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Sample records for waste mixture gasification

  1. Updraft gasification of salmon processing waste.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Sarah; Bower, Cynthia K; Patil, Krushna N; DeWitt, Christina A Mireles

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to judge the feasibility of gasification for the disposal of waste streams generated through salmon harvesting. Gasification is the process of converting carbonaceous materials into combustible "syngas" in a high temperature (above 700 degrees C), oxygen deficient environment. Syngas can be combusted to generate power, which recycles energy from waste products. At 66% to 79% moisture, raw salmon waste streams are too wet to undergo pyrolysis and combustion. Ground raw or de-oiled salmon whole fish, heads, viscera, or frames were therefore "dried" by mixing with wood pellets to a final moisture content of 20%. Ground whole salmon with moisture reduced to 12% moisture was gasified without a drying agent. Gasification tests were performed in a small-scale, fixed-bed, updraft gasifer. After an initial start-up period, the gasifier was loaded with 1.5 kg of biomass. Temperature was recorded at 6 points in the gasifier. Syngas was collected during the short steady-state period during each gasifier run and analyzed. Percentages of each type of gas in the syngas were used to calculate syngas heating value. High heating value (HHV) ranged from 1.45 to 1.98 MJ/kg. Bomb calorimetry determined maximum heating value for the salmon by-products. Comparing heating values shows the efficiency of gasification. Cold gas efficiencies of 13.6% to 26% were obtained from the various samples gasified. Though research of gasification as a means of salmon waste disposal and energy production is ongoing, it can be concluded that pre-dried salmon or relatively low moisture content mixtures of waste with wood are gasifiable. PMID:19799663

  2. High temperature steam gasification of solid wastes: Characteristics and kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomaa, Islam Ahmed

    Greater use of renewable energy sources is of pinnacle importance especially with the limited reserves of fossil fuels. It is expected that future energy use will have increased utilization of different energy sources, including biomass, municipal solid wastes, industrial wastes, agricultural wastes and other low grade fuels. Gasification is a good practical solution to solve the growing problem of landfills, with simultaneous energy extraction and nonleachable minimum residue. Gasification also provides good solution to the problem of plastics and rubber in to useful fuel. The characteristics and kinetics of syngas evolution from the gasification of different samples is examined here. The characteristics of syngas based on its quality, distribution of chemical species, carbon conversion efficiency, thermal efficiency and hydrogen concentration has been examined. Modeling the kinetics of syngas evolution from the process is also examined. Models are compared with the experimental results. Experimental results on the gasification and pyrolysis of several solid wastes, such as, biomass, plastics and mixture of char based and plastic fuels have been provided. Differences and similarities in the behavior of char based fuel and a plastic sample has been discussed. Global reaction mechanisms of char based fuel as well polystyrene gasification are presented based on the characteristic of syngas evolution. The mixture of polyethylene and woodchips gasification provided superior results in terms of syngas yield, hydrogen yield, total hydrocarbons yield, energy yield and apparent thermal efficiency from polyethylene-woodchips blends as compared to expected weighed average yields from gasification of the individual components. A possible interaction mechanism has been established to explain the synergetic effect of co-gasification of woodchips and polyethylene. Kinetics of char gasification is presented with special consideration of sample temperature, catalytic effect of ash, geometric changes of pores inside char and diffusion limitations inside and outside the char particle.

  3. Energy from gasification of solid wastes.

    PubMed

    Belgiorno, V; De Feo, G; Della Rocca, C; Napoli, R M A

    2003-01-01

    Gasification technology is by no means new: in the 1850s, most of the city of London was illuminated by "town gas" produced from the gasification of coal. Nowadays, gasification is the main technology for biomass conversion to energy and an attractive alternative for the thermal treatment of solid waste. The number of different uses of gas shows the flexibility of gasification and therefore allows it to be integrated with several industrial processes, as well as power generation systems. The use of a waste-biomass energy production system in a rural community is very interesting too. This paper describes the current state of gasification technology, energy recovery systems, pre-treatments and prospective in syngas use with particular attention to the different process cycles and environmental impacts of solid wastes gasification. PMID:12623097

  4. Hydrothermal Gasification for Waste to Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epps, Brenden; Laser, Mark; Choo, Yeunun

    2014-11-01

    Hydrothermal gasification is a promising technology for harvesting energy from waste streams. Applications range from straightforward waste-to-energy conversion (e.g. municipal waste processing, industrial waste processing), to water purification (e.g. oil spill cleanup, wastewater treatment), to biofuel energy systems (e.g. using algae as feedstock). Products of the gasification process are electricity, bottled syngas (H2 + CO), sequestered CO2, clean water, and inorganic solids; further chemical reactions can be used to create biofuels such as ethanol and biodiesel. We present a comparison of gasification system architectures, focusing on efficiency and economic performance metrics. Various system architectures are modeled computationally, using a model developed by the coauthors. The physical model tracks the mass of each chemical species, as well as energy conversions and transfers throughout the gasification process. The generic system model includes the feedstock, gasification reactor, heat recovery system, pressure reducing mechanical expanders, and electricity generation system. Sensitivity analysis of system performance to various process parameters is presented. A discussion of the key technological barriers and necessary innovations is also presented.

  5. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

    2001-12-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO{sub x}). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process.

  6. Catalytic Gasification of Coal using Eutectic Salt Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Atul Sheth; Pradeep Agrawal; Yaw D. Yeboah

    1998-12-04

    The objectives of this study are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. A review of the collected literature was carried out. The catalysts which have been used for gasification can be roughly classified under the following five groups: alkali metal salts; alkaline earth metal oxides and salts; mineral substances or ash in coal; transition metals and their oxides and salts; and eutectic salt mixtures. Studies involving the use of gasification catalysts have been conducted. However, most of the studies focused on the application of individual catalysts. Only two publications have reported the study of gasification of coal char in CO2 and steam catalyzed by eutectic salt mixture catalysts. By using the eutectic mixtures of salts that show good activity as individual compounds, the gasification temperature can be reduced possibly with still better activity and gasification rates due to improved dispersion of the molten catalyst on the coal particles. For similar metal/carbon atomic ratios, eutectic catalysts were found to be consistently more active than their respective single salts. But the exact roles that the eutectic salt mixtures play in these are not well understood and details of the mechanisms remain unclear. The effects of the surface property of coals and the application methods of eutectic salt mixture catalysts with coal chars on the reactivity of gasification will be studied. Based on our preliminary evaluation of the literature, a ternary eutectic salt mixture consisting of Li- Na- and K- carbonates has the potential as gasification catalyst. To verify the literature reported, melting points for various compositions consisting of these three salts and the temperature range over which the mixture remained molten were determined in the lab. For mixtures with different concentrations of the three salts, the temperatures at which the mixtures were found to be in complete molten state were recorded. By increasing the amount of Li2CO3, the melting temperature range was reduced significantly. In the literature, the eutectic mixtures of Li- Na- and K-carbonates are claimed to have a lower activation energy than that of K2CO3 alone and they remain molten at a lower temperature than pure K2CO3. The slow increase in the gasification rates with eutectics reported in the literature is believed to be due to a gradual penetration of the coals and coal char particles by the molten and viscous catalyst phase. The even spreading of the salt phase seems to increase the overall carbon conversion rate. In the next reporting period, a number of eutectic salts and methods of their application on the coal will be identified and tested.

  7. Numerical simulation of waste tyres gasification.

    PubMed

    Janajreh, Isam; Raza, Syed Shabbar

    2015-05-01

    Gasification is a thermochemical pathway used to convert carbonaceous feedstock into syngas (CO and H2) in a deprived oxygen environment. The process can accommodate conventional feedstock such as coal, discarded waste including plastics, rubber, and mixed waste owing to the high reactor temperature (1000 °C-1600 °C). Pyrolysis is another conversion pathway, yet it is more selective to the feedstock owing to the low process temperature (350 °C-550 °C). Discarded tyres can be subjected to pyrolysis, however, the yield involves the formation of intermediate radicals additional to unconverted char. Gasification, however, owing to the higher temperature and shorter residence time, is more opted to follow quasi-equilibrium and being predictive. In this work, tyre crumbs are subjected to two levels of gasification modelling, i.e. equilibrium zero dimension and reactive multi-dimensional flow. The objective is to investigate the effect of the amount of oxidising agent on the conversion of tyre granules and syngas composition in a small 20 kW cylindrical gasifier. Initially the chemical compositions of several tyre samples are measured following the ASTM procedures for proximate and ultimate analysis as well as the heating value. The measured data are used to carry out equilibrium-based and reactive flow gasification. The result shows that both models are reasonably predictive averaging 50% gasification efficiency, the devolatilisation is less sensitive than the char conversion to the equivalence ratio as devolatilisation is always complete. In view of the high attained efficiency, it is suggested that the investigated tyre gasification system is economically viable. PMID:25755167

  8. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-04-01

    The project, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures'', is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (GT). The aims of the project are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal; evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods to improve catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (e.g., temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts in a bench-scale fixed bed reactor; and conduct thorough analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. The eutectic catalysts increased gasification rate significantly. The methods of catalyst preparation and addition had significant effect on the catalytic activity and coal gasification. The incipient wetness method gave more uniform catalyst distribution than that of physical mixing for the soluble catalysts resulting in higher gasification rates for the incipient wetness samples. The catalytic activity increased by varying degrees with catalyst loading. The above results are especially important since the eutectic catalysts (with low melting points) yield significant gasification rates even at low temperatures. Among the ternary eutectic catalysts studied, the system 39% Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-38.5% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-22.5% Rb{sub 2}CO{sub 3} showed the best activity and will be used for further bench scale fixed-bed gasification reactor in the next period. Based on the Clark Atlanta University studies in the previous reporting period, the project team selected the 43.5% Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-31.5% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-25% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} ternary eutectic and the 29% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-71% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} binary eutectic for the fixed-bed studies at UTSI during this reporting period. Temperature was found to have a significant effect on the rate of gasification of coal. The rate of gasification increased up to 1400 F. Pressure did not have much effect on the gasification rates. The catalyst loading increased the gasification rate and approached complete conversion when 10 wt% of catalyst was added to the coal. Upon further increasing the catalyst amount to 20-wt% and above, there was no significant rise in gasification rate. The rate of gasification was lower for a 2:1 steam to char molar ratio (60%) compared to gasification rates at 3.4:1 molar ratio of steam-to-char where the conversion approached 100%. The characterization results of Georgia Tech are very preliminary and inconclusive and will be made available in the next report.

  9. Methanol from the gasification of waste using the Texaco Gasification Process

    SciTech Connect

    Zang, R.B.; O`Keefe, L.F.

    1996-12-31

    The Texaco Gasification Process (TGP) has been used commercially for more than 45 years to convert conventional fuels into clean synthesis gas for use in the manufacture of fertilizer (ammonia/urea), chemicals (methanol and oxochemicals), and for power generation. The use of TGP for waste destruction is an extension of this proven technology which reacts carbonaceous materials with a limited amount of oxygen at high temperatures. There are currently more than fifty TGP units in operation or under construction. The TGP is now being used in the production of hydrogen and electric power from alternative feeds such as petroleum coke and refinery wastes. As more varied applications of the TGP are considered, alternative uses of the synthesis gas are being explored as well. One commercial use of the synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide) from the TGP is for the production of methanol by catalytic synthesis and distillation. Especially at small scale, methanol production can be one of the more cost-effective uses of synthesis gas and, therefore, it will improve the economics of waste gasification. Several conceptual proposals have been developed which show that using the TGP to recycle industrial chemical wastes to methanol can be an attractive alternative to incineration as a means of disposal. The paper describes the technology and a demonstration of the process using Superfund waste from a Purity Oil Sales site in Fresno, CA.

  10. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect

    1999-10-01

    This is the progress report for the DOE grant DE-FG26-97FT97263 entitled, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures'' for the period April 1999 to October 1999. The project is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University, the University of Tennessee Space Institute and Georgia Institute of Technology. The overall objectives of the project are to identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature and system pressure) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and conduct thorough analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. During this reporting period, free swelling index measurements of the coal, fixed-bed gasification experiments, kinetic modeling of the catalyzed gasification, and X-ray diffraction analysis of catalyst and gasified char samples were undertaken. The gasification experiments were carried out using two different eutectic salt mixtures of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (LNK) system and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (NK) system. The gasification process followed a Langmuir-Hinshelwood type model. At 10 wt% of catalyst loading, the activation energy of the ternary catalyst system (LNK) was about half (98kJ/mol) the activation energy of the single catalyst system (K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}), which is about 170 kJ/ mole. The binary catalyst system (NK) showed activation energy of about 201 kJ/mol, which is slightly higher, compared to the K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} catalyst system. The ternary catalyst system was a much better eutectic catalyst system compared to the binary or single catalyst system. In general, a eutectic with a melting point less than the gasification temperature is a better substitute to the single alkali metal salts because they have good catalyst distribution and dispersion in the carbon matrix. The free selling index of the coal was about 1.5 (1 to 2) in comparison to 2.5 (2 to 3) for the coal samples with ternary eutectic. The results for the raw coal were consistent with those from the Penn State Coal Bank. The XRD characterization showed unidentified peaks in the spectra of some of the samples and require further studies to draw any conclusions at the point.

  11. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This progress report on the Department of Energy project DE-FG-97FT97263 entitled, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures,'' covers the period April-September 1998. The specific aims of the project for this period were to identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal, evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods to improve catalyst dispersion, and evaluate gasification performance in a bench-scale fixed bed reactor. The project is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) with CAU as the prime contractor. Several single salt catalysts and binary and ternary eutectic catalysts were investigated at Clark Atlanta University. Physical mixing and incipient wetness methods were investigated as catalyst addition techniques. Gasification was carried out using TGA at CAU and UTSI and with a fixed-bed reactor at UTSI. The results showed better gasification activity in the presence of the catalysts tested. The eutectic salt studies showed clear agreement between the melting points of the prepared eutectics and reported literature values. The order of catalytic activity observed was ternary > binary > single salt. With the soluble single salt catalysts, the incipient wetness method was found to give better results than physical mixing technique. Also, catalyst preparation conditions such as catalyst loading, drying time and temperature were found to influence the gasification rate. Based on the Clark Atlanta University studies on Task 1, the project team selected the 43.5%Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-31.5%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-25%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} ternary eutectic and the 29%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-71%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and 2.3%KNO{sub 3}-97.7%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} binary eutectic for the fixed bed studies at UTSI. The eutectic salts were found to be highly insoluble in aqueous medium. As a result the technique of adding the eutectic to the raw coal was found to be better than using wet methods. Also, addition of the catalyst to the raw coal appeared to give better gasification results than addition to pyrolyzed coal. In addition, eutectic catalysts added to the coal yielded better gasification rates than rates obtained by mixing the individual salts in the eutectic ratio with the coal. These results, especially with the eutectic catalysts are very significant since the use of the low melting eutectics will reduce the severity of gasification processes.

  12. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect

    2000-04-01

    This progress report on the Department of Energy project DE-FG-97FT97263 entitled, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures'', covers the period April-September 1998. The specific aims of the project for this period were to identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal, evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods to improve catalyst dispersion, and evaluate gasification performance in a bench-scale fixed bed reactor. The project is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) with CAU as the prime contractor. Several single salt catalysts and binary and ternary eutectic catalysts were investigated at Clark Atlanta University. Physical mixing and incipient wetness methods were investigated as catalyst addition techniques. Gasification was carried out using TGA at CAU and UTSI and with a fixed-bed reactor at UTSI. The results showed better gasification activity in the presence of the catalysts tested. The eutectic salt studies showed clear agreement between the melting points of the prepared eutectics and reported literature values. The order of catalytic activity observed was ternary > binary > single salt. With the soluble single salt catalysts, the incipient wetness method was found to give better results than physical mixing technique. Also, catalyst preparation conditions such as catalyst loading, drying time and temperature were found to influence the gasification rate. Based on the Clark Atlanta University studies on Task 1, the project team selected the 43.5%Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-31.5%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-25%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} ternary eutectic and the 29%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-71%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and 2.3% KNO{sub 3}-97.7%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} binary eutectic for the fixed bed studies at UTSI. The eutectic salts were found to be highly insoluble in aqueous medium. As a result the technique of adding the eutectic to the raw coal was found to be better than using wet methods. Also, addition of the catalyst to the raw coal appeared to give better gasification results than addition to pyrolyzed coal. In addition, eutectic catalysts added to the coal yielded better gasification rates than rates obtained by mixing the individual salts in the eutectic ratio with the coal. These results, especially with the eutectic catalysts are very significant since the use of the low melting eutectics will reduce the severity of gasification processes.

  13. Catalytic Wet Gasification of Municipal and Animal Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Ro, Kyoung S.; Cantrell, Keri; Elliott, Douglas C.; Hunt, Patrick G.

    2007-02-21

    Applicability of wet gasification technology for various animal and municipal wastes was examined. Wet gasification of swine manure and raw sewage sludge generated high number of net energies. Furthermore, the moisture content of these wastes is ideal for current wet gasification technology. Significant quantities of water must be added to dry feedstock wastes such as poultry litter, feedlot manures and MSW to make the feedstock pumpable. Because of their high ash contents, MSW and unpaved feedlot manure would not generate positive energy return from wet gasification. The costs of a conceptual wet gasification manure management system for a model swine farm were significantly higher than that of the anaerobic lagoon system. However, many environmental advantages of the wet gasification system were identified, which might reduce the costs significantly. Due to high sulfur content of the wastes, pretreatment to prevent the poisoning of catalysts is critically needed.

  14. Catalytic wet gasification of municipal and animal wastes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, there is worldwide interest in deriving energy from bio-based materials via gasification. Our objective was to assess the feasibility of wet gasification for treatment/energy conversion of both animal and municipal wastes. Wet wastes such as swine manure and raw sewage sludge could be pro...

  15. STUDY OF THE STEAM GASIFICATION OF ORGANIC WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical kinetic data describing the pyrolysis/gasification characteristics of organic waste (biomass) materials is needed for the design of improved conversion reactors. Unfortunately, little data is available in the literature on the pyrolysis kinetics of waste materials, and e...

  16. Hydrogen production by gasification of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, R. III

    1994-05-20

    As fossil fuel reserves run lower and lower, and as their continued widespread use leads toward numerous environmental problems, the need for clean and sustainable energy alternatives becomes ever clearer. Hydrogen fuel holds promise as such as energy source, as it burns cleanly and can be extracted from a number of renewable materials such as municipal solid waste (MSW), which can be considered largely renewable because of its high content of paper and biomass-derived products. A computer model is being developed using ASPEN Plus flow sheeting software to simulate a process which produces hydrogen gas from MSW; the model will later be used in studying the economics of this process and is based on an actual Texaco coal gasification plant design. This paper gives an overview of the complete MSW gasification process, and describes in detail the way in which MSW is modeled by the computer as a process material. In addition, details of the gasifier unit model are described; in this unit modified MSW reacts under pressure with oxygen and steam to form a mixture of gases which include hydrogen.

  17. Hydrogen recovery from the thermal plasma gasification of solid waste.

    PubMed

    Byun, Youngchul; Cho, Moohyun; Chung, Jae Woo; Namkung, Won; Lee, Hyeon Don; Jang, Sung Duk; Kim, Young-Suk; Lee, Jin-Ho; Lee, Carg-Ro; Hwang, Soon-Mo

    2011-06-15

    Thermal plasma gasification has been demonstrated as one of the most effective and environmentally friendly methods for solid waste treatment and energy utilization in many of studies. Therefore, the thermal plasma process of solid waste gasification (paper mill waste, 1.2 ton/day) was applied for the recovery of high purity H(2) (>99.99%). Gases emitted from a gasification furnace equipped with a nontransferred thermal plasma torch were purified using a bag-filter and wet scrubber. Thereafter, the gases, which contained syngas (CO+H(2)), were introduced into a H(2) recovery system, consisting largely of a water gas shift (WGS) unit for the conversion of CO to H(2) and a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit for the separation and purification of H(2). It was successfully demonstrated that the thermal plasma process of solid waste gasification, combined with the WGS and PSA, produced high purity H(2) (20 N m(3)/h (400 H(2)-Nm(3)/PMW-ton), up to 99.99%) using a plasma torch with 1.6 MWh/PMW-ton of electricity. The results presented here suggest that the thermal plasma process of solid waste gasification for the production of high purity H(2) may provide a new approach as a future energy infrastructure based on H(2). PMID:21497018

  18. Treatment of Mixed Wastes via Fixed Bed Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-28

    This report outlines the details of research performed under USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-96MC33258 to evaluate the ChemChar hazardous waste system for the destruction of mixed wastes, defined as those that contain both RCRA-regulated haz- ardous constituents and radionuclides. The ChemChar gasification system uses a granular carbonaceous char matrix to immobilize wastes and feed them into the gasifier. In the gasifier wastes are subjected to high temperature reducing conditions, which destroy the organic constituents and immobilize radionuclides on the regenerated char. Only about 10 percent of the char is consumed on each pass through the gasifier, and the regenerated char can be used to treat additional wastes. When tested on a 4-inch diameter scale with a continuous feed unit as part of this research, the ChemChar gasification system was found to be effective in destroying RCRA surrogate organic wastes (chlorobenzene, dichloroben- zene, and napht.halene) while retaining on the char RCRA heavy metals (chromium, nickel, lead, and cadmium) as well as a fission product surrogate (cesium) and a plutonium surrogate (cerium). No generation of harmful byproducts was observed. This report describes the design and testing of the ChemChar gasification system and gives the operating procedures to be followed in using the system safely and effectively for mixed waste treatment.

  19. Characterization of cellulosic wastes and gasification products from chicken farms

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, Paul; Tretsiakova-McNally, Svetlana; McKenna, Siobhan

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The gas chromatography indicated the variable quality of the producer gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The char had appreciable NPK values, and can be used as a fertiliser. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The bio-oil produced was of poor quality, having high moisture content and low pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mass and energy balances showed inadequate level energy recovery from the process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Future work includes changing the operating parameters of the gasification unit. - Abstract: The current article focuses on gasification as a primary disposal solution for cellulosic wastes derived from chicken farms, and the possibility to recover energy from this process. Wood shavings and chicken litter were characterized with a view to establishing their thermal parameters, compositional natures and calorific values. The main products obtained from the gasification of chicken litter, namely, producer gas, bio-oil and char, were also analysed in order to establish their potential as energy sources. The experimental protocol included bomb calorimetry, pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC), thermo-gravimetric analyses (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, elemental analyses, X-ray diffraction (XRD), mineral content analyses and gas chromatography. The mass and energy balances of the gasification unit were also estimated. The results obtained confirmed that gasification is a viable method of chicken litter disposal. In addition to this, it is also possible to recover some energy from the process. However, energy content in the gas-phase was relatively low. This might be due to the low energy efficiency (19.6%) of the gasification unit, which could be improved by changing the operation parameters.

  20. Potential application of gasification to recycle food waste and rehabilitate acidic soil from secondary forests on degraded land in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhanyu; Koh, Shun Kai; Ng, Wei Cheng; Lim, Reuben C J; Tan, Hugh T W; Tong, Yen Wah; Dai, Yanjun; Chong, Clive; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2016-05-01

    Gasification is recognized as a green technology as it can harness energy from biomass in the form of syngas without causing severe environmental impacts, yet producing valuable solid residues that can be utilized in other applications. In this study, the feasibility of co-gasification of woody biomass and food waste in different proportions was investigated using a fixed-bed downdraft gasifier. Subsequently, the capability of biochar derived from gasification of woody biomass in the rehabilitation of soil from tropical secondary forests on degraded land (adinandra belukar) was also explored through a water spinach cultivation study using soil-biochar mixtures of different ratios. Gasification of a 60:40 wood waste-food waste mixture (w/w) produced syngas with the highest lower heating value (LHV) 5.29 MJ/m(3)-approximately 0.4-4.0% higher than gasification of 70:30 or 80:20 mixtures, or pure wood waste. Meanwhile, water spinach cultivated in a 2:1 soil-biochar mixture exhibited the best growth performance in terms of height (a 4-fold increment), weight (a 10-fold increment) and leaf surface area (a 5-fold increment) after 8 weeks of cultivation, owing to the high porosity, surface area, nutrient content and alkalinity of biochar. It is concluded that gasification may be an alternative technology to food waste disposal through co-gasification with woody biomass, and that gasification derived biochar is suitable for use as an amendment for the nutrient-poor, acidic soil of adinandra belukar. PMID:26921564

  1. Waste-gasification efficiency of a two-stage fluidized-bed gasification system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen-Shu; Lin, Chiou-Liang; Chang, Tsung-Jen; Weng, Wang-Chang

    2016-02-01

    This study employed a two-stage fluidized-bed gasifier as a gasification reactor and two additives (CaO and activated carbon) as the Stage-II bed material to investigate the effects of the operating temperature (700°C, 800°C, and 900°C) on the syngas composition, total gas yield, and gas-heating value during simulated waste gasification. The results showed that when the operating temperature increased from 700 to 900°C, the molar percentage of H2 in the syngas produced by the two-stage gasification process increased from 19.4 to 29.7mol% and that the total gas yield and gas-heating value also increased. When CaO was used as the additive, the molar percentage of CO2 in the syngas decreased, and the molar percentage of H2 increased. When activated carbon was used, the molar percentage of CH4 in the syngas increased, and the total gas yield and gas-heating value increased. Overall, CaO had better effects on the production of H2, whereas activated carbon clearly enhanced the total gas yield and gas-heating value. PMID:26698684

  2. From waste to energy -- Catalytic steam gasification of broiler litter

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.A.; Sheth, A.C.

    1999-07-01

    In 1996, the production of broiler chickens in the US was approximately 7.60 billion head. The quantity of litter generated is enormous. In 1992, the Southeast region alone produced over five million tons of broiler litter. The litter removed from the broiler houses is rich in nutrients and often spread over land as a fertilizer. Without careful management, the associated agricultural runoff can cause severe environmental damage. With increasing broiler litter production, the implementation of alternative disposal technologies is essential to the sustainable development of the poultry industry. A process originally developed for the conversion of coals to clean gaseous fuel may provide an answer. Catalytic steam gasification utilities an alkali salt catalyst and steam to convert a carbonaceous feedstock to a gas mixture composed primarily of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and methane. The low to medium energy content gas produced may be utilized as an energy source or chemical feedstock. Broiler litter is an attractive candidate for catalytic steam gasification due to its high potassium content. Experiments conducted in UTSI's bench-scale high-pressure fixed bed gasifier have provided data for technical and economic feasibility studies of the process. Experiments have also been performed to examine the effects of temperature, pressure, and additional catalysts on the gasification rate.

  3. Co-gasification of municipal solid waste and material recovery in a large-scale gasification and melting system.

    PubMed

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Manako, Kazutaka; Osada, Morihiro

    2012-04-01

    This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of municipal solid waste with and without the municipal solid waste bottom ash using two large-scale commercial operation plants. From the viewpoint of operation data, there is no significant difference between municipal solid waste treatment with and without the bottom ash. The carbon conversion ratios are as high as 91.7% and 95.3%, respectively and this leads to significantly low PCDD/DFs yields via complete syngas combustion. The gross power generation efficiencies are 18.9% with the bottom ash and 23.0% without municipal solid waste bottom ash, respectively. The effects of the equivalence ratio are also evaluated. With the equivalence ratio increasing, carbon monoxide concentration is decreased, and carbon dioxide and the syngas temperature (top gas temperature) are increased. The carbon conversion ratio is also increased. These tendencies are seen in both modes. Co-gasification using the gasification and melting system (Direct Melting System) has a possibility to recover materials effectively. More than 90% of chlorine is distributed in fly ash. Low-boiling-point heavy metals, such as lead and zinc, are distributed in fly ash at rates of 95.2% and 92.0%, respectively. Most of high-boiling-point heavy metals, such as iron and copper, are distributed in metal. It is also clarified that slag is stable and contains few harmful heavy metals such as lead. Compared with the conventional waste management framework, 85% of the final landfill amount reduction is achieved by co-gasification of municipal solid waste with bottom ash and incombustible residues. These results indicate that the combined production of slag with co-gasification of municipal solid waste with the bottom ash constitutes an ideal approach to environmental conservation and resource recycling. PMID:22093706

  4. Fluidized bed gasification of waste-derived fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, Umberto; Zaccariello, Lucio; Mastellone, Maria Laura

    2010-07-15

    Five alternative waste-derived fuels obtained from municipal solid waste and different post-consumer packaging were fed in a pilot-scale bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, having a maximum feeding capacity of 100 kg/h. The experimental runs utilized beds of natural olivine, quartz sand or dolomite, fluidized by air, and were carried out under various values of equivalence ratio. The process resulted technically feasible with all the materials tested. The olivine, a neo-silicate of Fe and Mg with an olive-green colour, has proven to be a good candidate to act as a bed catalyst for tar removal during gasification of polyolefin plastic wastes. Thanks to its catalytic activity it is possible to obtain very high fractions of hydrogen in the syngas (between 20% and 30%), even using air as the gasifying agent, i.e. in the most favourable economical conditions and with the simplest plant and reactor configuration. The catalytic activity of olivine was instead reduced or completely inhibited when waste-derived fuels from municipal solid wastes and aggregates of different post-consumer plastic packagings were fed. Anyhow, these materials have given acceptable performance, yielding a syngas of sufficient quality for energy applications after an adequate downstream cleaning.

  5. Co-gasification of solid waste and lignite - a case study for Western Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Koukouzas, N; Katsiadakis, A; Karlopoulos, E; Kakaras, E

    2008-01-01

    Co-gasification of solid waste and coal is a very attractive and efficient way of generating power, but also an alternative way, apart from conventional technologies such as incineration and landfill, of treating waste materials. The technology of co-gasification can result in very clean power plants using a wide range of solid fuels but there are considerable economic and environmental challenges. The aim of this study is to present the available existing co-gasification techniques and projects for coal and solid wastes and to investigate the techno-economic feasibility, concerning the installation and operation of a 30MW(e) co-gasification power plant based on integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, using lignite and refuse derived fuel (RDF), in the region of Western Macedonia prefecture (WMP), Greece. The gasification block was based on the British Gas-Lurgi (BGL) gasifier, while the gas clean-up block was based on cold gas purification. The competitive advantages of co-gasification systems can be defined both by the fuel feedstock and production flexibility but also by their environmentally sound operation. It also offers the benefit of commercial application of the process by-products, gasification slag and elemental sulphur. Co-gasification of coal and waste can be performed through parallel or direct gasification. Direct gasification constitutes a viable choice for installations with capacities of more than 350MW(e). Parallel gasification, without extensive treatment of produced gas, is recommended for gasifiers of small to medium size installed in regions where coal-fired power plants operate. The preliminary cost estimation indicated that the establishment of an IGCC RDF/lignite plant in the region of WMP is not profitable, due to high specific capital investment and in spite of the lower fuel supply cost. The technology of co-gasification is not mature enough and therefore high capital requirements are needed in order to set up a direct co-gasification plant. The cost of electricity estimated was not competitive, compared to the prices dominating the Greek electricity market and thus further economic evaluation is required. The project would be acceptable if modular construction of the unit was first adopted near operating power plants, based on parallel co-gasification, and gradually incorporating the remaining process steps (gas purification, power generation) with the aim of eventually establishing a true direct co-gasification plant. PMID:17631995

  6. Co-gasification of municipal solid waste and material recovery in a large-scale gasification and melting system

    SciTech Connect

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Manako, Kazutaka; Osada, Morihiro

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of MSW with MSW bottom ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No significant difference between MSW treatment with and without MSW bottom ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCDD/DFs yields are significantly low because of the high carbon conversion ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Slag quality is significantly stable and slag contains few hazardous heavy metals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The final landfill amount is reduced and materials are recovered by DMS process. - Abstract: This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of municipal solid waste with and without the municipal solid waste bottom ash using two large-scale commercial operation plants. From the viewpoint of operation data, there is no significant difference between municipal solid waste treatment with and without the bottom ash. The carbon conversion ratios are as high as 91.7% and 95.3%, respectively and this leads to significantly low PCDD/DFs yields via complete syngas combustion. The gross power generation efficiencies are 18.9% with the bottom ash and 23.0% without municipal solid waste bottom ash, respectively. The effects of the equivalence ratio are also evaluated. With the equivalence ratio increasing, carbon monoxide concentration is decreased, and carbon dioxide and the syngas temperature (top gas temperature) are increased. The carbon conversion ratio is also increased. These tendencies are seen in both modes. Co-gasification using the gasification and melting system (Direct Melting System) has a possibility to recover materials effectively. More than 90% of chlorine is distributed in fly ash. Low-boiling-point heavy metals, such as lead and zinc, are distributed in fly ash at rates of 95.2% and 92.0%, respectively. Most of high-boiling-point heavy metals, such as iron and copper, are distributed in metal. It is also clarified that slag is stable and contains few harmful heavy metals such as lead. Compared with the conventional waste management framework, 85% of the final landfill amount reduction is achieved by co-gasification of municipal solid waste with bottom ash and incombustible residues. These results indicate that the combined production of slag with co-gasification of municipal solid waste with the bottom ash constitutes an ideal approach to environmental conservation and resource recycling.

  7. Gasification of biomass/high density polyethylene mixtures in a downdraft gasifier.

    PubMed

    García-Bacaicoa, P; Mastral, J F; Ceamanos, J; Berrueco, C; Serrano, S

    2008-09-01

    In this work, an experimental study of the thermal decomposition of mixtures of wood particles and high density polyethylene in different atmospheres has been carried out in a downdraft gasifier with a nominal processing capacity of 50 kg/h. The main objective was to study the feasibility of the operation of the gasification plant using mixtures and to investigate the characteristics of the gas obtained. In order to do so, experiments with biomass only and with mixtures with up to 15% HDPE have been carried out. The main components of the gas generated are N(2) (50%), H(2) (14%), CO (9-22%) and CO(2) (7-17%) and its relatively high calorific value was adequate for using it in an internal combustion engine generator consisting of a modified diesel engine coupled with a 25 kV A alternator. PMID:18083026

  8. Modeling and comparative assessment of municipal solid waste gasification for energy production.

    PubMed

    Arafat, Hassan A; Jijakli, Kenan

    2013-08-01

    Gasification is the thermochemical conversion of organic feedstocks mainly into combustible syngas (CO and H(2)) along with other constituents. It has been widely used to convert coal into gaseous energy carriers but only has been recently looked at as a process for producing energy from biomass. This study explores the potential of gasification for energy production and treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW). It relies on adapting the theory governing the chemistry and kinetics of the gasification process to the use of MSW as a feedstock to the process. It also relies on an equilibrium kinetics and thermodynamics solver tool (Gasify(®)) in the process of modeling gasification of MSW. The effect of process temperature variation on gasifying MSW was explored and the results were compared to incineration as an alternative to gasification of MSW. Also, the assessment was performed comparatively for gasification of MSW in the United Arab Emirates, USA, and Thailand, presenting a spectrum of socioeconomic settings with varying MSW compositions in order to explore the effect of MSW composition variance on the products of gasification. All in all, this study provides an insight into the potential of gasification for the treatment of MSW and as a waste to energy alternative to incineration. PMID:23726119

  9. Low-temperature catalytic gasification of wet industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D C; Neuenschwander, G G; Baker, E G; Sealock, Jr, L J; Butner, R S

    1991-04-01

    Bench-scale reactor tests are in progress at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop a low-temperature, catalytic gasification system. The system, licensed under the trade name Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg sign}), is designed for treating a wide variety of feedstocks ranging from dilute organics in water to waste sludges from food processing. This report describes a test program which used a continuous-feed tubular reactor. This test program is an intermediate stage in the process development. The reactor is a laboratory-scale version of the commercial concept as currently envisioned by the process developers. An energy benefit and economic analysis was also completed on the process. Four conceptual commercial installations of the TEES process were evaluated for three food processing applications and one organic chemical manufacturing application. Net energy production (medium-Btu gas) was achieved in all four cases. The organic chemical application was found to be economically attractive in the present situation. Based on sensitivity studies included in the analysis, the three food processing cases will likely become attractive in the near future as waste disposal regulations tighten and disposal costs increase. 21 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. Solar gasification of coal, activated carbon, coke and coal and biomass mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, D. W.; Taylor, R. W.; Campbell, J. H.; Taylor, J. R.; Cotton, A.

    1980-01-01

    The gasification of subbituminous coal, activated carbon, coke and a mixture of coal and biomass by direct solar irradiation in a solar furnace is investigated. Sunlight concentrated by a 23-kW solar furnace was focused directly on the fuel being gasified in a gravity-fed gasifier through a window in the reactor, and steam or CO2 was passed through the bed to react with the fuel and form a combustible product gas. Experiments performed with coal and steam resulted in the conversion of more than 40% of the sunlight arriving at the reactor focus into chemical fuel, with production rate increasing with solar power and product gas composition and thus gas heating value remaining constant. A typical moisture-free gas composition obtained consists of 54% H2, 25% CO, 16% CO2, 4% CH4 and 1% higher hydrocarbons. Experiments with activated carbon and a uniform mixture of coal and biomass resulted in similar conversion efficiencies but slightly different product gas compositions, while coke showed a lower efficiency. Advantages of solar gasification over conventional oxygen-blown gasifiers are indicated.

  11. Modeling and comparative assessment of municipal solid waste gasification for energy production

    SciTech Connect

    Arafat, Hassan A. Jijakli, Kenan

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • Study developed a methodology for the evaluation of gasification for MSW treatment. • Study was conducted comparatively for USA, UAE, and Thailand. • Study applies a thermodynamic model (Gibbs free energy minimization) using the Gasify software. • The energy efficiency of the process and the compatibility with different waste streams was studied. - Abstract: Gasification is the thermochemical conversion of organic feedstocks mainly into combustible syngas (CO and H{sub 2}) along with other constituents. It has been widely used to convert coal into gaseous energy carriers but only has been recently looked at as a process for producing energy from biomass. This study explores the potential of gasification for energy production and treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW). It relies on adapting the theory governing the chemistry and kinetics of the gasification process to the use of MSW as a feedstock to the process. It also relies on an equilibrium kinetics and thermodynamics solver tool (Gasify®) in the process of modeling gasification of MSW. The effect of process temperature variation on gasifying MSW was explored and the results were compared to incineration as an alternative to gasification of MSW. Also, the assessment was performed comparatively for gasification of MSW in the United Arab Emirates, USA, and Thailand, presenting a spectrum of socioeconomic settings with varying MSW compositions in order to explore the effect of MSW composition variance on the products of gasification. All in all, this study provides an insight into the potential of gasification for the treatment of MSW and as a waste to energy alternative to incineration.

  12. Analysis of power generation system on gasification of coal and solid wastes using high temperature air

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Hiromichi; Yoshikawa, Kunio; Shioda, Susumu

    1999-07-01

    A new concept of gasification power generation systems fueled by coal, RDF and various kinds of wastes using high temperature air is proposed. Cycle analyses of these IGCC and boiler systems are done. The calculation shows that calorific value of syngas almost doubles when one increases the gasification air temperature from 25 C to 1,000 C. More than 45% thermal efficiency is obtainable for both coal and RDF by employing the new high temperature air blown IGCC system. This IGCC system is applicable to various wastes including low grade wastes such as sludge.

  13. [Gasification characteristics of waste tires in laboratory-scale fluidized-bed gasifier].

    PubMed

    Miao, Qi; Chi, Yong; Xiao, Gang; Zhu, Wen-li; Jiang, Xu-guang; Cen, Ke-fa

    2006-05-01

    A laboratory-scale fluidized-bed gasifier was designed and used to investigate the characteristics of waste tires gasification. Granulated tires were gasified with different excessive air ratios at a temperature range of 400-700 degrees C. The gasification efficiency, carbon conversion efficiency, heating value, yield and components of syngas were analyzed. Results showed that the optimum operation conditions were achieved when the gasification temperature was 700 degrees C and the excessive air radio (EAR) was 0.4. A gaseous product, mainly containing CH4, CO, H2, C2H6, and longer-chain hydrocarbon with a lower heating value (LHV) of about 4804 kJ/m3, can be generated at the highest gasification efficiency of 47.96% under the optimum operation conditions. PMID:16850849

  14. Process and technological aspects of municipal solid waste gasification. A review

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, Umberto

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical assessment of the main commercially available MSW gasifiers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detailed discussion of the basic features of gasification process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Description of configurations of gasification-based waste-to-energy units. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental performance analysis, on the basis of independent sources data. - Abstract: The paper proposes a critical assessment of municipal solid waste gasification today, starting from basic aspects of the process (process types and steps, operating and performance parameters) and arriving to a comparative analysis of the reactors (fixed bed, fluidized bed, entrained bed, vertical shaft, moving grate furnace, rotary kiln, plasma reactor) as well as of the possible plant configurations (heat gasifier and power gasifier) and the environmental performances of the main commercially available gasifiers for municipal solid wastes. The analysis indicates that gasification is a technically viable option for the solid waste conversion, including residual waste from separate collection of municipal solid waste. It is able to meet existing emission limits and can have a remarkable effect on reduction of landfill disposal option.

  15. Demonstration plasma gasification/vitrification system for effective hazardous waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Moustakas, K; Fatta, D; Malamis, S; Haralambous, K; Loizidou, M

    2005-08-31

    Plasma gasification/vitrification is a technologically advanced and environmentally friendly method of disposing of waste, converting it to commercially usable by-products. This process is a drastic non-incineration thermal process, which uses extremely high temperatures in an oxygen-starved environment to completely decompose input waste material into very simple molecules. The intense and versatile heat generation capabilities of plasma technology enable a plasma gasification/vitrification facility to treat a large number of waste streams in a safe and reliable manner. The by-products of the process are a combustible gas and an inert slag. Plasma gasification consistently exhibits much lower environmental levels for both air emissions and slag leachate toxicity than other thermal technologies. In the framework of a LIFE-Environment project, financed by Directorate General Environment and Viotia Prefecture in Greece, a pilot plasma gasification/vitrification system was designed, constructed and installed in Viotia Region in order to examine the efficiency of this innovative technology in treating industrial hazardous waste. The pilot plant, which was designed to treat up to 50kg waste/h, has two main sections: (i) the furnace and its related equipment and (ii) the off-gas treatment system, including the secondary combustion chamber, quench and scrubber. PMID:15878635

  16. Process and technological aspects of municipal solid waste gasification. A review.

    PubMed

    Arena, Umberto

    2012-04-01

    The paper proposes a critical assessment of municipal solid waste gasification today, starting from basic aspects of the process (process types and steps, operating and performance parameters) and arriving to a comparative analysis of the reactors (fixed bed, fluidized bed, entrained bed, vertical shaft, moving grate furnace, rotary kiln, plasma reactor) as well as of the possible plant configurations (heat gasifier and power gasifier) and the environmental performances of the main commercially available gasifiers for municipal solid wastes. The analysis indicates that gasification is a technically viable option for the solid waste conversion, including residual waste from separate collection of municipal solid waste. It is able to meet existing emission limits and can have a remarkable effect on reduction of landfill disposal option. PMID:22035903

  17. The potential for adding plastic waste fuel at a coal gasification power plant.

    PubMed

    Campbell, P E; Evans, R H; McMullan, J T; Williams, B C

    2001-12-01

    Plastics wastes from a municipal solid waste plant have a high energy content which make it an interesting option for co-processing with coal. The potential for adding plastic waste to a coal fired Texaco IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) power station is examined. The resulting efficiency increases due to the improved gasification qualities of plastic over coal. For the overall economics to be the same as the coal only case, the maximum amount that the power station can afford to spend on preparing the plastic waste for use is similar to the assumed coal cost, plus the avoided landfill cost, minus the transport cost. The location of the power station plays a key role, since this has an effect on the transport costs as well as on the landfill charges. The sensitivity of the economics of co-processing plastic waste with coal for a variety of power station operational parameters is presented. PMID:12201682

  18. Leaching studies of coal gasification solid waste to meet RCRA requirements for land disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, T.; Boegly, W.J. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the research currently underway at ORNL related to the land disposal of coal gasification ash. Included are data on the chemical composition and properties of ash from five of six proposed gasification/liquefaction demonstration plants and of several selected soils. Batch leaching results are presented which determine compliance with RCRA, along with other suggested batch leaching procedures. Leaching studies with ash/soil columns are also presented. The ultimate goal of this study is to provide design information and procedures to insure that solid wastes from gasification plants will comply with RCRA regardless of whether the waste is classified as hazardous or non-hazardous.

  19. Low-temperature catalytic gasification of food processing wastes. 1995 topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.C.; Hart, T.R.

    1996-08-01

    The catalytic gasification system described in this report has undergone continuing development and refining work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for over 16 years. The original experiments, performed for the Gas Research Institute, were aimed at developing kinetics information for steam gasification of biomass in the presence of catalysts. From the fundamental research evolved the concept of a pressurized, catalytic gasification system for converting wet biomass feedstocks to fuel gas. Extensive batch reactor testing and limited continuous stirred-tank reactor tests provided useful design information for evaluating the preliminary economics of the process. This report is a follow-on to previous interim reports which reviewed the results of the studies conducted with batch and continuous-feed reactor systems from 1989 to 1994, including much work with food processing wastes. The discussion here provides details of experiments on food processing waste feedstock materials, exclusively, that were conducted in batch and continuous- flow reactors.

  20. CO-GASIFICATION OF DENSIFIED SLUDGE AND SOLID WASTE IN A DOWNDRAFT GASIFIER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thermal gasification, the subject of this report, is a new process for the co-disposal of densified sewage sludge and solid waste in a co-current flow, fixed bed reactor (also called a downdraft gasifier). The advantages of this technology include lower costs than other sewage sl...

  1. Micro-scale Plasma Arc Gasification for Waste Treatment and Energy Production Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caraccio, Anne

    2015-01-01

    As NASA continues to develop technology for spaceflight beyond low earth orbit, we must develop the right systems for sustaining human life on a long duration or planetary mission. Plasma arc gasification (PAG) is an energy efficient mechanism of waste management for power generation and synthetic gas(syngas) production.

  2. Thermodynamic Analysis of Blast Furnace Slag Waste Heat-Recovery System Integrated with Coal Gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, W. J.; Li, P.; Lei, W.; Chen, W.; Yu, Q. B.; Wang, K.; Qin, Q.

    2015-05-01

    The blast furnace (BF) slag waste heat was recovered by an integrated system stage by stage, which combined a physical and chemical method. The water and coal gasification reactions were used to recover the heat in the system. Based on the first and second law of thermodynamics, the thermodynamic analysis of the system was carried out by the enthalpy-exergy diagram. The results showed that the concept of the "recovery-temperature countercurrent, energy cascade utilization" was realized by this system to recover and use the high-quality BF slag waste heat. In this system, the high-temperature waste heat was recovered by coal gasification and the relatively low-temperature waste heat was used to produce steam. The system's exergy and thermal recycling efficiency were 52.6% and 75.4%, respectively. The exergy loss of the integrated system was only 620.0 MJ/tslag. Compared with the traditional physical recycling method producing steam, the exergy and thermal efficiencies of the integrated system were improved significantly. Meanwhile, approximately 182.0 m3/tslag syngas was produced by coal gasification. The BF slag waste heat will be used integrally and efficiently by the integrated system. The results provide the theoretical reference for recycling and using the BF slag waste heat.

  3. Waste to Energy Conversion by Stepwise Liquefaction, Gasification and "Clean" Combustion of Pelletized Waste Polyethylene for Electric Power Generation---in a Miniature Steam Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talebi Anaraki, Saber

    The amounts of waste plastics discarded in developed countries are increasing drastically, and most are not recycled. The small fractions of the post-consumer plastics which are recycled find few new uses as their quality is degraded; they cannot be reused in their original applications. However, the high energy density of plastics, similar to that of premium fuels, combined with the dwindling reserves of fossil fuels make a compelling argument for releasing their internal energy through combustion, converting it to thermal energy and, eventually, to electricity through a heat engine. To minimize the emission of pollutants this energy conversion is done in two steps, first the solid waste plastics undergo pyrolytic gasification and, subsequently, the pyrolyzates (a mixture of hydrocarbons and hydrogen) are blended with air and are burned "cleanly" in a miniature power plant. This plant consists of a steam boiler, a steam engine and an electricity generator.

  4. A case-study of landfill minimization and material recovery via waste co-gasification in a new waste management scheme.

    PubMed

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Ishida, Yoshihiro; Osada, Morihiro

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluates municipal solid waste co-gasification technology and a new solid waste management scheme, which can minimize final landfill amounts and maximize material recycled from waste. This new scheme is considered for a region where bottom ash and incombustibles are landfilled or not allowed to be recycled due to their toxic heavy metal concentration. Waste is processed with incombustible residues and an incineration bottom ash discharged from existent conventional incinerators, using a gasification and melting technology (the Direct Melting System). The inert materials, contained in municipal solid waste, incombustibles and bottom ash, are recycled as slag and metal in this process as well as energy recovery. Based on this new waste management scheme with a co-gasification system, a case study of municipal solid waste co-gasification was evaluated and compared with other technical solutions, such as conventional incineration, incineration with an ash melting facility under certain boundary conditions. From a technical point of view, co-gasification produced high quality slag with few harmful heavy metals, which was recycled completely without requiring any further post-treatment such as aging. As a consequence, the co-gasification system had an economical advantage over other systems because of its material recovery and minimization of the final landfill amount. Sensitivity analyses of landfill cost, power price and inert materials in waste were also conducted. The higher the landfill costs, the greater the advantage of the co-gasification system has. The co-gasification was beneficial for landfill cost in the range of 80 Euro per ton or more. Higher power prices led to lower operation cost in each case. The inert contents in processed waste had a significant influence on the operating cost. These results indicate that co-gasification of bottom ash and incombustibles with municipal solid waste contributes to minimizing the final landfill amount and has great possibilities maximizing material recovery and energy recovery from waste. PMID:25182227

  5. Gasification characteristics of an activated carbon catalyst during the decomposition of hazardous waste materials in supercritical water

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumura, Yukihiko; Nuessle, F.W.; Antal, M.J. Jr.

    1996-10-01

    Recently, carbonaceous materials were proved to be effective catalysts for hazardous waste decomposition in supercritical water. Gasification of the carbonaceous catalyst itself is also expected, however, under supercritical conditions. Thus, it is essential to determine the gasification rate of the carbonaceous materials during this process to determine the active lifetime of the catalysts. For this purpose, the gasification characteristics of granular coconut shell activated carbon in supercritical water alone (600-650{degrees}C, 25.5-34.5 MPa) were investigated. The gasification rate at subatmospheric pressure agreed well with the gasification rate at supercritical conditions, indicating the same reaction mechanism. Methane generation under these conditions is via pyrolysis, and thus is not affected by the water pressure. An iodine number increase of 25% was observed as a result of the supercritical water gasification.

  6. Pyrolysis and gasification of typical components in wastes with macro-TGA.

    PubMed

    Meng, Aihong; Chen, Shen; Long, Yanqiu; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Yanguo; Li, Qinghai

    2015-12-01

    The pyrolysis and gasification of typical components of solid waste, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) were performed and compared in a macro thermogravimetric analyzer (macro-TGA). Three model biomasses, poplar stem, orange peel and Chinese cabbage, were applied to pyrolysis and gasification simulation by their components based on TG curves. Compared to those from TGA, peaks temperature of the differential thermogravimetric (DTG) curves of each samples pyrolysis on macro-TGA delayed 30-55°C due to heat transferring effect. CO2 promoted the thermal decomposition of hemicellulose, lignin, starch, pectin and model biomasses significantly by Boudouard reaction, and enhanced slightly the decomposition of PET. The activation energy (AE) of biomass components pyrolysis on macro-TGA was 167-197 kJ/mol, while that of plastic samples was 185-235 kJ/mol. The activation energy of 351-377 kJ/mol was corresponding to the Boudouard reaction in CO2 gasification. All overlap ratios in pseudo-components simulation were higher than 0.98 to indicate that pseudo-components model could be applied to both pyrolysis and CO2 gasification, and the mass fractions of components derived from pyrolysis and gasification were slightly different but not brought in obvious difference in simulating curves when they were applied across. PMID:26318422

  7. A case-study of landfill minimization and material recovery via waste co-gasification in a new waste management scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Ishida, Yoshihiro; Osada, Morihiro

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • A new waste management scheme and the effects of co-gasification of MSW were assessed. • A co-gasification system was compared with other conventional systems. • The co-gasification system can produce slag and metal with high-quality. • The co-gasification system showed an economic advantage when bottom ash is landfilled. • The sensitive analyses indicate an economic advantage when the landfill cost is high. - Abstract: This study evaluates municipal solid waste co-gasification technology and a new solid waste management scheme, which can minimize final landfill amounts and maximize material recycled from waste. This new scheme is considered for a region where bottom ash and incombustibles are landfilled or not allowed to be recycled due to their toxic heavy metal concentration. Waste is processed with incombustible residues and an incineration bottom ash discharged from existent conventional incinerators, using a gasification and melting technology (the Direct Melting System). The inert materials, contained in municipal solid waste, incombustibles and bottom ash, are recycled as slag and metal in this process as well as energy recovery. Based on this new waste management scheme with a co-gasification system, a case study of municipal solid waste co-gasification was evaluated and compared with other technical solutions, such as conventional incineration, incineration with an ash melting facility under certain boundary conditions. From a technical point of view, co-gasification produced high quality slag with few harmful heavy metals, which was recycled completely without requiring any further post-treatment such as aging. As a consequence, the co-gasification system had an economical advantage over other systems because of its material recovery and minimization of the final landfill amount. Sensitivity analyses of landfill cost, power price and inert materials in waste were also conducted. The higher the landfill costs, the greater the advantage of the co-gasification system has. The co-gasification was beneficial for landfill cost in the range of 80 Euro per ton or more. Higher power prices led to lower operation cost in each case. The inert contents in processed waste had a significant influence on the operating cost. These results indicate that co-gasification of bottom ash and incombustibles with municipal solid waste contributes to minimizing the final landfill amount and has great possibilities maximizing material recovery and energy recovery from waste.

  8. Texaco coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Siegart, W.R.

    1992-01-01

    It is a pleasure to be with you today and to be speaking to you about a clean coal technology, the Texaco Coal Gasification Process. Texaco's gasification research began in the 1940s and in the 70s and 80s Texaco incorporated into its goals the production of energy from coal in an environmental clean and technological superior manner. Gasification technology can also be used to gasify other materials such as natural gas, waste refinery gas, oil, petroleum coke, and even organic waste, such as sludge, etc. This technology is also applicable to the manufacture of high purity hydrogen, which we will discuss in a few minutes. Texaco gasification is license in 100 plants throughout the world today. Texaco coal gasification technology begins with grinding the coal and slurrying it with water, pumping the slurry to a gasifier vessel through a burner where it is mixed with oxygen at approximately 2400{degrees} F and pressures of three to six hundred pounds. Here, inside a refractory lines vessel, the partial oxidation of the carbon occurs and produces hydrogen syngas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The operating temperature (2400{degrees} F) is high enough to melt the mineral matte in the coal, so that it becomes slag and falls to the bottom of the vessel. It is an inert unleachable nonhazardous material. Sulfur within the coal is converted to hydrogen sulfide and is removed by one of several commercially proven technologies as elemental sulfur.

  9. Operating and environmental performances of commercial-scale waste gasification and melting technology.

    PubMed

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Fujinaga, Yasuka; Kajiyama, Hirohisa; Ishida, Yoshihiro

    2013-11-01

    Gasification technologies for waste processing are receiving increased interest. A lot of gasification technologies, including gasification and melting, have been developed in Japan and Europe. However, the flue gas and heavy metal behaviors have not been widely reported, even though those of grate furnaces have been reported. This article reports flue gas components of gasification and melting technology in different flue gas treatment systems. Hydrogen chloride concentrations at the inlet of the bag filter ranged between 171 and 180 mg Nm(-3) owing to de-acidification by limestone injection to the gasifier. More than 97.8% of hydrogen chlorides were removed by a bag filter in both of the flue gas treatment systems investigated. Sulfur dioxide concentrations at the inlet of the baghouse were 4.8 mg Nm(-3) and 12.7 mg Nm(-3), respectively. Nitrogen oxides are highly decomposed by a selective catalytic reduction system. Owing to the low regenerations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, and the selective catalytic reduction system, the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans at the stacks were significantly lower without activated carbon injection. More than 99% of chlorine is distributed in fly ash. Low-boiling-point heavy metals, such as lead and zinc, are distributed in fly ash at rates of 97.6% and 96.5%, respectively. Most high-boiling-point heavy metals, such as iron and copper, are distributed in metal. It is also clarified that the slag is stable and contains few harmful heavy metals, such as lead. The heavy metal distribution behaviors are almost the same regardless of the compositions of the processed waste. These results indicate that the gasification of municipal solid waste constitutes an ideal approach to environmental conservation and resource recycling. PMID:24019383

  10. Characterization of products obtained from pyrolysis and steam gasification of wood waste, RDF, and RPF.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In-Hee; Kobayashi, Jun; Kawamoto, Katsuya

    2014-02-01

    Pyrolysis and steam gasification of woody biomass chip (WBC) obtained from construction and demolition wastes, refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and refuse paper and plastic fuel (RPF) were performed at various temperatures using a lab-scale instrument. The gas, liquid, and solid products were examined to determine their generation amounts, properties, and the carbon balance between raw material and products. The amount of product gas and its hydrogen concentration showed a considerable difference depending on pyrolysis and steam gasification at higher temperature. The reaction of steam and solid product, char, contributed to an increase in gas amount and hydrogen concentration. The amount of liquid products generated greatly depended on temperature rather than pyrolysis or steam gasification. The compositions of liquid product varied relying on raw materials used at 500C but the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons became the major compounds at 900C irrespective of the raw materials used. Almost fixed carbon (FC) of raw materials remained as solid products under pyrolysis condition whereas FC started to decompose at 700C under steam gasification condition. For WBC, both char utilization by pyrolysis at low temperature (500C) and syngas recovery by steam gasification at higher temperature (900C) might be practical options. From the results of carbon balance of RDF and RPF, it was confirmed that the carbon conversion to liquid products conspicuously increased as the amount of plastic increased in the raw material. To recover feedstock from RPF, pyrolysis for oil recovery at low temperature (500C) might be one of viable options. Steam gasification at 900C could be an option but the method of tar reforming (e.g. catalyst utilization) should be considered. PMID:24246576

  11. Steam gasification of tyre waste, poplar, and refuse-derived fuel: A comparative analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Galvagno, S. Casciaro, G.; Casu, S.; Martino, M.; Mingazzini, C.; Russo, A.; Portofino, S.

    2009-02-15

    In the field of waste management, thermal disposal is a treatment option able to recover resources from 'end of life' products. Pyrolysis and gasification are emerging thermal treatments that work under less drastic conditions in comparison with classic direct combustion, providing for reduced gaseous emissions of heavy metals. Moreover, they allow better recovery efficiency since the process by-products can be used as fuels (gas, oils), for both conventional (classic engines and heaters) and high efficiency apparatus (gas turbines and fuel cells), or alternatively as chemical sources or as raw materials for other processes. This paper presents a comparative study of a steam gasification process applied to three different waste types (refuse-derived fuel, poplar wood and scrap tyres), with the aim of comparing the corresponding yields and product compositions and exploring the most valuable uses of the by-products.

  12. Steam gasification of tyre waste, poplar, and refuse-derived fuel: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Galvagno, S; Casciaro, G; Casu, S; Martino, M; Mingazzini, C; Russo, A; Portofino, S

    2009-02-01

    In the field of waste management, thermal disposal is a treatment option able to recover resources from "end of life" products. Pyrolysis and gasification are emerging thermal treatments that work under less drastic conditions in comparison with classic direct combustion, providing for reduced gaseous emissions of heavy metals. Moreover, they allow better recovery efficiency since the process by-products can be used as fuels (gas, oils), for both conventional (classic engines and heaters) and high efficiency apparatus (gas turbines and fuel cells), or alternatively as chemical sources or as raw materials for other processes. This paper presents a comparative study of a steam gasification process applied to three different waste types (refuse-derived fuel, poplar wood and scrap tyres), with the aim of comparing the corresponding yields and product compositions and exploring the most valuable uses of the by-products. PMID:18657408

  13. Gasification characteristics of an activated carbon catalyst during the decomposition of hazardous waste material in supercritical water

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumura, Yukihiko; Nuessle, F.W.; Antal, M.J. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    Recently, carbonaceous materials including activated carbon were proven to be effective catalysts for hazardous waste gasification in supercritical water. Using coconut shell activated carbon catalyst, complete decomposition of industrial organic wastes including methanol and acetic acid was achieved. During this process, the total mass of the activated carbon catalyst changes by two competing processes: a decrease in weight via gasification of the carbon by supercritical water, or an increase in weight by deposition of carbonaceous materials generated by incomplete gasification of the biomass feedstocks. The deposition of carbonaceous materials does not occur when complete gasification is realized. Gasification of the activated carbon in supercritical water is often favored, resulting in changes in the quality and quantity of the catalyst. To thoroughly understand the hazardous waste decomposition process, a more complete understanding of the behavior of activated carbon in pure supercritical water is needed. The gasification rate of carbon by water vapor at subcritical pressures was studied in relation to coal gasification and generating activated carbon.

  14. Solidification of radioactive waste in a cement/lime mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, H.; Colombo, P.

    1984-01-01

    The suitability of a cement/lime mixture for use as a solidification agent for different types of wastes was investigated. This work includes studies directed towards determining the wasted/binder compositional field over which successful solidification occurs with various wastes and the measurement of some of the waste from properties relevant to evaluating the potential for the release of radionuclides to the environment. In this study, four types of low-level radioactive wastes were simulated for incorporation into a cement/lime mixture. These were boric acid waste, sodium sulfate wastes, aion exchange resins and incinerator ash. 7 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  15. Process aspects in combustion and gasification Waste-to-Energy (WtE) units.

    PubMed

    Leckner, Bo

    2015-03-01

    The utilisation of energy in waste, Waste to Energy (WtE), has become increasingly important. Waste is a wide concept, and to focus, the feedstock dealt with here is mostly municipal solid waste. It is found that combustion in grate-fired furnaces is by far the most common mode of fuel conversion compared to fluidized beds and rotary furnaces. Combinations of pyrolysis in rotary furnace or gasification in fluidized or fixed bed with high-temperature combustion are applied particularly in Japan in systems whose purpose is to melt ashes and destroy dioxins. Recently, also in Japan more emphasis is put on WtE. In countries with high heat demand, WtE in the form of heat and power can be quite efficient even in simple grate-fired systems, whereas in warm regions only electricity is generated, and for this product the efficiency of boilers (the steam data) is limited by corrosion from the flue gas. However, combination of cleaned gas from gasification with combustion provides a means to enhance the efficiency of electricity production considerably. Finally, the impact of sorting on the properties of the waste to be fed to boilers or gasifiers is discussed. The description intends to be general, but examples are mostly taken from Europe. PMID:24846797

  16. Two-stage high temperature sludge gasification using the waste heat from hot blast furnace slags.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongqi; Zhang, Zuotai; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, disposal of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants and recovery of waste heat from steel industry, become two important environmental issues and to integrate these two problems, a two-stage high temperature sludge gasification approach was investigated using the waste heat in hot slags herein. The whole process was divided into two stages, i.e., the low temperature sludge pyrolysis at ⩽ 900°C in argon agent and the high temperature char gasification at ⩾ 900°C in CO2 agent, during which the heat required was supplied by hot slags in different temperature ranges. Both the thermodynamic and kinetic mechanisms were identified and it was indicated that an Avrami-Erofeev model could best interpret the stage of char gasification. Furthermore, a schematic concept of this strategy was portrayed, based on which the potential CO yield and CO2 emission reduction achieved in China could be ∼1.92∗10(9)m(3) and 1.93∗10(6)t, respectively. PMID:26409106

  17. Low-temperature catalytic gasification of wet industrial wastes. FY 1991--1992 interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.C.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Hart, T.R.; Phelps, M.R.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.

    1993-07-01

    A catalytic gasification system operating in a pressurized water environment has been developed and refined at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for over 12 years. Initial experiments were aimed at developing kinetics information for steam gasification of biomass in the presence of catalysts. The combined use of alkali and metal catalysts was reported for gasification of biomass and its components at low temperatures (350{degrees}C to 450{degrees}C). From the fundamental research evolved the concept of a pressurized, catalytic gasification system for converting wet biomass feedstocks to fuel gas. Extensive batch reactor testing and limited continuous reactor system (CRS) testing were undertaken in the development of this system under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. A wide range of biomass feedstocks were tested, and the importance of the nickel metal catalyst was identified. Specific use of this process for treating food processing wastes was also studied. The concept application was further expanded to encompass cleanup of hazardous wastewater streams, and results were reported for batch reactor tests and continuous reactor tests. Ongoing work at PNL focuses on refining the catalyst and scaling the system to long-term industrial needs. The process is licensed as the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg_sign}) to Onsite*Ofsite, Inc., of Duarte, California. This report is a follow-on to the 1989--90 interim report [Elliott et al. 1991], which reviewed the results of the studies conducted with a fixed-bed, continuous-feed, tubular reactor. The discussion here provides an overview of experiments on the wide range of potential feedstock materials conducted in a batch reactor; development of new catalyst materials; and tests performed in continuous-flow reactors at three scales. The appendices contain the history and background of the process development, as well as more detailed descriptions and results of the recent studies.

  18. Integrated gasification and plasma cleaning for waste treatment: A life cycle perspective.

    PubMed

    Evangelisti, Sara; Tagliaferri, Carla; Clift, Roland; Lettieri, Paola; Taylor, Richard; Chapman, Chris

    2015-09-01

    In the past, almost all residual municipal waste in the UK was landfilled without treatment. Recent European waste management directives have promoted the uptake of more sustainable treatment technologies, especially for biodegradable waste. Local authorities have started considering other options for dealing with residual waste. In this study, a life cycle assessment of a future 20MWe plant using an advanced two-stage gasification and plasma technology is undertaken. This plant can thermally treat waste feedstocks with different composition and heating value to produce electricity, steam and a vitrified product. The objective of the study is to analyse the environmental impacts of the process when fed with seven different feedstocks (including municipal solid waste, solid refuse fuel, reuse-derived fuel, wood biomass and commercial & industrial waste) and identify the process steps which contribute more to the environmental burden. A scenario analysis on key processes, such as oxygen production technology, metal recovery and the appropriate choice for the secondary market aggregate material, is performed. The influence of accounting for the biogenic carbon content in the waste from the calculations of the global warming potential is also shown. Results show that the treatment of the refuse-derived fuel has the lowest impact in terms of both global warming potential and acidification potential because of its high heating value. For all the other impact categories analysed, the two-stage gasification and plasma process shows a negative impact for all the waste streams considered, mainly due to the avoided burdens associated with the production of electricity from the plant. The plasma convertor, key characteristic of the thermal process investigated, although utilising electricity shows a relatively small contribution to the overall environmental impact of the plant. The results do not significantly vary in the scenario analysis. Accounting for biogenic carbon enhanced the performance of biomass and refuse-derived fuel in terms of global warming potential. The main analysis of this study has been performed from a waste management perspective, using 1ton of waste as functional unit. A comparison of the results when 1kWhe of electricity produced is used as functional unit shows similar trends for the environmental impact categories considered. PMID:26116008

  19. Integrated gasification and plasma cleaning for waste treatment: A life cycle perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Evangelisti, Sara; Tagliaferri, Carla; Clift, Roland; Lettieri, Paola; Taylor, Richard; Chapman, Chris

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • A life cycle assessment of an advanced two-stage process is undertaken. • A comparison of the impacts of the process when fed with 7 feedstock is presented. • Sensitivity analysis on the system is performed. • The treatment of RDF shows the lowest impact in terms of both GWP and AP. • The plasma shows a small contribution to the overall impact of the plant. - Abstract: In the past, almost all residual municipal waste in the UK was landfilled without treatment. Recent European waste management directives have promoted the uptake of more sustainable treatment technologies, especially for biodegradable waste. Local authorities have started considering other options for dealing with residual waste. In this study, a life cycle assessment of a future 20 MWe plant using an advanced two-stage gasification and plasma technology is undertaken. This plant can thermally treat waste feedstocks with different composition and heating value to produce electricity, steam and a vitrified product. The objective of the study is to analyse the environmental impacts of the process when fed with seven different feedstocks (including municipal solid waste, solid refuse fuel, reuse-derived fuel, wood biomass and commercial & industrial waste) and identify the process steps which contribute more to the environmental burden. A scenario analysis on key processes, such as oxygen production technology, metal recovery and the appropriate choice for the secondary market aggregate material, is performed. The influence of accounting for the biogenic carbon content in the waste from the calculations of the global warming potential is also shown. Results show that the treatment of the refuse-derived fuel has the lowest impact in terms of both global warming potential and acidification potential because of its high heating value. For all the other impact categories analysed, the two-stage gasification and plasma process shows a negative impact for all the waste streams considered, mainly due to the avoided burdens associated with the production of electricity from the plant. The plasma convertor, key characteristic of the thermal process investigated, although utilising electricity shows a relatively small contribution to the overall environmental impact of the plant. The results do not significantly vary in the scenario analysis. Accounting for biogenic carbon enhanced the performance of biomass and refuse-derived fuel in terms of global warming potential. The main analysis of this study has been performed from a waste management perspective, using 1 ton of waste as functional unit. A comparison of the results when 1 kWhe of electricity produced is used as functional unit shows similar trends for the environmental impact categories considered.

  20. Analysis of biomass and waste gasification lean syngases combustion for power generation using spark ignition engines.

    PubMed

    Marculescu, Cosmin; Cenuşă, Victor; Alexe, Florin

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a study for food processing industry waste to energy conversion using gasification and internal combustion engine for power generation. The biomass we used consisted in bones and meat residues sampled directly from the industrial line, characterised by high water content, about 42% in mass, and potential health risks. Using the feedstock properties, experimentally determined, two air-gasification process configurations were assessed and numerically modelled to quantify the effects on produced syngas properties. The study also focused on drying stage integration within the conversion chain: either external or integrated into the gasifier. To comply with environmental regulations on feedstock to syngas conversion both solutions were developed in a closed system using a modified down-draft gasifier that integrates the pyrolysis, gasification and partial oxidation stages. Good quality syngas with up to 19.1% - CO; 17% - H2; and 1.6% - CH4 can be produced. The syngas lower heating value may vary from 4.0 MJ/Nm(3) to 6.7 MJ/Nm(3) depending on process configuration. The influence of syngas fuel properties on spark ignition engines performances was studied in comparison to the natural gas (methane) and digestion biogas. In order to keep H2 molar quota below the detonation value of ⩽4% for the engines using syngas, characterised by higher hydrogen fraction, the air excess ratio in the combustion process must be increased to [2.2-2.8]. The results in this paper represent valuable data required by the design of waste to energy conversion chains with intermediate gas fuel production. The data is suitable for Otto engines characterised by power output below 1 MW, designed for natural gas consumption and fuelled with low calorific value gas fuels. PMID:26164851

  1. Disposal of soluble salt waste from coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    McKnight, C.E.

    1980-06-01

    This paper addresses pollutants in the form of soluble salts and resource recovery in the form of water and land. A design for disposal of soluble salts has been produced. The interactions of its parameters have been shown by a process design study. The design will enable harmonious compliance with United States Public Laws 92-500 and 94-580, relating to water pollution and resource recovery. In the disposal of waste salt solutions, natural water resources need not be contaminated, because an encapsulation technique is available which will immobilize the salts. At the same time it will make useful landforms available, and water as a resource can be recovered. There is a cost minimum when electrodialysis and evaporation are combined, which is not realizable with evaporation alone, unless very low-cost thermal energy is available or unless very high-cost pretreatment for electrodialysis is required. All the processes making up the proposed disposal process are commercially available, although they are nowhere operating commercially as one process. Because of the commercial availability of the processes, the proposed process may be a candidate 'best commercially available treatment' for soluble salt disposal.

  2. Chicken-Bio Nuggets Gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Sheth, A.C.

    1996-12-31

    With the cost of landfill disposal skyrocketing and land availability becoming scarce, better options are required for managing our nation`s biomass waste. In response to this need, the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) is evaluating an innovative idea (described as Chicken-Bio Nuggets Gasification process) to gasify waste products from the poultry industry and industrial wood/biomass-based residues in {open_quotes}as-is{close_quotes} or aggregate form. The presence of potassium salts in the poultry waste as well as in the biomass can act as a catalyst in reducing the severity of the thermal gasification. As a result, the mixture of these waste products can be gasified at a much lower temperature (1,300-1,400{degrees}F versus 1,800-2,000{degrees}F for conventional thermal gasification). Also, these potassium salts act as a catalyst by accelerating the gasification reaction and enhancing the mediation reaction. Hence, the product gas from this UTSI concept can be richer in methane and probably can be used as a source of fuel (to replace propane in hard reach remote places) or as a chemical feed stock. Exxon Research and Engineering Company has tested a similar catalytic gasification concept in a fluid-bed gasifier using coal in a one ton/day pilot plant in Baytown, Texas. If found technically and economically feasible, this concept can be later on extended to include other kinds of waste products such as cow manure and wastes from swine, etc.

  3. Production of high quality syngas from argon/water plasma gasification of biomass and waste.

    PubMed

    Hlina, M; Hrabovsky, M; Kavka, T; Konrad, M

    2014-01-01

    Extremely hot thermal plasma was used for the gasification of biomass (spruce sawdust, wood pellets) and waste (waste plastics, pyrolysis oil). The plasma was produced by a plasma torch with DC electric arc using unique hybrid stabilization. The torch input power of 100-110 kW and the mass flow rate of the gasified materials of tens kg/h was set up during experiments. Produced synthetic gas featured very high content of hydrogen and carbon monoxide (together approximately 90%) that is in a good agreement with theory. High quality of the produced gas is given by extreme parameters of used plasma--composition, very high temperature and low mass flow rate. PMID:24148259

  4. Use of waste plastic in concrete mixture as aggregate replacement.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Zainab Z; Al-Hashmi, Enas A

    2008-11-01

    Industrial activities in Iraq are associated with significant amounts of non-biodegradable solid waste, waste plastic being among the most prominent. This study involved 86 experiments and 254 tests to determine the efficiency of reusing waste plastic in the production of concrete. Thirty kilograms of waste plastic of fabriform shapes was used as a partial replacement for sand by 0%, 10%, 15%, and 20% with 800 kg of concrete mixtures. All of the concrete mixtures were tested at room temperature. These tests include performing slump, fresh density, dry density, compressive strength, flexural strength, and toughness indices. Seventy cubes were molded for compressive strength and dry density tests, and 54 prisms were cast for flexural strength and toughness indices tests. Curing ages of 3, 7, 14, and 28 days for the concrete mixtures were applied in this work. The results proved the arrest of the propagation of micro cracks by introducing waste plastic of fabriform shapes to concrete mixtures. This study insures that reusing waste plastic as a sand-substitution aggregate in concrete gives a good approach to reduce the cost of materials and solve some of the solid waste problems posed by plastics. PMID:17931848

  5. An integrated approach to energy recovery from biomass and waste: Anaerobic digestion-gasification-water treatment.

    PubMed

    Milani, M; Montorsi, L; Stefani, M

    2014-06-19

    The article investigates the performance of an integrated system for the energy recovery from biomass and waste based on anaerobic digestion, gasification and water treatment. In the proposed system, the organic fraction of waste of the digestible biomass is fed into an anaerobic digester, while a part of the combustible fraction of the municipal solid waste is gasified. Thus, the obtained biogas and syngas are used as a fuel for running a cogeneration system based on an internal combustion engine to produce electric and thermal power. The waste water produced by the integrated plant is recovered by means of both forward and inverse osmosis. The different processes, as well as the main components of the system, are modelled by means of a lumped and distributed parameter approach and the main outputs of the integrated plant such as the electric and thermal power and the amount of purified water are calculated. Finally, the implementation of the proposed system is evaluated for urban areas with a different number of inhabitants and the relating performance is estimated in terms of the main outputs of the system. PMID:24946772

  6. Demonstration of thermal plasma gasification/vitrification for municipal solid waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Byun, Youngchul; Namkung, Won; Cho, Moohyun; Chung, Jae Woo; Kim, Young-Suk; Lee, Jin-Ho; Lee, Carg-Ro; Hwang, Soon-Mo

    2010-09-01

    Thermal plasma treatment has been regarded as a viable alternative for the treatment of highly toxic wastes, such as incinerator residues, radioactive wastes, and medical wastes. Therefore, a gasification/vitrification unit for the direct treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW), with a capacity of 10 tons/day, was developed using an integrated furnace equipped with two nontransferred thermal plasma torches. The overall process, as well as the analysis of byproducts and energy balance, has been presented in this paper to assess the performance of this technology. It was successfully demonstrated that the thermal plasma process converted MSW into innocuous slag, with much lower levels of environmental air pollutant emissions and the syngas having a utility value as energy sources (287 Nm3/MSW-ton for H2 and 395 Nm3/MSW-ton for CO), using 1.14 MWh/MSW-ton of electricity (thermal plasma torch (0.817 MWh/MSW-ton)+utilities (0.322 MWh/MSW-ton)) and 7.37 Nm3/MSW-ton of liquefied petroleum gas. PMID:20677789

  7. Evaluation of gasification and novel thermal processes for the treatment of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Niessen, W.R.; Marks, C.H.; Sommerlad, R.E.

    1996-08-01

    This report identifies seven developers whose gasification technologies can be used to treat the organic constituents of municipal solid waste: Energy Products of Idaho; TPS Termiska Processor AB; Proler International Corporation; Thermoselect Inc.; Battelle; Pedco Incorporated; and ThermoChem, Incorporated. Their processes recover heat directly, produce a fuel product, or produce a feedstock for chemical processes. The technologies are on the brink of commercial availability. This report evaluates, for each technology, several kinds of issues. Technical considerations were material balance, energy balance, plant thermal efficiency, and effect of feedstock contaminants. Environmental considerations were the regulatory context, and such things as composition, mass rate, and treatability of pollutants. Business issues were related to likelihood of commercialization. Finally, cost and economic issues such as capital and operating costs, and the refuse-derived fuel preparation and energy conversion costs, were considered. The final section of the report reviews and summarizes the information gathered during the study.

  8. Steam gasification of waste tyre: Influence of process temperature on yield and product composition

    SciTech Connect

    Portofino, Sabrina; Donatelli, Antonio; Iovane, Pierpaolo; Innella, Carolina; Civita, Rocco; Martino, Maria; Matera, Domenico Antonio; Russo, Antonio; Cornacchia, Giacinto; Galvagno, Sergio

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Steam gasification of waste tyre as matter and energy recovery treatment. ► Process temperature affects products yield and gas composition. ► High temperature promotes hydrogen production. ► Char exploitation as activated carbon or carbon source. - Abstract: An experimental survey of waste tyre gasification with steam as oxidizing agent has been conducted in a continuous bench scale reactor, with the aim of studying the influence of the process temperature on the yield and the composition of the products; the tests have been performed at three different temperatures, in the range of 850–1000 °C, holding all the other operational parameters (pressure, carrier gas flow, solid residence time). The experimental results show that the process seems promising in view of obtaining a good quality syngas, indicating that a higher temperature results in a higher syngas production (86 wt%) and a lower char yield, due to an enhancement of the solid–gas phase reactions with the temperature. Higher temperatures clearly result in higher hydrogen concentrations: the hydrogen content rapidly increases, attaining values higher than 65% v/v, while methane and ethylene gradually decrease over the range of the temperatures; carbon monoxide and dioxide instead, after an initial increase, show a nearly constant concentration at 1000 °C. Furthermore, in regards to the elemental composition of the synthesis gas, as the temperature increases, the carbon content continuously decreases, while the oxygen content increases; the hydrogen, being the main component of the gas fraction and having a small atomic weight, is responsible for the progressive reduction of the gas density at higher temperature.

  9. Low-temperature catalytic gasification of wet industrial wastes. FY 1993--1994 interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.C.; Hart, T.R.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Deverman, G.S.; Werpy, T.A.; Phelps, M.R.; Baker, E.G.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.

    1995-03-01

    Process development research is continuing on a low-temperature, catalytic gasification system that has been demonstrated to convert organics in water (dilute or concentrated) to useful and environmentally safe gases. The system, licensed under the trade name Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEESO), treats a wide variety of feedstocks ranging from hazardous organics in water to waste sludges from food processing. The current research program is focused on the use of continuous-feed, tubular reactors systems for testing catalysts and feedstocks in the process. A range of catalysts have been tested, including nickel and other base metals, as well as ruthenium and other precious metals. Results of extensive testing show that feedstocks, ranging from 2% para-cresol in water to potato waste and spent grain, can be processed to > 99% reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD). The product fuel gas contains from 40% up to 75% methane, depending on the feedstock. The balance of the gas is mostly carbon dioxide with < 5% hydrogen and usually < 1% ethane and higher hydrocarbons. The byproduct water stream carries residual organics from 10 to 1,000 mg/l COD, depending on the feedstock. The level of development of TEES has progressed to the initial phases of industrial process demonstration. Testing of industrial waste streams is under way at both the bench scale and engineering scale of development.

  10. Element partitioning in combustion- and gasification-based waste-to-energy units

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, Umberto; Di Gregorio, Fabrizio

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Element partitioning of waste-to-energy units by means of a substance flow analysis. ► A comparison between moving grate combustors and high temperature gasifiers. ► Classification of key elements according to their behavior during WtE processes. ► Slags and metals from waste gasifiers are completely and immediately recyclable. ► Potential reduction of amounts of solid residue to be sent to landfill disposal. - Abstract: A critical comparison between combustion- and gasification-based waste-to-energy systems needs a deep knowledge of the mass flows of materials and elements inside and throughout the units. The study collected and processed data from several moving grate conventional incinerators and high-temperature shaft gasifiers with direct melting, which are in operation worldwide. A material and substance flow analysis was then developed to systematically assess the flows and stocks of materials and elements within each waste-to-energy unit, by connecting the sources, pathways, and intermediate and final sinks of each species. The patterns of key elements, such as carbon, chloride and heavy metals, in the different solid and gaseous output streams of the two compared processes have been then defined. The combination of partitioning coefficients with the mass balances on atomic species and results of mineralogical characterization from recent literatures was used to estimate a composition of bottom ashes and slags from the two types of waste-to-energy technologies. The results also allow to quantify some of the performance parameters of the units and, in particular, the potential reduction of the amount of solid residues to be sent to final disposal.

  11. Radioactive waste forms stabilized by ChemChar gasification: characterization and leaching behavior of cerium, thorium, protactinium, uranium, and neptunium.

    PubMed

    Marrero, T W; Morris, J S; Manahan, S E

    2004-02-01

    The uses of a thermally reductive gasification process in conjunction with vitrification and cementation for the long-term disposal of low level radioactive materials have been investigated. gamma-ray spectroscopy was used for analysis of carrier-free protactinium-233 and neptunium-239 and a stoichiometric amount of cerium (observed cerium-141) subsequent to gasification and leaching, up to 48 days. High resolution ICP-MS was used to analyze the cerium, thorium, and uranium from 46 to 438 days of leaching. Leaching procedures followed the guidance of ASTM Procedure C 1220-92, Standard Test Method for Static Leaching of Monolithic Waste Forms for Disposal of Radioactive Waste. The combination of the thermally reductive pretreatment, vitrification and cementation produced a highly non-leachable form suitable for long-term disposal of cerium, thorium, protactinium, uranium, and neptunium. PMID:14637345

  12. Multi-gene genetic programming based predictive models for municipal solid waste gasification in a fluidized bed gasifier.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Daya Shankar; Pan, Indranil; Das, Saptarshi; Leahy, James J; Kwapinski, Witold

    2015-03-01

    A multi-gene genetic programming technique is proposed as a new method to predict syngas yield production and the lower heating value for municipal solid waste gasification in a fluidized bed gasifier. The study shows that the predicted outputs of the municipal solid waste gasification process are in good agreement with the experimental dataset and also generalise well to validation (untrained) data. Published experimental datasets are used for model training and validation purposes. The results show the effectiveness of the genetic programming technique for solving complex nonlinear regression problems. The multi-gene genetic programming are also compared with a single-gene genetic programming model to show the relative merits and demerits of the technique. This study demonstrates that the genetic programming based data-driven modelling strategy can be a good candidate for developing models for other types of fuels as well. PMID:25576988

  13. Development of ash and waste water mixture treatment system (AWMT)

    SciTech Connect

    Yagasaki, T.; Ohishi, T.; Okino, S.

    1995-06-01

    In thermal power station burning heavy oil, especially orimulsion, flyash captured at ESP needs to be handled in slurry form to avoid handling difficulty. Further, such removal of ammonia included highly in both flyash and FGD waste water is desirable for environmental protection. Accordingly, large merit can be expected if a system integrated with FGD facility can be developed where FGD waste water is utilized for preparing ash slurry and ammonia is recovered from this flyash and FGD waste water mixture for reutilization in the flue gas treatment section while reducing process waste matter amount and making the FGD process waste-water-free. Thereupon, Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc. and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. jointly carried out a feasibility study including elementary research and realized an economical system based on the foregoing processing. This paper introduces this system and a 20MW pilot plant under construction at Owase-Mita Thermal Power Station.

  14. Construction material properties of slag from the high temperature arc gasification of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Roessler, Justin G; Olivera, Fernando D; Wasman, Scott J; Townsend, Timothy G; McVay, Michael C; Ferraro, Christopher C; Blaisi, Nawaf I

    2016-06-01

    Slag from the high temperature arc gasification (HTAG) of municipal solid waste (MSW) was tested to evaluate its material properties with respect to use as a construction aggregate. These data were compared to previously compiled values for waste to energy bottom ash, the most commonly produced and beneficially used thermal treatment residue. The slag was tested using gradations representative of a base course and a course aggregate. Los Angeles (LA) abrasion testing demonstrated that the HTAG slag had a high resistance to fracture with a measured LA loss of 24%. Soundness testing indicated a low potential for reactivity and good weathering resistance with a mean soundness loss of 3.14%. The modified Proctor compaction testing found the slag to possess a maximum dry density (24.04kN/m(3)) greater than conventionally used aggregates and WTE BA. The LBR tests demonstrated a substantial bearing capacity (>200). Mineralogical analysis of the HTAG suggested the potential for self cementing character which supports the elevated LBR results. Preliminary material characterization of the HTAG slag establishes potential for beneficial use; larger and longer term studies focusing on the material's possibility for swelling and performance at the field scale level are needed. PMID:27020344

  15. Gasification system

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, Gaurang B.; Anderson, Richard G.; Cherish, Peter

    1985-01-01

    A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

  16. Gasification system

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, Gaurang B.; Anderson, Richard G.; Cherish, Peter

    1983-01-01

    A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

  17. Influence of particle size on pyrolysis and gasification performance of municipal solid waste in a fixed bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Luo, Siyi; Xiao, Bo; Hu, Zhiquan; Liu, Shiming; Guan, Yanwen; Cai, Lei

    2010-08-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification of municipal solid waste (MSW) were carried out in a lab-scale fixed bed reactor in order to evaluate the effects of particle size at different bed temperatures on product yield and composition. The bed temperature was varied from 600 to 900 degrees C and the MSW was separated into three different size fractions (below 5 mm, 50-10 mm and above 10 mm). Particle size and temperature had integrated effects on product yield and composition: higher temperature resulted in higher gas yield with less tar and char, and, at the same temperature, dry gas yield increased with a decrease in particle size, and char and tar yield decreased. The differences due to particle sizes in pyrolysis and gasification performance practically disappeared at the highest temperatures tested. Smaller particle sizes resulted in higher H(2) and CO contents for both pyrolysis and gasification of MSW. Minimizing the size of raw materials is an alternative method to improve the gas quality of MSW pyrolysis and gasification. PMID:20363619

  18. Microgravity and Hypogravity Compatible Methods for the Destruction of Solid Wastes by Magnetically Assisted Gasification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, James E.; Akse, James R.; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Jovanovic, Goran N.; Pinto-Espinoza, Joaquin; Reed, Brian; Sornchamni, Thana

    2003-01-01

    This report summarizes a three-year collaborative effort between researchers at UMPQUA Research Company (URC) and the Chemical Engineering Department at Oregon State University (OSU). The Magnetically Assisted Gasification (MAG) concept was originally conceived as a microgravity and hypogravity compatible means for the decomposition of solid waste materials generated aboard spacecraft, lunar and planetary habitations, and for the recovery of potentially valuable resources. While a number of methods such as supercritical water oxidation (SCW0), fluidized bed incineration, pyrolysis , composting and related biological processes have been demonstrated for the decomposition of solid wastes, none of these methods are particularly well- suited for employment under microgravity or hypogravity conditions. For example, fluidized bed incineration relies upon a balance between drag forces which the flowing gas stream exerts upon the fluidization particles and the opposing force of gravity. In the absence of gravity, conventional fluidization cannot take place. Hypogravity operation can also be problematic for conventional fluidized bed reactors, because the various factors which govern fluidization phenomena do not all scale linearly with gravity. For this reason it may be difficult to design and test fluidized bed reactors in lg, which are intended to operate under different gravitational conditions. However, fluidization can be achieved in microgravity (and hypogravity) if a suitable replacement force to counteract the forces between fluid and particles can be found. Possible alternatives include: centripetal force, electric fields, or magnetic fields. Of these, magnetic forces created by the action of magnetic fields and magnetic field gradients upon ferromagnetic media offer the most practical approach. The goal of this URC-OSU collaborative effort was to develop magnetic hardware and methods to control the degree of fluidization (or conversely consolidation) of granular ferromagnetic media and to employ these innovations in sequential filtration and fluidized bed processes for the segregation and decomposition of solid waste materials, and for the concentration and collection of inorganic residue (ash). This required the development of numerous enabling technologies and tools.

  19. Recovery of copper from PVC multiwire cable waste by steam gasification.

    PubMed

    Zabłocka-Malicka, Monika; Rutkowski, Piotr; Szczepaniak, Włodzimierz

    2015-12-01

    Screened multiwire, PVC insulated tinned copper cable was gasified with steam at high temperature (HTSG) under atmospheric pressure for recovery of cooper. Gases from the process were additionally equilibrated at 850°C on the bed of calcined clay granules and more than 98% of C+H content in the cable was transformed to non-condensing species. Granules prepared from local clay were generally resistant for chlorination, there was also almost no deposition of metals, Cu and Sn, on the catalytic bed. It was found that 28% of chlorine reacted to form CaCl2, 71% was retained in aqueous condensate and only 0.6% was absorbed in alkaline scrubber. More than 99% of calcium existed in the process solid residue as a mixture of calcium chloride and calcium oxide/hydroxide. PVC and other hydrocarbon constituents were completely removed from the cable sample. Copper was preserved in original form and volatilization of copper species appeared insignificant. Tin was alloying with copper and its volatilization was less than 1%. Fractionation and speciation of metals, chlorine and calcium were discussed on the basis of equilibrium model calculated with HSC Chemistry software. High temperature steam gasification prevents direct use of the air and steam/water is in the process simultaneously gaseous carrier and reagent, which may be recycled together with hydrocarbon condensates. PMID:26282888

  20. Water quality analysis of mixtures obtained from tannery waste effluents.

    PubMed

    Bajza, Z; Vrcek, I V

    2001-09-01

    In this study, the mixing of waste solution obtained from chrome tanning process and waste solution derived from liming of bovine leather was investigated. The liming process of bovine leather was performed using calcium carbonate and sodium sulfide, and the tanning process was performed using alkaline chromium sulfate. The analyses of waste solutions and sediments formed during the mixing process include pH values, the concentration of sulfides, the concentration of chromium(III) oxide, and parameters such as chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand. All measurements were carried out before and after the mixing process. Results indicate that the mixing of the corresponding waste solutions yields the mixture effluents that are ecologically acceptable. PMID:11534948

  1. Hydrothermal gasification of waste biomass: process design and life cycle asessment.

    PubMed

    Luterbacher, Jeremy S; Fröling, Morgan; Vogel, Frederic; Maréchal, François; Tester, Jefferson W

    2009-03-01

    A process evaluation methodology is presented that incorporates flowsheet mass and energy balance modeling, heat and power integration, and life cycle assessment Environmental impacts are determined by characterizing and weighting (using CO2 equivalents, Eco-indicator 99, and Eco-scarcity) the flowsheet and inventory modeling results. The methodology is applied to a waste biomass to synthetic natural gas (SNG) conversion process involving a catalytic hydrothermal gasification step. Several scenarios are constructed for different Swiss biomass feedstocks and different scales depending on logistical choices: large-scale (155 MW(SNG)) and small-scale (5.2 MW(SNG)) scenarios for a manure feedstock and one scenario (35.6 MW(SNG))for a wood feedstock. Process modeling shows that 62% of the manure's lower heating value (LHV) is converted to SNG and 71% of wood's LHV is converted to SNG. Life cycle modeling shows that, for all processes, about 10% of fossil energy use is imbedded in the produced renewable SNG. Converting manure and replacing it, as a fertilizer, with the process mineral byproduct leads to reduced N20 emissions and an improved environmental performance such as global warming potential: -0.6 kg(CO2eq)/MJ(SNG) vs. -0.02 kg(CO2eq)/MJ(SNG) for wood scenarios. PMID:19350938

  2. Bench-scale reactor tests of low-temperature, catalytic gasification of wet, industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.C.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Baker, E.G.; Butner, R.S.; Sealock, L.J.

    1990-04-01

    Bench-scale reactor tests are under way at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop a low-temperature, catalytic gasification system. The system, licensed under the trade name Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg sign}), is designed for to a wide variety of feedstocks ranging from dilute organics in water to waste sludges from food processing. The current research program is focused on the use of a continuous-feed, tubular reactor. The catalyst is nickel metal on an inert support. Typical results show that feedstocks such as solutions of 2% para-cresol or 5% and 10% lactose in water or cheese whey can be processed to >99% reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) at a rate of up to 2 L/hr. The estimated residence time is less than 5 min at 360{degree}C and 3000 psig, not including 1 to 2 min required in the preheating zone of the reactor. The liquid hourly space velocity has been varied from 1.8 to 2.9 L feedstock/L catalyst/hr depending on the feedstock. The product fuel gas contains 40% to 55% methane, 35% to 50% carbon dioxide, and 5% to 10% hydrogen with as much as 2% ethane, but less than 0.1% ethylene or carbon monoxide, and small amounts of higher hydrocarbons. The byproduct water stream carries residual organics amounting to less than 500 mg/L COD. 9 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  3. Bench-scale reactor tests of low temperature, catalytic gasification of wet industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot, D.C.; Baker, E.G.; Butner, R.S.; Sealock, L.J. Jr. )

    1993-02-01

    Bench-scale reactor tests are under way at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop a low temperature, catalytic gasification system. The system, licensed under the trade name Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES[reg sign]), is designed for to a wide variety of feedstocks ranging from dilute organics in water to waste sludges from food processing. The current research program is focused on the use of a continuous feed, tubular reactor. The catalyst is nickel metal on an inert support. Typical results show that feedstocks such as solutions of 2 percent para-cresol or 5 percent and 10 percent lactose in water or cheese whey can be processed to [gt] 99 percent reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) at a rate of up to 2 L/hr. The estimated residence lime is less than 5 min at 360C and 3,000 psig, not including 1 to 2 min required in the preheating zone of the reactor. The liquid hourly space velocity has been varied from 1.8 to 2.9 L feedstock/L catalyst/hr depending on the feedstock. The product fuel gas contains 40 percent to 55 percent methane, 35 percent to 50 percent carbon dioxide, and 5 percent to 10 percent hydrogen with as much as 2 percent ethane, but less than 0.1 percent ethylene or carbon monoxide, and small amounts of higher hydrocarbons. The byproduct water stream carries residual organics amounting to less than 500 mg/L COD.

  4. A techno-economic comparison of fluidized bed gasification of two mixed plastic wastes.

    PubMed

    Arena, U; Di Gregorio, F; Amorese, C; Mastellone, M L

    2011-07-01

    A comparison between the most promising design configurations for the industrial application of gasification based, plastics-to-energy cogenerators in the 2-6 MWe range is presented. A pilot scale bubbling fluidized bed air gasifier, having a feeding capacity of 100 kg/h, provided experimental data: the syngas complete composition, the characterization of the bed material, the entrained fines collected at the cyclone and the purge material from the scrubber. Mass and energy balances and material and substance flow analyses have been therefore drawn to assess and compare design solutions utilizing two mixed plastic wastes (MPW) obtained from separate collection of plastic packaging, after different levels of pre-treatments. The related techno-economic performances have been finally estimated on the basis of the manufacturer's specifications. The study concludes that the MPW obtained after a very simple pre-treatment and fed to a gasifier coupled with a steam turbine is the solution that currently offers the higher reliability and provides the higher internal rate of return for the investigated range of electrical energy production. PMID:21377344

  5. Environmental assessment of the atlas bio-energy waste wood fluidized bed gasification power plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Holzman, M.I.

    1995-08-01

    The Atlas Bio-Energy Corporation is proposing to develop and operate a 3 MW power plant in Brooklyn, New York that will produce electricity by gasification of waste wood and combustion of the produced low-Btu gas in a conventional package steam boiler coupled to a steam-electric generator. The objectives of this project were to assist Atlas in addressing the environmental permit requirements for the proposed power plant and to evaluate the environmental and economic impacts of the project compared to more conventional small power plants. The project`s goal was to help promote the commercialization of biomass gasification as an environmentally acceptable and economically attractive alternative to conventional wood combustion. The specific components of this research included: (1) Development of a permitting strategy plan; (2) Characterization of New York City waste wood; (3) Characterization of fluidized bed gasifier/boiler emissions; (4) Performance of an environmental impact analysis; (5) Preparation of an economic evaluation; and (6) Discussion of operational and maintenance concerns. The project is being performed in two phases. Phase I, which is the subject of this report, involves the environmental permitting and environmental/economic assessment of the project. Pending NYSERDA participation, Phase II will include development and implementation of a demonstration program to evaluate the environmental and economic impacts of the full-scale gasification project.

  6. Fluid bed gasification--plasma converter process generating energy from solid waste: experimental assessment of sulphur species.

    PubMed

    Morrin, Shane; Lettieri, Paola; Chapman, Chris; Taylor, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Often perceived as a Cinderella material, there is growing appreciation for solid waste as a renewable content thermal process feed. Nonetheless, research on solid waste gasification and sulphur mechanisms in particular is lacking. This paper presents results from two related experiments on a novel two stage gasification process, at demonstration scale, using a sulphur-enriched wood pellet feed. Notable SO2 and relatively low COS levels (before gas cleaning) were interesting features of the trials, and not normally expected under reducing gasification conditions. Analysis suggests that localised oxygen rich regions within the fluid bed played a role in SO2's generation. The response of COS to sulphur in the feed was quite prompt, whereas SO2 was more delayed. It is proposed that the bed material sequestered sulphur from the feed, later aiding SO2 generation. The more reducing gas phase regions above the bed would have facilitated COS--hence its faster response. These results provide a useful insight, with further analysis on a suite of performed experiments underway, along with thermodynamic modelling. PMID:24176239

  7. Enhanced selective metal adsorption on optimised agroforestry waste mixtures.

    PubMed

    Rosales, Emilio; Ferreira, Laura; Sanromán, M Ángeles; Tavares, Teresa; Pazos, Marta

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work is to ascertain the potentials of different agroforestry wastes to be used as biosorbents in the removal of a mixture of heavy metals. Fern (FE), rice husk (RI) and oak leaves (OA) presented the best removal percentages for Cu(II) and Ni(II), Mn(II) and Zn(II) and Cr(VI), respectively. The performance of a mixture of these three biosorbents was evaluated, and an improvement of 10% in the overall removal was obtained (19.25mg/g). The optimum mixture proportions were determined using simplex-centroid mixture design method (FE:OA:RI=50:13.7:36.3). The adsorption kinetics and isotherms of the optimised mixture were fit by the pseudo-first order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption mechanism was studied, and the effects of the carboxylic, hydroxyl and phenolic groups on metal-biomass binding were demonstrated. Finally, the recoveries of the metals using biomass were investigated, and cationic metal recoveries of 100% were achieved when acidic solutions were used. PMID:25681794

  8. Biomass waste gasification - Can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?

    SciTech Connect

    Sulc, Jindrich; Stojdl, Jiri; Richter, Miroslav; Popelka, Jan; Svoboda, Karel; Smetana, Jiri; Vacek, Jiri; Skoblja, Siarhei; Buryan, Petr

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of one stage (co-current) and two stage gasification of wood pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Original arrangement with grate-less reactor and upward moving bed of the pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two stage gasification leads to drastic reduction of tar content in gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer One stage gasification produces gas with higher LHV at lower overall ER. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Content of ammonia in gas is lower in two stage moving bed gasification. - Abstract: A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of tar compounds, content of inorganic gas impurities) were compared for the two stage and the one stage method of the gasification arrangement with only the upward moving bed (co-current updraft). The main novel features of the gasifier conception include grate-less reactor, upward moving bed of biomass particles (e.g. pellets) by means of a screw elevator with changeable rotational speed and gradual expanding diameter of the cylindrical reactor in the part above the upper end of the screw. The gasifier concept and arrangement are considered convenient for thermal power range 100-350 kW{sub th}. The second stage of the gasifier served mainly for tar compounds destruction/reforming by increased temperature (around 950 Degree-Sign C) and for gasification reaction of the fuel gas with char. The second stage used additional combustion of the fuel gas by preheated secondary air for attaining higher temperature and faster gasification of the remaining char from the first stage. The measurements of gas composition and tar compound contents confirmed superiority of the two stage gasification system, drastic decrease of aromatic compounds with two and higher number of benzene rings by 1-2 orders. On the other hand the two stage gasification (with overall ER = 0.71) led to substantial reduction of gas heating value (LHV = 3.15 MJ/Nm{sup 3}), elevation of gas volume and increase of nitrogen content in fuel gas. The increased temperature (>950 Degree-Sign C) at the entrance to the char bed caused also substantial decrease of ammonia content in fuel gas. The char with higher content of ash leaving the second stage presented only few mass% of the inlet biomass stream.

  9. Thermal degradation of paper industry wastes from a recovered paper mill using TGA. Characterization and gasification test.

    PubMed

    Arenales Rivera, Jorge; Pérez López, Virginia; Ramos Casado, Raquel; Sánchez Hervás, José-María

    2016-01-01

    In this survey, a refuse derived fuel (RDF) was produced from paper industry wastes through a mechanical treatment (MT). The two main wastes generated from a recovered paper mill were rejects and de-inking sludge, which were produced principally in the pulping and de-inking processes, respectively. This work presents raw wastes characterization, fuel preparation and gasification tests performed in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasifier pilot plant. The characterization was carried out by proximate and ultimate analysis. Several blends of pre-conditioned rejects and de-inking sludge were densified by means of pelletizing, studying the energy consumption and its quality properties. Besides, thermal degradation of blends was studied under thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The experimental runs were made from 30 to 900°C in nitrogen atmosphere at three heating ranges, β=5, 10 and 20°C/min. Two thermal stages were identified during the thermal degradation, which are linked to cellulose and plastic degradation. In addition, kinetics parameters were estimated by the application of non-isothermal methods: Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS), Flynn-Ozawa-Wall (FOW) and Coats and Redfern. The activation energy values were about 140-160kJ/mol and 60-80kJ/mol for plastic and cellulosic materials, respectively. Regarding waste valorisation, a blend composed of 95% of rejects and 5% of de-inking sludge was selected for gasification tests. The energy consumption during the preparation was recorded and a gasification tests were done to prove the usability of these pellets in a CFB gasifier. The main results were a net calorific value (NCV) of 5MJ/Nm(3) and a total tar content of 11.44g/Nm(3) at an equivalence ratio (ER) of 0.3. PMID:26013694

  10. Rotary drum composting of different organic waste mixtures.

    PubMed

    Kalamdhad, Ajay S; Kazmi, Absar A

    2009-03-01

    The effects of three different mixtures of organic waste on composting in a rotary drum were examined by measuring changes in physico-chemical and biological parameters. It was observed that the time courses of the three mixtures: run A (grass cuttings, vegetable waste and food waste), run B (cattle manure, vegetable waste and sawdust) and run C (cattle manure, food waste, vegetable waste, paper waste and sawdust) were quite diverse. Run B, with initial C/N ratio 22 and containing a large proportion of cattle manure produced high quality and mature compost within 20 days. It showed a final total nitrogen (2.1%), final total phosphorus 3.52 g kg(-1), final total organic carbon (TOC) (24.8%) and final moisture content (44%). At the end of 20 days, higher degradation led to final chemical oxygen demand (COD) (454 mg L(- 1)), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (107 mg L(- 1)), fecal coliform (1.2 x 10(2) bacteria g(- 1)), fecal streptococci (85 bacteria g(-1)) and low electrical conductivity (1.658 dS m(-1)), respectively. Furthermore, run C with initial C/N ratio of 30 and containing a larger amount of food and vegetable waste produced good quality compost and resulted in 4.34% total nitrogen and 2.42% total phosphorus after 20 days, but, it had higher final fecal coliform 2.5 x 10(4) bacteria g( -1), fecal streptococci 2.1 x 10(4) bacteria g(-1), high TOC and NH(4)-N and a BOD/COD ratio of 0.63, which rendered it hygienically unsafe and immature. Finally, run A with initial C/N ratio of 15 showed a higher amount of EC (4.84 dS m(-1)), NH(4)-N, BOD/COD ratio of 0.4 with 15% nitrogen loss, which indicated an unstable product even after 20 days of composting. Therefore, it was found that rotary drum composting of a combination of cattle manure, vegetable waste and sawdust resulted in a primary stabilized compost within 20 days of composting. PMID:19244412

  11. A biomass combustion-gasification model: Validation and sensitivity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bettagli, N.; Fiaschi, D.; Desideri, U.

    1995-12-01

    The aim of the present paper is to study the gasification and combustion of biomass and waste materials. A model for the analysis of the chemical kinetics of gasification and combustion processes was developed with the main objective of calculating the gas composition at different operating conditions. The model was validated with experimental data for sawdust gasification. After having set the main kinetic parameters, the model was tested with other types of biomass, whose syngas composition is known. A sensitivity analysis was also performed to evaluate the influence of the main parameters, such as temperature, pressure, and air-fuel ratio on the composition of the exit gas. Both oxygen and air (i.e., a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen) gasification processes were simulated.

  12. Integration of coal gasification and waste heat recovery from high temperature steel slags: an emerging strategy to emission reduction

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yongqi; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-01-01

    With the continuous urbanization and industrialization in the world, energy saving and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction have been serious issues to be addressed, for which heat recovery from traditional energy-intensive industries makes up a significant strategy. Here we report a novel approach to extract the waste heat and iron from high temperature steel slags (1450–1650 oC) produced in the steel industry, i.e., integration of coal gasification and steel slag treatment. Both the thermodynamics and kinetics of the pertinent reactions were identified. It was clarified that the kinetic mechanism for gasification varied from A2 model to A4 model (Avrami-Erofeev) in the presence of slags. Most importantly, the steel slags acted not only as good heat carriers but also as effective catalysts where the apparent activation energy for char gasification got remarkably reduced from 95.7 kJ/mol to 12.1 kJ/mol (A2 model). Furthermore, the FeO in the slags was found to be oxidized into Fe3O4, with an extra energy release, which offered a potential for magnetic separation. Moreover, based on the present research results, an emerging concept, composed of multiple industrial sectors, was proposed, which could serve as an important route to deal with the severe environmental problems in modern society. PMID:26558350

  13. Integration of coal gasification and waste heat recovery from high temperature steel slags: an emerging strategy to emission reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yongqi; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-11-01

    With the continuous urbanization and industrialization in the world, energy saving and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction have been serious issues to be addressed, for which heat recovery from traditional energy-intensive industries makes up a significant strategy. Here we report a novel approach to extract the waste heat and iron from high temperature steel slags (1450-1650 oC) produced in the steel industry, i.e., integration of coal gasification and steel slag treatment. Both the thermodynamics and kinetics of the pertinent reactions were identified. It was clarified that the kinetic mechanism for gasification varied from A2 model to A4 model (Avrami-Erofeev) in the presence of slags. Most importantly, the steel slags acted not only as good heat carriers but also as effective catalysts where the apparent activation energy for char gasification got remarkably reduced from 95.7 kJ/mol to 12.1 kJ/mol (A2 model). Furthermore, the FeO in the slags was found to be oxidized into Fe3O4, with an extra energy release, which offered a potential for magnetic separation. Moreover, based on the present research results, an emerging concept, composed of multiple industrial sectors, was proposed, which could serve as an important route to deal with the severe environmental problems in modern society.

  14. Integration of coal gasification and waste heat recovery from high temperature steel slags: an emerging strategy to emission reduction.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongqi; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-01-01

    With the continuous urbanization and industrialization in the world, energy saving and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction have been serious issues to be addressed, for which heat recovery from traditional energy-intensive industries makes up a significant strategy. Here we report a novel approach to extract the waste heat and iron from high temperature steel slags (1450-1650 (o)C) produced in the steel industry, i.e., integration of coal gasification and steel slag treatment. Both the thermodynamics and kinetics of the pertinent reactions were identified. It was clarified that the kinetic mechanism for gasification varied from A2 model to A4 model (Avrami-Erofeev) in the presence of slags. Most importantly, the steel slags acted not only as good heat carriers but also as effective catalysts where the apparent activation energy for char gasification got remarkably reduced from 95.7 kJ/mol to 12.1 kJ/mol (A2 model). Furthermore, the FeO in the slags was found to be oxidized into Fe3O4, with an extra energy release, which offered a potential for magnetic separation. Moreover, based on the present research results, an emerging concept, composed of multiple industrial sectors, was proposed, which could serve as an important route to deal with the severe environmental problems in modern society. PMID:26558350

  15. Integrated carbon dioxide/sludge gasification using waste heat from hot slags: syngas production and sulfur dioxide fixation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongqi; Zhang, Zuotai; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong

    2015-04-01

    The integrated CO2/sludge gasification using the waste heat in hot slags, was explored with the aim of syngas production, waste heat recovery and sewage sludge disposal. The results demonstrated that hot slags presented multiple roles on sludge gasification, i.e., not only a good heat carrier (500-950 °C) but also an effective desulfurizer (800-900 °C). The total gas yields increased from 0.022 kg/kgsludge at 500 °C to 0.422 kg/kgsludge at 900 °C; meanwhile, the SO2 concentration at 900 °C remarkably reduced from 164 ppm to 114 ppm by blast furnace slags (BFS) and 93 ppm by steel slags (SS), respectively. A three-stage reaction was clarified including volatile release, char transformation and fixed carbon using Gaussian fittings and the kinetic model was analyzed. Accordingly, a decline process using the integrated method was designed and the optimum slag/sludge ratio was deduced. These deciphered results appealed potential ways of reasonable disposal of sewage sludge and efficient recovery of waste heat from hot slags. PMID:25647028

  16. Fluid bed gasification – Plasma converter process generating energy from solid waste: Experimental assessment of sulphur species

    SciTech Connect

    Morrin, Shane; Lettieri, Paola; Chapman, Chris; Taylor, Richard

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • We investigate gaseous sulphur species whilst gasifying sulphur-enriched wood pellets. • Experiments performed using a two stage fluid bed gasifier – plasma converter process. • Notable SO{sub 2} and relatively low COS levels were identified. • Oxygen-rich regions of the bed are believed to facilitate SO{sub 2}, with a delayed release. • Gas phase reducing regions above the bed would facilitate more prompt COS generation. - Abstract: Often perceived as a Cinderella material, there is growing appreciation for solid waste as a renewable content thermal process feed. Nonetheless, research on solid waste gasification and sulphur mechanisms in particular is lacking. This paper presents results from two related experiments on a novel two stage gasification process, at demonstration scale, using a sulphur-enriched wood pellet feed. Notable SO{sub 2} and relatively low COS levels (before gas cleaning) were interesting features of the trials, and not normally expected under reducing gasification conditions. Analysis suggests that localised oxygen rich regions within the fluid bed played a role in SO{sub 2}’s generation. The response of COS to sulphur in the feed was quite prompt, whereas SO{sub 2} was more delayed. It is proposed that the bed material sequestered sulphur from the feed, later aiding SO{sub 2} generation. The more reducing gas phase regions above the bed would have facilitated COS – hence its faster response. These results provide a useful insight, with further analysis on a suite of performed experiments underway, along with thermodynamic modelling.

  17. Biomass waste gasification - can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?

    PubMed

    Sulc, Jindřich; Stojdl, Jiří; Richter, Miroslav; Popelka, Jan; Svoboda, Karel; Smetana, Jiří; Vacek, Jiří; Skoblja, Siarhei; Buryan, Petr

    2012-04-01

    A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of tar compounds, content of inorganic gas impurities) were compared for the two stage and the one stage method of the gasification arrangement with only the upward moving bed (co-current updraft). The main novel features of the gasifier conception include grate-less reactor, upward moving bed of biomass particles (e.g. pellets) by means of a screw elevator with changeable rotational speed and gradual expanding diameter of the cylindrical reactor in the part above the upper end of the screw. The gasifier concept and arrangement are considered convenient for thermal power range 100-350 kW(th). The second stage of the gasifier served mainly for tar compounds destruction/reforming by increased temperature (around 950°C) and for gasification reaction of the fuel gas with char. The second stage used additional combustion of the fuel gas by preheated secondary air for attaining higher temperature and faster gasification of the remaining char from the first stage. The measurements of gas composition and tar compound contents confirmed superiority of the two stage gasification system, drastic decrease of aromatic compounds with two and higher number of benzene rings by 1-2 orders. On the other hand the two stage gasification (with overall ER=0.71) led to substantial reduction of gas heating value (LHV=3.15 MJ/Nm(3)), elevation of gas volume and increase of nitrogen content in fuel gas. The increased temperature (>950°C) at the entrance to the char bed caused also substantial decrease of ammonia content in fuel gas. The char with higher content of ash leaving the second stage presented only few mass% of the inlet biomass stream. PMID:21925858

  18. Thermal decomposition and gasification of biomass pyrolysis gases using a hot bed of waste derived pyrolysis char.

    PubMed

    Al-Rahbi, Amal S; Onwudili, Jude A; Williams, Paul T

    2016-03-01

    Chars produced from the pyrolysis of different waste materials have been investigated in terms of their use as a catalyst for the catalytic cracking of biomass pyrolysis gases during the two-stage pyrolysis-gasification of biomass. The chars were produced from the pyrolysis of waste tyres, refused derived fuel and biomass in the form of date stones. The results showed that the hydrocarbon tar yields decreased significantly with all the char materials used in comparison to the non-char catalytic experiments. For example, at a cracking temperature of 800°C, the total product hydrocarbon tar yield decreased by 70% with tyre char, 50% with RDF char and 9% with biomass date stones char compared to that without char. There was a consequent increase in total gas yield. Analysis of the tar composition showed that the content of phenolic compounds decreased and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons increased in the product tar at higher char temperatures. PMID:26773946

  19. Study of lay people's perceptions of appropriate management of gasoline/soil mixtures, hazardous waste mixtures, and trash/garbage mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    The method used was a researcher-developed questionnaire that was given to San Diego residents who were either Naval Reservists or worked at the corporate headquarters of a fast food chain. The respondents were chosen to yield a cross section of lay people. The forced-choice questionnaire asked identical questions about each of the wastes. The sequence in which each waste appeared was varied in order not to imply a ranking. One-way ANOVA and Bonferroni's Method was used to identify any significant differences. On all eight elements, there was a significant difference between each of the wastes at the p < .05 level. Lay people perceive a significant difference in what constitutes appropriate management of the three waste mixtures. Lay people who participated in the study saw Gasoline/Soil Mixtures as requiring management that was significantly more lenient that what they saw as needed for Hazardous Waste Mixtures and significantly more strict than what they saw as needed for Trash/Garbage Mixtures. The establishment of an intermediate category of solid waste between the existing categories of Hazardous Waste and Non-Hazardous Waste was clearly identified as a possibility by the respondents. If such a category were established it would: (1) clarify and resolve existing contradictions between various regulations; (2) reduce unnecessary filling of scarce hazardous waste disposal capacity; (3) reduce uncertainty, delay and expense to businesses trying to comply with the regulations.

  20. Design Case Summary. Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal Solid Waste via Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Valkenburg, C.; Zhu, Y.; Walton, C. W.; Thompson, B. L.; Gerber, M. A.; Jones, S. B.; Stevens, D. J.

    2010-03-01

    The Biomass Program develops design cases to understand the current state of conversion technologies and to determine where improvements need to take place in the future. This design case establishes cost targets for converting MSW to ethanol and other mixed alcohols via gasification.

  1. Method and compositions for the degradation of tributyl phosphate in chemical waste mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Stoner, Daphne L.; Tien, Albert J.

    1995-01-01

    A method and process for the degradation of tributyl phosphate in an organic waste mixture and a biologically pure, novel bacteria culture for accomplishing the same. A newly-discovered bacteria (a strain of Acinetobacter sp. ATCC 55587) is provided which is combined in a reactor vessel with a liquid waste mixture containing tributyl phosphate and one or more organic waste compounds capable of functioning as growth substrates for the bacteria. The bacteria is thereafter allowed to incubate within the waste mixture. As a result, the tributyl phosphate and organic compounds within the waste mixture are metabolized (degraded) by the bacteria, thereby eliminating such materials which are environmentally hazardous. In addition, the bacteria is capable of degrading waste mixtures containing high quantities of tributyl phosphate (e.g. up to about 1.0% by weight tributyl phosphate).

  2. Method and compositions for the degradation of tributyl phosphate in chemical waste mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Stoner, D.L.; Tien, A.J.

    1995-09-26

    A method and process are disclosed for the degradation of tributyl phosphate in an organic waste mixture and a biologically pure, novel bacteria culture for accomplishing the same. A newly-discovered bacteria (a strain of Acinetobacter sp. ATCC 55587) is provided which is combined in a reactor vessel with a liquid waste mixture containing tributyl phosphate and one or more organic waste compounds capable of functioning as growth substrates for the bacteria. The bacteria is thereafter allowed to incubate within the waste mixture. As a result, the tributyl phosphate and organic compounds within the waste mixture are metabolized (degraded) by the bacteria, thereby eliminating such materials which are environmentally hazardous. In addition, the bacteria is capable of degrading waste mixtures containing high quantities of tributyl phosphate (e.g. up to about 1.0% by weight tributyl phosphate). 6 figs.

  3. Commercial steam reforming catalysts to improve biomass gasification with steam-oxygen mixtures. 1: Hot gas upgrading by the catalytic reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Caballero, M.A.; Aznar, M.P.; Gil, J.; Martin, J.A.; Frances, E.; Corella, J.

    1997-12-01

    Commercial steam reforming (nickel-based) catalysts are used for hot gas cleaning and upgrading in biomass gasification with steam-oxygen mixtures. The gasifier used was an atmospheric and bubbling fluidized bed with an internal diameter of 15 cm and a total height of 3.2 m and was continuously fed with 5--20 kg of biomass/h. Eight different catalysts from four different manufacturers (BASF AG, TOPSOE A/S, ICI, and UCI) have been tested. They were located in a downflow fixed-bed reactor of 4 cm i.d. placed in a slip flow after the gasifier. A guard bed with a calcined dolomite was also used before the catalytic bed to decrease the tar content in the raw gas below the limit of 2 g of tar/m{sup 3}{sub n}, thus avoiding the catalyst deactivation by coke formation. The main variables studied were the temperature of the catalytic bed and the gas composition in the bed. Effects concerning tar elimination will be reported in part 2 of this work. This paper is mainly devoted to characterization of catalysts and to upgrading of the flue gas. H{sub 2} and CO contents increased by 4--14 and 1--8 vol%, dry basis, respectively. CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and steam contents decreased by 0--14, 87--99, and 2--6 vol %, dry basis, respectively. Other parameters varied in the following ways: the lower heating value decreased by 0.3--1.7 MJ/m{sup 3}{sub n}, gas yield increased by 0.1--0.4 m{sup 3}{sub n}/kg of biomass daf, and apparent thermal efficiency increased by 1--20%. The results presented allow screening of the best catalysts to get an upgraded and useful gas in biomass gasification with steam-oxygen mixtures.

  4. Fuel production from wastes using molten salts

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, R.L.; Barclay, K.M.; Grantham, L.F.; Yosim, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Rockwell International molten salt process for gasification of wastes with resource recovery has been shown here to be well-suited for the processing of a variety of wastes. A variety of waste forms may be processed, that is, solids, liquids, and solid-liquid mixtures. The process is suitable for applications which involve either small or large throughputs. The gasification medium, sodium carbonate, is stable, non-volatile, inexpensive, and nontoxic. Sulfur-containing pollutants are retained in the melt when sulfur-containing wastes are gasified. In the same manner, halogen-containing pollutants are retained during gasification of halogen-containing wastes. The gasification of a high-nitrogen-content waste (leather scraps) produces very little NO/sub x/ in the off-gas. Valuable minerals may be recovered by processing of the salt after gasification of mineral-laden wastes. In general, the molten salt process is best applied to waste materials involving potential pollutants (such as sulfur or chromium) or to wastes where gasification and resource recovery are important (such as the recovery of silver with simultaneous gasification of x-ray film).

  5. A life cycle assessment of environmental performances of two combustion- and gasification-based waste-to-energy technologies.

    PubMed

    Arena, Umberto; Ardolino, Filomena; Di Gregorio, Fabrizio

    2015-07-01

    An attributional life cycle analysis (LCA) was developed to compare the environmental performances of two waste-to-energy (WtE) units, which utilize the predominant technologies among those available for combustion and gasification processes: a moving grate combustor and a vertical shaft gasifier coupled with direct melting. The two units were assumed to be fed with the same unsorted residual municipal waste, having a composition estimated as a European average. Data from several plants in operation were processed by means of mass and energy balances, and on the basis of the flows and stocks of materials and elements inside and throughout the two units, as provided by a specific substance flow analysis. The potential life cycle environmental impacts related to the operations of the two WtE units were estimated by means of the Impact 2002+ methodology. They indicate that both the technologies have sustainable environmental performances, but those of the moving grate combustion unit are better for most of the selected impact categories. The analysis of the contributions from all the stages of each specific technology suggests where improvements in technological solutions and management criteria should be focused to obtain further and remarkable environmental improvements. PMID:25899036

  6. Two stage fluid bed-plasma gasification process for solid waste valorisation: Technical review and preliminary thermodynamic modelling of sulphur emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Morrin, Shane; Lettieri, Paola; Chapman, Chris; Mazzei, Luca

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate sulphur during MSW gasification within a fluid bed-plasma process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We review the literature on the feed, sulphur and process principles therein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The need for research in this area was identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We perform thermodynamic modelling of the fluid bed stage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Initial findings indicate the prominence of solid phase sulphur. - Abstract: Gasification of solid waste for energy has significant potential given an abundant feed supply and strong policy drivers. Nonetheless, significant ambiguities in the knowledge base are apparent. Consequently this study investigates sulphur mechanisms within a novel two stage fluid bed-plasma gasification process. This paper includes a detailed review of gasification and plasma fundamentals in relation to the specific process, along with insight on MSW based feedstock properties and sulphur pollutant therein. As a first step to understanding sulphur partitioning and speciation within the process, thermodynamic modelling of the fluid bed stage has been performed. Preliminary findings, supported by plant experience, indicate the prominence of solid phase sulphur species (as opposed to H{sub 2}S) - Na and K based species in particular. Work is underway to further investigate and validate this.

  7. Development of water-slurry gasification systems for high-moisture biomass. [Spent grain, potato waste, kelp, water hyacinth, napier grass, sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Butner, R.S.; Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The development of a new biomass gasification system by Pacific Northwest Laboratory promises to allow the use of high-moisture biomass feedstocks. The reactor uses high pressure to allow the gasification of water-biomass slurries containing up to 95% moisture. Because the gasification takes place in an aqueous system, there is no need to dry or dewater the feedstocks prior to their use. Feedstocks under study include water hyacinths, kelp, napier grass, spent brewer's grain, and a waste stream obtained from the potato processing industry. Gasification products include hydrogen, CO/sub 2/ and methane. The effects of processing conditions including temperature, pressure, and catalyst are being studied in order to maximize both the rate of conversion and the yield of higher value products. The new reactor concept represents a significant opportunity for expanding the biomass resource base to include aquatic plants and other high-moisture feedstocks. Many of these feedstocks are uneconomical in conventional thermochemical and biological conversion schemes. By eliminating the need for energy intensive drying steps, the aqueous conversion route may also increase net energy yields from more conventional feedstocks. The work is being sponsored by the USDOE's Biomass Energy Technology Division, Thermochemical Conversion Program. 13 references, 4 figures, 4 tables.

  8. Nitrite accumulation performance of aerobic MBBR treating Lurgi coal gasification waste water by adjusting pollutant load and DO concentration.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-Qiang; Han, Hong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    An aerobic moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was adopted to treat Lurgi coal gasification waste water (LCGW) in about 10 months. The pollutant load and dissolve oxygen (DO) concentration were adjusted by trying to maximize the accumulation of [Formula: see text] in the MBBR for LCGW treatment. The highest [Formula: see text] accumulation proportion [Formula: see text] was 73.9%, but was not stable with influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and DO concentrations of around 1000 and 1.5 mg/L, respectively. Around 1500 mg/L of influent COD concentration and 1.5 mg/L of DO concentration were proper operation conditions for the aerobic MBBR to achieve relatively stable [Formula: see text] accumulation, with [Formula: see text] ratio at 53% and [Formula: see text] ratio at just 4.3% in the effluent. More specifically, free ammonia concentration and DO concentration affected [Formula: see text] accumulation much more obvious than phenols concentration. The activity and quantity of nitrifying bacteria growth in suspended sludge and biofilm of the MBBR were monitored simultaneously to explain the variations of [Formula: see text] accumulation performance under different operation conditions. An aerobic moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was adopted to treat Lurgi coal gasification waste water (LCGW)in about 10 months. The pollutant load and dissolve oxygen (DO) concentration were adjusted by trying to maximize the accumulation of NO(−)(2)−N in the MBBR for LCGW treatment. The highest NO(−)(2)−N accumulation proportion(NO(−)(2)−Neffluent/TN effluent) was 73.9%, but was not stable with influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and DO concentrations of around 1000 and 1.5 mg/L, respectively. Around 1500 mg/L of influent COD concentration and 1.5 mg/L of DO concentration were proper operation conditions for the aerobic MBBR to achieve relatively stable NO(−)(2)−N accumulation,with NO(−)(2)−N/TN ratio at 53% and NO(-)(3)−N/TN ratio at just 4.3% in the effluent. More specifically, free ammonia concentration and DO concentration affected NO(2)(−)N accumulation much more obvious than phenols concentration. The activity and quantity of nitrifying bacteria growth in suspended sludge and biofilm of the MBBR were monitored simultaneously toexplain the variations of NO(−)(2)−N accumulation performance under different operation conditions. PMID:26111205

  9. TOXICITY OF COMPLEX WASTE MIXTURES: A COMPARISON OF OBSERVED AND PREDICTED LETHALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability to predict the biological effect of complex waste mixtures from chemical characterization data was examined by comparing observed mortality to that predicted by a mathematical additivity model with literature LD50 values for the chemicals identified in the mixtures. a...

  10. Achieving waste to energy through sewage sludge gasification using hot slags: syngas production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yongqi; Nakano, Jinichiro; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-06-01

    To relieve the environmental issues of sewage sludge (SS) disposal and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in China, we proposed an integrated method for the first time to simultaneously deal with these two problems. The hot slags below 920 °C could act as a good heat carrier for sludge gasification and the increasing CO2 concentration in CO2/O2 atmospheres enhanced the production of CO and H2 at 400-800 °C. Three stages of syngas release were clearly identified by Gaussian fittings, i.e., volatile release, char transformation and fixed carbon reaction. Additionally, the effect of sulfur retention of slags and the synergy effect of the stabilization of toxic elements in the solid residuals were discovered in this study. Furthermore, a novel prototype of multiple industrial and urban systems was put forward, in which the produced CO + H2 could be utilized for direct reduced iron (DRI) production and the solid residuals of sludge ash and glassy slags would be applied as cementitious materials. For a steel plant with an annual production of crude steel of 10 million tons in China, the total annual energy saving and GHG emission reduction achieved are 3.31*105 tons of standard coal and 1.74*106 tons of CO2, respectively.

  11. Achieving waste to energy through sewage sludge gasification using hot slags: syngas production.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongqi; Nakano, Jinichiro; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-01-01

    To relieve the environmental issues of sewage sludge (SS) disposal and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in China, we proposed an integrated method for the first time to simultaneously deal with these two problems. The hot slags below 920 °C could act as a good heat carrier for sludge gasification and the increasing CO2 concentration in CO2/O2 atmospheres enhanced the production of CO and H2 at 400-800 °C. Three stages of syngas release were clearly identified by Gaussian fittings, i.e., volatile release, char transformation and fixed carbon reaction. Additionally, the effect of sulfur retention of slags and the synergy effect of the stabilization of toxic elements in the solid residuals were discovered in this study. Furthermore, a novel prototype of multiple industrial and urban systems was put forward, in which the produced CO + H2 could be utilized for direct reduced iron (DRI) production and the solid residuals of sludge ash and glassy slags would be applied as cementitious materials. For a steel plant with an annual production of crude steel of 10 million tons in China, the total annual energy saving and GHG emission reduction achieved are 3.31*10(5) tons of standard coal and 1.74*10(6) tons of CO2, respectively. PMID:26074060

  12. Achieving waste to energy through sewage sludge gasification using hot slags: syngas production

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yongqi; Nakano, Jinichiro; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-01-01

    To relieve the environmental issues of sewage sludge (SS) disposal and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in China, we proposed an integrated method for the first time to simultaneously deal with these two problems. The hot slags below 920 °C could act as a good heat carrier for sludge gasification and the increasing CO2 concentration in CO2/O2 atmospheres enhanced the production of CO and H2 at 400–800 °C. Three stages of syngas release were clearly identified by Gaussian fittings, i.e., volatile release, char transformation and fixed carbon reaction. Additionally, the effect of sulfur retention of slags and the synergy effect of the stabilization of toxic elements in the solid residuals were discovered in this study. Furthermore, a novel prototype of multiple industrial and urban systems was put forward, in which the produced CO + H2 could be utilized for direct reduced iron (DRI) production and the solid residuals of sludge ash and glassy slags would be applied as cementitious materials. For a steel plant with an annual production of crude steel of 10 million tons in China, the total annual energy saving and GHG emission reduction achieved are 3.31*105 tons of standard coal and 1.74*106 tons of CO2, respectively. PMID:26074060

  13. ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR HAZARDOUS ORGANICS IN LIQUID WASTES FROM COAL GASIFICATION AND LIQUEFACTION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted by the University of Southern California group to provide methods for the analysis of coal liquefaction wastes from coal conversion processing plants. Several methods of preliminary fractionation prior to analysis were considered. The most satisfactory me...

  14. Cyprodinil retention on mixtures of soil and solid wastes from wineries. Effects of waste dose and ageing.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Salgado, Isabel; Paradelo-Pérez, Marcos; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Cutillas-Barreiro, Laura; Fernández-Calviño, David; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    In spite of its wide-world economic relevance, wine production generates a huge amount of waste that threatens the environment. A batch experiment was designed to assess the effect of the amendment of an agricultural soil with two winery wastes (perlite and bentonite wastes) in the immobilization of cyprodinil. Waste addition (0, 10, 20, 40, and 80 Mg ha(-1)) and different times of incubation of soil-waste mixtures (1, 30, and 120 days) were tested. The addition of wastes improved the soil's ability to immobilize cyprodinil, which was significantly correlated to total C content in soil-waste mixtures. Longer incubation times decreased the cyprodinil sorption possibly due to the mineralization of organic matter but also as a consequence of the high pH values reached after bentonite waste addition (up to 10.0). Cyprodinil desorption increased as the amount of waste added to soil, and the incubation time increased. The use of these winery wastes contributes to a more sustainable agriculture preventing fungicide mobilization to groundwater. PMID:24809493

  15. Thermal reactivity of mixtures of VDDT lubricant and simulated Hanford Tank 241-SY-101 waste

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, R.D.; Panisko, F.E.; Sell, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    To predict whether the Polywater G lubricant residue remaining in the velocity, density, and temperature tree (VDTT) and the waste in Tank 241-SY-101 (101SY) will be chemically compatible with wastes in 101SY when two VDTTs are removed from 101SY, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory measured the thermal reaction sensitivity of the lubricant residue. This residue is a simulated 101SY waste containing the organic surrogate trisodium hydroxyethyl-ethylenediaminetriacetate (Na{sub 3}HEDTA) and two simulated potential waste and lubricant residue mixtures containing 10 and 90 percent lubricant residue. These studies using accelerating rate calorimetry found that the residue did not react at a rate exceeding 0.1 J/min/g mixture up to 190 degrees C with simulated 101SY waste containing Na{sub 3}HEDTA as the organic surrogate. Also, the dried lubricant residue did not decompose exothermically at a rate exceeding 0.1 J/min/g. Using guidelines used by the chemical industry, these results indicate that the lubricant residue should not react as a significant rate with the waste in 101SY when added to the waste at 60 degrees C or when the mixture cools to the waste`s temperature of 48 degrees C.

  16. LETHALITY AND HEPATOTOXICITY OF COMPLEX WASTE MIXTURES (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Male F344 rats were exposed by gavage to samples of complex mixtures and evaluated 24 hours later. Seven of the 10 samples caused death at doses ranging from 1 to 5 ml/kg body wt. Eight of the 10 samples were hepatotoxic based on histopathologic evaluation; 6 were centrilobular a...

  17. RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT TO PREPARE AND CHARACTERIZE ROBUST COAL/BIOMASS MIXTURES FOR DIRECT CO-FEEDING INTO GASIFICATION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Felix, Larry; Farthing, William; Hoekman, S. Kent

    2014-12-31

    This project was initiated on October 1, 2010 and utilizes equipment and research supported by the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Award Number DE- FE0005349. It is also based upon previous work supported by the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Award Numbers DOE-DE-FG36-01GOl1082, DE-FG36-02G012011 or DE-EE0000272. The overall goal of the work performed was to demonstrate and assess the economic viability of fast hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) for transforming lignocellulosic biomass into a densified, friable fuel to gasify like coal that can be easily blended with ground coal and coal fines and then be formed into robust, weather-resistant pellets and briquettes. The specific objectives of the project include: • Demonstration of the continuous production of a uniform densified and formed feedstock from loblolly pine (a lignocellulosic, short rotation woody crop) in a hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process development unit (PDU). • Demonstration that finely divided bituminous coal and HTC loblolly pine can be blended to form 90/10 and 70/30 weight-percent mixtures of coal and HTC biomass for further processing by pelletization and briquetting equipment to form robust weather resistant pellets and/or briquettes suitable for transportation and long term storage. • Characterization of the coal-biomass pellets and briquettes to quantify their physical properties (e.g. flow properties, homogeneity, moisture content, particle size and shape), bulk physical properties (e.g. compressibility, heat transfer and friability) and assess their suitability for use as fuels for commercially-available coal gasifiers. • Perform economic analyses using Aspen-based process simulations to determine the costs for deploying and operating HTC processing facilities for the production of robust coal/biomass fuels suitable for fueling commercially-available coal-fired gasifiers. This Final Project Scientific/Technical Report discusses and documents the project work required to meet each of these objectives.

  18. Method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material

    DOEpatents

    McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.

    1997-09-02

    A method is described for destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500 C to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200 C to about 900 C in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet. 5 figs.

  19. Method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material

    DOEpatents

    McIntosh, Michael J.; Arzoumanidis, Gregory G.

    1997-01-01

    A method of destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500.degree. C. to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 900.degree. C. in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet.

  20. A method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.

    1995-12-31

    A method is described for destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500 C to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200 C to about 900 C in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet.

  1. Performance Characteristics of Waste Glass Powder Substituting Portland Cement in Mortar Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, P.; Csetényi, L. J.; Borosnyói, A.

    2016-04-01

    In the present work, soda-lime glass cullet (flint, amber, green) and special glass cullet (soda-alkaline earth-silicate glass coming from low pressure mercury-discharge lamp cullet and incandescent light bulb borosilicate glass waste cullet) were ground into fine powders in a laboratory planetary ball mill for 30 minutes. CEM I 42.5N Portland cement was applied in mortar mixtures, substituted with waste glass powder at levels of 20% and 30%. Characterisation and testing of waste glass powders included fineness by laser diffraction particle size analysis, specific surface area by nitrogen adsorption technique, particle density by pycnometry and chemical analysis by X-ray fluorescence spectrophotometry. Compressive strength, early age shrinkage cracking and drying shrinkage tests, heat of hydration of mortars, temperature of hydration, X-ray diffraction analysis and volume stability tests were performed to observe the influence of waste glass powder substitution for Portland cement on physical and engineering properties of mortar mixtures.

  2. Texaco gasification process: Innovative technology evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This report summarizes the evaluation of the Texaco Gasification Process (TGP) conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. The TGP is a commercial gasification process which converts organic materials into syngas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The feed reacts with a limited amount of oxygen (partial oxidaton) in a refractory-lined reactor at temperatures between 2,200 degrees and 2,650 degrees F and at pressures above 250 pounds per square inch gauge (psig). Texaco reports that the syngas can be processed into high-purity hydrogen, ammonia, methanol, and other chemicals, as well as clean fuel for electric power. The TGP was evaluated under the EPA SITE Program in January 1994 at Texaco`s Montebello Research Laboratory (MRL) in South El Monte, California, located in the greater Los Angeles area. The Demonstration used a soil feed mixture consisting of approximately 20 weight-percent waste soil from the Purity Oil Sales Superfund Site, Fresno, California and 80 weight-percent clean soil. The slurry included coal as a support fuel and was spiked with lead and barium compounds (inorganic heavy metals) and chlorobenzene (volatile organic compound) as the Principal Organic Hazardous Constituent (POHC).

  3. Transesterification of waste vegetable oil under pulse sonication using ethanol, methanol and ethanol–methanol mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Pulse sonication effect on transesterification of waste vegetable oil was studied. • Effects of ethanol, methanol, and alcohol mixtures on FAMEs yield were evaluated. • Effect of ultrasonic intensity, power density, and its output rates were evaluated. • Alcohol mixtures resulted in higher biodiesel yields due to better solubility. - Abstract: This study reports on the effects of direct pulse sonication and the type of alcohol (methanol and ethanol) on the transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil without any external heating or mechanical mixing. Biodiesel yields and optimum process conditions for the transesterification reaction involving ethanol, methanol, and ethanol–methanol mixtures were evaluated. The effects of ultrasonic power densities (by varying sample volumes), power output rates (in W), and ultrasonic intensities (by varying the reactor size) were studied for transesterification reaction with ethanol, methanol and ethanol–methanol (50%-50%) mixtures. The optimum process conditions for ethanol or methanol based transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil were determined as: 9:1 alcohol to oil ratio, 1% wt. catalyst amount, 1–2 min reaction time at a power output rate between 75 and 150 W. It was shown that the transesterification reactions using ethanol–methanol mixtures resulted in biodiesel yields as high as >99% at lower power density and ultrasound intensity when compared to ethanol or methanol based transesterification reactions.

  4. Fuel Flexibility in Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    McLendon, T. Robert; Pineault, Richard L.; Richardson, Steven W.; Rockey, John M.; Beer, Stephen K.; Lui, Alain P.; Batton, William A.

    2001-11-06

    In order to increase efficiencies of carbonizers, operation at high pressures is needed. In addition, waste biomass fuels of opportunity can be used to offset fossil fuel use. The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Fluidized Bed Gasifier/Combustor (FBG/C) was used to gasify coal and mixtures of coal and biomass (sawdust) at 425 psig. The purpose of the testing program was to generate steady state operating data for modeling efforts of carbonizers. A test program was completed with a matrix of parameters varied one at a time in order to avoid second order interactions. Variables were: coal feed rate, pressure, and varying mixtures of sawdust and coal types. Coal types were Montana Rosebud subbituminous and Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous. The sawdust was sanding waste from a furniture manufacturer in upstate New York. Coal was sieved from -14 to +60 mesh and sawdust was sieved to -14 mesh. The FBG/C operates at a nominal 425 psig, but pressures can be lowered. For the tests reported it was operated as a jetting, fluidized bed, ash-agglomerating gasifier. Preheated air and steam are injected into the center of the bottom along with the solid feed that is conveyed with cool air. Fairly stable reactor internal flow patterns develop and temperatures stabilize (with some fluctuations) when steady state is reached. At nominal conditions the solids residence time in the reactor is on the order of 1.5 to 2 hours, so changes in feed types can require on the order of hours to equilibrate. Changes in operating conditions (e.g. feed rate) usually require much less time. The operating periods of interest for these tests were only the steady state periods, so transient conditions were not monitored as closely. The test matrix first established a base case of operations to which single parameter changes in conditions could be compared. The base case used Montana Rosebud at a coal feed rate of 70 lbm/hr at 425 psig. The coal sawdust mixtures are reported as percent by weight coal to percent by weight sawdust. The mixtures of interest were: 65/35 subbituminous, 75/25 subbituminous, 85/15 subbituminous, and 75/25 bituminous. Steady state was achieved quickly when going from one subbituminous mixture to another, but longer when going from subbituminous to bituminous coal. The most apparent observation when comparing the base case to subbituminous coal/sawdust mixtures is that operating conditions are nearly the same. Product gas does not change much in composition and temperatures remain nearly the same. Comparisons of identical weight ratios of sawdust and subbituminous and bituminous mixtures show considerable changes in operating conditions and gas composition. The highly caking bituminous coal used in this test swelled up and became about half as dense as the comparable subbituminous coal char. Some adjustments were required in accommodating changes in solids removal during the test. Nearly all the solids in the bituminous coal sawdust were conveyed into the upper freeboard section and removed at the mid-level of the reactor. This is in marked contrast to the ash-agglomerating condition where most solids are removed at the very bottom of the gasifier. Temperatures in the bottom of the reactor during the bituminous test were very high and difficult to control. The most significant discovery of the tests was that the addition of sawdust allowed gasification of a coal type that had previously resulted in nearly instant clinkering of the gasifier. Several previous attempts at using Pittsburgh No. 8 were done only at the end of the tests when shutdown was imminent anyway. It is speculated that the fine wood dust somehow coats the pyrolyzed sticky bituminous coal particles and prevents them from agglomerating quickly. As the bituminous coal char particles swell, they are carried to the cooler upper regions of the reactor where they re-solidify. Other interesting phenomena were revealed regarding the transport (rheological) properties of the coal sawdust mixtures. The coal sawdust mixtures segregate quickly when transported. This is visibly apparent. To prevent bridges and ratholes from developing in the lowest coal feed hopper, it is normally fluidized. When feeding the coal sawdust mixtures the fluidizing gas was turned off to prevent segregation. The feed system worked as well with no fluidizing gas when using the mixtures as it did with fluidizing gas and only coal. In addition, it was inadvertently discovered that greatly increased pressure above the feeder resulted in greatly increased flow with the mixtures. Increased pressure above the feeder with coal only results in quickly plugging the feed system. Also, it was learned that addition of sawdust reduces the system loss during conveying compared to coal only. This is in spite of overall smaller particle sizes with the coal sawdust mixtures.

  5. GASIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt

    2000-05-01

    A recent emphasis in gasification technology development has been directed toward reduced-scale gasifier systems for distributed generation at remote sites. The domestic distributed power generation market over the next decade is expected to be 5-6 gigawatts per year. The global increase is expected at 20 gigawatts over the next decade. The economics of gasification for distributed power generation are significantly improved when fuel transport is minimized. Until recently, gasification technology has been synonymous with coal conversion. Presently, however, interest centers on providing clean-burning fuel to remote sites that are not necessarily near coal supplies but have sufficient alternative carbonaceous material to feed a small gasifier. Gasifiers up to 50 MW are of current interest, with emphasis on those of 5-MW generating capacity. Internal combustion engines offer a more robust system for utilizing the fuel gas, while fuel cells and microturbines offer higher electric conversion efficiencies. The initial focus of this multiyear effort was on internal combustion engines and microturbines as more realistic near-term options for distributed generation. In this project, we studied emerging gasification technologies that can provide gas from regionally available feedstock as fuel to power generators under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification, primarily coal-fed, has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries. Commercial-scale gasification activities are under way at 113 sites in 22 countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia, according to the Gasification Technologies Council. Gasification studies were carried out on alfalfa, black liquor (a high-sodium waste from the pulp industry), cow manure, and willow on the laboratory scale and on alfalfa, black liquor, and willow on the bench scale. Initial parametric tests evaluated through reactivity and product composition were carried out on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) equipment. These tests were evaluated and then followed by bench-scale studies at 1123 K using an integrated bench-scale fluidized-bed gasifier (IBG) which can be operated in the semicontinuous batch mode. Products from tests were solid (ash), liquid (tar), and gas. Tar was separated on an open chromatographic column. Analysis of the gas product was carried out using on-line Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). For selected tests, gas was collected periodically and analyzed using a refinery gas analyzer GC (gas chromatograph). The solid product was not extensively analyzed. This report is a part of a search into emerging gasification technologies that can provide power under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries, and it is probable that scaled-down applications for use in remote areas will become viable. The appendix to this report contains a list, description, and sources of currently available gasification technologies that could be or are being commercially applied for distributed generation. This list was gathered from current sources and provides information about the supplier, the relative size range, and the status of the technology.

  6. Mixture models versus free energy of hydration models for waste glass durability

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, G.; Redgate, T.; Masuga, P.

    1996-03-01

    Two approaches for modeling high-level waste glass durability as a function of glass composition are compared. The mixture approach utilizes first-order mixture (FOM) or second-order mixture (SOM) polynomials in composition, whereas the free energy of hydration (FEH) approach assumes durability is linearly related to the FEH of glass. Both approaches fit their models to data using least squares regression. The mixture and FEH approaches are used to model glass durability as a function of glass composition for several simulated waste glass data sets. The resulting FEH and FOM model coefficients and goodness-of-fit statistics are compared, both within and across data sets. The goodness-of-fit statistics show that the FOM model fits/predicts durability in each data set better (sometimes much better) than the FEH model. Considerable differences also exist between some FEH and FOM model component coefficients for each of the data sets. These differences are due to the mixture approach having a greater flexibility to account for the effect of a glass component depending on the level and range of the component and on the levels of other glass components. The mixture approach can also account for higher-order (e.g., curvilinear or interactive) effects of components, whereas the FEH approach cannot. SOM models were developed for three of the data sets, and are shown to improve on the corresponding FOM models. Thus, the mixture approach has much more flexibility than the FEH approach for approximating the relationship between glass composition and durability for various glass composition regions.

  7. Mixture optimization of anaerobic co-digestion of tomato and cucumber waste.

    PubMed

    Gil, Aida; Siles, José Ángel; Serrano, Antonio; Martín, M Ángeles

    2015-10-01

    Greenhouse cultivation has significantly increased the production of vegetables and reduced dependence on environmental conditions. In Mediterranean areas, vegetable crops are nowadays one of the most important sources of organic waste generation. Anaerobic digestion is among the methods used to treat this type of biodegradable waste. However, the selection of the organic wastes to be subjected to this microbial treatment is a crucial aspect due to seasonality and simultaneity of the original crops. In this sense, as waste does not have frequently the proper nutrient balance, co-digestion with other substrates generated in the same geographical area is recommended to ensure the correct development of the process. This work studies the mesophilic co-digestion of tomato waste (TW) and cucumber waste (CW), which are common greenhouse wastes that do not contain an adequate ratio among nutrients (C/N/P) and are generated simultaneously. The influence of the percentage of both wastes in the mixture on the overall performance of the process was evaluated. The combination of TW and CW was found to be feasible in terms of stability, biodegradability and methane yield, which reached a value of 292 mLSTP CH4/g VS (STP: standard temperature and pressure, 0°C and 760 mmHg) for the percentage of tomato in the mixture, which is considered optimal at 55-75%. The most suitable organic load rate was determined for a percentage of 65% of TW, reaching a value of 1562 kgwaste m(-3) month(-1). PMID:25896715

  8. Gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Woldy, P.N.; Kaufman, H.C.; Dach, M.M.; Beall, J.F.

    1981-02-03

    This version of Texaco's gasification process for high-ash-content solids is not extended to include the production of superheated steam, as described in US Patent 4,247,302. The hot, raw gas stream passes through fewer coolers, producing a high-pressure steam instead of a superheated steam.

  9. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2003-01-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the technoeconomic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the United States to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases. Phase I is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report covers the period performance from July 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002.

  10. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-12-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification, SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the US Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP designs emphasize on recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from coal clean operations and will assess blends of the culm and coal or petroleum coke as feedstocks. The project is being carried out in three phases. Phase I involves definition of concept and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II consists of an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III involves updating the original EECP design, based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 BPD coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania.

  11. Optimization of Eisenia fetida stocking density for the bioconversion of rock phosphate enriched cow dung-waste paper mixtures.

    PubMed

    Unuofin, F O; Mnkeni, P N S

    2014-11-01

    Vermitechnology is gaining recognition as an environmental friendly waste management strategy. Its successful implementation requires that the key operational parameters like earthworm stocking density be established for each target waste/waste mixture. One target waste mixture in South Africa is waste paper mixed with cow dung and rock phosphate (RP) for P enrichment. This study sought to establish optimal Eisenia fetida stocking density for maximum P release and rapid bioconversion of RP enriched cow dung-paper waste mixtures. E. fetida stocking densities of 0, 7.5, 12.5, 17.5 and 22.5 g-worms kg(-1) dry weight of cow dung-waste paper mixtures were evaluated. The stocking density of 12.5 g-worms kg(-1) resulted in the highest earthworm growth rate and humification of the RP enriched waste mixture as reflected by a C:N ratio of <12 and a humic acid/fulvic acid ratio of >1.9 in final vermicomposts. A germination test revealed that the resultant vermicompost had no inhibitory effect on the germination of tomato, carrot, and radish. Extractable P increased with stocking density up to 22.5 g-worm kg(-1) feedstock suggesting that for maximum P release from RP enriched wastes a high stocking density should be considered. PMID:24997095

  12. Optimization of Eisenia fetida stocking density for the bioconversion of rock phosphate enriched cow dung–waste paper mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Unuofin, F.O. Mnkeni, P.N.S.

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Vermidegradation of RP-enriched waste mixtures is dependent on E. fetida stocking density. • A stocking density of 12.5 g-worms kg{sup -1} resulted in highly humified vermicomposts. • P release from RP-enriched waste vermicomposts increases with E. fetida stocking density. • RP-enriched waste vermicomposts had no inhibitory effect on seed germination. - Abstract: Vermitechnology is gaining recognition as an environmental friendly waste management strategy. Its successful implementation requires that the key operational parameters like earthworm stocking density be established for each target waste/waste mixture. One target waste mixture in South Africa is waste paper mixed with cow dung and rock phosphate (RP) for P enrichment. This study sought to establish optimal Eisenia fetida stocking density for maximum P release and rapid bioconversion of RP enriched cow dung–paper waste mixtures. E. fetida stocking densities of 0, 7.5, 12.5, 17.5 and 22.5 g-worms kg{sup −1} dry weight of cow dung–waste paper mixtures were evaluated. The stocking density of 12.5 g-worms kg{sup −1} resulted in the highest earthworm growth rate and humification of the RP enriched waste mixture as reflected by a C:N ratio of <12 and a humic acid/fulvic acid ratio of >1.9 in final vermicomposts. A germination test revealed that the resultant vermicompost had no inhibitory effect on the germination of tomato, carrot, and radish. Extractable P increased with stocking density up to 22.5 g-worm kg{sup −1} feedstock suggesting that for maximum P release from RP enriched wastes a high stocking density should be considered.

  13. Reuse of municipal solid wastes incineration fly ashes in concrete mixtures.

    PubMed

    Collivignarelli, Carlo; Sorlini, Sabrina

    2002-01-01

    This study is aimed at assessing the feasibility of concrete production using stabilized m.s.w. (municipal solid waste) incineration fly ashes in addition to natural aggregates. The tested fly ashes were washed and milled, then stabilized by a cement-lime process and finally were reused as a "recycled aggregate" for cement mixture production, in substitution of a natural aggregate (with dosage of 200-400 kg m(-3)). These mixtures, after curing, were characterized with conventional physical-mechanical tests (compression, traction, flexure, modulus of elasticity, shrinkage). In samples containing 200 kg(waste) m(-3)(concrete), a good compressive strength was achieved after 28 days of curing. Furthermore, concrete leaching behavior was evaluated by means of different leaching tests, both on milled and on monolithic samples. Experimental results showed a remarkable reduction of metal leaching in comparison with raw waste. In some cases, similar behavior was observed in "natural" concrete (produced with natural aggregates) and in "waste containing" concrete. PMID:12423053

  14. Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalystes to Poisons form High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Khalid Azzam; Janet ChakkamadathilMohandas; Wilson Shafer

    2009-09-30

    There has been a recent shift in interest in converting not only natural gas and coal derived syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, but also converting biomass-derived syngas, as well as syngas derived from coal and biomass mixtures. As such, conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt may not be suitable without proper development. This is because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier gasification gasification) than solely from coal, other compounds may actually be increased. Of particular concern are compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the first year, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) researchers completed a number of tasks aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts and a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to alkali halides. This included the preparation of large batches of 0.5%Pt-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 100Fe: 5.1Si: 3.0K: 2.0Cu (high alpha) catalysts that were split up among the four different entities participating in the overall project; the testing of the catalysts under clean FT and WGS conditions; the testing of the Fe-Cr WGS catalyst under conditions of co-feeding NaCl and KCl; and the construction and start-up of the continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) for poisoning investigations.

  15. Extractability and leachability of heavy metals in Technosols prepared from mixtures of unconsolidated wastes.

    PubMed

    Camps Arbestain, M; Madinabeitia, Z; Anza Hortalà, M; Macías-García, F; Virgel, S; Macías, F

    2008-12-01

    Mixtures of wastes were prepared to improve on the characteristics of the individual ingredients as Technosols, with special attention given to heavy metal extractability. An anaerobic digested sewage sludge and a CaO-treated aerobic sludge were used. A mixture of the two sludges (50:50 DW basis) was also prepared to provide a third type of sludge. The residues were mixed with other types of waste, such as fly ash, Linz-Donowitz slag, foundry sand, shot blasting machine scrap, fettling and barley straw. Extractability of Cu, Cr, Ni, and Zn by 0.01 M CaCl(2) extraction (Me(CACI(2)) was carried out, and leachability of these elements was estimated by acidification of an aqueous suspension of the mixtures with 0.5 N acetic acid (Me(acetic)). The total concentrations of the metals were also determined (Me(T)). The Me(CACI(2)/Me(T) ratios for Cu and Ni (means: 4.0% and 3.1%) were higher than those for Cr and Zn (means: 0.07% each). The mean Me(acetic)/Me(T) ratios followed the order Ni, Zn, Cu, and Cr (19.5%, 4.1%, 3.7%, and 0.09%, respectively). The results highlight the existence of complex interactions among organic matter solubility, pH and heavy metal extractability. PMID:18329263

  16. Evaluation of municipal solid waste compost as a plant growing media component, by applying mixture design.

    PubMed

    Moldes, A; Cendón, Y; Barral, M T

    2007-11-01

    The amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated is increasing rapidly in parallel with the increasing size of population. The use of sanitary landfills to dispose of biodegradable wastes is currently restricted by the European Landfill Directive. Moreover, incineration of MSW produces significant amounts of polluting flue gases and toxic solid residues, so that high investments for pollution control in MSW incineration plants are needed. Composting may be a safe and successful strategy for accelerating the decomposition and stabilization of the biodegradable components of biowaste from MSW, for sustainable complete recycling, thereby producing compost that can be used as soil conditioner and/or organic fertilizer. In the present study, municipal solid waste compost from Galicia (NW Spain), obtained on an industrial scale by anaerobic fermentation followed by aerobic stabilization, was characterized and compared with peat and composted pine bark as a component of plant growing media. Due to the high content of salts, the evaluated MSW compost was not appropriated to be used alone as a soil conditioner or organic fertilizer. Mixtures of MSW compost, peat and composted pine bark were evaluated statistically by applying mixture designs and triangular surface. The dependent variables (shoot dry weight of Lepidium sativum and Hordeum vulgare) were adjusted to linear equations, and good statistical parameters for correlation and significance were obtained, allowing accurate description of experimental data. The best results were obtained by mixing MSW compost with composted pine bark, rather than mixing MSW compost with peat. PMID:17157003

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A COMMERCIAL BOILER FIRED WITH A COAL/WASTE PLASTIC MIXTURE. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of comprehensive emissions testing and laboratory analyses of a stoker-fired commercial boiler firing a coal/waste plastic mixture. In one test, the unit fired its typical coal fuel; in the other, shredded waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) beverage b...

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A COMMERCIAL BOILER FIRED WITH A COAL/WASTE PLASTIC MIXTURE. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of comprehensive emissions testing and laboratory analyses of a stoker-fired commercial boiler firing a coal/waste plastic mixture. In one test, the unit fired its typical coal fuel; in the other, shredded waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) beverage b...

  19. Investigation of first stage liquefaction of coal with model plastic waste mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Rothenberger, K.S.; Cuginin, A.V.; Ciocco, M.V.

    1995-12-01

    Microautoclave screening tests have been conducted on Black Thunder subbituminous coal with model plastic waste streams. The plastics - polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) - were tested in various combinations and proportions. The base conditions of the tests were 2:1 hydrogenated FCC decant oil solvent: coal-plastics mixture, one hour at 445{degrees}C, 1000 psi (cold) hydrogen gas pressure, and aged Akzo AO-60 catalyst. Tests containing individual plastics without coal yielded nearly complete conversion of PS and PET to heptane solubles; PE was not converted. Tests containing binary combinations of plastics indicated neither PS nor PET had any positive effect on PE conversion. However, added coal does appear to aid in conversion of coal/PE mixtures to heptane soluble material. The results are comparable to those obtained on larger scale units.

  20. Characterizing waste glass durability: A highly-constrained 11-component mixture case study

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, G.F.; Mellinger, G.B.; Reimus, M.A.H.

    1988-08-01

    Mixture experiments involving a large number of components and both single- and multiple-component constraints have received little exposure in the literature. This paper presents a case study involving such a mixture experiment. The case study deals with characterizing the chemical durability (resistance to leaching) of an 11-component reference waste glass. Because the composition of the glass will vary around the reference composition during production, the problem actually involves characterizing chemical durability over a region of glasses. This involves several steps: defining the compositional region, selecting a test matrix of compositions via computer-aided experimental design techniques, leach testing, empirical modeling of the leach test results, investigating glass component effects, and using statistical confidence statements to describe chemical durability over the compositional region. 10 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  1. Kansas refinery starts up coke gasification unit

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1996-08-05

    Texaco Refining and Marketing Inc. has started up a gasification unit at its El Dorado, Kan., refinery. The unit gasifies delayed coke and other refinery waste products. This is the first refinery to install a coke-fueled gasification unit for power generation. Start-up of the $80-million gasification-based power plant was completed in mid-June. The gasifier produces syngas which, along with natural gas, fuels a combustion turbine. The turbine produces virtually 100% of the refinery`s electricity needs and enough heat to generate 40% of its steam requirements.

  2. Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalysts to Poisons from High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Burtron Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Khalid Azzam; Dennis Sparks; Wilson Shafer

    2010-09-30

    The successful adaptation of conventional cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts for use in converting biomass-derived syngas hinges in part on understanding their susceptibility to byproducts produced during the biomass gasification process. With the possibility that oil production will peak in the near future, and due to concerns in maintaining energy security, the conversion of biomass-derived syngas and syngas derived from coal/biomass blends to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products to liquid fuels may provide a sustainable path forward, especially considering if carbon sequestration can be successfully demonstrated. However, one current drawback is that it is unknown whether conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt will be suitable without proper development because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using an entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier) than solely from coal, other byproducts may be present in higher concentrations. The current project examines the impact of a number of potential byproducts of concern from the gasification of biomass process, including compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the second year, researchers from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) continued the project by evaluating the sensitivity of a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to a number of different compounds, including KHCO{sub 3}, NaHCO{sub 3}, HCl, HBr, HF, H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, and a combination of H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}. Cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts were also subjected to a number of the same compounds in order to evaluate their sensitivities.

  3. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT--DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    SciTech Connect

    John W. Rich

    2001-03-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power and Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement with the USDOE, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co--product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases: Phase 1 is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase 2 is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase 3 updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase 2, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report is WMPI's third quarterly technical progress report. It covers the period performance from October 1, 2001 through December 31, 2001.

  4. Electrostatic separator for micronized mixtures of metals and plastics originating from waste electric and electronic equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messal, Sara; Corondan, Razvan; Chetan, Ionut; Ouiddir, Rabah; Medles, Karim; Dascalescu, Lucian

    2015-10-01

    In spite of their extensive use for processing mixtures of granules exceeding 1 mm in size, very few industrial electrostatic separators are capable of handling micronized metals and plastics originating from waste electric and electronic equipment. The aim of the present work is to validate the possibility of using a novel belt-type electrostatic separator for the selective sorting of such particulate mixtures, the dimensions of which are in the order of 0.1 mm. In this type of separator, the metal particles get charged by electrostatic induction in contact with the grounded metal belt electrode, while the plastics remain uncharged in the electric field and are collected separately. The experiments are performed with 2-g samples of a mixture composed in equal proportions (50% - 50%) of Aluminium and Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) particles of average diameter ranging between 125 μm and 250 μm. They enabled the evaluation of the effects and the interaction of two control variables of the process: the angle of inclination of the roll-type electrode and the high voltage applied to it.

  5. U.S. EPA'S EVALUATION OF A TEXACO GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gasification technologies are designed to produce, from carbonaceous organic materials (e.g., coal, oil), a useable mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen called synthesis gas, or syngas. yngas could be used to produce power or chemicals. he Texaco Gasification Process (TGP) emp...

  6. Coal gasification cogeneration process

    SciTech Connect

    Marten, J.H.

    1990-10-16

    This patent describes a process for the coproduction of a combustible first gas stream usable as an energy source, a sulfur-dioxide-containing second gas stream usable as a source for oxidant in the gasification of coal and a sulfur-dioxide-containing third gas stream usable as a feedstock for the production of sulfuric acid. It comprises: reacting coal in a coal gasification zone in the presence of an oxidant under partial coal-gasifying conditions to produce carbonaceous char and a crude gas stream; separating sulfur-containing compounds from the crude gas stream in a sulfur recovery zone to produce a combustible first gas stream and elemental sulfur; reacting the carbonaceous char and gypsum in a reaction zone in proportions such that the non-gypsum portion of the carbonaceous char and gypsum mixture contains sufficient reducing potential to reduce sulfur in the gypsum to gaseous compounds of sulfur in a +4 or lower oxidation state under reducing conditions to produce first a sulfur-dioxide-containing second gas stream which contains weaker SO{sub 2} produced in an early stage of the reaction zone and removed from the reaction zone, and then a sulfur-dioxide-containing third gas stream which contains concentrated SO{sub 2} recovered from a later stage of the reaction zone.

  7. Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalysts to Poisons from High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Dennis Sparks; Khalid Azzam; Janet Chakkamadathil Mohandas; Wilson Shafer; Venkat Ramana Rao Pendyala

    2011-09-30

    There has been a recent shift in interest in converting not only natural gas and coal derived syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, but also converting biomass-derived syngas, as well as syngas derived from coal and biomass mixtures. As such, conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt may not be suitable without proper development. This is because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier gasification gasification) than solely from coal, other compounds may actually be increased. Of particular concern are compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the first year, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) researchers completed a number of tasks aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts and a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to alkali halides. This included the preparation of large batches of 0.5%Pt-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 100Fe: 5.1Si: 3.0K: 2.0Cu (high alpha) catalysts that were split up among the four different entities participating in the overall project; the testing of the catalysts under clean FT and WGS conditions; the testing of the Fe-Cr WGS catalyst under conditions of co-feeding NaCl and KCl; and the construction and start-up of the continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) for poisoning investigations. In the second and third years, researchers from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) continued the project by evaluating the sensitivity of a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to a number of different compounds, including KHCO{sub 3}, NaHCO{sub 3}, HCl, HBr, HF, H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, and a combination of H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}. Cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts were also subjected to a number of the same compounds in order to evaluate their sensitivities at different concentration levels of added contaminant.

  8. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-06-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors entered into a Cooperative Agreement with the USDOE, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases. Phase 1 is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report is WMPI's fourth quarterly technical progress report. It covers the period performance from January 1, 2002 through March 31, 2002.

  9. Solid state fermentation of food waste mixtures for single cell protein, aroma volatiles and fat production.

    PubMed

    Aggelopoulos, Theodoros; Katsieris, Konstantinos; Bekatorou, Argyro; Pandey, Ashok; Banat, Ibrahim M; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2014-02-15

    Growth of selected microorganisms of industrial interest (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus and kefir) by solid state fermentation (SSF) of various food industry waste mixtures was studied. The fermented products were analysed for protein, and nutrient minerals content, as well as for aroma volatile compounds by GC/MS. The substrate fermented by K. marxianus contained the highest sum of fat and protein concentration (59.2% w/w dm) and therefore it could be considered for utilisation of its fat content and for livestock feed enrichment. Regarding volatiles, the formation of high amounts of ε-pinene was observed only in the SSF product of kefir at a yield estimated to be 4 kg/tn of SSF product. A preliminary design of a biorefinery-type process flow sheet and its economic analysis, indicated potential production of products (enriched livestock feed, fat and ε-pinene) of significant added value. PMID:24128535

  10. Gasification: redefining clean energy

    SciTech Connect

    2008-05-15

    This booklet gives a comprehensive overview of how gasification is redefining clean energy, now and in the future. It informs the general public about gasification in a straight-forward, non-technical manner.

  11. Structure, mechanical and thermal behaviour of mixtures of polyester resin and dental ceramic waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña Rodríguez, G.; Martínez Maldonado, L.; Dulce Moreno, H. J.

    2016-02-01

    The tensile strength and bending strength, structure and thermal behaviour of mixtures of polyester resin (P-2000) and powders (ASTM sieve 200, <75μm) of dental ceramic wastes (dentals impressions, alginate and gypsum) was reported. The samples consisted of mixtures with percentage weights of 50-50%, 60-40%, 70-30%, 80-20%, 90-10%, where the resin was the majority phase, the Mekc (4% wt) was used as catalyst. The structure was studied using SEM and XRD, the thermal behaviour using DSC, TGA and DMA, while the mechanical strength was tested using standards ASTM D790 and D638. Irregular morphology and presence of small agglomerations was observed, with particle sizes between 29.63 and 38.67μm, the presence of different phases of calcium sulphate was found, and that to the increasing the concentration of the powder, the materials becomes more crystalline, increasing its density. An average service temperature of 69.15±4.60°C was found. Vickers hardness values are reported in ranges from 18.65 to 27.96. Considering the elastic modules was established that the materials become more rigid by having more powder concentration.

  12. 2010 Worldwide Gasification Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The 2010 Worldwide Gasification Database describes the current world gasification industry and identifies near-term planned capacity additions. The database lists gasification projects and includes information (e.g., plant location, number and type of gasifiers, syngas capacity, feedstock, and products). The database reveals that the worldwide gasification capacity has continued to grow for the past several decades and is now at 70,817 megawatts thermal (MWth) of syngas output at 144 operating plants with a total of 412 gasifiers.

  13. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 6, Appendix D, Pyrolysis and gasification of MSW

    SciTech Connect

    1992-10-01

    This Appendix summarizes information available in the open literature describing the technology and operating experierice of pyrolysis technology as applied to the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). The literature search, which emphasized the time frame of greatest activity in MSW pyrolysis (i.e., the mid-1960s to the mid-1980s), focused on the scale of application, material feedstock, technical limitations and economic considerations. Smaller scale facilities, either laboratory/research scale (< I TPD) or process development/pilot scale plants (1-20 TPD) for municipal waste and related materials (agricultural, forest residues, industrial wastes, etc.), are mentioned in the literature (275, 495). However, such data are sparse, dated, and often have limited applicability to MSW in general, and for design scale-up in particular. Therefore, greatest emphasis was placed on identifying demonstration scale (20--150 TPD) will commercial seals (> 150 TPD) studies which could be expected to provide economic, environmental, and energy data that can be scaled with possibly less risk. While the promise of pyrolysis of MSW lies in its ability to transform municipal waste into gaseous and liquid chemicals and fuel products, the major limitation is the unproven technical and economic feasibility of a large scale facility.

  14. Considerations on coal gasification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franzen, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    Commercial processes for the gasification of coal with oxygen are discussed. The Koppers-Totzek process for the gasification of coal dust entrained in a stream of gasifying agents is described in particular detail. The outlook for future applications of coal gasification is presented.

  15. Plant response to FBC waste-coal slurry solid mixtures. [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Darmody, R.G.; Dunker, R.E.; Dreher, G.B.; Roy, W.R.; Steel, J.D.

    1994-03-01

    The goal of this project is to test the feasibility of stabilizing coal slurry solids (CSS) wastes by directly seeding plants into the waste. This is not done conventionally because the waste can generate toxic amounts of sulfuric acid. Our approach is to neutralize the potential acidity by mixing fluidized bed combustion (FBC) waste into the slurry. If successful, this approach would both help dispose of FBC wastes while providing a more economical slurry stabilization technique. The project involves growing forage plants in CSS-FBC mixtures in the greenhouse. This is the first quarter of the project. We have designed the experiment, secured greenhouse space, purchased the seeds, collected and dried the FBC and CSS samples. The samples represent a typical range of properties. We retrieved two FBC and two CSS samples. One CSS sample appears to have a higher pyrite content than the other.

  16. Plant response to FBC waste-coal slurry solid mixtures. Technical report, 1 March--31 May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Darmody, R.G.; Dunker, R.E.; Dreher, G.B.; Roy, W.R.; Steel, J.D.

    1994-09-01

    The goal of this project is to test the feasibility of stabilizing coal slurry solids (CSS) wastes by directly seeding plants into the waste. This is not done conventionally because the waste can generate toxic amounts of sulfuric acid. The approach is to neutralize the potential acidity by mixing fluidized bed combustion (FBC) waste into the slurry. If successful, this approach would both help dispose of FBC wastes while providing a more economical slurry stabilization technique. The project involves growing forage plants in CSS-FBC mixtures in the greenhouse. In the first two quarters the authors designed the experiment, secured greenhouse space, purchased the seeds, collected, dried, analyzed the FBC and CSS samples. The samples represent a typical range of properties. They retrieved two FBC and two CSS samples. One CSS sample had a relatively high CaCO{sub 3} content relative to the pyrite content and required no FBC to neutralize the potential acidity. The other CSS sample required from 4.2 to 2.7% FBC material to neutralize its potential acidity. This report covers the third quarter of the project. The authors produced the CSS-FBC mixtures, analyzed the soil fertility parameters of the mixtures,, planted the crops, and monitored their growth. All mixtures support at least some plant growth, although some plants did better than others. It is too early to analyze the results statistically. Next quarter the plants will be harvested, yields calculated, mineral uptake evaluated, and a final report will be written on plant response to CSS-FBC mixtures.

  17. Coal Gasification (chapter only)

    SciTech Connect

    Shadle, L.J.; Berry, D.A.; Syamlal, Madhava

    2002-11-15

    Coal gasification is presented in terms of the chemistry of coal conversion and the product gas characteristics, the historical development of coal gasifiers, variations in the types and performance of coal gasifiers, the configuration of gasification systems, and the status and economics of coal gasification. In many ways, coal gasification processes have been tailored to adapt to the different types of coal feedstocks available. Gasification technology is presented from a historical perspective considering early uses of coal, the first practical demonstration and utilization of coal gasification, and the evolution of the various processes used for coal gasification. The development of the gasification industry is traced from its inception to its current status in the world economy. Each type of gasifier is considered focusing on the process innovations required to meet the changing market needs. Complete gasification systems are described including typical system configurations, required system attributes, and aspects of the industry's environmental and performance demands. The current status, economics of gasification technology, and future of gasification are also discussed.

  18. Process for gasification of carbonaceous material

    SciTech Connect

    Lancet, M.S.; Gorin, E.

    1984-04-03

    A process of tar destruction in gasification of carbonaceous material comprises providing a mixture of finely divided calcium compound of a particle size smaller than 65 mesh and finely divided carbonaceous material of a particle size smaller than 65 mesh, the calcium compound to carbonaceous material ratio being from about 0.5 to 1.0 and contacting the mixture with CO/sub 2/ and tar exothermally whereby the tar is destroyed.

  19. Development of UHPC mixtures utilizing natural and industrial waste materials as partial replacements of silica fume and sand.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Shamsad; Hakeem, Ibrahim; Maslehuddin, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    In the exploratory study presented in this paper, an attempt was made to develop different mixtures of ultrahigh performance concrete (UHPC) using various locally available natural and industrial waste materials as partial replacements of silica fume and sand. Materials such as natural pozzolana (NP), fly ash (FA), limestone powder (LSP), cement kiln dust (CKD), and pulverized steel slag (PSS), all of which are abundantly available in Saudi Arabia at little or no cost, were employed in the development of the UHPC mixtures. A base mixture of UHPC without replacement of silica fume or sand was selected and a total of 24 trial mixtures of UHPC were prepared using different percentages of NP, FA, LSP, CKD, and PSS, partially replacing the silica fume and sand. Flow and 28-d compressive strength of each UHPC mixture were determined to finally select those mixtures, which satisfied the minimum flow and strength criteria of UHPC. The test results showed that the utilization of NP, FA, LSP, CKD, and PSS in production of UHPC is possible with acceptable flow and strength. A total of 10 UHPC mixtures were identified with flow and strength equal to or more than the minimum required. PMID:25197709

  20. Development of UHPC Mixtures Utilizing Natural and Industrial Waste Materials as Partial Replacements of Silica Fume and Sand

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In the exploratory study presented in this paper, an attempt was made to develop different mixtures of ultrahigh performance concrete (UHPC) using various locally available natural and industrial waste materials as partial replacements of silica fume and sand. Materials such as natural pozzolana (NP), fly ash (FA), limestone powder (LSP), cement kiln dust (CKD), and pulverized steel slag (PSS), all of which are abundantly available in Saudi Arabia at little or no cost, were employed in the development of the UHPC mixtures. A base mixture of UHPC without replacement of silica fume or sand was selected and a total of 24 trial mixtures of UHPC were prepared using different percentages of NP, FA, LSP, CKD, and PSS, partially replacing the silica fume and sand. Flow and 28-d compressive strength of each UHPC mixture were determined to finally select those mixtures, which satisfied the minimum flow and strength criteria of UHPC. The test results showed that the utilization of NP, FA, LSP, CKD, and PSS in production of UHPC is possible with acceptable flow and strength. A total of 10 UHPC mixtures were identified with flow and strength equal to or more than the minimum required. PMID:25197709

  1. Evaluation of Reactive Mixtures for Passive Treatment of Mine Drainage from a Waste Rock Storage Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeen, S. W.; Mattson, B.

    2014-12-01

    Laboratory column tests for a passive treatment system for mine drainage from a waste rock storage area was conducted to evaluate suitable reactive mixture, system configuration, flow rate, and residence time. Five columns containing straw, chicken manure, mushroom compost, and limestone, either in layered or mixed, were set up and operated for a total of 74 days to simulate the treatment system. The key variables determined from the tests include pH and redox adjustment of the treatment system, treatment efficiency for acidity and metals, sulfate removal rates, and precipitation of secondary minerals as sinks for metals. The results showed that all of the five columns removed metals of concern (i.e., Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn) with residence time of 15 hours and greater. The organic materials used in the test provided sufficient sulfate reduction that is available for metal removal in the mine drainage. The sulfate removal rates ranged between 200 and 600 mg/L/day. Reaction mechanisms responsible for the removal of metals may include sulfate reduction and subsequent sulfide precipitation, precipitation of secondary carbonates and hydroxides, co-precipitation, and sorption on organic materials and secondary precipitates. The results from the columns tests provide a basis for design of a pilot-scale field passive treatment system, such as permeable reactive barrier (PRB) or reducing and alkalinity producing system (RAPS).

  2. Layer modeling of zinc removal from metallic mixture of waste printed circuit boards by vacuum distillation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yujie; Li, Xingang; Ding, Hui

    2015-08-01

    A layer model was established to elucidate the mechanism of zinc removal from the metallic mixture of waste printed circuit boards by vacuum distillation. The removal process was optimized by response surface methodology, and the optimum operating conditions were the chamber pressure of 0.1Pa, heating temperature of 923K, heating time of 60.0min, particle size of 70 mesh (0.212mm) and initial mass of 5.25g. Evaporation efficiency of zinc, the response variable, was 99.79%, which indicates that the zinc can be efficiently removed. Based on the experimental results, a mathematical model, which bears on layer structure, evaporation, mass transfer and condensation, interprets the mechanism of the variable effects. Especially, in order to reveal blocking effect on the zinc removal, the Blake-Kozeny-Burke-Plummer equation was introduced into the mass transfer process. The layer model can be applied to a wider range of metal removal by vacuum distillation. PMID:25957936

  3. Physico-chemical properties of chars obtained in the co-pyrolysis of waste mixtures.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, M; Lapa, N; Gonçalves, M; Mendes, B; Pinto, F; Fonseca, I; Lopes, H

    2012-06-15

    The present work aims to perform a multistep upgrading of chars obtained in the co-pyrolysis of PE, PP and PS plastic wastes, pine biomass and used tires. The quality of the upgraded chars was evaluated by measuring some of their physico-chemical properties in order to assess their valorisation as adsorbents' precursors. The crude chars were submitted to a sequential solvent extraction with organic solvents of increasing polarity (hexane, mixture 1:1 v/v hexane:acetone and acetone) followed by an acidic demineralization procedure with 1M HCl solution. The results obtained showed that the upgrading treatment allow the recovery of 63-81% of the pyrolysis oils trapped in the crude chars and a reduction in the char's ash content in the range of 64-86%. The textural and adsorption properties of the upgraded chars were evaluated and the results indicate that the chars are mainly mesoporous and macroporous materials, with adsorption capacities in the range of 3.59-22.2 mg/g for the methylene blue dye. The upgrading treatment allowed to obtain carbonaceous materials with quality to be reused as adsorbents or as precursors for activated carbon. PMID:22520075

  4. Augmenting a Waste Glass Mixture Experiment Study with Additional Glass Components and Experimental Runs

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F. ); Cooley, Scott K. ); Peeler, David K.; Vienna, John D. ); Edwards, Tommy B.

    2002-01-01

    A glass composition variation study (CVS) for high-level waste (HLW) stored in Idaho is being statistically designed and performed in phases over several years. The purpose of the CVS is to investigate and model how HLW-glass properties depend on glass composition. The resulting glass property-composition models will be used to develop desirable glass formulations and for other purposes. Phases 1 and 2 of the CVS have been completed and are briefly described. This paper focuses on the CVS Phase 3 experimental design, which was chosen to augment the Phase 1 and 2 data with additional data points, as well as to account for additional glass components not studied in Phases 1 and/or 2. In total, 16 glass components were varied in the Phase 3 experimental design. The paper describes how these Phase 3 experimental design augmentation challenges were addressed using the previous data, preliminary property-composition models, and statistical mixture experiment and optimal experimental design methods and software.

  5. Biothermal gasification of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Chynoweth, D.P.; Srivastava, V.J.; Henry, M.P.; Tarman, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    The BIOTHERMGAS Process is described for conversion of biomass, organic residues, and peat to substitute natural gas (SNG). This new process, under development at IGT, combines biological and thermal processes for total conversion of a broad variety of organic feeds (regardless of water or nutrient content). The process employs thermal gasification for conversion of refractory digester residues. Ammonia and other inorganic nutrients are recycled from the thermal process effluent to the bioconversion unit. Biomethanation and catalytic methanation are presented as alternative processes for methanation of thermal conversion product gases. Waste heat from the thermal component is used to supply the digester heat requirements of the bioconversion component. The results of a preliminary systems analysis of three possible applications of this process are presented: (1) 10,000 ton/day Bermuda grass plant with catalytic methanation; (2) 10,000 ton/day Bermuda grass plant with biomethanation; and (3) 1000 ton/day municipal solid waste (MSW) sewage sludge plant with biomethanation. The results indicate that for these examples, performance is superior to that expected for biological or thermal processes used separately. The results of laboratory studies presented suggest that effective conversion of thermal product gases can be accomplished by biomethanation.

  6. Gasification of Woody Biomass.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jianjun; Saayman, Jean; Grace, John R; Ellis, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    Interest in biomass to produce heat, power, liquid fuels, hydrogen, and value-added chemicals with reduced greenhouse gas emissions is increasing worldwide. Gasification is becoming a promising technology for biomass utilization with a positive environmental impact. This review focuses specifically on woody biomass gasification and recent advances in the field. The physical properties, chemical structure, and composition of biomass greatly affect gasification performance, pretreatment, and handling. Primary and secondary catalysts are of key importance to improve the conversion and cracking of tars, and lime-enhanced gasification advantageously combines CO2 capture with gasification. These topics are covered here, including the reaction mechanisms and biomass characterization. Experimental research and industrial experience are investigated to elucidate concepts, processes, and characteristics of woody biomass gasification and to identify challenges. PMID:26247289

  7. Hazardous and Corrosive Gas Production in the Radiolysis of Water/Organic Mixtures in Model TRU Waste

    SciTech Connect

    LaVerne, Jay A.

    2005-06-01

    Experiments in combination with diffusion-kinetic modeling incorporating track structure simulations are used to examine the radiation chemistry of aqueous systems containing chlorinated hydrocarbons. Irradiations with both Co-60 gamma rays and alpha particles are employed in order to simulate typical mixed radiation environments encountered in waste management. The goal is to determine fundamental mechanisms, kinetics, and yields for the formation of potentially explosive gases and corrosive agents, such as H2 and HCl, respectively, in the radiolysis of water-organic mixtures. The radiation chemical systems studied are found throughout the DOE portfolio and are important in radioactive waste remediation and management.

  8. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT-DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-07-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors entered into a Cooperative Agreement with the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases. Phase 1 is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase 2 is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase 3 updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase 2, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report covers the period performance from April 1, 2002 through June 30, 2002.

  9. Gasification-based biomass

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The gasification-based biomass section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  10. Influence of feeding mixture composition in batch anaerobic co-digestion of stabilized municipal sludge and waste from dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Trulli, Ettore; Torretta, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Waste anaerobic co-digestion applications are particularly useful in Southern Mediterranean areas where large quantities of agricultural waste materials and waste from agro-industries are produced. This waste can be added to urban waste together with the sludge produced by wastewater treatment processes, which, when combined, guarantee the supply of organic matrixes for treatment throughout the year. The implementation of facilities to service vast areas of the agricultural economy and which are heterogeneous in terms of production can provide a good solution. We present an experimental investigation into the anaerobic co-digestion of municipal sludge and bio-waste produced in the Mediterranean area. We conducted anaerobic treatability tests, with measures of biogas production and pH of the mixture in digestion. Our main aims were to identify an optimal mix of substrates for the production of biogas, and to analyse the influence on the composition of biogas and the variation in pH values of the substrates. This analysis was conducted considering the variation of the input, in particular due to the addition of waste acids, such as biological sewage sludge. PMID:25442095

  11. Tegoprens in anaerobic digestion of a mixture of cheese whey, poultry waste, and cattle dung for improved biomethanation

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, C.; Sastry, V.; Madamwar, D.

    1996-01-01

    To obtain enriched methane content and improve the anaerobic digestion of a mixture of cattle dung, poultry waste, and cheese whey, the effect of various doses of Tegoprens: T-3012, T-3099, T-5842, T-5843, T-5851, T-5852 has been studied, in bench-scale digesters. Among them, Tegoprens 3022 showed more than a 45% increase in gas production with higher methane content. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Neutralization/prevention of acid rock drainage using mixtures of alkaline by-products and sulfidic mine wastes.

    PubMed

    Alakangas, Lena; Andersson, Elin; Mueller, Seth

    2013-11-01

    Backfilling of open pit with sulfidic waste rock followed by inundation is a common method for reducing sulfide oxidation after mine closure. This approach can be complemented by mixing the waste rock with alkaline materials from pulp and steel mills to increase the system's neutralization potential. Leachates from 1 m3 tanks containing sulfide-rich (ca.30 wt %) waste rock formed under dry and water saturated conditions under laboratory conditions were characterized and compared to those formed from mixtures. The waste rock leachate produced an acidic leachate (pH<2) with high concentrations of As (65 mg/L), Cu (6 mg/L), and Zn (150 mg/L) after 258 days. The leachate from water-saturated waste rock had lower concentrations of As and Cu (<2 μg/L), Pb and Zn (20 μg/L and 5 mg/L), respectively, and its pH was around 6. Crushed (<6 mm) waste rock mixed with different fractions (1-5 wt %) of green liquid dregs, fly ash, mesa lime, and argon oxygen decarburization (AOD) slag was leached on a small scale for 65 day, and showed near-neutral pH values, except for mixtures of waste rock with AOD slag and fly ash (5% w/w) which were more basic (pH>9). The decrease of elemental concentration in the leachate was most pronounced for Pb and Zn, while Al and S were relatively high. Overall, the results obtained were promising and suggest that alkaline by-products could be useful additives for minimizing ARD formation. PMID:23740301

  13. Evaluation of wood chip gasification to produce reburn fuel for coal-fired boilers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gasification/reburn testing with biomass and other wastes is of interest to both the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Italian Ministry of the Environment & Territory (IMET). Gasification systems that use wastes as feedstock should provide a clean, efficient sour...

  14. Evaluation of wood chip gasification to produce reburrn fuel for coal-fired boilers: AWMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gasification or reburn testing with biomass and other wastes is of interest to both the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Italian Ministry of the Environment & Territory (IMET). Gasification systems that use wastes as feedstock should provide a clean, efficient s...

  15. Evaluation of Biomass Gasification to Produce Reburning Fuel for Coal-Fired Boilers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gasification and reburning testing with biomass and other wastes is of interest to both the U.S. EPA and the Italian Ministry of the Environment & Territory. Gasification systems that use biofuels or wastes as feedstock can provide a clean, efficient source of synthesis gas and p...

  16. Gasification of hybrid feedstock using animal manures and hays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of a proprietary integrated gasification-internal combustion system in producing electricity from mixtures of animal manures such as swine solids, chicken litter, and hays. Five to 10 gallons of mixtures of swine manure, chicken litter, and h...

  17. Harnessing dark fermentative hydrogen from pretreated mixture of food waste and sewage sludge under sequencing batch mode.

    PubMed

    Nam, Joo-Youn; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Hyoun; Lee, Wontae; Shin, Hang-Sik; Kim, Hyun-Woo

    2016-04-01

    Food waste and sewage sludge are the most abundant and problematic organic wastes in any society. Mixture of these two wastes may provide appropriate substrate condition for dark fermentative biohydrogen production based on synergistic mutual benefits. This work evaluates continuous hydrogen production from the cosubstrate of food waste and sewage sludge to verify mechanisms of performance improvement in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors. Volatile solid concentration and mixing ratio of food waste and sludge were adjusted to 5 % and 80:20, respectively. Five different hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 36, 42, 48, 72, and 108 h were tested using anaerobic sequencing batch reactors to find out optimal operating condition. Results show that the best performance was achieved at HRT 72 h, where the hydrogen yield, the hydrogen production rate, and hydrogen content were 62.0 mL H2/g VS, 1.0 L H2/L/day, and ~50 %, respectively. Sufficient solid retention time (143 h) and proper loading rate (8.2 g COD/L/day as carbohydrate) at HRT 72h led to the enhanced performance with better hydrogen production showing appropriate n-butyrate/acetate (B/A) ratio of 2.6. Analytical result of terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism revealed that specific peaks associated with Clostridium sp. and Bacillus sp. were strongly related to enhanced hydrogen production from the cosubstrate of food waste and sewage sludge. PMID:26150291

  18. Start-up method for coal gasification plant

    SciTech Connect

    Farnia, K.; Petit, P.J.

    1983-04-05

    A method is disclosed for initiating operation of a coal gasification plant which includes a gasification reactor and gas cleansing apparatus fabricated in part from materials susceptible to chloride induced stress corrosion cracking the presence of oxygen. The reactor is preheated by combusting a stoichiometric mixture of air and fuel to produce an exhaust gas which is then diluted with steam to produce product gas which contains essentially no free oxygen. The product gas heats the reactor to a temperature profile necessary to maintain autothermic operation of the gasification process while maintaining air oxygen-free environment within the plant apparatus while chlorine is liberated from coal being gasified.

  19. Gasification: A Cornerstone Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Stiegel

    2008-03-26

    NETL is a leader in the science and technology of gasification - a process for the conversion of carbon-based materials such as coal into synthesis gas (syngas) that can be used to produce clean electrical energy, transportation fuels, and chemicals efficiently and cost-effectively using domestic fuel resources. Gasification is a cornerstone technology of 21st century zero emissions powerplants

  20. Gasification: A Cornerstone Technology

    ScienceCinema

    Gary Stiegel

    2010-01-08

    NETL is a leader in the science and technology of gasification - a process for the conversion of carbon-based materials such as coal into synthesis gas (syngas) that can be used to produce clean electrical energy, transportation fuels, and chemicals efficiently and cost-effectively using domestic fuel resources. Gasification is a cornerstone technology of 21st century zero emissions powerplants

  1. Coal gasification and the power production market

    SciTech Connect

    Howington, K.; Flandermeyer, G.

    1995-09-01

    The US electric power production market is experiencing significant changes sparking interest in the current and future alternatives for power production. Coal gasification technology is being marketed to satisfy the needs of the volatile power production industry. Coal gasification is a promising power production process in which solid coal is burned to produce a synthesis gas (syn gas). The syn gas may be used to fuel combustion integrated into a facility producing electric power. Advantages of this technology include efficient power production, low flue gas emissions, flexible fuel utilization, broad capability for facility integration, useful process byproducts, and decreased waste disposal. The primary disadvantages are relatively high capital costs and lack of proven long-term operating experience. Developers of coal gasification intend to improve on these disadvantages and lop a strong position in the power generation market. This paper is a marketing analysis of the partial oxidation coal gasification processes emerging in the US in response to the market factors of the power production industry. A brief history of these processes is presented, including the results of recent projects exploring the feasibility of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) as a power production alternative. The current power generation market factors are discussed, and the status of current projects is presented including projected performance.

  2. Biomass gasification chars for mercury capture from a simulated flue gas of coal combustion.

    PubMed

    Fuente-Cuesta, A; Diaz-Somoano, M; Lopez-Anton, M A; Cieplik, M; Fierro, J L G; Martnez-Tarazona, M R

    2012-05-15

    The combustion of coal can result in trace elements, such as mercury, being released from power stations with potentially harmful effects for both human health and the environment. Research is ongoing to develop cost-effective and efficient control technologies for mercury removal from coal-fired power plants, the largest source of anthropogenic mercury emissions. A number of activated carbon sorbents have been demonstrated to be effective for mercury retention in coal combustion power plants. However, more economic alternatives need to be developed. Raw biomass gasification chars could serve as low-cost sorbents for capturing mercury since they are sub-products generated during a thermal conversion process. The aim of this study was to evaluate different biomass gasification chars as mercury sorbents in a simulated coal combustion flue gas. The results were compared with those obtained using a commercial activated carbon. Chars from a mixture of paper and plastic waste showed the highest retention capacity. It was found that not only a high carbon content and a well developed microporosity but also a high chlorine content and a high aluminium content improved the mercury retention capacity of biomass gasification chars. No relationship could be inferred between the surface oxygen functional groups and mercury retention in the char samples evaluated. PMID:22325640

  3. 2006 gasification technologies conference papers

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-01

    Sessions covered: business overview, industry trends and new developments; gasification projects progress reports; industrial applications and opportunities; Canadian oil sands; China/Asia gasification markets - status and projects; carbon management with gasification technologies; gasification economics and performance issues addressed; and research and development, and new technologies initiatives.

  4. Plant response to FBC waste-coal slurry solid mixtures. [Quarterly] technical report, December 1--February 28, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Darmody, R.G.; Dunker, R.E.; Dreher, G.B.; Roy, W.R.; Steel, J.D.

    1994-06-01

    The goal of this project is to test the feasibility of stabilizing coal slurry solids (CSS) wastes by directly seeding plants into the waste. This is not done conventionally because the waste can generate toxic amounts of sulfuric acid. Our approach is to neutralize the potential acidity by mixing fluidized bed combustion (FBC) waste into the slurry. If successful this approach would both help dispose of FBC wastes while providing a more economical slurry stabilization technique. The project involves growing forage plants in CSS-FBC mixtures in the greenhouse. This is the second quarter of the project. We have designed the experiment, secured greenhouse space, purchased the seeds, collected, dried, and are analyzing the FBC and CSS samples. The samples represent a typical range of properties. We retrieved two FBC and two CSS samples. One CSS sample had a relatively high CaCO{sub 3} content relative to the pyrite content and will require no FBC to neutralize the potential acidity. The other CSS sample will require from 4.2 to 2.7% FBC material to neutralize its potential acidity.

  5. Life cycle impact assessment of various waste conversion technologies.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Hsien H

    2009-06-01

    Advanced thermal treatment technologies utilizing pyrolysis or gasification, as well as a combined approach, are introduced as sustainable methods to treat wastes in Singapore. Eight different technologies are evaluated: pyrolysis-gasification of MSW; pyrolysis of MSW; thermal cracking gasification of granulated MSW; combined pyrolysis, gasification and oxidation of MSW; steam gasification of wood; circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification of organic wastes; gasification of RDF; and the gasification of tyres. Life cycle assessment is carried out to determine the environmental impacts of the various waste conversion systems including global warming potential, acidification potential, terrestrial eutrophication and ozone photochemical formation. The normalization and weighting results, calculated according to Singapore national emission inventories, showed that the two highest impacts are from thermal cracking gasification of granulated MSW and the gasification of RDF; and the least are from the steam gasification of wood and the pyrolysis-gasification of MSW. A simplified life cycle cost comparison showed that the two most costs-effective waste conversion systems are the CFB gasification of organic waste and the combined pyrolysis, gasification and oxidation of MSW. The least favorable - highest environmental impact as well as highest costs - are the thermal cracking gasification of granulated MSW and the gasification of tyres. PMID:19157835

  6. Gasification Technologie: Opportunities & Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Breault, R.

    2012-01-01

    This course has been put together to provide a single source document that not only reviews the historical development of gasification but also compares the process to combustion. It also provides a short discussion on integrated gasification and combined cycle processes. The major focus of the course is to describe the twelve major gasifiers being developed today. The hydrodynamics and kinetics of each are reviewed along with the most likely gas composition from each of the technologies when using a variety of fuels under different conditions from air blown to oxygen blown and atmospheric pressure to several atmospheres. If time permits, a more detailed discussion of low temperature gasification will be included.

  7. Shuffler calibration and measurement of mixtures of uranium and plutonium TRU-waste in a plant environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hurd, J.R.

    1998-12-31

    The active-passive shuffler installed and certified a few years ago in Los Alamos National Laboratory`s plutonium facility has now been calibrated for different matrices to measure Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)-destined transuranic (TRU)-waste. Little or no data presently exist for these types of measurements in plant environments where there may be sudden large changes in the neutron background radiation which causes distortions in the results. Measurements and analyses of twenty-two 55-gallon drums, consisting of mixtures of varying quantities of uranium and plutonium, have been recently completed at the plutonium facility. The calibration and measurement techniques, including the method used to separate out the plutonium component, will be presented and discussed. Particular attention will be directed to those problems identified as arising from the plant environment. The results of studies to quantify the distortion effects in the data will be presented. Various solution scenarios will be indicated, along with those adopted here.

  8. Integrated bioenergy conversion concepts for small scale gasification power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldas, Rizaldo Elauria

    Thermal and biological gasification are promising technologies for addressing the emerging concerns in biomass-based renewable energy, environmental protection and waste management. However, technical barriers such as feedstock quality limitations, tars, and high NOx emissions from biogas fueled engines impact their full utilization and make them suffer at the small scale from the need to purify the raw gas for most downstream processes, including power generation other than direct boiler use. The two separate gasification technologies may be integrated to better address the issues of power generation and waste management and to complement some of each technologies' limitations. This research project investigated the technical feasibility of an integrated thermal and biological gasification concept for parameters critical to appropriately matching an anaerobic digester with a biomass gasifier. Specific studies investigated the thermal gasification characteristics of selected feedstocks in four fixed-bed gasification experiments: (1) updraft gasification of rice hull, (2) indirect-heated gasification of rice hull, (3) updraft gasification of Athel wood, and (4) downdraft gasification of Athel and Eucalyptus woods. The effects of tars and other components of producer gas on anaerobic digestion at mesophilic temperature of 36°C and the biodegradation potentials and soil carbon mineralization of gasification tars during short-term aerobic incubation at 27.5°C were also examined. Experiments brought out the ranges in performance and quality and quantity of gasification products under different operating conditions and showed that within the conditions considered in the study, these gasification products did not adversely impact the overall digester performance. Short-term aerobic incubation demonstrated variable impacts on carbon mineralization depending on tar and soil conditions. Although tars exhibited low biodegradation indices, degradation may be improved if the microorganisms used to deal with tars are selected and pre-conditioned to the tar environment. Overall, the results provided a basis for operational and design strategy for a combined gasification system but further study is recommended such as determination of the impacts in terms of emissions, power, efficiency and costs associated with the use of producer gas-enriched biogas taking advantage of hydrogen enrichment to reduce NOx and other pollutants in reciprocating engines and other energy conversion systems.

  9. Characterization of solid fuels at pressurized fluidized bed gasification conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Zevenhoven, R.; Hupa, M.

    1998-07-01

    The gasification of co-gasification of solid fuel (coal, peat, wood) in air-blown fluidized bed gasifiers is receiving continued attention as an alternative to entrained flow gasifiers which in general are oxygen-blown. Fluidized bed gasification of wood and wood-waste at elevated pressures, and the so-called air-blown gasification cycle are examples of processes which are under development in Europe. based on complete or partial gasification of a solid fuel in a pressurized fluidized bed. At the same time, fuel characterization data for the combination of temperature, pressure and fuel particle heating rate that is encountered in fluidized bed gasification are very scarce. In this paper, quantitative data on the characterization of fuels for advanced combustion and gasification technologies based on fluidized beds are given, as a result from the authors participation in the JOULE 2 extension project on clean coal technology of the European community. Eleven solid fuels, ranging from coal via peat to wood, have been studied under typical fluidized bed gasification conditions: 800--1,000 C, 1--25 bar, fuel heating rate in the order of 100--1,000 C/s. Carbon dioxide was used as gasifying agent. A pressurized thermogravimetric reactor was used for the experiments. The results show that the solid residue yield after pyrolysis/devolatilization increases with pressure and decreases with temperature. For coal, the gasification reactivity of the char increases by a factor of 3 to 4 when pressurizing from 1 to 25 bar, for the younger fuels such as peat and wood, this effect is negligible. Several empirical engineering equations are given which relate the fuel performance to the process parameters and the proximate and chemical analyses of the fuel. A pressure maximum was found at which a maximum gasification reactivity occurs, for practically all fuels, and depending on temperature. It is shown that this can be explained and modeled using a Langmuir-Hinshelwood model.

  10. Characterisation of solid fuels at pressurised fluidised bed gasification conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Zebenhoven, R.; Hupa, M.

    1998-04-01

    The gasification or co-gasification of solid fuels (coal, peat, wood) in air-blown fluidised bed gasifiers is receiving continued attention as an alternative to entrained flow gasifiers which in general are oxygen-blown. Fluidised bed gasification of wood and wood-waste at elevated pressures, and the so-called air-blown gasification cycle are examples of processes which are under development in Europe, based on complete or partial gasification of a solid fuel in a pressurised fluidised bed. At the same time, fuel characterisation data for the combination of temperature, pressure and fuel particle heating rate that is encountered in fluidised bed gasification are very scarce. Quantitative data on the characterisation of fuels for advanced combustion and gasification technologies based on fluidised beds are given, as a result from our participation to the JOULE 2 extension project on clean coal technology of the European Community. Eleven solid fuels, ranging from coal via peat to wood, have been studied under typical fluidised bed gasification conditions: 800-1000{degrees}C, 1-25 bar, fuel heating rate in the order of 100-1000{degrees}C/s. Carbon dioxide was used as gasifying agent. A pressurised thermogravimetric reactor was used for the experiments. The results show that the solid residue yield after pyrolysis/devolatilisation. increases with pressure and decreases with temperature. For coal, the gasification reactivity of the char increases by a factor of 3 to 4 when pressurising from 1 to 25 bar, for the `younger` fuels such as peat and wood, this effect is negligible. Several empirical, `engineering` equations are given which relate the fuel performance to the process parameters and the proximate and chemical analyses of the fuel. A pressure maximum was found at which a maximum gasification reactivity occurs, for practically all fuels, and depending on temperature. It is shown that this can be explained and modelled using a Langmuir-Hinshelwood model.

  11. Concurrent Co2+ and Sr2+ sorption from binary mixtures using aluminum industry waste: Kinetic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milenković, A.; Smičiklas, I.; Šljivić-Ivanović, M.; Vukelić, N.

    2015-12-01

    Multi-component sorption studies are essential to identify the applicability of red mud as a lowcost sorbent for the simultaneous removal of metal ions from wastewaters. Sorption kinetics of Co2+ and Sr2+ ions was investigated, at different total concentrations of mixtures and different molar ratios of two cations. Kinetics of metal sorption from binary systems was found to be well described by pseudo-second order rate model. Equilibrium sorbed amounts and equilibrium times for Co2+ sorption increased with the increase of its total concentration in the mixture, whereas pseudo-second order rate constants exhibited the opposite trend. Sr2+ sorption was strongly suppressed in the presence of Co2+ ions, and the removal efficiency decreased with increasing concentration and mole fraction of Co2+. Red mud can be used for simultaneous Co2+ and Sr2+ removal from mixtures of lower initial concentration, otherwise Co2+ sorption is dominant.

  12. Sequestration of CO2 in Mixtures of Caustic Byproduct and Saline Waste Water

    SciTech Connect

    Dilmore, R.M.; Howard, B.H.; Soong, Y.; Griffith, C.; Hedges,S.W.; DeGalbo, A.D.; Morreale, B.; Baltrus, J.P.; Allen, D.E.; Fu, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    Ex-situ carbonation of mixtures of caustic byproduct materials and produced oil-field brine provides a niche opportunity to sequester anthropogenic CO2, while concomitantly reducing the basicity of the reactive slurry. A series of tests were conducted to investigate a novel reaction concept designed to achieve neutralization of mixtures of acidic oil field produced brine and caustic industrial byproducts while sequestering substantial quantities of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (C02) in a mixed-flow reactor. Experiments were conducted to determine the COrbearing capacity of reactive mixtures of brine from the Oriskany Sandstone Formation with three caustic industrial byproducts: flue gas desulfurization (FGO) spray dryer ash, Class C fly ash subbituminous coal combustion byproduct, and bauxite residue slurry from the alumina production process. Reactions were conducted in a closed, well-mixed (1,500 rpm) reactor with gas composed of 29.46% vol./vol. CO2 balanced by nitrogen gas (N2) fed at a rate of 300mL/min. Reactions were carried out at ambient conditions. Results show linear relationships between caustic byproduct addition and COrbearing capacity, with relatively small impact of brine addition as compared to deionized water addition. FGO spray dryer ash/brine mixtures exhibited higher CO2 reactivity than those using Class C fly ash (0.759 moles CO2, at 23.6% solids by weight and 0.036 moles CO2 at 23.3% solids by weight, respectively). Bauxite residue exhibited moderate capacities in mixtures with higher percent solids (0.335 moles CO2 in 40% solids bauxite residue slurry). Carbonation capacity of caustic byproduct/ acidic brine mixtures was shown to increase linearly with respect to percent caustic byproduct addition, but enhanced mineral carbonate precipitation resulting from synergistic reaction of brine cations with increased dissolved carbonate species was not observed in the short term.

  13. Second stage gasifier in staged gasification and integrated process

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, Wan Wang

    2015-10-06

    A second stage gasification unit in a staged gasification integrated process flow scheme and operating methods are disclosed to gasify a wide range of low reactivity fuels. The inclusion of second stage gasification unit operating at high temperatures closer to ash fusion temperatures in the bed provides sufficient flexibility in unit configurations, operating conditions and methods to achieve an overall carbon conversion of over 95% for low reactivity materials such as bituminous and anthracite coals, petroleum residues and coke. The second stage gasification unit includes a stationary fluidized bed gasifier operating with a sufficiently turbulent bed of predefined inert bed material with lean char carbon content. The second stage gasifier fluidized bed is operated at relatively high temperatures up to 1400.degree. C. Steam and oxidant mixture can be injected to further increase the freeboard region operating temperature in the range of approximately from 50 to 100.degree. C. above the bed temperature.

  14. Atmospheric pressure gasification process for power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, M.

    1996-12-31

    Since 1987 TPS Termiska Processer AB has been working on the development of both a biomass-fueled circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification process and a downstream dolomite catalytic tar removal process. The combined process has been developed in a 2 MWth pilot plant which was built originally for investigating the use of the product gas in a diesel motor cogeneration plant. A prototype gasification plant comprising two waste-fueled 15 MWth CFB gasifiers has been installed in Greve-in-Chianti, Italy. Since 1990, TPS has been working on the development of a biomass-fueled integrated gasification combined-cycle scheme utilizing both a CFB gasifier and a CFB tar cracker. In 1992, TPS was contracted by the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) to perform work for Phase II of the Brazilian BIG-GT (Biomass Integrated Gasification-Gas Turbine) project. This stage of the project involved both experimental and engineering studies and the basic engineering for a 30 MWe eucalyptus-fueled power plant in Brazil. The plant is based on the GE LM 2500 gas turbine. During this stage of the project the TPS process was in competition with a process from a pressurized gasification technology vendor. However, in 1995 TPS was selected for participation in Phase III of the project. Phase III of the project includes construction and commissioning of the plant. Involvement in the Brazilian BIG-GT project has served as a springboard for the participation of TPS in similar projects in the Netherlands and the UK. In the UK, ARBRE Energy Limited is constructing a coppice-fueled 8 MWe plant with support from the EU THERMIE program and the UKs NFFO (Non Fossil Fuel Obligation). The design contract will be awarded in late 1996. In the Netherlands, a number of projects for biomass and wastes are being pursued by TPS in cooperation with Royal Schelde of the Netherlands.

  15. A Two-Stage Layered Mixture Experiment Design for a Nuclear Waste Glass Application-Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, Scott K.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Gan, Hao; Kot, Wing; Pegg, Ian L.

    2003-12-01

    A layered experimental design involving mixture variables was generated to support developing property-composition models for high-level waste (HLW) glasses. The design was generated in two stages, each having unique characteristics. Each stage used a layered design having an outer layer, an inner layer, a center point, and some replicates. The layers were defined by single- and multi-variable constraints. The first stage involved 15 glass components treated as mixture variables. For each layer, vertices were generated and optimal design software was used to select alternative subsets of vertices and calculate design optimality measures. Two partial quadratic mixture models, containing 25 terms for the outer layer and 30 terms for the inner layer, were the basis for the optimal design calculations. Distributions of predicted glass property values were plotted and evaluated for the alternative subsets of vertices. Based on the optimality measures and the predicted property distributions, a ''best'' subset of vertices was selected for each layer to form a layered design for the first stage. The design for the second stage was selected to augment the first-stage design. The discussion of the second-stage design begins in this Part 1 and is continued in Part 2 (Cooley and Piepel, 2003b).

  16. Gasification characteristics of MSW and an ANN prediction model.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Gang; Ni, Ming-jiang; Chi, Yong; Jin, Bao-sheng; Xiao, Rui; Zhong, Zhao-ping; Huang, Ya-ji

    2009-01-01

    Gasification characteristics make up the important parts of municipal solid waste (MSW) gasification and melting technology. These characteristics are closely related to the composition of MSW, which alters with climates and seasons. It is important to find a practical way to predict gasification characteristics. In this paper, five typical kinds of organic components (wood, paper, kitchen garbage, plastic, and textile) and three representative types of simulated MSW are gasified in a fluidized-bed at 400-800 degrees C with the equivalence ratio (ER) in the range of 0.2-0.6. The lower heating value (LHV) of gas, gasification products, and gas yield are reported. The results indicate that gasification characteristics are different from sample to sample. Based on the experimental data, an artificial neural networks (ANN) model is developed to predict gasification characteristics. The training and validating relative errors are within +/-15% and +/-20%, respectively, and predicting relative errors of an industrial sample are below +/-25%. This indicates that it is acceptable to predict gasification characteristics via ANN model. PMID:18420400

  17. Fluidized bed gasification of industrial solid recovered fuels.

    PubMed

    Arena, Umberto; Di Gregorio, Fabrizio

    2016-04-01

    The study evaluates the technical feasibility of the fluidized bed gasification of three solid recovered fuels (SRFs), obtained as co-products of a recycling process. The SRFs were pelletized and fed to a pilot scale bubbling fluidized bed reactor, operated in gasification and co-gasification mode. The tests were carried out under conditions of thermal and chemical steady state, with a bed of olivine particles and at different values of equivalence ratio. The results provide a complete syngas characterization, in terms of its heating value and composition (including tars, particulates, and acid/basic pollutants) and of the chemical and physical characterization of bed material and entrained fines collected at the cyclone outlet. The feasibility of the fluidized bed gasification process of the different SRFs was evaluated with the support of a material and substance flow analysis, and a feedstock energy analysis. The results confirm the flexibility of fluidized bed reactor, which makes it one of the preferable technologies for the gasification of different kind of wastes, even in co-gasification mode. The fluidized bed gasification process of the tested SRFs appears technically feasible, yielding a syngas of valuable quality for energy applications in an appropriate plant configuration. PMID:26896004

  18. Investigation of first stage liquefaction of coal with model plastic waste mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Rothenberger, K.S.; Cugini, A.V.; Ciocco, M.V.

    1995-12-31

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Fossil Energy program, the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) recently initiated research in coal-waste coprocessing. Coal-waste coprocessing is conversion to liquid feedstocks of a combination of any or all of the following: coal, rubber, plastics, heavy oil, and waste oil. The current effort is on the combined processing of coal, waste oil, and plastics. One reason commonly cited for coprocessing of coal and plastic materials is the higher hydrogen-to-carbon ratio in most plastics as compared to coal, which is hydrogen deficient relative to the petroleum-like liquids desired as products. Furthermore, the free radicals which are present in coal and believed to be produced in the early stages of coal dissolution could aid in the breakdown of plastic polymers. In this study, screening tests have been conducted in microautoclave reactors, 1-L semi-batch stirred autoclave reactors, and a small-scale continuous unit. All tests employed Black Thunder subbituminous coal with plastic waste streams containing polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) in various combinations and proportions. The materials and conditions were chosen to be compatible with those being investigated by other participants in the USDOE Fossil Energy program, including the proof-of-concept (POC) scale plant at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc. (HRI) in Princeton, NJ. Due to the rapidly evolving nature of the coal-waste coprocessing initiative, many of the experiments reported here were designed to identify potential problem areas for scheduled runs on larger units rather than to systematically map out the chemistry involved with coliquefaction of coal and plastic materials. However, insights into both chemistry and operability of coal-waste coprocessing can be gained from the data.

  19. Sequestration of CO{sub 2} in Mixtures of Caustic Byproduct and Saline Waste Water

    SciTech Connect

    Dilmore, R.M.; Howard, B.H.; Soong, Y.; Griffith, C.; Hedges, S.W.; DeGalbo, A.D.; Morreale, B.; Baltrus, J.P.; Allen, D.E.; Fu, J.K.

    2009-08-15

    A series of tests were conducted to investigate a novel reaction concept designed to achieve neutralization of mixtures of acidic oil field produced brine and caustic industrial byproducts while sequestering substantial quantities of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in a mixed-flow reactor. Experiments were conducted to determine the CO{sub 2}-bearing capacity of reactive mixtures of brine from the Oriskany Sandstone Formation with three caustic industrial byproducts: flue gas desulfurization (FGD) spray dryer ash, Class C fly ash subbituminous coal combustion byproduct, and bauxite residue slurry from the alumina production process. Reactions were conducted in a closed, well-mixed (1,500 rpm) reactor with gas composed of 29.46% vol./vol. CO{sub 2} balanced by nitrogen gas fed at a rate of 300 mL/min. Reactions were carried out at ambient conditions. Results show linear relationships between caustic byproduct addition and CO{sub 2}-bearing capacity, with relatively small impact of brine addition as compared to deionized water addition. FGD spray dryer ash/brine mixtures exhibited higher CO{sub 2} reactivity than those using Class C fly ash (0.759 moles CO{sub 2}, at 23.6% solids by weight and 0.036 moles CO{sub 2} at 23.3% solids by weight, respectively). Bauxite residue exhibited moderate capacities in mixtures with higher percent solids (0.335 moles CO{sub 2} in 40% solids bauxite residue slurry). Carbonation capacity of caustic byproduct/acidic brine mixtures was shown to increase linearly with respect to percent caustic byproduct addition, but enhanced mineral carbonate precipitation resulting from synergistic reaction of brine cations with increased dissolved carbonate species was not observed in the short term.

  20. Sequestration of CO2 in Mixtures of Caustic Byproduct and Saline Waste Water

    SciTech Connect

    Dilmore, Robert M.; Howard, Bret H.; Soong, Yee; Griffith, Craig; Hedges, Sheila W.; DeGalbo, Angelo D.; Morreale, Bryan; Baltrus, John P.; Allen, Douglas E.; Fu, Jaw K.

    2009-08-01

    Ex-situ carbonation of mixtures of caustic byproduct materials and produced oil-field brine provides a niche opportunity to sequester anthropogenic CO2, while concomitantly reducing the basicity of the reactive slurry. A series of tests were conducted to investigate a novel reaction concept designed to achieve neutralization of mixtures of acidic oil field produced brine and caustic industrial byproducts while sequestering substantial quantities of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) in a mixed-flow reactor. Experiments were conducted to determine the CO2-bearing capacity of reactive mixtures of brine from the Oriskany Sandstone Formation with three caustic industrial byproducts: flue gas desulfurization (FGD) spray dryer ash, Class C fly ash subbituminous coal combustion byproduct, and bauxite residue slurry from the alumina production process. Reactions were conducted in a closed, well-mixed (1,500 rpm) reactor with gas composed of 29.46% vol./vol. CO2 balanced by nitrogen gas (N-2) fed at a rate of 300 mL/min. Reactions were carried out at ambient conditions. Results show linear relationships between caustic byproduct addition and CO2-bearing capacity, with relatively small impact of brine addition as compared to deionized water addition. FGD spray dryer ash/brine mixtures exhibited higher CO2 reactivity than those using Class C fly ash (0.759 moles CO2, at 23.6% solids by weight and 0.036 moles CO2 at 23.3% solids by weight, respectively). Bauxite residue exhibited moderate capacities in mixtures with higher percent solids (0.335 moles CO2 in 40% solids bauxite residue slurry). Carbonation capacity of caustic byproduct/acidic brine mixtures was shown to increase linearly with respect to percent caustic byproduct addition, but enhanced mineral carbonate precipitation resulting from synergistic reaction of brine cations with increased dissolved carbonate species was not observed in the short term.

  1. Sequestration of CO 2 in Mixtures of Caustic Byproduct and Saline Waste Water

    SciTech Connect

    Dilmore, Robert M.; Howard, Bret H.; Soong, Yee; Griffith, Craig; Hedges, Sheila W.; DeGalbo, Angelo D.; Morreale, Bryan; Baltrus, John P.; Allen, Douglas E.; Fu, Jaw K.

    2009-08-01

    Ex-situ carbonation of mixtures of caustic byproduct materials and produced oil-field brine provides a niche opportunity to sequester anthropogenic CO2, while concomitantly reducing the basicity of the reactive slurry. A series of tests were conducted to investigate a novel reaction concept designed to achieve neutralization of mixtures of acidic oil field produced brine and caustic industrial byproducts while sequestering substantial quantities of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) in a mixed-flow reactor. Experiments were conducted to determine the CO2-bearing capacity of reactive mixtures of brine from the Oriskany Sandstone Formation with three caustic industrial byproducts: flue gas desulfurization (FGD) spray dryer ash, Class C fly ash subbituminous coal combustion byproduct, and bauxite residue slurry from the alumina production process. Reactions were conducted in a closed, well-mixed (1,500 rpm) reactor with gas composed of 29.46% vol./vol. CO2 balanced by nitrogen gas (N-2) fed at a rate of 300 mL/min. Reactions were carried out at ambient conditions. Results show linear relationships between caustic byproduct addition and CO2-bearing capacity, with relatively small impact of brine addition as compared to deionized water addition. FGD spray dryer ash/brine mixtures exhibited higher CO2 reactivity than those using Class C fly ash (0.759 moles CO2, at 2.6% solids by weight and 0.036 moles CO2 at 23.3% solids by weight, respectively). Bauxite residue exhibited moderate capacities in mixtures with higher percent solids (0.335 moles CO2 in 40% solids bauxite residue slurry). Carbonation capacity of caustic byproduct/acidic brine mixtures was shown to increase linearly with respect to percent caustic byproduct addition, but enhanced mineral carbonate precipitation resulting from synergistic reaction of brine cations with increased dissolved carbonate species was not observed in the short term.

  2. West Valley high-level nuclear waste glass development: a statistically designed mixture study

    SciTech Connect

    Chick, L.A.; Bowen, W.M.; Lokken, R.O.; Wald, J.W.; Bunnell, L.R.; Strachan, D.M.

    1984-10-01

    The first full-scale conversion of high-level commercial nuclear wastes to glass in the United States will be conducted at West Valley, New York, by West Valley Nuclear Services Company, Inc. (WVNS), for the US Department of Energy. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is supporting WVNS in the design of the glass-making process and the chemical formulation of the glass. This report describes the statistically designed study performed by PNL to develop the glass composition recommended for use at West Valley. The recommended glass contains 28 wt% waste, as limited by process requirements. The waste loading and the silica content (45 wt%) are similar to those in previously developed waste glasses; however, the new formulation contains more calcium and less boron. A series of tests verified that the increased calcium results in improved chemical durability and does not adversely affect the other modeled properties. The optimization study assessed the effects of seven oxide components on glass properties. Over 100 melts combining the seven components into a wide variety of statistically chosen compositions were tested. Viscosity, electrical conductivity, thermal expansion, crystallinity, and chemical durability were measured and empirically modeled as a function of the glass composition. The mathematical models were then used to predict the optimum formulation. This glass was tested and adjusted to arrive at the final composition recommended for use at West Valley. 56 references, 49 figures, 18 tables.

  3. Wood gasification in a fluidized bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, S. R.; Wang, M. J.

    1980-04-01

    Gasification of oak sawdust in the Synthesis Gas From Manure (SGFM) pilot plant at Texas Tech University has been evaluated. The SGFM reactor operates as a countercurrent fluidized bed in which a biomass feedstock is fed to the top of the reactor and is fluidized by an air-steam mixture fed to the bottom of the reactor. Using oak sawdust from Missouri as the feedstock, the gas yields were 1.1 to 1.4 L/g daf feed when the average reactor temperature was 600 to 800 C. The gas contained about 4% C2H4 and 11% CH4. The gross heating value of the gas exceeded 11.2 MJ/cu m in all cases. The gasification of wood is compared to previous results obtained for cattle manure. The differences are due to the relative amounts of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the feedstock.

  4. Application of thermal enhanced vapor extraction system technology on a complex chemical waste mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, J.M.; Dev, H.

    1995-12-31

    Thermal Enhanced Vapor Extraction System (TEVES) technology is the combined application of soil heating technology and vacuum vapor extraction soil remediation. Soil heating acts to improve the mass extraction rate of volatile, semivolatile and petroleum hydrocarbons from soils by increasing contaminant vapor pressures and inducing steam stripping action from existing water in unsaturated soils. A complete, instrumented field demonstration of the TEVES technology was performed on a waste disposal cell at the chemical waste landfill located at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM. Powerline frequency (60 Hz) and radiofrequency (6.78 MHz) heating technologies were combined with traditional vacuum vapor extraction with integrated monitoring for soil temperature, subsurface pressure, contaminant removal rate and water removal rate.

  5. Underground coal gasification. Presentations

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    The 8 presentations are: underground coal gasification (UCG) and the possibilities for carbon management (J. Friedmann); comparing the economics of UCG with surface gasification technologies (E. Redman); Eskom develops UCG technology project (C. Gross); development and future of UCG in the Asian region (L. Walker); economically developing vast deep Powder River Basin coals with UCG (S. Morzenti); effectively managing UCG environmental issues (E. Burton); demonstrating modelling complexity of environmental risk management; and UCG research at the University of Queensland, Australia (A.Y. Klimenko).

  6. Rapid toxicity screening of gasification ashes.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Xu; Rong, Le; Ng, Wei Cheng; Ong, Cynthia; Baeg, Gyeong Hun; Zhang, Wenlin; Lee, Si Ni; Li, Sam Fong Yau; Dai, Yanjun; Tong, Yen Wah; Neoh, Koon Gee; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2016-04-01

    The solid residues including bottom ashes and fly ashes produced by waste gasification technology could be reused as secondary raw materials. However, the applications and utilizations of these ashes are very often restricted by their toxicity. Therefore, toxicity screening of ash is the primary condition for reusing the ash. In this manuscript, we establish a standard for rapid screening of gasification ashes on the basis of in vitro and in vivo testing, and henceforth guide the proper disposal of the ashes. We used three different test models comprising human cell lines (liver and lung cells), Drosophila melanogaster and Daphnia magna to examine the toxicity of six different types of ashes. For each ash, different leachate concentrations were used to examine the toxicity, with C0 being the original extracted leachate concentration, while C/C0 being subsequent diluted concentrations. The IC50 for each leachate was also quantified for use as an index to classify toxicity levels. The results demonstrated that the toxicity evaluation of different types of ashes using different models is consistent with each other. As the different models show consistent qualitative results, we chose one or two of the models (liver cells or lung cells models) as the standard for rapid toxicity screening of gasification ashes. We may classify the gasification ashes into three categories according to the IC50, 24h value on liver cells or lung cells models, namely "toxic level I" (IC50, 24h>C/C0=0.5), "toxic level II" (C/C0=0.05gasification plants every day. Subsequently, appropriate disposal methods can be recommended for each toxicity category. PMID:26923299

  7. Ethanol production of semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation from mixture of cotton gin waste and recycled paper sludge

    PubMed Central

    Agblevor, Foster A.

    2010-01-01

    Ethanol production from the steam-exploded mixture of 75% cotton gin waste and 25% recycled paper sludge in various conditions was investigated by semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSSF) consisting of a pre-hydrolysis and a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Four cases were studied: 24-h pre-hydrolysis + 48-h SSF (SSSF 24), 12-h pre-hydrolysis + 60-h SSF (SSSF 12), 72-h SSF, and 48-h hydrolysis + 24-h fermentation (SHF). The ethanol concentration, yield, and productivity of SSSF 24 were higher than those of the other operations. A model of SSF was used to simulate the data for four components in SSF. The analysis of the reaction rates of cellobiose, glucose, cell, and ethanol using the model and the parameters from the experiments showed that there was a transition point of the rate-controlling step at which the cell growth control in the initial 2 h was changed to the cellobiose reaction control in later period during ethanol production of SSF from the mixture. PMID:20559849

  8. Trace element partitioning in ashes from boilers firing pure wood or mixtures of solid waste with respect to fuel composition, chlorine content and temperature.

    PubMed

    Saqib, Naeem; Bäckström, Mattias

    2014-12-01

    Trace element partitioning in solid waste (household waste, industrial waste, waste wood chips and waste mixtures) incineration residues was investigated. Samples of fly ash and bottom ash were collected from six incineration facilities across Sweden including two grate fired and four fluidized bed incinerators, to have a variation in the input fuel composition (from pure biofuel to mixture of waste) and different temperature boiler conditions. As trace element concentrations in the input waste at the same facilities have already been analyzed, the present study focuses on the concentration of trace elements in the waste fuel, their distribution in the incineration residues with respect to chlorine content of waste and combustion temperature. Results indicate that Zn, Cu and Pb are dominating trace elements in the waste fuel. Highly volatile elements mercury and cadmium are mainly found in fly ash in all cases; 2/3 of lead also end up in fly ash while Zn, As and Sb show a large variation in distribution with most of them residing in the fly ash. Lithophilic elements such as copper and chromium are mainly found in bottom ash from grate fired facilities while partition mostly into fly ash from fluidized bed incinerators, especially for plants fuelled by waste wood or ordinary wood chips. There is no specific correlation between input concentration of an element in the waste fuel and fraction partitioned to fly ash. Temperature and chlorine content have significant effects on partitioning characteristics by increasing the formation and vaporization of highly volatile metal chlorides. Zinc and cadmium concentrations in fly ash increase with the incineration temperature. PMID:25263218

  9. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    SciTech Connect

    John W. Rich

    2003-12-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the United States to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases. Phase I is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report covers the period performance from July 1, 2003 through September 30, 2003. The DOE/WMPI Cooperative Agreement was modified on May 2003 to expand the project team to include Shell Global Solutions, U.S. and Uhde GmbH as the engineering contractor. The addition of Shell and Uhde strengthen both the technical capability and financing ability of the project. Uhde, as the prime EPC contractor, has the responsibility to develop a LSTK (lump sum turnkey) engineering design package for the EECP leading to the eventual detailed engineering, construction and operation of the proposed concept. Major technical activities during the reporting period include: (1) finalizing contractual agreements between DOE, Uhde and other technology providers, focusing on intellectual-property-right issues, (2) Uhde's preparation of a LSTK project execution plan and other project engineering procedural documents, and (3) Uhde's preliminary project technical concept assessment and trade-off evaluations.

  10. Use of plastic waste (poly-ethylene terephthalate) in asphalt concrete mixture as aggregate replacement.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Abolfazl; Ganjidoust, Hossein; Maghanaki, Amir Abedin

    2005-08-01

    One of the environmental issues in most regions of Iran is the large number of bottles made from poly-ethylene terephthalate (PET) deposited in domestic wastes and landfills. Due to the high volume of these bottles, more than 1 million m3 landfill space is needed for disposal every year. The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the possibility of using PET waste in asphalt concrete mixes as aggregate replacement (Plastiphalt) to reduce the environmental effects of PET disposal. For this purpose the mechanical properties of plastiphalt mixes were compared with control samples. This study focused on the parameters of Marshall stability, flow, Marshall quotient (stability-to-flow ratio) and density. The waste PET used in this study was in the form of granules of about 3 mm diameter which would replace (by volume) a portion of the mineral coarse aggregates of an equal size (2.36-4.75 mm). In all prepared mixes the determined 6.6% optimum bitumen content was used. In this investigation, five different percentages of coarse aggregate replacement were used. The results showed that the aggregate replacement of 20% by volume with PET granules would result in a reduction of 2.8% in bulk compacted mix density. The value of flow in the plastiphalt mix was lower than that of the control samples. The results also showed that when PET was used as partial aggregate replacement, the corresponding Marshall stability and Marshall quotient were almost the same as for the control samples. According to most of specification requirement, these results introduce an asphalt mix that has properties that makes it suitable for practical use and furthermore, the recycling of PET for asphalt concrete roads helps alleviate an environmental problem and saves energy. PMID:16200982

  11. Low-grade quarry products, reclaimed aggregates and inert wastes -- their use in unbound mixtures for road pavements

    SciTech Connect

    Rockliff, D.

    1996-12-31

    The UK Specification for Highway Works appears to encourage the use of low-grade quarry products and a range of reclaimed aggregates and inert wastes in earthworks. However, in practice, materials used in earthworks are judged against requirements designed to assess the compatibility of soils. Compliance with compactibility criteria rather than fit for purpose criteria can lead to the use of higher quality aggregates than is strictly necessary. For many years UK clients have had supplies of good quality granular subbase material available at low cost. The use of such aggregates in non-structural fill layers presents few risks, but diverts the aggregate from more appropriate end uses, such as asphalts. Proponents of the greater use of wastes and reclaimed aggregates face the same dilemma. The development of European (CEN) Standards may influence the situation. These Standards are designed to ensure that barriers to trade are removed for products placed on the market. The new Standards aim to be blind to the source of the material and to reflect the wide range of national practices across Europe. The CEN work may give a status to a number of tests that are more appropriate to the control of unbound mixtures than those currently used in the UK.

  12. In-plant measurement and analysis of mixtures of uranium and plutonium TRU waste using a 252Cf shuffler instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurd, Jon R.

    1999-01-01

    The active-passive 252Cf shuffler instrument, installed and certified several years ago in Los Alamos National Laboratory's plutonium facility, has now been calibrated for different matrices to measure Waste Isolation Pilot Plant- destined transuranic-waste. Little or no data currently exists for these types of measurements in plant environments where sudden large changes in the neutron background radiation can significantly distort the results. Measurements and analyses of twenty-two 55-gallon drums, consisting of mixtures of varying quantities of uranium and plutonium in mostly noncombustible matrices, have been recently completed at the plutonium facility. The calibration and measurement techniques, including the method used to separate out the plutonium component, will be presented and discussed. Calculations used to adjust for differences in uranium enrichment from that of the calibration standards will be shown. Methods used to determine various sources of both random and systematic error will be indicated. Particular attention will be directed to those problems identified as arising from the plant environment. The results of studies to quantify the aforementioned distortion effects in the data will be presented. Various solution scenarios will be outlined, along with those adopted here.

  13. Dechlorination of liquid wastes containing chlorinated hydrocarbons by a binder mixture of cement and slag with Fe(II).

    PubMed

    Jung, Bahngmi; Shin, Ja-Won; Ghorpade, Praveen A; Park, Joo-Yang

    2013-04-01

    Iron-based degradative solidification/stabilization (DS/S-Fe(II)) is a modification of conventional solidification/stabilization (S/S) that incorporates degradative processes for organic contaminant destruction with immobilization. This study investigated the effectiveness of a binder mixture of Portland cement and slag in a DS/S-Fe(II) system to treat trichloroethylene (TCE), 1,1-dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE), vinyl chloride (VC), trichloromethane (CF), and dichloromethane (MC), which are major chlorinated hydrocarbons contained in waste oils and waste organic solvents. For TCE, 1,1-DCE, and VC, degradation experiments were conducted using three different binder combinations with Fe(II) (cement/Fe(II), slag/Fe(II), and cement/slag/Fe(II)). When cement and slag were mixed at a 1:1 ratio (% wt), the TCE and 1,1-DCE dechlorination rate was enhanced compared to that when cement or slag was used alone with Fe(II). Also, batch experiments were conducted in the solid phase consisting of cement, slag, sand, and Fe(II) to treat liquid wastes that contain chlorinated compounds at high concentrations. TCE was completely removed after 5 days in the cement/slag/sand/Fe(II) system, in which the initial TCE concentration was 11.8mM, with Fe(II) concentration of 565 mM. While the CF concentration was decreased by 95% after 5 days when the initial CF and Fe(II) concentration was 0.25 mM and 200 mM, respectively. However, MC was not degraded with the cement/slag/Fe(II) system. PMID:23454706

  14. Gasification of black liquor

    DOEpatents

    Kohl, Arthur L.

    1987-07-28

    A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediatley above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone.

  15. Gasification of black liquor

    DOEpatents

    Kohl, A.L.

    1987-07-28

    A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediately above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone. 2 figs.

  16. Combined cycle coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, C.W.

    1982-12-01

    This paper reviewed the technical highlights of the Westinghouse coal-gasification combined cycle (CGCC) by giving: a brief history of the Westinghouse coal-gasification technology-development program; process description and discussion of the two CGCC plant designs; the results of a parametric study of the two plants, with differences between air- and oxygen-blown combined-cycle systems; and a demonstration of the flexibility of the Westinghouse gasifier in using either air or oxygen to produce fuel gas. Conclusions included were: the air-blown coal gasification combined-cycle system is more efficient, less expensive, and involves less design complexity than the similarly designed oxygen-blown systems; the Westinghouse coal-gasification process has the flexibility to use air or oxygen to produce fuel gas; environmentally, sulfur and ammonia removal will be similar in the oxygen-blown plant and the air-blown plant; however NO/sub x/ formation will increase for an O/sub 2/-blown plant; steam injection for NO/sub x/ control does not detract from overall plant thermal efficiency. 5 figures, 6 tables. (DP)

  17. Advanced hybrid gasification facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, R.S.; Skinner, W.H.; Johnson, S.A.; Dixit, V.B.

    1993-08-01

    The objective of this procurement is to provide a test facility to support early commercialization of advanced fixed-bed coal gasification technology for electric power generation applications. The proprietary CRS Sirrine Engineers, Inc. PyGas{trademark} staged gasifier has been selected as the initial gasifier to be developed under this program. The gasifier is expected to avoid agglomeration when used on caking coals. It is also being designed to crack tar vapors and ammonia, and to provide an environment in which volatilized alkali may react with aluminosilicates in the coal ash thereby minimizing their concentration in the hot raw coal gas passing through the system to the gas turbine. This paper describes a novel, staged, airblown, fixed-bed gasifier designed to solve both through the incorporation of pyrolysis (carbonization) with gasification. It employs a pyrolyzer (carbonizer) to avoid sticky coal agglomeration which occurs in a fixed-bed process when coal is gradually heated through the 400{degrees}F to 900{degrees}F range. In a pyrolyzer, the coal is rapidly heated such that coal tar is immediately vaporized. Gaseous tars are then thermally cracked prior to the completion of the gasification process. During the subsequent endothermic gasification reactions, volatilized alkali can be chemically bound to aluminosilicates in (or added to) the ash. To reduce NOx from fuel home nitrogen, moisture is minimized to control ammonia generation, and HCN in the upper gasifier region is partially oxidized to NO which reacts with NH3/HCN to form N2.

  18. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT--DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    SciTech Connect

    John W. Rich

    2003-06-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the technoeconomic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the United States to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases. Phase I is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report covers the period performance from January 1, 2003 through March 31, 2003. Phase I Task 6 activities of Preliminary Site Analysis were documented and reported as a separate Topical Report on February 2003. Most of the other technical activities were on hold pending on DOE's announcement of the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) awards. WMPI was awarded one of the CCPI projects in late January 2003 to engineer, construct and operate a first-of-kind gasification/liquefaction facility in the U.S. as a continued effort for the current WMPI EECP engineering feasibility study. Since then, project technical activities were focused on: (1) planning/revising the existing EECP work scope for transition into CCPI, and (2) ''jump starting'' all environmentally related work in pursue of NEPA and PA DEP permitting approval.

  19. Integrated Biomass Gasification with Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Selective Tar Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lingzhi; Wei, Wei; Manke, Jeff; Vazquez, Arturo; Thompson, Jeff; Thompson, Mark

    2011-05-28

    Biomass gasification is a flexible and efficient way of utilizing widely available domestic renewable resources. Syngas from biomass has the potential for biofuels production, which will enhance energy security and environmental benefits. Additionally, with the successful development of low Btu fuel engines (e.g. GE Jenbacher engines), syngas from biomass can be efficiently used for power/heat co-generation. However, biomass gasification has not been widely commercialized because of a number of technical/economic issues related to gasifier design and syngas cleanup. Biomass gasification, due to its scale limitation, cannot afford to use pure oxygen as the gasification agent that used in coal gasification. Because, it uses air instead of oxygen, the biomass gasification temperature is much lower than well-understood coal gasification. The low temperature leads to a lot of tar formation and the tar can gum up the downstream equipment. Thus, the biomass gasification tar removal is a critical technology challenge for all types of biomass gasifiers. This USDA/DOE funded program (award number: DE-FG36-O8GO18085) aims to develop an advanced catalytic tar conversion system that can economically and efficiently convert tar into useful light gases (such as syngas) for downstream fuel synthesis or power generation. This program has been executed by GE Global Research in Irvine, CA, in collaboration with Professor Lanny Schmidt's group at the University of Minnesota (UoMn). Biomass gasification produces a raw syngas stream containing H2, CO, CO2, H2O, CH4 and other hydrocarbons, tars, char, and ash. Tars are defined as organic compounds that are condensable at room temperature and are assumed to be largely aromatic. Downstream units in biomass gasification such as gas engine, turbine or fuel synthesis reactors require stringent control in syngas quality, especially tar content to avoid plugging (gum) of downstream equipment. Tar- and ash-free syngas streams are a critical requirement for commercial deployment of biomass-based power/heat co-generation and biofuels production. There are several commonly used syngas clean-up technologies: (1) Syngas cooling and water scrubbing has been commercially proven but efficiency is low and it is only effective at small scales. This route is accompanied with troublesome wastewater treatment. (2) The tar filtration method requires frequent filter replacement and solid residue treatment, leading to high operation and capital costs. (3) Thermal destruction typically operates at temperatures higher than 1000oC. It has slow kinetics and potential soot formation issues. The system is expensive and materials are not reliable at high temperatures. (4) In-bed cracking catalysts show rapid deactivation, with durability to be demonstrated. (5) External catalytic cracking or steam reforming has low thermal efficiency and is faced with problematic catalyst coking. Under this program, catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) is being evaluated for syngas tar clean-up in biomass gasification. The CPO reaction is exothermic, implying that no external heat is needed and the system is of high thermal efficiency. CPO is capable of processing large gas volume, indicating a very compact catalyst bed and a low reactor cost. Instead of traditional physical removal of tar, the CPO concept converts tar into useful light gases (eg. CO, H2, CH4). This eliminates waste treatment and disposal requirements. All those advantages make the CPO catalytic tar conversion system a viable solution for biomass gasification downstream gas clean-up. This program was conducted from October 1 2008 to February 28 2011 and divided into five major tasks. - Task A: Perform conceptual design and conduct preliminary system and economic analysis (Q1 2009 ~ Q2 2009) - Task B: Biomass gasification tests, product characterization, and CPO tar conversion catalyst preparation. This task will be conducted after completing process design and system economics analysis. Major milestones include identification of syngas cleaning requirements for proposed system design, identification and selection of tar compounds and 2 mixtures for use in CPO tests, and preparation of CPO catalysts for validation. (Q3 2009 ~ Q4 2009) - Task C: Test CPO with biomass gasification product gas. Optimize CPO performance with selected tar compounds. Optimize CPO performance with multi-component mixtures. Milestones include optimizing CPO catalysts design, collecting CPO experimental data for next stage kinetic modeling and understanding the effect of relative reactivities on ultimate tar conversion and syngas yields. (Q1 2010 ~ Q3 2010) - Task D: Develop tar CPO kinetic model with CPO kinetic model and modeling results as deliverables. (Q3 2010 ~ Q2 2011) - Task E: Project management and reporting. Milestone: Quarterly reports and presentations, final report, work presented at national technical conferences (Q1 2009 ~ Q2 2011) At the beginning of the program, IP landscaping was conducted to understand the operation of various types of biomass gasifiers, their unique syngas/tar compositions and potential tar mitigation options using the catalytic partial oxidation technology. A process simulation model was developed to quantify the system performance and economics impact of CPO tar removal technology. Biomass gasification product compositions used for performance evaluation tests were identified after literature review and system modeling. A reaction system for tar conversion tests was designed, constructed, with each individual component shaken-down in 2009. In parallel, University of Minnesota built a lab-scale unit and evaluated the tar removal performance using catalytic reforming. Benzene was used as the surrogate compound. The biomass gasification raw syngas composition was provided by GE through system studies. In 2010, GE selected different tar compounds and evaluated the tar removal effectiveness of the CPO catalyst. The catalytic performance was evaluated under different operating conditions, including catalyst geometry, S/C ratio, O/C ratio, GHSV, and N2 dilution. An understanding of how to optimize catalytic tar removal efficiency by varying operating conditions has been developed. GE collaborated with UoMn in examining inorganic impurities effects. Catalysts were pre-impregnated with inorganic impurities commonly present in biomass gasification syngas, including Si, Ca, Mg, Na, K, P and S. UoMn performed catalyst characterization and has acquired fundamental understandings of impurities effect on catalytic tar removal. Based on experimental data and the proposed reaction pathway, GE constructed a model to predict kinetic performance for biomass gasification tar cleanup process. Experimental data (eg. tar conversion, reactor inlet and outlet temperatures, product distribution) at different operating conditions were used to validate the model. A good fit between model predictions and experimental data was found. This model will be a valuable tool in designing the tar removal reactor and identifying appropriate operating conditions. We attended the 2011 DOE Biomass Program Thermochemical Platform Review held in Denver, CO from February 16 to 18 and received very positive comments from the review panel. Further, syngas utility and biomass to power/fuel companies expressed strong interest in our tar removal technology.

  20. Organic tank safety project: Preliminary results of energetics and thermal behavior studies of model organic nitrate and/or nitrite mixtures and a simulated organic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, R.D.; Sell, R.L.; Sobolik, J.L.; Burger, L.L.

    1995-08-01

    As a result of years of production and recovery of nuclear defense materials and subsequent waste management at the Hanford Site, organic-bearing radioactive high-level wastes (HLW) are currently stored in large (up to 3. ML) single-shell storage tanks (SSTs). Because these wastes contain both fuels (organics) and the oxidants nitrate and nitrite, rapid energetic reactions at certain conditions could occur. In support of Westinghouse Hanford Company`s (WHC) efforts to ensure continued safe storage of these organic- and oxidant-bearing wastes and to define the conditions necessary for reactions to occur, we measured the thermal sensitivities and thermochemical and thermokinetic properties of mixtures of selected organics and sodium nitrate and/or nitrite and a simulated Hanford organic-bearing waste using thermoanalytical technologies. These thermoanalytical technologies are used by chemical reactivity hazards evaluation organizations within the chemical industry to assess chemical reaction hazards.

  1. Tar Management and Recycling in Biomass Gasification and Syngas Purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaffrey, Zach

    Removal of tars is critical to the design and operation of biomass gasification systems as most syngas utilization processing equipment (e.g. internal combustion engines, gas turbines, fuel cells, and liquid fuel synthesis reactors) have a low tolerance for tar. Capturing and disposal of tar is expensive due to equipment costs, high hazardous waste disposal costs where direct uses cannot be found, and system energy losses incurred. Water scrubbing is an existing technique commonly used in gasification plants to remove contaminants and tar; however using water as the absorbent is non-ideal as tar compounds have low or no water solubility. Hydrophobic solvents can improve scrubber performance and this study evaluated tar solubility in selected solvents using slip-streams of untreated syngas from a laboratory fluidized bed reactor operated on almond composite feedstock using both air and steam gasification. Tar solubility was compared with Hansen's solubility theory to examine the extent to which the tar removal can be predicted. As collection of tar without utilization leads to a hazardous waste problem, the study investigated the effects of recycling tars back into the gasifier for destruction. Prior to experiments conducted on tar capture and recycle, characterizations of the air and steam gasification of the almond composite mix were made. This work aims to provide a better understanding of tar collection and solvent selection for wet scrubbers, and to provide information for designing improved tar management systems for biomass gasification.

  2. Liquefaction and dechlorination of hydrothermally treated waste mixture containing plastics with glass powder.

    PubMed

    Sugano, Motoyuki; Shimizu, Takayuki; Komatsu, Akihiro; Kakuta, Yusuke; Hirano, Katsumi

    2011-03-15

    Additive effects of glass powder upon the product yields and chlorine distribution after liquefaction of hydrothermally pretreated mixed waste (HMW) are compared with liquefaction of HMW with any one of water, quartz sand, or glass powder plus water. As a result, addition of either water or quartz sand did not affect liquefaction and dechlorination of HMW. Further, water (5 g) addition did not enhance liquefaction and dechlorination of HMW with glass powder. On the other hand, after liquefaction of HMW with glass powder, the yields of chlorine in the gas and water insoluble constituents decreased and the chlorine yield in the water-soluble constituent increased significantly. Because sodium in glass powder dissolved in a small amount (0.5 g) of water resulted from dehydration of HMW during liquefaction. Further, hydrogen chloride derived from polyvinylchloride in HMW was neutralized by ion exchange between H(+) and Na(+) dissolved in a small amount of water forming NaCl in the Residue (water-soluble) constituent. Therefore, most of chlorine in HMW was removed easily by water extraction of the Residue constituent after liquefaction of HMW with glass powder. Further, upgrading of HMW into the oil constituent was enhanced due to inhibition of production of chlorine containing organic compounds. Accordingly, it was clarified that glass powder was the most effective additive for liquefaction and dechlorination of HMW. PMID:21344899

  3. Variation and distribution of metals and metalloids in soil/ash mixtures from Agbogbloshie e-waste recycling site in Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Itai, Takaaki; Otsuka, Masanari; Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Muto, Mamoru; Opoku-Ankomah, Yaw; Ansa-Asare, Osmund Duodu; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2014-02-01

    Illegal import and improper recycling of electronic waste (e-waste) are an environmental issue in developing countries around the world. African countries are no exception to this problem and the Agbogbloshie market in Accra, Ghana is a well-known e-waste recycling site. We have studied the levels of metal(loid)s in the mixtures of residual ash, formed by the burning of e-waste, and the cover soil, obtained using a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (P-XRF) coupled with determination of the 1M HCl-extractable fraction by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. The accuracy and precision of the P-XRF measurements were evaluated by measuring 18 standard reference materials; this indicated the acceptable but limited quality of this method as a screening tool. The HCl-extractable levels of Al, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, In, Sb, Ba, and Pb in 10 soil/ash mixtures varied by more than one order of magnitude. The levels of these metal(loid)s were found to be correlated with the color (i.e., soil/ash ratio), suggesting that they are being released from disposed e-waste via open burning. The source of rare elements could be constrained using correlation to the predominant metals. Human hazard quotient values based on ingestion of soil/ash mixtures exceeded unity for Pb, As, Sb, and Cu in a high-exposure scenario. This study showed that along with common metals, rare metal(loid)s are also enriched in the e-waste burning site. We suggest that risk assessment considering exposure to multiple metal(loid)s should be addressed in studies of e-waste recycling sites. PMID:24184547

  4. Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel Tam; Alan Nizamoff; Sheldon Kramer; Scott Olson; Francis Lau; Mike Roberts; David Stopek; Robert Zabransky; Jeffrey Hoffmann; Erik Shuster; Nelson Zhan

    2005-05-01

    As part of an ongoing effort of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to investigate the feasibility of gasification on a broader level, Nexant, Inc. was contracted to perform a comprehensive study to provide a set of gasification alternatives for consideration by the DOE. Nexant completed the first two tasks (Tasks 1 and 2) of the ''Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization Study'' for the DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in 2003. These tasks evaluated the use of the E-GAS{trademark} gasification technology (now owned by ConocoPhillips) for the production of power either alone or with polygeneration of industrial grade steam, fuel gas, hydrocarbon liquids, or hydrogen. NETL expanded this effort in Task 3 to evaluate Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasifier. The Task 3 study had three main objectives. The first was to examine the application of the gasifier at an industrial application in upstate New York using a Southeastern Ohio coal. The second was to investigate the GTI gasifier in a stand-alone lignite-fueled IGCC power plant application, sited in North Dakota. The final goal was to train NETL personnel in the methods of process design and systems analysis. These objectives were divided into five subtasks. Subtasks 3.2 through 3.4 covered the technical analyses for the different design cases. Subtask 3.1 covered management activities, and Subtask 3.5 covered reporting. Conceptual designs were developed for several coal gasification facilities based on the fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasifier. Subtask 3.2 developed two base case designs for industrial combined heat and power facilities using Southeastern Ohio coal that will be located at an upstate New York location. One base case design used an air-blown gasifier, and the other used an oxygen-blown gasifier in order to evaluate their relative economics. Subtask 3.3 developed an advanced design for an air-blown gasification combined heat and power facility based on the Subtask 3.2 design. The air-blown case was chosen since it was less costly and had a better return on investment than the oxygen-blown gasifier case. Under appropriate conditions, this study showed a combined heat and power air-blown gasification facility could be an attractive option for upgrading or expanding the utilities area of industrial facilities. Subtask 3.4 developed a base case design for a large lignite-fueled IGCC power plant that uses the advanced GE 7FB combustion turbine to be located at a generic North Dakota site. This plant uses low-level waste heat to dry the lignite that otherwise would be rejected to the atmosphere. Although this base case plant design is economically attractive, further enhancements should be investigated. Furthermore, since this is an oxygen-blown facility, it has the potential for capture and sequestration of CO{sub 2}. The third objective for Task 3 was accomplished by having NETL personnel working closely with Nexant and Gas Technology Institute personnel during execution of this project. Technology development will be the key to the long-term commercialization of gasification technologies. This will be important to the integration of this environmentally superior solid fuel technology into the existing mix of power plants and industrial facilities. As a result of this study, several areas have been identified in which research and development will further advance gasification technology. Such areas include improved system availability, development of warm-gas clean up technologies, and improved subsystem designs.

  5. Trace element partitioning in ashes from boilers firing pure wood or mixtures of solid waste with respect to fuel composition, chlorine content and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Saqib, Naeem Bäckström, Mattias

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Different solids waste incineration is discussed in grate fired and fluidized bed boilers. • We explained waste composition, temperature and chlorine effects on metal partitioning. • Excessive chlorine content can change oxide to chloride equilibrium partitioning the trace elements in fly ash. • Volatility increases with temperature due to increase in vapor pressure of metals and compounds. • In Fluidized bed boiler, most metals find themselves in fly ash, especially for wood incineration. - Abstract: Trace element partitioning in solid waste (household waste, industrial waste, waste wood chips and waste mixtures) incineration residues was investigated. Samples of fly ash and bottom ash were collected from six incineration facilities across Sweden including two grate fired and four fluidized bed incinerators, to have a variation in the input fuel composition (from pure biofuel to mixture of waste) and different temperature boiler conditions. As trace element concentrations in the input waste at the same facilities have already been analyzed, the present study focuses on the concentration of trace elements in the waste fuel, their distribution in the incineration residues with respect to chlorine content of waste and combustion temperature. Results indicate that Zn, Cu and Pb are dominating trace elements in the waste fuel. Highly volatile elements mercury and cadmium are mainly found in fly ash in all cases; 2/3 of lead also end up in fly ash while Zn, As and Sb show a large variation in distribution with most of them residing in the fly ash. Lithophilic elements such as copper and chromium are mainly found in bottom ash from grate fired facilities while partition mostly into fly ash from fluidized bed incinerators, especially for plants fuelled by waste wood or ordinary wood chips. There is no specific correlation between input concentration of an element in the waste fuel and fraction partitioned to fly ash. Temperature and chlorine content have significant effects on partitioning characteristics by increasing the formation and vaporization of highly volatile metal chlorides. Zinc and cadmium concentrations in fly ash increase with the incineration temperature.

  6. A summary report on combustion and gasification processes

    SciTech Connect

    Rath, L.K.; Lee, G.T.

    1996-08-01

    Six poster papers regarding combustion and gasification were reviewed. These six papers address various different technology subjects: (1) underground coal gasification modeling, (2) wood gasification kinetics, (3) heat transfer surface pretreatment by iron implantation, (4) coal water slurry stabilization technology, (5) coal log pipeline technology, and (6) nuclear reactor decontamination. Summaries and comments of the following papers are presented: Characterization of Flow and Chemical Processes in an Underground Gasifier at Great Depth; Model for Reaction Kinetics in Pyrolysis of Wood; Development of a Stainless Steel Heat Transfer Surface with Low Scaling Tendency; Storage and Transportation of Coal Water Mixtures; Coal Log Pipeline: Development Status of the First Commercial System; and Decontamination of Nuclear Systems at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station.

  7. Hydrogen production from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Wallman, P.H.; Richardson, J.H.; Thorsness, C.B.

    1996-06-28

    We have modified a Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) hydrothermal pretreatment pilot plant for batch operation and blowdown of the treated batch to low pressure. We have also assembled a slurry shearing pilot plant for particle size reduction. Waste paper and a mixture of waste paper/polyethylene plastic have been run in the pilot plant with a treatment temperature of 275{degrees}C. The pilot-plant products have been used for laboratory studies at LLNL. The hydrothermal/shearing pilot plants have produced acceptable slurries for gasification tests from a waste paper feedstock. Work is currently underway with combined paper/plastic feedstocks. When the assembly of the Research Gasification Unit at Texaco (feed capacity approximately 3/4-ton/day) is complete (4th quarter of FY96), gasification test runs will commence. Laboratory work on slurry samples during FY96 has provided correlations between slurry viscosity and hydrothermal treatment temperature, degree of shearing, and the presence of surfactants and admixed plastics. To date, pumpable slurries obtained from an MSW surrogate mixture of treated paper and plastic have shown heating values in the range 13-15 MJ/kg. Our process modeling has quantified the relationship between slurry heating value and hydrogen yield. LLNL has also performed a preliminary cost analysis of the process with the slurry heating value and the MSW tipping fee as parameters. This analysis has shown that the overall process with a 15 MJ/kg slurry gasifier feed can compete with coal-derived hydrogen with the assumption that the tipping fee is of the order $50/ton.

  8. Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Judith A. Kieffer

    2000-07-01

    Gasification combined cycle continues to represent an important defining technology area for the forest products industry. The ''Forest Products Gasification Initiative'', organized under the Industry's Agenda 2020 technology vision and supported by the DOE ''Industries of the Future'' program, is well positioned to guide these technologies to commercial success within a five-to ten-year timeframe given supportive federal budgets and public policy. Commercial success will result in significant environmental and renewable energy goals that are shared by the Industry and the Nation. The Battelle/FERCO LIVG technology, which is the technology of choice for the application reported here, remains of high interest due to characteristics that make it well suited for integration with the infrastructure of a pulp production facility. The capital cost, operating economics and long-term demonstration of this technology area key input to future economically sustainable projects and must be verified by the 200 BDT/day demonstration facility currently operating in Burlington, Vermont. The New Bern application that was the initial objective of this project is not currently economically viable and will not be implemented at this time due to several changes at and around the mill which have occurred since the inception of the project in 1995. The analysis shows that for this technology, and likely other gasification technologies as well, the first few installations will require unique circumstances, or supportive public policies, or both to attract host sites and investors.

  9. Catalytic gasification fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    Heinemann, H.; Somorjai, G.A.

    1992-11-01

    Last year it was found that Maya coke gasification could be greatly accelerated if the coking took place in the presence of small amounts (below 1%) of caustic. When the Maya coke thus prepared was impregnated with 1% of CaO-KO{sub x} catalyst, the rate of gasification was doubled. During the past year, this phenomenon has been further investigated and the work has been extended to two other and very different cokes. As shown in Figure 2, a Statfjord Bottoms coke prepared in the presence of 1% NaOH and then impregnated with CaO{sub x}-KO{sub x} catalyst gasified very much faster than the same material coked in the absence of NaOH. The same phenomenon is exhibited in Figure 3 for a Torrance Hondo coke, although in this case the difference between the cokes prepared in the presence and absence of NaOH is somewhat smaller. It is concluded that the preparation method of the coke is of major importance for the rate of gasification and that the phenomenon that presence of alkali during coking is helpful is a generic one.

  10. Catalytic gasification fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    Heinemann, H.; Somorjai, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    Last year it was found that Maya coke gasification could be greatly accelerated if the colting took place in the presence of small amounts (below 1%) of caustic. When the Maya coke thus prepared was impregnated with 1% of CaO-KO[sub x] catalyst, the rate of gasification was doubled. During the past year, this phenomenon has been further investigated and the work has been extended to two other and very different cokes. As shown in Figure 2, a Statfjord Bottoms coke prepared in the presence of 1% NaOH and then impregnated with CaO[sub x]-KO[sub x] catalyst gasified very much faster than the same material coked in the absence of NaOH. The same phenomenon is exhibited in Figure 3 for a Torrance Hondo coke, although in this case the difference between the cokes prepared in the presence and absence of NaOH is somewhat smaller. It is concluded that the preparation method of the coke is of major importance for the rate of gasification and that the phenomenon that presence of alkali during coking is helpful is a generic one.

  11. Characterisation and fingerprinting of PCBs in flue gas and ash from waste incineration and in technical mixtures.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Stina; Lundin, Lisa; Grabic, Roman

    2011-10-01

    Congener patterns of mono- to deca-chlorinated biphenyls (PC1-10B) were evaluated in (a) waste incineration flue gases collected in the post-combustion zone of a laboratory-scale fluidized-bed reactor, (b) ashes from two different MSW incineration plants, and (c) published data of eight Aroclor formulations. The congener patterns of the flue gases, ashes, and Aroclor mixtures clearly differed from each other, likely reflecting differences in formation pathways. The flue gas congener patterns were largely dominated by the least chlorinated congeners, whereas the ashes displayed more evenly distributed patterns. The most abundant congeners indicated a preference for 3,3',4,4'-oriented substitution, which may be related to de novo-type formation involving perylene. Principal component analysis confirmed that congener patterns differed among the three matrices and also distinguished flue gases collected at 200 C from those collected at 300 C and 450 C. This distinction could be partly explained by the degree of chlorination, although the substitution status of the ortho-position, and substitution in the 3,3',4,4'-positions also seemed to be influential. Injecting biphenyl into the post-combustion zone of the reactor did not alter the patterns, indicating that availability of the backbone structure is not a limiting factor for PCB formation. PMID:21885088

  12. Methane or methanol via catalytic gasification of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, D.H.; Mudge, L.K.; Robertus, R.J.; Weber, S.L.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.

    1980-03-01

    Methane and methanol synthesis gas can be produced by steam gasification of biomass in the presence of appropriate catalysts. A 5 cm diameter reactor has been used to determine the desired catalysts and operating temperature. A process development unit (PDU) has demonstrated steam gasification of biomass with catalysts at rates up to 35 kg per hour. Methane yields of 0.28 nm/sup 3/ per kg of dry wood were produced in the small laboratory reactor. Further methanation of the product gas mixture can increase methane yields to 0.33 nm/sup 3//kg. The catalyst system is nickel and silica-alumina. The preferred reactor operating temperature is 500 to 550/sup 0/C. Tests have been at atmospheric pressure. The PDU performance has confirmed results obtained in the laboratory. Methanol synthesis gas can be produced in a single stage reactor at 750 to 850/sup 0/C by steam gasification of wood with silica-alumina and nickel catalysts present. From this gas, up to 0.6 kg of methanol can be produced per kg of wood. Gasification of the wood to produce synthesis gas has been demonstrated in the laboratory scale reactor, but remains to be successfully done using the PDU. Catalyst deactivation rates and regeneration schemes must be determined in order to determine the economic feasibility of wood to methane or methanol processes. Some advantages of catalytic steam gasification of biomass over steam-oxygen gasification are: no oxygen is required for methane or methanol synthesis gas, therefore, no oxygen plant is needed; little or no tar is produced resulting in simpler gas cleaning equipment; no shift reactor is required for methanol synthesis; methanation requirements are low resulting in high conversion efficiency; and yields and efficiencies are greater than obtained by conventional gasification.

  13. Rheology Of MonoSodium Titanate (MST) And Modified Mst (mMST) Mixtures Relevant To The Salt Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D. C.; Martino, C. J.; Shehee, T. C.; Poirier, M. R.

    2013-07-31

    The Savannah River National Laboratory performed measurements of the rheology of suspensions and settled layers of treated material applicable to the Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility. Suspended solids mixtures included monosodium titanate (MST) or modified MST (mMST) at various solid concentrations and soluble ion concentrations with and without the inclusion of kaolin clay or simulated sludge. Layers of settled solids were MST/sludge or mMST/sludge mixtures, either with or without sorbed strontium, over a range of initial solids concentrations, soluble ion concentrations, and settling times.

  14. Current plans for the Texaco gasification power systems (TGPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Jahnke, F.C.

    1995-09-01

    The commercial use of the Texaco Gasification Process to produce power from low value, high sulfur fuels is now being implemented. Although proven to be feasible in the mid 1980`s, the low natural gas prices and other economic considerations have delayed the commercial implementation of IGCC to the current time frame. Improvements in the technology, reduction in capital cost, and reduced feedstock values have all combined in recent years to make IGCC attractive. To take advantage of these developments, Texaco is focusing on projects where their technology brings the best value. This paper describes the application of this gasification process to power generation, syngas and hydrogen production, and waste destruction.

  15. The thermochemical analysis of the effectiveness of various gasification technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, P. P.; Kovbasyuk, V. I.; Medvedev, Yu. V.

    2013-05-01

    The authors studied the process of gasification of solid fuels and wastes by means of modified model accounting the absence of equilibrium in the Boudouard reaction. A comparison was made between auto- and allothermal gasification, and it was demonstrated that the former method is more advantageous with respect to (as an indicator) thermochemical efficiency. The feasibility of producing highly calorific synthesis gas using an oxygen blast is discussed. A thermodynamic model of the facility for producing such synthesis gas has been developed that involves the gas turbine used for driving an oxygen plant of the adsorption type.

  16. Plasma Treatments and Biomass Gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luche, J.; Falcoz, Q.; Bastien, T.; Leninger, J. P.; Arabi, K.; Aubry, O.; Khacef, A.; Cormier, J. M.; Lédé, J.

    2012-02-01

    Exploitation of forest resources for energy production includes various methods of biomass processing. Gasification is one of the ways to recover energy from biomass. Syngas produced from biomass can be used to power internal combustion engines or, after purification, to supply fuel cells. Recent studies have shown the potential to improve conventional biomass processing by coupling a plasma reactor to a pyrolysis cyclone reactor. The role of the plasma is twofold: it acts as a purification stage by reducing production of tars and aerosols, and simultaneously produces a rich hydrogen syngas. In a first part of the paper we present results obtained from plasma treatment of pyrolysis oils. The outlet gas composition is given for various types of oils obtained at different experimental conditions with a pyrolysis reactor. Given the complexity of the mixtures from processing of biomass, we present a study with methanol considered as a model molecule. This experimental method allows a first modeling approach based on a combustion kinetic model suitable to validate the coupling of plasma with conventional biomass process. The second part of the paper is summarizing results obtained through a plasma-pyrolysis reactor arrangement. The goal is to show the feasibility of this plasma-pyrolysis coupling and emphasize more fundamental studies to understand the role of the plasma in the biomass treatment processes.

  17. Kosova coal gasification plant health effects study: Volume 1, Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, S.C.; Jackson, J.O.; Haxhiu, M.A.

    1987-03-01

    This is the summary volume of a three-volume report of the Kosova coal gasification plant health effects study. The plant is of the Lurgi type and began commercial operation in 1971. The study was conducted under the auspices of the U.S.-Yugoslav Joint Board for Scientific and Technological Cooperation. It had five overall purposes: (1) Identify potential health risks in the gasification plant and provide information on possible control measures. (2) Use the experience in Kosova as a basis of judging potential health risks and avoiding potential problems at future commercial scale gasification plants in the United States and Yuogoslavia. (3) Acquire information on industrial hygiene practices at an operating commercial scale coal gasification plant. (4) Use the experience in Kosova to contribute to understanding dose-response relationships of exposure to complex organic mixtures. (5) Increase the scientific capabilities of scientists in Kosova in the areas of epidemiology and industrial hygiene. This report introduced the Kosova gasification plant and the study design and summarizes the preliminary studies of 1981 to 1983, the detailed characterization campaign of 1984, the retrospective epidemiology study, ongoing clinical studies, and the successful technology transfer. It presents conclusions and recommendations from the industrial hygiene and epidemiology studies. 18 refs.

  18. Modeling of a high-temperature direct coal gasification process in a two-stream reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hanjalic, K.; Sijercic, M. ); Crowe, C.T.; Wojcicki, S. )

    1988-06-01

    A new scheme for direct gasification of pulverized coal has been analyzed by a mathematical model. Gasification occurs in the annular region of a cylindrical reactor during the cocurrent flow of a steam/coal mixture, with combustion products in the reactor core region serving as an internal heat source. The model incorporates the two equation model for turbulence, mass exchange between phases due to chemical reactions and radiative heat transfer. Detailed calculations are carried out to asses the feasibility of the scheme.

  19. Modeling of a high-temperature direct coal gasification process in a two-stream reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hanjalic, K.; Sijercic, M.; Crowe, C.T.; Wojcicki, S. )

    1988-01-01

    A new scheme for direct gasification of pulverized coal has been analyzed by a mathematical model. Gasification occurs in the annular region of a cylindrical reactor during the cocurrent flow of a steam/coal mixture, with combustion products in the reactor core region serving as an internal heat source. The model incorporates the two equation model for turbulence, mass exchange between phases due to chemical reactions and radiative heat transfer. Detailed calculations are carried out to assess the feasibility of the scheme.

  20. A novel approach to highly dispersing catalytic materials in coal for gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Abotsi, G.M.K.; Bota, K.B.

    1992-01-01

    This project seeks to develop a technique, based on coal surface properties, for highly dispersing catalysts in coal for gasification and to investigate the potential of using potassium carbonate and calcium acetate mixtures as catalysts for coal gasification. The lower cost and higher catalytic activity of the latter compound will produce economic benefits by reducing the amount of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} required for high coal char reactivities.

  1. Influence of mixture ratio and pH to solidification/stabilization process of hospital solid waste incineration ash in Portland cement.

    PubMed

    Sobiecka, Elzbieta; Obraniak, Andrzej; Antizar-Ladislao, Blanca

    2014-09-01

    Solidification/stabilization (S/S) is an established utilization technology to treat hazardous wastes. This research explored the influence of pH (3-12) on the immobilization of heavy metals present in five mixtures of hospital solid waste incinerator ash and Portland cement, following two different processes of waste solidification/stabilization (cement hydration and granulation). In general, cement hydration process resulted in more stable products than granulation process. A high ash content in the mixture with Portland cement (60wt%) resulted in the highest immobilization of Pb(2+) and Cu(2+), while a low ash content in the mixture (10wt%) resulted in the lowest leachability of Zn(2+). When ash and Portland cement was mixed in equal proportions (50wt%) the highest encapsulation was observed for Ni(2+), Cd(2+) and Cr(3+). Neutral and weak alkaline pH values within the range pH=7-8 resulted in the lowest leachability of the monitored heavy metals. PMID:24997895

  2. Catalysis in biomass gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.G.; Mudge, L.K.

    1984-06-01

    The objective of these studies is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of producing specific gas products by catalytic gasification of biomass. Catalyst performance is a key factor in the feasibility of catalytic gasification processes. The results of studies designed to gain a fundamental understanding of catalytic mechanisms and causes of deactivation, and discussion of the state-of-the-art of related catalytic processes are presented. Experiments with primary and secondary catalysts were conducted in a 5-cm-diameter, continuous-wood-feed, fixed-catalyst-bed reactor. The primary catalysts used in the experiments were alkali carbonates mixed with the biomass feed; the secondary catalysts included nickel or other transition metals on supports such as alumina, silica, or silica-alumina. The primary catalysts were found to influence wood pyrolysis as well as the char/steam reaction. Secondary catalysts were used in a fixed-bed configuration to direct gas phase reactions. Results of the performance of these catalysts are presented. Secondary catalysts were found to be highly effective for conversion of biomass to specific gas products: synthesis gases and methane-rich gas. With an active catalyst, equilibrium gas composition are obtained, and all liquid pyrolysis products are converted to gases. The major cause of catalyst deactivation was carbon deposition, or coking. Loss of surface area by sintering was also inportant. Catalyst deactivation by sulfur poisoning was observed when bagasse was used as the feedstock for catalytic gasification. Mechanisms of catalyst activity and deactivation are discussed. Model compounds (methane, ethylene, and phenol) were used to determine coking behavior of catalysts. Carbon deposition is more prevalent with ethylene and phenol than with methane. Catalyst formulations that are resistant to carbon deposition are presented. 60 references, 10 figures, 21 tables.

  3. Underground gasification of coal

    DOEpatents

    Pasini, III, Joseph; Overbey, Jr., William K.; Komar, Charles A.

    1976-01-20

    There is disclosed a method for the gasification of coal in situ which comprises drilling at least one well or borehole from the earth's surface so that the well or borehole enters the coalbed or seam horizontally and intersects the coalbed in a direction normal to its major natural fracture system, initiating burning of the coal with the introduction of a combustion-supporting gas such as air to convert the coal in situ to a heating gas of relatively high calorific value and recovering the gas. In a further embodiment the recovered gas may be used to drive one or more generators for the production of electricity.

  4. PNNL Coal Gasification Research

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Douglas J.; Cabe, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.

    2010-07-28

    This report explains the goals of PNNL in relation to coal gasification research. The long-term intent of this effort is to produce a syngas product for use by internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers in materials, catalysts, and instrumentation development. Future work on the project will focus on improving the reliability and performance of the gasifier, with a goal of continuous operation for 4 hours using coal feedstock. In addition, system modifications to increase operational flexibility and reliability or accommodate other fuel sources that can be used for syngas production could be useful.

  5. Development of a high-temperature air-blown gasification system.

    PubMed

    Pian, C C; Yoshikawa, K

    2001-09-01

    Current status of high-temperature air-blown gasification technology development is reviewed. This advanced gasification system utilizes preheated air to convert coal and waste-derived fuels into synthetic fuel gas and value-added byproducts. A series of demonstrated, independent technologies are combined to form the core of this gasification system. A high-temperature, rapid devolatilization process is used to enhance the volatile yields from the fuel and to improve the gasification efficiency. A high-temperature pebble bed filter is used to remove to the slag and particulates from the synthetic fuel gas. Finally, a novel regenerative heater is used to supply the high-temperature air for the gasifier. Component development tests have shown that higher gasification efficiencies can be obtained at more fuel-rich operating conditions when high-temperature air is used as the gasification agent. Test results also demonstrated the flex-fuel capabilities of the gasifier design. Potential uses of this technology range from large-scale integrated gasification power plants to small-scale waste-to-energy applications. PMID:11499577

  6. Characterisation of metals in the electronic waste of complex mixtures of end-of-life ICT products for development of cleaner recovery technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Z.H.I.; Xiao, Y.; Sietsma, J.; Agterhuis, H.; Visser, G.; Yang, Y.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • New characterisation methodology has been established to understand an industrially processed ICT waste. • Particle size distribution, composition, thermal–chemical behaviour and occurrence of metals were considered. • The characterisation provides direct guidelines for values recovery from the waste. - Abstract: Recycling of valuable metals from electronic waste, especially complex mixtures of end-of-life information and communication technology (ICT) products, is of great difficulty due to their complexity and heterogeneity. One of the important reasons is the lack of comprehensive characterisation on such materials, i.e. accurate compositions, physical/chemical properties. In the present research, we focus on developing methodologies for the characterisation of metals in an industrially processed ICT waste. The morphology, particle size distribution, compositional distribution, occurrence, liberation as well as the thermo-chemical properties of the ICT waste were investigated with various characterisation techniques, including X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersed spectroscopy (EDS). Due to the high heterogeneity of the material, special sample preparation procedures were introduced to minimise the discrepancies during compositional analyses. As a result, a clearer overview of the ICT waste has been reached. This research provides better understanding of the extractability of each metal and improves the awareness of potential obstacles for extraction. It will lead to smarter decisions during further development of a clean and effective recovery process.

  7. Mixtures of a coal combustion by-product and composted yard wastes for use as soil substitutes and amendments. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Eckert, D.J.; McCoy, E.L.; Danneberger, T.K.

    1996-08-01

    Mixtures of coal combustion by-product (CCBP) and yard waste compost (with and without sand), and mixtures of CCBP and soil, were evaluated for use as soil substitutes and amendments for production of container-grown ornamental shrubs and trees, and for establishment and production of forage-groundcover species. Species evaluated were azalea (Rhododendron spp.), burning bush (Euonymous alatus), red maple (Acer rubrum), yew (Taxus spp.), tall fescue (Festuca arundi nacea, cv. {open_quotes}Chesapeake{close_quotes}), alfalfa, and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L., cv. {open_quotes}Bronco{close_quotes}). All ornamental species failed to grow when planted in CCBP/compost mixtures when the CCBP concentration was greater than 30 percent by volume. Plant toxicity due to high concentrations of soluble salts and boron was responsible for the poor plant performance. When CCBP was used as a soil amendment at concentrations less than 30 percent, growth of tall fescue and Kentucky bluegrass was not affected by the mixture, and alfalfa yield increased at CCBP mixtures up to 20 percent.

  8. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2015-05-31

    The term “hydrothermal” used here refers to the processing of biomass in water slurries at elevated temperature and pressure to facilitate the chemical conversion of the organic structures in biomass into useful fuels. The process is meant to provide a means for treating wet biomass materials without drying and to access ionic reaction conditions by maintaining a liquid water processing medium. Typical hydrothermal processing conditions are 523-647K of temperature and operating pressures from 4-22 MPa of pressure. The temperature is sufficient to initiate pyrolytic mechanisms in the biopolymers while the pressure is sufficient to maintain a liquid water processing phase. Hydrothermal gasification is accomplished at the upper end of the process temperature range. It can be considered an extension of the hydrothermal liquefaction mechanisms that begin at the lowest hydrothermal conditions with subsequent decomposition of biopolymer fragments formed in liquefaction to smaller molecules and eventually to gas. Typically, hydrothermal gasification requires an active catalyst to accomplish reasonable rates of gas formation from biomass.

  9. Air blown gasification cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Dawes, S.G.; Mordecai, M.; Brown, D.; Burnard, G.K.

    1995-12-31

    The Air Blown Gasification Cycle (ABGC) is a hybrid partial gasification cycle based on a novel, air blown pressurized fluidized bed gasifier (PFBG) with a circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC) to burn the residual char from the PFBG. The ABGC has been developed primarily as a clean coal generation system and embodies a sulfur capture mechanism based on the addition of limestone, or other sorbent, to the PFBG where it is sulfided in the reducing atmosphere, followed by oxidation to a stable sulfate residue in the CFBC. In order to achieve commercialization, certain key technological issues needed to be addressed and an industry-led consortium was established to develop the components of the system through the prototype plant to commercial exploitation. The consortium, known as the Clean Coal Power Generation Group (CCPGG), is undertaking a program of activity aimed at achieving a design specification for a 75 MWe prototype integrated plant by March, 1996. Component development consists of both the establishment of new components, such as the PFBG and the hot gas clean up system, and specific development of already established components, such as the CFBC, raw gas cooler, heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and gas turbine. This paper discusses the component development activities and indicates the expected performance and economics of both the prototype and commercial plants. In addition, the strategy for component development and achievement of the specification for a 75 MWe prototype integrated plant is described.

  10. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2008-05-06

    A recent development in biomass gasification is the use of a pressurized water processing environment in order that drying of the biomass can be avoided. This paper reviews the research undertaken developing this new option for biomass gasification. This review does not cover wet oxidation or near-atmospheric-pressure steam-gasification of biomass. Laboratory research on hydrothermal gasification of biomass focusing on the use of catalysts is reviewed here, and a companion review focuses on non-catalytic processing. Research includes liquid-phase, sub-critical processing as well as super-critical water processing. The use of heterogeneous catalysts in such a system allows effective operation at lower temperatures, and the issues around the use of catalysts are presented. This review attempts to show the potential of this new processing concept by comparing the various options under development and the results of the research.

  11. In Situ Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Alan Sinquefield

    2005-10-01

    Black liquor gasification offers a number of attractive incentives to replace Tomlinson boilers but it also leads to an increase in the causticizing load. Reasons for this have been described in previous reports (FY04 ERC, et.al.). The chemistries have also been covered but will be reviewed here briefly. Experimental results of the causticizing reactions with black liquor are presented here. Results of the modeling work were presented in detail in the Phase 1 report. They are included in Table 2 for comparison but will not be discussed in detail. The causticizing agents were added to black liquor in the ratios shown in Table 1, mixed, and then spray-dried. The mixture ratios (doping levels) reflect amount calculated from the stoichiometry above to achieve specified conversions shown in the table. The solids were sieved to 63-90 microns for use in the entrained flow reactors. The firing conditions are shown in Table 2. Pictures and descriptions of the reactors can be found in the Phase 1 annual report. Following gasification, the solids (char) was collected and analyzed by coulometric titration (for carbonate and total carbon), and by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP) for a wide array of metals.

  12. Coal gasification vessel

    DOEpatents

    Loo, Billy W.

    1982-01-01

    A vessel system (10) comprises an outer shell (14) of carbon fibers held in a binder, a coolant circulation mechanism (16) and control mechanism (42) and an inner shell (46) comprised of a refractory material and is of light weight and capable of withstanding the extreme temperature and pressure environment of, for example, a coal gasification process. The control mechanism (42) can be computer controlled and can be used to monitor and modulate the coolant which is provided through the circulation mechanism (16) for cooling and protecting the carbon fiber and outer shell (14). The control mechanism (42) is also used to locate any isolated hot spots which may occur through the local disintegration of the inner refractory shell (46).

  13. Autothermal coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Konkol, W.; Ruprecht, P.; Cornils, B.; Duerrfeld, R.; Langhoff, J.

    1982-03-01

    This paper presents test results of a pilot plant study of coal gasification system based on the process developed by Texaco. This process has been improved by the project partners Ruhrchenie A.G. and Ruhrkohle A.C. in West Germany and tested in a demonstration plant that operated for more than 10,000 hours, converting over 50,000 tons of coal into gas. The aim was to develop a process that would be sufficiently flexible when used at the commercial level to incorporate all of the advantages inherent in the diverse processes of the 'first generation' - fixed bed, fluidized bed and entrained bed processes - but would be free of the disadvantages of these processes. Extensive test results are tabulated and evaluated. Forecast for future development is included. 5 refs.

  14. Discarded oranges and brewer's spent grains as promoting ingredients for microbial growth by submerged and solid state fermentation of agro-industrial waste mixtures.

    PubMed

    Aggelopoulos, Theodoros; Bekatorou, Argyro; Pandey, Ashok; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2013-08-01

    The exploitation of various agro-industrial wastes for microbial cell mass production of Kluyveromyces marxianus, kefir, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae is reported in the present investigation. Specifically, the promotional effect of whole orange pulp on cell growth in mixtures consisting of cheese whey, molasses, and potato pulp in submerged fermentation processes was examined. A 2- to 3-fold increase of cell mass was observed in the presence of orange pulp. Likewise, the promotional effect of brewer's spent grains on cell growth in solid state fermentation of mixtures of whey, molasses, potato pulp, malt spent rootlets, and orange pulp was examined. The cell mass was increased by 3-fold for K. marxianus and 2-fold for S. cerevisiae in the presence of these substrates, proving their suitability for single-cell protein production without the need for extra nutrients. Cell growth kinetics were also studied by measurements of cell counts at various time intervals at different concentrations of added orange pulp. The protein content of the fermented substrates was increased substantially, indicating potential use of mixed agro-industrial wastes of negligible cost, as protein-enriched livestock feed, achieving at the same time creation of added value and waste minimization. PMID:23780341

  15. Materials of Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-15

    The objective of this project was to accumulate and establish a database of construction materials, coatings, refractory liners, and transitional materials that are appropriate for the hardware and scale-up facilities for atmospheric biomass and coal gasification processes. Cost, fabricability, survivability, contamination, modes of corrosion, failure modes, operational temperatures, strength, and compatibility are all areas of materials science for which relevant data would be appropriate. The goal will be an established expertise of materials for the fossil energy area within WRI. This would be an effort to narrow down the overwhelming array of materials information sources to the relevant set which provides current and accurate data for materials selection for fossil fuels processing plant. A significant amount of reference material on materials has been located, examined and compiled. The report that describes these resources is well under way. The reference material is in many forms including texts, periodicals, websites, software and expert systems. The most important part of the labor is to refine the vast array of available resources to information appropriate in content, size and reliability for the tasks conducted by WRI and its clients within the energy field. A significant has been made to collate and capture the best and most up to date references. The resources of the University of Wyoming have been used extensively as a local and assessable location of information. As such, the distribution of materials within the UW library has been added as a portion of the growing document. Literature from recent journals has been combed for all pertinent references to high temperature energy based applications. Several software packages have been examined for relevance and usefulness towards applications in coal gasification and coal fired plant. Collation of the many located resources has been ongoing. Some web-based resources have been examined.

  16. Residue gasification tests at TVA

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, D.

    1984-11-01

    The Texaco gasification process was identified as an attractive way to utilise vacuum bottoms from the Exxon Donor Solvent liquefaction process to generate synthesis gas. This gas can then be upgraded to produce the hydrogen required by the EDS plant. Gasification tests were carried out at TVA's 200 t/day Muscle Shoals plant and are reported here. As a result, Texaco expects that a plant could be designed to handle EDS residue from any high-rank coal.

  17. Coal gasification and occupational health.

    PubMed

    Young, R J; McKay, W J; Evans, J M

    1978-12-01

    Identification and prevention of health effects due to occupational exposures in coal gasification processes requires a basic knowledge of the technological process by which gasification proceeds. This paper presents an overview of the technology and a rational approach to health hazard identification based upon the concept of the unit operation specific micro environment. A final section is devoted to summarizing current research efforts being carried out under the aegis of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. PMID:369347

  18. Methods and apparatus for catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Butner, Robert Scott; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Hart, Todd R.

    2012-08-14

    Continuous processing of wet biomass feedstock by catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent separation of sulfur contaminants, or combinations thereof. Treatment further includes separating the precipitates out of the wet feedstock, removing sulfur contaminants, or both using a solids separation unit and a sulfur separation unit, respectively. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfur that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogeneous catalyst for gasification.

  19. The O{sub 2}-enriched air gasification of coal, plastics and wood in a fluidized bed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Mastellone, Maria Laura; Zaccariello, Lucio; Santoro, Donato; Arena, Umberto

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of the O{sub 2} in the gasification stream of a BFB gasifier has been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Main advantage of the O{sub 2}-enriched air is the increasing of the bed temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No remarkable effects on tar reduction. Decreasing of recognized PAHs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gasification reactions completed inside the dense bed and splashing zone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polycondensation reactions occur mainly in the freeboard region. - Abstract: The effect of oxygen-enriched air during fluidized bed co-gasification of a mixture of coal, plastics and wood has been investigated. The main components of the obtained syngas were measured by means of on-line analyzers and a gas chromatograph while those of the condensate phase were off-line analysed by means of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The characterization of condensate phase as well as that of the water used as scrubbing medium completed the performed diagnostics. The experimental results were further elaborated in order to provide material and substances flow analyses inside the plant boundaries. These analyses allowed to obtain the main substance distribution between solid, gaseous and condensate phases and to estimate the conversion efficiency of carbon and hydrogen but also to easily visualise the waste streams produced by the process. The process performance was then evaluated on the basis of parameters related to the conversion efficiency of fuels into valuable products (i.e. by considering tar and particulate as process losses) as well as those related to the energy recovery.

  20. Method for control of subsurface coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Komar, Charles A.

    1976-12-14

    The burn front in an in situ underground coal gasification operation is controlled by utilizing at least two parallel groups of vertical bore holes disposed in the coalbed at spaced-apart locations in planes orthogonal to the plane of maximum permeability in the coalbed. The combustion of the coal is initiated in the coalbed adjacent to one group of the bore holes to establish a combustion zone extending across the group while the pressure of the combustion supporting gas mixture and/or the combustion products is regulated at each well head by valving to control the burn rate and maintain a uniform propagation of the burn front between the spaced-apart hole groups to gasify virtually all the coal lying therebetween.

  1. RESEARCH INTO EMERGING WASTE ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this project is to investigate emerging waste issues. In particular, 2 issues have been raised in the last year that have major implications for the waste disposal industry: 1) waste gasification; and 2) proliferation of electronics waste.

    APPCD loaned a h...

  2. Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Swanson

    2005-08-30

    The transport reactor development unit (TRDU) was modified to accommodate oxygen-blown operation in support of a Vision 21-type energy plex that could produce power, chemicals, and fuel. These modifications consisted of changing the loop seal design from a J-leg to an L-valve configuration, thereby increasing the mixing zone length and residence time. In addition, the standpipe, dipleg, and L-valve diameters were increased to reduce slugging caused by bubble formation in the lightly fluidized sections of the solid return legs. A seal pot was added to the bottom of the dipleg so that the level of solids in the standpipe could be operated independently of the dipleg return leg. A separate coal feed nozzle was added that could inject the coal upward into the outlet of the mixing zone, thereby precluding any chance of the fresh coal feed back-mixing into the oxidizing zone of the mixing zone; however, difficulties with this coal feed configuration led to a switch back to the original downward configuration. Instrumentation to measure and control the flow of oxygen and steam to the burner and mix zone ports was added to allow the TRDU to be operated under full oxygen-blown conditions. In total, ten test campaigns have been conducted under enriched-air or full oxygen-blown conditions. During these tests, 1515 hours of coal feed with 660 hours of air-blown gasification and 720 hours of enriched-air or oxygen-blown coal gasification were completed under this particular contract. During these tests, approximately 366 hours of operation with Wyodak, 123 hours with Navajo sub-bituminous coal, 143 hours with Illinois No. 6, 106 hours with SUFCo, 110 hours with Prater Creek, 48 hours with Calumet, and 134 hours with a Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coal were completed. In addition, 331 hours of operation on low-rank coals such as North Dakota lignite, Australian brown coal, and a 90:10 wt% mixture of lignite and wood waste were completed. Also included in these test campaigns was 50 hours of gasification on a petroleum coke from the Hunt Oil Refinery and an additional 73 hours of operation on a high-ash coal from India. Data from these tests indicate that while acceptable fuel gas heating value was achieved with these fuels, the transport gasifier performs better on the lower-rank feedstocks because of their higher char reactivity. Comparable carbon conversions have been achieved at similar oxygen/coal ratios for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation for each fuel; however, carbon conversion was lower for the less reactive feedstocks. While separation of fines from the feed coals is not needed with this technology, some testing has suggested that feedstocks with higher levels of fines have resulted in reduced carbon conversion, presumably due to the inability of the finer carbon particles to be captured by the cyclones. These data show that these low-rank feedstocks provided similar fuel gas heating values; however, even among the high-reactivity low-rank coals, the carbon conversion did appear to be lower for the fuels (brown coal in particular) that contained a significant amount of fines. The fuel gas under oxygen-blown operation has been higher in hydrogen and carbon dioxide concentration since the higher steam injection rate promotes the water-gas shift reaction to produce more CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} at the expense of the CO and water vapor. However, the high water and CO{sub 2} partial pressures have also significantly reduced the reaction of (Abstract truncated)

  3. Characterisation of metals in the electronic waste of complex mixtures of end-of-life ICT products for development of cleaner recovery technology.

    PubMed

    Sun, Z H I; Xiao, Y; Sietsma, J; Agterhuis, H; Visser, G; Yang, Y

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of valuable metals from electronic waste, especially complex mixtures of end-of-life information and communication technology (ICT) products, is of great difficulty due to their complexity and heterogeneity. One of the important reasons is the lack of comprehensive characterisation on such materials, i.e. accurate compositions, physical/chemical properties. In the present research, we focus on developing methodologies for the characterisation of metals in an industrially processed ICT waste. The morphology, particle size distribution, compositional distribution, occurrence, liberation as well as the thermo-chemical properties of the ICT waste were investigated with various characterisation techniques, including X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersed spectroscopy (EDS). Due to the high heterogeneity of the material, special sample preparation procedures were introduced to minimise the discrepancies during compositional analyses. As a result, a clearer overview of the ICT waste has been reached. This research provides better understanding of the extractability of each metal and improves the awareness of potential obstacles for extraction. It will lead to smarter decisions during further development of a clean and effective recovery process. PMID:25445262

  4. A Cleaner Process for Selective Recovery of Valuable Metals from Electronic Waste of Complex Mixtures of End-of-Life Electronic Products.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhi; Xiao, Y; Sietsma, J; Agterhuis, H; Yang, Y

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, recovery of metals from electronic waste within the European Union has become increasingly important due to potential supply risk of strategic raw material and environmental concerns. Electronic waste, especially a mixture of end-of-life electronic products from a variety of sources, is of inherently high complexity in composition, phase, and physiochemical properties. In this research, a closed-loop hydrometallurgical process was developed to recover valuable metals, i.e., copper and precious metals, from an industrially processed information and communication technology waste. A two-stage leaching design of this process was adopted in order to selectively extract copper and enrich precious metals. It was found that the recovery efficiency and extraction selectivity of copper both reached more than 95% by using ammonia-based leaching solutions. A new electrodeposition process has been proven feasible with 90% current efficiency during copper recovery, and the copper purity can reach 99.8 wt %. The residue from the first-stage leaching was screened into coarse and fine fractions. The coarse fraction was returned to be releached for further copper recovery. The fine fraction was treated in the second-stage leaching using sulfuric acid to further concentrate precious metals, which could achieve a 100% increase in their concentrations in the residue with negligible loss into the leaching solution. By a combination of different leaching steps and proper physical separation of light materials, this process can achieve closed-loop recycling of the waste with significant efficiency. PMID:26061274

  5. The anaerobic co-digestion of fruit and vegetable waste and horse manure mixtures in a bench-scale, two-phase anaerobic digestion system.

    PubMed

    Smith, David B; Almquist, Catherine B

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the anaerobic digestion of mixtures of food waste (FW) and horse manure was investigated using a bench-scale two-phase reactor system. Both phases were maintained at 35 degrees C for the duration of the 30-day study period. The first phase reactors were prepared with biomass mixtures in deionized water such that each mixture had an initial total solids (TS) concentration of 6 wt%. The second phase reactors were inoculated with cow manure in water two weeks prior to the study period at 3 wt% TS. The biogas from all second phase reactors contained greater than 60 vol% methane in the biogas before they were used in the study, thus indicating the presence of active methanogens. Filtrate (5 mL) from the first phase was used as feed to the second phase reactor. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon, and volatile solids (VS) of the feed from Phase 1 increased with FW content in the biomass mixture, and so the organic loading rates (OLRs) to the Phase 2 reactors also increased. Accordingly, the volume ofbiogas and methane generated from Phase 2 also increased with FW content. The low OLR (<0.2 g VS/L/day), the use of a two-phase system, and the use of filtrate from Phase las feed to Phase 2 allowed for high utilization of the feed; the observed specific methane yields (mL/g COD) were greater than 80% of the theoretical yields for all mixtures. The methane yields were statistically similar to within a 95% confidence interval. PMID:24645468

  6. Experimental study on MSW gasification and melting technology.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Gang; Jin, Bao-sheng; Zhong, Zhao-ping; Chi, Yong; Ni, Ming-jiang; Cen, Ke-fa; Xiao, Rui; Huang, Ya-ji; Huang, He

    2007-01-01

    In order to develop municipal solid waste (MSW) gasification and melting technology, two preliminary experiments and a principle integrated experiment were fulfilled respectively. The gasification characteristics of MSW were studied at 500-750 degrees C when equivalence ratio (ER) was 0.2-0.5 using a fluidized-bed gasifier. When temperature was 550-700 degrees C and ER was 0.2-0.4, low heat value (LHV) of syngas reaches 4000-12000 kJ/Nm3. The melting characteristics of fly ash were investigated at 1100-1460 degrees C using a fixed-bed furnace. It was proved that over 99.9% of dioxins could be decomposed and most heavy-metals could be solidified when temperature was 1100-1300 degrees C. The principle integrated experiment was carried out in a fluidized-bed gasification and swirl-melting system. MSW was gasified efficiently at 550-650 degrees C, swirl-melting furnace maintains at 1200-1300 degrees C stably and over 95% of fly ash could be caught by the swirl-melting furnace. The results provided much practical experience and basic data to develop MSW gasification and melting technology. PMID:18232238

  7. Evaluation of treated gasification wastewater as cooling tower makeup

    SciTech Connect

    Galegher, S.J.; Mann, M.D.; Johnson, M.D.

    1985-04-01

    The principal goal of gasification research at the University of North Dakota Energy Research Center (UNDERC) is to develop process and environmental data on the treatability and reuse of aqueous effluents from the fixed-bed gasification of lignite. It is the objective of the UNDERC wastewater research program to define the extent of treatment required to produce a gas liquor for use as cooling tower makeup that will have no adverse effects on operating equipment or on the environment. The UNDERC pilot wastewater treatment scheme was designed to simulate the wastewater reuse process being used at the Great Plains Gasification Associates (GPGA) lignite gasification facility near Beulah, North Dakota. At GPGA, aqueous gasifier waste streams are treated via the Phenosolvan and Phosam-W processes to remove the bulk of the wastewater organics as well as ammonia and acid gases. This minimally treated wastewater, referred to as stripped gas liquor (SGL), is fed to the process cooling towers. At UNDERC, SGL was produced from a pilot slagging fixed-bed gasifier (SFBG) followed by extraction and steam-stripping treatment. UNDERC wastewater was used initially to determine the effects of cooling tower wastewater reuse before GPGA wastewater became available. An additional cooling tower reuse test was performed with water from GPGA. This work addresses the comparative effects of wastewater from the UNDERC slagging gasifier and the GPGA dry-ash gasifier on cooling system operation. 14 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. A life cycle evaluation of wood pellet gasification for district heating in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Pa, Ann; Bi, Xiaotao T; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2011-05-01

    The replacement of natural gas combustion for district heating by wood waste and wood pellets gasification systems with or without emission control has been investigated by a streamlined LCA. While stack emissions from controlled gasification systems are lower than the applicable regulations, compared to the current base case, 12% and 133% increases are expected in the overall human health impacts for wood pellets and wood waste, respectively. With controlled gasification, external costs and GHG emission can be reduced by 35% and 82% on average, respectively. Between wood pellets and wood waste, wood pellets appear to be the better choice as it requires less primary energy and has a much lower impact on the local air quality. PMID:21377867

  9. June 2007 gasification technologies workshop papers

    SciTech Connect

    2007-06-15

    Topics covered in this workshop are fundamentals of gasification, carbon capture and sequestration, reviews of financial and regulatory incentives, co-production, and focus on gasification in the Western US.

  10. Technology Assessment Report: Aqueous Sludge Gasification Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study reveals that sludge gasification is a potentially suitable alternative to conventional sludge handling and disposal methods. However, very few commercial operations are in existence. The limited pilot, demonstration or commercial application of gasification technology t...

  11. Shell coal gasification project: Gasification of eleven diverse feeds

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.N.; Mahagaokar, U.; Krewinghaus, A.B.

    1992-05-01

    This report describes the gasification of the following feedstocks in the Shell Coal Gasification Process at SCGP-1: Texas Lignite, Pile County-washed, Pike County-run-of-mine, Dotiki, Newlands, El Cerrejon, Skyline, Robinson Creek, R&F, Pocahontas No. 3, and Petroleum Coke. These results demonstrate the unique flexibility of the Shell Coal Gasification Process in handling a wide range of feedstocks with significant differences in moisture content, reactivity, ash content, as viscosity, and calcium, chlorine, and sulfur levels. Process results are presented for each feedstock, including gasifier performance and efficiency calculations. Analytical data, including trace element analyses, are provided for the feedstock, the slag and flyslag solids, and the major gas and liquid streams in the plant.

  12. Shell coal gasification project: Gasification of eleven diverse feeds

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.N.; Mahagaokar, U.; Krewinghaus, A.B. )

    1992-05-01

    This report describes the gasification of the following feedstocks in the Shell Coal Gasification Process at SCGP-1: Texas Lignite, Pile County-washed, Pike County-run-of-mine, Dotiki, Newlands, El Cerrejon, Skyline, Robinson Creek, R F, Pocahontas No. 3, and Petroleum Coke. These results demonstrate the unique flexibility of the Shell Coal Gasification Process in handling a wide range of feedstocks with significant differences in moisture content, reactivity, ash content, as viscosity, and calcium, chlorine, and sulfur levels. Process results are presented for each feedstock, including gasifier performance and efficiency calculations. Analytical data, including trace element analyses, are provided for the feedstock, the slag and flyslag solids, and the major gas and liquid streams in the plant.

  13. Beluga Coal Gasification - ISER

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Colt

    2008-12-31

    ISER was requested to conduct an economic analysis of a possible 'Cook Inlet Syngas Pipeline'. The economic analysis was incorporated as section 7.4 of the larger report titled: 'Beluga Coal Gasification Feasibility Study, DOE/NETL-2006/1248, Phase 2 Final Report, October 2006, for Subtask 41817.333.01.01'. The pipeline would carry CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} from a synthetic gas plant on the western side of Cook Inlet to Agrium's facility. The economic analysis determined that the net present value of the total capital and operating lifecycle costs for the pipeline ranges from $318 to $588 million. The greatest contributor to this spread is the cost of electricity, which ranges from $0.05 to $0.10/kWh in this analysis. The financial analysis shows that the delivery cost of gas may range from $0.33 to $0.55/Mcf in the first year depending primarily on the price for electricity.

  14. Improved anaerobic digestion of a thermally pretreated mixture of physicochemical sludge; broiler excreta and sugar cane wastes (SCW): Effect on organic matter solubilization, biodegradability and bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    Nava-Valente, Noemí; Alvarado-Lassman, Alejandro; Nativitas-Sandoval, Liliana S; Mendez-Contreras, Juan M

    2016-04-15

    Thermal pretreatment effect of a mixture of organic wastes (physicochemical sludge, excreta of broiler chickens and sugarcane wastes (SCW)) in the solubilization and biodegradability organic matter as well as bioenergy production by anaerobic digestion was evaluated. Two different mixtures of physicochemical sludge, excreta of broiler chickens and SCW (70%, 15%, 15% and 60%, 20%, 20% of VS, respectively) were treated at different temperatures (80°C, 85°C and 90°C) and contact time (30, 60 and 90 min). Results indicate that, organic matter solubilization degree increased from 1.14 to 6.56%; subsequently, in the anaerobic digestion process, an increase of 50% in the volatile solids removal and 10% in biogas production was observed, while, retention time decreased from 23 up to 9 days. The results obtained were similar to pilot-scale. In both experimental scales it showed that the synergy produced by the simultaneous anaerobic digestion of different substrates could increase bioenergy production up to 1.3 L bio g(-1) VS removed and 0.82 L CH4 g(-1) VS removed. The treatment conditions presented in this study allow for large residue quantities to be treated and large bioenergy quantities to be produced (10% higher than during conventional treatment) without increasing the anaerobic digester volume. PMID:26819145

  15. Gasification of cyanobacterial in supercritical water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiwen; Zhu, Wei; Xu, Zhirong; Gong, Miao

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacterial collected from eutrophic freshwater lakes constituted intractable waste with a rich algae biomass content. Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) was proposed to treat the cyanobacterial and to produce hydrogen for energy. The H 2 yield reached 2.92 mol/kg at reaction conditions of 500 °C, 30 min and 22 MPa; this yield accounted for 26% of the total gaseous products. Abundant ammonia and dissolved reactive phosphorous were concentrated in the liquid product, which could be recovered and used as a liquid fertilizer. Solid residue, which accounted only for about 1% of the wet weight, was mainly composed of coke and ash. The efficiency of H 2 production was better than that from other biomass, because of the abundant organic matter in cyanobacterial. Thus, cyanobacterial are an ideal biomass feedstock for H 2 production from SCWG. PMID:25176482

  16. Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-qin; Liu, Jun-hua; Yu, Li

    2002-04-01

    Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification are evaluated. The results showed that through underground coal gasification, gangue discharge is eliminated, sulfur emission is reduced, and the amount of ash, mercury, and tar discharge are decreased. Moreover, effect of underground gasification on underground water is analyzed and CO2 disposal method is put forward. PMID:12046301

  17. Consolidation, permeability, and strength of crushed salt/bentonite mixtures with application to the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant)

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeifle, T.W. )

    1991-01-01

    Three tests were performed to measure the consolidation, permeability, and compressive strength of specimens prepared from bentonite/crushed salt mixtures. Each mixture comprised 30% bentonite and 70% crushed salt based on total dry weight. Brine was added to each mixture to adjust its water content to either 5 or 10% (nominal) of the total dry weight of the mixture. In the consolidation tests, each specimen was subjected to multiple stages of successively higher hydrostatic stress (pressure). During each stage, the pressure was maintained at a constant level and volumetric strain data were continuously logged. By using multiple stages, consolidation data were obtained at several pressures and the time required to consolidate the specimens to full saturation was reduced. Once full saturation was achieved, each specimen was subjected to a final test stage in which the hydrostatic stress was reduced and a permeability test performed. Permeability was measured using the steady flow of brine and was found to range between 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}17} and 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}17} m{sup 2}. After the final test stage, unconfined compressive strength was determined for each specimen and was found to range between 0.5 and 8.1 MPa. Two constitutive models were fitted to the consolidation data. One relatively simple model related volumetric strain to time while the other related instantaneous density to time, pressure, and initial density. 8 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. Cool Water Coal Gasification Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    This document is the sixth in a series of reports on the Cool Water Coal Gasification Program (CWCGP) that cover the entire project; design, construction, operation, and final inspection. Details on the 100-MW (net) plant's five year demonstration of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technology are presented. Process and materials performance, load following capability, environmental monitoring results, and reliability/availability statistics are discussed. Capital costs are presented along with annual revenues and expenses. Sections are also provided on safety and plant staffing. 22 refs., 60 figs., 90 tabs.

  19. Underground Coal Gasification Program

    SciTech Connect

    Thorsness, C. B.; Britten, J. A.

    1994-12-01

    CAVSIM is a three-dimensional, axisymmetric model for resource recovery and cavity growth during underground coal gasification (UCG). CAVSIM is capable of following the evolution of the cavity from near startup to exhaustion, and couples explicitly wall and roof surface growth to material and energy balances in the underlying rubble zones. Growth mechanisms are allowed to change smoothly as the system evolves from a small, relatively empty cavity low in the coal seam to a large, almost completely rubble-filled cavity extending high into the overburden rock. The model is applicable to nonswelling coals of arbitrary seam thickness and can handle a variety of gas injection flow schedules or compositions. Water influx from the coal aquifer is calculated by a gravity drainage-permeation submodel which is integrated into the general solution. The cavity is considered to consist of up to three distinct rubble zones and a void space at the top. Resistance to gas flow injected from a stationary source at the cavity floor is assumed to be concentrated in the ash pile, which builds up around the source, and also the overburden rubble which accumulates on top of this ash once overburden rock is exposed at the cavity top. Char rubble zones at the cavity side and edges are assumed to be highly permeable. Flow of injected gas through the ash to char rubble piles and the void space is coupled by material and energy balances to cavity growth at the rubble/coal, void/coal and void/rock interfaces. One preprocessor and two postprocessor programs are included - SPALL calculates one-dimensional mean spalling rates of coal or rock surfaces exposed to high temperatures and generates CAVSIM input: TAB reads CAVSIM binary output files and generates ASCII tables of selected data for display; and PLOT produces dot matrix printer or HP printer plots from TAB output.

  20. Underground Coal Gasification Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-12-01

    CAVSIM is a three-dimensional, axisymmetric model for resource recovery and cavity growth during underground coal gasification (UCG). CAVSIM is capable of following the evolution of the cavity from near startup to exhaustion, and couples explicitly wall and roof surface growth to material and energy balances in the underlying rubble zones. Growth mechanisms are allowed to change smoothly as the system evolves from a small, relatively empty cavity low in the coal seam to a large,more » almost completely rubble-filled cavity extending high into the overburden rock. The model is applicable to nonswelling coals of arbitrary seam thickness and can handle a variety of gas injection flow schedules or compositions. Water influx from the coal aquifer is calculated by a gravity drainage-permeation submodel which is integrated into the general solution. The cavity is considered to consist of up to three distinct rubble zones and a void space at the top. Resistance to gas flow injected from a stationary source at the cavity floor is assumed to be concentrated in the ash pile, which builds up around the source, and also the overburden rubble which accumulates on top of this ash once overburden rock is exposed at the cavity top. Char rubble zones at the cavity side and edges are assumed to be highly permeable. Flow of injected gas through the ash to char rubble piles and the void space is coupled by material and energy balances to cavity growth at the rubble/coal, void/coal and void/rock interfaces. One preprocessor and two postprocessor programs are included - SPALL calculates one-dimensional mean spalling rates of coal or rock surfaces exposed to high temperatures and generates CAVSIM input: TAB reads CAVSIM binary output files and generates ASCII tables of selected data for display; and PLOT produces dot matrix printer or HP printer plots from TAB output.« less

  1. Melt crystallization for refinement of triolein and palmitic acid mixture as a model waste oil for biodiesel fuel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukui, Keisuke; Maeda, Kouji; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi

    2013-06-01

    Melt crystallization using an annular vessel with two circular cylinders was applied to produce high-quality vegetable oil from waste oil. The inner cylinder was cooled at a constant rate and rotated, and the outer cylinder was heated at a constant temperature. The melt was solidified on the inner cylinder surface. The binary system of triolein and palmitic acid was used as the model waste oil. We measured the distribution coefficient of triolein. Suitable operation conditions were proposed to attain a high yield and a high purity of triolein from waste oil. The distribution coefficient correlated well with the theoretical equation derived on the basis of the "local lever rule" at the interface of the crystal layer and melt [1].

  2. Carbon-catalyzed gasification of organic feedstocks in supercritical water

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X.; Matsumura, Y.; Stenberg, J.; Antal, M.J. Jr.

    1996-08-01

    Spruce wood charcoal, macadamia shell charcoal, coal activated carbon, and coconut shell activated carbon catalyze the gasification of organic compounds in supercritical water. Feedstocks studied in this paper include glycerol, glucose, cellobiose, whole biomass feedstocks (depithed bagasse liquid extract and sewage sludge), and representative Department of Defense (DoD) wastes (methanol, methyl ethyl ketone, ethylene glycol, acetic acid, and phenol). The effects of temperature, pressure, reactant concentration, weight hourly space velocity, and the type of catalyst on the gasification of glucose are reported. Complete conversion of glucose (22% by weight in water) to a hydrogen-rich synthesis gas was realized at a weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 22.2 h{sup {minus}1} in supercritical water at 600 C, 34.5 MPa. Complete conversions of the whole biomass feeds were also achieved at the same temperature and pressure. The destruction efficiencies for the representative DoD wastes were also high. Deactivation of the carbon catalyst was observed after 4 h of operation without swirl in the entrance region of the reactor, but the carbon gasification efficiency remained near 100% for more than 6 h when a swirl generator was employed in the entrance of the reactor.

  3. Development of grout formulations for 106-AN waste: Mixture-experiment results and analysis. Volume 1, Narrative and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, R.D.; McDaniel, E.W.; Anderson, C.M.; Lokken, R.O.; Piepel, G.F.

    1993-09-01

    Twenty potential ingredients were identified for use in developing a 106-AN grout formulation, and 18 were subsequently obtained and tested. Four ingredients-Type II-LA (moderate heat of hydration) Portland cement, Class F fly ash, attapulgite 150 drilling clay, and ground air-cooled blast-furnace slag (GABFS) were selected for developing the 106-AN grout formulations. A mixture experiment was designed and conducted around the following formulation: 2.5 lb of cement per gallon, 1.2 lb of fly ash per gallon, 0.8 lb of attapulgite per gallon, and 3.5 lb of GABFS per gallon. Reduced empirical models were generated from the results of the mixture experiment. These models were used to recommend several grout formulations for 106-AN. Westinghouse Hanford Company selected one of these formulations to be verified for use with 106-AN and a backup formulation in case problems arise with the first choice.

  4. Coal Gasification for Power Generation, 3. edition

    SciTech Connect

    2007-11-15

    The report provides a concise look at the challenges faced by coal-fired generation, the ability of coal gasification to address these challenges, and the current state of IGCC power generation. Topics covered include: an overview of Coal Generation including its history, the current market environment, and the status of coal gasification; a description of gasification technology including processes and systems; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving increased interest in coal gasification; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the implementation of coal gasification projects; a discussion of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology; an evaluation of IGCC versus other generation technologies; a discussion of IGCC project development options; a discussion of the key government initiatives supporting IGCC development; profiles of the key gasification technology companies participating in the IGCC market; and, a detailed description of existing and planned coal IGCC projects.

  5. Using mixture design of experiments to assess the environmental impact of clay-based structural ceramics containing foundry wastes.

    PubMed

    Coronado, M; Segadães, A M; Andrés, A

    2015-12-15

    This work describes the leaching behavior of potentially hazardous metals from three different clay-based industrial ceramic products (wall bricks, roof tiles, and face bricks) containing foundry sand dust and Waelz slag as alternative raw materials. For each product, ten mixtures were defined by mixture design of experiments and the leaching of As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Zn was evaluated in pressed specimens fired simulating the three industrial ceramic processes. The results showed that, despite the chemical, mineralogical and processing differences, only chrome and molybdenum were not fully immobilized during ceramic processing. Their leaching was modeled as polynomial equations, functions of the raw materials contents, and plotted as response surfaces. This brought to evidence that Cr and Mo leaching from the fired products is not only dependent on the corresponding contents and the basicity of the initial mixtures, but is also clearly related with the mineralogical composition of the fired products, namely the amount of the glassy phase, which depends on both the major oxides contents and the firing temperature. PMID:26252997

  6. Development of grout formulations for 106-AN waste: Mixture-experiment results and analysis. Volume 2, Data presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, R.D.; McDaniel, E.W.; Anderson, C.M.; Lokken, R.O.; Piepel, G.F.

    1993-09-01

    Twenty potential ingredients were identified for use in developing a 106-AN grout formulation, and 18 were subsequently obtained and tested. Four ingredients: Type II-LA (moderate heat of hydration) Portland cement, Class F fly ash, attapulgite 150 drilling clay, and ground air-cooled blast-furnace slag (GABFS) -- were selected for developing the 106-AN grout formulations. A mixture experiment was designed and conducted around the following formulation: 2.5 lb of cement per gallon, 1.2 lb of fly ash per gallon, 0.8 lb of attapulgite per gallon, and 3.5 lb of GABFS per gallon. Reduced empirical models were generated from the results of the mixture experiment. These models were used to recommend several grout formulations for 106-AN. Westinghouse Hanford Company selected one of these formulations to be verified for use with 106-AN and a backup formulation in case problems arise with the first choice. This report presents the mixture-experimental results and leach data.

  7. NETL, USDA design coal-stabilized biomass gasification unit

    SciTech Connect

    2008-09-30

    Coal, poultry litter, contaminated corn, rice hulls, moldly hay, manure sludge - these are representative materials that could be tested as fuel feedstocks in a hybrid gasification/combustion concept studied in a recent US Department of Energy (DOE) design project. DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) collaborated to develop a design concept of a power system that incorporates Hybrid Biomass Gasification. This system would explore the use of a wide range of biomass and agricultural waste products as gasifier feedstocks. The plant, if built, would supply one-third of electrical and steam heating needs at the USDA's Beltsville (Maryland) Agricultural Research Center. 1 fig., 1 photo.

  8. In situ formation of coal gasification catalysts from low cost alkali metal salts

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Bernard J.; Brittain, Robert D.; Sancier, Kenneth M.

    1985-01-01

    A carbonaceous material, such as crushed coal, is admixed or impregnated with an inexpensive alkali metal compound, such as sodium chloride, and then pretreated with a stream containing steam at a temperature of 350.degree. to 650.degree. C. to enhance the catalytic activity of the mixture in a subsequent gasification of the mixture. The treatment may result in the transformation of the alkali metal compound into another, more catalytically active, form.

  9. Up-cycling waste glass to minimal water adsorption/absorption lightweight aggregate by rapid low temperature sintering: optimization by dual process-mixture response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Velis, Costas A; Franco-Salinas, Claudia; O'Sullivan, Catherine; Najorka, Jens; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2014-07-01

    Mixed color waste glass extracted from municipal solid waste is either not recycled, in which case it is an environmental and financial liability, or it is used in relatively low value applications such as normal weight aggregate. Here, we report on converting it into a novel glass-ceramic lightweight aggregate (LWA), potentially suitable for high added value applications in structural concrete (upcycling). The artificial LWA particles were formed by rapidly sintering (<10 min) waste glass powder with clay mixes using sodium silicate as binder and borate salt as flux. Composition and processing were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) modeling, and specifically (i) a combined process-mixture dual RSM, and (ii) multiobjective optimization functions. The optimization considered raw materials and energy costs. Mineralogical and physical transformations occur during sintering and a cellular vesicular glass-ceramic composite microstructure is formed, with strong correlations existing between bloating/shrinkage during sintering, density and water adsorption/absorption. The diametrical expansion could be effectively modeled via the RSM and controlled to meet a wide range of specifications; here we optimized for LWA structural concrete. The optimally designed LWA is sintered in comparatively low temperatures (825-835 °C), thus potentially saving costs and lowering emissions; it had exceptionally low water adsorption/absorption (6.1-7.2% w/wd; optimization target: 1.5-7.5% w/wd); while remaining substantially lightweight (density: 1.24-1.28 g.cm(-3); target: 0.9-1.3 g.cm(-3)). This is a considerable advancement for designing effective environmentally friendly lightweight concrete constructions, and boosting resource efficiency of waste glass flows. PMID:24871934

  10. BIMOMASS GASIFICATION PILOT PLANT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a gasification pilot program using two biomass feedstocks: bagasse pellets and wood chips. he object of the program was to determine the properties of biomass product gas and its suitability as a fuel for gas-turbine-based power generation cycles. he f...

  11. Subcontracted R and D final report: analysis of samples obtained from GKT gasification test of Kentucky coal. Nonproprietary version

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, S.V.

    1983-09-01

    A laboratory test program was performed to obtain detailed compositional data on the Gesellshaft fuer Kohle-Technologie (GKT) gasifier feed and effluent streams. GKT performed pilot gasification tests with Kentucky No. 9 coal and collected various samples which were analyzed by GKT and the Radian Corporation, Austin, Texas. The coal chosen had good liquefaction characteristics and a high gasification reactivity. No organic priority pollutants or PAH compounds were detected in the wash water, and solid waste leachates were within RCRA metals limits.

  12. Plasma gasification of organic containing substances as a promising way of development of alternative renewable power engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutberg, Ph G.; Bratsev, A. N.; Kuznetsov, V. A.; Kumkova, I. I.; Popov, V. E.; Surov, A. V.

    2012-12-01

    The paper deals with perspectives of large-scale implementation of the plasma gasification process of solid organic-containing substances as a source of renewable energy. First of all, such substances as wood waste, agriculture waste, solid household waste are considered. Thanks to the process of the plasma high-temperature gasification the energy of their combustion can be completely converted into the energy of the synthesis gas combustion, which use as a fuel for the combined cycle allows electricity generation with efficiency of ~60 %. Thus, if the psychogenesis production wastes are considered, this technology enables avoiding additional emission of carbon dioxide into biosphere as for production of biomass from biosphere it is extracted the same amount of carbon dioxide as is emitted at its combustion. The report represents the realized and developing designs of plasma gasification, their advantages and deficiencies.

  13. The assessment of sewage sludge gasification by-products toxicity by ecotoxicologial test.

    PubMed

    Werle, Sebastian; Dudziak, Mariusz

    2015-08-01

    The process of gasification of sewage sludge generates by-products, which may be contaminated with toxic and hazardous substances, both organic and inorganic. It is therefore important to assess the environmental risk associated with this type of waste. The feasibility of using an ecotoxicological tests for this purpose was determined in the presented study. The applied tests contained indicator organisms belonging to various biological groups (bacteria, crustaceans, plants). The subject of the study were solid (ash, char) and liquid (tar) by-products generated during gasification (in a fixed bed reactor) of dried sewage sludge from various wastewater treatment systems. The tested samples were classified based on their toxic effect. The sensitivity of the indicator organisms to the tested material was determined. In-house procedures for the preparation for toxicity analysis of both sewage sludge and by-products generated during the gasification were presented. The scope of work also included the determination of the effect of selected process parameters (temperature, amount of gasifying agent) on the toxicity of gasification by-products depending on the sewage sludge source. It was shown that both the type of sewage sludge and the parameters of the gasification process affects the toxicity of the by-products of gasification. However, the results of toxicity studies also depend on the type of ecotoxicological test used, which is associated with a different sensitivity of the indicator organisms. Nevertheless, it may be concluded that the by-products formed during the gasification of the low toxicity sewage sludge can be regarded as non-toxic or low toxic. However, the results analysis of the gasification of the toxic sludge were not conclusive, which leads to further research needs in this area. PMID:25827844

  14. Toxicological investigations in the semiconductor industry: I. Studies on the acute oral toxicity of a complex mixture of waste products from the aluminium plasma etching process

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, S.; Wolff, I.; Werner, N.; Hoffmann, P.; Herzschuh, R.; Oemus, K.; Rath, F.W.; Voigt, R. )

    1992-05-01

    In dry etching processes--one of the sources of potential exposure to toxic wastes in the semiconductor industry--complex mixtures of inorganic and organic compounds arise from reactions between feed stock gases (BCl3/Cl2), top layers (aluminium photoresist), and the carrier gas (N2). Two different fractions of the complex mixture--one an ethanolic solution (ES) and the other an insoluble liquid residue (LR)--were examined for acute oral toxicity in rats. Analytical data showed that the ethanol soluble fraction contained mainly inorganic compounds, whereas the residue contained various halogenated hydrocarbons. Neither death nor behavioral changes occurred after oral administration and observation up to 23 days. ES caused a lower mean arterial blood pressure in both sexes, increased P-R-intervals in male rats, and caused some mild biochemical and hematological alterations and changes in relative organ weights compared to the control groups. Exposure to LR influenced food and water intake, and caused a significant decrease in body weights, signs of polyurie, as well as changes in various relative organ weights and biochemical and hematological parameters. The blood pressure of the male animals fell and the heart rates of both sexes decreased.

  15. In Plant Measurement and Analysis of Mixtures of Uranium and Plutonium TRU-Waste Using a {sup 252}Cf Shuffler Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Hurd, J.R.

    1998-11-02

    The active-passive {sup 252}Cf shuffler instrument, installed and certified several years ago in Los Alamos National Laboratory's plutonium facility, has now been calibrated for different matrices to measure Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)-destined transuranic (TRU)-waste. Little or no data currently exist for these types of measurements in plant environments where sudden large changes in the neutron background radiation can significantly distort the results. Measurements and analyses of twenty-two 55-gallon drums, consisting of mixtures of varying quantities of uranium and plutonium in mostly noncombustible matrices, have been recently completed at the plutonium facility. The calibration and measurement techniques, including the method used to separate out the plutonium component, will be presented and discussed. Calculations used to adjust for differences in uranium enrichment from that of the calibration standards will be shown. Methods used to determine various sources of both random and systematic error will be indicated. Particular attention will be directed to those problems identified as arising from the plant environment. The results of studies to quantify the aforementioned distortion effects in the data will be presented. Various solution scenarios will be outlined, along with those adopted here.

  16. Challenges using a {sup 252}Cf shuffler instrument in a plant environment to measure mixtures of uranium and plutonium transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hurd, J.R.

    1999-08-29

    An active-passive {sup 252}Cf shuffler instrument, installed and certified several years ago at Los Alamos National Laboratory's plutonium facility, has now been calibrated for different matrices to measure Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)-destined transuranic (TRU) waste. Little or no data currently exist for these types of measurements in plant environments where sudden large changes in the neutron background radiation can significantly distort the results. Measurements and analyses of twenty-two 55-gallon drums, consisting of mixtures of varying quantities of uranium and plutonium in mostly noncombustible matrices, have been recently completed at the plutonium facility. The calibration and measurement techniques, including the method used to separate out the plutonium component, will be presented and discussed. Calculations used to adjust for differences in uranium enrichment from that of the calibration standards will be shown. Methods used to determine various sources of both random and systematic error will be indicated. Particular attention will be directed to those problems identified as arising from the plant environment. The results of studies to quantify the aforementioned distortion effects in the data will be presented. Various solution scenarios will be outlined, along with those adopted here.

  17. [Toxicity studies of mild gasification products]. [Quarterly report, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Mild gasification of coal is a technology being developed by the United States Department of Energy and private industry with the hope that a cleaner method of coal use can help meet future energy needs. As the technology develops and its commercial use becomes a more viable possibility, efforts are being made to study the safety or possible toxicity of the mild gasification products. DOE and the National Institute for occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) are cooperating through an interagency agreement to examine some of these products for their genotoxic potential. NIOSH has studied the mutagenicity of several mild gasification product samples using the Ames Salmonella/microsomal assay. As reported earlier PSIS{number_sign}830331 failed to demonstrate genotoxic activity in the Ames assay under all conditions tested. Since the mild gasification products are complex mixtures, interactions between various components are likely to occur. Such interactions between various components of complex mixtures may increase or decrease genotoxic activity in short-term assays like the Ames test. Although all synergistic interactions may not be detailed, the separate analysis of those components in several classes provides a more accurate view of the genotoxicity of each component and better allows for chemical characterization of the possible mutagens in the mixture. NIOSH has performed mutagenicity studies on the subfractions of PSIS{number_sign}830331. The results of those studies are detailed in this report.

  18. Gasification of low-grade fuels in a spouted bed for power generation

    SciTech Connect

    A.A. Belyaev

    2008-12-15

    Experimental data on the autothermal gasification of wastes from the flotation of Kuzbass coal of grade Zh and low-ash coal from the Kansk-Achinsk Basin in a spouted bed of an inert material at atmospheric pressure are presented. Capabilities for the development and use of this process for power generation based on closed-cycle gas turbine plants are analyzed.

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT: SOURCE TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT--CHAPMAN LOW-BTU GASIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a source test and evaluation of a commercial Chapman low-Btu gasification facility. Objectives were to: characterize the multimedia waste streams and potential fugitive emission and effluent streams from the facility, evaluate the applicability of Leve...

  20. The O₂-enriched air gasification of coal, plastics and wood in a fluidized bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Mastellone, Maria Laura; Zaccariello, Lucio; Santoro, Donato; Arena, Umberto

    2012-04-01

    The effect of oxygen-enriched air during fluidized bed co-gasification of a mixture of coal, plastics and wood has been investigated. The main components of the obtained syngas were measured by means of on-line analyzers and a gas chromatograph while those of the condensate phase were off-line analysed by means of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The characterization of condensate phase as well as that of the water used as scrubbing medium completed the performed diagnostics. The experimental results were further elaborated in order to provide material and substances flow analyses inside the plant boundaries. These analyses allowed to obtain the main substance distribution between solid, gaseous and condensate phases and to estimate the conversion efficiency of carbon and hydrogen but also to easily visualise the waste streams produced by the process. The process performance was then evaluated on the basis of parameters related to the conversion efficiency of fuels into valuable products (i.e. by considering tar and particulate as process losses) as well as those related to the energy recovery. PMID:21993077

  1. Fundamental studies of catalytic gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Heinemann, H.; Smorjai, G.A.

    1991-06-01

    Studies of the catalytic steam gasification of carbon solids continued. In this project a considerable number of important findings have been made. Recently limited experimentation has been carried out on the production of C{sub 2} hydrocarbons from methane in the presence of Ca/K/Ni oxide catalysts and of oxygen, carbon and water. The main finding thus far has been that C{sub 2} yields of 10--13% can be obtained at about 600{degrees}C or 150{degrees} lower temperature than described in the literature for similar yields. Work during this quarter was largely concentrated on oxidative methane coupling. Gasification of a petroleum coke is also discussed. 5 tabs.

  2. Apparatus for solar coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, D.W.

    Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials is described. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats onto a tower-mounted secondary mirror which redirects the focused solar radiation down through a window onto the surface of a vertically-moving bed of coal, or a fluidized bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called synthesis gas, which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam at the rear surface of the secondary mirror.

  3. Plasma gasification of coal in different oxidants

    SciTech Connect

    Matveev, I.B.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B.

    2008-12-15

    Oxidant selection is the highest priority for advanced coal gasification-process development. This paper presents comparative analysis of the Powder River Basin bituminous-coal gasification processes for entrained-flow plasma gasifier. Several oxidants, which might be employed for perspective commercial applications, have been chosen, including air, steam/carbon-dioxide blend, carbon dioxide, steam, steam/air, steam/oxygen, and oxygen. Synthesis gas composition, carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and power efficiency for these processes were determined. The influence of the selected oxidant composition on the gasification-process main characteristics have been investigated.

  4. Underground coal gasification using oxygen and steam

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, L.H.; Zhang, X.; Liu, S.

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, through model experiment of the underground coal gasification, the effects of pure oxygen gasification, oxygen-steam gasification, and moving-point gasification methods on the underground gasification process and gas quality were studied. Experiments showed that H{sub 2} and CO volume fraction in product gas during the pure oxygen gasification was 23.63-30.24% and 35.22-46.32%, respectively, with the gas heating value exceeding 11.00 MJ/m{sup 3}; under the oxygen-steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio stood at 2: 1, gas compositions remained virtually stable and CO + H{sub 2} was basically between 61.66 and 71.29%. Moving-point gasification could effectively improve the changes in the cavity in the coal seams or the effects of roof inbreak on gas quality; the ratio of gas flowing quantity to oxygen supplying quantity was between 3.1:1 and 3.5:1 and took on the linear changes; on the basis of the test data, the reasons for gas quality changes under different gasification conditions were analyzed.

  5. EMERY BIOMASS GASIFICATION POWER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin Phillips; Scott Hassett; Harry Gatley

    2002-11-27

    Emery Recycling Corporation (now Emery Energy Company, LLC) evaluated the technical and economical feasibility of the Emery Biomass Gasification Power System (EBGPS). The gasifier technology is owned and being developed by Emery. The Emery Gasifier for this project was an oxygen-blown, pressurized, non-slagging gasification process that novelly integrates both fixed-bed and entrained-flow gasification processes into a single vessel. This unique internal geometry of the gasifier vessel will allow for tar and oil destruction within the gasifier. Additionally, the use of novel syngas cleaning processes using sorbents is proposed with the potential to displace traditional amine-based and other syngas cleaning processes. The work scope within this project included: one-dimensional gasifier modeling, overall plant process modeling (ASPEN), feedstock assessment, additional analyses on the proposed syngas cleaning process, plant cost estimating, and, market analysis to determine overall feasibility and applicability of the technology for further development and commercial deployment opportunities. Additionally, the project included the development of a detailed technology development roadmap necessary to commercialize the Emery Gasification technology. Process modeling was used to evaluate both combined cycle and solid oxide fuel cell power configurations. Ten (10) cases were evaluated in an ASPEN model wherein nine (9) cases were IGCC configurations with fuel-to-electricity efficiencies ranging from 38-42% and one (1) case was an IGFC solid oxide case where 53.5% overall plant efficiency was projected. The cost of electricity was determined to be very competitive at scales from 35-71 MWe. Market analysis of feedstock availability showed numerous market opportunities for commercial deployment of the technology with modular capabilities for various plant sizes based on feedstock availability and power demand.

  6. A novel approach to highly dispersing catalytic materials in coal for gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Abotsi, G.M.K.; Bota, K.B.

    1990-01-01

    This project seeks to develop a technique, based on coal surface properties, for highly dispersing catalysts in coal for gasification and to investigate the potential of using potassium carbonate and calcium acetate mixtures as catalysts for coal gasification. The work is focused on the elucidation of coal-catalyst precursor interactions in solution and the variables which control the adsorption and dispersion of coal gasification metal catalysts. In order to optimize coal-metal ion interactions and hence maximize catalyst activity, the study examines the surface electrochemistry of a lignite, subbituminous, and bituminous coals and their demineralized and oxidized derivatives prior to loading with the catalytic materials. The surface electrical properties of the coals are investigated with the aid of electrophoresis, while the effects of the surface charge on the co-adsorption of K{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} are studied by agitating the coals with aqueous solutions of potassium and calcium. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Characterization and optimization of sorbents utilized for emission control during coal gasification. 1997 Fourth quarter research report, October 1, 1997--December 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Huque, Z.; Mei, D.; Zhou, J.

    1997-12-31

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle and pressurized fluidized bed combustion power system requires both hot gas desulfurization and particulate filtration to improve system thermal efficiency and overall performance. Few metal oxides were evaluated to be the sorbent candidate for hot gas desulfurization process. The use of waste iron oxide as a disposable metal oxide sorbent will alleviate the constraints imposed on iron oxides including the degradation of sulfur capacity and its physical attrition required for a regenerable sorbent. The very low cost of waste iron oxides and the elimination of the investment associated with sorbent regeneration make it attractive to replace currently developed sorbent candidates. However, the use of waste iron oxides indicates a significant increase of dust loading for particulate filtration. The slower the reaction rate the iron oxide and coal ash mixture is, the longer residence time and higher iron oxide to coal ratio are required. One of the key issue of the use of waste iron oxides as a disposable sorbent material relies on the capability of particulate filtration efficiency. The current back pulse cleaning of the dust cake had been evaluated; and the preliminary test results indicated that the simultaneous operation of hot gas desulfurization and particulate filtration is feasible. A parametric testing will be performed on hot gas desulfurization and particulate independently first. The independent test results will help optimize the test design and evaluation of the integration of hot gas desulfurization testing and particulate filtration testing to be completed in the first two quarters 1998.

  8. Valorization of horse manure through catalytic supercritical water gasification.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Sonil; Dalai, Ajay K; Gökalp, Iskender; Kozinski, Janusz A

    2016-06-01

    The organic wastes such as lignocellulosic biomass, municipal solid waste, sewage sludge and livestock manure have attracted attention as alternative sources of energy. Cattle manure, a waste generated in surplus amounts from the feedlot, has always been a chief environmental concern. This study is focused on identifying the candidacy of horse manure as a next generation feedstock for biofuel production through supercritical water gasification. The horse manure was gasified in supercritical water to examine the effects of temperature (400-600°C), biomass-to-water ratio (1:5 and 1:10) and reaction time (15-45min) at a pressure range of 23-25MPa. The horse manure and resulting biochar were characterized through carbon-hydrogen-nitrogen-sulfur (CHNS), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of alkali catalysts such as NaOH, Na2CO3 and K2CO3 at variable concentrations (1-2wt%) were investigated to maximize the hydrogen yields. Supercritical water gasification of horse manure with 2wt% Na2CO3 at 600°C and 1:10 biomass-to-water ratio for 45min revealed maximum hydrogen yields (5.31mmol/g), total gas yields (20.8mmol/g) with greater carbon conversion efficiency (43.1%) and enhanced lower heating value of gas products (2920kJ/Nm(3)). The manure-derived biochars generated at temperatures higher than 500°C also demonstrated higher thermal stability (weight loss <34%) and larger carbon content (>70wt%) suggesting their application in enhancing soil fertility and carbon sequestration. The results propose that supercritical water gasification could be a proficient remediation technology for horse manure to generate hydrogen-rich gas products. PMID:27067100

  9. Trace metal transformations in gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; O`Keefe, C.A.; Katrinak, K.; Allan, S.E.; Hassett, D.J.; Hauserman, W.B.; Zygarlicke, C.J.

    1995-11-01

    The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) is carrying out an investigation that will provide methods to predict the fate of selected trace elements in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems to aid in the development of methods to control the emission of trace elements determined to be air toxics. The goal of this project is to identify the effects of critical chemical and physical transformations associated with trace element behavior in IGCC and IGFC systems. The trace elements included in this project are arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and lead. The research seeks to identify and fill, experimentally and/or theoretically, data gaps that currently exist on the fate and composition of trace elements. The specific objectives are to (1) review the existing literature to identify the type and quantity of trace elements from coal gasification systems; (2) perform laboratory-scale experimentation and computer modeling to enable prediction of trace element emissions; and (3) identify methods to control trace element emissions. Results are presented and discussed on the partitioning of trace metals and the model design for predicting trace metals behavior.

  10. An overview of peat gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punwani, D. V.

    Thermal and biological peat gasification processes are reviewed, with research showing that peat is high in both oxygen and hydrogen, and also nitrogen, which can be used to form ammonia as a byproduct. The hydrogen-carbon ratio of peat has been shown to exceed that of subbituminous coal, indicating less of a need to supply more hydrogen in the formation of gaseous fuels. The gasification process involves crushing the peat into particles smaller than 2 mm, which cascade through drying air into a gasifier, where gases from the hydrogasifier induce hydropyrolysis. The char then flows into a reactor with steam and oxygen to make synthesis gas. Minnesota peat has shown the highest hydrocarbon yields in the U.S., and economic comparisons show peak gasification has economic parity with other means of producing SNG. Experiments have also shown the feasibility of wet peat conversion using a peat-water slurry in an anaerobic digestor to produce methane. Building of pilot plants is suggested as necessary to verify existing processes.

  11. Gasification of biomass for heat and power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Feustel, J.E.; Leuchs, M.

    1982-12-01

    Experience in the field of thermal gasification has been mainly confined to the gasification of wood, whereas there is very little experience with fluidized-bed gas generators. Experience has already been gained with the first co-current and counter-current plants. Development of different types of gas generators is being concentrated on the following points: (1) preparation of material, (2) treatment of condensate, (3) filtering of gas (dust extraction), and (4) efficiency. In the Federal Republic of Germany the gasifiable biomass available for thermal gasification consists mainly of wood waste and straw residues. The energy content of these materials is estimated at approximately 11 x 10/sup 15/ J = 11 PJ (peta joule) for wood and 50 x 10/sup 15/J = 50 PJ (peta Joule) for straw. This would cover about 0.5% of the Federal Republic's consumption of primary energy. However, this amounts to about 1% of the mineral oil imports, or a value of almost 1 billion (10/sup 9/) DM (1980). The reasonable use of biomass-gasification techniques will therefore be restricted to decentralized generation of energy, thus making individual companies independent of outside sources of energy. Nevertheless, the contribution of biotechnology to the overall energy supply in the Federal Republic of Germany is limited. A breakthrough can only be made with this technology if it can enable a large number of individual firms to become independent of outside sources of energy in an economical way. This could be the case to some extent in the wood-processing industry and agriculture. 9 figures.

  12. Central waste processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kester, F. L.

    1973-01-01

    A new concept for processing spacecraft type wastes has been evaluated. The feasibility of reacting various waste materials with steam at temperatures of 538 - 760 C in both a continuous and batch reactor with residence times from 3 to 60 seconds has been established. Essentially complete gasification is achieved. Product gases are primarily hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, and carbon monoxide. Water soluble synthetic wastes are readily processed in a continuous tubular reactor at concentrations up to 20 weight percent. The batch reactor is able to process wet and dry wastes at steam to waste weight ratios from 2 to 20. Feces, urine, and synthetic wastes have been successfully processed in the batch reactor.

  13. Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membrane for Coal Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Joseph; Porter, Jason; Patki, Neil; Kelley, Madison; Stanislowski, Josh; Tolbert, Scott; Way, J. Douglas; Makuch, David

    2015-12-23

    A pilot-scale hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) separator was built that incorporated 98 membranes that were each 24 inches long. This separator used an advanced design to minimize the impact of concentration polarization and separated over 1000 scfh of hydrogen from a hydrogen-nitrogen feed of 5000 scfh that contained 30% hydrogen. This mixture was chosen because it was representative of the hydrogen concentration expected in coal gasification. When tested with an operating gasifier, the hydrogen concentration was lower and contaminants in the syngas adversely impacted membrane performance. All 98 membranes survived the test, but flux was lower than expected. Improved ceramic substrates were produced that have small surface pores to enable membrane production and large pores in the bulk of the substrate to allow high flux. Pd-Au was chosen as the membrane alloy because of its resistance to sulfur contamination and good flux. Processes were developed to produce a large quantity of long membranes for use in the demonstration test.

  14. Eighth annual EPRI conference on coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    This report contains the technical papers presented at the Eighth Annual EPRI Conference on Coal Gasification. The four sessions covered economic and engineering studies, demonstration plant reports, new GCC concepts and development studies, and environmental and support studies. The following topics were discussed: Dow-based integrated gasification-combined-cycle study for low rank coal; a coal gasification combined cycle availability analysis; review of potential cycle improvements for and integrated coal gasification-combined-cycle plant; coproduction of electricity and methanol; operating feedstock flexibility for Texaco gasification plants; cool water plant reliability and efficiency improvements achieved during four years of operation; the Dow Syngas Project recent operating experience; status of the Shell coal gasification demonstration plant; recent developments in the demonstration of the BGL gasifier; the High-Temperature Winkler process -- operational experience and new developments; four-year operating experience with Texaco Coal Gasification Process in Ube Ammonia; PRENFLO coal gasification -- tests with Pittsburgh No. 8 coal; Lurgi's CFB gasification technology for combined cycle power generation (Part I) and gas production from biomass (Part II); update on Department of Energy hot gas cleanup programs; development status of hot gas clean-up technology for IGCC systems; process development of in-situ catalytic desulfurizing fluidized bed gasification for combined power and SNG manufacture; key technologies in Japan's entrained-flow HYCOL gasifier; cool water environmental performance utilizing four coal feedstocks; environmental monitoring at Dow's coal gasification plant; the BGL Gasifier: recent environmental results; and production of synthetic lightweight aggregate using cool water slag. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  15. Biomethanization of mixtures of fruits and vegetables solid wastes and sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Lahoz, C; Fernández-Giménez, B; Garcia-Herruzo, F; Rodriguez-Maroto, J M; Vereda-Alonso, C

    2007-03-01

    The possible management of Fruit and Vegetable Solid Wastes (FVSWs) through their simultaneous digestion with the primary sludge of Municipal Wastewater Treatment plants is investigated. This alternative allows the recovery of energy and a solid product that can be used as an amendment for soils that generated the residue, while is not expensive. Results indicate that the ratio of FVSWs to sludge and the pH control are the main variables determining the methane production and concentration. NaHCO3 was selected to achieve the pH control. The results for a ratio of 50% sludge together with 10 g NaHCO3/kg of residue are among the best obtained, with a methane yield of about 90 L per kg of volatile solids, and a methane concentration of 40% (v/v) of the biogas. A 50% reduction of the total solids; 21% reduction of the volatile solids (in terms of total solids); and a pH value of the sludge, which is 6.9 indicate that the digested sludge can be a good material for soil amendment. PMID:17365318

  16. Analysis of energetic and exergetic efficiency, and environmental benefits of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle technology.

    PubMed

    Mínguez, María; Jiménez, Angel; Rodríguez, Javier; González, Celina; López, Ignacio; Nieto, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    The problem of the high carbon dioxide emissions linked to power generation makes necessary active research on the use of biofuels in gas turbine systems as a promising alternative to fossil fuels. Gasification of biomass waste is particularly of interest in obtaining a fuel to be run in gas turbines, as it is an efficient biomass-to-biofuel conversion process, and an integration into a combined cycle power plant leads to a high performance with regard to energetic efficiency. The goal of this study was to carry out an energetic, exergetic and environmental analysis of the behaviour of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant fuelled with different kinds of biomass waste by means of simulations. A preliminary economic study is also included. Although a technological development in gasification technology is necessary, the results of simulations indicate a high technical and environmental interest in the use of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BioIGCC) systems for large-scale power generation from biomass waste. PMID:23444152

  17. Fluidized-bed gasification of dairy manure by Box-Behnken design.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hanjing; Hanna, Milford A; Jones, David D

    2012-05-01

    Application of excessive animal manure to the land may cause some environmental problems such as eutrophication of surface waters, degradation of ground water quality, and threats to human health. This paper reports an experimental study on the technology of biomass gasification to treat animal waste by analysing the effects of key operating parameters on gasification. In this research, dairy manure from the University of Nebraska dairy farm was first collected and dried, and then gasified in a fluidized-bed, laboratory-scale gasifier to generate syngas. The effects of three parameters, namely temperature, steam to biomass ratio (SBR) and the equivalence ratio (ER), on the gasification were described by a Box-Behnken design (BBD). Results showed that increasing the temperature favoured the formation of all three combustible gases, but the composition of each gas behaved differently according to the changing parameters. The lower heating value of the syngas varied from 2.0 to 4.7 MJ m(-3), indicating gasification could be used as a waste management option to produce bioenergy, and potentially reduce problems associated with the disposal of animal waste. PMID:22071174

  18. COAL GASIFICATION ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SUMMARY: TRACE ELEMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes trace element measurements made at several coal gasification facilities. Most of the measurements were made as part of EPA's source testing and evaluation program on low- and medium-Btu gasification. The behavior of trace elements is discussed in light of th...

  19. TEXACO GASIFICATION PROCESS - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the evaluation of the Texaco Gasification Process (TGP) conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. The Texaco Gasification Process was developed by Texaco Inc. The TGP is a comm...

  20. Improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    McKee, D.W.; Spiro, C.L.; Kosky, P.G.

    1984-05-25

    This invention relates to improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification and improved processes for catalytic coal gasification for the production of methane. The catalyst is composed of at least two alkali metal salts and a particulate carbonaceous substrate or carrier is used. 10 figures, 2 tables.

  1. Conceptual design study of a coal gasification combined-cycle powerplant for industrial cogeneration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, H. S.; Nelson, S. G.; Straight, H. F.; Subramaniam, T. K.; Winklepleck, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to assess technical feasibility, environmental characteristics, and economics of coal gasification. The feasibility of a coal gasification combined cycle cogeneration powerplant was examined in response to energy needs and to national policy aimed at decreasing dependence on oil and natural gas. The powerplant provides the steam heating and baseload electrical requirements while serving as a prototype for industrial cogeneration and a modular building block for utility applications. The following topics are discussed: (1) screening of candidate gasification, sulfur removal and power conversion components; (2) definition of a reference system; (3) quantification of plant emissions and waste streams; (4) estimates of capital and operating costs; and (5) a procurement and construction schedule. It is concluded that the proposed powerplant is technically feasible and environmentally superior.

  2. Effect of biomass containing zinc metal at different operating parameters on gasification efficiency.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chiou-Liang; Chen, Hsien

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of Zn on the gas production of a fluidized-bed gasifier to determine the relationship between Zn and the gasification process. Different concentrations of Zn were used in the preparation of artificial waste to elucidate the effect on gas product composition, gas product heat value, gas production rate, and H2 yield in the gasification process. Zn served to increase H2 generation during the gasification process. The molar percentage of H2 with more than 0.1 wt% additional Zn increased by 33.02% and the H2 yield was increased by 11.34% compared to that without Zn. However, the gas heat value decreased, and no significant change in the gas production rate was noted. PMID:26510615

  3. A novel approach to highly dispersing catalytic materials in coal for gasification. Tenth quarterly report, January 1, 1992--March 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Abotsi, G.M.K.; Bota, K.B.

    1992-07-01

    This project seeks to develop a technique, based on coal surface properties, for highly dispersing catalysts in coal for gasification and to investigate the potential of using potassium carbonate and calcium acetate mixtures as catalysts for coal gasification. The lower cost and higher catalytic activity of the latter compound will produce economic benefits by reducing the amount of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} required for high coal char reactivities.

  4. Gasification technologies 2005. Conference papers and presentations

    SciTech Connect

    2005-07-01

    A total of 43 papers and two keynote addresses were presented at the conference in eight sessions entitled Four perspectives on gasification industry trends and new developments; Federal gasification incentives: opportunities and challenges; Carbon sequestration ready: What does it mean and who can do it?; Experience with gasifying low rank coals (panel discussion); What are current gasification-based offerings in the energy marketplace?; Coal to liquids and chemicals: prospects and challenges; Gasification market drivers panel; and Gasification technologies advancements continue. The CD-ROM contains 43 presentations plus on keynote address, all in slide/overview form as pdfs. In addition, the text of four presentations is included. These have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database.

  5. Leaching characteristics of bottom ash from coal fired electric generating plants, and waste tire; individually and mixtures when used as construction site fill materials.

    PubMed

    Lee, Taeyoon

    2011-02-01

    Column leaching tests were conducted on bottom ash from coal fired electric generating plants, waste tires (WT), and bottom ash mixtures (ash-WT) to evaluate the environmental feasibility of using these materials as fill materials to raise the ground level at construction sites. The initial concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, F(-), NO(2)(-), NO(3)(-), and PO(4)(2-) from ash, WT, and ash-WT samples were lower than the drinking water standards (DWSs). The initial concentrations of Pb and Zn were slightly above the standards but within the DWS approximately one pore volume of effluent (PVE). However, the initial concentrations of SO(4)(2-) from ash and ash-WT were 8-10 times greater than the standards and a maximum 8.21 PVE was required to meet the DWS. In general, the ash-WT combinations resulted in lower initial concentrations but greater partition coefficients for Pb and Zn than those for ash alone. These results suggest precautions are needed before using bottom ash as a fill material at construction sites because of the high SO(4)(2-) levels. PMID:21074984

  6. Impact of feedstock properties and operating conditions on sewage sludge gasification in a fixed bed gasifier.

    PubMed

    Werle, Sebastian

    2014-10-01

    This work presents results of experimental studies on the gasification process of granulated sewage sludge in a laboratory fixed bed gasifier. Nowadays, there is a large and pressing need for the development of thermal methods for sewage sludge disposal. Gasification is an example of thermal method that has several advantages over the traditional combustion. Gasification leads to a combustible gas, which can be used for the generation of useful forms of final energy. It can also be used in processes, such as the drying of sewage sludge directly in waste treatment plant. In the present work, the operating parameters were varied over a wide range. Parameters, such as air ratio λ = 0.12 to 0.27 and the temperature of air preheating t = 50 °C to 250 °C, were found to influence temperature distribution and syngas properties. The results indicate that the syngas heating value decreases with rising air ratio for all analysed cases: i.e. for both cold and preheated air. The increase in the concentration of the main combustible components was accompanied by a decrease in the concentration of carbon dioxide. Preheating of the gasification agent supports the endothermic gasification and increases hydrogen and carbon monoxide production. PMID:24938298

  7. Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, R.S.; Brooks, K.S.; Skinner, W.H.; Brown, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    The objective is to provide a test facility to support early commercialization of advanced fixed-bed coal gasification technology electric power generation applications. The proprietary CRS Sirrine Engineers, Inc. PyGas[trademark] staged gasifier has been selected as the initial gasifier to be developed under this program. The gasifier is expected to avoid agglomeration when used on caking coals. It is also being designed to crack tar vapors and ammonia, and to provide an environment in which volatilized alkali may condense onto aluminosilicates in the coal ash thereby minimizing their exiting with the hot raw coal gas and passing through the system to the gas turbine. The management plan calls for a three phased program. The initial phase (Phase 1), includes the CRS Sinine Engineers, Inc. proprietary gasification invention called PyGas[trademark], necessary coal and limestone receiving/storage/reclaim systems to allow closely metered coal and limestone to be fed into the gasifier for testing. The coal gas is subsequently piped to and combusted in an existing burner of the Monongahela Power Fort Martin Generating Station Unit No. 2. Continuous gasification process steam is generated by a small GPIF packaged boiler using light oil fuel at startup, and by switching from light oil to coal gas after startup. The major peripheral equipment such as foundations, process water system, ash handling, ash storage silo, emergency vent pipe, building, lavatory, electrical interconnect, control room, provisions for Phases II III, and control system are all included in Phase I. A future hot gas cleanup unit conceptualized to be a zinc ferrite based fluidized bed process constitutes the following phase (Phase H). The final phase (Phase III) contemplates the addition of a combustion turbine and generator set sized to accommodate the parasitic load of the entire system.

  8. Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, R.S.; Brooks, K.S.; Skinner, W.H.; Brown, M.J.

    1992-11-01

    The objective is to provide a test facility to support early commercialization of advanced fixed-bed coal gasification technology electric power generation applications. The proprietary CRS Sirrine Engineers, Inc. PyGas{trademark} staged gasifier has been selected as the initial gasifier to be developed under this program. The gasifier is expected to avoid agglomeration when used on caking coals. It is also being designed to crack tar vapors and ammonia, and to provide an environment in which volatilized alkali may condense onto aluminosilicates in the coal ash thereby minimizing their exiting with the hot raw coal gas and passing through the system to the gas turbine. The management plan calls for a three phased program. The initial phase (Phase 1), includes the CRS Sinine Engineers, Inc. proprietary gasification invention called PyGas{trademark}, necessary coal and limestone receiving/storage/reclaim systems to allow closely metered coal and limestone to be fed into the gasifier for testing. The coal gas is subsequently piped to and combusted in an existing burner of the Monongahela Power Fort Martin Generating Station Unit No. 2. Continuous gasification process steam is generated by a small GPIF packaged boiler using light oil fuel at startup, and by switching from light oil to coal gas after startup. The major peripheral equipment such as foundations, process water system, ash handling, ash storage silo, emergency vent pipe, building, lavatory, electrical interconnect, control room, provisions for Phases II & III, and control system are all included in Phase I. A future hot gas cleanup unit conceptualized to be a zinc ferrite based fluidized bed process constitutes the following phase (Phase H). The final phase (Phase III) contemplates the addition of a combustion turbine and generator set sized to accommodate the parasitic load of the entire system.

  9. U.S. EPA`s evaluation of a Texaco gasification technology

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, M.K.; Rosenthal, S.

    1994-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program selected the Texaco Inc. gasification technology for evaluation by field testing -- a Demonstration, which occurred in the Winter of 1994. A series of test runs was conducted at the Texaco Montebello Research Laboratory (MRL) facility in South El Monte, California, using 40 tons of waste slurry, which included waste soil from the Purity Oil Sales (POS) Superfund site in Fresno, California. The waste soil contained volatile and semivolatile hydrocarbons as well as lead, barium, and other metal compounds. The Texaco Gasification Process is a patented high temperature, high-pressure, partial-oxidation process designed to destroy the organic contaminants and immobilize the metals at the same time that it produces a usable synthesis gas product that Texaco calls syngas.

  10. ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Shell Mining Company, is constructing a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by Shell and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin Coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). The products, as alternative fuels sources, are expected to significantly reduce current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation, thereby reducing pollutants causing acid rain.

  11. Non-catalytic co-gasification of sub-bituminous coal and biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyendu, Guevara Che

    Fluidization characteristics and co-gasification of pulverized sub-bituminous coal, hybrid poplar wood, corn stover, switchgrass, and their mixtures were investigated. Co-gasification studies were performed over temperature range from 700°C to 900°C in different media (N2, CO2, steam) using a bubbling fluidized bed reactor. In fluidization experiments, pressure drop (Delta P) observed for coal-biomass mixtures was higher than those of single coal and biomass bed materials in the complete fluidization regime. There was no systematic trend observed for minimum fluidization velocity ( Umf) with increasing biomass content. However, porosity at minimum fluidization (εmf) increased with increasing biomass content. Channeling effects were observed in biomass bed materials and coal bed with 40 wt.% and 50 wt.% biomass content at low gas flowrates. The effect of coal pressure overshoot reduced with increasing biomass content. Co-gasification of coal and corn stover mixtures showed minor interactions. Synergetic effects were observed with 10 wt.% corn stover. Coal mixed with corn stover formed agglomerates during co-gasification experiments and the effect was severe with increase in corn stover content and at 900°C. Syngas (H2 + CO) concentrations obtained using CO2 as co-gasification medium were higher (~78 vol.% at 700°C, ~87 vol.% at 800°C, ~93 vol.% at 900°C) than those obtained with N2 medium (~60 vol.% at 700°C, ~65 vol.% at 800°C, ~75 vol.% at 900°C). Experiments involving co-gasification of coal with poplar showed no synergetic effects. Experimental yields were identical to predicted yields. However, synergetic effects were observed on H2 production when steam was used as the co-gasification medium. Additionally, the presence of steam increased H2/CO ratio up to 2.5 with 10 wt.% hybrid poplar content. Overall, char and tar yields decreased with increasing temperature and increasing biomass content, which led to increase in product gas.

  12. Apparatus for solar coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, D.W.

    1980-08-04

    Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials is described. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats through a window onto the surface of a moving bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called synthesis gas, which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam in one embodiment at the rear surface of a secondary mirror used to redirect the focused sunlight. Another novel feature of the invention is the location and arrangement of the array of mirrors on an inclined surface (e.g., a hillside) to provide for direct optical communication of said mirrors and the carbonaceous feed without a secondary redirecting mirror.

  13. Fundamental studies of catalytic gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Heinemann, H.; Somorjai, G.A.

    1991-03-01

    Studies of the catalytic steam gasification of carbon solids continued. A considerable number of important findings have been made. Recently limited experimentation has been carried out on the production of C{sub 2} hydrocarbons from methane in the presence of Ca/K/Ni oxide catalysts and of oxygen, carbon and water. The main finding thus far has been that C{sub 2} yields of 10--13% can be obtained at about 600{degrees}C or 150{degrees} lower temperature than described in the literature for similar yields. Yields of 7--10% C{sub 2} hydrocarbons at 99+% selectivity have been obtained. The presence of water and small amounts of oxygen is essential. Yields of this magnitude may be attractive since there is no loss of methane to valueless by-products, no purification of the recycle steam is required and no oxygen is used to burn methane. Further improvement in yields by catalyst and operating conditions modification will be investigated. It is also intended to clarify the chemistry which inhibits burning of methane to carbon oxides. Work is discussed on gasification of petroleum cokes and oxidative methane coupling. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Gasification Product Improvement Facility status

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, R.D.; Dixit, V.B.; Sadowski, R.S.; Thamaraichelvan, P.; Culberson, H.

    1995-11-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) has awarded a two phase contract for the construction of a Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) to develop an innovative air blown, dry bottom, pressurized fixed bed gasifier based on the patented PyGas{trademark} fixed bed process. The objective of the project is to provide a test site to support early commercialization of the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology. The GPIF will be capable of processing run of mine high swelling coals that comprise 87% of all Eastern US coals. This program will generate useful scale up data that will be utilized to develop commercial size designs. The project will also support the development of a hot gas clean up subsystem and the gasifier infrastructure consisting of controls, special instrumentation and interconnects with Allegheny Power System`s host power plant, Fort Martin Station in Maidesville, West Virginia. This paper presents the status of the GPIF project. It describes the work performed in the past year on the PyGas process development, gasifier design, plant engineering/layout, tie in with the existing Fort Martin facility, procurement, site permitting and project scheduling.

  15. Coke gasification costs, economics, and commercial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jahnke, F.C.; Falsetti, J.S.; Wilson, R.F.

    1996-12-01

    The disposition of petroleum coke remains a problem for modern high conversion refineries. Market uncertainty and the price for coke can prevent the implementation of otherwise attractive projects. The commercially proven Texaco Gasification Process remains an excellent option for clean, cost effective coke disposition as demonstrated by the new coke gasification units coming on-line and under design. Previous papers, have discussed the coke market and general economics of coke gasification. This paper updates the current market situation and economics, and provide more details on cost and performance based on recent studies for commercial plants.

  16. Fluidized bed catalytic coal gasification process

    DOEpatents

    Euker, Jr., Charles A. (15163 Dianna La., Houston, TX 77062); Wesselhoft, Robert D. (120 Caldwell, Baytown, TX 77520); Dunkleman, John J. (3704 Autumn La., Baytown, TX 77520); Aquino, Dolores C. (15142 McConn, Webster, TX 77598); Gouker, Toby R. (5413 Rocksprings Dr., LaPorte, TX 77571)

    1984-01-01

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids impregnated with gasification catalyst constituents (16) are oxidized by contact with a gas containing between 2 volume percent and 21 volume percent oxygen at a temperature between 50.degree. C. and 250.degree. C. in an oxidation zone (24) and the resultant oxidized, catalyst impregnated solids are then gasified in a fluidized bed gasification zone (44) at an elevated pressure. The oxidation of the catalyst impregnated solids under these conditions insures that the bed density in the fluidized bed gasification zone will be relatively high even though the solids are gasified at elevated pressure and temperature.

  17. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 10. Gasification of Benton lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the tenth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Benton lignite. The period of gasification test was November 1-8, 1983. 16 refs., 22 figs., 19 tabs.

  18. Potential of Effective micro-organisms and Eisenia fetida in enhancing vermi-degradation and nutrient release of fly ash incorporated into cow dung-paper waste mixture.

    PubMed

    Mupambwa, Hupenyu Allan; Ravindran, Balasubramani; Mnkeni, Pearson Nyari Stephano

    2016-02-01

    The interactions between earthworms and microorganisms activity has prompted several researchers to evaluate the potential of artificially inoculating vermicomposts with additional specific microbes, with the intention of enhancing the vermicomposting process. This study evaluated the potential of inoculating fly ash (F)-cow dung-paper waste (CP) mixture (F-CP) with a specialized microbial cocktail called Effective micro-organisms (EM) during vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida earthworms. Inoculation with EM alone did not result in significantly (P>0.05) different changes in C/N ratio and dissolved organic matter (DOC) compared to the control with no EM and E. fetida. A significant interaction between EM and E. fetida presence resulted in greater changes in C/N ratio and DOC, which were not statistically different from the E. fetida alone treatment. It was also noteworthy that the activity of ß-Glucosidase was not influenced by the presence of EM, but was significantly influenced (P=0.0014) by the presence of E. fetida. However, the EM+E. fetida treatment resulted in a rate of weekly Olsen P release of 54.32mgkg(-1) which was 12.3%, 89.2% and 228.0% more that the E. fetida alone, EM alone and control treatments, respectively. Similarly, though higher in the E. fetida plus EM treatment, the phosphate solubilizing bacteria counts were not significantly different (P>0.05) from the E. fetida alone treatment. It is concluded that inoculation of F-CP composts with EM alone may not be beneficial, while combining EM with E. fetida results in faster compost maturity and significantly greater Olsen P release. It would be interesting to evaluate higher optimized rates of EM inoculation and fortifying EM cocktails with phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) on F-CP vermicompost degradation and phosphorus mineralization. PMID:26459189

  19. Texaco presses projects for gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-06

    This paper reports that Texaco Inc. continues to press international ventures for its gasification process. A combine of Italian companies plans an $800 million integrated gasification/combined cycle power plant at a refinery in Sicily that will use Texaco's process to gasify refinery residual to produce electrical power. Other Italian refiners are expected to follow suit with similar projects. Meanwhile, Texaco and Bitor America Corp., have signed a letter of agreement to develop integrated gasification/combined cycle electrical power generation projects. The venture plans to use Texaco's gasification process and Orimulsion, a boiler fuel that is an emulsion of Venezuelan heavy crude, water, and surfactant, as feedstock. Bitor, Boca Raton, Fla., and its parent, Bitumenes Orinoco SA, are units of Venezuela's state oil company Petroleos de Venezuela SA.

  20. Advances in the shell coal gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Doering, E.L.; Cremer, G.A.

    1995-12-31

    The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a dry-feed, oxygen-blown, entrained flow coal gasification process which has the capability to convert virtually any coal or petroleum coke into a clean medium Btu synthesis gas, or syngas, consisting predominantly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. In SCGP, high pressure nitrogen or recycled syngas is used to pneumatically convey dried, pulverized coal to the gasifier. The coal enters the gasifier through diametrically opposed burners where it reacts with oxygen at temperatures in excess of 2500{degrees}F. The gasification temperature is maintained to ensure that the mineral matter in the coal is molten and will flow smoothly down the gasifier wall and out the slag tap. Gasification conditions are optimized, depending on coal properties, to achieve the highest coal to gas conversion efficiency, with minimum formation of undesirable byproducts.

  1. Catalysts for carbon and coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    McKee, Douglas W.; Spiro, Clifford L.; Kosky, Philip G.

    1985-01-01

    Catalyst for the production of methane from carbon and/or coal by means of catalytic gasification. The catalyst compostion containing at least two alkali metal salts. A particulate carbonaceous substrate or carrier is used.

  2. Updraft Fixed Bed Gasification Aspen Plus Model

    SciTech Connect

    2007-09-27

    The updraft fixed bed gasification model provides predictive modeling capabilities for updraft fixed bed gasifiers, when devolatilization data is available. The fixed bed model is constructed using Aspen Plus, process modeling software, coupled with a FORTRAN user kinetic subroutine. Current updraft gasification models created in Aspen Plus have limited predictive capabilities and must be "tuned" to reflect a generalized gas composition as specified in literature or by the gasifier manufacturer. This limits the applicability of the process model.

  3. Coal gasification for electric power generation.

    PubMed

    Spencer, D F; Gluckman, M J; Alpert, S B

    1982-03-26

    The electric utility industry is being severely affected by rapidly escalating gas and oil prices, restrictive environmental and licensing regulations, and an extremely tight money market. Integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants have the potential to be economically competitive with present commercial coal-fired power plants while satisfying stringent emission control requirements. The current status of gasification technology is discussed and the critical importance of the 100-megawatt Cool Water IGCC demonstration program is emphasized. PMID:17788466

  4. Investigation of plasma-aided bituminous coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Matveev, I.B.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B.

    2009-04-15

    This paper presents thermodynamic and kinetic modeling of plasma-aided bituminous coal gasification. Distributions of concentrations, temperatures, and velocities of the gasification products along the gasifier are calculated. Carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and heat engineering characteristics of synthesis gas at the outlet of the gasifier are determined at plasma air/steam and oxygen/steam gasification of Powder River Basin bituminous coal. Numerical simulation showed that the plasma oxygen/steam gasification of coal is a more preferable process in comparison with the plasma air/steam coal gasification. On the numerical experiments, a plasma vortex fuel reformer is designed.

  5. Methods for sulfate removal in liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Douglas C; Oyler, James R

    2014-11-04

    Processing of wet biomass feedstock by liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a pre-treatment temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent removal of soluble sulfate contaminants, or combinations thereof. Processing further includes reacting the soluble sulfate contaminants with cations present in the feedstock material to yield a sulfate-containing precipitate and separating the inorganic precipitates and/or the sulfate-containing precipitates out of the wet feedstock. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfate contaminants that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogeneous catalyst for gasification.

  6. Methods for sulfate removal in liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Douglas C; Oyler, James

    2013-12-17

    Processing of wet biomass feedstock by liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a pre-treatment temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent removal of soluble sulfate contaminants, or combinations thereof. Processing further includes reacting the soluble sulfate contaminants with cations present in the feedstock material to yield a sulfate-containing precipitate and separating the inorganic precipitates and/or the sulfate-containing precipitates out of the wet feedstock. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfate contaminants that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogenous catalyst for gasification.

  7. Coal gasification in fluidized bed combustion: Status and developments - Future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staege, H.

    1980-07-01

    The state of the art of fluidized bed combustion is surveyed. Attention is given to the steps in the process such as preparation of the coal, gasification of the coal dust, waste heat recycling, cooling, and removing of particulates, and treatment of the recirculating water. Also discussed are removal of sulfur from the gas, developments of the principle such as the Shell-Kopper process, Saarberg-Otto process, and the Texaco-process.

  8. Demonstration plant for pressurized gasification of biomass feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Trenka, A.R. ); Kinoshita, C.M.; Takahashi, P.K.; Phillips, V.D. ); Caldwell, C. Co., Pasadena, CA ); Kwok, R. ); Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P. (Institute of Gas Technology

    1991-01-01

    A project to design, construct, and operate a pressurized biomass gasification plant in Hawaii will begin in 1991. Negotiations are underway with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) which is co-funding the project with the state of Hawaii and industry. The gasifier is a scale-up of the pressurized fluidized-bed RENUGAS process developed by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT). The project team consists of Pacific International Center for High Technology Research (PICHTR), Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) of the University of Hawaii, Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Company (HC S), The Ralph M. Parsons Company, and IGT. The gasifier will be designed for 70 tons per day of sugarcane fiber (bagasse) and will be located at the Paia factory of HC S on the island of Maui. In addition to bagasse, other feedstocks such as wood, biomass wastes, and refuse-derived-fuel may be evaluated. The demonstration plant will ultimately supply part of the process energy needs for the sugar factory. The operation and testing phase will provide process information for both air- and oxygen-blown gasification, and at both low and high pressures. The process will be evaluated for both fuel gas and synthesis gas production, and for electrical power production with advanced power generation schemes. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Development of Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Partial Gasification Module (PGM)

    SciTech Connect

    A. Robertson

    2002-09-30

    Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building bock that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This report describes the work performed during the July 1-September 30, 2002 time period.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE (PGM)

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2003-01-30

    Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building bock that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This report describes the work performed during the October 1--December 31, 2002 time period.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE (PGM)

    SciTech Connect

    Archie Robertson

    2002-07-10

    Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building bock that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This report describes the work performed during the April 1--June 30, 2002 time period.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE (PGM)

    SciTech Connect

    Archie Robertson

    2003-10-29

    Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building bock that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This report describes the work performed during the July 1--September 30, 2003 time period.

  13. Development of Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Partial Gasification Module (PGM)

    SciTech Connect

    A. Robertson

    2003-12-31

    Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building bock that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This report describes the work performed during the October 1 - December 31, 2003 time period.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE (PGM)

    SciTech Connect

    Archie Robertson

    2003-07-23

    Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building bock that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This report describes the work performed during the April 1--June 30, 2003 time period.

  15. Development of Foster Wheeler's Vision 21 Partial Gasification Module

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, A.

    2001-11-06

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has awarded Foster Wheeler Development Corporation a contract to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% while producing near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The unique aspect of the process is that it utilizes a pressurized circulating fluidized bed partial gasifier and does not attempt to consume the coal in a single step. To convert all the coal to syngas in a single step requires extremely high temperatures ({approx} 2500 to 2800F) that melt and vaporize the coal and essentially drive all coal ash contaminants into the syngas. Since these contaminants can be corrosive to power generating equipment, the syngas must be cooled to near room temperature to enable a series of chemical processes to clean the syngas. Foster Wheeler's process operates at much lower temperatures that control/minimize the release of contaminants; this eliminates/minimizes the need for the expensive, complicated syngas heat exchangers and chemical cleanup systems typical of high temperature gasification. By performing the gasification in a circulating bed, a significant amount of syngas can still be produced despite the reduced temperature and the circulating bed allows easy scale up to large size plants. Rather than air, it can also operate with oxygen to facilitate sequestration of stack gas carbon dioxide gases for a 100% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building block that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This paper describes the test program and pilot plant that will be used to develop the PGM.

  16. Performance analysis of RDF gasification in a two stage fluidized bed-plasma process.

    PubMed

    Materazzi, M; Lettieri, P; Taylor, R; Chapman, C

    2016-01-01

    The major technical problems faced by stand-alone fluidized bed gasifiers (FBG) for waste-to gas applications are intrinsically related to the composition and physical properties of waste materials, such as RDF. The high quantity of ash and volatile material in RDF can provide a decrease in thermal output, create high ash clinkering, and increase emission of tars and CO2, thus affecting the operability for clean syngas generation at industrial scale. By contrast, a two-stage process which separates primary gasification and selective tar and ash conversion would be inherently more forgiving and stable. This can be achieved with the use of a separate plasma converter, which has been successfully used in conjunction with conventional thermal treatment units, for the ability to 'polish' the producer gas by organic contaminants and collect the inorganic fraction in a molten (and inert) state. This research focused on the performance analysis of a two-stage fluid bed gasification-plasma process to transform solid waste into clean syngas. Thermodynamic assessment using the two-stage equilibrium method was carried out to determine optimum conditions for the gasification of RDF and to understand the limitations and influence of the second stage on the process performance (gas heating value, cold gas efficiency, carbon conversion efficiency), along with other parameters. Comparison with a different thermal refining stage, i.e. thermal cracking (via partial oxidation) was also performed. The analysis is supported by experimental data from a pilot plant. PMID:26184896

  17. Catalytic combustor for integrated gasification combined cycle power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bachovchin, Dennis M.; Lippert, Thomas E.

    2008-12-16

    A gasification power plant 10 includes a compressor 32 producing a compressed air flow 36, an air separation unit 22 producing a nitrogen flow 44, a gasifier 14 producing a primary fuel flow 28 and a secondary fuel source 60 providing a secondary fuel flow 62 The plant also includes a catalytic combustor 12 combining the nitrogen flow and a combustor portion 38 of the compressed air flow to form a diluted air flow 39 and combining at least one of the primary fuel flow and secondary fuel flow and a mixer portion 78 of the diluted air flow to produce a combustible mixture 80. A catalytic element 64 of the combustor 12 separately receives the combustible mixture and a backside cooling portion 84 of the diluted air flow and allows the mixture and the heated flow to produce a hot combustion gas 46 provided to a turbine 48. When fueled with the secondary fuel flow, nitrogen is not combined with the combustor portion.

  18. WABASH RIVER COAL GASIFICATION REPOWERING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-09-01

    The close of 1999 marked the completion of the Demonstration Period of the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project. This Final Report summarizes the engineering and construction phases and details the learning experiences from the first four years of commercial operation that made up the Demonstration Period under Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-92MC29310. This 262 MWe project is a joint venture of Global Energy Inc. (Global acquired Destec Energy's gasification assets from Dynegy in 1999) and PSI Energy, a part of Cinergy Corp. The Joint Venture was formed to participate in the Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program and to demonstrate coal gasification repowering of an existing generating unit impacted by the Clean Air Act Amendments. The participants jointly developed, separately designed, constructed, own, and are now operating an integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plant, using Global Energy's E-Gas{trademark} technology (E-Gas{trademark} is the name given to the former Destec technology developed by Dow, Destec, and Dynegy). The E-Gas{trademark} process is integrated with a new General Electric 7FA combustion turbine generator and a heat recovery steam generator in the repowering of a 1950's-vintage Westinghouse steam turbine generator using some pre-existing coal handling facilities, interconnections, and other auxiliaries. The gasification facility utilizes local high sulfur coals (up to 5.9% sulfur) and produces synthetic gas (syngas), sulfur and slag by-products. The Project has the distinction of being the largest single train coal gasification combined-cycle plant in the Western Hemisphere and is the cleanest coal-fired plant of any type in the world. The Project was the first of the CCT integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) projects to achieve commercial operation.

  19. Alternate fuel testing at the Wabash River coal gasification repowering project

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, A.

    1999-07-01

    The Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project, utilizing Dynegy's coal gasification technology (the ``Destec Gasification Process''), is thought to be the cleanest coal fired power plant in the world. The project features an oxygen blown, slurry fed, two stage entrained flow gasifier, with heat recovery, dry filtration and a conventional amine based sulfur removal system to provide clean syngas to a GE 7FA based power generation block. The project has been in commercial operation since 1995 utilizing coal feedstock. This paper presents the results from testing of an alternate fuel, petroleum coke. Approximately 20,000 tons of a 5% sulfur petroleum coke was processed in the Wabash Plant with favorable performance and environmental results. Plant efficiency, emissions of SO{sub 2} and other air contaminants, trace metals balance, performance of the COS hydrolysis catalyst and sulfur removal system, are presented. Observations on plant operation, including slurry preparation, flux addition, ash deposition, and gas stream metallurgical testing, are discussed. Results indicate that future projects that utilize these alternate fuels could be implemented at a lower cost than Wabash by reduction in the size or elimination of some of the equipment. Dynegy believes this demonstration of the inherent fuel flexibility of its gasification technology will result in applications with other opportunity fuels, including coal fines, renewables, or waste materials.

  20. Gasification slag rheology in titanium-rich, iron and calcium-aluminosilicate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Brooker, D.D.; Groen, J.C.; Oh, M.S.

    1996-12-31

    The Texaco Gasification Process (TGP) employs a high temperature, high pressure stagging gasifier to produce synthesis gas for power, hydrogen, and chemicals. During gasification most of the ash collects on the refractory wall to form a molten glass or slag. The viscosity of the slag plays a key role in determining operating conditions. Insufficient operating temperatures can cause erratic slag flow from the unit, while excessive operating temperatures can result in rapid refractory wear. Waste streams that are high in titanium (e.g. plastics and tires where TiO{sub 2} is used as a pigment) are being tested for gasification by Texaco. Texaco has developed a process to liquify both used plastics and tires with heated oil to produce a pumpable feed referred to as plastic-oil or tire-oil. Other major elements found with the titanium in these feeds include calcium, aluminum, iron, silicon, and zinc. The zinc sublimes during gasification, leaving behind a titanium-rich calcium-aluminosilicate glass with various amounts of iron.

  1. Solid fuel gasification in the global energy sector (a review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ol'khovskii, G. G.

    2015-07-01

    In the review of the Conference on Gasification of Solid Fuels, which was held on October 2013 by the United States, the commercial use of the most advanced coal gasification systems in the chemical and power industry is considered. Data on the projects of integrated solid fuel gasification combined-cycle plants, either being developed or exploited in the United States, as well as the nature and results performed in specialized organizations to improve the existing gasification equipment and systems, are presented.

  2. Mathematical Modeling of Ultra-Superheated Steam Gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Fen

    Pure steam gasification has been of interest in hydrogen production, but with the challenge of supplying heat for endothermic reactions. Traditional solutions included either combusting feedstocks at the price of decreasing carbon conversion ratio, or using costly heating apparatus. Therefore, a distributed gasifier with an Ultra-Superheated-Steam (USS) generator was invented, satisfying the heat requirement and avoiding carbon combustion in steam gasification. This project developed the first version of the Ultra-Superheated-Steam-Fluidization-Model (USSFM V1.0) for the USS gasifier. A stand-alone equilibrium combustion model was firstly developed to calculate the USS mixture, which was the input to the USSFM V1.0. Model development of the USSFM V1.0 included assumptions, governing equations, boundary conditions, supporting equations and iterative schemes of guessed values. There were three nested loops in the dense bed and one loop in the freeboard. The USSFM V1.0 included one main routine and twenty-four subroutines. The USSFM V1.0 was validated with experimental data from the Enercon USS gasifier. The calculated USS mixture had a trace of oxygen, validating the initial expectation of creating an oxygen-free environment in the gasifier. Simulations showed that the USS mixture could satisfy the gasification heat requirement without partial carbon combustion. The USSFM V1.0 had good predictions on the H2% in all tests, and on other variables at a level of the lower oxygen feed. Provided with higher oxygen feed, the USSFM V1.0 simulated hotter temperatures, higher CO% and lower CO2%. Errors were explained by assumptions of equilibrium combustion, adiabatic reactors, reaction kinetics, etc. By investigating specific modeling data, gas-particle convective heat transfers were found to be critical in energy balance equations of both emulsion gas and particles, while bubble size controlled both the mass and energy balance equations of bubble gas. Parametric study suggested a lower level of oxygen feed for higher content of hydrogen. However, too little oxygen would impede fluidization in the bed. The reasonability of iterative schemes and the stability of USSFM V1.0 were tested by the sensitivity analysis of two guessed values. Analytical Hierarchy Process analysis indicated that large-scale gasification is advantageous for hydrogen production but with impediments of high capital cost and CO2 emissions. This study manifested the USS gasifier offering the possibility of generating H2-rich and CO2-lean syngas in a much cheaper distributed way. Currently, the FORTRAN-based USSFM V1.0 had a good correlation with experimental data with a small oxygen feed. On the demand of wider applications, suggestions were proposed at last for the model improvement in future.

  3. Dual Fluidized Bed Biomass Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-30

    The dual fluidized bed reactor is a recirculating system in which one half of the unit operates as a steam pyrolysis device for biomass. The pyrolysis occurs by introducing biomass and steam to a hot fluidized bed of inert material such as coarse sand. Syngas is produced during the pyrolysis and exits the top of the reactor with the steam. A crossover arm, fed by gravity, moves sand and char from the pyrolyzer to the second fluidized bed. This sand bed uses blown air to combust the char. The exit stream from this side of the reactor is carbon dioxide, water and ash. There is a second gravity fed crossover arm to return sand to the pyrolysis side. The recirculating action of the sand and the char is the key to the operation of the dual fluidized bed reactor. The objective of the project was to design and construct a dual fluidized bed prototype reactor from literature information and in discussion with established experts in the field. That would be appropriate in scale and operation to measure the relative performance of the gasification of biomass and low ranked coals to produce a high quality synthesis gas with no dilution from nitrogen or combustion products.

  4. Development of mild gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.I.C.; Derting, T.M.; Williams, S.W.; Gillespie, B.L.

    1989-07-01

    Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), DOE contract No. AC21-84MC21108, CTC built and tested a 1500 lb/day, fixed bed batch Mild Gasification Development Unit (MGU). Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU was not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project were to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of using the char as a replacement fuel for coal or coke in three types of commercial applications: industrial/utility boiler; stoker boiler; and foundry blast furnace. To optimize the MGU, facility modifications were made to the MGU in order to solve the major problems encountered during the previous contract and a series of parametric test runs were carried out in search of the optimum operating conditions. The major modifications include the reactor diameter size, coal feeding system, coal liquid condensing system, reactor tube support system, and the char chamber design. The operating parameters tested during the process studies to gauge their individual effect on product quality and yield were coal feedstock, final coal bed temperature, coal particle size, sweep gas, and coal additive. The operating pressure was essentially atmospheric -- {approximately}1 psig vacuum to {approximately}2 psig pressure. 8 refs., 22 figs., 37 tabs.

  5. Apparatus for fixed bed coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Sadowski, Richard S.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for fixed-bed coal gasification is described in which coal such as caking coal is continuously pyrolyzed with clump formation inhibited, by combining the coal with a combustible gas and an oxidant, and then continually feeding the pyrolyzed coal under pressure and elevated temperature into the gasification region of a pressure vessel. The materials in the pressure vessel are allowed to react with the gasifying agents in order to allow the carbon contents of the pyrolyzed coal to be completely oxidized. The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

  6. Petroleum coke utilization with the Texaco Gasification Process

    SciTech Connect

    Falsetti, J.S.; Skarbek, R.L. )

    1993-01-01

    The disposition of petroleum coke has become a problem for the modern high conversion refinery. Use of the fully commercial Texaco Gasification Process (TGP) to convert coke into high value hydrogen, power and steam is a cost-effective and an environmentally-superior solution to the coke disposition problem. A coke-based TGP includes many benefits such as on-site recycling of wastes and crude selection without regard to coke quality constraints. To better understand these issues, it is helpful to examine the several types of petroleum coke, high sulfur coker economics and benefits, as well as alternative coke utilization options and environmental issues. Next, the authors consider the process, commercial experience, and economics of a high sulfur coke TGP plant. Lastly, as an example of petroleum coke utilization with the TGP, they discuss the Delaware Clean Energy Project (DCEP) which is under development and scheduled for a mid-1990's startup.

  7. Steam plasmatron gasification of distillers grains residue from ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Shie, Je-Lueng; Tsou, Feng-Ju; Lin, Kae-Long

    2010-07-01

    In this study, a plasmatron reactor was used for gasifying the waste of distillers grains at different temperatures (773, 873, 973 K) and water flow rates (1, 2, 3 mL min(-1)), which were heated to produce steam. Among all the gas products, syngas was the major component (88.5 wt.% or 94.66 vol.%) with temperatures yielding maximum concentrations at 873 K with a relatively high reaction rate. The maximum concentrations regarding gaseous production occurring times are all below 1 min. With the increase of steam, the recovery mass yield of syngas also increases from 34.14 to 45.47 approximately 54.66 wt.% at 873 K. Water-gas reactions and steam-methane reforming reactions advance the production of syngas with the increase of steam. Furthermore, the water-shift reaction also increases in the context of steam gasification which leads to the decrease of CO(2) at the same time. PMID:20163957

  8. Plasma gasification of refuse derived fuel in a single-stage system using different gasifying agents.

    PubMed

    Agon, N; Hrabovský, M; Chumak, O; Hlína, M; Kopecký, V; Masláni, A; Bosmans, A; Helsen, L; Skoblja, S; Van Oost, G; Vierendeels, J

    2016-01-01

    The renewable evolution in the energy industry and the depletion of natural resources are putting pressure on the waste industry to shift towards flexible treatment technologies with efficient materials and/or energy recovery. In this context, a thermochemical conversion method of recent interest is plasma gasification, which is capable of producing syngas from a wide variety of waste streams. The produced syngas can be valorized for both energetic (heat and/or electricity) and chemical (ammonia, hydrogen or liquid hydrocarbons) end-purposes. This paper evaluates the performance of experiments on a single-stage plasma gasification system for the treatment of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) from excavated waste. A comparative analysis of the syngas characteristics and process yields was done for seven cases with different types of gasifying agents (CO2+O2, H2O, CO2+H2O and O2+H2O). The syngas compositions were compared to the thermodynamic equilibrium compositions and the performance of the single-stage plasma gasification of RDF was compared to that of similar experiments with biomass and to the performance of a two-stage plasma gasification process with RDF. The temperature range of the experiment was from 1400 to 1600 K and for all cases, a medium calorific value syngas was produced with lower heating values up to 10.9 MJ/Nm(3), low levels of tar, high levels of CO and H2 and which composition was in good agreement to the equilibrium composition. The carbon conversion efficiency ranged from 80% to 100% and maximum cold gas efficiency and mechanical gasification efficiency of respectively 56% and 95%, were registered. Overall, the treatment of RDF proved to be less performant than that of biomass in the same system. Compared to a two-stage plasma gasification system, the produced syngas from the single-stage reactor showed more favourable characteristics, while the recovery of the solid residue as a vitrified slag is an advantage of the two-stage set-up. PMID:26210232

  9. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 15. Gasification of ''fresh'' Rosebud subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-09-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and government agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) group. This report is the fifteenth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Rosebud subbituminous coal, from June 17, 1985 to June 24, 1985. 4 refs., 20 figs., 15 tabs.

  10. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 14. Gasification of Kemmerer subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) group. This report is the fourteen volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Kemmerer subbituminous coal, from August 11, 1984 to August 15, 1984. 4 refs., 20 figs., 13 tabs.

  11. Biomass Gasification Technology Assessment: Consolidated Report

    SciTech Connect

    Worley, M.; Yale, J.

    2012-11-01

    Harris Group Inc. (HGI) was commissioned by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to assess gasification and tar reforming technologies. Specifically, the assessments focused on gasification and tar reforming technologies that are capable of producing a syngas suitable for further treatment and conversion to liquid fuels. HGI gathered sufficient information to analyze three gasification and tar reforming systems. This report summarizes the equipment, general arrangement of the equipment, operating characteristics, and operating severity for each technology. The order of magnitude capital cost estimates are supported by a basis-of-estimate write-up, which is also included in this report. The report also includes Microsoft Excel workbook models, which can be used to design and price the systems. The models can be used to analyze various operating capacities and pressures. Each model produces a material balance, equipment list, capital cost estimate, equipment drawings and preliminary general arrangement drawings. Example outputs of each model are included in the Appendices.

  12. Assessment of advanced coal gasification processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

    1981-01-01

    A technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes is presented: high throughput gasification (HTG) process; single stage high mass flux (HMF) processes; (CS/R) hydrogasification process; and the catalytic coal gasification (CCG) process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce synthetic natural gas from a bituminous coal. Key similarities, differences, strengths, weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The HTG and the HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging, and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R hydrogasifier is also SRT, but is nonslagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

  13. Commercialization of the Texaco coal gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Schlinger, W.G.; Guptill, F.E.

    1981-11-01

    The Texaco coal gasification process is one of the leading coal gasification technology contenders for full commercialization during the 1980's. The technology developed by Texaco during the last 30 years has been demonstrated for more than 3 years in large scale demonstration projects and has been selected for several commercial installations. Some details of the process and installations are described in this article. Facilities at the Montebello Research Laboratory now include two 15 to 20 ton per day coal gasifiers operating at pressures ranging from 350 to 1200 psi. In addition, a second 1200 psi gasifier is presently under construction. The Texaco Coal Gasification Process consists of feeding a concentrated slurry of coal and water into a refractory-lined pressure vessel through a special burner or injector where it is mixed with an oxidant, pure oxygen or, alternatively, air.

  14. ADVANCED GASIFICATION BY-PRODUCT UTILIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Rodney Andrews; Aurora Rubel; Jack Groppo; Ari Geertsema; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Zhe Lu; Harold Schobert

    2005-04-01

    The results of laboratory investigations and supporting technical assessments conducted under DOE Subcontract No. DE-FG26-03NT41795 are reported for the period September 1, 2003 to August 31, 2004. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation, which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and The Pennsylvania State University Energy Institute. The worked described was part of a project entitled ''Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization''. This work involves the development of technologies for the separation and characterization of coal gasification slags from operating gasification units, activation of these materials to increase mercury and nitrogen oxide capture efficiency, assessment of these materials as sorbents for mercury and nitrogen oxides, and characterization of these materials for use as polymer fillers.

  15. Process for fixed bed coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Sadowski, Richard S.

    1992-01-01

    The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

  16. Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Maghzi, Shawn; Subramanian, Ramanathan; Rizeq, George; Singh, Surinder; McDermott, John; Eiteneer, Boris; Ladd, David; Vazquez, Arturo; Anderson, Denise; Bates, Noel

    2011-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy‘s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) is exploring affordable technologies and processes to convert domestic coal and biomass resources to high-quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This interest is primarily motivated by the need to increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Gasification technologies represent clean, flexible and efficient conversion pathways to utilize coal and biomass resources. Substantial experience and knowledge had been developed worldwide on gasification of either coal or biomass. However, reliable data on effects of blending various biomass fuels with coal during gasification process and resulting syngas composition are lacking. In this project, GE Global Research performed a complete characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products that result from the co-gasification of coal/biomass mixtures. This work was performed using a bench-scale gasifier (BSG) and a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier (EFG). This project focused on comprehensive characterization of the products from gasifying coal/biomass mixtures in a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. Results from this project provide guidance on appropriate gas clean-up systems and optimization of operating parameters needed to develop and commercialize gasification technologies. GE‘s bench-scale test facility provided the bulk of high-fidelity quantitative data under temperature, heating rate, and residence time conditions closely matching those of commercial oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifiers. Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale test facility provided focused high temperature and pressure tests at entrained flow gasifier conditions. Accurate matching of syngas time-temperature history during cooling ensured that complex species interactions including homogeneous and heterogeneous processes such as particle nucleation, coagulation, surface condensation, and gas-phase reactions were properly reproduced and lead to representative syngas composition at the syngas cooler outlet. The experimental work leveraged other ongoing GE R&D efforts such as biomass gasification and dry feeding systems projects. Experimental data obtained under this project were used to provide guidance on the appropriate clean-up system(s) and operating parameters to coal and biomass combinations beyond those evaluated under this project.

  17. Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Maghzi, Shawn; Subramanian, Ramanathan; Rizeq, George; Singh, Surinder; McDermott, John; Eiteneer, Boris; Ladd, David; Vazquez, Arturo; Anderson, Denise; Bates, Noel

    2011-12-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) is exploring affordable technologies and processes to convert domestic coal and biomass resources to high-quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This interest is primarily motivated by the need to increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Gasification technologies represent clean, flexible and efficient conversion pathways to utilize coal and biomass resources. Substantial experience and knowledge had been developed worldwide on gasification of either coal or biomass. However, reliable data on effects of blending various biomass fuels with coal during gasification process and resulting syngas composition are lacking. In this project, GE Global Research performed a complete characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products that result from the co-gasification of coal/biomass mixtures. This work was performed using a bench-scale gasifier (BSG) and a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier (EFG). This project focused on comprehensive characterization of the products from gasifying coal/biomass mixtures in a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. Results from this project provide guidance on appropriate gas clean-up systems and optimization of operating parameters needed to develop and commercialize gasification technologies. GE's bench-scale test facility provided the bulk of high-fidelity quantitative data under temperature, heating rate, and residence time conditions closely matching those of commercial oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifiers. Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale test facility provided focused high temperature and pressure tests at entrained flow gasifier conditions. Accurate matching of syngas time-temperature history during cooling ensured that complex species interactions including homogeneous and heterogeneous processes such as particle nucleation, coagulation, surface condensation, and gas-phase reactions were properly reproduced and lead to representative syngas composition at the syngas cooler outlet. The experimental work leveraged other ongoing GE R&D efforts such as biomass gasification and dry feeding systems projects. Experimental data obtained under this project were used to provide guidance on the appropriate clean-up system(s) and operating parameters to coal and biomass combinations beyond those evaluated under this project.

  18. Properties of Waste from Coal Gasification in Entrained Flow Reactors in the Aspect of Their Use in Mining Technology / Właściwości odpadów ze zgazowania węgla w reaktorach dyspersyjnych w aspekcie ich wykorzystania w technologiach górniczych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomykała, Radosław

    2013-06-01

    Most of the coal gasification plants based of one of the three main types of reactors: fixed bed, fluidized bed or entrained flow. In recent years, the last ones, which works as "slagging" reactors (due to the form of generated waste), are very popular among commercial installations. The article discusses the characteristics of the waste from coal gasification in entrained flow reactors, obtained from three foreign installations. The studies was conducted in terms of the possibilities of use these wastes in mining technologies, characteristic for Polish underground coal mines. The results were compared with the requirements of Polish Standards for the materials used in hydraulic backfill as well as suspension technology: solidification backfill and mixtures for gob caulking. Większość przemysłowych instalacji zgazowania węgla pracuje w oparciu o jeden z trzech głównych typów reaktorów: ze złożem stałym, dyspersyjny lub fluidalny. W zależności od rodzaju reaktora oraz szczegółowych rozwiązań instalacji, powstające uboczne produkty zgazowania mogą mieć różną postać. Zależy ona w dużej mierze od stosunku temperatury pracy reaktora do temperatury topnienia części mineralnych zawartych w paliwie, czyli do temperatury mięknienia i topnienia popiołu. W ostatnich latach bardzo dużą popularność wśród instalacji komercyjnych zdobywają reaktory dyspersyjne "żużlujące". W takich instalacjach żużel jest wychwytywany i studzony po wypłynięciu z reaktora. W niektórych przypadkach oprócz żużla powstaje jeszcze popiół lotny, wychwytywany w systemach odprowadzania spalin. Może być on pozyskiwany oddzielnie lub też zawracany do komory reaktora, gdzie ulega stopieniu. Wszystkie z analizowanych odpadów - trzy żużle oraz popiół pochodzą właśnie z tego typu instalacji. Tylko z jednej z nich pozyskano zarówno żużel jak i popiół, z pozostałych dwóch jedynie żużel. Odpady te powstały, jako uboczny produkt zgazowania węgla lub węgla z dodatkami: bitumin (żużel S1), czy biomasy (popiół A2, żużel S2). W polskim górnictwie podziemnym wyróżnić można kilka technologii podsadzkowych, w których do transportu materiału wykorzystywana jest woda. Tradycyjnie oraz ze względów historycznych, terminem "podsadzka hydrauliczna" określa się tę, która spełnia wymagania normy PN-93/G-11010. Do najważniejszych cech takiej podsadzki hydraulicznej zaliczyć należy wypełnienia uprzednio wydzielonej pustki poeksploatacyjnej, materiałem o jak najmniejszej ściśliwości oraz o jak największej wodoprzepuszczalności. Materiał taki, po odprowadzeniu wody ma stanowić mechaniczna podporę stropu, a proces podsadzania jest ściśle powiązany z procesem eksploatacji, jako sposób likwidacji zrobów. Najczęściej stosowanymi materiałami są piasek podsadzkowy oraz odpady górnicze lub hutnicze (Lisowski, 1997). Od ponad dwudziestu lat, w polskim górnictwie węgla kamiennego obecna jest również inna technologia podsadzkowa, w której do transportu materiałów wykorzystywana jest woda. W tym przypadku części stałe to materiały drobnoziarniste, najczęściej popioły różnych typów, które po wymieszaniu z wodą tworzą zawiesinę (stąd termin "zawiesiny popiołowo-wodne"). Polska norma PN-G-11011:1998 wyróżnia dwie odmiany takich zawiesin i definiuje je, jako "podsadzkę zestalaną" oraz "mieszaninę do doszczelniania zrobów". Podstawową ideą przyświecającą stosowaniu zawiesin drobnoziarnistych w technologiach górniczych była początkowo troska o zagospodarowaniu odpadów energetycznych, a następnie górniczych (Mazurkiewicz i in., 1998; Piotrowski i in., 2006; Piotrowski, 2010; Plewa i Mysłek, 2000; Plewa i Sobota, 2002). Obecnie technologia zawiesinowa na stałe zagościła w kopalniach węgla kamiennego stając się m.in. nieodzownym środkiem profilaktyki pożarowej i metanowej (Dziurzyński i Pomykała, 2006; Palarski, 2004; Pomykała, 2006). W artykule przedstawiono analizę możliwości wykorzystania ubocznych produktów zgazowania, jako materiałów do podsadzki hydrauliczne (wg normy PN-93/G-11010), podsadzki zestalanej oraz mieszaniny do doszczelniania zrobów (wg normy PN-G-11011:1998) - technologii stosowanych w polskim górnictwie węgla kamiennego. Podstawowe badania ubocznych produktów zgazowania obejmowały takie właściwości jak gęstość, wilgotność, skład ziarnowy, wymywalność zanieczyszczeń chemicznych oraz zawartość radionuklidów. Wybrane właściwości fizyczne ubocznych produktów zgazowania oraz ich oznaczenie zestawiono w tabeli 1. Składy ziarnowe żużli ze zgazowania, analizowanych pod kątem zastosowania w podsadzce hydraulicznej przedstawiono na rys. 1, a materiałów dla technologii zawiesinowej, czyli popiołu lotnego A2 oraz zmielonych żużli oznaczonych, jako S1m, S2m oraz S3m - na rys. 2. Żużle ze zgazowania zawierają nie więcej niż 6% ziaren mniejszych niż 0,1 mm, co odpowiada wymaganiom dla materiałów podsadzkowych I klasy. Analiza wymywalności zanieczyszczeń chemicznych wykazała przekroczenia wymagań jednej lub obu przywołanych norm w zakresie pH i/lub niklu dla próbek żużli S1 i S2 oraz popiołu A2 (tab. 2). Zwraca uwagę bardzo niska wartość pH oraz bardzo wysoka zawartość niklu dla żużla S1. Jest to rzecz nietypowa dla krajowych odpadów energetycznych powstających ze spalania węgla kamiennego. W zakresie zawartości radionuklidów wszystkie materiały spełniają nie tylko wymagania norm podsadzkowych, ale również wymagania stawiane materiałom budowlanym (tab. 3). Ściśliwość żużli ze zgazowania kształtuje się na poziomie 11÷14%, co pozwala zakwalifikować je do materiałów podsadzkowych III klasy. Aby uzyskać materiał wyższej klasy, konieczne jest zmieszanie żużli z piaskiem podsadzkowych. W zakresie wodoprzepuszczalności wszystkie żużle kwalifikują się, jako materiał podsadzkowy klasy I (rys. 5, tab. 4). W normie PN-G-11011:1998 określone zostały wymagania podsadzki zestalanej oraz dla mieszaniny do doszczelniania zrobów. (tab. 5), tylko dla części badań wskazane są konkretne wymagania ilościowe. Wyniki badań wymywalność zanieczyszczeń chemicznych oraz zawartości radionuklidów zostały omówione wcześniej. Właściwości zawiesin w stanie płynnym zestawiono w tabeli 6. oraz na rys. 7, 8 i 9., a parametry reologiczne wg modelu Binghama na rys. 10÷13. Wymagania w zakresie właściwości zestalonych zawiesin tj. wytrzymałości na jednoosiowe ściskanie oraz rozmakalności zostały ściśle określone dla podsadzki zestalanej jak i mieszaniny do doszczelniania zrobów (tab. 5). Zawiesiny przygotowane na bazie odpadów ze zgazowania węgla nie wykazują właściwości wiążących. Zarówno ze względu na wytrzymałość na jednoosiowe ściskanie (rys. 14) jak i rozmakalność (rys. 15) kwalifikują się jedynie, jako mieszaniny do doszczelniania zrobów. Przeprowadzone badania wstępnie potwierdziły możliwość zastosowania ubocznych produktów zgazowania pochodzących z instalacji bazujących na reaktorach dyspersyjnych, w technologiach górniczych charakterystycznych dla polskiego górnictwa podziemnego. Dla ostatecznego potwierdzenia konieczne są oczywiście badania dokładnie tych odpadów, które miałyby być stosowane w konkretnych kopalniach. Przyszłe wykorzystanie zastosowania odpadów z procesu zgazowania węgla, jako materiałów podsadzkowych zależy od wielu czynników, do których zaliczyć należą: dalszy rozwój technologii podsadzki hydraulicznej w górnictwie polskim, a także właściwości i dostępność tego typu materiałów powstałych ze zgazowania polskich węgli i/oraz w instalacjach na terenie Polski.

  19. Lurgi's MPG gasification plus Rectisol{reg_sign} gas purification - advanced process combination for reliable syngas production

    SciTech Connect

    2005-07-01

    Lurgi's Multi Purpose Gasification Process (MPG) is the reliable partial oxidation process to convert hydrocarbon liquids, slurries and natural gas into valuable syngas. The MPG burner has once again proven its capabilities in an ammonia plant based on asphalt gasification. Lurgi is operating the HP-POX demonstration plant together with the University of Freiberg, Germany. Gasification tests at pressures of up to 100 bar have shown that syngas for high pressure synthesis such as methanol and ammonia can be produced more economically. The Rectisol{reg_sign} gas purification process yields ultra clean synthesis gas which is required to avoid problems in the downstream synthesis. Pure carbon dioxide is produced as a separate stream and is readily available for sequestration, enhanced oil recovery or other uses. The reliability of the Rectisol{reg_sign} process and the confidence of plant operators in this process are acknowledged by the fact that more than 75% of the syngas produced world wide by coal, oil and waste gasification is purified in Rectisol{reg_sign} units. Virtually all coal gasification plants currently under construction rely on Rectisol{reg_sign}. The new, large GTL plants and hydrogen production facilities require effective CO{sub 2} removal. New developments make Rectisol{reg_sign} attractive for this task. 10 figs., 3 tabs., 2 photos.

  20. Updraft Fixed Bed Gasification Aspen Plus Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-09-27

    The updraft fixed bed gasification model provides predictive modeling capabilities for updraft fixed bed gasifiers, when devolatilization data is available. The fixed bed model is constructed using Aspen Plus, process modeling software, coupled with a FORTRAN user kinetic subroutine. Current updraft gasification models created in Aspen Plus have limited predictive capabilities and must be "tuned" to reflect a generalized gas composition as specified in literature or by the gasifier manufacturer. This limits the applicability ofmore » the process model.« less

  1. Continuous Removal of Coal-Gasification Residue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr.; Suitor, J.; Dubis, D.

    1986-01-01

    Continuous-flow hopper processes solid residue from coal gasification, converting it from ashes, cinders, and clinkers to particles size of sand granules. Unit does not require repeated depressurization of lockhopper to admit and release materials. Therefore consumes less energy. Because unit has no airlock valves opened and closed repeatedly on hot, abrasive particles, subjected to lesser wear. Coal-gasification residue flows slowly through pressure-letdown device. Material enters and leaves continuously. Cleanout door on each pressure-letdown chamber allows access for maintenance and emergencies.

  2. Production of Hydrogen from Underground Coal Gasification

    DOEpatents

    Upadhye, Ravindra S.

    2008-10-07

    A system of obtaining hydrogen from a coal seam by providing a production well that extends into the coal seam; positioning a conduit in the production well leaving an annulus between the conduit and the coal gasification production well, the conduit having a wall; closing the annulus at the lower end to seal it from the coal gasification cavity and the syngas; providing at least a portion of the wall with a bifunctional membrane that serves the dual purpose of providing a catalyzing reaction and selectively allowing hydrogen to pass through the wall and into the annulus; and producing the hydrogen through the annulus.

  3. Gasification Characteristics of Coal/Biomass Mixed Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Reginald

    2013-09-30

    A research project was undertaken that had the overall objective of developing the models needed to accurately predict conversion rates of coal/biomass mixtures to synthesis gas under conditions relevant to a commercially-available coal gasification system configured to co- produce electric power as well as chemicals and liquid fuels. In our efforts to accomplish this goal, experiments were performed in an entrained flow reactor in order to produce coal and biomass chars at high heating rates and temperatures, typical of the heating rates and temperatures fuel particles experience in real systems. Mixed chars derived from coal/biomass mixtures containing up to 50% biomass and the chars of the pure coal and biomass components were subjected to a matrix of reactivity tests in a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) in order to obtain data on mass loss rates as functions of gas temperature, pressure and composition as well as to obtain information on the variations in mass specific surface area during char conversion under kinetically-limited conditions. The experimental data were used as targets when determining the unknown parameters in the chemical reactivity and specific surface area models developed. These parameters included rate coefficients for the reactions in the reaction mechanism, enthalpies of formation and absolute entropies of adsorbed species formed on the carbonaceous surfaces, and pore structure coefficients in the model used to describe how the mass specific surface area of the char varies with conversion. So that the reactivity models can be used at high temperatures when mass transport processes impact char conversion rates, Thiele modulus – effectiveness factor relations were also derived for the reaction mechanisms developed. In addition, the reactivity model and a mode of conversion model were combined in a char-particle gasification model that includes the effects of chemical reaction and diffusion of reactive gases through particle pores and energy exchange between the particle and its environment. This char-particle gasification model is capable of predicting the average mass loss rates, sizes, apparent densities, specific surface areas, and temperatures of the char particles produced when co-firing coal and biomass to the type environments established in entrained flow gasifiers operating at high temperatures and elevated pressures. A key result of this work is the finding that the reactivities of the mixed chars were not always in between the reactivities of the pure component chars at comparable gasification conditions. Mixed char reactivity to CO{sub 2} was lower than the reactivities of both the pure Wyodak coal and pure corn stover chars to CO{sub 2}. In contrast, mixed char reactivity to H{sub 2}O was higher than the reactivities of both the pure Wyodak coal and pure corn stover chars to H{sub 2}O. This was found to be in part, a consequence of the reduced mass specific surface areas of the coal char particles formed during devolatilization when the coal and biomass particles are co-fired. The biomass particles devolatilize prior to the coal particles, impacting the temperature and the composition of the environment in which the coal particles devolatilize. This situation results in coal char particles within the mixed char that differ in specific surface area and reactivity from the coal char particles produced in the absence of the devolatilizing biomass particles. Due to presence of this “affected” coal char, it was not possible to develop a mixed char reactivity model that uses linear mixing rules to determine the reactivity of a mixed char from only the reactivities of the pure mixture components. However, it was possible to predict both mixed char specific surface area and reactivity for a wide range of fuel mixture rat os provided the specific surface area and reactivity of the affected coal char particles are known. Using the kinetic parameters determined for the Wyodak coal and corn stover chars, the model was found to adequately predict the observed conversion times and off-gas compositions in gasification conditions established in a variety of commercial gasifiers. The model has the potential to provide insight on certain implications of co-firing coal and biomass in gasification and combustion application when kinetic parameters for the mixed chars are employed.

  4. An investigation into the impact of CO2 co-feed on pyrolysis and gasification.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Eilhan; Kim, Sungpyo

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents experimental results of the impact of CO(2) co-feed on a gasification/pyrolysis process for various feedstocks (biomass, coal, and municipal solid waste (MSW)). Various feedstocks were thermo-gravimetrically characterized under various atmospheric conditions and heating rates. A substantial amount of char burn out was identified in the presence of CO(2) via a series of thermo-gravimetric analysis tests, which enabled high conversion of final mass (approximately 99%) to be achieved. The impact of CO(2) co-feed on the volatilization regime during the pyrolysis/gasification process was not apparent at a heating rate of 10-40 degrees C min(-1). However, the impact of CO(2) on the volatilization regime at a fast heating rate (950 degrees C min(-1)) was substantial. For example, significant enhancement in the generation of CO, by a factor of approximately 2, was observed in the presence of CO(2). The generation of major chemical species, such as CH(4) and C(2)H(4), were enhanced, but this was not as apparent as in the case with CO. In addition, introducing CO(2) to the pyrolysis/gasification process enabled the amount of condensable liquid hydrocarbons, such as tar (approximately 30-40%) to be significantly reduced in the presence of CO(2), in that injecting CO(2) into the pyrolysis/gasification process expedites cracking the volatilized chemical species. Experimental work confirmed that biomass and MSW could be feasible and desirable feedstocks for the pyrolysis/gasification process as these feedstocks can be easily treated compared to coal. To extend this understanding to a more practical level, various feedstocks were tested in a tubular reactor and drop tube reactor under various experimental conditions. PMID:20546843

  5. Beluga coal gasification feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Chaney; Lawrence Van Bibber

    2006-07-15

    The objective of the study was to determine the economic feasibility of developing and siting a coal-based integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) plant in the Cook Inlet region of Alaska for the co-production of electric power and marketable by-products. The by-products, which may include synthesis gas, Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquids, fertilizers such as ammonia and urea, alcohols, hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide, would be manufactured for local use or for sale in domestic and foreign markets. This report for Phase 1 summarizes the investigation of an IGCC system for a specific industrial setting on the Cook Inlet, the Agrium U.S. Inc. ('Agrium') fertilizer plant in Nikiski, Alaska. Faced with an increase in natural gas price and a decrease in supply, the Agrium is investigating alternatives to gas as feed stock for their plant. This study considered all aspects of the installation and infrastructure, including: coal supply and cost, coal transport costs, delivery routes, feedstock production for fertilizer manufacture, plant steam and power, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) uses, markets for possible additional products, and environmental permit requirements. The Cook Inlet-specific Phase 1 results, reported here, provided insight and information that led to the conclusion that the second study should be for an F-T plant sited at the Usibelli Coal Mine near Healy, Alaska. This Phase 1 case study is for a very specific IGCC system tailored to fit the chemical and energy needs of the fertilizer manufacturing plant. It demonstrates the flexibility of IGCC for a variety of fuel feedstocks depending on plant location and fuel availability, as well as the available variety of gas separation, gas cleanup, and power and steam generation technologies to fit specific site needs. 18 figs., 37 tabs., 6 apps.

  6. A feasibility study to use coal tar contaminated soil in asphalt cement mixture production

    SciTech Connect

    Dulam, C.S.; Hoag, G.E.; Dahmani, A.; Nadim, F.

    1996-11-01

    Coal tars are the residues produced during the gasification of coal. Traditionally, coal tars were buried onsite at the power plants or left as residuals in the bottom of gas holders. Currently, there are more than 1,500 such historic sites which will undergo site assessment in the near future. The use of coal tar residuals in asphalt-based products could result in greatly reduced disposal costs, in comparison to current methods of disposal. Present disposal practice of coal tar contaminated residuals includes disposal in hazardous waste landfills or incineration. Treatment and disposal costs are reported to be as much as $1,000/ton for current coal tar contaminated residuals disposal options. This feasibility study was performed to determine the use of coal tar contaminated soil (CTCS) in bituminous materials to produce hot asphalt mix. Mixtures of varying composition of CTCS and bituminous material were produced to perform TCLP. The air emissions during the mixing process were captured and analyzed. In this study, a bench scale investigation was performed to identify and quantify the emissions from heating the CTCS at the mixer temperature. The pilot scale investigations were performed by replacing reclaimable asphalt pavement (RAP) with CTCS during the hot asphalt mix production. The investigations were performed on two types of mixtures; using CTCS as the direct additive in the first type, and using SS-1 (slow setting asphalt emulsion) stabilized CTCS as an additive in the second type.

  7. ADVANCED GASIFICATION-BASED FUEL CONVERSION AND ELECTRIC ENERGY PRODUCTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Rabovitser; Bruce Bryan

    2002-10-01

    Boise Paper Solutions and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) are cooperating to develop, demonstrate and place in continuous operation an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system suitable for near-term commercial deployment in the Forest Products Industry. The system will be used in conjunction with, rather than in place of, existing wood waste fired boilers and flue gas cleanup systems. The novel system will include three advanced technological components based on GTI's RENUGAS{reg_sign} and three-stage stoker combustion technologies, and a gas turbine-based power generation concept developed in DOE's High Performance Power System (HIPPS) program. The system has, as its objective, to avoid the major hurdles of high-pressure gasification, i.e., high-pressure fuel feeding and ash removal, and hot gas cleaning that are typical for conventional IGCC power generation. It aims to also minimize capital intensity and technology risks. The system is intended to meet the immediate needs of the forest products industry for highly efficient and environmentally friendly electricity and steam generation systems utilizing existing wood waste as fuel resources. The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate the commercial applicability of an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system at Boise Paper Solutions' pulp and paper mill located at DeRidder, Louisiana.

  8. Updraft gasification of poultry litter at farm-scale - A case study.

    PubMed

    Taupe, N C; Lynch, D; Wnetrzak, R; Kwapinska, M; Kwapinski, W; Leahy, J J

    2016-04-01

    Farm and animal wastes are increasingly being investigated for thermochemical conversion, such as gasification, due to the urgent necessity of finding new waste treatment options. We report on an investigation of the use of a farm-scale, auto-thermal gasification system for the production of a heating gas using poultry litter (PL) as a feedstock. The gasification process was robust and reliable. The PL's ash melting temperature was 639°C, therefore the reactor temperature was kept around this value. As a result of the low reactor temperature the process performance parameters were low, with a cold gas efficiency (CGE) of 0.26 and a carbon conversion efficiency (CCE) of 0.44. The calorific value of the clean product gas was 3.39MJm(-3)N (LHV). The tar was collected as an emulsion containing 87wt.% water and the extracted organic compounds were identified. The residual char exceeds thresholds for Zn and Cu to obtain European biochar certification; however, has potential to be classified as a pyrogenic carbonaceous material (PCM), which resembles a high nutrient biochar. PMID:26948170

  9. Burner for combusting oxygen-coal mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Espedal, M.L.

    1984-05-01

    Burner for use in a coal gasification process wherein a combustible mixture is formed comprising a combustion supporting gas such as oxygen, and a coal slurry. To avoid deposition of slag and ash particles along the hot, exposed face of the burner, a dynamic fluid blanket or barrier is directed transversely to the burner face. The fluid flow originates at the burner periphery and is addressed to sweep, or impinge against at least a part of the burner face adjacent to the central opening which defines the burner discharge port.

  10. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 4. Gasification of Leucite Hills subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-03-31

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the fourth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Leucite Hills subbituminous coal from Sweetwater County, Wyoming. The period of the gasification test was April 11-30, 1983. 4 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs.

  11. Assessment of modular IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle) plants based on entrained flow coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, R.K.

    1989-06-01

    An assessment of modular integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants, based on Texaco entrained flow gasification, having a nominal capacity of 100 megawatts was conducted by Foster Wheeler. The scope of this study consisted of developing preliminary designs and relative economics for five modular IGCC power plant configurations in an effort to compare the use of air or oxygen as the oxidant for coal gasification and high temperature or low temperature processes for gas cleanup. Conceptual designs were prepared based on non-confidential information, estimated capital and operating costs, and determined the cost of electricity for five different modular IGCC plant configurations. In all five plant configurations, the same gas turbine, which is commercially available for conventional fuels, was used. It was assumed that this commercially available gas turbine could be modified without additional cost impact to accept the hot low BTU fuel gas produced from air gasification with high temperature cleanup. 16 refs.

  12. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 5. Gasification of Stahlman Stoker bituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-03-31

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the fifth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Stahlman Stoker bituminous coal from Clarion County, PA. The period of the gasification test was April 30 to May 4, 1983. 4 refs., 16 figs., 10 tabs.

  13. Coal gasification development and commercialization of the Texaco coal gasification process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlinger, W. G.

    1980-06-01

    The development of the Texaco coal gasification process which uses an entrained bed downflow slagging gasifier is reviewed. The advantages of the process include its simplicity and lack of formation of environmentally unacceptable and undesirable byproducts. The treatment of the crude gasification product gas to produce a clean gas for use as fuel or as a feedstock for chemical manufacture is discussed, and the status of the commercialization of the process is considered.

  14. Inhalation Cancer Risk Associated with Exposure to Complex Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Mixtures in an Electronic Waste and Urban Area in South China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Chen, Shejun; Tian, Mi; Zheng, Xiaobo; Gonzales, Leah; Ohura, Takeshi; Mai, Bixian; Simonich, Staci L. Massey

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter samples were collected from May 2010 to April 2011 in a rural e-waste area and in Guangzhou, South China, to estimate the lifetime inhalation cancer risk from exposure to parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), high molecular weight PAHs (MW 302 PAHs), and halogenated PAHs (HPAHs). Seasonal variations in the PAH concentrations and profile within and between the e-waste and urban areas indicated different PAH sources in the two areas. Benzo[b]fluoranthene, BaP, dibenz[ah]anthracene, and dibenzo[al]pyrene made the most significant contribution to the inhalation cancer risk. MW 302 PAHs accounting for 18.0% of the total cancer risk in the e-waste area and 13.6% in the urban area, while HPAHs made a minor contribution (< 0.1%) in both the areas. The number of lifetime excess lung cancers due to exposure to parent PAHs, MW 302 PAHs, and HPAHs ranged from 15.1 to 1198 per million people in the e-waste area and from 9.3 to 737 per million people in Guangzhou. PAH exposure accounted for 0.02 to 1.94% of the total lung cancer cases in Guangzhou. On average, the inhalation cancer risk in the e-waste area was 1.6 times higher than in the urban area. The e-waste dismantling activities in South China led to higher inhalation cancer risk due to PAH exposure than the urban area. PMID:22913732

  15. Effects of selected inorganic coal-gasification constituents on aquatic life: an annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, L.M.

    1983-03-01

    This review is concentrated on primary inorganic pollutants of concern which result in the aqueous discharges of high-pressure coal-gasification technologies. These pollutants include ammonia, cyanide (thiocyanates), sulfide, and boron. Ammonia toxicity was not reviewed since effective waste treatment technologies and discharge guidelines are available. The open literature concerning the effects of cyanide (thiocyanates), boron, and sulfide on aquatic life was reviewed using computer search techniques. It was concluded that there is a void in the literature concerning the toxicity of these parameters in high-pressure, coal-gasification wastewater matrices. The information abstracted is mainly concerned with laboratory studies with individual constituents; however, some data provide insight to the effects of physical parameters such as temperature and physical stress.

  16. Effects of selected inorganic coal-gasification constituents on aquatic life: an annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, L.M.; Young, R.C.

    1983-03-01

    This review is concentrated on primary inorganic pollutants of concern which result in the aqueous discharges of high-pressure coal-gasification technologies. These pollutants include ammonia, cyanide (thiocyanates), sulfide, and boron. Ammonia toxicity was not reviewed since effective waste treatment technologies and discharge guidelines are available. The open literature concerning the effects of cyanide (thiocyanates), boron, and sulfide on aquatic life was reviewed using computer search techniques to obtain information from the Department of Energy RECON data base, the BIOSIS biological file in ORBIT data base, chemical abstracts, and the National Technical Information Service. It was concluded that there is a void in the literature concerning the toxicity of these parameters in high-pressure, coal-gasification wastewater matrices. The information abstracted is mainly concerned with laboratory studies with individual constitutents; however, some data provide insight to the effects of physical parameters such as temperature and physical stress.

  17. An evaluation of tannery industry wastewater treatment sludge gasification by artificial neural network modeling.

    PubMed

    Ongen, Atakan; Ozcan, H Kurtulus; Arayıcı, Semiha

    2013-12-15

    This paper reports on the calorific value of synthetic gas (syngas) produced by gasification of dewatered sludge derived from treatment of tannery wastewater. Proximate and ultimate analyses of samples were performed. Thermochemical conversion alters the chemical structure of the waste. Dried air was used as a gasification agent at varying flow rates, which allowed the feedstock to be quickly converted into gas by means of different heterogeneous reactions. A lab-scale updraft fixed-bed steel reactor was used for thermochemical conversion of sludge samples. Artificial neural network (ANN) modeling techniques were used to observe variations in the syngas related to operational conditions. Modeled outputs showed that temporal changes of model predictions were in close accordance with real values. Correlation coefficients (r) showed that the ANN used in this study gave results with high sensitivity. PMID:23608748

  18. Air gasification of lignocellulosic biomass for power generation in Spain: Commercial plants

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Bacaicoa, P.; Bilbao, R.; Uson, C.

    1995-11-01

    This research team, at Zaragoza University, has worked on biomass (lignocellulosic) gasification and pyrolysis for some years. Its work has been focused towards the development of downdraft moving bed air gasification systems. There is now a cooperation agreement between the company COMA and the Zaragoza University team to develop and market complete installations for electricity production from wastes. Several models have been developed in order to satisfy the needs of each customer (RG-50, 100, 250 and 500, the numbers indicating biomass consumption in kg/h). They can be mobile (built in a container for transportation) or fixed models (to be used {open_quotes}in situ{close_quotes}). Each installation consists of several units: gasifier (downdraft), air supply (blower and air preheater), gas conditioning (cyclone, filter and cooler) and power generation system (Caterpillar set sized for each biomass consumption).

  19. Analysis of the product gas from biomass gasification by means of laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karellas, S.; Karl, J.

    2007-09-01

    The use of biomass and waste for decentralised combined heat and power production (CHP) requires highly efficient gasification processes. In the Technische Universität München (TUM), an innovative gasification technology has been developed. This allothermal gasifier is producing a hydrogen- rich, high-calorific gas, that can be further used in a microturbine or a fuel cell producing energy. For the operation of such a system, the online analysis of the composition of the product gas is of high importance, since the efficient working of the machines is linked with the gas quality. For this purpose an optical measurement system based on laser spectroscopy has been applied. This system can measure not only the basic components of the product gas (H 2, CH 4, CO, CO 2, H 2O), but it also gives information concerning the content of high hydrocarbons, the so-called tars, in the product gas.

  20. EFFECT OF UNDERGROUND COAL GASIFICATION ON GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential effect of underground coal gasification on groundwater has been examined in a laboratory study. The study was directed at Fruitland Formation subbituminous coal of the San Juan Basin and at the groundwater found in this coal seam. Two wells were drilled into the coa...

  1. Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project

    SciTech Connect

    Amick, P.; Mann, G.J.; Cook, J.J.; Fisackerly, R.; Spears, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    The Destec gasification process features an oxygen-blown, two stage entrained flow gasifier. PSI will procure coal for the Project consistent with the design specification ranges of Destec's coal gasification facility. Destec's plant will be designed to accept coal with a maximum sulfur content of 5.9% (dry basis) and a minimum energy content of 13,5000 BTU/pound (moisture and ash free basis). PSI and Destec will test at least two other coals for significant periods during the demonstration period. In the Destec process, coal is ground with water to form a slurry. It is then pumped into a gasification vessel where oxygen is added to form a hot raw gas through partial combustion. Most of the noncarbon material in the coal melts and flows out the bottom of the vessel forming slag -- a black, glassy, non-leaching, sand-like material. Particulates, sulfur and other impurities are removed from the gas before combustion to make it acceptable fuel for the gas turbine. The synthetic fuel gas (syngas) is piped to a General Electric MS 7001F high temperature combustion turbine generator. A heat recovery steam generator recovers gas turbine exhaust heat to produce high pressure steam. This steam and the steam generated in the gasification process supply an existing steam turbine-generator. The plant will be designed to outperform air emission standards established by the Clean Air Act Amendments for the year 2000.

  2. Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project

    SciTech Connect

    Amick, P.; Mann, G.J.; Cook, J.J.; Fisackerly, R.; Spears, R.C.

    1992-11-01

    The Destec gasification process features an oxygen-blown, two stage entrained flow gasifier. PSI will procure coal for the Project consistent with the design specification ranges of Destec`s coal gasification facility. Destec`s plant will be designed to accept coal with a maximum sulfur content of 5.9% (dry basis) and a minimum energy content of 13,5000 BTU/pound (moisture and ash free basis). PSI and Destec will test at least two other coals for significant periods during the demonstration period. In the Destec process, coal is ground with water to form a slurry. It is then pumped into a gasification vessel where oxygen is added to form a hot raw gas through partial combustion. Most of the noncarbon material in the coal melts and flows out the bottom of the vessel forming slag -- a black, glassy, non-leaching, sand-like material. Particulates, sulfur and other impurities are removed from the gas before combustion to make it acceptable fuel for the gas turbine. The synthetic fuel gas (syngas) is piped to a General Electric MS 7001F high temperature combustion turbine generator. A heat recovery steam generator recovers gas turbine exhaust heat to produce high pressure steam. This steam and the steam generated in the gasification process supply an existing steam turbine-generator. The plant will be designed to outperform air emission standards established by the Clean Air Act Amendments for the year 2000.

  3. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: TEXACO GASIFICATION PROCESS TEXACO, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Texaco Gasification Process (TGP) has operated commercially for nearly 45 years on feeds such as natural gas, liquid petroleum fractions, coal, and petroleum coke. More than 45 plants are either operational or under development in the United States and abroad. Texaco has dev...

  4. Single-stage fluidized-bed gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, F. S.; Rue, D. M.; Weil, S. A.; Punwani, D. V.

    1982-04-01

    The single-stage fluidized-bed gasification process, in addition to being a simple system, maximizes gas production and allows the economic exploitation of small peat deposits. The objective of this gasification project is to conduct experiments in order to obtain data for designing a single-stage fluidized-bed gasifier, and to evaluate the economics of converting peat to synthesis gas and to SNG by this process. An existing high-temperature and high-pressure process development unit (PDU) was modified to permit the direct feeding of peat to the fluidized bed. Peat flows by gravity from the feed hopper through a 6-inch line to the screw-feeder conveyor. From there, it is fed to the bottom tee section of the reactor and transported into the gasification zone. Oxygen and steam are fed through a distributing ring into the reactor. Gasification reactions occur in the annulus formed by the reactor tube and a central standpipe. Peat ash is discharged from the reactor by overflowing into the standpipe and is collected in a solids receiver.

  5. BIOMASS GASIFICATION PILOT STUDY PLANT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a gasification pilot program using two biomass feedstocks: bagasse pellets and wood chips. he object of the program was to determine the properties of biomass product gas and its suitability as a fuel for gas-turbine-based power generation cycles. he f...

  6. Innovative gasification technology for future power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajan, K.; Shadle, L.J.; Sadowski, R.S.

    1995-07-01

    Ever tightening environmental regulations have changed the way utility and non-utility electric generation providers currently view their fuels choices. While coal is still, by far, the major fuel utilized in power production, the general trend over the past 20 years has been to switch to low-sulfur coal and/or make costly modifications to existing coal-fired facilities to reach environmental compliance. Unfortunately, this approach has led to fragmented solutions to balance our energy and environmental needs. To date, few integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) suppliers have been able to compete with the cost of other more conventional technologies or fuels. One need only look at the complexity of many IGCC approaches to understand that unless a view toward IEC is adopted, the widespread application of such otherwise potentially attractive technologies will be unlikely in our lifetime. Jacobs-Sirrine Engineers and Riley Stoker Corporation are working in partnership with the Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center to help demonstrate an innovative coal gasification technology called {open_quotes}PyGas{trademark},{close_quotes} for {open_quotes}pyrolysis-gasification{close_quotes}. This hybrid variation of fluidized-bed and fixed-bed gasification technologies is being developed with the goal to efficiently produce clean gas at costs competitive with more conventional systems by incorporating many of the principles of IEC within the confines of a single-gasifier vessel. Our project is currently in the detailed design stage of a 4 ton-per-hour gasification facility to be built at the Fort Martin Station of Allegheny Power Services. By locating the test facility at an existing coal-fired plant, much of the facility infrastructure can be utilized saving significant costs. Successful demonstration of this technology at this new facility is a prerequisite to its commercialization.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE (PGM)

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-03-29

    Foster Wheeler Development Corporation is working under DOE contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% while producing near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The unique aspect of the process is that it utilizes a pressurized circulating fluidized bed partial gasifier and does not attempt to consume the coal in a single step. To convert all the coal to syngas in a single step requires extremely high temperatures ({approx}2500 to 2800 F) that melt and vaporize the coal and essentially drive all coal ash contaminants into the syngas. Since these contaminants can be corrosive to power generating equipment, the syngas must be cooled to near room temperature to enable a series of chemical processes to clean the syngas. Foster Wheeler's process operates at much lower temperatures that control/minimize the release of contaminants; this eliminates/minimizes the need for the expensive, complicated syngas heat exchangers and chemical cleanup systems typical of high temperature gasification. By performing the gasification in a circulating bed, a significant amount of syngas can still be produced despite the reduced temperature and the circulating bed allows easy scale up to large size plants. Rather than air, it can also operate with oxygen to facilitate sequestration of stack gas carbon dioxide gases for a 100% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

  8. Low-energy process for separating coal gasification products. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, R.T.; Cen, P.L.; Ritter, J.A.

    1985-08-01

    The program was aimed at demonstrating the feasibility and establishing the optimum conditions for separating coal gasification products by pressure swing adsorption (PSA) using activated carbon as the sorbent. A data base was developed for the equilibrium adsorption of H/sub 2/, CO, CH/sub 4/, CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/S and their mixtures on carbon in the temperature range of 20 to 110/sup 0/C and pressure range of 0 to 900 psig. The mixture data were fitted with four theories: ideal adsorbed solution, real adsorbed solution, loading ratio correlation, and linear partial pressure. Deviations between theory and experiment varied from 2 to 50%, which are in the same range as literature data for other gas-solid systems. Several PSA cycles were developed for separating coal gasification products. A typical 5-component mixture at 100 to 300 psig could be separated into three useful products: clean H/sub 2/ (<0.01% H/sub 2/S) at >99% purity, clean fuel gas, and an acid gas containing over 5% H/sub 2/S and 60% CO/sub 2/. Three models were developed for bulk PSA separations; equilibrium, linear driving force, and pore diffusion. The models were capable of predicting all observed PSA characteristics. Large temperature excursions were observed in bulk PSA processes. Improved PSA cycles to overcome the temperature excursions and hence to give better separations were suggested. 28 refs., 58 figs., 22 tabs.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE (PGM)

    SciTech Connect

    Archie Robertson

    2004-07-01

    Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy Contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building bock that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. Under this contract a series of pilot plant tests are being conducted to ascertain PGM performance with a variety of fuels. The performance and economics of a PGM based plant designed for the co-production of hydrogen and electricity will also be determined. This report describes the work performed during the April-June 30, 2004 time period.

  10. A novel approach to highly dispersing catalytic materials in coal for gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Abotsi, M.K.; Bota, K.B.

    1990-01-01

    This project seeks to develop a technique, based on coal surface properties, for highly dispersing catalysts in coal for gasification and to investigate the potential of using potassium carbonate and calcium acetate mixtures as catalysts for coal gasification. The work is focused on the elucidation of coal-catalyst precursor interactions in solution and the variables which control the adsorption and dispersion of coal gasification metal catalysts. In order to optimize coal-metal ion interactions and hence maximize catalyst activity, the study examines the surface electrochemistry of a lignite, a subbituminous, and a bituminous coals and their demineralized and oxidized derivatives prior to loading with the catalytic materials. The surface electrical properties of the coals are investigated with the aid of electrophoresis, while the effects of the surface charge on the adsorption of K{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} are studied by agitating the coals with aqueous solutions of potassium and calcium. Zeta potential studies show that the surfaces of the lignite are negatively charged between about pH2 to 11, the negative charge density increasing with increase in pH. Highly alkaline media promoted calcium adsorption due to high negative charge on the coal, while calcium uptake was inhibited in strongly acidic solutions.

  11. A novel approach to highly dispersing catalytic materials in coal for gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Abotsi, G.M.K.; Bota, K.B.

    1989-01-01

    This project seeks to develop a technique, based on coal surface properties, for highly dispersing catalysts in coal for gasification and to investigate the potential of using potassium carbonate and calcium acetate mixtures as catalysts for coal gasification. The lower cost and high catalytic activity of the latter compound will produce economic benefits by reducing the amount of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} required for high coal char reactivities. The work is focused on the elucidation of coal-catalyst precursor interactions in solution and the variables which control the adsorption and dispersion of coal gasification metal catalysts. In order to optimize coal-metal ion interactions and hence maximize catalyst activity, the study examines the surface electrochemistry of a lignite, a subbituminous, and a bituminous coals and their demineralized and oxidized derivatives prior to loading with the catalytic materials. The surface electrical properties of the coals are investigated with the aid of electrophoresis, while the effects of the surface charge on the adsorption of K{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} are studied by agitating the coals with aqueous solutions of potassium and calcium. A zeta meter, a tube furnace, and other equipment required for the investigation have been acquired and installed. Preliminary work shows that the lignite (Psoc 1482) is negatively charged between pH 1.8 and pH 11.0 and has an isoelectric point of pH 1.8.

  12. Retention of arsenic and selenium compounds using limestone in a coal gasification flue gas.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Somoano, Mercedes; Martinez-Tarazona, M Rosa

    2004-02-01

    Volatile arsenic and selenium compounds present in coals may cause environmental problems during coal combustion and gasification. A possible way to avoid such problems may be the use of solid sorbents capable of retaining these elements from flue gases in gas cleaning systems. Lime and limestone are materials that are extensively employed for the capture of sulfur during coal processing. Moreover, they have also proven to have good retention characteristics for arsenic and selenium during combustion. The aim of this work was to ascertain whether this sorbent is also useful for retaining arsenic and selenium species in gases produced in coal gasification. The study was carried out in a laboratory-scale reactor in which the sorbent was employed as a fixed bed, using synthetic gas mixtures. In these conditions, retention capacities for arsenic may reach 17 mg g(-1) in a gasification atmosphere free of H2S, whereas the presence of H2S implies a significant decrease in arsenic retention. In the case of selenium, H2S does not influence retention which may reach 65 mg g(-1). Post-retention sorbent characterization, thermal stability, and water solubility tests have shown that chemical reaction is one of the mechanisms responsible for the capture of arsenic and selenium, with Ca(AsO2)2 and CaSe being the main compounds formed. PMID:14968880

  13. Diffusion velocity correlation for nuclear graphite gasification at high temperature and low Reynolds numbers

    SciTech Connect

    El-Genk, M. S.; Tournier, J. M. P.

    2012-07-01

    The safety analysis of High-Temperature and Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactors requires reliable estimates of nuclear graphite gasification as a function of temperature, among other parameters, in the unlikely event of an air ingress accident. Although the rates of the prevailing chemical reactions increase exponentially with temperature, graphite gasification at high temperatures is limited by the oxygen diffusion through the boundary layer. The effective diffusion velocity depends on the total flow rate and pressure of the bulk air-gas mixture. This paper develops a semi-empirical Sherwood number correlation for calculating the oxygen diffusion velocity. The correlation is based on a compiled database of the results of convective heat transfer experiments with wires and cylinders of different diameters in air, water and paraffin oil at 0.006 {<=} Re {<=} 1,604 and 0.068 {<=} Sc {<=} 35.2, and of mass transfer experiments at 4.8 {<=} Re {<=} 77 and 1,300 {<=} Sc {<=} 2,000. The developed correlation is within {+-} 8% of the compiled database of 567 data points and consistent with reported gasification rate measurements at higher temperatures in experiments using different size specimens of nuclear graphite grades of NBG-18 and NB-25, IG-11, IG-110 and IG-430 in atmospheric air at 0.08 {<=} Re {<=} 30. Unlike the Graetz solution that gives a constant Sh of 3.66 at Re {<=} 1.0, the present correlation shows Sh decreases monotonically to much lower values with decreasing Re. (authors)

  14. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    DOEpatents

    Cortright, Randy D.; Dumesic, James A.

    2012-04-10

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  15. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    DOEpatents

    Cortright, Randy D.; Dumesic, James A.

    2011-01-18

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  16. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    DOEpatents

    Cortright, Randy D.; Dumesic, James A.

    2013-04-02

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  17. Dioxin formation and control in a gasification-melting plant.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Katsuya; Miyata, Haruo

    2015-10-01

    We investigated dioxin formation and removal in a commercial thermal waste treatment plant employing a gasification and melting process that has become widespread in the last decade in Japan. The aim was to clarify the possibility of dioxin formation in a process operation at high temperatures and the applicability of catalytic decomposition of dioxins. Also, the possible use of dioxin surrogate compounds for plant monitoring was further evaluated. The main test parameter was the influence of changes in the amount and type of municipal solid waste (MSW) supplied to the thermal waste treatment plant which from day to day operation is a relevant parameter also from commercial perspective. Here especially, the plastic content on dioxin release was assessed. The following conclusions were reached: (1) disturbance of combustion by adding plastic waste above the capability of the system resulted in a considerable increase in dioxin content of the flue gas at the inlet of the bag house and (2) bag filter equipment incorporating a catalytic filter effectively reduced the gaseous dioxin content below the standard of 0.1 ng toxic equivalency (TEQ)/m(3) N, by decomposition and partly adsorption, as was revealed by total dioxin mass balance and an increased levels in the fly ash. Also, the possible use of organohalogen compounds as dioxin surrogate compounds for plant monitoring was further evaluated. The levels of these surrogates did not exceed values corresponding to 0.1 ng TEQ/m(3) N dioxins established from former tests. This further substantiated that surrogate measurement therefore can well reflect dioxin levels. PMID:24894757

  18. Biomass Gasification Research Facility Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Todd R.; Bush, Vann; Felix, Larry G.; Farthing, William E.; Irvin, James H.

    2007-09-30

    While thermochemical syngas production facilities for biomass utilization are already employed worldwide, exploitation of their potential has been inhibited by technical limitations encountered when attempting to obtain real-time syngas compositional data required for process optimization, reliability, and syngas quality assurance. To address these limitations, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) carried out two companion projects (under US DOE Cooperative Agreements DE-FC36-02GO12024 and DE-FC36-03GO13175) to develop and demonstrate the equipment and methods required to reliably and continuously obtain accurate and representative on-line syngas compositional data. These objectives were proven through a stepwise series of field tests of biomass and coal gasification process streams. GTI developed the methods and hardware for extractive syngas sample stream delivery and distribution, necessary to make use of state-of-the-art on-line analyzers to evaluate and optimize syngas cleanup and conditioning. The primary objectives of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-02GO12024 were the selection, acquisition, and application of a suite of gas analyzers capable of providing near real-time gas analyses to suitably conditioned syngas streams. A review was conducted of sampling options, available analysis technologies, and commercially available analyzers, that could be successfully applied to the challenging task of on-line syngas characterization. The majority of thermochemical process streams comprise multicomponent gas mixtures that, prior to crucial, sequential cleanup procedures, include high concentrations of condensable species, multiple contaminants, and are often produced at high temperatures and pressures. Consequently, GTI engaged in a concurrent effort under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-03GO13175 to develop the means to deliver suitably prepared, continuous streams of extracted syngas to a variety of on-line gas analyzers. The review of candidate analysis technology also addressed safety concerns associated with thermochemical process operation that constrain the location and configuration of potential gas analysis equipment. Initial analyzer costs, reliability, accuracy, and operating and maintenance costs were also considered prior to the assembly of suitable analyzers for this work. Initial tests at GTI’s Flex-Fuel Test Facility (FFTF) in late 2004 and early 2005 successfully demonstrated the transport and subsequent analysis of a single depressurized, heat-traced syngas stream to a single analyzer (an Industrial Machine and Control Corporation (IMACC) Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR)) provided by GTI. In March 2005, our sampling approach was significantly expanded when this project participated in the U.S. DOE’s Novel Gas Cleaning (NGC) project. Syngas sample streams from three process locations were transported to a distribution manifold for selectable analysis by the IMACC FT-IR, a Stanford Research Systems QMS300 Mass Spectrometer (SRS MS) obtained under this Cooperative Agreement, and a Varian micro gas chromatograph with thermal conductivity detector (μGC) provided by GTI. A syngas stream from a fourth process location was transported to an Agilent Model 5890 Series II gas chromatograph for highly sensitive gas analyses. The on-line analyses made possible by this sampling system verified the syngas cleaning achieved by the NGC process. In June 2005, GTI collaborated with Weyerhaeuser to characterize the ChemrecTM black liquor gasifier at Weyerhaeuser’s New Bern, North Carolina pulp mill. Over a ten-day period, a broad range of process operating conditions were characterized with the IMACC FT-IR, the SRS MS, the Varian μGC, and an integrated Gas Chromatograph, Mass Selective Detector, Flame Ionization Detector and Sulfur Chemiluminescence Detector (GC/MSD/FID/SCD) system acquired under this Cooperative Agreement from Wasson-ECE. In this field application, a single sample stream was extracted from this low-pressure, low-temperature process and successfully analyzed by these devices. In late 2005, GTI conducted intensive field characterizations of biomass-derived syngas at GTI’s FFTF during a concurrent test of pelletized wood-fueled gasification and catalyst performance investigated under Cooperative Agreement DE-FG36-04GO14314. In 2006 GTI continued its sampling development and verification activities at GTI’s FFTF with a follow-on set of calibration measurements. The combination of the sample conditioning and sample stream transport methods developed under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-03GO13175, and the assembly and coordination of gas analyzers and data collection and analyses under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-02GO12024, have provided a new, powerful, enabling capability for on-line data characterizations of biomass- and coal-derived syngas from thermochemical conversion process streams.

  19. Co-gasification of biomass and plastics: pyrolysis kinetics studies, experiments on 100 kW dual fluidized bed pilot plant and development of thermodynamic equilibrium model and balances.

    PubMed

    Narobe, M; Golob, J; Klinar, D; Francetič, V; Likozar, B

    2014-06-01

    Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) of volatilization reaction kinetics for 50 wt.% mixtures of plastics (PE) and biomass (wood pellets) as well as for 100 wt.% plastics was conducted to predict decomposition times at 850°C and 900°C using iso-conversional model method. For mixtures, agreement with residence time of dual fluidized bed (DFB) reactor, treated as continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR), was obtained at large conversions. Mono-gasification of plastics and its co-gasification with biomass were performed in DFB pilot plant, using olivine as heterogeneous catalyst and heat transfer agent. It was found that co-gasification led to successful thermochemical conversion of plastics as opposed to mono-gasification. Unknown flow rates were determined applying nonlinear regression to energy and mass balances acknowledging combustion fuel, air, steam, feedstock, but also exiting char, tar, steam and other components in DFB gasification unit. Water-gas shift equilibrium and methanol synthesis requirements were incorporated into gasification model, based on measurements. PMID:24736208

  20. Biomass thermochemical gasification: Experimental studies and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ajay

    The overall goals of this research were to study the biomass thermochemical gasification using experimental and modeling techniques, and to evaluate the cost of industrial gas production and combined heat and power generation. This dissertation includes an extensive review of progresses in biomass thermochemical gasification. Product gases from biomass gasification can be converted to biopower, biofuels and chemicals. However, for its viable commercial applications, the study summarizes the technical challenges in the gasification and downstream processing of product gas. Corn stover and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), a non-fermentable byproduct of ethanol production, were used as the biomass feedstocks. One of the objectives was to determine selected physical and chemical properties of corn stover related to thermochemical conversion. The parameters of the reaction kinetics for weight loss were obtained. The next objective was to investigate the effects of temperature, steam to biomass ratio and equivalence ratio on gas composition and efficiencies. DDGS gasification was performed on a lab-scale fluidized-bed gasifier with steam and air as fluidizing and oxidizing agents. Increasing the temperature resulted in increases in hydrogen and methane contents and efficiencies. A model was developed to simulate the performance of a lab-scale gasifier using Aspen Plus(TM) software. Mass balance, energy balance and minimization of Gibbs free energy were applied for the gasification to determine the product gas composition. The final objective was to optimize the process by maximizing the net energy efficiency, and to estimate the cost of industrial gas, and combined heat and power (CHP) at a biomass feedrate of 2000 kg/h. The selling price of gas was estimated to be 11.49/GJ for corn stover, and 13.08/GJ for DDGS. For CHP generation, the electrical and net efficiencies were 37 and 86%, respectively for corn stover, and 34 and 78%, respectively for DDGS. For corn stover, the selling price of electricity was 0.1351/kWh. For DDGS, the selling price of electricity was 0.1287/kWh.

  1. Comparative assessment of municipal sewage sludge incineration, gasification and pyrolysis for a sustainable sludge-to-energy management in Greece.

    PubMed

    Samolada, M C; Zabaniotou, A A

    2014-02-01

    For a sustainable municipal sewage sludge management, not only the available technology, but also other parameters, such as policy regulations and socio-economic issues should be taken in account. In this study, the current status of both European and Greek Legislation on waste management, with a special insight in municipal sewage sludge, is presented. A SWOT analysis was further developed for comparison of pyrolysis with incineration and gasification and results are presented. Pyrolysis seems to be the optimal thermochemical treatment option compared to incineration and gasification. Sewage sludge pyrolysis is favorable for energy savings, material recovery and high added materials production, providing a 'zero waste' solution. Finally, identification of challenges and barriers for sewage sludge pyrolysis deployment in Greece was investigated. PMID:24290971

  2. Chemistry and mechanism of molten salt catalysts in coal gasification processes. Final report Dec 81-Jan 84

    SciTech Connect

    White, S.H.; Twardoch, U.M.

    1984-02-01

    Alkali metal salts have been recognized as effective catalysts in coal gasification. The way in which these materials promote catalysis of the gasification reactions is largely unknown. Electrochemical methods, including cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry, have been applied to study the solution chemistry of salt catalysts based upon alkali carbonate sulfate and chloride mixtures equilibrated with gaseous components of coal gasification reactions. To provide a data base for these studies the electrochemical behavior of oxide, hydroxide, and carbonate ions in these systems has been investigated. The formation of bicarbonate ions under steam-carbon dioxide atmospheres was notable, as was the influence of adsorption in the electrochemical reduction of these species in the carbonate melt. Carbonate ions were a feature of the equilibration of wet carbon dioxide with sulfate melts, and the study of their oxidation revealed a complex mechanism which involves adsorption and a regenerative mechanism. The net result of these studies has prompted the development of a model for gasification chemistry in terms of electrochemical corrosion.

  3. Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Marvin W.

    1988-01-01

    The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water-splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

  4. Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, M.W.

    1987-03-23

    The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water- splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

  5. Biomethanation of a mixture of salty cheese whey and poultry waste or cattle dung - a study of effect of temperature and retention time

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, C.; Madamwar, D.

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes the results of a study aimed at improving the efficiency of anaerobic digestion of salty cheese whey in combination with poultry waste or cattle dung. Best results were obtained when salty cheese whey was mixed with poultry waste in the ratio of 7:3, or cattle dung in the ratio of 1:1, both on dry weight basis giving maximum gas production of 1.2 L/L of digester/d with enriched methane content of 64% and 1.3 L/L of digester/d having methane content of 63% respectively. Various conditions such as temperature and retention time have been optimized for maximum process performance. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Apparatus and method for solar coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, David W.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats onto a tower-mounted secondary mirror which redirects the focused solar radiation down through a window onto the surface of a vertically-moving bed of coal, or a fluidized bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called "synthesis gas", which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam at the rear surface of the secondary mirror.

  7. Gasification systems proposed in 13 retrofit proposals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    Of the 137 expressions of interest received by the US Department of Energy in response to its November 12, 1986 Program Announcement for clean coal technology projects capable of retrofitting, repowering or modernizing existing facilities, thirteen involved coal gasification. For those proposals which specified the type of gasifier to be used, the following gasifiers were listed: PEBD gasifier - Color Cable Inc.; Calderon gasifier - Calderon Energy Company; Texaco gasifier - Tennessee Valley Authority; U-Gas gasifier - Consolidation Coal Company; Pyrolysis gasifier - Allison Gas Turbine; KILnGAS gasifier - Allis-Chalmers; Dow gasifier - Dow Chemical Company; and U-Gas gasifier - Sargent and Lundy Engineers. A brief abstract is given of each of the 13 gasification-based proposals.

  8. Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal

    DOEpatents

    Aquino, D.C.; DaPrato, P.L.; Gouker, T.R.; Knoer, P.

    1984-07-06

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65/sup 0/C and 110/sup 0/C for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution, and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m/sup 3/. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal

    DOEpatents

    Aquino, Dolores C. (Houston, TX); DaPrato, Philip L. (Westfield, NJ); Gouker, Toby R. (Baton Rouge, LA); Knoer, Peter (Houston, TX)

    1986-01-01

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone (12) with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65.degree. C. and 110.degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m.sup.3. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step.

  10. Supercritical droplet gasification experiments with forced convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron; Parigger, Chris; Jeng, San-Mou

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary results of a comprehensive experimental program are presented which offer the first direct observations of suspended n-heptane droplet gasifications in pure nitrogen with forced convection without the interference to optical probing associated with a flame. Measurements show attainment of a wet-bulb temperature until reduced pressures exceed about 1.0 under supercritical gas temperatures. Thereafter, temperature measurements indicate fully transient heat-up through the critical temperature. The surface is found to regress in a continuous manner with the measured temperature approaching the critical value at the end of the droplet lifetime under supercritical conditions with very mild level of convection. At increased level of convection for the same ambient conditions, similar sized droplets will undergo significant deformation during the gasification process until partially convected away as a dense vapor cloud as the critical temperature is approached.

  11. Solar heated fluidized bed gasification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qader, S. A. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A solar-powered fluidized bed gasification system for gasifying carbonaceous material is presented. The system includes a solar gasifier which is heated by fluidizing gas and steam. Energy to heat the gas and steam is supplied by a high heat capacity refractory honeycomb which surrounds the fluid bed reactor zone. The high heat capacity refractory honeycomb is heated by solar energy focused on the honeycomb by solar concentrator through solar window. The fluid bed reaction zone is also heated directly and uniformly by thermal contact of the high heat capacity ceramic honeycomb with the walls of the fluidized bed reactor. Provisions are also made for recovering and recycling catalysts used in the gasification process. Back-up furnace is provided for start-up procedures and for supplying heat to the fluid bed reaction zone when adequate supplies of solar energy are not available.

  12. Nitrogen mineralization from sludge in an alkaline, saline coal gasification ash environment.

    PubMed

    Mbakwe, Ikenna; De Jager, Pieter C; Annandale, John G; Matema, Taurai

    2013-01-01

    Rehabilitating coal gasification ash dumps by amendment with waste-activated sludge has been shown to improve the physical and chemical properties of ash and to facilitate the establishment of vegetation. However, mineralization of organic N from sludge in such an alkaline and saline medium and the effect that ash weathering has on the process are poorly understood and need to be ascertained to make decisions regarding the suitability of this rehabilitation option. This study investigated the rate and pattern of N mineralization from sludge in a coal gasification ash medium to determine the prevalent inorganic N form in the system and assess the effect of ash weathering on N mineralization. An incubation experiment was performed in which fresh ash, weathered ash, and soil were amended with the equivalent of 90 Mg ha sludge, and N mineralization was evaluated over 63 d. More N (24%) was mineralized in fresh ash than in weathered ash and soil, both of which mineralized 15% of the initial organic N in sludge. More nitrification occurred in soil, and most of the N mineralized in ash was in the form of ammonium, indicating an inhibition of nitrifying organisms in the ash medium and suggesting that, at least initially, plants used for rehabilitation of coal gasification ash dumps will take up N mostly as ammonium. PMID:23673951

  13. Comparisons of the economics of integrated gasification combined cycle power generation and other clean coal power options

    SciTech Connect

    Weissman, R.

    1994-12-31

    The cost of power generation from the Texaco Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle process compares favorably to other commercially proven clean coal technologies, even before allowance is made for is superior environmental performance. When environmental externality costs for emissions are included, IGCC enjoys an additional advantage. Feedstock flexibility of the Texaco IGCC process allows for the utilization of low value and waste products as fuels in an environmentally beneficial manner that can further reduce the cost of power production.

  14. Development of statistics analysis method for coal gasification performance prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Hori, Tetsuya; Kuwabara, Takashi

    1998-07-01

    Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) and Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. (IHI) established the statistical analysis method, which predict the performance for coal gasification. This method is based on the test results and coal analysis data of the Coal Gasification Test facility (the authors call CGT plant, capacity of 6 tons/day dry coal base and TEXACO type gasifier). The authors carried out the test using 15 kinds of coal and over 7,500 hours of test runs. From these tests, they have conformed the gasification performance data for these coals, which have wide varying characteristics. In addition, they have confirmed stable and high efficiency operation. Also, they are trying the scale up study using 1,000 tons/day demonstration plant (Cool Water Program) gasification performance data. Using this method, the authors can estimate gasification performance for a commercial size TEXACO type gasifier. For process design and development of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle, gasification performance data are very important. Therefore, the coal gasification performance data for each coal is needed. Many types of methods for gasification performance simulation for using chemical equation and heat material balance are proposed. The statistics analysis method does not need the complex chemical equation and heat material balance calculation. The authors purport they can calculate the performance very easily and quickly in the power plant in the near future.

  15. Gasification performance of switchgrass pretreated with torrefaction and densification

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Various

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate gasification performance of four switchgrass pretreatments (torrefaction at 230 and 270 °C, densification, and combined torrefaction and densification) and three gasification temperatures (700, 800 and 900 °C). Gasification was performed in a fixed-bed externally heated reactor with air as an oxidizing agent. Switchgrass pretreatment and gasification temperature had significant effects on gasification performance such as gas yields, syngas lower heating value (LHV), and carbon conversion and cold gas efficiencies. With an increase in the gasification temperature, yields of H2 and CO, syngas LHV, and gasifier efficiencies increased whereas CH4, CO2 and N2 yields decreased. Among all switchgrass pretreatments, gasification performance of switchgrass with combined torrefaction and densification was the best followed by that of densified, raw and torrefied switchgrass. Gasification of combined torrefied and densified switchgrass resulted in the highest yields of H2 (0.03 kg/kg biomass) and CO (0.72 kg/kg biomass), highest syngas LHV (5.08 MJ m-3), CCE (92.53%), and CGE (68.40%) at the gasification temperature of 900 °C.

  16. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING

    SciTech Connect

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert Toerne; John Bick

    2003-01-01

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this widespread fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be used as a supplemental fuel in an existing utility boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with a variety of conventional boilers including natural gas and oil fired boilers, pulverized coal fired conventional and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a wider selection of biomass as fuel and providing opportunity in reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere through the commercialization of this technology. This study evaluated two plants: Wester Kentucky Energy Corporation's (WKE's) Reid Plant and TXU Energy's Monticello Plant for technical and economical feasibility. These plants were selected for their proximity to large supply of poultry litter in the area. The Reid plant is located in Henderson County in southwest Kentucky, with a large poultry processing facility nearby. Within a fifty-mile radius of the Reid plant, there are large-scale poultry farms that generate over 75,000 tons/year of poultry litter. The local poultry farmers are actively seeking environmentally more benign alternatives to the current use of the litter as landfill or as a farm spread as fertilizer. The Monticello plant is located in Titus County, TX near the town of Pittsburgh, TX, where again a large poultry processor and poultry farmers in the area generate over 110,000 tons/year of poultry litter. Disposal of this litter in the area is also a concern. This project offers a model opportunity to demonstrate the feasibility of biomass co-firing and at the same time eliminate poultry litter disposal problems for the area's poultry farmers.

  17. Fluidized bed injection assembly for coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Cherish, Peter; Salvador, Louis A.

    1981-01-01

    A coaxial feed system for fluidized bed coal gasification processes including an inner tube for injecting particulate combustibles into a transport gas, an inner annulus about the inner tube for injecting an oxidizing gas, and an outer annulus about the inner annulus for transporting a fluidizing and cooling gas. The combustibles and oxidizing gas are discharged vertically upward directly into the combustion jet, and the fluidizing and cooling gas is discharged in a downward radial direction into the bed below the combustion jet.

  18. Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The gasifier selected for development under this contract is an innovative and patented hybrid technology which combines the best features of both fixed-bed and fluidized-bed types. PyGas{trademark}, meaning Pyrolysis Gasification, is well suited for integration into advanced power cycles such as IGCC. It is also well matched to hot gas clean-up technologies currently in development. Unlike other gasification technologies, PyGas can be designed into both large and small scale systems. It is expected that partial repowering with PyGas could be done at a cost of electricity of only 2.78 cents/kWh, more economical than natural gas repowering. It is extremely unfortunate that Government funding for such a noble cause is becoming reduced to the point where current contracts must be canceled. The Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) project was initiated to provide a test facility to support early commercialization of advanced fixed-bed coal gasification technology at a cost approaching $1,000 per kilowatt for electric power generation applications. The project was to include an innovative, advanced, air-blown, pressurized, fixed-bed, dry-bottom gasifier and a follow-on hot metal oxide gas desulfurization sub-system. To help defray the cost of testing materials, the facility was to be located at a nearby utility coal fired generating site. The patented PyGas{trademark} technology was selected via a competitive bidding process as the candidate which best fit overall DOE objectives. The paper describes the accomplishments to date.

  19. Coal gasification power plant and process

    DOEpatents

    Woodmansee, Donald E.

    1979-01-01

    In an integrated coal gasification power plant, a humidifier is provided for transferring as vapor, from the aqueous blowdown liquid into relatively dry air, both (I) at least a portion of the water contained in the aqueous liquid and (II) at least a portion of the volatile hydrocarbons therein. The resulting humidified air is advantageously employed as at least a portion of the hot air and water vapor included in the blast gas supplied via a boost compressor to the gasifier.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE (PGM)

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-07-10

    Foster Wheeler Development Corporation is working under DOE contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% while producing near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The unique aspect of the process is that it utilizes a pressurized circulating fluidized bed partial gasifier and does not attempt to consume the coal in a single step. To convert all the coal to syngas in a single step requires extremely high temperatures ({approx}2500 to 2800F) that melt and vaporize the coal and essentially drive all coal ash contaminants into the syngas. Since these contaminants can be corrosive to power generating equipment, the syngas must be cooled to near room temperature to enable a series of chemical processes to clean the syngas. Foster Wheeler's process operates at much lower temperatures that control/minimize the release of contaminants; this eliminates/minimizes the need for the expensive, complicated syngas heat exchangers and chemical cleanup systems typical of high temperature gasification. By performing the gasification in a circulating bed, a significant amount of syngas can still be produced despite the reduced temperature and the circulating bed allows easy scale up to large size plants. Rather than air, it can also operate with oxygen to facilitate sequestration of stack gas carbon dioxide gases for a 100% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building block that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. The PGM consists of a pressurized circulating fluidized bed (PCFB) reactor together with a recycle cyclone and a particulate removing barrier filter. Coal, air, steam, and possibly sand are fed to the bottom of the PCFB reactor and establish a relatively dense bed of coal/char in the bottom section. As these constituents react, a hot syngas is produced which conveys the solids residue vertically up through the reactor and into the recycle cyclone. Solids elutriated from the dense bed and contained in the syngas are collected in the cyclone and drain via a dipleg back to the dense bed at the bottom of the PCFB reactor. This recycle loop of hot solids acts as a thermal flywheel and promotes efficient solid-gas chemical reaction.

  1. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 9. Gasification of Elkhorn bituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) group. This report is the ninth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Elkhorn bituminous coal. The period of gasificastion test was September 13 to October 12, 1983. 9 refs., 24 figs., 35 tabs.

  2. Assessment of Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarthy, John; Ferrall, Joseph; Charng, Thomas; Houseman, John

    1981-01-01

    This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process; Bell Single-Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process; Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process; Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier. The report makes the following assessments: 1) while each process has significant potential as coal gasifiers, the CS/R and Exxon processes are better suited for SNG production; 2) the Exxon process is the closest to a commercial level for near-term SNG production; and 3) the SRT processes require significant development including scale-up and turndown demonstration, char processing and/or utilization demonstration, and reactor control and safety features development.

  3. Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory Wotzak; Chellappa Balan; Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

    2003-08-01

    The pre-baseline configuration for an Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) system has been developed. This case uses current gasification, clean-up, gas turbine, and bottoming cycle technologies together with projected large planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology. This pre-baseline case will be used as a basis for identifying the critical factors impacting system performance and the major technical challenges in implementing such systems. Top-level system requirements were used as the criteria to evaluate and down select alternative sub-systems. The top choice subsystems were subsequently integrated to form the pre-baseline case. The down-selected pre-baseline case includes a British Gas Lurgi (BGL) gasification and cleanup sub-system integrated with a GE Power Systems 6FA+e gas turbine and the Hybrid Power Generation Systems planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) sub-system. The overall efficiency of this system is estimated to be 43.0%. The system efficiency of the pre-baseline system provides a benchmark level for further optimization efforts in this program.

  4. Novel and innovative pyrolysis and gasification technologies for energy efficient and environmentally sound MSW disposal.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Malkow T

    2004-01-01

    Within the context of European Union (EU) energy policy and sustainibility in waste management, recent EU regulations demand energy efficient and environmentally sound disposal methods of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). Currently, landfill with its many drawbacks is the preferred option in the EU and many other industrialised countries. Within the waste management hierarchy thermal disposal especially incineration is a viable and proven alternative. But, the dominating method, mass-burn grate incineration has drawbacks as well particularly hazardous emissions and harmful process residues. In recent years, pyrolysis and gasification technologies have emerged to address these issues and improve the energy output. To keep the many players in the field comprehensively informed and up-to-date, novel and innovative technology approaches emphasising European developments are reviewed.

  5. Novel and innovative pyrolysis and gasification technologies for energy efficient and environmentally sound MSW disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Malkow, Thomas

    2004-07-01

    Within the context of European Union (EU) energy policy and sustainibility in waste management, recent EU regulations demand energy efficient and environmentally sound disposal methods of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). Currently, landfill with its many drawbacks is the preferred option in the EU and many other industrialised countries. Within the waste management hierarchy thermal disposal especially incineration is a viable and proven alternative. But, the dominating method, mass-burn grate incineration has drawbacks as well particularly hazardous emissions and harmful process residues. In recent years, pyrolysis and gasification technologies have emerged to address these issues and improve the energy output. To keep the many players in the field comprehensively informed and up-to-date, novel and innovative technology approaches emphasising European developments are reviewed.

  6. Novel and innovative pyrolysis and gasification technologies for energy efficient and environmentally sound MSW disposal.

    PubMed

    Malkow, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Within the context of European Union (EU) energy policy and sustainibility in waste management, recent EU regulations demand energy efficient and environmentally sound disposal methods of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). Currently, landfill with its many drawbacks is the preferred option in the EU and many other industrialised countries. Within the waste management hierarchy thermal disposal especially incineration is a viable and proven alternative. But, the dominating method, mass-burn grate incineration has drawbacks as well particularly hazardous emissions and harmful process residues. In recent years, pyrolysis and gasification technologies have emerged to address these issues and improve the energy output. To keep the many players in the field comprehensively informed and up-to-date, novel and innovative technology approaches emphasising European developments are reviewed. PMID:14672726

  7. Thermal processing of sewage sludge by drying, pyrolysis, gasification and combustion.

    PubMed

    Stolarek, P; Ledakowicz, S

    2001-01-01

    Thermal processing of sewage sludge including drying, pyrolysis and gasification or combustion may be an alternative to other ways of utilising it. In this paper thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was employed in the investigation of thermal decomposition of sewage sludge. The kinetic parameters of drying, pyrolysis and gasification or combustion of sewage sludge have been determined in an inert-gas (argon) and additionally some series of the sludge decomposition experiments have been carried out in air, in order to compare pyrolysis and combustion. The pyrolysis char has been gasified with carbon dioxide. A typical approach to the kinetics of thermal decomposition of a solid waste is to divide the volatile evolution into a few fractions (lumps), each of which is represented by a single first-order reaction. If these lumps are assumed to be non-interacting and evolved by independent parallel reactions the first-order kinetic parameters such as activation energy Ei and pre-exponential factor Ai can be determined from mathematical evaluation of TG or DTG curves. The object of our investigations was a municipal sludge from the two wastewater treatment plants (WTP) in Poland. The experiments have been carried out in the thermobalance Mettler-Toledo type TGA/SDTA851 LF, in the temperature range 30-1,000 degrees C. Five different values of heating rate have been applied beta = 2, 5, 10, 15 and 20 K/min. The values of Ei and Ai have been determined for all recognised lumps of gaseous products. The method employed has also revealed its usefulness for the determination of kinetic parameters for municipal sludge, that possess an undefined content. An alternative route to combustion of sewage sludge is its gasification, which significantly increases the gaseous product (pyrolytic gas + syngas). Besides pyrolysis kinetics, gasification or combustion process kinetics have also been determined. PMID:11794675

  8. Utilisation of biomass gasification by-products for onsite energy production.

    PubMed

    Vakalis, S; Sotiropoulos, A; Moustakas, K; Malamis, D; Baratieri, M

    2016-06-01

    Small scale biomass gasification is a sector with growth and increasing applications owing to the environmental goals of the European Union and the incentivised policies of most European countries. This study addresses two aspects, which are at the centre of attention concerning the operation and development of small scale gasifiers; reuse of waste and increase of energy efficiency. Several authors have denoted that the low electrical efficiency of these systems is the main barrier for further commercial development. In addition, gasification has several by-products that have no further use and are discarded as waste. In the framework of this manuscript, a secondary reactor is introduced and modelled. The main operating principle is the utilisation of char and flue gases for further energy production. These by-products are reformed into secondary producer gas by means of a secondary reactor. In addition, a set of heat exchangers capture the waste heat and optimise the process. This case study is modelled in a MATLAB-Cantera environment. The model is non-stoichiometric and applies the Gibbs minimisation principle. The simulations show that some of the thermal energy is depleted during the process owing to the preheating of flue gases. Nonetheless, the addition of a secondary reactor results in an increase of the electrical power production efficiency and the combined heat and power (CHP) efficiency. PMID:27118736

  9. Simultaneous Bioconversion of Xylose and Glycerol to Xylonic Acid and 1,3-Dihydroxyacetone from the Mixture of Pre-Hydrolysates and Ethanol-Fermented Waste Liquid by Gluconobacter oxydans.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xin; Xu, Yong; Yu, Shiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous bioconversion of xylose and glycerol to xylonic acid and 1,3-dihydroxyacetone (DHA) was realized by using Gluconobacter oxydans (G. oxydans). Currently, the enzymatic hydrolysate to ethanol-fermented waste liquid and the inorganic acid pre-hydrolysate that contain abundant glycerol and xylose were difficult to be utilized or disposed. Based on the method of compressed oxygen supply-sealed and stirred tank reactor system (COS-SSTR), the xylonic acid and 1,3-dihydroxyacetone could be co-produced rapidly with the mixture of the dilute sulfuric acid pre-hydrolysate and ethanol-fermented waste liquid of enzymatic hydrolysate (MPEW) as material. By means of the system, we finally produced 102.3 ± 3.2 g/L xylonic acid and 40.6 ± 1.8 g/L 1,3-dihydroxyacetone at yield of 92.4 ± 2.8 % and 80.6 ± 3.5 % directly and simultaneously from the mixed solution. The central features of this bioprocess application would enable cost-competitive bacterial xylonic acid and 1,3-dihydroxyacetone production from lignocellulosic materials. PMID:26378011

  10. Corrosion and mechanical behavior of materials for coal gasification applications

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.

    1980-05-01

    A state-of-the-art review is presented on the corrosion and mechanical behavior of materials at elevated temperatures in coal-gasification environments. The gas atmosphere in coal-conversion processes are, in general, complex mixtures which contain sulfur-bearing components (H/sub 2/S, SO/sub 2/, and COS) as well as oxidants (CO/sub 2//CO and H/sub 2/O/H/sub 2/). The information developed over the last five years clearly shows sulfidation to be the major mode of material degradation in these environments. The corrosion behavior of structural materials in complex gas environments is examined to evaluate the interrelationships between gas chemistry, alloy chemistry, temperature, and pressure. Thermodynamic aspects of high-temperature corrosion processes that pertain to coal conversion are discussed, and kinetic data are used to compare the behavior of different commercial materials of interest. The influence of complex gas environments on the mechanical properties such as tensile, stress-rupture, and impact on selected alloys is presented. The data have been analyzed, wherever possible, to examine the role of environment on the property variation. The results from ongoing programs on char effects on corrosion and on alloy protection via coatings, cladding, and weld overlay are presented. Areas of additional research with particular emphasis on the development of a better understanding of corrosion processes in complex environments and on alloy design for improved corrosion resistance are discussed. 54 references, 65 figures, 24 tables.

  11. Meeting Vision 21 goals with supercritical water gasification (SCWG) of biomass/coal slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Tolman, R.; Spritzer, M.; Hong, G.T.; Rickman, B.; Parkinson, W.J.

    2000-07-01

    In the Vapor Transmission Cycle (VTC), a special condensing expander turbine is planned to reduce temperature and pressure for low-temperature cleaning and to maintain quality and combustibility of the fuel vapor for a modern gas turbine. The VTC generates clean fuel gas and steam for gas turbines by feeding water slurries or emulsions above about 25% solids, including coal fines, coal water fuels, biomass, composted municipal refuse, sewage sludge, crumb rubber and pulp and paper wastes in patented HRSG tubes. A commercial method of particle scrubbing is used to improve heat transfer and prevent corrosion and deposition on heat transfer surfaces. Tests were conducted to produce clean fuels for gas turbines and fuel cells via supercritical water gasification (SCWG). The study includes lab-scale testing of composted packer truck refuse and sewage sludge made in an aerobic digester without shredding. A computer-based process simulation model has been prepared that includes material and energy balances that simulate commercial-scale operations of the VTC. Funded by DOE, pilot-scale data produced by General Atomics for sewage sludge shows that SCWG above 640 C and low residence time without an oxidizer can produce a gaseous mixture containing over 25 vol. % hydrogen in methane, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and higher light hydrocarbons. Excess hydrogen can be separated for use in fuel cells. Carbon can be separated up to the amount of fixed carbon in the proximate analysis of the solids in the feed. This carbon can be burned in an existing combustion system to help provide the heat required for SCWG, or it can be used to remove pollutants and hydrocarbons from water and air. Test and modeling results will be presented. Preliminary life cycle costs analyses will be presented that establish MSW and sludge disposal fees that improve operating economics over higher-cost fuels. Analyses show that the cost and schedule advantages of natural gas-fired combined cycle systems can be maintained by development. Sensitivity analyses will be presented that show that increases in capital costs can be offset where disposal fees are higher, such as high population areas in the US and Asia.

  12. Landfilling ash/sludge mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Benoit, J.; Eighmy, T.T.; Crannell, B.S.

    1999-10-01

    The geotechnical properties of a mixture of municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash and municipal wastewater treatment plant sludge was investigated for a proposed ash/sludge secure landfill. The components as well as mixtures ranging from 10:1 to 5:1 (ash:sludge, by volume) were evaluated, where appropriate, for a number of geotechnical index and mechanical properties including particle size, water content, specific gravity, density-moisture relationships, shear strength, and compressibility. The results from a compactibility study and stability analysis of the proposed landfill were used to help approve a landfill codisposal concept; a full-scale facility was constructed and is currently operating successfully.

  13. Method and apparatus for the selective separation of gaseous coal gasification products by pressure swing adsorption

    DOEpatents

    Ghate, M.R.; Yang, R.T.

    1985-10-03

    Bulk separation of the gaseous components of multi-component gases provided by the gasification of coal including hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, and acid gases (carbon dioxide plus hydrogen sulfide) are selectively adsorbed by a pressure swing adsorption technique using activated carbon zeolite or a combination thereof as the adsorbent. By charging a column containing the adsorbent with a gas mixture and pressurizing the column to a pressure sufficient to cause the adsorption of the gases and then reducing the partial pressure of the contents of the column, the gases are selectively and sequentially desorbed. Hydrogen, the least absorbable gas of the gaseous mixture, is the first gas to be desorbed and is removed from the column in a co-current direction followed by the carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane. With the pressure in the column reduced to about atmospheric pressure the column is evacuated in a countercurrent direction to remove the acid gases from the column. The present invention is particularly advantageous as a producer of high purity hydrogen from gaseous products of coal gasification and as an acid gas scrubber. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Method and apparatus for the selective separation of gaseous coal gasification products by pressure swing adsorption

    DOEpatents

    Ghate, Madhav R.; Yang, Ralph T.

    1987-01-01

    Bulk separation of the gaseous components of multi-component gases provided by the gasification of coal including hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, and acid gases (carbon dioxide plus hydrogen sulfide) are selectively adsorbed by a pressure swing adsorption technique using activated carbon, zeolite or a combination thereof as the adsorbent. By charging a column containing the adsorbent with a gas mixture and pressurizing the column to a pressure sufficient to cause the adsorption of the gases and then reducing the partial pressure of the contents of the column, the gases are selectively and sequentially desorbed. Hydrogen, the least absorbable gas of the gaseous mixture, is the first gas to be desorbed and is removed from the column in a co-current direction followed by the carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane. With the pressure in the column reduced to about atmospheric pressure the column is evacuated in a countercurrent direction to remove the acid gases from the column. The present invention is particularly advantageous as a producer of high parity hydrogen from gaseous products of coal gasification and as an acid gas scrubber.

  15. BIOMASS REACTIVITY IN GASIFICATION BY THE HYNOL PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A thermobalance reactor was used to evaluate the reactivity of poplar wood in gasification under the operating conditions specific for the Hynol process where biomass is gasified at 30 atm and 800E C with a hydrogen-rich gas recycled from methane synthesis. The gasification invol...

  16. FUGITIVE EMISSION TESTING AT THE KOSOVO COAL GASIFICATION PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes results of a test program to characterize fugitive emissions from the Kosovo coal gasification plant in Yugoslavia, a test program implemented by the EPA in response to a need for representative data on the potential environmental impacts of Lurgi coal gasif...

  17. Coal gasification. Quarterly report, July-September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    The status of 18 coal gasification pilot plants or supporting projects supported by US DOE is reviewed under the following headings: company involved, location, contract number, funding, gasification process, history, process description, flowsheet and progress in the July-September 1979 quarter. (LTN)

  18. Coal gasification for power generation. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect

    2006-10-15

    The report gives an overview of the opportunities for coal gasification in the power generation industry. It provides a concise look at the challenges faced by coal-fired generation, the ability of coal gasification to address these challenges, and the current state of IGCC power generation. Topics covered in the report include: An overview of coal generation including its history, the current market environment, and the status of coal gasification; A description of gasification technology including processes and systems; An analysis of the key business factors that are driving increased interest in coal gasification; An analysis of the barriers that are hindering the implementation of coal gasification projects; A discussion of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology; An evaluation of IGCC versus other generation technologies; A discussion of IGCC project development options; A discussion of the key government initiatives supporting IGCC development; Profiles of the key gasification technology companies participating in the IGCC market; and A description of existing and planned coal IGCC projects.

  19. Methods for sequestering carbon dioxide into alcohols via gasification fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L; Ko, Ching-Whan; Phillips, J. Randy; Slape, M. Sean

    2013-11-26

    The present invention is directed to improvements in gasification for use with synthesis gas fermentation. Further, the present invention is directed to improvements in gasification for the production of alcohols from a gaseous substrate containing at least one reducing gas containing at least one microorganism.

  20. THEORETICAL INVESTIGATION OF SELECTED TRACE ELEMENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a theoretical investigation of the disposition of five volatile trace elements (arsenic, boron, lead, selenium, and mercury) in SNG-producing coal gasification plants. Three coal gasification processes (dry-bottom Lurgi, Koppers-Totzek, and HYGAS) were...

  1. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF LEACHATES FROM COAL SOLID WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of the chemical and mineralogical characterization of coal solid wastes. The wastes included three Lurgi gasification ashes, mineral residues from the SRC-1 and H-Coal liquefaction processes, two chars, two coal-cleaning residues, and a fly-ash-and-water-...

  2. Issues Impacting Refractory Service Life in Biomass/Waste Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, J.P.; Kwong, K.-S.; Powell, C.A.

    2007-03-01

    Different carbon sources are used, or are being considered, as feedstock for gasifiers; including natural gas, coal, petroleum coke, and biomass. Biomass has been used with limited success because of issues such as ash impurity interactions with the refractory liner, which will be discussed in this paper.

  3. The U.S. coal gasification program - Progress and projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, C. L.

    1980-08-01

    Progress in the development of coal gasification processes in the United States is reviewed. The evolution of coal gasifier design and processes is traced from first-generation facilities with fixed-bed reactors having separate areas for heating and devolatilization, syngas reactions and char gasification, through optimized second-generation reactors consisting of separate sections for the three stages, to third-generation hydropyrolysis reactors with a combined gasification reactor and secondary hydrogen generation and separation. The current status of development work on gasifiers is discussed, noting the availability of first-generation devices, the late development stages of the second generation and the early development status of the third generation. It is pointed out that although gasification technology exists that is ready for use, gasification plants are not in operation due to a range of institutional difficulties.

  4. A Texas project illustrates the benefits of integrated gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Philcox, J.; Fenner, G.W.

    1997-07-14

    Gasification can be an attractive option for converting a variety of petroleum feedstocks to chemicals. Natural gas is commonly sued to produce acetic acid, isocyanates, plastics, and fibers. But low-cost, bottom-of-the-barrel feeds, such as vacuum resid, petroleum coke, and asphaltenes, also can be used. In any case, gasification products include synthesis gas, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, steam, carbon dioxide, and power. The more a gasification facility is integrated with utilities and other non-core operations of a production complex, the more economical the products are for all consumers. The paper discusses gasification of natural gas, light hydrocarbons (ethane, propanes, and butanes), and heavy hydrocarbons (distillates, heavy residues, asphalts, coals, petroleum coke). The paper then describes a Texas City Gasification Project, which gasifies methane to produce carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and alcohol. The plant is integrated with a cogeneration plant. Economics are discussed.

  5. Effect of pulsation on black liquor gasification. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zinn, B.T.; Jagoda, J.; Jeong, H.; Kushari, A.; Rosen, L.J.

    1998-12-01

    Pyrolysis is an endothermic process. The heat of reaction is provided either by partial combustion of the waste or by heat transfer from an external combustion process. In one proposed system black liquor is pyrolized in a fluidized bed to which heat is added through a series of pulse combustor tail pipes submerged in the bed material. This system appears promising because of the relatively high heat transfer in pulse combustors and in fluidized beds. Other advantages of pulse combustors are discussed elsewhere. The process is, however, only economically viable if a part of the pyrolysis products can be used to fire the pulse combustors. The overall goals of this study were to determine: (1) which is the limiting heat transfer rate in the process of transferring heat from the hot combustion products to the pipe, through the pipe, from the tail pipe to the bed and through the bed; i.e., whether increased heat transfer within the pulse combustor will significantly increase the overall heat transfer rate; (2) whether the heat transfer benefits of the pulse combustor can be utilized while maintaining the temperature in the bed within the narrow temperature range required by the process without generating hot spots in the bed; and (3) whether the fuel gas produced during the gasification process can be used to efficiently fire the pulse combustor.

  6. Gasification of agricultural residues in a demonstrative plant: corn cobs.

    PubMed

    Biagini, Enrico; Barontini, Federica; Tognotti, Leonardo

    2014-12-01

    Biomass gasification couples the high power efficiency with the possibility of valuably using the byproducts heat and biochar. The use of agricultural wastes instead of woody feedstock extends the seasonal availability of biomasses. The downdraft type is the most used reactor but has narrow ranges of feedstock specifications (above all on moisture and particle size distribution), so tests on a demonstrative scale are conducted to prove the versatility of the gasifier. Measurements on pressure drops, syngas flow rate and composition are studied to assess the feasibility of such operations with corn cobs. Material and energy balances, and performance indexes are compared for the four tests carried out under different biomass loads (66-85 kg/h). A good operability of the plant and interesting results are obtained (gas specific production of 2 m3/kg, gas heating value 5.6-5.8 MJ/m3, cold gas efficiency in the range 66-68%, potential net power efficiency 21.1-21.6%). PMID:25299486

  7. Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping

    SciTech Connect

    Herbert Andrus; Gregory Burns; John Chiu; Gregory Lijedahl; Peter Stromberg; Paul Thibeault

    2009-01-07

    For the past several years Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), a leading world-wide power system manufacturer and supplier, has been in the initial stages of developing an entirely new, ultra-clean, low cost, high efficiency power plant for the global power market. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion-gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology The process consists of the oxidation, reduction, carbonation, and calcination of calcium-based compounds, which chemically react with coal, biomass, or opportunity fuels in two chemical loops and one thermal loop. The chemical and thermal looping technology can be alternatively configured as (i) a combustion-based steam power plant with CO{sub 2} capture, (ii) a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas for gas turbines or fuel cells, or (iii) an integrated hybrid combustion-gasification process producing hydrogen for gas turbines, fuel cells or other hydrogen based applications while also producing a separate stream of CO{sub 2} for use or sequestration. In its most advanced configuration, this new concept offers the promise to become the technology link from today's Rankine cycle steam power plants to tomorrow's advanced energy plants. The objective of this work is to develop and verify the high temperature chemical and thermal looping process concept at a small-scale pilot facility in order to enable AL to design, construct and demonstrate a pre-commercial, prototype version of this advanced system. In support of this objective, Alstom and DOE started a multi-year program, under this contract. Before the contract started, in a preliminary phase (Phase 0) Alstom funded and built the required small-scale pilot facility (Process Development Unit, PDU) at its Power Plant Laboratories in Windsor, Connecticut. Construction was completed in calendar year 2003. The objective for Phase I was to develop the indirect combustion loop with CO{sub 2} separation, and also syngas production from coal with the calcium sulfide (CaS)/calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}) loop utilizing the PDU facility. The results of Phase I were reported in Reference 1, 'Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping Coal Power Development Technology Development Phase I Report' The objective for Phase II was to develop the carbonate loop--lime (CaO)/calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) loop, integrate it with the gasification loop from Phase I, and ultimately demonstrate the feasibility of hydrogen production from the combined loops. The results of this program were reported in Reference 3, 'Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping Coal Power Development Technology Development Phase II Report'. The objective of Phase III is to operate the pilot plant to obtain enough engineering information to design a prototype of the commercial Chemical Looping concept. The activities include modifications to the Phase II Chemical Looping PDU, solids transportation studies, control and instrumentation studies and additional cold flow modeling. The deliverable is a report making recommendations for preliminary design guidelines for the prototype plant, results from the pilot plant testing and an update of the commercial plant economic estimates.

  8. Tank Farm Waste Transfer Compatibility Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, K.D.

    1995-04-24

    The compatibility program described in this document formalizes the process for determining waste compatibility. Goal is to ensure that sufficient controls are in place to prevent the formation of incompatible mixtures during future operations, could possibly result in an unreviewed safety question. Waste transfer decision rules are presented as a process for assessing compatibility of wastes or waste mixtures. The process involves characterizing the waste comparing waste characteristics with the criteria, resolving potential incompatibilities, and documenting the process.

  9. Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Rodney Andrews; Aurora Rubel; Jack Groppo; Ari Geertsema; Frank Huggins; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Brandie M. Markley; Harold Schobert

    2006-02-01

    With the recent passing of new legislation designed to permanently cap and reduce mercury emissions from coal-fired utilities, it is more important than ever to develop and improve upon methods of controlling mercury emissions. One promising technique is carbon sorbent injection into the flue gas of the coal-fired power plant. Currently, this technology is very expensive as costly commercially activated carbons are used as sorbents. There is also a significant lack of understanding of the interaction between mercury vapor and the carbon sorbent, which adds to the difficulty of predicting the amount of sorbent needed for specific plant configurations. Due to its inherent porosity and adsorption properties as well as on-site availability, carbons derived from gasifiers are potential mercury sorbent candidates. Furthermore, because of the increasing restricted use of landfilling, the coal industry is very interested in finding uses for these materials as an alternative to the current disposal practice. The results of laboratory investigations and supporting technical assessments conducted under DOE Subcontract No. DE-FG26-03NT41795 are reported for the period September 1, 2004 to August 31, 2005. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation, which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and The Pennsylvania State University Energy Institute. The worked described was part of a project entitled ''Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization''. This work involves the development of technologies for the separation and characterization of coal gasification slags from operating gasification units, activation of these materials to increase mercury and nitrogen oxide capture efficiency, assessment of these materials as sorbents for mercury and nitrogen oxides, and characterization of these materials for use as polymer fillers.

  10. Texaco Coal Gasification Process demonstration and commercialization

    SciTech Connect

    Kolaian, J.H.

    1982-05-01

    The status of the Texaco Coal Gasification Process development program is reviewed as it relates to current pilot- and demonstration-scale facilities in the United States and the Federal Republic of Germany. The Texaco gasifier is a pressurized, entrained-bed, slagging gasifier that has evolved over the past 40 years into a process capable of handling a wide range of coal feedstocks producing a versatile medium-heating-value gas with minimal environmental impact. Also discussed are two commercial-size plants, now under construction that incorporate the Texaco gasifier.

  11. Livestock waste-to-energy concepts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently there is interest in energy-value-added products from thermochemical conversion processes using agriculture wastes, namely animal manures. Our objective was to review the application and integration of gasification technology for the treatment and energy conversion of animal manures. Conce...

  12. SYNTHETIC FUEL PRODUCTION FROM SOLID WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The work described in this report has two objectives: first, to evaluate potential catalysts for the commercial practice of the gasification of chars produced by the pyrolysis of municipal or industrial wastes; second, to determine the potential for synthetic fuel production from...

  13. Energy implications of the thermal recovery of biodegradable municipal waste materials in the United Kingdom

    SciTech Connect

    Burnley, Stephen; Phillips, Rhiannon; Coleman, Terry; Rampling, Terence

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > Energy balances were calculated for the thermal treatment of biodegradable wastes. > For wood and RDF, combustion in dedicated facilities was the best option. > For paper, garden and food wastes and mixed waste incineration was the best option. > For low moisture paper, gasification provided the optimum solution. - Abstract: Waste management policies and legislation in many developed countries call for a reduction in the quantity of biodegradable waste landfilled. Anaerobic digestion, combustion and gasification are options for managing biodegradable waste while generating renewable energy. However, very little research has been carried to establish the overall energy balance of the collection, preparation and energy recovery processes for different types of wastes. Without this information, it is impossible to determine the optimum method for managing a particular waste to recover renewable energy. In this study, energy balances were carried out for the thermal processing of food waste, garden waste, wood, waste paper and the non-recyclable fraction of municipal waste. For all of these wastes, combustion in dedicated facilities or incineration with the municipal waste stream was the most energy-advantageous option. However, we identified a lack of reliable information on the energy consumed in collecting individual wastes and preparing the wastes for thermal processing. There was also little reliable information on the performance and efficiency of anaerobic digestion and gasification facilities for waste.

  14. Process for treating fission waste

    DOEpatents

    Rohrmann, Charles A.; Wick, Oswald J.

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for the treatment of fission waste. A glass forming agent, a metal oxide, and a reducing agent are mixed with the fission waste and the mixture is heated. After melting, the mixture separates into a glass phase and a metal phase. The glass phase may be used to safely store the fission waste, while the metal phase contains noble metals recovered from the fission waste.

  15. ADVANCED GASIFICATION-BASED FUEL CONVERSION AND ELECTRIC ENERGY PRODUCTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Rabovitser; Bruce Bryan

    2002-07-01

    Boise Cascade Corporation and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) are cooperating to develop, demonstrate and place in continuous operation an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system suitable for near-term commercial deployment in the Forest Products Industry. The system will be used in conjunction with, rather than in place of, existing wood waste fired boilers and flue gas cleanup systems. The novel system will include three advanced technological components based on GTI's RENUGAS{reg_sign} and three-stage stoker combustion technologies, and a gas turbine-based power generation concept developed in DOE's High Performance Power System (HIPPS) program. The system has, as its objective, to avoid the major hurdles of high-pressure gasification, i.e., high-pressure fuel feeding and ash removal, and hot gas cleaning that are typical for conventional IGCC power generation. It aims to also minimize capital intensity and technology risks. The system is intended to meet the immediate needs of the forest products industry for highly efficient and environmentally friendly electricity and steam generation systems utilizing existing wood waste as fuel resources.

  16. Energy recovery from sewage sludge by means of fluidised bed gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, Bodo; Eder, Christian; Grziwa, Peter; Horst, Juri Kimmerle, Klaus

    2008-07-01

    Because of its potential harmful impact on the environment, disposal of sewage sludge is becoming a major problem all over the world. Today the available disposal measures are at the crossroads. One alternative would be to continue its usage as fertiliser or to abandon it. Due to the discussions about soil contamination caused by sewage sludge, some countries have already prohibited its application in agriculture. In these countries, thermal treatment is now presenting the most common alternative. This report describes two suitable methods to directly convert sewage sludge into useful energy on-site at the wastewater treatment plant. Both processes consist mainly of four devices: dewatering and drying of the sewage sludge, gasification by means of fluidised bed technology (followed by a gas cleaning step) and production of useful energy via CHP units as the final step. The process described first (ETVS-Process) is using a high pressure technique for the initial dewatering and a fluidised bed technology utilising waste heat from the overall process for drying. In the second process (NTVS-Process) in addition to the waste heat, solar radiation is utilised. The subsequent measures - gasification, gas cleaning and electric and thermal power generation - are identical in both processes. The ETVS-Process and the NTVS-Process are self-sustaining in terms of energy use; actually a surplus of heat and electricity is generated in both processes.

  17. Pyrolysis and gasification of meat-and-bone-meal: energy balance and GHG accounting.

    PubMed

    Cascarosa, Esther; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Meat-and-bone-meal (MBM) produced from animal waste has become an increasingly important residual fraction needing management. As biodegradable waste is routed away from landfills, thermo-chemical treatments of MBM are considered promising solution for the future. Pyrolysis and gasification of MBM were assessed based on data from three experimental lab and pilot-scale plants. Energy balances were established for the three technologies, providing different outcomes for energy recovery: bio-oil was the main product for the pyrolysis system, while syngas and a solid fraction of biochar were the main products in the gasification system. These products can be used - eventually after upgrading - for energy production, thereby offsetting energy production elsewhere in the system. Greenhouse gases (GHG) accounting of the technologies showed that all three options provided overall GHG savings in the order of 600-1000kg CO2-eq. per Mg of MBM treated, mainly as a consequence of avoided fossil fuel consumption in the energy sector. Local conditions influencing the environmental performance of the three systems were identified, together with critical factors to be considered during decision-making regarding MBM management. PMID:23916845

  18. Pyrolysis and gasification of meat-and-bone-meal: Energy balance and GHG accounting

    SciTech Connect

    Cascarosa, Esther; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • GHG savings are in the order of 600–1000 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. per Mg of MBM treated. • Energy recovery differed in terms of energy products and efficiencies. • The results were largely determined by use of the products for energy purposes. - Abstract: Meat-and-bone-meal (MBM) produced from animal waste has become an increasingly important residual fraction needing management. As biodegradable waste is routed away from landfills, thermo-chemical treatments of MBM are considered promising solution for the future. Pyrolysis and gasification of MBM were assessed based on data from three experimental lab and pilot-scale plants. Energy balances were established for the three technologies, providing different outcomes for energy recovery: bio-oil was the main product for the pyrolysis system, while syngas and a solid fraction of biochar were the main products in the gasification system. These products can be used – eventually after upgrading – for energy production, thereby offsetting energy production elsewhere in the system. Greenhouse gases (GHG) accounting of the technologies showed that all three options provided overall GHG savings in the order of 600–1000 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. per Mg of MBM treated, mainly as a consequence of avoided fossil fuel consumption in the energy sector. Local conditions influencing the environmental performance of the three systems were identified, together with critical factors to be considered during decision-making regarding MBM management.

  19. Energy recovery from sewage sludge by means of fluidised bed gasification.

    PubMed

    Gross, Bodo; Eder, Christian; Grziwa, Peter; Horst, Juri; Kimmerle, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Because of its potential harmful impact on the environment, disposal of sewage sludge is becoming a major problem all over the world. Today the available disposal measures are at the crossroads. One alternative would be to continue its usage as fertiliser or to abandon it. Due to the discussions about soil contamination caused by sewage sludge, some countries have already prohibited its application in agriculture. In these countries, thermal treatment is now presenting the most common alternative. This report describes two suitable methods to directly convert sewage sludge into useful energy on-site at the wastewater treatment plant. Both processes consist mainly of four devices: dewatering and drying of the sewage sludge, gasification by means of fluidised bed technology (followed by a gas cleaning step) and production of useful energy via CHP units as the final step. The process described first (ETVS-Process) is using a high pressure technique for the initial dewatering and a fluidised bed technology utilising waste heat from the overall process for drying. In the second process (NTVS-Process) in addition to the waste heat, solar radiation is utilised. The subsequent measures--gasification, gas cleaning and electric and thermal power generation--are identical in both processes. The ETVS-Process and the NTVS-Process are self-sustaining in terms of energy use; actually a surplus of heat and electricity is generated in both processes. PMID:17919896

  20. ADVANCED GASIFICATION-BASED FUEL CONVERSION AND ELECTRIC ENERGY PRODUCTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Rabovitser; Bruce Bryan

    2002-01-01

    Boise Cascade Corporation and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) are cooperating to develop, demonstrate and place in continuous operation an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system suitable for near-term commercial deployment in the Forest Products Industry. The system will be used in conjunction with, rather than in place of, existing wood waste fired boilers and flue gas cleanup systems. The novel system will include three advanced technological components based on GTI's RENUGAS{reg_sign} and METHANE de-NOX{reg_sign} technologies, and a gas turbine-based power generation concept developed in DOE's High Performance Power System (HIPPS) program. The system has, as its objective, to avoid the major hurdles of high-pressure gasification, i.e., high-pressure fuel feeding and ash removal, and hot gas cleaning that are typical for conventional IGCC power generation. It aims to also minimize capital intensity and technology risks. The system is intended to meet the immediate needs of the forest products industry for highly efficient and environmentally friendly electricity and steam generation systems utilizing existing wood waste as fuel resources.

  1. Product Chemistry and Process Efficiency of Biomass Torrefaction, Pyrolysis and Gasification Studied by High-Throughput Techniques and Multivariate Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Li

    Despite the great passion and endless efforts on development of renewable energy from biomass, the commercialization and scale up of biofuel production is still under pressure and facing challenges. New ideas and facilities are being tested around the world targeting at reducing cost and improving product value. Cutting edge technologies involving analytical chemistry, statistics analysis, industrial engineering, computer simulation, and mathematics modeling, etc. keep integrating modern elements into this classic research. One of those challenges of commercializing biofuel production is the complexity from chemical composition of biomass feedstock and the products. Because of this, feedstock selection and process optimization cannot be conducted efficiently. This dissertation attempts to further evaluate biomass thermal decomposition process using both traditional methods and advanced technique (Pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry). Focus has been made on data base generation of thermal decomposition products from biomass at different temperatures, finding out the relationship between traditional methods and advanced techniques, evaluating process efficiency and optimizing reaction conditions, comparison of typically utilized biomass feedstock and new search on innovative species for economical viable feedstock preparation concepts, etc. Lab scale quartz tube reactors and 80il stainless steel sample cups coupled with auto-sampling system were utilized to simulate the complicated reactions happened in real fluidized or entrained flow reactors. Two main high throughput analytical techniques used are Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR) and Pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (Py-MBMS). Mass balance, carbon balance, and product distribution are presented in detail. Variations of thermal decomposition temperature range from 200°C to 950°C. Feedstocks used in the study involve typical hardwood and softwood (red oak, white oak, yellow poplar, loblolly pine), fast growing energy crops (switchgrass), and popular forage crop (alfalfa), as well as biochar derived from those materials and their mixtures. It demonstrated that Py-MBMS coupled with MVA could be used as fast analytical tools for the study of not only biomass composition but also its thermal decomposition behaviors. It found that the impact of biomass composition heavily depends on the thermal decomposition temperature because at different temperature, the composition of biomass decomposed and the impact of minerals on the decomposition reaction varies. At low temperature (200-500°C), organic compounds attribute to the majority of variation in thermal decomposition products. At higher temperature, inorganics dramatically changed the pyrolysis pathway of carbohydrates and possibly lignin. In gasification, gasification tar formation is also observed to be impacted by ash content in vapor and char. In real reactor, biochar structure also has interactions with other fractions to make the final pyrolysis and gasification product. Based on the evaluation of process efficiencies during torrefaction, temperature ranging from 275°C to 300°C with short residence time (<10min) are proposed to be optimal torrefaction conditions. 500°C is preferred to 700°C as primary pyrolysis temperature in two stage gasification because higher primary pyrolysis temperature resulted in more tar and less gasification char. Also, in terms of carbon yield, more carbon is lost in tar while less carbon is retained in gas product using 700°C as primary pyrolysis temperature. In addition, pyrolysis char is found to produce less tar and more gas during steam gasification compared with gasification of pyrolysis vapor. Thus it is suggested that torrefaction might be an efficient pretreatment for biomass gasification because it can largely improve the yield of pyrolysis char during the primary pyrolysis step of gasification thus reduce the total tar of the overall gasification products. Future work is suggested in the end.

  2. Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, T. B.

    1980-09-01

    The advantages of biomass as a feedstock are examined and biomass conversion techniques are described. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products gas, wood tars, and charcoal can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

  3. Advanced gasification-based biomass power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.H.; Larson, E.D.

    1993-12-31

    A promising strategy for modernizing bioenergy is the production of electricity or the cogeneration of electricity and heat using gasified biomass with advanced conversion technologies. Major advances that have been made in coal gasification technology, to marry the gas turbine to coal, are readily adaptable to biomass applications. Integrating biomass gasifiers with aeroderivative gas turbines in particular makes it possible to achieve high efficiencies and low unit capital costs at the modest scales required for bioenergy systems. Electricity produced with biomass-integrated gasifier/gas turbine (BIG/GT) power systems not only offers major environmental benefits but also would be competitive with electricity produced from fossil fuels and nuclear energy under a wide range of circumstances. Initial applications will be with biomass residues generated in the sugarcane, pulp and paper, and other agro- and forest-product industries. Eventually, biomass grown for energy purposes on dedicated energy farms will also be used to fuel these gas turbine systems. Continuing improvements in jet engine and biomass gasification technologies will lead to further gains in the performance of BIG/GT systems over the next couple of decades. Fuel cells operated on gasified biomass offer the promise of even higher performance levels in the period beyond the turn of the century. 79 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs.

  4. Texaco Coal Gasification Process: Commercial plant applications

    SciTech Connect

    Siegart, W.R.; Curran, P.F.; Alpert, S.B.

    1986-04-01

    The Texaco Coal Gasification Process (TCGP) has been employed at several commercial scale facilities worldwide, and has matured to the point where it is now an attractive alternative for use in chemical and power facilities. The successful use of the process at existing facilities has yielded valuable performance data and operating experience which can help in optimizing the efficiency of all future TCGP operating plants. This process has been employed for the production of chemicals in the U.S., Japan and West Germany. Other TCGP chemical plants in China, Sweden, West Germany, and the U.S. are now being planned or are under construction. The commercial viability of TCGP for large scale production of electric power has been proven at the 120 MW Cool Water facility in Southern California. The economic and environmental characteristics of the process make it the leading technology option for future electric utility use. One major utility has publicly announced its intent to use gasification in their next power plant and many others are including it in their formal planning process.

  5. Cool Water Coal Gasification Program: an update

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.

    1988-09-01

    Cool Water, cofunded by EPRI et al., is a nominal 120-MW integrated coal gasification and combined-cycle (IGCC) power plant that uses the Texaco coal gasification process. Construction of the IGCC facility at Daggett, California, was completed and operation began in mid 1984. The plant continues to operate successfully on its usual feedstock, a low-sulfur Utah coal, and on several test coals. During high-sulfur coal testing, 32,600 tons of Illinois No. 6 coal and 21,300 tons of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal were burned. In the most recent alternative coal test, 23,000 tons of an Australian coal with a high-ash fusion temperature were gasified. Efforts continue to improve the operability and performance of Cool Water, the nation's first IGCC power plant. Plant capacity and on-stream factors for the last six months of 1987 were 85.3% and 87.6%, respectively. For all of 1987 the factors were 70.5% and 79.3%, compared with 56.7% and 65.9% in 1986 and 49.9% and 61.5% in 1985. 1 table.

  6. ENCOAL mild coal gasification project. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This document is the combination of the fourth quarter report (July--September 1993) and the 1993 annual report for the ENCOAL project. The following pages include the background and process description for the project, brief summaries of the accomplishments for the first three quarters, and a detailed fourth quarter report. Its purpose is to convey the accomplishments and current progress of the project. ENCOAL Corporation, has completed the construction of a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company`s Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by SMC and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). ENCOAL submitted an application to the US Department of Energy (DOE) in August 1989, soliciting joint funding of the project in the third round of the Clean Coal Technology Program. The project was selected by DOE in December, 1989 and the Cooperative Agreement approved in September, 1990. Construction, commissioning, and start-up of the ENCOAL mild coal gasification facility was completed in June of 1992, and the project is currently in the operations phase. Some plant modifications have been required and are discussed in this report.

  7. Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, T.B.

    1980-09-01

    All the products now obtained from oil can be provided by thermal conversion of the solid fuels biomass and coal. As a feedstock, biomass has many advantages over coal and has the potential to supply up to 20% of US energy by the year 2000 and significant amounts of energy for other countries. However, it is imperative that in producing biomass for energy we practice careful land use. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed-bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized-bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products - gas, wood tars, and charcoal - can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best-developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel today, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

  8. Solar gasification of biomass: design and characterization of a molten salt gasification reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hathaway, Brandon Jay

    The design and implementation of a prototype molten salt solar reactor for gasification of biomass is a significant milestone in the development of a solar gasification process. The reactor developed in this work allows for 3 kWth operation with an average aperture flux of 1530 suns at salt temperatures of 1200 K with pneumatic injection of ground or powdered dry biomass feedstocks directly into the salt melt. Laboratory scale experiments in an electrically heated reactor demonstrate the benefits of molten salt and the data was evaluated to determine the kinetics of pyrolysis and gasification of biomass or carbon in molten salt. In the presence of molten salt overall gas yields are increased by up to 22%; pyrolysis rates double due to improved heat transfer, while carbon gasification rates increase by an order of magnitude. Existing kinetic models for cellulose pyrolysis fit the data well, while carbon gasification in molten salt follows kinetics modeled with a 2/3 order shrinking-grain model with a pre-exponential factor of 1.5*106 min-1 and activation energy of 158 kJ/mol. A reactor concept is developed based around a concentric cylinder geometry with a cavity-style solar receiver immersed within a volume of molten carbonate salt. Concentrated radiation delivered to the cavity is absorbed in the cavity walls and transferred via convection to the salt volume. Feedstock is delivered into the molten salt volume where biomass gasification reactions will be carried out producing the desired product gas. The features of the cavity receiver/reactor concept are optimized based on modeling of the key physical processes. The cavity absorber geometry is optimized according to a parametric survey of radiative exchange using a Monte Carlo ray tracing model, resulting in a cavity design that achieves absorption efficiencies of 80%-90%. A parametric survey coupling the radiative exchange simulations to a CFD model of molten salt natural convection is used to size the annulus containing the molten salt to maximize utilization of absorbed solar energy, resulting in a predicted utilization efficiency of 70%. Finite element analysis was used to finalize the design to achieve acceptable thermal stresses less than 34.5 MPa to avoid material creep.

  9. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment VIII. The wood-fueled gasification system, Evergreen Energy Corporation's final engineering report

    SciTech Connect

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    Evergreen Energy Corporation provided projected cost and operating data on the Evergreen/Texaco entrained-bed wood gasification system currently under development as an alternative to the state-of-the-art fixed-bed wood gasification system proposed by Davy McKee. Overall capital costs for the total plant remain about the same at approx. $250 million. The Evergreen/Texaco system will provide significant capital cost savings in the gasifiers, gas cleanup, and waste water treatment sections, and eliminate the need for a large off-site wood-fired power boiler. These reductions are offset by higher investments in the feedstock preparation, drying, and feeding section plus the need for a larger air separation plant and compressor to supply oxygen at high pressure to the gasifier.

  10. LWA demonstration applications using Illinois coal gasification slag: Phase II. Technical report, 1 March--31 May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhry, V.; Steck, P.

    1994-09-01

    The major objective of this project is to demonstrate the suitability of using ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) produced by thermal expansion of solid residues (slag) generated during the gasification of Illinois coals as substitutes for conventional aggregates, which are typically produced by pyroprocessing of perlite ores. To meet this objective, expanded slag aggregates produced from an Illinois coal slag feed in Phase I will be subjected to characterization and applications-oriented testing. Target applications include the following: aggregates in precast products (blocks and rooftiles); construction aggregates (loose fill insulation and insulating concrete); and other applications as identified from evaluation of expanded slag properties. The production of value-added products from slag is aimed at eliminating a solid waste and possibly enhancing the overall economics of the gasification process, especially when the avoided costs of disposal are taken into consideration.

  11. Experimental analysis of biomass gasification with steam and oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.; Kinoshita, C.M. )

    1992-09-01

    Parametric tests are performed on an indirectly heated, fluidized bed biomass gasifier. The test system allows feedstock, oxygen, nitrogen, and steam flow rates, and temperature to be controlled independently. Gas residence time, temperature, equivalence ratio, and steam:biomass ratio are varied, and product gas composition and select gasification parameters are evaluated and compared with theoretical predictions. Methanol, produced via biomass gasification, has the potential to contribute substantially to future supplies of renewable transportation fuels. Technoeconomic analyses have indicated that gasification of biomass for methanol synthesis can be economically feasible where biomass can be grown and processed efficiently and in sufficient quantities. Substantial research on biomass gasification has been performed during the past decade, employing different gasifier configurations, oxidants, and modes of heating. However, most of the biomass gasification studies performed to date have focused on the production of direct-combustion gases, not on the production of a synthesis gas for subsequent conversion into methanol. Moreover, very little experimental research has been performed to analyze the influence of gasification parameters on product gas composition and gasifier performance. Thus, important information that could significantly impact the design and operation of biomass gasifiers and, ultimately, the yield and cost of producing methanol from biomass, is largely lacking. This experimental work attempts to fill that void by correlating actual gasification behavior with theoretical predictions, with the overall goal of optimizing the conversion of biomass into methanol.

  12. Wabash River coal gasification repowering project: Public design report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project (the Project), conceived in October of 1990 and selected by the US Department of Energy as a Clean Coal IV demonstration project in September 1991, is expected to begin commercial operations in August of 1995. The Participants, Destec Energy, Inc., (Destec) of Houston, Texas and PSI Energy, Inc., (PSI) of Plainfield, Indiana, formed the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project Joint Venture (the JV) to participate in the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program by demonstrating the coal gasification repowering of an existing 1950`s vintage generating unit affected by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). The Participants, acting through the JV, signed the Cooperative Agreement with the DOE in July 1992. The Participants jointly developed, and separately designed, constructed, own, and will operate an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (CGCC) power plant using Destec`s coal gasification technology to repower Unit {number_sign}1 at PSI`s Wabash River Generating Station located in Terre Haute, Indiana. PSI is responsible for the new power generation facilities and modification of the existing unit, while Destec is responsible for the coal gasification plant. The Project demonstrates integration of the pre-existing steam turbine generator, auxiliaries, and coal handling facilities with a new combustion turbine generator/heat recovery steam generator tandem and the coal gasification facilities.

  13. Launch Vehicle with Combustible Polyethylene Case Gasification Chamber Design Basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yemets, V.

    A single-stage launch vehicle equipped with a combustible tank shell of polyethylene and a moving propulsion plant is proposed. The propulsion plant is composed of a chamber for the gasification of the shell, a compressor of pyrolysed polyethylene and a magnetic powder obturator. It is shown that the “dental” structure of the gasification chamber is necessary to achieve the necessary contact area with the polyethylene shell. This conclusion is drawn from consideration of the thermo- physical properties of polyethylene, calculating quasisteady temperature field in the gasification chamber, estimating gasification rate of polyethylene, launch vehicle shortening rate and area of gasification. Experimental determination of the gasification rate is described. The gasification chamber specific mass as well as the propulsion plant weight-to-thrust ratio are estimated under some assumptions concerning the obturator and compressor. Combustible launch vehicles are compared with conventional launch vehicles taking into consideration their payload mass ratios. Combustible launchers are preferable as small launchers for micro and nano satellites. Reusable versions of such launchers seem suitable if polyethylene tank shells filled with metal or metal hydride fine dusts are used.

  14. Evaluation of treatment technologies for water reuse in coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Luthy, R.G.; Campbell, J.R.; McLaughlin, L.; Walters, R.W.

    1980-07-01

    This investigation assessed significant issues and conducted bench scale experiments pertinent to management and reuse of coal coking and coal gasification process wastewaters. For the case of high-BTU coal gasification processes, the cooling tower is the most likely target for reuse of process wastewater. Treatment studies were performed with high BTU pilot coal gasification process quench waters to evaluate enhanced organic removal via powdered activated carbon-activated sludge treatment, and to evaluate a coal gasification wastewater treatment train comprised of sequential processing via ammonia removal, biological oxidation, lime-soda softening, granular activated carbon adsorption and reverse osmosis. Biological oxidation of coal gasification wastewater showed excellent removal efficiencies at moderate loadings; addition of powdered activated carbon provided lower effluent COD and color. Gasification process wastewater treated through activated carbon adsorption appears suitable for reuse as cooling tower make-up water. Screening studies indicate that reverse osmosis is an attractive technique for reducing wastewater dissolved solids. Additional study is needed to determine quality constraints regarding acceptable wastewater organic loading in cooling tower make-up water, and to evaluate possible release of toxic/hazardous organics to the environment via cooling tower drift. Additional follow-up work to this study is in progress to evaluate solvent extraction of gasification process wastewaters to recover phenolics and to reduce priority organic pollutants.

  15. GASIFICATION PLANT COST AND PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel S. Tam

    2002-05-01

    The goal of this series of design and estimating efforts was to start from the as-built design and actual operating data from the DOE sponsored Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project and to develop optimized designs for several coal and petroleum coke IGCC power and coproduction projects. First, the team developed a design for a grass-roots plant equivalent to the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project to provide a starting point and a detailed mid-year 2000 cost estimate based on the actual as-built plant design and subsequent modifications (Subtask 1.1). This unoptimized plant has a thermal efficiency of 38.3% (HHV) and a mid-year 2000 EPC cost of 1,681 $/kW. This design was enlarged and modified to become a Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant (Subtask 1.2) that produces hydrogen, industrial grade steam, and fuel gas for an adjacent Gulf Coast petroleum refinery in addition to export power. A structured Value Improving Practices (VIP) approach was applied to reduce costs and improve performance. The base case (Subtask 1.3) Optimized Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant increased the power output by 16% and reduced the plant cost by 23%. The study looked at several options for gasifier sparing to enhance availability. Subtask 1.9 produced a detailed report on this availability analyses study. The Subtask 1.3 Next Plant, which retains the preferred spare gasification train approach, only reduced the cost by about 21%, but it has the highest availability (94.6%) and produces power at 30 $/MW-hr (at a 12% ROI). Thus, such a coke-fueled IGCC coproduction plant could fill a near term niche market. In all cases, the emissions performance of these plants is superior to the Wabash River project. Subtasks 1.5A and B developed designs for single-train coal and coke-fueled power plants. This side-by-side comparison of these plants, which contain the Subtask 1.3 VIP enhancements, showed their similarity both in design and cost (1,318 $/kW for the coal plant and 1,260 $/kW for the coke plant). Therefore, in the near term, a coke IGCC power plant could penetrate the market and provide a foundation for future coal-fueled facilities. Subtask 1.6 generated a design, cost estimate and economics for a multiple train coal-fueled IGCC powerplant, also based on the Subtaks 1.3 cases. The Subtask 1.6 four gasification train plant has a thermal efficiency of 40.6% (HHV) and cost 1,066 $/kW. The single-train advanced Subtask 1.4 plant, which uses an advanced ''G/H-class'' combustion turbine, can have a thermal efficiency of 45.4% (HHV) and a plant cost of 1,096 $/kW. Multi-train plants will further reduce the cost. Again, all these plants have superior emissions performance. Subtask 1.7 developed an optimized design for a coal to hydrogen plant. At current natural gas prices, this facility is not competitive with hydrogen produced from natural gas. The preferred scenario is to coproduce hydrogen in a plant similar to Subtask 1.3, as described above. Subtask 1.8 evaluated the potential merits of warm gas cleanup technology. This study showed that selective catalytic oxidation of hydrogen sulfide (SCOHS) is promising. As gasification technology matures, SCOHS and other improvements identified in this study will lead to further cost reductions and efficiency improvements.

  16. The role of high-Btu coal gasification technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, M. I.

    An analysis is given of the role and economic potential of Lurgi-technology gasification of coal to the year 2000, in relation to other gas-supply options, the further development of gasifier designs, and probable environmental impact. It is predicted that coal gasification may reach 10% of total gas supplies by the year 2000, with Eastern U.S. coal use reaching commercially significant use in the 1990's. It is concluded that coal gasification is the cleanest way of using coal, with minimal physical, chemical, biological and socioeconomic impacts.

  17. Techniques for Mercury Control and Measurement in Gasification Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Granite, E.J.; King, W.P.; Pennline, H.W.

    2002-09-20

    A major concern for power systems that use coal as an energy source is the air emissions from the plant. Although certain air emissions are currently regulated, the emergence of new regulations for other pollutants are on the horizon. Gasification is an important strategy for increasing the utilization of abundant domestic coal reserves. The Department of Energy envisions increased use of gasification in the United States during the next twenty years. As such, the DOE Gasification Technologies Program will strive to approach a near-zero emissions goal with respect to pollutants. The mercury research detailed in this proposal addresses the Gas Cleaning and Conditioning program technology area.

  18. Method for in situ gasification of a subterranean coal bed

    DOEpatents

    Shuck, Lowell Z.

    1977-05-31

    The method of the present invention relates to providing controlled directional bores in subterranean earth formations, especially coal beds for facilitating in situ gasification operations. Boreholes penetrating the coal beds are interconnected by laser-drilled bores disposed in various arrays at selected angles to the major permeability direction in the coal bed. These laser-drilled bores are enlarged by fracturing prior to the gasification of the coal bed to facilitate the establishing of combustion zones of selected configurations in the coal bed for maximizing the efficiency of the gasification operation.

  19. Why energy from waste incineration is an essential component of environmentally responsible waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Porteous, A. . E-mail: s.j.lumbers@open.ac.uk

    2005-07-01

    This paper outlines the key factors involved in adopting energy from waste incineration (EfWI) as part of a waste management strategy. Incineration means all forms of controlled direct combustion of waste. 'Emerging' technologies, such as gasification, are, in the author's view, 5 to 10 years from proven commercial application. The strict combustion regimen employed and the emissions therefrom are detailed. It is shown that EfWI merits consideration as an integral part of an environmentally responsible and sustainable waste management strategy, where suitable quantities of waste are available.

  20. Availability analysis of an integrated gasification-combined cycle: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) contracted with ARINC Research Corporation to perform availability assessments of an integrated coal gasification-combined-cycle (IGCC) design. The objective of the study was to quantify the availability impact associated with several design and operating options specified by EPRI. In addition, several scheduled maintenance options for the IGCC plant were evaluated. The IGCC plant addressed in this analysis employs many modular design features that give the plant high equivalent availability through redundancy. The study focused on evaluating and quantifying the expected changes in unit capability, equivalent availability, and heat rate associated with various design alternatives. The findings of the baseline case studies are as follows: (1) The Baseline IGCC design using four gasifiers with 11.2% spare gasification capacity and three combustion turbine/HRSGs sets will have an expected equivalent availability of 86.18% and an average heat rate of 9002 Btu/kWh. (2) The Baseline with Supplemental Firing design using four gasifiers with the 11.2% spare gasification capacity being used to produce supplemental steam and with three combustion turbine HRSG sets will have an expected equivalent availability of 85.64% and an average heat rate of 9147 Btu/kWh. (3) The Baseline with Natural Gas Backup design using four gasifiers and three combustion turbine/HRSG sets with supplemental natural gas backup will have an expected equivalent availability of 91.53% with an average heat rate of 8981 Btu/kWh and a coal-to-natural gas fuel mixture of 23:1. 49 figs., 66 tabs.