; Paschalidis, Ioannis Ch.; Vajda, Sandor; Vakili, Pirooz

2013-01-01

228

Plan for implementation of innovative hazardous waste minimization techniques at an eastern US Naval Plating Shop.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was contracted by the Naval Energy and Environmental Support Activity (NEESA) to analyze the wastewater problems at a Naval Ordnance Station (NOS) plating shop in the eastern United States to recommend innovative waste...

J. F. Walker J. F. Villiers-Fisher C. H. Brown

1987-01-01

229

Minimization of Organic and Metallic Industrial Waste Via LEMNA MINOR Concentration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In recent years, new strict environmental laws have required improved and cost-effective water purification methods by Air Force complexes. Naturally assisted primary units (microbiological) and secondary units (macrophyte) could bring waste treatment sys...

G. L. Bowers-Irons

1992-01-01

230

Waste Minimization Assessment for a Manufacturer of Labels and Flexible Packaging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The WMAC team at the University of Tennessee performed an assessment at a plant that manufactures printed labels and flexible packaging. The team's report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that waste solvents are generated in large quanti...

R. J. Jendrucko B. T. Hurst G. P. Looby

1995-01-01

231

Proceedings of the tenth annual DOE low-level waste management conference: Session 4: Waste treatment minimization  

SciTech Connect

This document contains eleven papers on various aspects of low-level radioactive waste management. Topics in this volume include: volume reduction plans; incentitives; and cost proposals; acid detoxification and reclamation; decontamination of lead; leach tests; West Valley demonstration project status report; and DOE's regional management strategies. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base. (TEM)

Not Available

1988-12-01

232

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant remote handling application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project, to be constructed on the Hanford reservation in southeastern Washington State during the 1990's, will immobilize the liquid, high-level defense waste stored there. The wastes will be retrieved from double-shell tanks and pretreated at an existing facility onsite. Pretreatment will significantly reduce the volume of wastes to be solidified in HWVP by separating

L. D. Swenson; B. A. Wolfe

1989-01-01

233

Minimizing N2O fluxes from full-scale municipal solid waste landfill with properly selected cover soil.  

PubMed

Municipal solid waste landfills emit nitrous oxide (N2O) gas. Assuming that the soil cover is the primary N2O source from landfills, this study tested, during a four-year project, the hypothesis that the proper use of chosen soils with fine texture minimizes N2O emissions. A full-scale sanitary landfill, a full-scale bioreactor landfill and a cell planted with Nerium indicum or Festuca arundinacea Schreb, at the Hangzhou Tianziling landfill in Hangzhou City were the test sites. The N2O emission rates from all test sites were considerably lower than those reported in the published reports. Specifically, the N2O emission rate was dependent on soil water content and nitrate concentrations in the cover soil. The effects of leachate recirculation and irrigation were minimal. Properly chosen cover soils applied to the landfills reduced N2O flux. PMID:18574960

Zhang, Houhu; He, Pinjing; Shao, Liming; Qu, Xian; Lee, Duujong

2008-01-01

234

AN EFFICIENT ALGORITHM FOR MINIMIZING A SUM OF EUCLIDEAN NORMS WITH APPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years rich theories on polynomial-time interior-point algorithms have been developed. These theories and algorithms can be applied to many nonlinear optimization problems to yield better complexity results for various applications. In this paper, the problem of minimizing a sum of Euclidean norms is studied. This problem is convex but not everywhere dierentiable. By transforming the problem into a

235

Global optimization by coupled local minimizers and its application to FE model updating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coupled local minimizers (CLM) is a new method applicable to global optimization of functions with multiple local minima. In CLM a cooperative search mechanism is set up using a population of local optimizers, which are coupled during the search process by synchronization constraints. CLM is characterised by a relative fast convergence since the local optimizers are gradient-based. The combination of

Anne Teughels; Guido De Roeck; Johan A. K. Suykens

2003-01-01

236

RCRA/UST, superfund and EPCRA hotline training module. Introduction to: Strategy for hazardous waste minimization and combustion, updated as of July 1995  

SciTech Connect

The module presents a general overview of the issues EPA has addressed in the hazardous waste minization and combustion strategy. It provides a detailed description of the history and goals of the strategy. It presents an in-depth discussion of hazardous waste minimization and combustion issues and includes a section on environmental justice.

NONE

1995-11-01

237

Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange  

SciTech Connect

This two-volume proceedings summarizes the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy's Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the fifth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Washington, DC, on April 25-26, 1991. The concepts in this year's fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept's economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes; Volume 1 addresses innovations for mining and metals remediation that can reduce or use waste streams, and Volume 2 addresses general industrial innovations that can reduce or use waste streams. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

Lee, V.E. (ed.)

1991-04-01

238

U.S. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) WASTE MINIMIZATION RESEARCH PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

A program to encourage the development and adoption of new production and recycling technologies that result in the production of less hazardous waste was initiated by the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development in 1987. The program includes a broad spectrum of demonstratio...

239

AN INNOVATIVE INTEGRATED APPROACH TO MINIMIZING GYPSUM AND PYRITE WASTES BY CONVERSION TO MARKETABLE PRODUCTS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research program is to develop a novel integrated process to eliminate millions of tons of gypsum and pyrite wastes generated annually by the U.S. energy industries and reduce the emission of millions of tons of greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. This was accomplished by converting gypsum and pyrite wastes to marketable products such as lime, direct reduced iron (DRI), and sulfur products and obviating the need to calcine millions of tons of limestone for use in utility scrubbers. Specific objectives included: (1) Develop a novel, integrated process for utilizing two major wastes generated by mining and energy industries to produce lime for recycling and other marketable products. (2) Study individual chemical reactions involved in pyrite decomposition, DRI production, and Muller-Kuhne process for lime regeneration to determine optimum process variables such as temperature, time, and reactant composition. (3) Investigate techniques for effective concentration of pyrite from tailing waste and methods for effective separation of DRI from calcium sulfide.

Daniel Tao

2000-06-27

240

WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: OPTICAL FABRICATION LABORATORY - FITZSIMMONS ARMY MEDICAL CENTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Under the Waste Reduction Evaluations at Federal Sites (WREAFS) program, RREL has taken the initiative to merge the experience and resources of the EPA with other Federal agencies. At the Fitzsimmons Army Medical Center (FAMC) in Aurora, Colorado, the Army and the EPA cooperated ...

241

WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: OPTICAL FABRICATION LABORATORY - FITZSIMMONS ARMY MEDICAL CENTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Under the Waste Reduction Evaluations at Federal Sites (WREAFS) program, RREL has taken the initiative to merge the experience and resources of the EPA with other Federal agencies. t the Fitzsimmons Army Medical Center (FAMC) in Aurora, Colorado, the Army and the EPA cooperated i...

242

POLLUTION PREVENTION STRATEGIES FOR THE MINIMIZING OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES IN THE VCM-PVC INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

In many U.S. companies, pollution prevention strategies coincide with economic interests. Typically a company strives to be the lowest-cost producer, to be competitive, and to reduce wastes. In this paper, the author reviews pollution prevention strategies in the vinyl chloride m...

243

On minimization of rad-waste carryover in an n-stage evaporator  

SciTech Connect

The mathematical problem of minimizing gross solids entrainment in an n-stage evaporator is formulated and solved using the method of Lagrange multipliers. The solution procedure enables direct comparison of the decontamination efficiencies of multistage evaporators as the number of stages (n) is varied. A numerical example is utilized to illustrate the method of solution. Equivalent expressions for batch distillation are also derived.

Singh, K.P.; Holtz, M.; Luk, V.K.

1984-01-01

244

Virtual environmental applications for buried waste characterization technology evaluation report  

SciTech Connect

The project, Virtual Environment Applications for Buried Waste Characterization, was initiated in the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program in fiscal year 1994. This project is a research and development effort that supports the remediation of buried waste by identifying and examining the issues, needs, and feasibility of creating virtual environments using available characterization and other data. This document describes the progress and results from this project during the past year.

NONE

1995-05-01

245

R D activities at DOE applicable to mixed waste  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. Within the new organization, the Office of Technology Development (OTD) is responsible for research, development, demonstration, testing and evaluation (RDDT E) activities aimed at meeting DOE cleanup goals, while minimizing cost and risk. Because of US governmental activities dating back to the Manhattan project, mixed radioactive and hazardous waste is an area of particular concern to DOE. The OTD is responsible for a number of R D activities aimed at improving capabilities to characterize, control, and properly dispose of mixed waste. These activities and their progress to date will be reviewed. In addition, needs for additional R D on managing mixed waste will be presented. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

Erickson, M.D.; Devgun, J.S.; Brown, J.J.; Beskid, N.J.

1991-01-01

246

Possible applications for municipal solid waste fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study focuses on existing practices related to the reuse of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) fly ash and identifies new potential uses. Nine possible applications were identified and grouped into four main categories: construction materials (cement, concrete, ceramics, glass and glass–ceramics); geotechnical applications (road pavement, embankments); “agriculture” (soil amendment); and, miscellaneous (sorbent, sludge conditioning). Each application is analysed in

C Ferreira; A Ribeiro; L Ottosen

2003-01-01

247

Memory-Aware Optimal Scheduling with Communication Overhead Minimization for Streaming Applications on Chip Multiprocessors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we focus on solving the problem of removing inter-core communication overhead for streaming applications on chip multiprocessors. The objective is to totally remove inter-core communication overhead while minimizing the overall memory usage. By totally removing inter-core communication overhead, a shorter period can be applied and system throughput can be improved. Our basic idea is to let tasks

Yi Wang; Duo Liu; Zhiwei Qin; Zili Shao

2010-01-01

248

An interval-based possibilistic programming method for waste management with cost minimization and environmental-impact abatement under uncertainty.  

PubMed

Considerable public concerns have been raised in the past decades since a large amount of pollutant emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal of processes pose risks on surrounding environment and human health. Moreover, in MSW management, various uncertainties exist in the related costs, impact factors and objectives, which can affect the optimization processes and the decision schemes generated. In this study, an interval-based possibilistic programming (IBPP) method is developed for planning the MSW management with minimized system cost and environmental impact under uncertainty. The developed method can deal with uncertainties expressed as interval values and fuzzy sets in the left- and right-hand sides of constraints and objective function. An interactive algorithm is provided for solving the IBPP problem, which does not lead to more complicated intermediate submodels and has a relatively low computational requirement. The developed model is applied to a case study of planning a MSW management system, where mixed integer linear programming (MILP) technique is introduced into the IBPP framework to facilitate dynamic analysis for decisions of timing, sizing and siting in terms of capacity expansion for waste-management facilities. Three cases based on different waste-management policies are examined. The results obtained indicate that inclusion of environmental impacts in the optimization model can change the traditional waste-allocation pattern merely based on the economic-oriented planning approach. The results obtained can help identify desired alternatives for managing MSW, which has advantages in providing compromised schemes under an integrated consideration of economic efficiency and environmental impact under uncertainty. PMID:20591470

Li, Y P; Huang, G H

2010-09-15

249

Method for minimizing environmental release of toxic compounds in the incineration of wastes  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for reducing the discharge of contaminated liquid streams in the treatment of hot waste incinerator exhaust gases containing hydrochloric acid gas, particulate fly ash, toxic metal oxides and toxic organic compounds, comprising the steps of: contacting the exhaust gases with an alkaline material; reacting the major portion of the hydrochloric acid gas content of the exhaust gases with the alkaline material; removing substantially all of the reacted spent alkaline material, fly ash and other particulate matter from the gas in a solids separation stage; treating the particulate-free exhaust gases from the solids separation stage in at least two wet scrubber contact stages operating in series; operating each of the wet scrubber stages with separate dedicated salt-free aqueous scrubbing solutions; scrubbing the gas in the successive wet scrubber contact stages with acid solutions of diminishing acid concentration; absorbing in the scrubbing liquor of the wet scrubber stages substantially all of the residual hydrochloric acid and a portion of the toxic organic compounds from the particulate-free exhaust gases; operating at least the first wet scrubber stage with a recycle aqueous salt-free scrubbing solution loop; recycling a portion of the aqueous acid scrubbing solution from a downstream wet scrubber stage to the initial wet scrubber contactor stage; collecting and conveying the contaminated acid liquid blowdown stream from the initial wet scrubbing liquid recycle loop to the waste incinerator; reincinerating the acid liquor blowdown stream in the waste incinerator for destruction of the organic toxics; removing the major portion of the recycled acid gas in the first alkaline dry solids gas treatment stage and thereby eliminating discharge of a contaminated liquid stream to the environment; and thereafter recovering a purified gaseous stream from the wet scrubbing stages.

Lerner, B.J.

1993-08-24

250

MSW management for waste minimization in Taiwan: the last two decades.  

PubMed

Taiwan is the second most densely populated country in the world; its 22.604 million residents (2002) live in an area of 35,967 km2 (628 people/km2). Taiwan's economy has grown rapidly during the last 20 years, resulting in a corresponding increase in the amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). This study describes and evaluates the municipal solid waste management system in Taiwan. The study's results indicate that the amount of MSW began to decline after 1997, when the government enforced aggressive MSW management policies. By 2002, total MSW production had dropped by 27%, and the average daily per capita weight of MSW had fallen from 1.14 kg in 1997 to 0.81 kg in 2002. Summarizing the successful experience of MSW reduction in Taiwan, the most important factor was the government's combining of the MSW collection system with reduction/recycling programs. The second most important factor was the policy of extended producer responsibility, which laid a foundation of recycling by producers and retailers and promoted public recycling. PMID:16337783

Lu, Li-Teh; Hsiao, Teng-Yuan; Shang, Neng-Chou; Yu, Yue-Hwa; Ma, Hwong-Wen

2006-01-01

251

MSW management for waste minimization in Taiwan: The last two decades  

SciTech Connect

Taiwan is the second most densely populated country in the world; its 22.604 million residents (2002) live in an area of 35,967 km{sup 2} (628 people/km{sup 2}). Taiwan's economy has grown rapidly during the last 20 years, resulting in a corresponding increase in the amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). This study describes and evaluates the municipal solid waste management system in Taiwan. The study's results indicate that the amount of MSW began to decline after 1997, when the government enforced aggressive MSW management policies. By 2002, total MSW production had dropped by 27%, and the average daily per capita weight of MSW had fallen from 1.14 kg in 1997 to 0.81 kg in 2002. Summarizing the successful experience of MSW reduction in Taiwan, the most important factor was the government's combining of the MSW collection system with reduction/recycling programs. The second most important factor was the policy of extended producer responsibility, which laid a foundation of recycling by producers and retailers and promoted public recycling.

Lu, L.-T. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Road, 10660 Taipei, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: luliteh@ms13.hinet.net; Hsiao, T.-Y. [Department of Tourism Industry, Jin-Wen Institute of Technology, 99, Ann-Chung Road, 231 Taipei County, Taiwan (China); Shang, N.-C. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Road, 10660 Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yu, Y.-H. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Road, 10660 Taipei, Taiwan (China); Ma, H.-W. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Road, 10660 Taipei, Taiwan (China)

2006-07-01

252

Minimizing draining waste through extending the lifetime of pilot jobs in Grid environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computing landscape is moving at an accelerated pace to many-core computing. Nowadays, it is not unusual to get 32 cores on a single physical node. As a consequence, there is increased pressure in the pilot systems domain to move from purely single-core scheduling and allow multi-core jobs as well. In order to allow for a gradual transition from single-core to multi-core user jobs, it is envisioned that pilot jobs will have to handle both kinds of user jobs at the same time, by requesting several cores at a time from Grid providers and then partitioning them between the user jobs at runtime. Unfortunately, the current Grid ecosystem only allows for relatively short lifetime of pilot jobs, requiring frequent draining, with the relative waste of compute resources due to varying lifetimes of the user jobs. Significantly extending the lifetime of pilot jobs is thus highly desirable, but must come without any adverse effects for the Grid resource providers. In this paper we present a mechanism, based on communication between the pilot jobs and the Grid provider, that allows for pilot jobs to run for extended periods of time when there are available resources, but also allows the Grid provider to reclaim the resources in a short amount of time when needed. We also present the experience of running a prototype system using the above mechanism on a few US-based Grid sites.

Sfiligoi, I.; Martin, T.; Bockelman, B. P.; Bradley, D. C.; Würthwein, F.

2014-06-01

253

Cooperative Approach to Land Application of Animal Waste in Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many dairy and swine producers in Tennessee and the United States utilize liquid manure storage systems coupled with land application of liquid manure slurry. The proper management and application of liquid manure is critical to avoid adverse environmental impacts. Many producers do not own the equipment necessary to efficiently spread animal waste slurry stored in liquid manure systems over the

R. T. Burns; T. L. Cross; K. J. Stalder; R. F. Theurer

254

Application of glove box robotics to hazardous waste management  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) is developing a semi-automated system for handling, characterizing, processing, sorting, and repackaging hazardous wastes containing tritium. The system combines an IBM developed gantry robot with a special glove box enclosure designed to protect the operators and minimize the potential release of tritium to the atmosphere. All hazardous waste handling and processing will be performed remotely using the robot in a telerobotic mode for one-of-a-kind functions and in an autonomous mode for repetitive type operations. The system will initially be used in conjunction with a portable gas system designed to capture any gaseous phase tritium released into the glove box. This paper presents the objectives of this program, provides background related to LLNL`s robotics and waste handling program, describes the major system components, outlines system operation, and discusses current status and plans.

Dennison, D.K.; Hurd, R.L.; Merrill, R.D.; Reitz, T.C.

1995-02-01

255

RCRA Permit Policy Compendium. Volume 11 (9530. 1980-9581. 1990). Air emissions standards, state authorization (Part 271), land disposal restrictions (Part 268). Waste minimization, Subtitle D, RCRA grant funds  

SciTech Connect

The document is a compendium of all OWSER Policy Directives that deal with RCRA Permit Policy. The volume contains air emissions standards, state authorization, Land Disposal Restrictions, Waste minimization, and Subtitle D. Subtitle D discusses mining wastes, state programs, municipal waste combustion, and household hazardous wastes.

Eberly, D.

1991-08-01

256

State Waste Discharge Permit application: 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations; the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water discharges to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit via dedicated pipelines. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water is the only discharge to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse is a steam generation facility consisting of a coal-handling and preparation section and boilers.

Atencio, B.P.

1994-06-01

257

State Waste Discharge Permit application: 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department and Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-E Powerhouse Ash Waste Water discharges to the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit via dedicated pipelines. The 200-E Ash Waste Water is the only discharge to the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-E Powerhouse is a steam generation facility consisting of a coal-handling and preparation section and boilers.

Atencio, B.P.

1994-06-01

258

Waste minimization pretreatment via pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis of organic ion exchange resin  

SciTech Connect

Pyrolysis and/or oxidative pyrolysis of organic ion exchange resins and other combustible waste may be effective pretreatment processes before vitrification. Three different methods were examined with the TGA to pretreat the resins: pyrolysis; oxidative pyrolysis; and oxidative pyrolyses of ash remaining after the pyrolysis of resin. The latter two methods were found to provide better volume reduction than the pyrolysis-only process. Between the two types of resins, cationic and anionic, the cationic exchange resin was less volatile. Pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis of mixed resin (50% cation and 50% anion by wt.) showed volatilization at the temperatures where volatilization was observed for each of the separate resins. Because of certain limitations of the commercial TGA, tube furnace experiments were performed, generally, to examine the pyrolysis of larger quantities of cationic, anionic, and mixed resin, and to examine off-gas characteristics. The cationic resin-only and anionic resin-only gravimetric results showed good agreement with the smaller-scale TGA results. SEM pictures of the different variants of the resin (cationic, anionic, and mixed) show a different morphology for each. Off-gas data showed the presence of H{sub 2}S, SO{sub 2}, CO, and NO during the pyrolysis of cationic resin. CO was observed during the pyrolysis of anionic resin. The mixed resin trials showed the presence of the gases approximately at the temperatures where the gases would evolve if the results of the two different resins (cationic and anionic) were superimposed. However, the amount of hydrogen sulfide relative to the sulfur dioxide was found to increase significantly compared to the results of the cationic resin-only trials.

Chun, U.K.; Choi, K.; Yang, K.H.; Park, J.K.; Song, M.J. [Korea Electric Power Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Nuclear Power Generation Lab.] [Korea Electric Power Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Nuclear Power Generation Lab.

1998-12-31

259

Grout treatment facility dangerous waste permit application  

SciTech Connect

The long-term performance of the grout disposal system for Phosphate/Sulfate Waste (PSW) was analyzed. PSW is a low-level liquid generated by activities associated with N Reactor operations. The waste will be mixed with dry solids and permanently disposed of as a cementitious grout in sub-surface concrete vaults at Hanford's 200-East Area. Two categories of scenarios were analyzed that could cause humans to be exposed to radionuclides and chemicals from the grouted waste: contaminated groundwater and direct intrusion. In the groundwater scenario, contaminants are released from the buried grout monoliths, then eventually transported via the groundwater to the Columbia River. As modeled, the contaminants are assumed to leach out of the monoliths at a constant rate over a 10,000-year period. The other category of exposure involves intruders who inadvertently contact the waste directly, either by drilling, excavating, or gardening. Long-term impacts that could result from disposal of PSW grout were expressed in terms of incremental increases of (1) chemical concentrations in the groundwater and surface waters, and (2) radiation doses. None of the calculated impacts exceeded the corresponding regulatory limits set by Washington State, Department of Energy, or the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

Not Available

1988-11-23

260

Application of PCT to the EBR II ceramic waste form.  

SciTech Connect

We are evaluating the use of the Product Consistency Test (PCT) developed to monitor the consistency of borosilicate glass waste forms for application to the multiphase ceramic waste form (CWF) that will be used to immobilize waste salts generated during the electrometallurgical conditioning of spent sodium-bonded nuclear fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor No. 2 (EBR II). The CWF is a multiphase waste form comprised of about 70% sodalite, 25% borosilicate glass binder, and small amounts of halite and oxide inclusions. It must be qualified for disposal as a non-standard high-level waste (HLW) form. One of the requirements in the DOE Waste Acceptance System Requirements Document (WASRD) for HLW waste forms is that the consistency of the waste forms be monitored.[1] Use of the PCT is being considered for the CWF because of the similarities of the dissolution behaviors of both the sodalite and glass binder phases in the CWF to borosilicate HLW glasses. This paper provides (1) a summary of the approach taken in selecting a consistency test for CWF production and (2) results of tests conducted to measure the precision and sensitivity of the PCT conducted with simulated CWF.

Ebert, W. L.; Lewis, M. A.; Johnson, S. G.

2002-01-10

261

Application of Sequential Quadratic Programming to Minimize Smart Active Flap Rotor Hub Loads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In an analytical study, SMART active flap rotor hub loads have been minimized using nonlinear programming constrained optimization methodology. The recently developed NLPQLP system (Schittkowski, 2010) that employs Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) as its core algorithm was embedded into a driver code (NLP10x10) specifically designed to minimize active flap rotor hub loads (Leyland, 2014). Three types of practical constraints on the flap deflections have been considered. To validate the current application, two other optimization methods have been used: i) the standard, linear unconstrained method, and ii) the nonlinear Generalized Reduced Gradient (GRG) method with constraints. The new software code NLP10x10 has been systematically checked out. It has been verified that NLP10x10 is functioning as desired. The following are briefly covered in this paper: relevant optimization theory; implementation of the capability of minimizing a metric of all, or a subset, of the hub loads as well as the capability of using all, or a subset, of the flap harmonics; and finally, solutions for the SMART rotor. The eventual goal is to implement NLP10x10 in a real-time wind tunnel environment.

Kottapalli, Sesi; Leyland, Jane

2014-01-01

262

Application of minimal spanning trees in glioma grading--a CLIPPER program for the calculation and construction of minimal spanning trees.  

PubMed

We present a CLIPPER program for the calculation and graphical representation of minimal spanning trees (MST) which is available on request on diskette from the authors. The MST are a useful parameter for structural cluster detection. They can be applied to grading problems in tumour biology. We present and discuss the applicability of MST by an example from the field of astrocytoma grading. PMID:8062551

Kolles, H; Ludt, H; Vince, G H; Feiden, W

1994-03-01

263

Application of Epoxy Based Coating Instacote on Waste Tank Tops  

SciTech Connect

This evaluation examines the compatibility of coating Instacote with existing High-Level Waste facilities and safety practices. No significant incompatibilities are identified. The following actions need to be completed as indicated when applying Instacote on waste tank tops:(1) Prior to application in ITP facilities, the final product should be tested for chemical resistance to sodium tetraphenylborate solutions or sodium titanate slurries.(2) Any waste contaminated with Part A or B that can not be removed by the vendor such as for radiological contamination, HLW must hold the waste until HLW completes a formal assessment of the waste, disposal criteria, and impact.(3) Prior to the start of any application of the coating, each riser needs to be evaluated for masking and masking applied if needed.(4) At the conclusion of an application actual total weight of material applied to a waste tank needs to documented and sent to the tank top loading files for reference purposes.(5) Verify that the final product contains less than 250 ppm chloride.

Pike, J.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1998-03-18

264

A Novel and Cost Effective Approach to the Decommissioning and Decontamination of Legacy Glove Boxes - Minimizing TRU Waste and Maximizing LLW Waste - 13634  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the process of decommissioning two gloveboxes at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) that were employed for work with plutonium and other radioactive materials. The decommissioning process involved an initial phase of clearing tools and materials from the glove boxes and disconnecting them from the laboratory infrastructure. The removed materials, assessed as Transuranic (TRU) waste, were packaged into 55 gallon (200 litre) drums and prepared for ultimate disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) at Carlsbad New Mexico. The boxes were then sampled to determine the radioactive contents by means of smears that were counted with alpha and beta detectors to determine the residual surface contamination, especially in terms of alpha particle emitters that are an indicator of TRU activity. Paint chip samples were also collected and sent for laboratory analysis in order to ascertain the radioactive contamination contributing to the TRU activity as a fixed contamination. The investigations predicted that it may be feasible to reduce the residual surface contamination and render the glovebox structure low level waste (LLW) for disposal. In order to reduce the TRU activity a comprehensive decontamination process was initiated using chemical compounds that are particularly effective for lifting and dissolving radionuclides that adhere to the inner surfaces of the gloveboxes. The result of the decontamination process was a reduction in the TRU surface activity on the inner surfaces of the gloveboxes by four orders of magnitude in terms of disintegrations per unit area (DPA). The next phase of the process involved a comprehensive assay of the gloveboxes using a combination of passive neutron and gamma ray scintillation detectors and a shielded and collimated high purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma ray detector. The HPGe detector was used to obtain gamma ray spectra for a variety of measurement positions within the glovebox. The spectra were used to determine the TRU content of the boxes by assessing the activity of Am-241 (59 keV) and Pu-241 (414 keV). Using the data generated it was possible for qualified subject matter experts (SME) to assess that the gloveboxes could be consigned for disposition as LLW and not as TRU. Once this determination was assessed and accepted the gloveboxes were prepared for final disposition to the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) - formerly the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This preparation involved fixing any remaining radioactive contamination within the gloveboxes by filling them with a foam compound, prior to transportation. Once the remaining contamination was fixed the gloveboxes were removed from the laboratory and prepared for transported by road to NNSS. This successful glovebox decontamination and decommissioning process illustrates the means by which TRU waste generation has been minimized, LLW generation has been maximized, and risk has been effectively managed. The process minimizes the volume of TRU waste and reduced the decommissioning time with significant cost savings as the result. (authors)

Pancake, Daniel; Rock, Cynthia M.; Creed, Richard [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)] [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Donohoue, Tom; Martin, E. Ray; Mason, John A. [ANTECH Corporation 9050 Marshall Court, Westminster, CO, 80031 (United States)] [ANTECH Corporation 9050 Marshall Court, Westminster, CO, 80031 (United States); Norton, Christopher J.; Crosby, Daniel [Environmental Alternatives, Inc., 149 Emerald Street, Suite R, Keene, NH 03431 (United States)] [Environmental Alternatives, Inc., 149 Emerald Street, Suite R, Keene, NH 03431 (United States); Nachtman, Thomas J. [InstaCote, Inc., 160 C. Lavoy Road, Erie, MI, 48133 (United States)] [InstaCote, Inc., 160 C. Lavoy Road, Erie, MI, 48133 (United States)

2013-07-01

265

Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, PUREX storage tunnels  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the PUREX Storage Tunnels (this document, DOE/RL-90-24).

Haas, C.R., Westinghouse Hanford, Richland, WA

1997-09-08

266

Evidence-based integrated environmental solutions for secondary lead smelters: pollution prevention and waste minimization technologies and practices.  

PubMed

An evidence-based methodology was adopted in this research to establish strategies to increase lead recovery and recycling via a systematic review and critical appraisal of the published literature. In particular, the research examines pollution prevention and waste minimization practices and technologies that meet the following criteria: (a) reduce/recover/recycle the largest quantities of lead currently being disposed of as waste, (b) technically and economically viable, that is, ready to be diffused and easily transferable, and (c) strong industry interest (i.e., industry would consider implementing projects with higher payback periods). The following specific aims are designed to achieve the study objectives: Aim 1 - To describe the recycling process of recovering refined lead from scrap; Aim 2 - To document pollution prevention and waste management technologies and practices adopted by US stakeholders along the trajectory of LAB and lead product life cycle; Aim 3 - To explore improved practices and technologies which are employed by other organizations with an emphasis on the aforementioned criteria; Aim 4 - To demonstrate the economic and environmental costs and benefits of applying improved technologies and practices to existing US smelting operations; and Aim 5 - To evaluate improved environmental technologies and practices using an algorithm that integrates quantitative and qualitative criteria. The process of identifying relevant articles and reports was documented. The description of evidence was presented for current practices and technologies used by US smelters as well as improved practices and technologies. Options for integrated environmental solutions for secondary smelters were introduced and rank ordered on the basis of costs (i.e., capital investment) and benefits (i.e., production increases, energy and flux savings, and reduction of SO(2) and slag). An example was provided to demonstrate the utility of the algorithm by detailing the costs and benefits associated with different combinations of practices and technologies. The evidence-based methodology documented in this research reveals that it is technically and economically feasible to implement integrated environmental solutions to increase lead recovery and recycling among US smelters. The working example presented in this research can be confirmed with US stakeholders and form the basis for implementable solutions in the lead smelter and product industries to help reverse the overall trend of declining life-cycle recycling rates. PMID:19232675

Genaidy, A M; Sequeira, R; Tolaymat, T; Kohler, J; Rinder, M

2009-05-01

267

APPLICATION OF NONSPHERICAL FISSILE CONFIGURATION IN WASTE CONTAINERS AT SRS  

SciTech Connect

Transuranic (TRU) solid waste that has been generated as a result of the production of nuclear material for the United States defense program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has been stored in more than 30,000 55-gallon drums and carbon steel boxes since 1953. Nearly two thirds of those containers have been processed and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Among the containers assayed so far, the results indicate several drums with fissile inventories significantly higher (600-1000 fissile grams equivalent (FGE) {sup 239}Pu) than their original assigned values. While part of this discrepancy can be attributed to the past limited assay capabilities, human errors are believed to be the primary contributor. This paper summarizes the application of nonspherical fissile material configuration in waste containers, resulting in less restrictive mass and spacing limits, increased storage capacity, and several administrative controls for handling and storage of waste containers being modified without compromising safety.

Eghbali, D; Michelle Abney, M

2007-01-03

268

Application of Plasma Gasification Technology in Waste to Energy—Challenges and Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilization of plasma gasification in waste to energy (WTE) is one of the novel applications of a technology that was introduced several decades ago. In this application, plasma arc gasifies the carbon-based part of waste materials such as municipal solid waste, sludge, agricultural waste, etc., and generates a synthetic gas which can be used to produce energy through reciprocating engine

Masoud Pourali

2010-01-01

269

Application of plasma gasification technology in waste to energy challenges and opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilization of plasma gasification in waste to energy is one of the novel applications of a technology that was introduced several decades ago. In this application, plasma arc, gasifies the carbon based part of waste materials such as municipal solid waste, sludge, agricultural waste, etc. and generates a synthetic gas which can be used to produce energy through reciprocating engine

Masoud Pourali

2009-01-01

270

Application of Design of Experiment Method for Thrust Force Minimization in Step-feed Micro Drilling  

PubMed Central

Micro drilled holes are utilized in many of today's fabrication processes. Precision production processes in industries are trending toward the use of smaller holes with higher aspect ratios, and higher speed operation for micro deep hole drilling. However, undesirable characteristics related to micro drilling such as small signal-to-noise ratios, wandering drill motion, high aspect ratio, and excessive cutting forces can be observed when cutting depth increases. In this study, the authors attempt to minimize the thrust forces in the step-feed micro drilling process by application of the DOE (Design of Experiment) method. Taking into account the drilling thrust, three cutting parameters, feedrate, step-feed, and cutting speed, are optimized based on the DOE method. For experimental studies, an orthogonal array L27(313) is generated and ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) is carried out. Based on the results it is determined that the sequence of factors affecting drilling thrusts corresponds to feedrate, step-feed, and spindle rpm. A combination of optimal drilling conditions is also identified. In particular, it is found in this study that the feedrate is the most important factor for micro drilling thrust minimization.

Kim, Dong-Woo; Cho, Myeong-Woo; Seo, Tae-Il; Lee, Eung-Sug

2008-01-01

271

FIELD APPLICATIONS OF ROBOTIC SYSTEMS IN HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE OPERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The cleanup of hazardous waste sites is a challenging and complex field that offers numerous opportunities for the application of robotic technology. he contamination problem, long in the making, will take decades to resolve. ur ingenuity in developing robotic tools to assist in ...

272

APPLICATION OF PULSE COMBUSTION TO SOLID AND HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the application of pulse combustion to solid and hazardous waste incineration. otary kiln incinerator simulator was retrofitted with a frequency-tunable pulse combustor to enhance the efficiency of combustion. he pulse combustor excites pulsations in the kiln ...

273

Land application of crushed gypsum wallboard waste for alfalfa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three seasons of research that evaluated the effect of the land application of crushed gypsum wallboard waste (CW) for alfalfa were conducted at four Wisconsin locations having differing soil types and climatic conditions. Material was applied at rates up to 36.0 Mg ha preplant and 2.2 Mg hatopdress. The highest application of CW pre?plant showed a positive trend for increased

R. P. Wolkowski

2000-01-01

274

Structure solution by minimal-function phase refinement and Fourier filtering. II. Implementation and applications.  

PubMed

The minimal function, R(psi), has been used to provide the basis for a new computer-intensive direct-methods procedure that shows potential for providing fully automatic routine solutions for structures in the 200-400 atom range. This procedure, which has been called shake-and-bake, is an iterative process in which real-space filtering is alternated with phase refinement using a technique that reduces the value of R(psi). It has been successfully tested using experimental data for a dozen known structures ranging in size from 25 to 317 atoms and crystallizing in a variety of space groups. The details of this procedure, the parameters used and the results of these applications are described. PMID:8166952

Weeks, C M; DeTitta, G T; Hauptman, H A; Thuman, P; Miller, R

1994-03-01

275

Waste disposal by hydrofracture and application of the technology to the management of hazardous wastes  

SciTech Connect

A unique disposal method, involving hydrofracturing, has been used for management of liquid low-level radioactive wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Wastes are mixed with cement and other solids and injected along bedding plane fractures into highly impermeable shale at a depth of 300 m forming a grout sheet. The process has operated successfully for 20 years and may be applicable to disposal of hazardous wastes. The cement grout represents the primary barrier for immobilization of the wastes; the hydrologically isolated injection horizon represents a secondary barrier. At ORNL work has been conducted to characterize the geology of the disposal site and to determine its relationship to the injection process. The site is structurally quite complex. Research has also been conducted on the development of methods for monitoring the extent and orientation of the grout sheets; these methods include gamma-ray logging of cased observation wells, leveling surveys of benchmarks, tiltmeter surveys, and microseismic arrays. These methods, some of which need further development, offer promise for real-time and post-injection monitoring. Initial suggestions are offered for possible application of the technology to hazardous waste management and technical and regulatory areas needing attention are addressed. 11 refs., 1 fig.

Stow, S.H.; Haase, C.S.; Weeren, H.O.

1985-01-01

276

Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Design Procedures for Land Application of Wastes - Module 6, Objectives, Script and Figures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this module is to develop a general procedure to decide the feasibility of land application as a waste management alternative, given a specific problem situation. This information provides a framework within which to apply the information presented in all other modules in the program. An outline of the general procedure followed in…

Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

277

A primal-dual fixed point algorithm for convex separable minimization with applications to image restoration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the minimization of a sum of two convex functions has received considerable interest in a variational image restoration model. In this paper, we propose a general algorithmic framework for solving a separable convex minimization problem from the point of view of fixed point algorithms based on proximity operators (Moreau 1962 C. R. Acad. Sci., Paris I 255 2897-99). Motivated by proximal forward-backward splitting proposed in Combettes and Wajs (2005 Multiscale Model. Simul. 4 1168-200) and fixed point algorithms based on the proximity operator (FP2O) for image denoising (Micchelli et al 2011 Inverse Problems 27 45009-38), we design a primal-dual fixed point algorithm based on the proximity operator (PDFP2O? for ? ? [0, 1)) and obtain a scheme with a closed-form solution for each iteration. Using the firmly nonexpansive properties of the proximity operator and with the help of a special norm over a product space, we achieve the convergence of the proposed PDFP2O? algorithm. Moreover, under some stronger assumptions, we can prove the global linear convergence of the proposed algorithm. We also give the connection of the proposed algorithm with other existing first-order methods. Finally, we illustrate the efficiency of PDFP2O? through some numerical examples on image supper-resolution, computerized tomographic reconstruction and parallel magnetic resonance imaging. Generally speaking, our method PDFP2O (? = 0) is comparable with other state-of-the-art methods in numerical performance, while it has some advantages on parameter selection in real applications.

Chen, Peijun; Huang, Jianguo; Zhang, Xiaoqun

2013-02-01

278

State waste discharge permit application, 200-E chemical drain field  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect ground would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). The Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. This document presents the State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) application for the 200-E Chemical Drain Field. Waste water from the 272-E Building enters the process sewer line directly through a floor drain, while waste water from the 2703-E Building is collected in two floor drains, (north and south) that act as sumps and are discharged periodically. The 272-E and 2703-E Buildings constitute the only discharges to the process sewer line and the 200-E Chemical Drain Field.

Not Available

1994-06-01

279

Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, general information. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The current Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (this document, number DOE/RL-91-28) and a treatment, storage, and/or disposal Unit-Specific Portion, which includes documentation for individual TSD units (e.g., document numbers DOE/RL-89-03 and DOE/RL-90-01). Both portions consist of a Part A division and a Part B division. The Part B division consists of 15 chapters that address the content of the Part B checklists prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information requirements mandated by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology checklist section numbers, in brackets, follow the chapter headings and subheadings. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion (i.e., this document, number DOE/RL-91-28) is broader in nature and applies to all treatment, storage, and/or disposal units for which final status is sought. Because of its broad nature, the Part A division of the General Information Portion references the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Part A Permit Application (document number DOE/RL-88-21), a compilation of all Part A documentation for the Hanford Facility.

Not Available

1993-05-01

280

Ultrasound-based navigation for minimally invasive surgical atrial fibrillation treatment: workflow and application prototype  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia and results in an increased risk of ischemic stroke. Recently, a european consortium has developed a new minimally invasive device for surgical AF treatment. It consists of a micro-robot holding an end-effector called "umbrella" containing 22 radiofrequency powered electrodes. Surgery using this new device can only be performed having an appropriate navigation technique. Therefore, we have developed an image-based navigation workflow and a prototypic navigation application. First, a navigation workflow including an appropriate intra-operative image-modality was defined. Intraoperative ultrasound became the imaging modality of choice. Once the umbrella is unfolded inside the left atrium, data is acquired and segmented. Using a reliable communication protocol, mobility values are transferred from the control software to the navigation system. A deformation model predicts the behavior of the umbrella during repositioning. Prior to surgery, desired ablation lines can be interactively planned and actually made ablation lines are visualized during surgery. Several in-vitro tests were performed. The navigation prototype has been integrated and tested within the overall system successfully. Image acquisitions of the umbrella showed the feasibility of the navigation procedure. More in-vitro and in-vivo tests are currently performed to make the new device and the described navigation procedure ready for clinical use.

Hastenteufel, Mark; Yang, Siwei; Christoph, Carsten; Vetter, Marcus; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Wolf, Ivo

2005-04-01

281

Reducing sugar-producing bacteria from guts of Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (yellow mealworm) for lignocellulosic waste minimization.  

PubMed

The guts of Tenebrio Molitor Linnaeus (yellow mealworm) were used as inocula to isolate reducing sugar-producing bacteria during bioconversion of lignocellulose to reducing sugars in this study. Three carbon sources, i.e., carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), filter paper (FP), and lignocellulosic waste (LIG), were specifically selected; and two types of culturing media (M1 and M2) were used. After 6 months of sequential cultivation, lignocellulose (i.e., polysaccharides) degradation of enrichments M1-CMC (47.5%), M1-FP (73.3%), M1-LIG (70.4%), M2-CMC (55.7%), M2-FP (73.1%) and M2-LIG (71.7%) was achieved, respectively, with incubation for 48 h. Furthermore, seven bacterial strains were successfully isolated corresponding to most of the major bands detected by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis. The maximum reducing sugars yield by the combination of Agromyces sp. C42 and Stenotrophomonas sp. A10b was 56.7 mg g·LIG(-1) of 48 h, which is approximate 2-5 times higher than the original enrichments and individual microbial strains. These findings suggest that bioconversion by microorganisms from mealworm guts has great application potential for lignocellulose hydrolysis. PMID:21869568

Qi, Wei; Chen, Chia-Lung; Wang, Jing-Yuan

2011-01-01

282

Programmable multi-timer for TRU waste analysis applications  

SciTech Connect

A programmable, multiple-function timing module has been developed for use in transuranic (TRU) waste analysis applications at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The Programmable Multi-Timer (PRMT) is an expanded version of a module originally built for accelerator-based active photon interrogation experiments. During the course of the experiments, it became obvious that a more versatile timer was needed to meet several unforeseen requirements. The PRMT was designed to meet the new requirements and to serve as a general-purpose timing module for other applications.

Lawrence, R.S.; Nieschmidt, E.B.; Tsang, F.Y.

1981-01-01

283

Review of LLNL Mixed Waste Streams for the Application of Potential Waste Reduction Controls  

SciTech Connect

In July 2004, LLNL adopted the International Standard ISO 14001 as a Work Smart Standard in lieu of DOE Order 450.1. In support of this new requirement the Director issued a new environmental policy that was documented in Section 3.0 of Document 1.2, ''ES&H Policies of LLNL'', in the ES&H Manual. In recent years the Environmental Management System (EMS) process has become formalized as LLNL adopted ISO 14001 as part of the contract under which the laboratory is operated for the Department of Energy (DOE). On May 9, 2005, LLNL revised its Integrated Safety Management System Description to enhance existing environmental requirements to meet ISO 14001. Effective October 1, 2005, each new project or activity is required to be evaluated from an environmental aspect, particularly if a potential exists for significant environmental impacts. Authorizing organizations are required to consider the management of all environmental aspects, the applicable regulatory requirements, and reasonable actions that can be taken to reduce negative environmental impacts. During 2006, LLNL has worked to implement the corrective actions addressing the deficiencies identified in the DOE/LSO audit. LLNL has begun to update the present EMS to meet the requirements of ISO 14001:2004. The EMS commits LLNL--and each employee--to responsible stewardship of all the environmental resources in our care. The generation of mixed radioactive waste was identified as a significant environmental aspect. Mixed waste for the purposes of this report is defined as waste materials containing both hazardous chemical and radioactive constituents. Significant environmental aspects require that an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) be developed. The objective of the EMP developed for mixed waste (EMP-005) is to evaluate options for reducing the amount of mixed waste generated. This document presents the findings of the evaluation of mixed waste generated at LLNL and a proposed plan for reduction.

Belue, A; Fischer, R P

2007-01-08

284

CHARACTERIZATION OF DEFENSE NUCLEAR WASTE USING HAZARDOUS WASTE GUIDANCE. APPLICATIONS TO HANFORD SITE ACCELERATED HIGH-LEVEL WASTE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL MISSION0  

SciTech Connect

Federal hazardous waste regulations were developed for management of industrial waste. These same regulations are also applicable for much of the nation's defense nuclear wastes. At the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeast Washington State, one of the nation's largest inventories of nuclear waste remains in storage in large underground tanks. The waste's regulatory designation and its composition and form constrain acceptable treatment and disposal options. Obtaining detailed knowledge of the tank waste composition presents a significant portion of the many challenges in meeting the regulatory-driven treatment and disposal requirements for this waste. Key in applying the hazardous waste regulations to defense nuclear wastes is defining the appropriate and achievable quality for waste feed characterization data and the supporting evidence demonstrating that applicable requirements have been met at the time of disposal. Application of a performance-based approach to demonstrating achievable quality standards will be discussed in the context of the accelerated high-level waste treatment and disposal mission at the Hanford Site.

Hamel, William; Huffman, Lori; Lerchen, Megan; Wiemers, Karyn

2003-02-27

285

Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, general information portion  

SciTech Connect

The `Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application` is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (this document, DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit- Specific Portion. The scope of the General Information Portion includes information that could be used to discuss operating units, units undergoing closure, or units being dispositioned through other options. Documentation included in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units. A checklist indicating where information is contained in the General Information Portion, in relation to the Washington State Department of Ecology guidance documentation, is located in the Contents Section. The intent of the General Information Portion is: (1) to provide an overview of the Hanford Facility; and (2) to assist in streamlining efforts associated with treatment, storage, and/or disposal unit-specific Part B permit application, preclosure work plan, closure work plan, closure plan, closure/postclosure plan, or postclosure permit application documentation development, and the `Hanford Facility Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit` modification process. Revision 2 of the General Information Portion of the `Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application` contains information current as of May 1, 1996. This document is a complete submittal and supersedes Revision 1.

Price, S.M., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-07-29

286

Incorporation of gypsum waste in ceramic block production: Proposal for a minimal battery of tests to evaluate technical and environmental viability of this recycling process.  

PubMed

Civil engineering-related construction and demolition debris is an important source of waste disposed of in municipal solid waste landfills. After clay materials, gypsum waste is the second largest contributor to the residential construction waste stream. As demand for sustainable building practices grows, interest in recovering gypsum waste from construction and demolition debris is increasing, but there is a lack of standardized tests to evaluate the technical and environmental viability of this solid waste recycling process. By recycling gypsum waste, natural deposits of gypsum might be conserved and high amounts of the waste by-product could be reused in the civil construction industry. In this context, this paper investigates a physical property (i.e., resistance to axial compression), the chemical composition and the ecotoxicological potential of ceramic blocks constructed with different proportions of clay, cement and gypsum waste, and assesses the feasibility of using a minimal battery of tests to evaluate the viability of this recycling process. Consideration of the results for the resistance to axial compression tests together with production costs revealed that the best formulation was 35% of plastic clay, 35% of non-plastic clay, 10% of Portland cement and 20% of gypsum waste, which showed a mean resistance of 4.64MPa. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry showed calcium and sulfur to be the main elements, while quartz, gypsum, ettringite and nacrite were the main crystalline compounds found in this formulation. Ecotoxicity tests showed that leachate from this formulation is weakly toxic toward daphnids and bacteria (EC(20%)=69.0 and 75.0, respectively), while for algae and fish the leachate samples were not toxic at the EC(50%) level. Overall, these results show that the addition of 20% of gypsum waste to the ceramic blocks could provide a viable substitute for clay in the ceramics industry and the tests applied in this study proved to be a useful tool for the technical and environmental evaluation of this recycling process, bacterial and daphnid tests being more sensitive than algae and fish tests. PMID:21959139

Godinho-Castro, Alcione P; Testolin, Renan C; Janke, Leandro; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Radetski, Claudemir M

2012-01-01

287

Potential Industrial Applications for Direct Contact Waste Heat Recuperator Systems. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of the potential industrial applications of direct contact waste heat recuperator systems has been conducted. This study examines the prospects for the use of direct contact waste heat recuperator systems in the major energy consuming industries e...

T. T. Semler E. J. Hansen S. L. Richlen

1981-01-01

288

Applications of Immobilized Enzymes to the Treatment and Utilization of Food Plant Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress in research to develop applications of immobilized enzymes for use in dairy waste systems is reported. Specific projects are directed toward a search for economical enzyme support materials, conversion of selected compounds of waste to improve ma...

G. P. Royer A. Syverson W. J. Harper J. L. Blaisdell

1973-01-01

289

Risk Reduction from Minimization of Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic Waste Materials Within the U.S. Industrial Solid Waste Management System  

EPA Science Inventory

This study addressed three questions of interest in national-scale solid and hazardous waste management decision-making within the United States: 1) can we quantify the reduction in risk to human and ecological receptors resulting from the reduction of certain industrial waste s...

290

Certification Plan, low-level waste Hazardous Waste Handling Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) handled in the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). This plan also incorporates the applicable elements of waste reduction, which include both up-front minimization and end-product treatment to reduce the volume and toxicity of the waste;

1992-01-01

291

Approximations for the Random Minimal Spanning Tree with Application to Network Provisioning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper considers the problem of determining the mean and distribution of the length of a minimal spanning tree (MST) on an undirected graph whose arc lengths are independently distributed random variables. We obtain bounds and approximations for the M...

A. Jain J. W. Mamer

1986-01-01

292

Importance of biological systems in industrial waste treatment potential application to the space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In addition to having applications for waste management issues on planet Earth, microbial systems have application in reducing waste volumes aboard spacecraft. A candidate for such an application is the space station. Many of the planned experiments generate aqueous waste. To recycle air and water the contaminants from previous experiments must be removed before the air and water can be used for other experiments. This can be achieved using microorganisms in a bioreactor. Potential bioreactors (inorganics, organics, and etchants) are discussed. Current technologies that may be applied to waste treatment are described. Examples of how biological systems may be used in treating waste on the space station.

Revis, Nathaniel; Holdsworth, George

1990-01-01

293

Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Waste Application Systems - Module 12, Objectives, and Script.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Land application systems are discussed with reference to the options available for applying wastewater and sludge to the site. Spray systems, surface flow methods, and sludge application schemes are all included with discussions of the advantages and disadvantages of each option within these categories. A distinction is made between the choice of…

Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

294

Application of Spatially Distributed Hydrological Models in Ungauged Basins: an Approach to Minimize Predictive Uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quantification of stream flow in ungauged basins is one of the most challenging tasks in surface water hydrology due to non-availability of data and system heterogeneity. Therefore, the major focus of studies in ungauged basins is to develop appropriate tools for predicting accurate hydrologic response in the absence of observed data. A variety of simulation models, ranging from simple empirical models to complex physics based distributed models, are available for generating watershed response. Even though physics based distributed hydrologic models are considered best suited for the ungauged basins, uncertainty in model simulations, in the absence of any parameter estimations reflecting accurate watershed characteristics, may be very high. A successful application of these models in making hydrologic response predictions in ungauged basins requires reducing number of parameters and output uncertainty. This can be achieved by a stochastic validation of the model in the absence of observed watershed data. However, stochastic validation of model requires sufficient knowledge about the model parameters in terms of their probability distribution, which is generally not available. The current study proposes a method to minimize the predictive uncertainty of distributed hydrologic models by deriving probability distribution of sensitive parameters. The proposed methodology employs simulations of the hydrologic model using samples of parameter sets generated by Latin hypercube sampling (LHS). Initially uniform probability distribution function (PDF) for the model parameters are assumed in the absence of known PDF, for LHS. The Sobol's sensitivity method is employed to prune the number of parameters used for subsequent analysis. The posterior probability distributions of the sensitive parameters are computed using a Bayesian approach. In addition, likelihood values of simulations are used for sizing the parameter range, thereby reducing the predictive uncertainty. The updating of the PDF is continued till both the distributions (prior and posterior) converge in successive cycles of simulations. To facilitate stochastic validation of the model in ungauged basins, the PDF of the parameters are obtained for a gauged basin and transferred to hydrologically similar ungauged basins after regionalization. The proposed methodology is illustrated through a case study of two independent sub-basins in the St. Joseph River watershed, USA. The soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) model is considered for the application. The Sobol's sensitivity analysis was performed for 13 parameters that influenced the stream flow simulation in the SWAT model. The appropriate ranges of parameters which resulted in minimum uncertainty were identified for the three most sensitive parameters and the corresponding PDF's were derived. Using the derived PDF and compressed ranges of parameters, simulations of the 2nd sub-basin was performed, thereby facilitating a stochastic validation of the model. The results of the study are encouraging and suggest that the proposed method can be employed as a viable approach for building confidence in the application of distributed watershed models in ungauged basins.

Raj, C.; Sudheer, K.; Chaubey, I.

2008-05-01

295

In situ vitrification: Application analysis for stabilization transuranic waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in situ vitrification process builds upon the electric melter technology previously developed for high-level waste immobilization. In situ vitrification converts buried wastes and contaminated soil to an extremely durable glass and crystalline waste form by melting the materials, in place, using joule heating. Once the waste materials have been solidified, the high integrity waste form should not cause future

K. H. Oma; R. K. Farnsworth; J. M. Rusin

1982-01-01

296

Sources and potential application of waste heat utilization at a gas processing facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waste heat recovery (WHR) has the potential to significantly improve the efficiency of oil and gas plants, chemical and other processing facilities, and reduce their environmental impact. In this Thesis a comprehensive energy audit at Abu Dhabi Gas Industries Ltd. (GASCO) ASAB gas processing facilities is undertaken to identify sources of waste heat and evaluate their potential for on-site recovery. Two plants are considered, namely ASAB0 and ASAB1. Waste heat evaluation criteria include waste heat grade (i.e., temperature), rate, accessibility (i.e., proximity) to potential on-site waste heat recovery applications, and potential impact of recovery on installation performance and safety. The operating parameters of key waste heat source producing equipment are compiled, as well as characteristics of the waste heat streams. In addition, potential waste heat recovery applications and strategies are proposed, focusing on utilities, i.e., enhancement of process cooling/heating, electrical/mechanical power generation, and steam production. The sources of waste heat identified at ASAB facilities consist of gas turbine and gas generator exhaust gases, flared gases, excess propane cooling capacity, excess process steam, process gas air-cooler heat dissipation, furnace exhaust gases and steam turbine outlet steam. Of the above waste heat sources, exhaust gases from five gas turbines and one gas generator at ASAB0 plant, as well as from four gas turbines at ASAB1 plant, were found to meet the rate (i.e., > 1 MW), grade (i.e., > 180°C), accessibility (i.e., < 50 m from potential on-site WHR applications) and minimal impact criteria on the performance and safety of existing installations, for potential waste heat recovery. The total amount of waste heat meeting these criteria were estimated at 256 MW and 289 MW at ASAB0 and ASAB1 plants, respectively, both of which are substantial. Of the 289 MW waste generated at ASAB1, approximately 173 MW are recovered by waste heat recovery steam generators (WHRSGs), leaving 116 MW unutilized. The following strategies were developed to recover the above waste heat. At ASAB0, it is proposed that exhaust gases from all five gas turbines be used to power a WHRSG. The steam generated by the WHRSG would both i) drive an absorption refrigeration unit for gas turbine inlet air cooling, which would result in additional electric or mechanical power generation, and pre-cooling of process gas, which could reduce the need for or eliminate air coolers, as well as reduce propane chiller load, and ii) serve for heating of lean gas, which would reduce furnace load. At ASAB1, it is proposed that exhaust gases from all four gas turbines be used to generate steam in WHRSG that would drive an absorption refrigeration unit for either gas turbine inlet air cooling for additional electric or mechanical power generation, or pre-cooling of process gas to eliminate air-coolers and reduce propane chiller cooling load. Considering the smaller amount of waste heat available at ASAB1 (116 MW) relative to ASAB0 (237 MW), these above two recovery options could not be implemented simultaneously at ASAB0. To permit the detailed design and techno-economic feasibility evaluation of the proposed waste heat recovery strategies in a subsequent study, the cooling loads and associated electric power consumption of ASAB0 process gas air-coolers were estimated at 21 MW and 1.9 MW, respectively, and 67 MW and 2.2 MW, respectively for ASAB1 plant. In addition, the heating loads and fuel consumption of ASAB0 furnaces used for lean gas re-generation were estimated at 24 MW and 0.0653 MMSCMD, respectively. In modeling work undertaken in parallel with this study at the Petroleum Institute, the waste heat recovery strategies proposed here were found to be thermodynamically and economically feasible, and to lead to substantial energy and cost savings, hence environmental benefits.

Alshehhi, Alyas Ali

297

Minimization of organic and metallic industrial waste via lemna minor concentration. Final report, 1 September 1991-1 December 1992  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, new strict environmental laws have required improved and cost-effective water purification methods by Air Force complexes. Naturally assisted primary units (microbiological) and secondary units (macrophyte) could bring waste treatment systems into tighter compliance. Aquatic macrophytes which have rapid growth rates and absorb large quantities of nutrients could provide a practical and economic method for more complete wastewater maintenance, hazardous waste clean-up or river, lake and ground water purification. This work has shown that Lemna minor, or Common Duckweed, can successfully and thoroughly accumulate organics and metals from Air Force wastewaters.

Bowers-Irons, G.L.

1992-12-30

298

State waste discharge permit application: 400 Area secondary cooling water  

SciTech Connect

This document constitutes the Washington Administrative Code 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit Application that serves as interim compliance as required by the Consent Order DE 91NM-177, for the 400 Area Secondary Cooling Water stream. As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permitting Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered in to Consent Order DE 91NM-177. The Consent Order DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges.

Not Available

1992-12-01

299

Application of Microwave Energy to Post-Calcination Treatment of High-Level Nuclear Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two potential applications of microwave energy for treatment of high-level nuclear waste are drying of a pelleted waste and vitrifying of a calcined waste. Tests showed pellet drying by microwave energy to be superior to drying by conventional methods. Vi...

S. J. Priebe T. C. Piper J. R. Berreth

1979-01-01

300

Epiglottis reshaping using CO2 laser: A minimally invasive technique and its potent applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laryngomalacia (LRM), is the most common laryngeal abnormality of the newborn, caused by a long curled epiglottis, which prolapses posteriorly. Epiglottis prolapse during inspiration (acquired laryngomalacia) is an unusual cause of airway obstruction and a rare cause of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). We present a minimally invasive technique where epiglottis on cadaveric larynx specimens was treated with CO2 laser.

Constantinos Bourolias; Jiannis Hajiioannou; Emil Sobol; George Velegrakis; Emmanuel Helidonis

2008-01-01

301

The Theory and Application of Quadratic Minimization in the Active Reduction of Sound and Vibration.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Active sound reduction is the use of active sources of sound, that is devices which are potentially sources of sound energy, to modify a pre-existing sound field in such a way that the overall effect is a reduction in sound. Until recently the most common approach in active sound control was to attempt to achieve complete cancellation of the sound. This is possible at single points but is practically impossible over an appreciable region. A more modest and practical aim is to try to reduce the sound field by as much as possible by minimizing some overall measure of the amplitude of the sound field. This thesis examines the technique of sound field minimization. Candidate sound field measures which are suitable for minimization are presented and discussed. The quantities include acoustic energy, intensity and power flow as well as a practical measure, the sum of the squares of the signals from a number of sensors. Theoretical simulations and experimental implementations are used to evaluate sound field minimization techniques. The discussion and experiments are extended to the active reduction of structural vibrations.

Curtis, A. R. D.

302

Globally Maximizing, Locally Minimizing: Unsupervised Discriminant Projection with Applications to Face and Palm Biometrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

to find a projection that simultaneously maximizes the nonlocal scatter and minimizes the local scatter. This characteristic makes UDP more intuitive and more powerful than the most up-to-date method, Locality Preserving Projection (LPP), which considers only the local scatter for clustering or classification tasks. The proposed method is applied to face and palm biometrics and is examined using the Yale,

Jian Yang; David Zhang; Jing-yu Yang; Ben Niu

2007-01-01

303

Use of depleted uranium silicate glass to minimize release of radionuclides from spent nuclear fuel waste packages  

SciTech Connect

A Depleted Uranium Silicate Container Backfill System (DUSCOBS) is proposed that would use small, isotopically-depleted uranium silicate glass beads as a backfill material inside repository waste packages containing spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The uranium silicate glass beads would fill the void space inside the package including the coolant channels inside SNF assemblies. Based on preliminary analysis, the following benefits have been identified. DUSCOBS improves repository waste package performance by three mechanisms. First, it reduces the radionuclide releases from SNF when water enters the waste package by creating a local uranium silicate saturated groundwater environment that suppresses (a) the dissolution and/or transformation of uranium dioxide fuel pellets and, hence, (b) the release of radionuclides incorporated into the SNF pellets. Second, the potential for long-term nuclear criticality is reduced by isotopic exchange of enriched uranium in SNF with the depleted uranium (DU) in the glass. Third, the backfill reduces radiation interactions between SNF and the local environment (package and local geology) and thus reduces generation of hydrogen, acids, and other chemicals that degrade the waste package system. Finally, DUSCOBS provides a potential method to dispose of significant quantities of excess DU from uranium enrichment plants at potential economic savings. DUSCOBS is a new concept. Consequently, the concept has not been optimized or demonstrated in laboratory experiments.

Forsberg, C.W.

1996-01-20

304

OPERATING STRATEGIES FOR ENHANCING WASTE BIODEGRADATION AND INCORPORATION OF VEGETATED COVERSOIL TO MINIMIZE METHANE GAS EMISSION IN MSW LANDFILL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, a process based approach in landfill design and operation has been developed called bioreactor landfill. A bioreactor landfill is managed to accelerate decomposition of the organic wastes by controlling moisture content, recycling nutrients and seeding of microorganisms by circulating leachate back into the landfill cell. This research investigated the beneficial effect of using this concept in accelerating the biodegradation

C. Chiemchaisri; W. Chiemchaisri; S. Sittichoktam; U. Yodsang; K. Chittanukul

305

Impact of technology applications to the management of low-level radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

Low-level radioactive wastes are generated from reactor sources (nuclear power reactors) as well as from nonreactor sources (academic, medical, governmental, and industrial). In recent years, about 50,000 m{sup 3} per year of such wastes have been generated in the United States and about 10,000 m{sup 3} per year in Canada. Direct disposal of these wastes in shallow ground has been a favored method in both countries in the past. In the United States, three operating commercial sites at Barnwell, South Carolina; Beatty, Nevada; and Richland, Washington, receive most of the commercial low-level waste generated. However, with recent advances in waste management, technologies are being applied to achieve optimum goals in terms of protection of human health and safety and the environment, as well as cost-effectiveness. These technologies must be applied from the generation sources through waste minimization and optimum segregation -- followed by waste processing, conditioning, storage, and disposal. A number of technologies that are available and can be applied as appropriate -- given the physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics of the waste -- include shredding, baling, compaction, supercompaction, decontamination, incineration, chemical treatment/conditioning, immobilization, and packaging. Interim and retrievable storage can be accomplished in a wide variety of storage structures, and several types of engineered disposal facility designs are now available. By applying an integrated approach to radioactive waste management, potential adverse impacts on human health and safety and the environment can be minimized. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Devgun, J.S. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

1989-01-01

306

Application of microwave solidification technology to radioactive waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EPA has declared vitrification to be the Best Available Demonstrated Technology (BDAT) for High Level Radioactive Waste (40 CFR 268.42). Vitrification has been chosen as the method of choice for treating a number of radioactive residues and wastes in the DOE complex. Vitrification offers advantages of waste volume reduction, the ability to handle changing waste forms, and a stable,

M. Harris; G. Sprenger; B. Roushey; G. Fenner; R. Nieweg

1995-01-01

307

I-NERI Annual Technical Progress Report 2007-004-K Development and Characterization of New High-Level Waste Forms for Achieving Waste Minimization from Pyroprocessing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current method for the immobilization of fission products that accumulate in electrorefiner salt during the electrochemical processing of used metallic nuclear fuel is to encapsulate the electrorefiner salt in a glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form. This process was developed by Argonne National Laboratory in the USA and is currently performed at the Idaho National Laboratory for the treatment of

S. Frank

2010-01-01

308

Spectral histogram using the minimization algorithm-theory and applications to flaw detection.  

PubMed

In ultrasonic flaw detection in large grained materials, backscattered grain noise often masks the flaw signal. To enhance the flaw visibility, a frequency diverse statistical filtering technique known as split-spectrum processing has been developed. This technique splits the received wideband signal into an ensemble of narrowband signals exhibiting different signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). Using a minimization algorithm, SNR enhancement can be obtained at the output. The nonlinear properties of the frequency diverse statistic filter are characterized based on the spectral histogram, which is the statistical distribution of the spectral windows selected by the minimization algorithm. The theoretical analysis indicates that the spectral histogram is similar in nature to the Wiener filter transfer function. Therefore, the optimal filter frequency region can be determined adaptively based on the spectral histogram without prior knowledge of the signal and noise spectra. PMID:18263148

Li, X; Bilgutay, N M; Murthy, R

1992-01-01

309

Application of Subarray Averaging and Entropy Minimization Algorithm to Stepped-Frequency ISAR Autofocus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subarray averaging and entropy minimization (SAEM) algorithm is applied to stepped-frequency ISAR autofocus to compensate for the phase error along the down-range due to high target speed and low pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of radar systems. In stepped-frequency radar systems, the phase error due to target motion in each burst make range profiles blur. Thus, the stepped-frequency ISAR often adopts

Ho-Ryung Jeong; Hyo-Tae Kim; Kyung-Tae Kim

2008-01-01

310

Iterative Methods for Obtaining Energy-Minimizing Parametric Snakes with Applications to Medical Imaging  

PubMed Central

After a brief survey on the parametric deformable models, we develop an iterative method based on the finite difference schemes in order to obtain energy-minimizing snakes. We estimate the approximation error, the residue, and the truncature error related to the corresponding algorithm, then we discuss its convergence, consistency, and stability. Some aspects regarding the prosthetic sugical methods that implement the above numerical methods are also pointed out.

Mitrea, Alexandru Ioan; Badea, Radu; Mitrea, Delia; Nedevschi, Sergiu; Mitrea, Paulina; Ivan, Dumitru Mircea; Gurzau, Octavian Mircia

2012-01-01

311

A new process and equipment for waste minimization: Conversion of NO(x) scrubber liquor to fertilizer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new emissions control system for the oxidizer scrubbers that eliminates the current oxidizer liquor waste and lowers the NO(x) emissions is described. Since fueling and deservicing spacecraft constitute the primary operations in which environmental emissions occur, this will eliminate the second largest waste stream at KSC. This effort is in accord with Executive Order No. 12856 (Federal Compliance with Right-to-Know Laws and Pollution Prevention Requirements, data 6 Aug. 1993) and Executive Order No. 12873 (Federal Acquisition, Recycling, and Waste Prevention, dated 20 Oct. 1993). A recent study found that the efficiencies of the oxidizer scrubbers during normal operations ranged from 70 percent to 99 percent. The new scrubber liquor starts with 1% hydrogen peroxide at a pH of 7 and the process control system adds hydrogen peroxide and potassium hydroxide to the scrubber liquor to maintain those initial conditions. The result is the formation of a solution of potassium nitrate, which is sold as a fertilizer. This report describes the equipment and procedures used to monitor and control the conversion of the scrubber liquor to fertilizer, while reducing the scrubber emissions.

Parrish, Clyde F.; Barile, Ronald G.; Gamble, Paul H.; Lueck, Dale E.; Young, Rebecca C.

1995-01-01

312

NITRATE CONTAMINATION OF GROUND WATER FROM LAND APPLICATION OF SWINE WASTE: CASE STUDY AND GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Guidelines for land application of CAFO waste may not be sufficient to prevent ground water contamination by nitrate. A case study is presented illustrating the problem for one field site disposing of swine waste. Data are discussed in context with documented land application ...

313

Electrochemical Corrosion Rate Sensors for Waste Incineration Applications  

SciTech Connect

Electrochemical corrosion rate sensors work in high temperature waste incineration applications where ash is deposited. The ash serves as the electrolyte for electrochemical measurements, such as liner polarization resistance, electrochemical noise, and harmonic distortion analyses. Results to date have shown that these types of sensors respond qualitatively to changes in temperature, gas composition, alloy composition, and type of ash. Several years of research have shown that high temperature corrosion rate probes need to be better understood before corrosion rate can be used as a process variable by power plant operators. More recent research has shown that electrochemical corrosion probes typically measure lower corrosion rates than those measured by standard mass loss techniques. While still useful for monitoring changes in corrosion rates, absolute probe corrosion rates will need a calibration factor to be useful. Ideas for research that may help resolve these issues are presented.

Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Matthes, S.A.; Holcomb, G.R.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Eden, D.A. (Honeywell Intercorr)

2007-03-01

314

Prodrug enzymes and their applications in image-guided therapy of cancer: tracking prodrug enzymes to minimize collateral damage  

PubMed Central

Many cytotoxic therapies are available to kill cancer cells. Unfortunately, these also inflict significant damage on normal cells. Identifying highly effective cancer treatments that have minimal or no side effects continues to be a major challenge. One of the strategies to minimize damage to normal tissue is to deliver an activating enzyme that localizes only in the tumor and converts a nontoxic prodrug to a cytotoxic agent locally in the tumor. Such strategies have been previously tested but with limited success due in large part to the uncertainty in the delivery and distribution of the enzyme. Imaging the delivery of the enzyme to optimize timing of the prodrug administration to achieve image-guided prodrug therapy would be of immense benefit for this strategy. Here, we have reviewed advances in the incorporation of image guidance in the applications of prodrug enzymes in cancer treatment. These advances demonstrate the feasibility of using clinically translatable imaging in these prodrug enzyme strategies.

Penet, Marie-France; Chen, Zhihang; Li, Cong; Winnard, Paul T.

2013-01-01

315

Davidon-Broyden rank-one minimization methods in Hilbert space with application to optimal control problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Davidon-Broyden class of rank one, quasi-Newton minimization methods is extended from Euclidean spaces to infinite-dimensional, real Hilbert spaces. For several techniques of choosing the step size, conditions are found which assure convergence of the associated iterates to the location of the minimum of a positive definite quadratic functional. For those techniques, convergence is achieved without the problem of the computation of a one-dimensional minimum at each iteration. The application of this class of minimization methods for the direct computation of the solution of an optimal control problem is outlined. The performance of various members of the class are compared by solving a sample optimal control problem. Finally, the sample problem is solved by other known gradient methods, and the results are compared with those obtained with the rank one quasi-Newton methods.

Straeter, T. A.

1972-01-01

316

Application for approval to construct the Waste Receiving And Processing facility  

SciTech Connect

The following Application For Approval Of Construction is being submitted by the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office pursuant to 40 CFR 61.07, ``Application for Approval of Construction or Modification,`` for the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 facility (also referred to as WRAP 1). The WRAP 1 facility will be a new source of radioactive emissions to the atmosphere. The WRAP 1 facility will be housed in the new 2336-W Building, which will be located in the 200 West Area south of 23rd Street and west of Dayton Avenue. The 200 West Area is located within the boundary of the Hanford Site. The mission of the WRAP 1 facility is to examine, assay, characterize, treat, and repackage solid radioactive and mixed waste to enable permanent disposal of the waste in accordance with all applicable regulations. The solid wastes to be handled in the WRAP 1 facility include low-level waste (LLW), Transuranic (TRU) waste, TRU mixed waste, and low-level mixed waste (LLMW). The WRAP 1 facility will only accept contact handled (CH) waste containers. CH waste is a waste category whose external surface dose rate does not exceed 200 mrem/h. These containers have a surface dose rate of less than 200 mrem/h.

Not Available

1993-02-01

317

Application of Reset Voltage Feedback for Droop Minimization in the Unidirectional Current Pulse Transformer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the application of reset voltage feedback for reducing errors due to droop in the signal derived from a current transformer sensing unidirectional current pulses in switched-mode power converter applications. Droop is minimised by applying a correcting voltage in series with the transformer's output terminals during the current pulse. The magnitude of the correcting voltage is based on

Neville McNeill; Narendra K. Gupta; Steve G. Burrow; Derrick Holliday; Phil H. Mellor

2008-01-01

318

A Regulatory Analysis and Reassessment of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Listed Hazardous Waste Numbers for Applicability to the INTEC Liquid Waste System  

SciTech Connect

This report concludes that there are four listed hazardous waste numbers (F001, F002, F005, and U134) applicable to the waste in the Process Equipment Waste Evaporator (PEWE) liquid waste system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The chemical constituents associated with these listed hazardous waste numbers, including those listed only for ignitability are identified. The RCRA Part A permit application hazardous waste numbers identify chemical constituents that may be treated or stored by the PEWE liquid waste system either as a result of a particular characteristic (40 CFR, Subpart C) or as a result of a specific process (40 CFR 261, Subpart D). The RCRA Part A permit application for the PEWE liquid waste system identifies the universe of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hazardous waste numbers [23 characteristic (hazardous waste codes) numbers and 105 listed numbers (four F-listed hazardous waste numbers, 20 P-listed hazardous waste numbers, and 81 U-listed hazardous waste numbers)] deemed acceptable for storage and treatment. This evaluation, however, identifies only listed wastes (and their chemical constituents) that have actually entered the PEWE liquid waste system and would, therefore, be assigned to the PEWE liquids and treatment residuals.

Gilbert, K.L.; Venneman, T.E.

1998-12-01

319

Development of optical fiber Bragg grating force-reflection sensor system of medical application for safe minimally invasive robotic surgery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Force feedback plays a very important role in medical surgery. In minimally invasive surgery (MIS), however, the very long and stiff bars of surgical instruments greatly diminish force feedback for the surgeon. In the case of minimally invasive robotic surgery (MIRS), force feedback is totally eliminated. Previous researchers have reported that the absence of force feedback increased the average force magnitude applied to the tissue by at least 50%, and increased the peak force magnitude by at least a factor of two. Therefore, it is very important to provide force information in MIRS. Recently, many sensors are being developed for MIS and MIRS, but some obstacles to their application in actual medical surgery must be surmounted. The most critical problems are size limit and sterilizability. Optical fiber sensors are among the most suitable sensors for the surgical environment. The optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor, in particular, offers an important additional advantage over other optical fiber sensors in that it is not influenced by the intensity of the light source. In this paper, we present the initial results of a study on the application of a FBG sensor to measure reflected forces in MIRS environments and suggest the possibility of successful application to MIRS systems.

Song, Hoseok; Kim, Kiyoung; Lee, Jungju

2011-07-01

320

The Applications of Photocatalytic Waste Minimisation in Nuclear Fuel Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear fuel processing has two main waste management requirements: (1) the disposal of waste\\u000a organic solvent (secondary waste) generated by solvent extraction processes during the separation\\u000a and purification of uranium and plutonium in nuclear fuel and materials processing; and (2) the management\\u000a of the small fractions of U and Pu that are inseparable during reprocessing (primary waste). Environmental\\u000a impact associated

Colin Boxall; Gwénaëlle Le Gurun; Robin Taylor; Shaorong Xiao

321

Economical and environmental implications of solid waste compost applications to agricultural fields in Punjab, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Application of municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) to agricultural soils is becoming an increasingly important global practice to enhance and sustain soil organic matter (SOM) and fertility levels. Potential risks associated with heavy metals and phosphorus accumulations in surface soils may be minimized with integrated nutrient management strategies that utilize MSWC together with mineral fertilizers. To explore the economic feasibility of MSWC applications, nutrient management plans were developed for rice-wheat and cotton-wheat cropping systems within the Punjab region of Pakistan. Three-year field trials were conducted to measure yields and to determine the economic benefits using three management strategies and two nutrient doses. Management strategies included the application of mineral fertilizers as the sole nutrient source and application of mineral fertilizers in combination with MSWC with and without pesticide/herbicide treatments. Fertilizer doses were either based on standard N, P and K recommendations or on measured site-specific soil plant available phosphorus (PAP) levels. It was found that combining MSWC and mineral fertilizer applications based on site-specific PAP levels with the use of pesticides and herbicides is an economically and environmentally viable management strategy. Results show that incorporation of MSWC improved soil physical properties such as bulk density and penetration resistance. The PAP levels in the surface layer increased by the end of the trials relative to the initial status. No potential risks of heavy metal (Zn, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni) accumulation were observed. Treatments comprised of MSWC and mineral fertilizer adjusted to site-specific PAP levels and with common pest management showed highest cumulative yields. A basic economic analysis revealed a significantly higher cumulative net profit and value-to-cost ratio (VCR) for all site-specific doses. PMID:19501499

Qazi, M Akram; Akram, M; Ahmad, N; Artiola, Janick F; Tuller, M

2009-09-01

322

Efficient algorithm for nonconvex minimization and its application to PM regularization.  

PubMed

In image processing, nonconvex regularization has the ability to smooth homogeneous regions and sharpen edges but leads to challenging computation. We propose some iterative schemes to minimize the energy function with nonconvex edge-preserving potential. The schemes are derived from the duality-based algorithm proposed by Bermúdez and Moreno and the fixed point iteration. The convergence is proved for the convex energy function with nonconvex potential and the linear convergence rate is given. Applying the proposed schemes to Perona and Malik's nonconvex regularization, we present some efficient algorithms based on our schemes, and show the approximate convergence behavior for nonconvex energy function. Experimental results are presented, which show the efficiency of our algorithms, including better denoised performance of nonconvex regularization, faster convergence speed, higher calculation precision, lower calculation cost under the same number of iterations, and less implementation time under the same peak signal noise ratio level. PMID:22829405

Li, Wen-Ping; Wang, Zheng-Ming; Deng, Ya

2012-10-01

323

Application of off-axis holography to spray investigations: aberration minimization and size determination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A holographic measurement system was used for the investigation of droplet size, density and velocity in the injection spray of a model diesel engine. The model engine consisted of a conventional injection pump and a test chamber that could be operated at high pressure and temperature to simulate the conditions in an operating diesel engine. The use of off-axis holography with a laser light sheet from a pulsed ruby laser helped to increase the maximum droplet density in the spray that could be resolved. Chromatic aberrations, introduced by the reconstruction of the holograms with a wavelength different from the recording wavelength, were minimized by careful choice of recording and reconstruction geometry. A new method for size determination was devised. The reconstructed images were recorded with a CCD camera and analyzed with the help of a personal computer. Software for automatic detection of 3-D particle position and velocity determination was developed.

Schaller, Johannes K.; Ante, Andreas; Theisen, Thilo; Stojanoff, Christo G.

1993-02-01

324

Strategies to enhance waste minimization and energy conservation within organizations: a case study from the UK construction sector.  

PubMed

Strategies for enhancing environmental management are a key focus for the government in the UK. Using a manufacturing company from the construction sector as a case study, this paper evaluates selected interventionist techniques, including environmental teams, awareness raising and staff training to improve environmental performance. The study employed a range of methods including questionnaire surveys and audits of energy consumption and generation of waste to examine the outcomes of the selected techniques. The results suggest that initially environmental management was not a focus for either the employees or the company. However, as a result of employing the techniques, the company was able to reduce energy consumption, increase recycling rates and achieve costs savings in excess of £132,000. PMID:22843348

Jones, Jo; Jackson, Janet; Tudor, Terry; Bates, Margaret

2012-09-01

325

Collision-minimizing CSMA and its applications to wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research in sensor networks, wireless location systems, and power-saving in ad hoc networks suggests that some applications' wireless traffic be modeled as an event-driven workload: a workload where many nodes send traffic at the time of an event, not all reports of the event are needed by higher-level protocols and applications, and events occur infrequently relative to the time

Y. C. Tay; Kyle Jamieson; Hari Balakrishnan

2004-01-01

326

Retrostructural analysis of metalloproteins: Application to the design of a minimal model for diiron proteins  

PubMed Central

De novo protein design provides an attractive approach for the construction of models to probe the features required for function of complex metalloproteins. The metal-binding sites of many metalloproteins lie between multiple elements of secondary structure, inviting a retrostructural approach to constructing minimal models of their active sites. The backbone geometries comprising the metal-binding sites of zinc fingers, diiron proteins, and rubredoxins may be described to within approximately 1 ? rms deviation by using a simple geometric model with only six adjustable parameters. These geometric models provide excellent starting points for the design of metalloproteins, as illustrated in the construction of Due Ferro 1 (DF1), a minimal model for the Glu-Xxx-Xxx-His class of dinuclear metalloproteins. This protein was synthesized and structurally characterized as the di-Zn(II) complex by x-ray crystallography, by using data that extend to 2.5 ?. This four-helix bundle protein is comprised of two noncovalently associated helix-loop-helix motifs. The dinuclear center is formed by two bridging Glu and two chelating Glu side chains, as well as two monodentate His ligands. The primary ligands are mostly buried in the protein interior, and their geometries are stabilized by a network of hydrogen bonds to second-shell ligands. In particular, a Tyr residue forms a hydrogen bond to a chelating Glu ligand, similar to a motif found in the diiron-containing R2 subunit of Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase and the ferritins. DF1 also binds cobalt and iron ions and should provide an attractive model for a variety of diiron proteins that use oxygen for processes including iron storage, radical formation, and hydrocarbon oxidation.

Lombardi, Angela; Summa, Christopher M.; Geremia, Silvano; Randaccio, Lucio; Pavone, Vincenzo; DeGrado, William F.

2000-01-01

327

Application of the microbiological method DEFT/APC to detect minimally processed vegetables treated with gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marketing of minimally processed vegetables (MPV) are gaining impetus due to its convenience, freshness and apparent health effect. However, minimal processing does not reduce pathogenic microorganisms to safe levels. Food irradiation is used to extend the shelf life and to inactivate food-borne pathogens. In combination with minimal processing it could improve safety and quality of MPV. A microbiological screening method based on the use of direct epifluorescent filter technique (DEFT) and aerobic plate count (APC) has been established for the detection of irradiated foodstuffs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of this technique in detecting MPV irradiation. Samples from retail markets were irradiated with 0.5 and 1.0 kGy using a 60Co facility. In general, with a dose increment, DEFT counts remained similar independent of the irradiation while APC counts decreased gradually. The difference of the two counts gradually increased with dose increment in all samples. It could be suggested that a DEFT/APC difference over 2.0 log would be a criteria to judge if a MPV was treated by irradiation. The DEFT/APC method could be used satisfactorily as a screening method for indicating irradiation processing.

Araújo, M. M.; Duarte, R. C.; Silva, P. V.; Marchioni, E.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.

2009-07-01

328

The WIPP RCRA Part B permit application for TRU mixed waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

In August 1993, the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) issued a draft permit for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to begin experiments with transuranic (TRU) mixed waste. Subsequently, the Department of Energy (DOE) decided to cancel the on-site test program, opting instead for laboratory testing. The Secretary of the NMED withdrew the draft permit in 1994, ordering the State`s Hazardous and Radioactive Waste Bureau to work with the DOE on submittal of a revised permit application. Revision 5 of the WIPP`s Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit Application was submitted to the NMED in May 1995, focusing on disposal of 175,600 m{sup 3} of TRU mixed waste over a 25 year span plus ten years for closure. A key portion of the application, the Waste Analysis Plan, shifted from requirements to characterize a relatively small volume of TRU mixed waste for on-site experiments, to describing a complete program that would apply to all DOE TRU waste generating facilities and meet the appropriate RCRA regulations. Waste characterization will be conducted on a waste stream basis, fitting into three broad categories: (1) homogeneous solids, (2) soil/gravel, and (3) debris wastes. Techniques used include radiography, visually examining waste from opened containers, radioassay, headspace gas sampling, physical sampling and analysis of homogeneous wastes, and review of documented acceptable knowledge. Acceptable knowledge of the original organics and metals used, and the operations that generated these waste streams is sufficient in most cases to determine if the waste has toxicity characteristics, hazardous constituents, polychlorinated biphenyls (PBCs), or RCRA regulated metals.

Johnson, J.E. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.; Snider, C.A. [USDOE Carlsbad Area Office, NM (United States)

1995-12-31

329

Up-cycling waste glass to minimal water adsorption/absorption lightweight aggregate by rapid low temperature sintering: optimization by dual process-mixture response surface methodology.  

PubMed

Mixed color waste glass extracted from municipal solid waste is either not recycled, in which case it is an environmental and financial liability, or it is used in relatively low value applications such as normal weight aggregate. Here, we report on converting it into a novel glass-ceramic lightweight aggregate (LWA), potentially suitable for high added value applications in structural concrete (upcycling). The artificial LWA particles were formed by rapidly sintering (<10 min) waste glass powder with clay mixes using sodium silicate as binder and borate salt as flux. Composition and processing were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) modeling, and specifically (i) a combined process-mixture dual RSM, and (ii) multiobjective optimization functions. The optimization considered raw materials and energy costs. Mineralogical and physical transformations occur during sintering and a cellular vesicular glass-ceramic composite microstructure is formed, with strong correlations existing between bloating/shrinkage during sintering, density and water adsorption/absorption. The diametrical expansion could be effectively modeled via the RSM and controlled to meet a wide range of specifications; here we optimized for LWA structural concrete. The optimally designed LWA is sintered in comparatively low temperatures (825-835 °C), thus potentially saving costs and lowering emissions; it had exceptionally low water adsorption/absorption (6.1-7.2% w/wd; optimization target: 1.5-7.5% w/wd); while remaining substantially lightweight (density: 1.24-1.28 g.cm(-3); target: 0.9-1.3 g.cm(-3)). This is a considerable advancement for designing effective environmentally friendly lightweight concrete constructions, and boosting resource efficiency of waste glass flows. PMID:24871934

Velis, Costas A; Franco-Salinas, Claudia; O'Sullivan, Catherine; Najorka, Jens; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Cheeseman, Christopher R

2014-07-01

330

US Department of Energy: Waste Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management's goals include minimizing the waste generated by DOE, and pursuing compliance with all applicable environmental regulations. The Waste Management Web site contains information on how the DOE directs the treatment, storage, and disposal of waste generated by DOE's activities, nuclear and otherwise. A whole host of reports and other informational products such as the Standard Operating Practices and Procedures link and Waste Management Privatization information is available.

331

New Minimal Modified Radix-r Representation with Applications to Smart Cards  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the problem of nding a minimum- weighted representation of an integer under any modied radix-r num- ber system. Contrary to existing methods, the proposed transformation is carried out from the left to the right (i.e., from the most signican t position). This feature nds numerous applications and especially in fast arithmetic techniques because it reduces both time

Marc Joye; Sung-ming Yen

2002-01-01

332

Method for minimizing the cost\\/Watt of complete photovoltaic systems and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes an optimization method and some applications in which the design criterion for every part of a photovoltaic system is the minimum power cost for the complete system. The various parts of a photovoltaic system are grouped so that all costs fall into four classes: fabrication steps of the active solar cells; steps associated with the collector array

D. Redfield

1978-01-01

333

Application of transformational roasting to the treatment of metallurgical wastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transformational roasting involves the heating of a material along with specific additives to induce mineralogical changes in the starting material. By controlling the chemical composition, roasting atmosphere, temperature and time of reaction, the mineral transformations induced during roasting can be engineered to control the distribution of valuable or harmful metals and to produce new mineral assemblages that are more amenable to conventional methods of metals recovery or to environmentally safe disposal. However, to date, transformational roasting processes have only been applied to the recovery of a limited number of metals from a limited number of materials. A generalized procedure for the application of transformational roasting techniques to the treatment of new materials was proposed that utilized a combination of thermodynamic analysis, scoping tests, Design of Experiments (DOE) testing, mineralogical studies, process optimization and analysis of the deportment of minor elements to identify promising roasting systems for further study. This procedure was developed, tested and refined through the application of these techniques to four different industrial metallurgical wastes, including oil sands fly ash from Suncor in northern Alberta, zinc ferrite residue from Doe Run Peru, electric are furnace (EAF) dust from Altasteel's operations in Edmonton, Alberta, and copper-nickel-arsenic sulphide residue from Inco's refinery in Thompson, Manitoba. A large number of potential reagents were identified and tested for the latter three materials and transformational roasting was effectively used to induce mineral transformations during the roasting of these wastes which increased the solubility of valuable elements, decreased the solubility of major impurities, produced a differential solubility between valuable and harmful elements or controlled the volatilization of harmful elements. Comprehensive studies of these mineralogical transformations and the solubility of the phases produced were accomplished by integrating common methods of mineralogical analysis, such as scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction, with the results from specific roasting and leaching tests identified using Design of Experiments techniques. Several promising reagent systems were identified for further study. These systems include roasting zinc ferrite residue with Na2CO 3, Na2CO3/MnCO3 or coal/MnCO3 , roasting EAF dust with Na2CO3, and roasting the copper residue with Na2CO3, Ca(OH)2 or Na2CO3/Ca(OH)2. Conceptual process flowsheets were also constructed for many of these promising reagent systems.

Holloway, Preston Carl

334

Finite element based stability-constrained weight minimization of sandwich composite ducts for airship applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) airships are platform of interest due to their persistent observation and persistent communication capabilities. A novel HALE airship design configuration incorporates a composite sandwich propulsive hull duct between the front and the back of the hull for significant drag reduction via blown wake effects. The sandwich composite shell duct is subjected to hull pressure on its outer walls and flow suction on its inner walls which result in in-plane wall compressive stress, which may cause duct buckling. An approach based upon finite element stability analysis combined with a ply layup and foam thickness determination weight minimization search algorithm is utilized. Its goal is to achieve an optimized solution for the configuration of the sandwich composite as a solution to a constrained minimum weight design problem, for which the shell duct remains stable with a prescribed margin of safety under prescribed loading. The stability analysis methodology is first verified by comparing published analytical results for a number of simple cylindrical shell configurations with FEM counterpart solutions obtained using the commercially available code ABAQUS. Results show that the approach is effective in identifying minimum weight composite duct configurations for a number of representative combinations of duct geometry, composite material and foam properties, and propulsive duct applied pressure loading.

Khode, Urmi B.

335

Minimally processed fresh frozen human reference sera: preparation, testing, and application to international external quality assurance.  

PubMed

The preparation of unmodified or minimally processed fresh frozen human sera is described, as well as the previous use of such sera, e.g. in Nordic and international external quality assurance (EQA) activities. The unmodified serum is prepared from fresh donors' blood collected in dry bags and allowed to coagulate. The serum is collected "on the clot", pooled, filtered, mixed, dispensed in polypropylene vials and frozen at -80 degrees C without further processing. Some batches were slightly modified by spiking or dilution. Critical steps of the production and use of the sera are described and improvements are discussed. A total of 34 different batches have been prepared since 1985. Results from homogeneity and stability studies are presented. The studies cover 18 routine components in serum stored at +4 degrees C to 37 degrees C for up to 34 days. Good stability was observed for storage of all components, with the exception of triglyceride. Amylase, creatininium, glucose, gamma-glutamyltransferase, urate (and perhaps carbamide) showed deterioration after 13 days of incubation at 37 degrees C. The long-term stability at -80 degrees C is reviewed and new data are presented, e.g. as consensus values from EQA schemes, where the same serum has been sent out three times over 5 years, and from reference measurement procedure values that have been assigned twice with an interval of 5 years. Furthermore, a 10-year stability study has been started. PMID:15223696

Henriksen, G M; Pedersen, M M; Nørgaard, I; Blom, M; Blou, L; Blaabjerg, O; Uldall, A

2004-01-01

336

Waste minimization opportunities at the U.S. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, Rifle, Colorado, site  

SciTech Connect

At two uranium mill sites in Rifle, Colorado, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is removing uranium mill tailings and contaminated subgrade soils. This remediation activity will result in the production of groundwater contaminated with uranium, heavy metals, ammonia, sulfates, and total dissolved solids (TDS). The initial remediation plan called for a wastewater treatment plant for removal of the uranium, heavy metals, and ammonia, with disposal of the treated water, which still includes the sulfates and TDSS, to the Colorado River. The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination (NPDES) permit issued by the Colorado Department of Health for the two Rifle sites contained more restrictive discharge limits than originally anticipated. During the detailed review of alternate treatment systems to meet these more restrictive limits, the proposed construction procedures were reviewed emphasizing the methods to minimize groundwater production to reduce the size of the water treatment facility, or to eliminate it entirely. It was determined that with changes to the excavation procedures and use of the contaminated groundwater for use in dust suppression at the disposal site, discharge to the river could be eliminated completely.

Hartmann, G.L. [Geraghty and Miller, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Arp, S. [Dept. of Energy, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hempill, H. [Morrison Knudsen-Environmental Services, San Francisco, CA (United States)

1993-12-31

337

The applicability of different waste materials for the production of lightweight aggregates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The applicability of different waste materials for the production of lightweight aggregates has been studied. The following waste materials were investigated: silica sludge, superfluous clay in the quarry, waste glass, and residue from the polishing process of different types of stone. SiC and MnO2 were selected as foaming agents. Feldspar containing minerals and scrap glass were added in order to

V. Ducman; B. Mirti?

2009-01-01

338

Application of processed organic municipal solid waste on agricultural land – a scenario analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Source separation, composting and anaerobic digestion, with associated land application, are increasingly being considered\\u000a as alternative waste management strategies to landfilling and incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW). Environmental life\\u000a cycle assessments are a useful tool in political decision-making about waste management strategies. However, due to the diversity\\u000a of processed organic MSW and the situations in which it can be

Sander Bruun; Trine Lund Hansen; Thomas H. Christensen; Jakob Magid; Lars S. Jensen

2006-01-01

339

User's manual for applicants proposing on-site burial of self-generated radioactive waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document describes, for medical and research institutions as well as industrial generators of low-level radioactive waste, the NRC or state submittal requirements for authorizing the on-site burial of self-generated radioactive waste. An important part of completing the license application for operation justifying this alternative for waste disposal over other alternatives. Reasons that might be considered acceptable might include the

M. E. M. Tolbert; P. A. Loretan

1987-01-01

340

Minimizing losses in bio-electrochemical systems: the road to applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bio-electrochemical systems (BESs) enable microbial catalysis of electrochemical reactions. Plain electrical power production\\u000a combined with wastewater treatment by microbial fuel cells (MFCs) has been the primary application purpose for BESs. However,\\u000a large-scale power production and a high chemical oxygen demand conversion rates must be achieved at a benchmark cost to make\\u000a MFCs economical competitive in this context. Recently, a number

Peter Clauwaert; Peter Aelterman; Liesje De Schamphelaire; Marta Carballa; Korneel Rabaey; Willy Verstraete

2008-01-01

341

Hanford waste vitrification plant remote-handling application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project, to be constructed on the Hanford site in southeastern Washington State, will immobilize the liquid high-level defense waste stored there. The wastes will be retrieved from double-shell tanks (DSTs) and pretreated at another facility on-site. The vitrification process will provide immobilization and allow eventual permanent disposal of the low-volume, high-activity fraction of the

L. D. Swenson; B. A. Wolfe

1989-01-01

342

The Costs of Disposal and Recycling: An Application to Italian Municipal Solid Waste Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abrate G., Erbetta F., Fraquelli G. and Vannoni D. The costs of disposal and recycling: an application to Italian municipal solid waste services, Regional Studies. The paper investigates the costs of waste disposal and recycling services by using a well-behaved Composite cost function model. The estimates on a unique sample of more than 500 Italian municipalities highlight that the refuse

Graziano Abrate; Fabrizio Erbetta; Giovanni Fraquelli; Davide Vannoni

2012-01-01

343

Municipal solid waste compost application improves productivity, polyphenol content, and antioxidant capacity of Mesembryanthemum edule  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic wastes were successfully used as soil amendment to improve agrosystems productivity. Yet, the effectiveness of this practice to enhance plant antioxidant capacities has received little attention. Here, we assess the effect of municipal solid waste (MSW) compost (at 40tha?1) on growth, polyphenol contents and antioxidant activities of Mesembryanthemum edule. MSW compost application significantly increased the soil contents of carbon,

Abdelbasset Lakhdar; Hanen Falleh; Youssef Ouni; Samia Oueslati; Ahmed Debez; Riadh Ksouri; Chedly Abdelly

2011-01-01

344

An evaluation of selected waste resources for utilization in ceramic materials applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many industrial processes generate large amounts of waste. Typical examples include the fertiliser industry (phosphogypsum), ferro-alloy and steel producers (slag), as well as the power generating industry (fly ash). Although some waste products are currently used to a limited extend (e.g. fly ash and cement in cement), there is a constant need to find more uses and new applications for

A. Jonker; J. H. Potgieter

2005-01-01

345

FUEL CONTAMINANTS: VOLUME 4. APPLICATION OF OIL AGGLOMERATION TO COAL WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of the application of oil agglomeration to coal wastes. There are an estimated 3000-5000 sizeable active and abandoned coal waste piles and impoundments in the eastern U.S. coal fields alone, containing 3 billion tons of refuse, part of which a...

346

Description, applications and numerical modelling of bubbling fluidized bed combustion in waste-to-energy plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of the fluidized bed combustor (FBC) has increased. It began in the 20th century as coal combustion and gasification, which then developed into catalytic reactions. Only recently, the application field has been extended to the incineration of biomass and pre-treated waste, for either power generation or waste disposal. The success of fluidized bed combustion is due to high

S. Ravelli; A. Perdichizzi; G. Barigozzi

2008-01-01

347

Early detection and evaluation of waste through sensorized containers for a collection monitoring application.  

PubMed

The present study describes a novel application for use in the monitoring of municipal solid waste, based on distributed sensor technology and geographical information systems. Original field testing and evaluation of the application were carried out in Pudong, Shanghai (PR China). The local waste management system in Pudong features particular requirements related to the rapidly increasing rate of waste production. In view of the fact that collected waste is currently deployed to landfills or to incineration plants within the context investigated, the key aspects to be taken into account in waste collection procedures include monitoring of the overall amount of waste produced, quantitative measurement of the waste present at each collection point and identification of classes of material present in the collected waste. The case study described herein focuses particularly on the above mentioned aspects, proposing the implementation of a network of sensorized waste containers linked to a data management system. Containers used were equipped with a set of sensors mounted onto standard waste bins. The design, implementation and validation procedures applied are subsequently described. The main aim to be achieved by data collection and evaluation was to provide for feasibility analysis of the final device. Data pertaining to the content of waste containers, sampled and processed by means of devices validated on two purpose-designed prototypes, were therefore uploaded to a central monitoring server using GPRS connection. The data monitoring and management modules are integrated into an existing application used by local municipal authorities. A field test campaign was performed in the Pudong area. The system was evaluated in terms of real data flow from the network nodes (containers) as well as in terms of optimization functions, such as collection vehicle routing and scheduling. The most important outcomes obtained were related to calculations of waste weight and volume. The latter data were subsequently used as parameters for the routing optimization of collection trucks and material density evaluation. PMID:19783420

Rovetta, Alberto; Xiumin, Fan; Vicentini, Federico; Minghua, Zhu; Giusti, Alessandro; Qichang, He

2009-12-01

348

Early detection and evaluation of waste through sensorized containers for a collection monitoring application  

SciTech Connect

The present study describes a novel application for use in the monitoring of municipal solid waste, based on distributed sensor technology and geographical information systems. Original field testing and evaluation of the application were carried out in Pudong, Shanghai (PR China). The local waste management system in Pudong features particular requirements related to the rapidly increasing rate of waste production. In view of the fact that collected waste is currently deployed to landfills or to incineration plants within the context investigated, the key aspects to be taken into account in waste collection procedures include monitoring of the overall amount of waste produced, quantitative measurement of the waste present at each collection point and identification of classes of material present in the collected waste. The case study described herein focuses particularly on the above mentioned aspects, proposing the implementation of a network of sensorized waste containers linked to a data management system. Containers used were equipped with a set of sensors mounted onto standard waste bins. The design, implementation and validation procedures applied are subsequently described. The main aim to be achieved by data collection and evaluation was to provide for feasibility analysis of the final device. Data pertaining to the content of waste containers, sampled and processed by means of devices validated on two purpose-designed prototypes, were therefore uploaded to a central monitoring server using GPRS connection. The data monitoring and management modules are integrated into an existing application used by local municipal authorities. A field test campaign was performed in the Pudong area. The system was evaluated in terms of real data flow from the network nodes (containers) as well as in terms of optimization functions, such as collection vehicle routing and scheduling. The most important outcomes obtained were related to calculations of waste weight and volume. The latter data were subsequently used as parameters for the routing optimization of collection trucks and material density evaluation.

Rovetta, Alberto [Robotics Lab, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, via La Masa 34, 20156 Milan (Italy); Fan Xiumin [Computer Integrated Manufacturing Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Shanghai Key Lab of Advanced Manufacturing Environment, Shanghai 200030 (China); Vicentini, Federico, E-mail: federico.vicentini@polimi.i [Robotics Lab, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, via La Masa 34, 20156 Milan (Italy); Zhu Minghua [Computer Integrated Manufacturing Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Shanghai Key Lab of Advanced Manufacturing Environment, Shanghai 200030 (China); Giusti, Alessandro [Robotics Lab, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, via La Masa 34, 20156 Milan (Italy); He Qichang [Computer Integrated Manufacturing Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Shanghai Key Lab of Advanced Manufacturing Environment, Shanghai 200030 (China)

2009-12-15

349

Nuclear microprobe applications to radioactive waste management basic research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive waste management is one of the major technical and scientific challenge to be solved by industrialized countries near the beginning of the 21st century. Relevant questions arise about the extrapolation of the long term-behavior of materials from waste package, engineered barriers and near field repository. Whatever the strategical option might be, wet atmosphere or water intrusion through the different

P. Trocellier; V Badillo; N Barré; L Bois; C Cachoir; J. P Gallien; S Guilbert; F Mercier; C Tiffreau

1999-01-01

350

APPLICATION OF ADVANCED OXIDATIVE PROCESS IN TREATMENT RADIOACTIVE WASTE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ion exchange resin is used in the water purification system in both nuclear research and power reactors. Combined with active carbon, the resin removes dissolved elements from water when the nuclear reactor is operating. After its consumption, it becomes a special type of radioactive waste. The usual treatment to this type of waste is the immobilization with Portland cement,

Cátia Kim; Solange K. Sakata; Rafael V. P. Ferreira; Julio T. Marumo

351

Method for minimizing the cost/Watt of complete photovoltaic systems and applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper describes an optimization method and some applications in which the design criterion for every part of a photovoltaic system is the minimum power cost for the complete system. The various parts of a photovoltaic system are grouped so that all costs fall into four classes: fabrication steps of the active solar cells; steps associated with the collector array and its complete structure; power-handling elements such as switchgear, storage, etc.; and fixed costs that do not vary directly with any of the system parts, such as factory-level overhead. It is assumed that the total collector area is independent of any of the optimization processes. A general equation is found to be capable of optimizing all parts of a system, although the cell and array steps are basically different from the power-handling elements. It is shown that the optimization of any step in the system requires inclusion of the properties of the other parts of the system.

Redfield, D.

1978-01-01

352

Management and disposal of waste from sites contaminated by radioactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various methods of managing and disposing of wastes generated by decontamination and decommissioning (D & D) activities are described. This review of current waste management practices includes a description of waste minimization and volume reduction techniques and their applicability to various categories of radwaste. The importance of the physical properties of the radiation and radioactivity in determining the methodology of

C. J. Roberts

1998-01-01

353

WASTE MINIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: A CLASS 8 TRUCK ASSEMBLY PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has developed a systematic approach to identify and implement options to reduce or eliminate hazardous waste. he approach is presented in a report entitled, "Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual" (EPA/625/7-88/O03). his report describes the application of the wast...

354

Approach toward minimizing chemical interference in FAB mass spectra: the development and application of thermally - assisted FAB  

SciTech Connect

Interferences with fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry can be classified into two major categories. The first includes impurities which remain after analyte isolation/purification, and is especially problematic in samples of biological origin. The second type of chemical interference originates from the matrix used for FAB. An example of the first type, also known as sample-related interference, is presented in the context of the analysis of the urinary metabolites of the analgesic acetaminophen by means of the off-line combination of reverse phase HPLC and FAB. Recommendations are made for efficient use of these two methods with specific regard to minimizing chemical interferences. In addition, a method for calculating analyte signal to background (S/B) values is introduced as a means of evaluating the quality of the FAB mass spectrum. A method known as thermally-assisted FAB (TA-FAB) is introduced as a means of minimizing matrix-related background. Success to date has been achieved using aqueous saccharide solutions as TA-FAB matrices. Several important improvements to FAB result from thermal control of the matrix including a selection against matrix background, and the possibility of valid background subtraction. The development of TA-FAB is described in the context of applications of the technique to the analysis of several representative nonvolatile biomolecules including a series of cyclic tetrapeptide mycotoxins. In the final section, the hypothesis of ternary perculation (TP) is submitted to account for behavior observed during TA-FAB.

Ackermann, B.L.

1987-01-01

355

Application of the Iron-Enriched Basalt Waste Form for Immobilizing Commercial Transuranic Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The principal sources of commercial transuranic (TRU) waste in the United States are identified. The physical and chemical nature of the wastes from these sources are discussed. The fabrication technique and properties of iron-enriched basalt, a rock-like...

D. E. Owen

1981-01-01

356

EVALUATION OF THE APPLICABILITY OF SUBSIDENCE MODELS TO HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has discovered a number of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites in close proximity to abandoned underground mines. Further, several Resource Conservation and Recovery Act permit applications have been received for treatment, storage, or disposal facilities located in areas wher...

357

Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Legal Aspects - Module 16.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module summarizes laws that are relevant to the land application of wastes, focusing on the applicable Federal laws and representative state regulations from different areas of the country. The module describes the 10 points of Public Law 92-500, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, that relate to land application. It…

Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

358

Graded Approach to Application of Quality Assurance Controls at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper documents Washington TRU Solution's LLC (WTS) reengineering initiative for the application of graded approach at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is a non-reactor nuclear facility used for permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. In the early 1990s, the “graded approach” concept to the application of quality assurance (QA) controls was institutionalized.

E. L. Ater; A. E. Strait

2006-01-01

359

Minimizing health risks during secondary effluent application via subsurface drip irrigation.  

PubMed

Health risks posed on consumers due to the use of agricultural products irrigated with reclaimed wastewater were assessed by numerical simulation. The analysis is based on defining of an Exposure Model (EM) which takes into account several parameters: (i) the quality of the applied wastewater, (ii) the irrigation method, (iii) the elapsed times between irrigation, harvest, and product consumption, and; (iv) the consumers' habits. The exposure model is used for numerical simulation of human consumers' risks by running the Monte Carlo simulation method. Although some deviations in the numerical simulation which are probably due to uncertainty (impreciseness in quality of input data) and variability due to diversity among populations reasonable results were accepted. Accordingly, there is a several orders of magnitude difference in the risk of infection between the different exposure scenarios with the same water quality. The variability indicates the need for setting risk-based criteria for wastewater reclamation, including the application method and environmental conditions, rather than single water quality guidelines. Extra data is required to decrease uncertainty in the risk assessment. Future research needs to include definite acceptable risk criteria, more accurate dose-response modeling, information regarding pathogen survival in treated wastewater, additional data related to the passage of pathogens into and in the plants during irrigation, and information referring to the consuming habits of the human community. PMID:21076219

Oron, Gideon; Gillerman, Lieonid; Lael, Avraham; Manor, Yossi; Braude, Erez; Bick, Amos

2010-01-01

360

Combined application of essential oils from Origanum vulgare L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. to inhibit bacteria and autochthonous microflora associated with minimally processed vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the occurrence of an enhancing inhibitory effect of the combined application of Origanum vulgare (OV) and Rosmarinus officinalis (RO) essential oils against bacteria associated to minimally processed vegetables using the determination of Fractional Inhibitory Concentration (FIC) index, kill-time assay in vegetal broth and application in vegetable matrices. Moreover, it was determined chemical composition of the essential oils

Geíza Alves de Azeredo; Tânia Lúcia Montenegro Stamford; Pollyana Campos Nunes; Nelson Justino Gomes Neto; Maria Elieidy Gomes de Oliveira; Evandro Leite de Souza

2011-01-01

361

CONSIDERATIONS IN SELECTING CONVEYORS FOR SOLID WASTE APPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

An engineering evaluation and experimental program involving several types of conveyors applied to processed fractions of municipal solid wastes was conducted by the National Center for Resource Recovery. This final project report discusses the properties and characteristics of w...

362

Poultry Waste Management Alternatives: A Design and Application Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Changes in the egg production industry during the past 20-30 years have produced waste management problems which threaten both water and air quality. Results from a number of research studies have identified two processes--aerobic biological stabilization...

J. H. Martin R. C. Loehr

1977-01-01

363

Overview of resuspension model: application to low level waste management  

SciTech Connect

Resuspension is one of the potential pathways to man for radioactive or chemical contaminants that are in the biosphere. In waste management, spills or other surface contamination can serve as a source for resuspension during the operational phase. After the low-level waste disposal area is closed, radioactive materials can be brought to the surface by animals or insects or, in the long term, the surface can be removed by erosion. Any of these methods expose the material to resuspension in the atmosphere. Intrusion into the waste mass can produce resuspension of potential hazard to the intruder. Removal of items from the waste mass by scavengers or archeologists can result in potential resuspension exposure to others handling or working with the object. The ways in which resuspension can occur are wind resuspension, mechanical resuspension and local resuspension. While methods of predicting exposure are not accurate, they include the use of the resuspension factor, the resuspension rate and mass loading of the air.

Healy, J.W.

1980-01-01

364

NOX CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES APPLICABLE TO MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report documents the key design and operating parameters, commercial status, demonstrated performance, and cost of three technologies available for reducing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs), and identifies technology research and developme...

365

[Application of microbial fuel cell (MFC) in solid waste composting].  

PubMed

Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a new technology that can recover energy from biomass with simultaneous waste treatment. This technique has been developed fast in recent years in combining with environmental techniques such as wastewater treatment, degradation of toxic pollutants and desalination. With the increase of solid waste, applying MFC in composting is promising due to its property of waste disposal with simultaneous energy generation. In this paper, the microbial community of MFCs during composting was summarized. Four major influencing factors including electrodes, separators, oxygen supplement and configurations on the performance of composting MFCs were discussed. The characteristics of composting MFC as a new technique for reducing solid waste were as follows: high microbial biomass resulted in the high current density; adaptable to different environmental conditions; self-adjustable temperature with high energy efficiency; the transportation of proton from anode to cathode were limited by different solid substrates. PMID:22712388

Cui, Jinxin; Wang, Xin; Tang, Jingchun

2012-03-01

366

Certification Plan, low-level waste Hazardous Waste Handling Facility  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) handled in the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). This plan also incorporates the applicable elements of waste reduction, which include both up-front minimization and end-product treatment to reduce the volume and toxicity of the waste; segregation of the waste as it applies to certification; an executive summary of the Waste Management Quality Assurance Implementing Management Plan (QAIMP) for the HWHF and a list of the current and planned implementing procedures used in waste certification. This plan provides guidance from the HWHF to waste generators, waste handlers, and the Waste Certification Specialist to enable them to conduct their activities and carry out their responsibilities in a manner that complies with the requirements of WHC-WAC. Waste generators have the primary responsibility for the proper characterization of LLW. The Waste Certification Specialist verifies and certifies that LBL LLW is characterized, handled, and shipped in accordance with the requirements of WHC-WAC. Certification is the governing process in which LBL personnel conduct their waste generating and waste handling activities in such a manner that the Waste Certification Specialist can verify that the requirements of WHC-WAC are met.

Albert, R.

1992-06-30

367

Nonradioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction (NOC) Application for the Central Waste Complex (CSC) for Storage of Vented Waste Containers  

SciTech Connect

This Notice of Construction (NOC) application is submitted for the storage and management of waste containers at the Central Waste Complex (CWC) stationary source. The CWC stationary source consists of multiple sources of diffuse and fugitive emissions, as described herein. This NOC is submitted in accordance with the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-400-110 (criteria pollutants) and 173-460-040 (toxic air pollutants), and pursuant to guidance provided by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). Transuranic (TRU) mixed waste containers at CWC are vented to preclude the build up of hydrogen produced as a result of radionuclide decay, not as safety pressure releases. The following activities are conducted within the CWC stationary source: Storage and inspection; Transfer and staging; Packaging; Treatment; and Sampling. This NOC application is intended to cover all existing storage structures within the current CWC treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) boundary, as well as any storage structures, including waste storage pads and staging areas, that might be constructed in the future within the existing CWC boundary.

KAMBERG, L.D.

2000-04-01

368

Waste  

SciTech Connect

A process for converting wastes in molten salts into usable fuels is described. The molten salt acts as a reaction medium and potential acidic pollutants are retained in the melt. The waste is converted to a fuel gas by reacting it with insufficient air for complete conversion to CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O. The product gas is cleared of particles using a baghouse or venturi scrubber and it is then burned in a boiler to produce steam. The results for waste streams containing a high-sulfur oil refinery waste, rubber, wood, leather scraps, and waste x-ray film are presented in this article.

Gay, R.L.; Barclay, K.M.; Grantham, L.F.; Yosim, S.J.

1981-09-01

369

Characterization of waste streams and suspect waste from largest Los Alamos National Laboratory generators  

SciTech Connect

A detailed waste stream characterization of 4 primary generators of low level waste at LANL was performed to aid in waste minimization efforts. Data was compiled for these four generators from 1988 to the present for analyses. Prior waste minimization efforts have focused on identifying waste stream processes and performing source materials substitutions or reductions where applicable. In this historical survey, the generators surveyed included an accelerator facility, the plutonium facility, a chemistry and metallurgy research facility, and a radiochemistry research facility. Of particular interest in waste minimization efforts was the composition of suspect low level waste in which no radioactivity is detected through initial survey. Ultimately, this waste is disposed of in the LANL low level permitted waste disposal pits (thus filling a scarce and expensive resource with sanitary waste). Detailed analyses of the waste streams from these 4 facilities, have revealed that suspect low level waste comprises approximately 50% of the low level waste by volume and 47% by weight. However, there are significant differences in suspect waste density when one considers the radioactive contamination. For the 2 facilities that deal primarily with beta emitting activation and spallation products (the radiochemistry and accelerator facilities), the suspect waste is much lower density than all low level waste coming from those facilities. For the 2 facilities that perform research on transuranics (the chemistry and metallurgy research and plutonium facilities), suspect waste is higher in density than all the low level waste from those facilities. It is theorized that the low density suspect waste is composed primarily of compactable lab trash, most of which is not contaminated but can be easily surveyed. The high density waste is theorized to be contaminated with alpha emitting radionuclides, and in this case, the suspect waste demonstrates fundamental limits in detection.

Soukup, J.D.; Erpenbeck, G.J. [Benchmark Environmental Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-12-31

370

Plasma cleaning for waste minimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although plasma cleaning is a recognized substitute for solvent cleaning in removing organic contaminants, some universal problems in plasma cleaning processes prevent wider use of plasma techniques. Lack of understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of the process, unreliable endpoint detection techniques, and slow process times make plasma cleaning processes less than desirable. Our approach to address these plasma cleaning problems

1993-01-01

371

Aqueous solubility diagrams for cementitious waste stabilization systems. 4. A carbonation model for Zn-doped calcium silicate hydrate by Gibbs energy minimization.  

PubMed

A thermodynamic Gibbs energy minimization (GEM) solid solution-aqueous solution (SSAS) equilibrium model was used to determine the solubility of Zn from calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) phases doped with 0, 0.1, 1, 5, and 10% Zn at a unity (Ca+Zn)/Si molar ratio. Both the stoichiometry and standard molar Gibbs energy (G(o)298) of the Zn-bearing end-member in the ideal ternary Zn-bearing calcium silicate hydrate (CZSH) solid solution were determined by a "dual-thermodynamic" (GEM-DT) estimation technique. The SSAS model reproduces a complex sequence of reactions suggested to occur in a long-term weathering scenario of cementitious waste forms at subsurface repository conditions. The GEM model of CZSH leaching at several Zn loadings and solid/water (s/w) ratios in a C02-free system showed that, upon complete dissolution of portlandite and calcium zincate phases at decreasing s/w < 0.01 mol x kg(H2O)(-1), the total dissolved concentrations Si(aq), Ca(aq), and Zn(aq) are controlled by a CZSH solid solution of changing composition, with a trough-like Znaq drop by 2-3 orders of magnitude. Carbonation was simulated in another GEM model run series by CO2 titration of the system with initial s/w approximately 0.9 mol/kg(H2O). Formation of (Ca,Zn)-CO3 nonideal solid solution was predicted already at early reaction stage in the presence of both portlandite and calcium zincate hydrate phases. Upon their disappearance, pH, Zn(aq), C(aq), and fCO2 were predicted to change due to the incongruent dissolution of two concurrent CZSH-I and CZSH-II solid solutions, until the total re-partitioning of Ca and Zn into a carbonate solid solution coexisting with amorphous silica at fCO2 > 0.1 bar. Along this solid-phase transition, dissolved Zn(aq) concentrations follow a highly nonlinear trend. The model results predict that at low to moderate Zn loading (< or = 1% per mole Si), CZSH-type compounds can efficiently immobilize Zn in the near field of a cement-stabilized waste repository. PMID:12144269

Kulik, Dmitrii A; Kersten, Michael

2002-07-01

372

SUBSURFACE INJECTION VERSUS SURFACE APPLICATION OF COMPOSTED MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE IN COTTON PRODUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equipment was developed and tested for injection and broadcast application of municipal solid waste (MSW) compost at selected rates to agricultural land for cotton production. Replicated tests were conducted to determine the effects of injected vs. broadcast applied compost on soil parameters (organic matter, soil compaction, and soil fertility) and plant growth. All broadcast application rates of compost significantly reduced

Ahmad Khalilian; Robert Williamson; Mike Sullivan; John Mueller; Francis Wolak

373

State waste discharge permit application for cooling water and condensate discharges  

SciTech Connect

The following presents the Categorical State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) Application for the Cooling Water and Condensate Discharges on the Hanford Site. This application is intended to cover existing cooling water and condensate discharges as well as similar future discharges meeting the criteria set forth in this document.

Haggard, R.D.

1996-08-12

374

Quantification of heavy metals for the recycling of waste plastics from electrotechnical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical data on element concentrations in plastics is an important prerequisite for the recycling of technical waste plastics. The chemical resistance and high additive contents of such materials place a high demand on analytical methods for quantifying elements in thermoplastics from electrotechnical applications. The applicability of three common independent analytical methods (EDXRF, AAS, ICP-AES) for the quantification of heavy metals

Tobias Ernst; Ralf Popp; Rudi van Eldik

2000-01-01

375

Certification Plan, Radioactive Mixed Waste Hazardous Waste Handling Facility  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of radioactive mixed waste (RMW) handled in the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). RMW is low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or transuranic (TRU) waste that is co-contaminated with dangerous waste as defined in the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and the Washington State Dangerous Waste Regulations, 173-303-040 (18). This waste is to be transferred to the Hanford Site Central Waste Complex and Burial Grounds in Hanford, Washington. This plan incorporates the applicable elements of waste reduction, which include both up-front minimization and end-product treatment to reduce the volume and toxicity of the waste; segregation of the waste as it applies to certification; an executive summary of the Waste Management Quality Assurance Implementing Management Plan (QAIMP) for the HWHF (Section 4); and a list of the current and planned implementing procedures used in waste certification.

Albert, R.

1992-06-30

376

Application of the Rotating Flighted Cylinder to Livestock Waste Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The rotating flighted cylinder was tested as both a solid-liquid separator and as a biological waste treatment device. As a solid-liquid separator, it was demonstrated to be effective in removing settleable particles from a dilute slurry and concentrating...

J. R. Miner W. E. Verley

1975-01-01

377

IMPROVED COMBUSTION PROCESSES IN MEDICAL WASTES INCINERATORS FOR RURAL APPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of sustainable development programmes and the problem associated with continued steady increase in population have increased public awareness and concern for the environment. In particular, the demand for health services has increased to an extent that the health sector produces large quantities of biomedical wastes that can have severe impact on the environment if not properly disposed. Although

C. Ketlogetswe; M. T. Oladiran; J. Foster

378

Potential application of ettringite generating systems for hazardous waste stabilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of ettringite generating systems in hazardous waste stabilization processes is studied by means of a mixture of anhydrous calcium sulphoaluminate and anhydrite doped with the nitrates of the six heavy metals Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn and Fe. The study has been carried out by means of differential thermal and X-ray diffraction analyses, infra-red spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy

V. Albino; R. Cioffi; M. Marroccoli; L. Santoro

1996-01-01

379

RCRA Part B Permit Application for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory - Volume 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex  

SciTech Connect

This section of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Part B permit application describes the waste characteristics Of the transuranic (TRU) mixed wastes at the RWMC waste management units to be permitted: the Intermediate-Level Transuranic Storage Facility (ILTSF) and the Waste Storage Facility (WSF). The ILTSF is used to store radioactive remote-handled (RH) wastes. The WSF will be used to store radioactive contact-handled (CH) wastes. The Transuranic Storage Area (TSA) was established at the RWMC to provide interim storage of TRU waste. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A defines TRU waste as waste contaminated with alpha-emitting transuranium radionuclides with half-lives greater than 20 years in concentrations greater than 100 nanocuries per gram (nCi/g) o f waste material. The TSA serves generators both on and off the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The ILTSF is located at the TSA, and the WSF will be located there also. Most of the wastes managed at the TSA are mixed wastes, which are radioactive wastes regulated under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) that also contain hazardous materials regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Idaho Hazardous Waste Management Regulations. These wastes include TRU mixed wastes and some low-level mixed wastes. Accordingly, the TSA is subject to the permitting requirements of RCRA and the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act (IDAPA). Prior to 1982, DOE orders defined TRU wastes as having transuranium radionuclides in concentrations greater than 10 nCi/g, The low-level mixed wastes managed at the TSA are those wastes with 10 to 100 nCi/g of TRU radionuclides that prior to 1982 were considered TRU waste.

Pamela R. Cunningham

1992-07-01

380

Selecting Suitable Sites for Animal Waste Application Using a Raster GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid growth of intensive animal industries in southeast Queensland, Australia, has led to large volumes of animal waste production,\\u000a which posses serious environmental problems in the Murray Darling Basin (MDB). This study presents a method of selecting sites\\u000a for the safe application of animal waste as fertiliser to agricultural land. A site suitability map for the Westbrook subcatchment\\u000a within the

BADRI B. BASNET; ARMANDO A. APAN; STEVEN R. RAINE

2001-01-01

381

Water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications. Volume 1: Final report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive study of advanced water recovery and solid waste processing techniques employed in both aerospace and domestic or commercial applications is reported. A systems approach was used to synthesize a prototype system design of an advanced water treatment/waste processing system. Household water use characteristics were studied and modified through the use of low water use devices and a limited amount of water reuse. This modified household system was then used as a baseline system for development of several water treatment waste processing systems employing advanced techniques. A hybrid of these systems was next developed and a preliminary design was generated to define system and hardware functions.

Murray, R. W.

1973-01-01

382

Survey of agents and techniques applicable to the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

A review of the various solidification agents and techniques that are currently available or potentially applicable for the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes is presented. An overview of the types and quantities of low-level wastes produced is presented. Descriptions of waste form matrix materials, the wastes types for which they have been or may be applied and available information concerning relevant waste form properties and characteristics follow. Also included are descriptions of the processing techniques themselves with an emphasis on those operating parameters which impact upon waste form properties. The solidification agents considered in this survey include: hydraulic cements, thermoplastic materials, thermosetting polymers, glasses, synthetic minerals and composite materials. This survey is part of a program supported by the United States Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program (LLWMP). This work provides input into LLWMP efforts to develop and compile information relevant to the treatment and processing of low-level wastes and their disposal by shallow land burial.

Fuhrmann, M.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Colombo, P.

1981-12-01

383

Monte-Carlo Application for Nondestructive Nuclear Waste Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radioactive waste has to undergo a process of quality checking in order to check its conformance with national regulations prior to its transport, intermediate storage and final disposal. Within the quality checking of radioactive waste packages non-destructive assays are required to characterize their radio-toxic and chemo-toxic contents. The Institute of Energy and Climate Research - Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety of the Forschungszentrum Jülich develops in the framework of cooperation nondestructive analytical techniques for the routine characterization of radioactive waste packages at industrial-scale. During the phase of research and development Monte Carlo techniques are used to simulate the transport of particle, especially photons, electrons and neutrons, through matter and to obtain the response of detection systems. The radiological characterization of low and intermediate level radioactive waste drums is performed by segmented ?-scanning (SGS). To precisely and accurately reconstruct the isotope specific activity content in waste drums by SGS measurement, an innovative method called SGSreco was developed. The Geant4 code was used to simulate the response of the collimated detection system for waste drums with different activity and matrix configurations. These simulations allow a far more detailed optimization, validation and benchmark of SGSreco, since the construction of test drums covering a broad range of activity and matrix properties is time consuming and cost intensive. The MEDINA (Multi Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation) test facility was developed to identify and quantify non-radioactive elements and substances in radioactive waste drums. MEDINA is based on prompt and delayed gamma neutron activation analysis (P&DGNAA) using a 14 MeV neutron generator. MCNP simulations were carried out to study the response of the MEDINA facility in terms of gamma spectra, time dependence of the neutron energy spectrum, neutron flux distribution. The validation of the measurements simulations with Mont-Carlo transport codes for the design, optimization and data analysis of further P&DGNAA facilities is performed in collaboration with LMN CEA Cadarache. The performance of the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) for the nondestructive determination of actinides in small samples is investigated. The quantitative determination of actinides relies on the precise knowledge of partial neutron capture cross sections. Up to today these cross sections are not very accurate for analytical purpose. The goal of the TANDEM (Trans-uranium Actinides' Nuclear Data - Evaluation and Measurement) Collaboration is the evaluation of these cross sections. Cross sections are measured using prompt gamma activation analysis facilities in Budapest and Munich. Geant4 is used to optimally design the detection system with Compton suppression. Furthermore, for the evaluation of the cross sections it is strongly needed to correct the results to the self-attenuation of the prompt gammas within the sample. In the framework of cooperation RWTH Aachen University, Forschungszentrum Jülich and the Siemens AG will study the feasibility of a compact Neutron Imaging System for Radioactive waste Analysis (NISRA). The system is based on a 14 MeV neutron source and an advanced detector system (a-Si flat panel) linked to an exclusive converter/scintillator for fast neutrons. For shielding and radioprotection studies the codes MCNPX and Geant4 were used. The two codes were benchmarked in processing time and accuracy in the neutron and gamma fluxes. Also the detector response was simulated with Geant4 to optimize components of the system.

Carasco, C.; Engels, R.; Frank, M.; Furletov, S.; Furletova, J.; Genreith, C.; Havenith, A.; Kemmerling, G.; Kettler, J.; Krings, T.; Ma, J.-L.; Mauerhofer, E.; Neike, D.; Payan, E.; Perot, B.; Rossbach, M.; Schitthelm, O.; Schumann, M.; Vasquez, R.

2014-06-01

384

Investigation of the application of an enzyme-based biodegradability test method to a municipal solid waste biodrying process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study to evaluate the recently developed enzymatic hydrolysis test (EHT) through its repeated application to a waste treatment process. A single waste treatment facility, involving a biodrying process, has been monitored using three different methods to assess the biodegradable content of the organic waste fractions. These test methods were the anaerobic BMc, aerobic DR4 and the

S. T. Wagland; A. R. Godley; S. F. Tyrrel

2011-01-01

385

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 1, Revision 3  

SciTech Connect

This volume includes the following chapters: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant RCRA A permit application; facility description; waste analysis plan; groundwater monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; RCRA contingency plan; personnel training; corrective action for solid waste management units; and other Federal laws.

Not Available

1993-03-01

386

The application of reused powdered wastes as adsorbent for treating arsenic containing mine drainage.  

PubMed

This study examined the potential reuse of powdered wastes (PW) generated during the sanding and sawing process in a local chemical company in Korea with the viewpoint of the recycling these wastes and minimizing the level of contamination. The PW contained 40-60% aluminum hydroxide and 30-45% matrix resin. As a potential adsorbent, the suitability of thermal treated PW to remove arsenic from synthetic and real wastewater was investigated. As a pretreatment process, the reused adsorbent from PW was calcined at 550 degrees C for 3 hrs in a furnace. The calcination characteristics of PW were examined both quantitatively and qualitatively by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and qualitatively by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The major inorganic composition of the calcined PW (CPW) was aluminum oxide with poor crystallinity. The CPW contained well developed meso-pores (0.143 cm(3) g(-1)) and showed a specific surface area of 234 m(2) g(-1). The pH of the zero point charge (pH(pzc)) of the CPW was determined to be 7.8 by acid-base titration. From the batch adsorption tests, the complete removal of arsenic (up to 20 mg L(-1)) was observed with CPW (2 g) at pH ranging from 3.0 to 8.0. However, there was a significant decrease in arsenate adsorption at higher pH. A kinetics study indicated that the uptake of arsenate followed a second-order rate equation. In the presence of sulfate, the removal of arsenate was increasingly affected by the sulfate concentration. The application of CPW to the removal of 4 different real mine drainages was also carried out. Mine drainage contains a relatively high arsenate concentration as well as sulfate. Whilst the amount of arsenic removed from real mine drainage by CPW was slightly lower than that removed from synthetic wastewater due to competitive sorption by multiple ions, the adsorption of arsenate showed rapid removal within 10 min with good removal efficiency, which meets the national wastewater discharge limits. These results suggest that CPW is a good adsorbent for removing arsenic from synthetic and real mine drainage. PMID:18569325

Park, Youn-Jong; Yang, Jae-Kyu; Choi, Sang-Il

2008-07-15

387

State Waste Discharge Permit application for industrial discharge to land: 200 East Area W-252 streams  

SciTech Connect

This document constitutes the WAC 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit application for six W-252 liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site. Appendices B through H correspond to Section B through H in the permit application form. Within each appendix, sections correspond directly to the respective questions on the application form. The appendices include: Product or service information; Plant operational characteristics; Water consumption and waterloss; Wastewater information; Stormwater; Other information; and Site assessment.

Not Available

1993-12-01

388

A methodology for optimal MSW management, with an application in the waste transportation of Attica Region, Greece.  

PubMed

The paper describes a software system capable of formulating alternative optimal Municipal Solid Wastes (MSWs) management plans, each of which meets a set of constraints that may reflect selected objections and/or wishes of local communities. The objective function to be minimized in each plan is the sum of the annualized capital investment and annual operating cost of all transportation, treatment and final disposal operations involved, taking into consideration the possible income from the sale of products and any other financial incentives or disincentives that may exist. For each plan formulated, the system generates several reports that define the plan, analyze its cost elements and yield an indicative profile of selected types of installations, as well as data files that facilitate the geographic representation of the optimal solution in maps through the use of GIS. A number of these reports compare the technical and economic data from all scenarios considered at the study area, municipality and installation level constituting in effect sensitivity analysis. The generation of alternative plans offers local authorities the opportunity of choice and the results of the sensitivity analysis allow them to choose wisely and with consensus. The paper presents also an application of this software system in the capital Region of Attica in Greece, for the purpose of developing an optimal waste transportation system in line with its approved waste management plan. The formulated plan was able to: (a) serve 113 Municipalities and Communities that generate nearly 2 milliont/y of comingled MSW with distinctly different waste collection patterns, (b) take into consideration several existing waste transfer stations (WTS) and optimize their use within the overall plan, (c) select the most appropriate sites among the potentially suitable (new and in use) ones, (d) generate the optimal profile of each WTS proposed, and (e) perform sensitivity analysis so as to define the impact of selected sets of constraints (limitations in the availability of sites and in the capacity of their installations) on the design and cost of the ensuing optimal waste transfer system. The results show that optimal planning offers significant economic savings to municipalities, while reducing at the same time the present levels of traffic, fuel consumptions and air emissions in the congested Athens basin. PMID:23871734

Economopoulou, M A; Economopoulou, A A; Economopoulos, A P

2013-11-01

389

Waste Collector System Technology Comparisons for Constellation Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Waste Collection Systems (WCS) for space vehicles have utilized a variety of hardware for collecting human metabolic wastes. It has typically required multiple missions to resolve crew usability and hardware performance issues that are difficult to duplicate on the ground. New space vehicles should leverage off past WCS systems. Past WCS hardware designs are substantially different and unique for each vehicle. However, each WCS can be analyzed and compared as a subset of technologies which encompass fecal collection, urine collection, air systems, pretreatment systems. Technology components from the WCS of various vehicles can then be combined to reduce hardware mass and volume while maximizing use of previous technology and proven human-equipment interfaces. Analysis of past US and Russian WCS are compared and extrapolated to Constellation missions.

Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

2006-01-01

390

Application of integrated methods in mapping waste disposal areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated suite of environmental methods was used to characterize the hydrogeological, geological and tectonic regime of the largest waste disposal landfill of Crete Island, the Fodele municipal solid waste site (MSW), to determine the geometry of the landfill (depth and spatial extent of electrically conductive anomalies), to define the anisotropy caused by bedrock fabric fractures and to locate potential zones of electrically conductive contamination. A combination of geophysical methods and chemical analysis was implemented for the characterization and management of the landfill. Five different types of geophysical surveys were performed: (1) 2D electrical resistance tomography (ERT), (2) electromagnetic measurements using very low frequencies (VLF), (3) electromagnetic conductivity (EM31), (4) seismic refraction measurements (SR), and (5) ambient noise measurements (HVSR). The above geophysical methods were used with the aim of studying the subsurface properties of the landfill and to define the exact geometrical characteristics of the site under investigation.

Soupios, Pantelis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Papadopoulos, Ilias; Kouli, Maria; Vallianatos, Filippos; Sarris, Apostolos; Manios, Thrassyvoulos

2007-11-01

391

Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a research and development facility for the demonstration of the permanent isolation of transuranic radioactive wastes in a geologic formation. The facility was constructed in southeastern New Mexico in a manner intended to meet criteria established by the scientific and regulatory community for the safe, long-term disposal of transuranic wastes. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing an application to demonstrate compliance with the requirements outlined in Title 40, Part 191 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) for the permanent disposal of transuranic wastes. As mandated by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Land Withdrawal Act of 1992, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must evaluate this compliance application and provide a determination regarding compliance with the requirements within one year of receiving a complete application. Because the WIPP is a very complex program, the DOE has planned to submit the application as a draft in two parts. This strategy will allow for the DOE and the EPA to begin technical discussions on critical WIPP issues before the one-year compliance determination period begins. This report is the first of these two draft submittals.

NONE

1995-03-31

392

Imaging data analyses for hazardous waste applications. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents some examples of the use of remote sensing products for characterization of hazardous waste sites. The sites are located at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) where materials associated with past weapons testing are buried. Problems of interest include delineation of strata for soil sampling, detection and delineation of buried trenches containing contaminants, seepage from capped areas and old septic drain fields, and location of faults and fractures relative to hazardous waste areas. Merging of site map and other geographic information with imagery was found by site managers to produce useful products. Merging of hydrographic and soil contaminant data aided soil sampling strategists. Overlays of suspected trench on multispectral and thermal images showed correlation between image signatures and trenches. Overlays of engineering drawings on recent and historical photos showed error in trench location and extent. A thermal image showed warm anomalies suspected to be areas of water seepage through an asphalt cap. Overlays of engineering drawings on multispectral and thermal images showed correlation between image signatures and drain fields. Analysis of aerial photography and spectral signatures of faults/fractures improved geologic maps of mixed waste areas.

David, N.; Ginsberg, I.W.

1995-12-01

393

Equilibrium modeling of gasification: Gibbs free energy minimization approach and its application to spouted bed and spout-fluid bed gasifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spouted beds have been found in many applications, one of which is gasification. In this paper, the gasification processes of conventional and modified spouted bed gasifiers were considered. The conventional spouted bed is a central jet spouted bed, while the modified spouted beds are circular split spouted bed and spout-fluid bed. The Gibbs free energy minimization method was used to

S. Jarungthammachote; A. Dutta

2008-01-01

394

Use of a state-of-the-art model in generic designs of shallow land repositories for low-level wastes. [Code creams  

SciTech Connect

A state of the art model is described for simulating hydrologic and soil erosion processes at shallow land waste disposal sites. Applications of the model in waste site selection and in the management of waste disposal sites are discussed relative to minimizing soil erosion of trench caps and percolation of soil water through trench caps into underlying buried wastes.

Nyhan, J.W.; Lane, L.J.

1982-01-01

395

Survey of systems safety analysis methods and their application to nuclear waste management systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report reviews system safety analysis methods and examines their application to nuclear waste management systems. The safety analysis methods examined include expert opinion, maximum credible accident approach, design basis accidents approach, hazard indices, preliminary hazards analysis, failure modes and effects analysis, fault trees, event trees, cause consequence diagrams, GO methodology, Markov modeling, and a general category of consequence analysis models. Previous and ongoing studies on the safety of waste management systems are discussed along with their limitations and potential improvements. The major safety methods and waste management safety related studies are surveyed. This survey provides information on what safety methods are available, what waste management safety areas have been analyzed, and what are potential areas for future study.

Pelto, P. J.; Winegardner, W. K.; Gallucci, R. H. V.

1981-11-01

396

Survey of systems safety analysis methods and their application to nuclear waste management systems  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews system safety analysis methods and examines their application to nuclear waste management systems. The safety analysis methods examined include expert opinion, maximum credible accident approach, design basis accidents approach, hazard indices, preliminary hazards analysis, failure modes and effects analysis, fault trees, event trees, cause-consequence diagrams, G0 methodology, Markov modeling, and a general category of consequence analysis models. Previous and ongoing studies on the safety of waste management systems are discussed along with their limitations and potential improvements. The major safety methods and waste management safety related studies are surveyed. This survey provides information on what safety methods are available, what waste management safety areas have been analyzed, and what are potential areas for future study.

Pelto, P.J.; Winegardner, W.K.; Gallucci, R.H.V.

1981-11-01

397

Citizens guide to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Compliance Certification Application to the EPA  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has submitted an application to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for a certificate showing that the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) complies with strict environmental regulations designed to safeguard humans and the environment for at least 10,000 years. Congress gave the EPA authority to regulate the WIPP site for disposal of transuranic waste under the 1992 WIPP Land Withdrawal Act. The EPA has one year to review the Compliance Certification Application (CCA) before determining whether the DOE has successfully documented the WIPP`s compliance with federal environmental standards. The application presents the conclusions of more than 20 years of scientific and engineering work specifically dedicated to disposal of transuranic waste at the WIPP. The application thoroughly documents how the natural characteristics of the WIPP site, along with engineered features, comply with the regulations. In the application, the DOE responds fully to the federal standards and to the EPA`s certification criteria. This Citizens` Guide provides an overview of the CCA and its role in moving toward final disposal of transuranic waste.

NONE

1996-11-01

398

DEVELOPMENT OF A ROTARY MICROFILTER FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The processing rate of Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste decontamination processes are limited by the flow rate of the solid-liquid separation. The baseline process, using a 0.1 micron cross-flow filter, produces {approx}0.02 gpm/sq. ft. of filtrate under expected operating conditions. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) demonstrated significantly higher filter flux for actual waste samples using a small-scale rotary filter. With funding from the U. S. Department of Energy Office of Cleanup Technology, SRNL personnel are evaluating and developing the rotary microfilter for radioactive service at SRS. The authors improved the design for the disks and filter unit to make them suitable for high-level radioactive service. They procured two units using the new design, tested them with simulated SRS wastes, and evaluated the operation of the units. Work to date provides the following conclusions and program status: (1) The authors modified the design of the filter disks to remove epoxy and Ryton{reg_sign}. The new design includes welding both stainless steel and ceramic coated stainless steel filter media to a stainless steel support plate. The welded disks were tested in the full-scale unit. They showed good reliability and met filtrate quality requirements. (2) The authors modified the design of the unit, making installation and removal easier. The new design uses a modular, one-piece filter stack that is removed simply by disassembly of a flange on the upper (inlet) side of the filter housing. All seals and rotary unions are contained within the removable stack. (3) While it is extremely difficult to predict the life of the seal, the vendor representative indicates a minimum of one year in present service conditions is reasonable. Changing the seal face material from silicon-carbide to a graphite-impregnated silicon-carbide is expected to double the life of the seal. Replacement of the current seal with an air seal could increase the lifetime to 5 years and is undergoing testing in the current work. (4) The bottom bushing showed wear due to a misalignment during the manufacture of the filter tank. Replacing the graphite bushing with a more wear resistant material such as a carbide material will increase the lifetime of the bushing. This replacement requires a more wear resistant part or coating to prevent excessive wear of the shaft. The authors are currently conducting testing with the more wear resistant bushing. (5) The project team plans to use the rotary microfilter as a filter in advance of an ion exchange process under development for potential deployment in SRS waste tank risers.

Poirier, M; David Herman, D; Samuel Fink, S

2008-02-25

399

Third world applications of pyrolysis of agricultural and forestry wastes  

SciTech Connect

The development of an appropriate technology for the conversion of agricultural and wood wastes into fuels in underdeveloped nations is discussed. Low temperature pyrolysis offers a promising means of conversion since the char and oil products are storable and easily transportable. The steady-flow, vertical packed bed, partial oxidation pyrolysis process is described and the appropriate technology pyrolytic converter basic design concept is presented. The current status of program in the US and in Papua New Guinea is described. The operation, test results, and economics of the converter are discussed.

Tatom, J.W. (J.W. Tatom, Smyrna, GA); Wellborn, H.W.; Harahap, F.; Sasmojo, S.

1980-01-01

400

Sorption on eggshell waste--a review on ultrastructure, biomineralization and other applications.  

PubMed

The structure, adsorption behavior and applications of eggshell waste materials have been reviewed. The ultrastructure of eggshell particles has been discussed to understand the pore structure as well as the surface geometry of the materials leading to its multifarious applicability. Besides, the ultrastructure studies give full information regarding the chemical constituents of egghell particles as well as eggshell membranes. The process of biomineralization in living organisms, their consequent effect of controlling the formation of inorganic-organic composites propelling their application in biomimetic designing of advanced composites with optimized novel properties leading to advances in materials design have been discussed. Utilization of eggshell waste materials for the removal of organic dyes and heavy inorganic ions has been reviewed with suitable models for understanding their adsorption quality and capacity. The applications of these materials in various fields of research have been extensively discussed. PMID:24456801

Guru, Partha Sarathi; Dash, Sukalyan

2014-07-01

401

Agent-based simulation of complex systems: application to collective management of animal wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the utilization of the multi-agent platform Geamas through the Biomas application for the collective management of animal wastes. The complexity of the scenarios under study gives rise to many unpredictable behavioral schemas whose analyses necessitate a simulation approach. In the present article we describe the whole set of concepts in use in multi-agent systems modeling and we

Rémy Courdier; François Guerrin; Fenintsoa Andriamasinoro; Jean-marie Paillat

2002-01-01

402

APPLICATION OF LOW NOX PRECOMBUSTOR TECHNOLOGY TO THE INCINERATION OF NITROGENATED WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of an evaluation of a 0.6 precombustion chamber burner/package boiler simulator, designed for in-furnace NOx control and high combustion efficiency, for high nitrogen content fuel combustion/waste incineration application. The 250-750 ms residence time pre...

403

APPLICATION OF STAGED COMBUSTION AND REBURNING TO THE CO-FIRING OF NITROGEN-CONTAINING WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of an evaluation of a 0.6 MW precombustion chamber burner, designed for in-furnace NOx control, high combustion efficiency, and retrofit applications, for use with high nitrogen content fuel/waste mixtures. he 250- to 750- ms residence time precombustion c...

404

Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Climate and Wastewater Storage - Module 8, Objectives, and Script.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module discusses the hydrologic considerations that apply to land application of wastes. These are precipitation, infiltration and percolation, evapotranspiration, runoff, and groundwater. Climatic considerations that relate to wastewater storage are also discussed. Particular emphasis is given to wastewater flow, precipitation, evaporation,…

Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

405

Development and application of a radioactivity characterization system for low-level radioactive waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-level technological radioactive wastes, in Spain, are commonly produced in research and medical centers. These wastes must be characterized before conditioning in order to determine their radioactive content for inventory purposes. A prototype has been designed for beta-gamma radiological characterization of standardized 25 l bags containing heterogeneous low-density technological radioactive wastes within the density range 0.05-0.6 g/cm 3. The system consists of an iron shielding box with three NaI(Tl) and a silicon implanted detectors for gamma and gross beta activity determinations, respectively. The study of the measurement method, carried out with rotating scanning, included the optimization of the detection solid angle to minimize the uncertainties and the influence of the relative position of the radioactive material. Several materials and densities, in the range aforementioned, were considered to obtain the experimental attenuation factors, used for fitting a correction algorithm in function of density and ?-emission energy. The sensitivity of this method, calculated for the most frequent average density of this kind of waste (0.1 g/cm 3), is lower than 50 Bq/kg for the main ?- ? emitters ( 137Cs and 60Co) and lower than 480 Bq/kg for gross beta activity.

Espartero, A. G.; Piña, G.; Suárez, J. A.

1999-02-01

406

Potential Applications of Insolubilized Enzymes in Waste Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief literature survey establishes the potential for using covalently insolubilized depolymerases to hydrolyze particulate feed streams. The potential for application of such doubly particulate reactor systems (particulate substrate and particulate cat...

D. F. Ollis

1973-01-01

407

Potential benefit of fibre optics in nuclear applications: the case of decommissioning and waste storage activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fiber optics is now widely used for data communication, sensing and vision applications. In the nuclear industry, however, its use is still quite limited. This paper reviews two particular areas where the optical fibers could bring substantial advantages: the decommissioning of shut- down nuclear installations, and the long term storage of nuclear waste. It summarizes some expected potential benefits, but points out also the challenges to be met for wider applications of fiber optics in a nuclear environment.

Decreton, Marc C.; Massaut, V.; Borgermans, Paul

1994-12-01

408

Compaction of Space Mission Wastes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current solid waste management system employed on the International Space Station (ISS) consists of compaction, storage, and disposal. Wastes such plastic food packaging and trash are compacted manually and wrapped in duct tape footballs by the astronauts. Much of the waste is simply loaded either into the empty Russian Progress vehicle for destruction on reentry or into Shuttle for return to Earth. This manual method is wasteful of crew time and does not transition well to far term missions. Different wastes onboard spacecraft vary considerably in their characteristics and in the appropriate method of management. In advanced life support systems for far term missions, recovery of resources such as water from the wastes becomes important. However waste such as plastic food packaging, which constitutes a large fraction of solid waste (roughly 21% on ISS, more on long duration missions), contains minimal recoverable resource. The appropriate management of plastic waste is waste stabilization and volume minimization rather than resource recovery. This paper describes work that has begun at Ames Research Center on development of a heat melt compactor that can be used on near term and future missions, that can minimize crew interaction, and that can handle wastes with a significant plastic composition. The heat melt compactor takes advantage of the low melting point of plastics to compact plastic materials using a combination of heat and pressure. The US Navy has demonstrated successful development of a similar unit for shipboard application. Ames is building upon the basic approach demonstrated by the Navy to develop an advanced heat melt type compactor for space mission type wastes.

Fisher, John; Pisharody, Suresh; Wignarajah, K.

2004-01-01

409

National Institutes of Health: Mixed waste stream analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 requires that the US Department of Energy (DOE) provide technical assistance to host States, compact regions, and unaffiliated States to fulfill their responsibilities under the Act. The National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) operated for DOE by EG&G Idaho, Inc. provides technical assistance in the development of new commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal capacity. The NLLWMP has been requested by the Appalachian Compact to help the biomedical community become better acquainted with its mixed waste streams, to help minimize the mixed waste streams generated by the biomedical community, and to provide applicable treatment technologies to those particular mixed waste streams. Mixed waste is waste that satisfies the definition of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (LLRWPA) and contains hazardous waste that either (a) is listed as a hazardous waste in Subpart D of 40 CFR 261, or (b) causes the LLW to exhibit any of the hazardous waste characteristics identified in 40 CFR 261. The purpose of this report is to clearly define and characterize the mixed waste streams generated by the biomedical community so that an identification can be made of the waste streams that can and cannot be minimized and treated by current options. An understanding of the processes and complexities of generation of mixed waste in the biomedical community may encourage more treatment and storage options to become available.

Kirner, N.P.; Faison, G.P.; Johnson, D.R.

1994-08-01

410

Potential Application Of Radionuclide Scaling Factors To High Level Waste Characterization  

SciTech Connect

Production sources, radiological properties, relative solubilities in waste, and laboratory analysis techniques for the forty-five radionuclides identified in Hanford?s Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Feed Acceptance Data Quality Objectives (DQO) document are addressed in this report. Based on Savannah River Site (SRS) experience and waste characteristics, thirteen of the radionuclides are judged to be candidates for potential scaling in High Level Waste (HLW) based on the concentrations of other radionuclides as determined through laboratory measurements. The thirteen radionuclides conducive to potential scaling are: Ni-59, Zr-93, Nb-93m, Cd-113m, Sn-121m, Sn-126, Cs-135, Sm-151, Ra-226, Ra-228, Ac-227, Pa-231, and Th-229. The ability to scale radionuclides is useful from two primary perspectives: 1) it provides a means of checking the radionuclide concentrations that have been determined by laboratory analysis; and 2) it provides a means of estimating radionuclide concentrations in the absence of a laboratory analysis technique or when a complex laboratory analysis technique fails. Along with the rationale for identifying and applying the potential scaling factors, this report also provides examples of using the scaling factors to estimate concentrations of radionuclides in current SRS waste and into the future. Also included in the report are examples of independent laboratory analysis techniques that can be used to check results of key radionuclide analyses. Effective utilization of radionuclide scaling factors requires understanding of the applicable production sources and the chemistry of the waste. As such, the potential scaling approaches identified in this report should be assessed from the perspective of the Hanford waste before reaching a decision regarding WTP applicability.

Reboul, S. H.

2013-09-30

411

Minimal Reduplication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation introduces Minimal Reduplication, a new theory and framework within generative grammar for analyzing reduplication in human language. I argue that reduplication is an emergent property in multiple components of the grammar. In particular, reduplication occurs independently in the phonology and syntax components, and in both cases…

Kirchner, Jesse Saba

2010-01-01

412

Microwave Technology for Waste Management Applications Including Disposition of Electronic Circuitry  

SciTech Connect

Advanced microwave technology is being developed nationally and internationally for a variety of waste management and environmental remediation purposes. These efforts include treatment and destruction of a vast array of gaseous, liquid and solid hazardous wastes as well as subsequent immobilization of hazardous components into leach resistant forms. Microwave technology provides an important contribution to an arsenal of existing remediation methods that are designed to protect the public and environment from the undesirable consequences of hazardous materials. One application of special interest is the treatment of discarded electronic circuitry using a new hybrid microwave treatment process and subsequent reclamation of the precious metals within.

Wicks, G.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Clark, D.E. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Schulz, R.L. [University of Flordia, Gainesville, FL (United States)

1998-06-01

413

Modelling biogas production of solid waste: application of the BGP model to a synthetic landfill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Production of biogas as a result of the decomposition of organic matter included on solid waste landfills is still an issue to be understood. Reports on this matter are rarely included on the engineering construction projects of solid waste landfills despite it can be an issue of critical importance while operating the landfill and after its closure. This paper presents an application of BGP (Bio-Gas-Production) model to a synthetic landfill. The evolution in time of the concentrations of the different chemical compounds of biogas is studied. Results obtained show the impact on the air quality of different management alternatives which are usually performed in real landfills.

Rodrigo-Ilarri, Javier; Segura-Sobrino, Francisco

2013-04-01

414

Minimal models and agroecological policy at the regional scale: An application to salinity problems in southeastern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A “minimal” dynamical systems model that couples agricultural activity, native vegetation, and hydrological processes is developed to explore policy options regarding regional-scale soil and water salinization in southeastern Australia. The analysis suggests that although considerable revegetation is required to restore catchment water balance, the current value of water in uses other than agriculture is too low for revegetation to be

John M. Anderies

2005-01-01

415

Empirical minimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the behavior of the empirical minimization algorithm using various methods. We first analyze it by comparing\\u000a the empirical, random, structure and the original one on the class, either in an additive sense, via the uniform law of large\\u000a numbers, or in a multiplicative sense, using isomorphic coordinate projections. We then show that a direct analysis of the\\u000a empirical

Peter L. Bartlett; Shahar Mendelson

2006-01-01

416

A concept to combine DOE waste minimization goals with commercial utility needs for a universal container system for spent nuclear fuel storage, transportation, and disposal  

SciTech Connect

Two major initiatives are underway in the US that are creating a significant financial impact on both the US taxpayer and on users of electric power. First, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been tasked with cleaning-up the defense complex. This task is managed under the direction of the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) of the DOE. The waste that EM must address includes radioactive, hazardous, and mixed that consists of both radioactive and hazardous constituents. Second, the DOE is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) to take title to commercial nuclear spent fuel assemblies starting in 1998. The DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) was established to carry out this charter. Since a final repository is not scheduled for opening until 2010 at the earliest, the DOE is planning on providing a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility for centralized storage to bridge the time gap between 1998 and 2010. The NWPA requires that nuclear utilities pay a fee into a specific fund that Congress uses to pay the DOE for the development of the MRS, the transportation system, and the repository. This fund, along with the EM budget, constitutes a multi-billion dollar effort to manage DOE nuclear waste and to store and dispose of commercial spent nuclear fuel. These two seemingly unrelated problems have aspects of commonality that can be considered for the benefit of both programs, the US taxpayer, and the utility rate payer. Both programs are the responsibility of the DOE, and both will require engineered packages for storage, transportation, and disposal of the EM waste and commercial spent fuel. Rather than using specialized systems for each step (storage, transport, and disposal), a concept for a Universal Container System has been developed that could potentially simplify the overall waste management system, reduce expensive handling operations, and reduce total system cost.

Falci, F.P. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Sorenson, K.B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Smith, M.L. [Virginia Power Co., Glen Allen, VA (United States) Nuclear Analysis and Fuel

1992-12-31

417

Advanced oxidation and reduction processes: Closed-loop applications for mixed waste  

SciTech Connect

At Los Alamos we are engaged in applying innovative oxidation and reduction technologies to the destruction of hazardous organics. Non thermal plasmas and relativistic electron-beams both involve the generation of free radicals and are applicable to a wide variety of mixed waste as closed-loop designs can be easily engineered. Silent discharge plasmas (SDP), long used for the generation of ozone, have been demonstrated in the laboratory to be effective in destroying hazardous organic compounds and offer an altemative to existing post-incineration and off-gas treatments. SDP generates very energetic electrons which efficiently create reactive free radicals, without adding the enthalpy associated with very high gas temperatures. A SDP cell has been used as a second stage to a LANL designed, packed-bed reactor (PBR) and has demonstrated DREs as high as 99.9999% for a variety of combustible liquid and gas-based waste streams containing scintillation fluids, nitrates, PCB surrogates, and both chlorinated and fluorinated solvents. Radiolytic treatment of waste using electron-beams and/or bremsstrahlung can be applied to a wide range of waste media (liquids, sludges, and solids). The efficacy and economy of these systems has been demonstrated for aqueous waste through both laboratory and pilot scale studies. We win present recent experimental and theoretical results for systems using stand alone SDP, combined PBR/SDP, and electron-beam treatment methods.

Coogan, J.J.; Tennant, R.A.; Rosocha, L.A.; Wantuck, P.J.

1993-01-01

418

Advanced oxidation and reduction processes: Closed-loop applications for mixed waste  

SciTech Connect

At Los Alamos we are engaged in applying innovative oxidation and reduction technologies to the destruction of hazardous organics. Non thermal plasmas and relativistic electron-beams both involve the generation of free radicals and are applicable to a wide variety of mixed waste as closed-loop designs can be easily engineered. Silent discharge plasmas (SDP), long used for the generation of ozone, have been demonstrated in the laboratory to be effective in destroying hazardous organic compounds and offer an altemative to existing post-incineration and off-gas treatments. SDP generates very energetic electrons which efficiently create reactive free radicals, without adding the enthalpy associated with very high gas temperatures. A SDP cell has been used as a second stage to a LANL designed, packed-bed reactor (PBR) and has demonstrated DREs as high as 99.9999% for a variety of combustible liquid and gas-based waste streams containing scintillation fluids, nitrates, PCB surrogates, and both chlorinated and fluorinated solvents. Radiolytic treatment of waste using electron-beams and/or bremsstrahlung can be applied to a wide range of waste media (liquids, sludges, and solids). The efficacy and economy of these systems has been demonstrated for aqueous waste through both laboratory and pilot scale studies. We win present recent experimental and theoretical results for systems using stand alone SDP, combined PBR/SDP, and electron-beam treatment methods.

Coogan, J.J.; Tennant, R.A.; Rosocha, L.A.; Wantuck, P.J.

1993-05-01

419

Application of geometry correction factors for low-level waste package dose measurements. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

Plans are to determine the Cs-137 content of low-level waste packages generated in High-Level Waste by measuring the radiation level at a specified distance from the package with a hand-held radiation instrument. The measurement taken at this specified distance, either 3 or 5 feet, is called the far-field measurement. This report documents a method for adjusting the gamma exposure rate (mR/hr) reading used in dose-to-curie determinations when the far-field measurement equals the background reading. This adjustment is necessary to reduce the conservatism resulting from using a minimum detection limit exposure rate for the dose-to-curie determination for the far-field measurement position. To accomplish this adjustment, the near-field (5 cm) measurement is multiplied by a geometry correction factor to obtain an estimate of the far field exposure rate (which is below instrument sensitivity). This estimate of the far field exposure rate is used to estimate the Cs-137 curie content of the package. This report establishes the geometry correction factors for the dose-to-curie determination when the far-field gamma exposure measurement equals the background reading. This report also provides a means of demonstrating compliance to 1S Manual requirements for exposure rate readings at different locations from waste packages while specifying only two measurement positions. This demonstration of compliance is necessary to minimize the number of locations exposure rate measurements that are required, i.e., ALARA.

Chandler, M.C.; Parish, B.

1995-01-05

420

Lyophilization -Solid Waste Treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the development of a solid waste treatment system that has been designed for a Mars transit exploration mission. The technology described is an energy-efficient lyophilization technique that is designed to recover water from spacecraft solid wastes. Candidate wastes include feces, concentrated brines from water processors, and other solid wastes that contain free water. The system is designed to operate as a stand-alone process or to be integrated into the International Space Station Waste Collection System. In the lyophilization process, water in an aqueous waste is frozen and then sublimed, separating the waste into a dried solid material and liquid water. The sublimed water is then condensed in a solid ice phase and then melted to generate a liquid product. In the subject system the waste solids are contained within a 0.2 micron bio-guard bag and after drying are removed from the system and stored in a secondary container. This technology is ideally suited to applications such as the Mars Reference Mission, where water recovery rates approaching 100% are desirable but production of CO2 is not. The system is designed to minimize power consumption through the use of thermoelectric heat pumps. The results of preliminary testing of a prototype system and testing of the final configuration are provided. A mathematical model of the system is also described.

Litwiller, Eric; Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Reinhard, Martin

2004-01-01

421

An assessment of waste processing/resource recovery technologies for lunar/Mars life applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's future manned missions to explore the solar system are by nature of long duration, mandating extensive regeneration of life support consumables from wastes generated in space-based habitats. Long-duration exploration missions would otherwise be prohibitive due to the number and frequency of energy-intensive resupply missions from Earth. Resource recovery is therefore a critical component of the controlled ecological life support system (CELSS). In order to assess resource recovery technologies for CELSS applications, the Crew and Thermal Systems Division at NASA-Johnson Space Center convened a three-day workshop to assess potential resource recovery technologies for application in a space-based CELSS. This paper describes the methodology of assessing and ranking of these technologies. Recommendations and issues are identified. Evaluations focused on the processes for handling and treatment of inedible plant biomass, human waste, and human generated trash. Technologies were assessed on the basis of safety, reliability, technology readiness, and performance characteristics.

Verostko, Charles E.; Packham, Nigel J. C.; Henninger, Donald H.

1992-01-01

422

WASTE OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: A PHOTOFINISHING FACILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

A waste minimization opportunity assessment was performed which identified areas for waste reduction at a photofinishing facility. The study followed procedures in the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual. The report identifies potential options to achieve further...

423

Applicability of Activated Carbon to Treatment of Waste Containing Iodine-Labeled Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A timber industry waste was transformed to activated carbon by a one-step chemical activation process using H3PO4 (H). The used activated carbon (SDH) was characterized by N2 adsorption, FTIR, density, pH, point of zero charge pHpzc, moisture and ash content. Methylene blue (MB) and the iodine number were calculated by adsorption from the solution. The applicability of the different activated

H. M. H. Gad; N. R. A. El-Mouhty; H. F. Aly

2009-01-01

424

Application of Extraction Chromatography to the Recovery of Neptunium, Plutonium and Americium from an Industrial Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot scale investigation was made to evaluate the possible application of the extraction Chromatographie method (LLC) to the partitioning of alpha emitters from liquid wastes containing traces of transuranium elements. A secondary purpose was to obtain pure AmO2, which is used to produce alpha, gamma, and neutron sources.The process developed for “alpha partitioning” consists essentially of the extraction of

C. Madic; C. Kertesz; R. Sontag; G. Koehly

1980-01-01

425

Microwave applicator for in-drum processing of radioactive waste slurry  

DOEpatents

A microwave applicator for processing of radioactive waste slurry uses a waveguide network which splits an input microwave of TE[sub 10] rectangular mode to TE[sub 01] circular mode. A cylindrical body has four openings, each receiving 1/4 of the power input. The waveguide network includes a plurality of splitters to effect the 1/4 divisions of power. 4 figures.

White, T.L.

1994-06-28

426

Application of staged combustion and reburning to the co-firing of nitrogen-containing wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 0.6 MW (2,000,000 Btu\\/hr) precombustion chamber burner, designed for in-furnace nitrogen oxide (NOâ) control, high combustion efficiency, and retrofit applications was evaluated for use with high nitrogen content fuel\\/waste mixtures. The 250- to 750-ms residence time precombustion chamber burner mounted on a prototype watertube package boiler simulator used air staging and in-furnace natural gas reburning to control NOâ emissions.

W. P. Linak; J. A. Mulholland; J. A. McSorley; R. E. Hall; J. Lewtas; D. M. DeMarini; R. K. Srivastava; J. V. Ryan; M. G. Nishioka

2009-01-01

427

Application of staged combustion and reburning to the co-firing of nitrogen-containing wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper gives results of an evaluation of a 0.6 MW precombustion chamber burner, designed for in-furnace NOx control, high combustion efficiency, and retrofit applications, for use with high nitrogen content fuel\\/waste mixtures. The 250- to 750-ms residence time precombustion chamber burner mounted on a prototype watertube package boiler simulator used air staging and in-furnace natural gas reburning to control

W. P. Linak; J. A. Mulholland; J. A. McSorley; R. E. Hall; R. K. Srivastava

1991-01-01

428

Treatability study of absorbent polymer waste form for mixed waste treatment  

SciTech Connect

A treatability study was performed to develop and characterize an absorbent polymer waste form for application to low level (LLW) and mixed low level (MLLW) aqueous wastes at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W). In this study absorbent polymers proved effective at immobilizing aqueous liquid wastes in order to meet Land Disposal Restrictions for subsurface waste disposal. Treatment of aqueous waste with absorbent polymers provides an alternative to liquid waste solidification via high-shear mixing with clays and cements. Significant advantages of absorbent polymer use over clays and cements include ease of operations and waste volume minimization. Absorbent polymers do not require high-shear mixing as do clays and cements. Granulated absorbent polymer is poured into aqueous solutions and forms a gel which passes the paint filter test as a non-liquid. Pouring versus mixing of a solidification agent not only eliminates the need for a mixing station, but also lessens exposure to personnel and the potential for spread of contamination from treatment of radioactive wastes. Waste minimization is achieved as significantly less mass addition and volume increase is required of and results from absorbent polymer use than that of clays and cements. Operational ease and waste minimization translate into overall cost savings for LLW and MLLW treatment.

Herrmann, S. D.; Lehto, M. A.; Stewart, N. A.; Croft, A. D.; Kern, P. W.

2000-02-10

429

SYSTEMS ENGINEERING THE DESIGN AND OPERATION OF MUNICIP AL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS TO MINIMIZE CONTAMINATION OF GROUNDWATER 2009 ZENG GOU-XI LECTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the need to adopt a systems engineering approach to the design and operation of municipal solid waste landfills. It discusses how the interaction between the different components affects the performance of the entire system and how, due to this interaction, the performance of the system as a whole is much greater than the individual contributions of each

R. Kerry Rowe

430

Strain Related Radiation Damage Measurements in Rock Salt for Waste Disposal Applications. Quarterly Report, April 1, 1979-June 30, 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Radiation damage in natural rock salt, synthetic NaCl crystals, and other minerals of interest for radioactive waste disposal application was studied. The following topics were covered: (1) temperature dependence of radiation induced F-center formation in...

K. J. Swyler L. J. Teutonico P. W. Levy

1979-01-01

431

77 FR 62537 - Notice of Waste Management Permit Application Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...citizens and entities to obtain a permit for the use or release of a designated pollutant in Antarctica, and for the release of waste in Antarctica. NSF has received a permit application under this Regulation for [[Page 62538

2012-10-15

432

Minimal trinification  

SciTech Connect

We study the trinified model, SU(3){sub C}xSU(3){sub L}xSU(3){sub R}xZ{sub 3}, with the minimal Higgs sector required for symmetry breaking. There are five Higgs doublets, and gauge-coupling unification results if all five are at the weak scale, without supersymmetry. The radiative seesaw mechanism yields sub-eV neutrino masses, without the need for intermediate scales, additional Higgs fields, or higher-dimensional operators. The proton lifetime is above the experimental limits, with the decay modes p{yields}{nu}K{sup +} and p{yields}{mu}{sup +}K{sup 0} potentially observable. We also consider supersymmetric versions of the model, with one or two Higgs doublets at the weak scale. The radiative seesaw mechanism fails with weak-scale supersymmetry due to the nonrenormalization of the superpotential, but operates in the split-SUSY scenario.

Sayre, J.; Wiesenfeldt, S.; Willenbrock, S. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

2006-02-01

433

WITS - WASTE DATA COLLECTION WITH OUR PALMS AT OUR FINGERTIPS  

SciTech Connect

The waste management and environmental compliance group (NMT-7) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has initiated a project to build a computer-based system for tracking inventory, storage and disposal information for hazardous and radioactive waste and contaminated byproducts. This project, the Waste Inventory Tracking System (WITS), will initially be used in TA-55 (which includes the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility) and the Chemical and Metallurgy Research (CMR) building where wastes are generated. The system handles numerous waste types with variation in size, disposal method, and hazard classification including: low level waste such as room trash (compactable waste), SEG waste (non-compactable), and over-sized waste, mixed waste, hazardous and chemical waste, universal waste, and waste containing asbestos and PCB's. WITS is designed to provide up-to-date location, status, content information, radioactivity analyses, and other inventory information for every waste item and container managed by NMT-7. The system will support comprehensive reporting capabilities and cradle-to-grave audit trails. WITS is intended to facilitate handling of waste by NMT-7 staff to help minimize waste disposal costs, ensure compliance with applicable regulations, and standardize waste management methodologies and practices. This paper compares current management practices with revised methodologies supported by WITS. It shows how automating inventory tracking helps achieve these goals.

B. MARTINEZ

2000-11-01

434

An image-intensive ePR for image-guided minimally invasive spine surgery applications including real-time intra-operative image acquisition, archival, and display  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments in medical imaging informatics have improved clinical workflow in Radiology enterprise but gaps remain in the clinical workflow from diagnosis to surgical treatment through post-operative follow-up. One solution to bridge this gap is the development of an electronic patient record (ePR) that integrates key imaging and informatics data during the pre, intra, and post-operative phases of clinical workflow. We present an ePR system based on standards and tailored to the clinical application for image-guided minimally invasive spinal surgery (MISS). The ePR system has been implemented in a clinical environment for a half-year.

Documet, Jorge R.; Le, Anh; Liu, Brent; Huang, H. K.; Chiu, John

2009-02-01

435

Assessment of physiological state of microorganisms in activated sludge with flow cytometry: application for monitoring sludge production minimization.  

PubMed

Many sludge reduction processes have been studied for the minimization of sludge production in biological wastewater treatment. The investigations on most of these processes have monitored the increase of the soluble chemical oxygen demand, the sludge mass reduction, or the decrease of the floc size, but little information has been obtained on cell lysis and the change of the biological cell activity. However, employing any strategy for reducing sludge production may have an impact of microbial community in biological wastewater treatment process. This impact may influence the sludge characteristics and the quality of effluent. The objective of this study concerns the determination of the physiological state of activated sludge microorganisms during a sludge minimization process. A thermal treatment at 80 degrees C for 5, 20, 40 and 60 min was chosen in this study. Staining bacteria with CTC and SYTOX green was used to evaluate biological cell activity and viability of cell types contained in activated sludge, respectively. The monitoring of cell activity and viability was performed using flow cytometry (FCM) analysis before and after thermal treatment of activated sludge. Results indicated an increase in the number of permeabilized cells and a decrease in the number of active cells, subsequent to the thermal treatment. The study also confirms the potential of FCM to successfully evaluate the physiological heterogeneity of an activated sludge bacterial population. Moreover, the experimentally observed correlations between the FCM results and the organic matter solubilization in activated sludge samples during thermal treatment revealed that the increase in the soluble organic matter concentration was predominantly due to an intracellular material release. Identifying the increase in activated sludge hydrolysis requires a precise knowledge of the involved mechanisms, and this study indicated that the FCM, used in conjunction with specific probes, could be a useful tool. PMID:18712550

Prorot, A; Eskicioglu, C; Droste, R; Dagot, C; Leprat, P

2008-11-01

436

Band-target entropy minimization. A robust algorithm for pure component spectral recovery. Application to complex randomized mixtures of six components.  

PubMed

A newly developed self-modeling curve resolution method, band-target entropy minimization (BTEM), is described. This method starts with the data decomposition of a set of spectroscopic mixture data using singular value decomposition. It is followed by the transformation of the orthonormal basis vectors/loading vectors into individual pure component spectra one at a time. The transformation is based in part on some seminal ideas borrowed from information entropy theory with the desire to maximize the simplicity of the recovered pure component spectrum. Thus, the proper estimate is obtained via minimization of the proposed information entropy function or via minimization of derivative and area of the spectral estimate. Nonnegativity constraints are also imposed on the recovered pure component spectral estimate and its corresponding concentrations. As its name suggests, in this method, one targets a spectral feature readily observed in loading vectors to retain, and then combinations of the loading vectors are searched to achieve the global minimum value of an appropriate objective function. The major advantage of this method is its one spectrum at a time approach and its capability of recovering minor components having low spectroscopic signals. To illustrate the application of BTEM, spectral resolution was performed on FT-IR measurements of very highly overlapping mixture spectra containing six organic species with a two-component background interference (air). BTEM estimates were also compared with the estimates obtained using other self-modeling curve resolution techniques, i.e., SIMPLISMA, IPCA, OPA-ALS, and SIMPLISMA-ALS. PMID:14632056

Widjaja, Effendi; Li, Chuanzhao; Chew, Wee; Garland, Marc

2003-09-01

437

Minimally Invasive Dentistry  

MedlinePLUS

... to your desktop! more... What Is Minimally Invasive Dentistry? Article Chapters What Is Minimally Invasive Dentistry? Minimally ... techniques. Reviewed: January 2012 Related Articles: Minimally Invasive Dentistry Minimally Invasive Veneers Dramatically Change Smiles What Patients ...

438

Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, liquid effluent retention facility and 200 area effluent treatment facility  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to 10 be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document 11 number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the 12 Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation 13 submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal 14 units, such as the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 15 Treatment Facility (this document, DOE/RL-97-03). 16 17 Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford 18 Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B 19 permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of 20 Ecology (Ecology 1987 and 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 21 (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs 22 defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of 23 Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington 24 State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit 25 application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the 26 chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is 27 contained in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 28 Treatment Facility permit application documentation, in relation to the 29 Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents 30 Section. 31 32 Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in 33 nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units 34 (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever 35 appropriate, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 36 Treatment Facility permit application documentation makes cross-reference to 37 the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. 38 39 Information provided in this Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 40 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility permit application documentation is 41 current as of June 1, 1997.

Coenenberg, J.G.

1997-08-15

439

The application of magnetic gradiometry and electromagnetic induction at a former radioactive waste disposal site.  

PubMed

A former radioactive waste disposal site is surveyed with two non-intrusive geophysical techniques, including magnetic gradiometry and electromagnetic induction. Data were gathered over the site by towing the geophysical equipment mounted to a non-electrically conductive and non-magnetic fibre-glass cart. Magnetic gradiometry, which detects the location of ferromagnetic material, including iron and steel, was used to map the existence of a previously unknown buried pipeline formerly used in the delivery of liquid waste to a number of surface disposal trenches and concrete vaults. The existence of a possible pipeline is reinforced by historical engineering drawing and photographs. The electromagnetic induction (EMI) technique was used to map areas of high and low electrical conductivity, which coincide with the magnetic gradiometry data. The EMI also provided information on areas of high electrical conductivity unrelated to a pipeline network. Both data sets demonstrate the usefulness of surface geophysical surveillance techniques to minimize the risk of exposure in the event of future remediation efforts. PMID:20124318

Rucker, Dale Franklin

2010-04-01

440

CONTAMINATION CONTROL DURING IN SITU JET GROUTING FOR APPLICATION IN A BURIED TRANSURANIC WASTE SITE  

SciTech Connect

Engineers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) have developed means of contamination control associated with jet-grouting buried radioactive mixed waste sites. Finely divided plutonium/americium oxide particulate can escape as the drill stem of the jet-grouting apparatus exits a waste deposit in preparation for insertion in another injection hole. In studying various options for controlling this potential contamination, engineers found that an elaborate glovebox/drill string shroud system prevents contaminants from spreading. Researchers jet-grouted a pit with nonradioactive tracers to simulate the movement of plutonium fines during an actual application. Data from the testing indicate that the grout immobilizes the tracer material by locking it up in particles large enough to resist aerosolization.

Loomis, Guy G.; Jessmore, Jim J.

2003-02-27

441

Contamination Control During In Situ Jet Grouting for Application in a Buried Transuranic Waste Site  

SciTech Connect

Engineers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) have developed means of contamination control associated with jet-grouting buried radioactive mixed waste sites. Finely divided plutonium/americium oxide particulate can escape as the drill stem of the jet-grouting apparatus exits a waste deposit in preparation for insertion in another injection hole. In studying various options for controlling this potential contamination, engineers found that an elaborate glovebox/drill string shroud system prevents contaminants from spreading. Researchers jet-grouted a pit with nonradioactive tracers to simulate the movement of plutonium fines during an actual application. Data from the testing indicate that the grout immobilizes the tracer material by locking it up in particles large enough to resist aerosolization.

Loomis, Guy George; Jessmore, James Joseph

2003-02-01

442

Potential application of microsensor technology in radioactive waste management with emphasis on headspace gas detection.  

SciTech Connect

Waste characterization is probably the most costly part of radioactive waste management. An important part of this characterization is the measurements of headspace gas in waste containers in order to demonstrate the compliance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or transportation requirements. The traditional chemical analysis methods, which include all steps of gas sampling, sample shipment and laboratory analysis, are expensive and time-consuming as well as increasing worker's exposure to hazardous environments. Therefore, an alternative technique that can provide quick, in-situ, and real-time detections of headspace gas compositions is highly desirable. This report summarizes the results obtained from a Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD) project entitled 'Potential Application of Microsensor Technology in Radioactive Waste Management with Emphasis on Headspace Gas Detection'. The objective of this project is to bridge the technical gap between the current status of microsensor development and the intended applications of these sensors in nuclear waste management. The major results are summarized below: {sm_bullet} A literature review was conducted on the regulatory requirements for headspace gas sampling/analysis in waste characterization and monitoring. The most relevant gaseous species and the related physiochemical environments were identified. It was found that preconcentrators might be needed in order for chemiresistor sensors to meet desired detection {sm_bullet} A long-term stability test was conducted for a polymer-based chemresistor sensor array. Significant drifts were observed over the time duration of one month. Such drifts should be taken into account for long-term in-situ monitoring. {sm_bullet} Several techniques were explored to improve the performance of sensor polymers. It has been demonstrated that freeze deposition of black carbon (CB)-polymer composite can effectively eliminate the so-called 'coffee ring' effect and lead to a desirable uniform distribution of CB particles in sensing polymer films. The optimal ratio of CB/polymer has been determined. UV irradiation has been shown to improve sensor sensitivity. {sm_bullet} From a large set of commercially available polymers, five polymers were selected to form a sensor array that was able to provide optimal responses to six target-volatile organic compounds (VOCs). A series of tests on the response of sensor array to various VOC concentrations have been performed. Linear sensor responses have been observed over the tested concentration ranges, although the responses over a whole concentration range are generally nonlinear. {sm_bullet} Inverse models have been developed for identifying individual VOCs based on sensor array responses. A linear solvation energy model is particularly promising for identifying an unknown VOC in a single-component system. It has been demonstrated that a sensor array as such we developed is able to discriminate waste containers for their total VOC concentrations and therefore can be used as screening tool for reducing the existing headspace gas sampling rate. {sm_bullet} Various VOC preconcentrators have been fabricated using Carboxen 1000 as an absorbent. Extensive tests have been conducted in order to obtain optimal configurations and parameter ranges for preconcentrator performance. It has been shown that use of preconcentrators can reduce the detection limits of chemiresistors by two orders of magnitude. The life span of preconcentrators under various physiochemical conditions has also been evaluated. {sm_bullet} The performance of Pd film-based H2 sensors in the presence of VOCs has been evaluated. The interference of sensor readings by VOC has been observed, which can be attributed to the interference of VOC with the H2-O2 reaction on the Pd alloy surface. This interference can be eliminated by coating a layer of silicon dioxide on sensing film surface. Our work has demonstrated a wide range of applications of gas microsensors in radioactive waste management. Such applications can poten

Davis, Chad Edward; Thomas, Michael Loren; Wright, Jerome L.; Pohl, Phillip Isabio; Hughes, Robert Clark; Wang, Yifeng; McGrath, Lucas K.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Gao, Huizhen

2004-09-01

443

Applications for activated carbons from waste tires: Natural gas storage and air pollution control  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Natural gas storage for natural gas vehicles and the separation and removal of gaseous contaminants from gas streams represent two emerging applications for carbon adsorbents. A possible precursor for such adsorbents is waste tires. In this study, activated carbon has been developed from waste tires and tested for its methane storage capacity and SO2 removal from a simulated flue-gas. Tire-derived carbons exhibit methane adsorption capacities (g/g) within 10% of a relatively expensive commercial activated carbon; however, their methane storage capacities (Vm/Vs) are almost 60% lower. The unactivated tire char exhibits SO2 adsorption kinetics similar to a commercial carbon used for flue-gas clean-up. Copyright ?? 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

Brady, T. A.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M. J.

1996-01-01

444

[Application of Vc fermentation waste residue on prevention and control of plant diseases in protective ground].  

PubMed

The prevention and control of tomato plant diseases were conducted in protective ground using Vc fermentation waste residue treated by enzymolysis and ultrasonic wave. The results showed that the seedlings planted for 3 weeks on the protective ground soil continuously cropped tomato plant for 9 years and fertilized 75, 150 and 300 kg.hm-2 grew well. Their biomass were increased by 123%, 164% and 182%, and the disease incidence rates were decreased by 59%, 78% and 85%, respectively. Under application of 300 kg.hm-2 Vc fermentation waste residue, the products of tomato grown for 10 weeks on the soil continuously cropped tomato plant for 9, 6 and 2 years were increased by 60%, 43% and 14%, respectively, and the disease incidence rates were all decreased by 50%. PMID:12974022

Zhu, Keli; Su, Zhencheng; Lu, Suxia; Zhang, Zhongze

2003-06-01

445

Overview of electronic waste (e-waste) management practices and legislations, and their poor applications in the developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The developing countries are facing huge challenges in the management of electronic waste (e-waste) which are either internally generated or imported illegally as ‘used’ goods in an attempt to bridge the so-called ‘digital divide’. E-waste contains hazardous constituents that may negatively impact the environment and affect human health if not properly managed. In these countries, because of lack of adequate

I. C. Nnorom; O. Osibanjo

2008-01-01

446

Commercial treatability study capabilities for application to the US Department of Energy`s anticipated mixed waste streams. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

US DOE mixed low-level and mixed transuranic waste inventory was estimated at 181,000 cubic meters (about 2,000 waste streams). Treatability studies may be used as part of DOE`s mixed waste management program. Commercial treatability study suppliers have been identified that either have current capability in their own facilities or have access to licensed facilities. Numerous federal and state regulations, as well as DOE Order 5820.2A, impact the performance of treatability studies. Generators, transporters, and treatability study facilities are subject to regulation. From a mixed- waste standpoint, a key requirement is that the treatability study facility must have an NRC or state license that allows it to possess radioactive materials. From a RCRA perspective, the facility must support treatability study activities with the applicable plans, reports, and documentation. If PCBs are present in the waste, TSCA will also be an issue. CERCLA requirements may apply, and both DOE and NRC regulations will impact the transportation of DOE mixed waste to an off-site treatment facility. DOE waste managers will need to be cognizant of all applicable regulations as mixed-waste treatability study programs are initiated.

NONE

1996-09-01

447

Minimization of the vibration energy of thin-plate structures and the application to the reduction of gearbox vibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While the vibration analysis of gear systems has been developed, a systematic approach to the reduction of gearbox vibration has been lacking. The technique of reducing vibration by shifting natural frequencies is proposed here for gearboxes and other thin-plate structures using the theories of finite elements, modal analysis, and optimization. A triangular shell element with 18 degrees of freedom is developed for structural and dynamic analysis. To optimize, the overall vibration energy is adopted as the objective function to be minimized at the excitation frequency by varying the design variable (element thickness) under the constraint of overall constant weight. Modal analysis is used to determine the sensitivity of the vibration energy as a function of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors. The optimum design is found by the gradient projection method and a unidimensional search procedure. By applying the computer code to design problems for beams and plates, it was verified that the proposed method is effective in reducing vibration energy. The computer code is also applied to redesign the NASA Lewis gear noise rig test gearbox housing. As one example, only the shape of the top plate is varied, and the vibration energy levels of all the surfaces are reduced, yielding an overall reduction of 1/5 compared to the initial design. As a second example, the shapes of the top and two side plates are varied to yield an overall reduction in vibration energy of 1/30.

Inoue, Katsumi; Krantz, Timothy L.

1995-01-01

448

Experimental approach to controllably vary protein oxidation while minimizing electrode adsorption for boron-doped diamond electrochemical surface mapping applications.  

PubMed

Oxidative protein surface mapping has become a powerful approach for measuring the solvent accessibility of folded protein structures. A variety of techniques exist for generating the key reagent (i.e., hydroxyl radicals) for these measurements; however, these approaches range significantly in their complexity and expense of operation. This research expands upon earlier work to enhance the controllability of boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrochemistry as an easily accessible tool for producing hydroxyl radicals in order to oxidize a range of intact proteins. Efforts to modulate the oxidation level while minimizing the adsorption of protein to the electrode involved the use of relatively high flow rates to reduce protein residence time inside the electrochemical flow chamber. Additionally, a different cell activation approach using variable voltage to supply a controlled current allowed us to precisely tune the extent of oxidation in a protein-dependent manner. In order to gain perspective on the level of protein adsorption onto the electrode surface, studies were conducted to monitor protein concentration during electrolysis and gauge changes in the electrode surface between cell activation events. This report demonstrates the successful use of BDD electrochemistry for greater precision in generating a target number of oxidation events upon intact proteins. PMID:23210708

McClintock, Carlee S; Hettich, Robert L

2013-01-01

449

Application of a variable direction hysteresis minimization approach in describing the central nervous system pharmacodynamic effects of alfentanil in rabbits.  

PubMed

The relationship between the concentration of a drug and its pharmacologic effect is of central interest in pharmacodynamics. Various compartmental and noncompartmental methods have been proposed for elucidating this relationship when the plasma drug concentration and effects are both measured. Although the relationship between drug input and the pharmacologic effect is equally useful, it has not received as much attention. A system analysis hysteresis minimization pharmacodynamic method was developed to describe the central nervous system effects of alfentanil in rabbits. The spectral edge frequency (SEF) was used as the effect measure and the infusion rate as the pharmacokinetic variable. The sigmoid Emax and cubic polynomial representations of the transduction relationship were investigated in modeling the collapsed hysteresis loop. The results indicated that alfentanil has a relatively rapid biophase equilibration time (t50 = 6 min). Both the sigmoid Emax and cubic polynomial transduction relationships were equally effective in describing the observed effect data and gave similar predictions. The proposed approach has the advantage of not assuming a specific compartmental structure for the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic link. A particular advantage of the method is that no functional relationship is assumed a priori for the transduction relationship, and errors in both regression variables are considered in the optimization. The system analysis pharmacodynamic approach assumes linear disposition pharmacokinetics, an instantaneous and time-invariant transduction, and that inductive effects like tolerance or sensitization do not develop significantly in the time frame studied. PMID:8207680

Modi, N B; Veng-Pedersen, P

1994-03-01

450

Temperature field reconstruction for minimally invasive cryosurgery with application to wireless implantable temperature sensors and/or medical imaging.  

PubMed

There is an undisputed need for temperature-field reconstruction during minimally invasive cryosurgery. The current line of research focuses on developing miniature, wireless, implantable, temperature sensors to enable temperature-field reconstruction in real time. This project combines two parallel efforts: (i) to develop the hardware necessary for implantable sensors, and (ii) to develop mathematical techniques for temperature-field reconstruction in real time-the subject matter of the current study. In particular, this study proposes an approach for temperature-field reconstruction combining data obtained from medical imaging, cryoprobe-embedded sensors, and miniature, wireless, implantable sensors, the development of which is currently underway. This study discusses possible strategies for laying out implantable sensors and approaches for data integration. In particular, prostate cryosurgery is presented as a developmental model and a two-dimensional proof-of-concept is discussed. It is demonstrated that the lethal temperature can be predicted to a significant degree of certainty with implantable sensors and the technique proposed in the current study, a capability that is yet unavailable. PMID:22921369

Thaokar, Chandrajit; Rabin, Yoed

2012-12-01

451

Separation of CsCl from a Ternary CsCl-LiCl-KCl Salt via a Melt Crystallization Technique for Pyroprocessing Waste Minimization  

SciTech Connect

A parametric study has been conducted to identify the effects of several parameters on the separation of CsCl from molten LiCl-KCl salt via a melt crystallization process. A reverse vertical Bridgman technique was used to grow the salt crystals. The investigated parameters were: (1) the advancement rate, (2) the crucible lid configuration, (3) the amount of salt mixture, (4) the initial composition of CsCl, and (5) the temperature difference between the high and low furnace zones. From each grown crystal, samples were taken axially and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results show that CsCl concentrations at the top of the crystals were low and increased to a maximum at the bottom of the salt. Salt (LiCl-KCl) recycle percentages for the experiments ranged from 50% to 75% and the CsCl composition in the waste salt was low. To increase the recycle percentage and the concentration of CsCl in the waste form, the possibility of using multiple crystallization stages was explored to further optimize the process. Results show that multiple crystallization stages are practical and the optimal experimental conditions should be operated at 5.0 mm/hr rate with a lid configuration and temperature difference of 200 °C for a total of five crystallization stages. Under these conditions, up to 88% of the salt can be recycled.

Ammon Williams; Supathorn Phongikaroon; Michael Simpson

2013-02-01

452

Municipal solid waste compost application improves productivity, polyphenol content, and antioxidant capacity of Mesembryanthemum edule.  

PubMed

Organic wastes were successfully used as soil amendment to improve agrosystems productivity. Yet, the effectiveness of this practice to enhance plant antioxidant capacities has received little attention. Here, we assess the effect of municipal solid waste (MSW) compost (at 40 t ha(-1)) on growth, polyphenol contents and antioxidant activities of Mesembryanthemum edule. MSW compost application significantly increased the soil contents of carbon, nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus and potassium. This was associated with higher nutrient (N, P, and K) uptake, which likely led to the significant improvement of the plant biomass and relative growth rate (RGR) (+93% on average) as compared to the control. In the same way, the fertilizing effect of the added organic matter significantly enhanced the antioxidant potential M. edule, assessed by radical scavenging activity, iron reducing power and ?-carotene bleaching capacity. This was associated with significantly higher antioxidant contents, mainly total phenols and flavonoids. Heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn) concentrations were slightly increased upon compost application, but remained lower than phytotoxic values. Overall, our results point out that short-term MSW compost application at 40 t ha(-1) is efficient in enhancing the productivity together with the antioxidant potentiality of M. edule without any adverse environmental impact. PMID:21605936

Lakhdar, Abdelbasset; Falleh, Hanen; Ouni, Youssef; Oueslati, Samia; Debez, Ahmed; Ksouri, Riadh; Abdelly, Chedly

2011-07-15

453

Three-dimensional elastic image registration based on strain energy minimization: application to prostate magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

The use of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in conjunction with an endorectal coil is currently the clinical standard for the diagnosis of prostate cancer because of the increased sensitivity and specificity of this approach. However, imaging in this manner provides images and spectra of the prostate in the deformed state because of the insertion of the endorectal coil. Such deformation may lead to uncertainties in the localization of prostate cancer during therapy. We propose a novel 3-D elastic registration procedure that is based on the minimization of a physically motivated strain energy function that requires the identification of similar features (points, curves, or surfaces) in the source and target images. The Gauss-Seidel method was used in the numerical implementation of the registration algorithm. The registration procedure was validated on synthetic digital images, MR images from prostate phantom, and MR images obtained on patients. The registration error, assessed by averaging the displacement of a fiducial landmark in the target to its corresponding point in the registered image, was 0.2 ± 0.1 pixels on synthetic images. On the prostate phantom and patient data, the registration errors were 1.0 ± 0.6 pixels (0.6 ± 0.4 mm) and 1.8 ± 0.7 pixels (1.1 ± 0.4 mm), respectively. Registration also improved image similarity (normalized cross-correlation) from 0.72 ± 0.10 to 0.96 ± 0.03 on patient data. Registration results on digital images, phantom, and prostate data in vivo demonstrate that the registration procedure can be used to significantly improve both the accuracy of localized therapies such as brachytherapy or external beam therapy and can be valuable in the longitudinal follow-up of patients after therapy. PMID:20552248

Zhang, Bao; Arola, Dwayne D; Roys, Steve; Gullapalli, Rao P

2011-08-01

454

Model tracking system for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: License application interrogatories and responses  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a model tracking system for a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility license application. In particular, the model tracks interrogatories (questions, requests for information, comments) and responses. A set of requirements and desired features for the model tracking system was developed, including required structure and computer screens. Nine tracking systems were then reviewed against the model system requirements and only two were found to meet all requirements. Using Kepner-Tregoe decision analysis, a model tracking system was selected.

Benbennick, M.E.; Broton, M.S.; Fuoto, J.S.; Novgrod, R.L.

1994-08-01

455

Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Treatment Systems, Effluent Qualities, and Costs - Module 4, Objectives, Script, and Booklet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module describes the following conventional treatment systems and evaluates their use as pretreatment steps for land application: preliminary, primary, secondary, disinfection, and advanced waste treatment. Effluent qualities are summarized, a brief discussion of application systems is given, and cost comparisons are discussed in some detail.…

Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

456

Performance Assessment in Support of the 1996 Compliance Certification Application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The conceptual and computational structure of a performance assessment (PA) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is described. Important parts of thk structure are @ maintenance of a separation between stochastic (i.e., aleatory) and subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertain, with stochastic uncefinty arising from the many possible disruptions that could occur over the 10,000 Y regulatory period fiat applies to the WIPP and subjective uncertainty arising from `the imprecision with which many of the quantities rquired in tie `hdysis are known, (ii) use of Latin hypercttbe sampling to incorporate the effects of subjective uncefirtty, (iii) use of Monte Carlo (i.e., random) sampling to incorporate the effects of stochastic uncetinty, and OV) efficient use of tie necessarily limited number of mechanistic calculations that can be performed to SUPPOII the analysis. The WIPP is under development by the U.S. Department of Ener~ (DOE) for the geologic (i.e., deep underground) disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste, with the indicated PA supporting a ~Compliance Certification Application (CCA) by the DOE to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October 1996 for tie necessary certifications for the WIPP to begin operation. If certified, the WIPP will be the first operational faciliv in tie United States for the geologic disposal of ra&oactive waste.

Anderson, D.R.; Basabilvazo, G.; Helton, J.C.; Jow, H.-N.; Marietta, M.G.

1998-10-14

457

Feasibility of an earth-to-space rail launcher system. [emphasizing nuclear waste disposal application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of earth-to-space electromagnetic (railgun) launchers (ESRL) is considered, in order to determine their technical practicality and economic viability. The potential applications of the launcher include nuclear waste disposal into space, deep space probe launches, and atmospheric research. Examples of performance requirements of the ESRL system are a maximum acceleration of 10,000 g's for nuclear waste disposal in space (NWDS) missions and 2,500 g's for earth orbital missions, a 20 km/sec launch velocity for NWDS missions, and a launch azimuth of 90 degrees E. A brief configuration description is given, and test results indicate that for the 2020-2050 time period, as much as 3.0 MT per day of bulk material could be launched, and about 0.5 MT per day of high-level nuclear waste could be launched. For earth orbital missions, a significant projectile mass was approximately 6.5 MT, and an integral distributed energy store launch system demonstrated a good potential performance. ESRL prove to be economically and environmentally feasible, but an operational ESRL of the proposed size is not considered achievable before the year 2020.

Rice, E. E.; Miller, L. A.; Marshall, R. A.; Kerslake, W. R.

1982-01-01

458

Application of satellite imagery to monitoring human rights abuse of vulnerable communities, with minimal risk to relief staff  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space imagery offers remote surveillance of ethnic people groups at risk of human rights abuse. We highlight work in alleged violations in Burma and Sudan, using satellite imagery for verification with Amnesty International. We consider how imaging may effectively support small to medium-sized Non Governmental Organisations and charities, e.g. HART, working in dangerous zones on the ground. Satellite based sensing applications are now at a sufficiently mature stage for moderate Governmental funding levels to help prevent human rights abuse, rather than the greater cost of rebuilding communities and healing sectarian divisions after abuse has taken place.

Lavers, C.; Bishop, C.; Hawkins, O.; Grealey, E.; Cox, C.; Thomas, D.; Trimel, S.

2009-07-01