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1

A comparison of circulating fluidised bed combustion and gasification power plant technologies for processing mixtures of coal, biomass and plastic waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental regulations concerning emission limitations from the use of fossil fuels in large combustion plants have stimulated interest in biomass for electricity generation.The main objective of the present study was to examine the technical and economic viability of using combustion and gasification of coal mixed with biomass and plastic wastes, with the aim of developing an environmentally acceptable process to

D. R. McIlveen-Wright; F. Pinto; L. Armesto; M. A. Caballero; M. P. Aznar; A. Cabanillas; Y. Huang; C. Franco; I. Gulyurtlu; J. T. McMullan

2006-01-01

2

High temperature steam gasification of solid wastes: Characteristics and kinetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greater use of renewable energy sources is of pinnacle importance especially with the limited reserves of fossil fuels. It is expected that future energy use will have increased utilization of different energy sources, including biomass, municipal solid wastes, industrial wastes, agricultural wastes and other low grade fuels. Gasification is a good practical solution to solve the growing problem of landfills, with simultaneous energy extraction and nonleachable minimum residue. Gasification also provides good solution to the problem of plastics and rubber in to useful fuel. The characteristics and kinetics of syngas evolution from the gasification of different samples is examined here. The characteristics of syngas based on its quality, distribution of chemical species, carbon conversion efficiency, thermal efficiency and hydrogen concentration has been examined. Modeling the kinetics of syngas evolution from the process is also examined. Models are compared with the experimental results. Experimental results on the gasification and pyrolysis of several solid wastes, such as, biomass, plastics and mixture of char based and plastic fuels have been provided. Differences and similarities in the behavior of char based fuel and a plastic sample has been discussed. Global reaction mechanisms of char based fuel as well polystyrene gasification are presented based on the characteristic of syngas evolution. The mixture of polyethylene and woodchips gasification provided superior results in terms of syngas yield, hydrogen yield, total hydrocarbons yield, energy yield and apparent thermal efficiency from polyethylene-woodchips blends as compared to expected weighed average yields from gasification of the individual components. A possible interaction mechanism has been established to explain the synergetic effect of co-gasification of woodchips and polyethylene. Kinetics of char gasification is presented with special consideration of sample temperature, catalytic effect of ash, geometric changes of pores inside char and diffusion limitations inside and outside the char particle.

Gomaa, Islam Ahmed

3

Plasma gasification of waste as a method of energy saving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several versions of the organizations of the process of plasma-chemical gasification with the use of air, carbon dioxide, steam and their mixtures as the plasma-forming gas are considered in the presentation. The results of the calculation-theoretical evaluations of the quality of synthesis gas and efficiency of gasification, and also the results of experiments on plasma gasification of wood waste carried out on the experimental IEE RAS test-bench are given. The results of calculations are compared with experimental data.

Popov, V. E.; Bratsev, A. N.; Kuznetsov, V. A.; Shtengel, S. V.; Ufimtsev, A. A.

2011-01-01

4

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures'', is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (GT). The aims of the project are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal; evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods

1999-01-01

5

Catalytic Gasification of Coal using Eutectic Salt Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and conduct an

Atul Sheth; Pradeep Agrawal; Yaw D. Yeboah

1998-01-01

6

Catalytic Gasification of Coal using Eutectic Salt Mixtures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of this study are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; eva...

Atul Sheth Pradeep Agrawal Yaw D. Yeboah

1998-01-01

7

Distributed gasification and power generation from solid wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small-scale gasification system for solid wastes has been developed and tested. In this innovative system, known as the STAR-MEET system, a fixed-bed pyrolyzer combined with a high temperature steam\\/air reformer is employed. From the experimental results using wood chips and polyolefin sheets as feedstocks, it has been demonstrated that injection of high temperature steam\\/air mixture into the pyrolysis gas

T. J. Min; K. Yoshikawa; K. Murakami

2005-01-01

8

Pyrolysis and gasification of food waste: Syngas characteristics and char gasification kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristics of syngas from the pyrolysis and gasification of food waste has been investigated. Characteristic differences in syngas properties and overall yields from pyrolysis and gasification were determined at two distinct high temperatures of 800 and 900°C. Pyrolysis and gasification behavior were evaluated in terms of syngas flow rate, hydrogen flow rate, output power, total syngas yield, total hydrogen yield,

I. I. Ahmed; A. K. Gupta

2010-01-01

9

Catalytic Gasification of Coal using Eutectic Salt Mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this study are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. A review of the collected literature was carried out. The catalysts which have been used for gasification can be roughly classified under the following five groups: alkali metal salts; alkaline earth metal oxides and salts; mineral substances or ash in coal; transition metals and their oxides and salts; and eutectic salt mixtures. Studies involving the use of gasification catalysts have been conducted. However, most of the studies focused on the application of individual catalysts. Only two publications have reported the study of gasification of coal char in CO2 and steam catalyzed by eutectic salt mixture catalysts. By using the eutectic mixtures of salts that show good activity as individual compounds, the gasification temperature can be reduced possibly with still better activity and gasification rates due to improved dispersion of the molten catalyst on the coal particles. For similar metal/carbon atomic ratios, eutectic catalysts were found to be consistently more active than their respective single salts. But the exact roles that the eutectic salt mixtures play in these are not well understood and details of the mechanisms remain unclear. The effects of the surface property of coals and the application methods of eutectic salt mixture catalysts with coal chars on the reactivity of gasification will be studied. Based on our preliminary evaluation of the literature, a ternary eutectic salt mixture consisting of Li- Na- and K- carbonates has the potential as gasification catalyst. To verify the literature reported, melting points for various compositions consisting of these three salts and the temperature range over which the mixture remained molten were determined in the lab. For mixtures with different concentrations of the three salts, the temperatures at which the mixtures were found to be in complete molten state were recorded. By increasing the amount of Li2CO3, the melting temperature range was reduced significantly. In the literature, the eutectic mixtures of Li- Na- and K-carbonates are claimed to have a lower activation energy than that of K2CO3 alone and they remain molten at a lower temperature than pure K2CO3. The slow increase in the gasification rates with eutectics reported in the literature is believed to be due to a gradual penetration of the coals and coal char particles by the molten and viscous catalyst phase. The even spreading of the salt phase seems to increase the overall carbon conversion rate. In the next reporting period, a number of eutectic salts and methods of their application on the coal will be identified and tested.

Atul Sheth; Pradeep Agrawal; Yaw D. Yeboah

1998-12-04

10

Hydrogen recovery from the thermal plasma gasification of solid waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal plasma gasification has been demonstrated as one of the most effective and environmentally friendly methods for solid waste treatment and energy utilization in many of studies. Therefore, the thermal plasma process of solid waste gasification (paper mill waste, 1.2 ton\\/day) was applied for the recovery of high purity H2 (>99.99%). Gases emitted from a gasification furnace equipped with a

Youngchul Byun; Moohyun Cho; Jae Woo Chung; Won Namkung; Hyeon Don Lee; Sung Duk Jang; Young-Suk Kim; Jin-Ho Lee; Carg-Ro Lee; Soon-Mo Hwang

2011-01-01

11

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

The project, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures'', is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (GT). The aims of the project are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal; evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods to improve catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (e.g., temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts in a bench-scale fixed bed reactor; and conduct thorough analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. The eutectic catalysts increased gasification rate significantly. The methods of catalyst preparation and addition had significant effect on the catalytic activity and coal gasification. The incipient wetness method gave more uniform catalyst distribution than that of physical mixing for the soluble catalysts resulting in higher gasification rates for the incipient wetness samples. The catalytic activity increased by varying degrees with catalyst loading. The above results are especially important since the eutectic catalysts (with low melting points) yield significant gasification rates even at low temperatures. Among the ternary eutectic catalysts studied, the system 39% Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-38.5% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-22.5% Rb{sub 2}CO{sub 3} showed the best activity and will be used for further bench scale fixed-bed gasification reactor in the next period. Based on the Clark Atlanta University studies in the previous reporting period, the project team selected the 43.5% Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-31.5% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-25% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} ternary eutectic and the 29% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-71% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} binary eutectic for the fixed-bed studies at UTSI during this reporting period. Temperature was found to have a significant effect on the rate of gasification of coal. The rate of gasification increased up to 1400 F. Pressure did not have much effect on the gasification rates. The catalyst loading increased the gasification rate and approached complete conversion when 10 wt% of catalyst was added to the coal. Upon further increasing the catalyst amount to 20-wt% and above, there was no significant rise in gasification rate. The rate of gasification was lower for a 2:1 steam to char molar ratio (60%) compared to gasification rates at 3.4:1 molar ratio of steam-to-char where the conversion approached 100%. The characterization results of Georgia Tech are very preliminary and inconclusive and will be made available in the next report.

Unknown

1999-04-01

12

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

This is the progress report for the DOE grant DE-FG26-97FT97263 entitled, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures'' for the period April 1999 to October 1999. The project is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University, the University of Tennessee Space Institute and Georgia Institute of Technology. The overall objectives of the project are to identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature and system pressure) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and conduct thorough analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. During this reporting period, free swelling index measurements of the coal, fixed-bed gasification experiments, kinetic modeling of the catalyzed gasification, and X-ray diffraction analysis of catalyst and gasified char samples were undertaken. The gasification experiments were carried out using two different eutectic salt mixtures of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (LNK) system and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (NK) system. The gasification process followed a Langmuir-Hinshelwood type model. At 10 wt% of catalyst loading, the activation energy of the ternary catalyst system (LNK) was about half (98kJ/mol) the activation energy of the single catalyst system (K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}), which is about 170 kJ/ mole. The binary catalyst system (NK) showed activation energy of about 201 kJ/mol, which is slightly higher, compared to the K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} catalyst system. The ternary catalyst system was a much better eutectic catalyst system compared to the binary or single catalyst system. In general, a eutectic with a melting point less than the gasification temperature is a better substitute to the single alkali metal salts because they have good catalyst distribution and dispersion in the carbon matrix. The free selling index of the coal was about 1.5 (1 to 2) in comparison to 2.5 (2 to 3) for the coal samples with ternary eutectic. The results for the raw coal were consistent with those from the Penn State Coal Bank. The XRD characterization showed unidentified peaks in the spectra of some of the samples and require further studies to draw any conclusions at the point.

NONE

1999-10-01

13

Gasification of Waste as Fuel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The idea of the project is to gasify municipal waste and thereafter combust the gas during controlled conditions. Thus is should be possible to accomplish two important advantages compared with traditional incineration: - a controlled end combustion which...

T. Torisson S. Groenqvist B. Toecksberg

1987-01-01

14

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

This progress report on the Department of Energy project DE-FG-97FT97263 entitled, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures'', covers the period April-September 1998. The specific aims of the project for this period were to identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal, evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods to improve catalyst dispersion, and evaluate gasification performance in a bench-scale fixed bed reactor. The project is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) with CAU as the prime contractor. Several single salt catalysts and binary and ternary eutectic catalysts were investigated at Clark Atlanta University. Physical mixing and incipient wetness methods were investigated as catalyst addition techniques. Gasification was carried out using TGA at CAU and UTSI and with a fixed-bed reactor at UTSI. The results showed better gasification activity in the presence of the catalysts tested. The eutectic salt studies showed clear agreement between the melting points of the prepared eutectics and reported literature values. The order of catalytic activity observed was ternary > binary > single salt. With the soluble single salt catalysts, the incipient wetness method was found to give better results than physical mixing technique. Also, catalyst preparation conditions such as catalyst loading, drying time and temperature were found to influence the gasification rate. Based on the Clark Atlanta University studies on Task 1, the project team selected the 43.5%Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-31.5%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-25%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} ternary eutectic and the 29%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-71%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and 2.3% KNO{sub 3}-97.7%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} binary eutectic for the fixed bed studies at UTSI. The eutectic salts were found to be highly insoluble in aqueous medium. As a result the technique of adding the eutectic to the raw coal was found to be better than using wet methods. Also, addition of the catalyst to the raw coal appeared to give better gasification results than addition to pyrolyzed coal. In addition, eutectic catalysts added to the coal yielded better gasification rates than rates obtained by mixing the individual salts in the eutectic ratio with the coal. These results, especially with the eutectic catalysts are very significant since the use of the low melting eutectics will reduce the severity of gasification processes.

NONE

2000-04-01

15

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

This progress report on the Department of Energy project DE-FG-97FT97263 entitled, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures,'' covers the period April-September 1998. The specific aims of the project for this period were to identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal, evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods to improve catalyst dispersion, and evaluate gasification performance in a bench-scale fixed bed reactor. The project is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) with CAU as the prime contractor. Several single salt catalysts and binary and ternary eutectic catalysts were investigated at Clark Atlanta University. Physical mixing and incipient wetness methods were investigated as catalyst addition techniques. Gasification was carried out using TGA at CAU and UTSI and with a fixed-bed reactor at UTSI. The results showed better gasification activity in the presence of the catalysts tested. The eutectic salt studies showed clear agreement between the melting points of the prepared eutectics and reported literature values. The order of catalytic activity observed was ternary > binary > single salt. With the soluble single salt catalysts, the incipient wetness method was found to give better results than physical mixing technique. Also, catalyst preparation conditions such as catalyst loading, drying time and temperature were found to influence the gasification rate. Based on the Clark Atlanta University studies on Task 1, the project team selected the 43.5%Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-31.5%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-25%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} ternary eutectic and the 29%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-71%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and 2.3%KNO{sub 3}-97.7%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} binary eutectic for the fixed bed studies at UTSI. The eutectic salts were found to be highly insoluble in aqueous medium. As a result the technique of adding the eutectic to the raw coal was found to be better than using wet methods. Also, addition of the catalyst to the raw coal appeared to give better gasification results than addition to pyrolyzed coal. In addition, eutectic catalysts added to the coal yielded better gasification rates than rates obtained by mixing the individual salts in the eutectic ratio with the coal. These results, especially with the eutectic catalysts are very significant since the use of the low melting eutectics will reduce the severity of gasification processes.

NONE

1998-10-01

16

Gasification of biomass wastes and residues for electricity production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technical feasibility and the economic and environmental performance of atmospheric gasification of biomass wastes and residues integrated with a combined cycle for electricity production are investigated for Dutch conditions. The system selected for study is an atmospheric circulating fluidized bed gasifier-combined cycle (ACFBCC) plant based on the General Electric LM 2500 gas turbine and atmospheric gasification technology, including flue

René van Ree; Lars Waldheim; Eva Olsson; André Oudhuis; Ad van Wijk; Cees Daey-Ouwens; Wim Turkenburg

1997-01-01

17

Hydrogen production by gasification of municipal solid waste  

SciTech Connect

As fossil fuel reserves run lower and lower, and as their continued widespread use leads toward numerous environmental problems, the need for clean and sustainable energy alternatives becomes ever clearer. Hydrogen fuel holds promise as such as energy source, as it burns cleanly and can be extracted from a number of renewable materials such as municipal solid waste (MSW), which can be considered largely renewable because of its high content of paper and biomass-derived products. A computer model is being developed using ASPEN Plus flow sheeting software to simulate a process which produces hydrogen gas from MSW; the model will later be used in studying the economics of this process and is based on an actual Texaco coal gasification plant design. This paper gives an overview of the complete MSW gasification process, and describes in detail the way in which MSW is modeled by the computer as a process material. In addition, details of the gasifier unit model are described; in this unit modified MSW reacts under pressure with oxygen and steam to form a mixture of gases which include hydrogen.

Rogers, R. III

1994-05-20

18

Prediction of syngas quality for two-stage gasification of selected waste feedstocks.  

PubMed

This paper compares the syngas produced from methane with the syngas obtained from the gasification, in a two-stage reactor, of various waste feedstocks. The syngas composition and the gasification conditions were simulated using a simple thermodynamic model. The waste feedstocks considered are: landfill gas, waste oil, municipal solid waste (MSW) typical of a low-income country, the same MSW blended with landfill gas, refuse derived fuel (RDF) made from the same MSW, the same RDF blended with waste oil and a MSW typical of a high-income country. Energy content, the sum of H2 and CO gas percentages, and the ratio of H2 to CO are considered as measures of syngas quality. The simulation shows that landfill gas gives the best results in terms of both H2+CO and H2/CO, and that the MSW of low-income countries can be expected to provide inferior syngas on all three quality measures. Co-gasification of the MSW from low-income countries with landfill gas, and the mixture of waste oil with RDF from low-income MSW are considered as options to improve gas quality. PMID:15219922

De Filippis, Paolo; Borgianni, Carlo; Paolucci, Martino; Pochetti, Fausto

2004-01-01

19

Treatment of Mixed Wastes via Fixed Bed Gasification  

SciTech Connect

This report outlines the details of research performed under USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-96MC33258 to evaluate the ChemChar hazardous waste system for the destruction of mixed wastes, defined as those that contain both RCRA-regulated haz- ardous constituents and radionuclides. The ChemChar gasification system uses a granular carbonaceous char matrix to immobilize wastes and feed them into the gasifier. In the gasifier wastes are subjected to high temperature reducing conditions, which destroy the organic constituents and immobilize radionuclides on the regenerated char. Only about 10 percent of the char is consumed on each pass through the gasifier, and the regenerated char can be used to treat additional wastes. When tested on a 4-inch diameter scale with a continuous feed unit as part of this research, the ChemChar gasification system was found to be effective in destroying RCRA surrogate organic wastes (chlorobenzene, dichloroben- zene, and napht.halene) while retaining on the char RCRA heavy metals (chromium, nickel, lead, and cadmium) as well as a fission product surrogate (cesium) and a plutonium surrogate (cerium). No generation of harmful byproducts was observed. This report describes the design and testing of the ChemChar gasification system and gives the operating procedures to be followed in using the system safely and effectively for mixed waste treatment.

None

1998-10-28

20

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

Most of the tasks on the project have successfully been completed and reported. A 12 month no-cost extension has been requested to complete the remaining tasks. This report summarizes the accomplishments of the first six months of the no-cost extensions period. The acetic acid extraction showed that acetic acid has more effect on the extraction of the ternary catalyst (LNK) ions than water. Based on the extraction results, the order of the recovery capability of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} using acetic acid, sulfuric acid and water extractions is sulfuric acid {ge} acetic acid > water; the order for K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} is sulfuric acid > water >acetic acid; and the order for Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} is acetic acid > sulfuric acid >water. A process flowsheet for the catalyst recovery process was proposed based on the results. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies showed most of the particles (coal) appear amorphous. Some coal particles are as large as 50-60 {micro}m, but most are smaller. One can also easily see a few crystalline particles (10-20 {micro}m) with sharp facets and corners. The electron micrographs of gasified char samples (reactor-aged) of the LNKcoal mixture showed that a dramatic change is obvious in the morphology and crystallinity of the sample and is consistent with the results obtained from the x-ray diffraction studies. XRD studies of reactor-aged samples showed a substantial increase in the sample crystallinity (due to the gasification of amorphous carbon). The eutectic salt presumably mostly converted to sulfates.

Atul Sheth; Chandramouli Sastry

2001-03-31

21

Characterization of cellulosic wastes and gasification products from chicken farms.  

PubMed

The current article focuses on gasification as a primary disposal solution for cellulosic wastes derived from chicken farms, and the possibility to recover energy from this process. Wood shavings and chicken litter were characterized with a view to establishing their thermal parameters, compositional natures and calorific values. The main products obtained from the gasification of chicken litter, namely, producer gas, bio-oil and char, were also analysed in order to establish their potential as energy sources. The experimental protocol included bomb calorimetry, pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC), thermo-gravimetric analyses (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, elemental analyses, X-ray diffraction (XRD), mineral content analyses and gas chromatography. The mass and energy balances of the gasification unit were also estimated. The results obtained confirmed that gasification is a viable method of chicken litter disposal. In addition to this, it is also possible to recover some energy from the process. However, energy content in the gas-phase was relatively low. This might be due to the low energy efficiency (19.6%) of the gasification unit, which could be improved by changing the operation parameters. PMID:22014379

Joseph, Paul; Tretsiakova-McNally, Svetlana; McKenna, Siobhan

2011-10-19

22

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the

Yaw D. Yeboah; Yong Xu; Atul Sheth; Pradeep Agrawal

2001-01-01

23

Gasification of biomass\\/high density polyethylene mixtures in a downdraft gasifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, an experimental study of the thermal decomposition of mixtures of wood particles and high density polyethylene in different atmospheres has been carried out in a downdraft gasifier with a nominal processing capacity of 50kg\\/h. The main objective was to study the feasibility of the operation of the gasification plant using mixtures and to investigate the characteristics of

P. García-Bacaicoa; J. F. Mastral; J. Ceamanos; C. Berrueco; S. Serrano

2008-01-01

24

Characterization of cellulosic wastes and gasification products from chicken farms  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The gas chromatography indicated the variable quality of the producer gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The char had appreciable NPK values, and can be used as a fertiliser. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The bio-oil produced was of poor quality, having high moisture content and low pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mass and energy balances showed inadequate level energy recovery from the process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Future work includes changing the operating parameters of the gasification unit. - Abstract: The current article focuses on gasification as a primary disposal solution for cellulosic wastes derived from chicken farms, and the possibility to recover energy from this process. Wood shavings and chicken litter were characterized with a view to establishing their thermal parameters, compositional natures and calorific values. The main products obtained from the gasification of chicken litter, namely, producer gas, bio-oil and char, were also analysed in order to establish their potential as energy sources. The experimental protocol included bomb calorimetry, pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC), thermo-gravimetric analyses (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, elemental analyses, X-ray diffraction (XRD), mineral content analyses and gas chromatography. The mass and energy balances of the gasification unit were also estimated. The results obtained confirmed that gasification is a viable method of chicken litter disposal. In addition to this, it is also possible to recover some energy from the process. However, energy content in the gas-phase was relatively low. This might be due to the low energy efficiency (19.6%) of the gasification unit, which could be improved by changing the operation parameters.

Joseph, Paul, E-mail: p.joseph@ulster.ac.uk [School of the Built Environment and the Built Environment Research Institute, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey BT37 0QB, County Antrim, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Tretsiakova-McNally, Svetlana; McKenna, Siobhan [School of the Built Environment and the Built Environment Research Institute, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey BT37 0QB, County Antrim, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

2012-04-15

25

Comprehensive gasification process for energy recovery from cellulosic wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive, energy- and materials-resource-recovery system (the Biogas Process) capable of processing organic wastes and land- and water-based plant biomass to yield intermediate- or high-Btu gas (SNG), combustible solid fuels, recyclable by-products, and stabilized residues that can be returned to the environment without adverse impact on the biosphere is described. Biological gasification by anaerobic digestion forms the heart of this

S. Ghosh; D. L. Klass; J. R. Conrad; M. P. Henry; K. Griswold; F. Sedzielarz

1977-01-01

26

Gasification of food waste with steam in fluidized bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass has became an important renewable alternative energy resource. Million tons of food sludge, which is difficult to\\u000a handle because of its rank smell and water content, is generated in Korea. Thermochemical conversion is one way to convert\\u000a biomass to energy; it can be divided into carbonization, liquefaction, and gasification. Carbonization of food waste was carried\\u000a out in a conventional

Moon Kyu Ko; Won-Young Lee; Seong-Bo Kim; Kyu-Wan Lee; Hai-Soo Chun

2001-01-01

27

Steam gasification of oil palm trunk waste for clean syngas production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste and agricultural residues offer significant potential for harvesting chemical energy with simultaneous reduction of environmental pollution, providing carbon neutral (or even carbon negative) sustained energy production, energy security and alleviating social concerns associated with the wastes. Steam gasification is now recognized as one of the most efficient approaches for waste to clean energy conversion. Syngas generated during the gasification

Nimit Nipattummakul; Islam I. Ahmed; Somrat Kerdsuwan; Ashwani K. Gupta

2012-01-01

28

Pyrolysis–gasification of plastics, mixed plastics and real-world plastic waste with and without Ni–Mg–Al catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polypropylene, polystyrene, high density polyethylene and their mixtures and real-world plastic waste were investigated for the production of hydrogen in a two-stage pyrolysis–gasification reactor. The experiments were carried out at gasification temperatures of 800 or 850°C with or without a Ni–Mg–Al catalyst. The influence of plastic type on the product distribution and hydrogen production in relation to process conditions were

Chunfei Wu; Paul T. Williams

2010-01-01

29

Evaluation of residual char from the gasification of solid wastes as a substitute for powdered activated carbon  

SciTech Connect

Adsorptive properties of residual chars from the gasification of solid wastes were evaluated and compared with those of commercially available activated carbon. Char samples were obtained from a laboratory-scale downdraft gasifier in which various types of solid wastes were gasified including sludge/paper mixtures, municipal solid waste, and agricultural and forestry residues. In addition, wastewater treatment process design tests were performed to determine the chars' settleability and the rate of adsorption of TOC (total organic carbon). Some of the chars had adsorptive capacities for TOC comparable to that of commercial activated carbons.

Davis, D.A. (Brown and Caldwell Consulting Engineers, Pasadena, CA); Vigil, S.A.; Tchobanoglous, G.

1981-01-01

30

Gasification converts a variety of problem feedstocks and wastes  

SciTech Connect

High temperature, entrained-flow gasification has been practiced commercially for more than 40 years. Gasification converts petroleum-based fuels to a clean fuel gas that, when fired in a gas turbine, produces minimal emissions of SO{sub 2},NO{sub x}, particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and CO. Gas cleaning also allows removal and control of volatile metals that may be classified as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). The reasons for including a gasifier in a refinery often derive from the combination of crude oil quality trends and increasingly severe restrictions on levels of sulfur dioxide emissions from combustion of heavy fuels. Forecasts indicate that crudes will be progressively heavier and also higher in sulfur content. Some crude oils, particularly Mexican Maya crude and several Venezuelan crudes, also have much higher metals contents than the crudes for which the typical refinery is configured. Gasification technology has the unique ability to generate electricity, chemicals, or both, depending upon the choice of downstream equipment. The synergy of coproduction can improve the overall economics of an IGCC project. The primary components of the fuel gas (carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide) can be separated from the syngas mixture and sold as pure components, or they can be reacted with other compounds to make a wide range of more complex chemicals. This paper shows and discusses a typical integrated-energy facility and several potential products.

Heaven, D.L. [Fluor Daniel Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)

1996-05-27

31

Effect of operating conditions on tar and gas composition in high temperature air\\/steam gasification (HTAG) of plastic containing waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the high temperature air\\/steam gasification (HTAG) technique has been tested for a fuel in pellet form made from waste material of woody and plastic origin. The feedstock was gasified in an updraft fixed bed reactor by mixtures of air and steam (102 Nm3\\/h, 4% to 82% steam) preheated to 1400 °C, a temperature well above the fluid

Anna Ponzio; Sylwester Kalisz; Wlodzimierz Blasiak

2006-01-01

32

Fluidized bed gasification of waste-derived fuels  

SciTech Connect

Five alternative waste-derived fuels obtained from municipal solid waste and different post-consumer packaging were fed in a pilot-scale bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, having a maximum feeding capacity of 100 kg/h. The experimental runs utilized beds of natural olivine, quartz sand or dolomite, fluidized by air, and were carried out under various values of equivalence ratio. The process resulted technically feasible with all the materials tested. The olivine, a neo-silicate of Fe and Mg with an olive-green colour, has proven to be a good candidate to act as a bed catalyst for tar removal during gasification of polyolefin plastic wastes. Thanks to its catalytic activity it is possible to obtain very high fractions of hydrogen in the syngas (between 20% and 30%), even using air as the gasifying agent, i.e. in the most favourable economical conditions and with the simplest plant and reactor configuration. The catalytic activity of olivine was instead reduced or completely inhibited when waste-derived fuels from municipal solid wastes and aggregates of different post-consumer plastic packagings were fed. Anyhow, these materials have given acceptable performance, yielding a syngas of sufficient quality for energy applications after an adequate downstream cleaning.

Arena, Umberto, E-mail: umberto.arena@unina2.i [Department of Environmental Sciences, Second University of Naples, Via A. Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); AMRA s.c. a r.l., Via Nuova Agnano, 11, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Zaccariello, Lucio [Department of Environmental Sciences, Second University of Naples, Via A. Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Mastellone, Maria Laura [Department of Environmental Sciences, Second University of Naples, Via A. Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); AMRA s.c. a r.l., Via Nuova Agnano, 11, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

2010-07-15

33

Biotreatment of UCG waste water condensate. [Underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

The process of underground coal gasification generates a waste water stream during the cooling and processing of the product gas. The character of the UCG condensate is similar to that produced by surface gasifiers, although there are some differences. The treatment options studied in this laboratory project were activated sludge treatment of raw condensate, activated sludge treatment of stripped condensate, and activated sludge with powdered activated carbon addition for treatment of stripped condensate. The condensates used were obtained from large-scale field tests in Wyoming. Major variables among the treatment options were the amount of dilution water needed to achieve stable operation, the degree of treatment achieved by each option, and the stability of the biological reactor.

Humenick, M.J.

1984-01-01

34

Co-gasification of municipal solid waste and material recovery in a large-scale gasification and melting system  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of MSW with MSW bottom ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No significant difference between MSW treatment with and without MSW bottom ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCDD/DFs yields are significantly low because of the high carbon conversion ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Slag quality is significantly stable and slag contains few hazardous heavy metals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The final landfill amount is reduced and materials are recovered by DMS process. - Abstract: This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of municipal solid waste with and without the municipal solid waste bottom ash using two large-scale commercial operation plants. From the viewpoint of operation data, there is no significant difference between municipal solid waste treatment with and without the bottom ash. The carbon conversion ratios are as high as 91.7% and 95.3%, respectively and this leads to significantly low PCDD/DFs yields via complete syngas combustion. The gross power generation efficiencies are 18.9% with the bottom ash and 23.0% without municipal solid waste bottom ash, respectively. The effects of the equivalence ratio are also evaluated. With the equivalence ratio increasing, carbon monoxide concentration is decreased, and carbon dioxide and the syngas temperature (top gas temperature) are increased. The carbon conversion ratio is also increased. These tendencies are seen in both modes. Co-gasification using the gasification and melting system (Direct Melting System) has a possibility to recover materials effectively. More than 90% of chlorine is distributed in fly ash. Low-boiling-point heavy metals, such as lead and zinc, are distributed in fly ash at rates of 95.2% and 92.0%, respectively. Most of high-boiling-point heavy metals, such as iron and copper, are distributed in metal. It is also clarified that slag is stable and contains few harmful heavy metals such as lead. Compared with the conventional waste management framework, 85% of the final landfill amount reduction is achieved by co-gasification of municipal solid waste with bottom ash and incombustible residues. These results indicate that the combined production of slag with co-gasification of municipal solid waste with the bottom ash constitutes an ideal approach to environmental conservation and resource recycling.

Tanigaki, Nobuhiro, E-mail: tanigaki.nobuhiro@nsc-eng.co.jp [Nippon Steel Engineering Co., Ltd. (Head Office), Osaki Center Building 1-5-1, Osaki, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-8604 (Japan); Manako, Kazutaka [Nippon Steel Engineering Co., Ltd., 46-59, Nakabaru, Tobata-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 804-8505 (Japan); Osada, Morihiro [Nippon Steel Engineering Co., Ltd. (Head Office), Osaki Center Building 1-5-1, Osaki, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-8604 (Japan)

2012-04-15

35

Pyrolysis–gasification of post-consumer municipal solid plastic waste for hydrogen production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-consumer plastic waste derived from municipal solid waste was investigated using a two-stage, catalytic steam pyrolysis–gasification process for the production of hydrogen. The three important process parameters of catalyst:plastic ratio, gasification temperature and water injection rate were investigated. Temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods were used to analyse the reacted catalysts. The results showed that there was

Chunfei Wu; Paul T. Williams

2010-01-01

36

Co-gasification of solid waste and lignite – A case study for Western Macedonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Co-gasification of solid waste and coal is a very attractive and efficient way of generating power, but also an alternative way, apart from conventional technologies such as incineration and landfill, of treating waste materials. The technology of co-gasification can result in very clean power plants using a wide range of solid fuels but there are considerable economic and environmental challenges.The

N. Koukouzas; A. Katsiadakis; E. Karlopoulos; E. Kakaras

2008-01-01

37

Low-temperature catalytic gasification of wet industrial wastes  

SciTech Connect

Bench-scale reactor tests are in progress at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop a low-temperature, catalytic gasification system. The system, licensed under the trade name Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg sign}), is designed for treating a wide variety of feedstocks ranging from dilute organics in water to waste sludges from food processing. This report describes a test program which used a continuous-feed tubular reactor. This test program is an intermediate stage in the process development. The reactor is a laboratory-scale version of the commercial concept as currently envisioned by the process developers. An energy benefit and economic analysis was also completed on the process. Four conceptual commercial installations of the TEES process were evaluated for three food processing applications and one organic chemical manufacturing application. Net energy production (medium-Btu gas) was achieved in all four cases. The organic chemical application was found to be economically attractive in the present situation. Based on sensitivity studies included in the analysis, the three food processing cases will likely become attractive in the near future as waste disposal regulations tighten and disposal costs increase. 21 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

Elliott, D C; Neuenschwander, G G; Baker, E G; Sealock, Jr, L J; Butner, R S

1991-04-01

38

Gasification of biomass/high density polyethylene mixtures in a downdraft gasifier.  

PubMed

In this work, an experimental study of the thermal decomposition of mixtures of wood particles and high density polyethylene in different atmospheres has been carried out in a downdraft gasifier with a nominal processing capacity of 50 kg/h. The main objective was to study the feasibility of the operation of the gasification plant using mixtures and to investigate the characteristics of the gas obtained. In order to do so, experiments with biomass only and with mixtures with up to 15% HDPE have been carried out. The main components of the gas generated are N(2) (50%), H(2) (14%), CO (9-22%) and CO(2) (7-17%) and its relatively high calorific value was adequate for using it in an internal combustion engine generator consisting of a modified diesel engine coupled with a 25 kV A alternator. PMID:18083026

García-Bacaicoa, P; Mastral, J F; Ceamanos, J; Berrueco, C; Serrano, S

2007-12-20

39

Analysis of energy recovery potential using innovative technologies of waste gasification  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy recovery from waste by gasification was simulated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two processes: high temperature gasification and gasification associated to plasma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two types of feeding waste: Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) and pulper residues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different configurations for the energy cycles were considered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison with performances from conventional Waste-to-Energy process. - Abstract: In this paper, two alternative thermo-chemical processes for waste treatment were analysed: high temperature gasification and gasification associated to plasma process. The two processes were analysed from the thermodynamic point of view, trying to reconstruct two simplified models, using appropriate simulation tools and some support data from existing/planned plants, able to predict the energy recovery performances by process application. In order to carry out a comparative analysis, the same waste stream input was considered as input to the two models and the generated results were compared. The performances were compared with those that can be obtained from conventional combustion with energy recovery process by means of steam turbine cycle. Results are reported in terms of energy recovery performance indicators as overall energy efficiency, specific energy production per unit of mass of entering waste, primary energy source savings, specific carbon dioxide production.

Lombardi, Lidia, E-mail: lidia.lombardi@unifit.it [Dipartimento di Energetica, University of Florence, via Santa Marta 3, 50139 Florence (Italy); Carnevale, Ennio [Dipartimento di Energetica, University of Florence, via Santa Marta 3, 50139 Florence (Italy); Corti, Andrea [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell'Informazione, University of Siena, via Roma 56, 56100 Siena (Italy)

2012-04-15

40

Production of hydrogen energy through biomass (waste wood) gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass gasification, conversion of solid carbonaceous fuel into combustible gas by partial combustion, is a prominent technology for the production of hydrogen from biomass. The concentration of hydrogen in the gas generated from gasification depends mainly upon moisture content, type and composition of biomass, operating conditions and configuration of the biomass gasifier. The potential of production of hydrogen from wood

Pratik N. Sheth; B. V. Babu

2010-01-01

41

High-temperature, air-blown gasification of dairy-farm wastes for energy production  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out to investigate the feasibility of integrating an advanced gasifier into the operation of a dairy farm for converting biomass wastes into fuel gas that can be used for power production. The disposal\\/utilization of excess animal wastes is a serious problem facing the dairy industry. Implementation of a gasification system on the dairy farm may provide

Lincoln Young; Carlson C. P. Pian

2003-01-01

42

Characterization, Extraction, and Reuse of Coal Gasification Solid Wastes. Volume 3. Technical and Economic Feasibility of Bulk Utilization and Metal Recovery for Ashes from an Integrated Coal Gasification Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coal gasification waste products, including those from Lurgi gasification, have different properties from the combustion ashes, especially with respect to mineralogy. To date, comparatively little effort has been directed toward the investigation of bulk ...

D. J. Hassett D. L. Laudal O. E. Manz R. C. Ellman

1986-01-01

43

Air gasification of polypropylene plastic waste in fluidized bed gasifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study on air gasification of polypropylene was conducted in a fluidized bed gasifier with an insider diameter (i.d.) of 100mm and a height of 4.2m. The effect of the equivalence ratio, bed height and fluidization velocity on various gasification results, including the product yield distribution, gas composition, gas heating value and gas yield were studied. The equivalence ratio

Rui Xiao; Baosheng Jin; Hongcang Zhou; Zhaoping Zhong; Mingyao Zhang

2007-01-01

44

Lethality and hepatotoxicity of complex waste mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Male F344 rats were exposed by gavage to samples of complex mixtures and evaluated 24 hr later. Seven of the 10 samples caused death at doses ranging from 1 to 5 ml/kg body wt. Eight of the 10 samples were hepatotoxic based on histopathologic evaluation; 6 were centrilobular and 2 were periportal hepatotoxicants. The waste samples exerted toxicity through different mechanisms, as indicated by differences in the severity and lobular location of the tissue damage. Nine of the 10 samples caused an increase in the ratio of liver weight to body weight (relative liver weight). With histopathological evaluation as the criterion, relative liver weight was the single best indicator of hepatotoxicity. Exposure to several of the waste samples increased serum total bilirubin and serum enzyme activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, and ornithine carbamyl transferase. As a battery, but not individually, the serum indicators separated the 8 hepatotoxic samples from the 2 nonhepatotoxic samples. In general, the hepatotoxicity of the waste samples did not appear to be readily predicted from (partial) chemical characterization data. An approach that includes both chemical characterization and biological testing should provide valuable information regarding the hazardous nature of complex wastes.

Simmons, J.E.; DeMarini, D.M.; Berman, E.

1988-06-01

45

Process and technological aspects of municipal solid waste gasification. A review  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical assessment of the main commercially available MSW gasifiers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detailed discussion of the basic features of gasification process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Description of configurations of gasification-based waste-to-energy units. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental performance analysis, on the basis of independent sources data. - Abstract: The paper proposes a critical assessment of municipal solid waste gasification today, starting from basic aspects of the process (process types and steps, operating and performance parameters) and arriving to a comparative analysis of the reactors (fixed bed, fluidized bed, entrained bed, vertical shaft, moving grate furnace, rotary kiln, plasma reactor) as well as of the possible plant configurations (heat gasifier and power gasifier) and the environmental performances of the main commercially available gasifiers for municipal solid wastes. The analysis indicates that gasification is a technically viable option for the solid waste conversion, including residual waste from separate collection of municipal solid waste. It is able to meet existing emission limits and can have a remarkable effect on reduction of landfill disposal option.

Arena, Umberto, E-mail: umberto.arena@unina2.it [Department of Environmental Sciences, Second University of Naples, Via A. Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy)

2012-04-15

46

[Gasification characteristics of waste tires in laboratory-scale fluidized-bed gasifier].  

PubMed

A laboratory-scale fluidized-bed gasifier was designed and used to investigate the characteristics of waste tires gasification. Granulated tires were gasified with different excessive air ratios at a temperature range of 400-700 degrees C. The gasification efficiency, carbon conversion efficiency, heating value, yield and components of syngas were analyzed. Results showed that the optimum operation conditions were achieved when the gasification temperature was 700 degrees C and the excessive air radio (EAR) was 0.4. A gaseous product, mainly containing CH4, CO, H2, C2H6, and longer-chain hydrocarbon with a lower heating value (LHV) of about 4804 kJ/m3, can be generated at the highest gasification efficiency of 47.96% under the optimum operation conditions. PMID:16850849

Miao, Qi; Chi, Yong; Xiao, Gang; Zhu, Wen-li; Jiang, Xu-guang; Cen, Ke-fa

2006-05-01

47

Co-gasification of wet sewage sludge and forestry waste in situ steam agent.  

PubMed

The co-gasification of wet sewage sludge (80 wt.% moisture, WSS) and forestry waste (FW) blends was studied. The thermogravimetric analysis showed that weight loss and the maximum weight loss rate of the sample increased with the increase in FW content. The co-gasification process was performed in a lab-scale fixed bed gasifier to investigate the effects of WSS content and reactor temperature on product yields, gas composition and gasification performance. The results indicated that steam generated from the moisture content in WSS took part in the gasification with char. The gas yield decreased with the increasing WSS content. And the concentrations of H(2) and CO reached the maximum when the WSS content was 50%. The LHV of fuel gas ranged from 11.89 MJ/Nm(3) to 12.72 MJ/Nm(3) when the reactor temperature increased from 700 °C to 900 °C. PMID:22503423

Peng, Lixin; Wang, Yongxiu; Lei, Zhihong; Cheng, Gong

2012-03-30

48

Catalytic gasification of coal using eutectic salt mixtures. Report for the Period April 1-September 30, 1998.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This progress report on the Department of Energy project DE-FG-97FT97263 entitled, 'Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures' covers the period April-September 1998. The specific aims of the project for this period were to identify appr...

1998-01-01

49

Low-temperature catalytic gasification of food processing wastes. 1995 topical report  

SciTech Connect

The catalytic gasification system described in this report has undergone continuing development and refining work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for over 16 years. The original experiments, performed for the Gas Research Institute, were aimed at developing kinetics information for steam gasification of biomass in the presence of catalysts. From the fundamental research evolved the concept of a pressurized, catalytic gasification system for converting wet biomass feedstocks to fuel gas. Extensive batch reactor testing and limited continuous stirred-tank reactor tests provided useful design information for evaluating the preliminary economics of the process. This report is a follow-on to previous interim reports which reviewed the results of the studies conducted with batch and continuous-feed reactor systems from 1989 to 1994, including much work with food processing wastes. The discussion here provides details of experiments on food processing waste feedstock materials, exclusively, that were conducted in batch and continuous- flow reactors.

Elliott, D.C.; Hart, T.R.

1996-08-01

50

Utilization of solid wastes from the gasification of coal-water slurries  

SciTech Connect

It was found that only fly and bottom ashes are the solid wastes of water-coal slurry gasification in a direct-flow gasifier. The yields and chemical compositions of fly and bottom ashes obtained after the gasification of water-coal slurries prepared using brown (B) and long-flame (D) coals from the Berezovskii and Mokhovskii strip mines (Kansk-Achinsk and Kuznetsk Basins, respectively) were characterized. Based on an analysis of currently available information, the areas of utilization of fly and bottom ashes after water-coal slurry gasification with dry ash removal were summarized. The use of these wastes in the construction of high-ways and earthwork structures (for the parent coals of B and D grades) and in the manufacture of ash concrete (for the parent coal of D grade) is most promising.

M.Y. Shpirt; N.P. Goryunova [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2009-07-01

51

Low-temperature catalytic gasification of wet industrial wastes. FY 1993--1994 interim report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process development research is continuing on a low-temperature, catalytic gasification system that has been demonstrated to convert organics in water (dilute or concentrated) to useful and environmentally safe gases. The system, licensed under the trade name Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEESO), treats a wide variety of feedstocks ranging from hazardous organics in water to waste sludges from food processing. The

D. C. Elliott; T. R. Hart; G. G. Neuenschwander; G. S. Deverman; T. A. Werpy; M. R. Phelps; E. G. Baker; L. J. Jr. Sealock

2011-01-01

52

Co-Gasification of Densified Sludge and Solid Waste in a Downdraft Gasifier.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thermal gasification, the subject of this report, is a new process for the co-disposal of densified sewage sludge and solid waste in a co-current flow, fixed bed reactor (also called a downdraft gasifier). The advantages of this technology include lower c...

S. A. Vigil G. Tchobanoglous

1982-01-01

53

Co-Gasification of Densified Sludge and Solid Waste in a Downdraft Gasifier.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. Thermal gasification is a new process for the co-disposal of densified sludge and solid waste in a co-current flow, fixed bed reactor (also called a downdraft gasifi...

1983-01-01

54

Hydrogen energy from coupled waste gasification and cement production—a thermochemical concept study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plant concept for hydrogen production from waste gasification coupled with cement manufacturing is presented. Hot precalcined cement meal, from the operating cement process, is used as heat carrier to provide energy required by the parallel arranged gasifier. The amount of CaO present in the cement meal operates simultaneously as an effective in situ CO2-sorbent. First, a practical case study

Steffen Weil; Stefan Hamel; Wolfgang Krumm

2006-01-01

55

Computer-assisted gas chromatography in the analysis of waste compounds resulting from coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Newly developed modifications of the coal gasification processes produce greater quantities of unidentified waste compounds. Analysis of these compounds was easier if identification was a matching process. A standard solution of five polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons was made and each was assigned retention indices values. Known compounds in the six different classes that had been detected by older gas chromatographic methods

Raye

1988-01-01

56

Hydrogen-rich synthesis gas production from waste wood via gasification and reforming technology for fuel cell application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to establish a fuel process for an advanced power generation system in which hydrogen-rich synthesis\\u000a gas, as the fuel for the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), can be extracted from biomass via gasification and reforming technologies.\\u000a Experiments on waste wood gasification were performed using a bench-scale gasification system. The main factors influencing\\u000a hydrogen generation

Wei Wu; Katsuya Kawamoto; Hidetoshi Kuramochi

2006-01-01

57

Waste to Energy Conversion by Stepwise Liquefaction, Gasification and "Clean" Combustion of Pelletized Waste Polyethylene for Electric Power Generation---in a Miniature Steam Engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amounts of waste plastics discarded in developed countries are increasing drastically, and most are not recycled. The small fractions of the post-consumer plastics which are recycled find few new uses as their quality is degraded; they cannot be reused in their original applications. However, the high energy density of plastics, similar to that of premium fuels, combined with the dwindling reserves of fossil fuels make a compelling argument for releasing their internal energy through combustion, converting it to thermal energy and, eventually, to electricity through a heat engine. To minimize the emission of pollutants this energy conversion is done in two steps, first the solid waste plastics undergo pyrolytic gasification and, subsequently, the pyrolyzates (a mixture of hydrocarbons and hydrogen) are blended with air and are burned "cleanly" in a miniature power plant. This plant consists of a steam boiler, a steam engine and an electricity generator.

Talebi Anaraki, Saber

58

Characterization, extraction, and reuse of coal-gasification solid wastes. Volume 3. Technical and economic feasibility of bulk utilization and metal recovery for ashes from an integrated coal-gasification facility. Final report, April 1983June 1986  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal-gasification waste products, including those from Lurgi gasification, have different properties from the combustion ashes, especially with respect to mineralogy. To date, comparatively little effort has been directed toward the investigation of bulk utilization or metals extraction. This project was directed towards correction of that deficiency by matching properties of the Great Plains Gasification Plant gasifier ash and the Antelope

O. E. Manz; D. J. Hassett; D. L. Laudal; R. C. Ellman

1986-01-01

59

Characterization, extraction, and reuse of coal-gasification solid wastes. Volume 3. Technical and economic feasibility of bulk utilization and metal recovery for ashes from an integrated coal-gasification facility. Final report, April 1983-June 1986  

SciTech Connect

Coal-gasification waste products, including those from Lurgi gasification, have different properties from the combustion ashes, especially with respect to mineralogy. To date, comparatively little effort has been directed toward the investigation of bulk utilization or metals extraction. This project was directed towards correction of that deficiency by matching properties of the Great Plains Gasification Plant gasifier ash and the Antelope Valley Power Plant combustion explored: mineral wool; sulfur concrete; high-flexural-strength ceramics; ceramic glazed wall tile and vitrified floor tile; dual concrete replacement; road stabilization; blended cement; and recovery of aluminum. Mineral wool of similar physical character to commercial wool and at lower potential cost was produced using the ashes from the GPGA complex. Sulfur concrete utilizing 80% ash and 20% modified sulfur developed flexural and compressive strengths in excess of 2250 and 6000 psi, respectively. A vitrified ceramic product with flexural strength above 7800 psi was produced from a mixture of 50% AVS scrubber ash 45% sand, and 5% clay. By using a total ash mixture of 26% gasifier ash and 74% combustion ash, a very satisfactory, economical, and durable road-base material was developed. The replacement of up to 50% of the cement in concrete with AVS scrubber ash produces higher strength. A modified lime-soda sinter process for aluminum recovery was developed, but is not economical.

Manz, O.E.; Hassett, D.J.; Laudal, D.L.; Ellman, R.C.

1986-06-01

60

Operating and environmental performances of commercial-scale waste gasification and melting technology.  

PubMed

Gasification technologies for waste processing are receiving increased interest. A lot of gasification technologies, including gasification and melting, have been developed in Japan and Europe. However, the flue gas and heavy metal behaviors have not been widely reported, even though those of grate furnaces have been reported. This article reports flue gas components of gasification and melting technology in different flue gas treatment systems. Hydrogen chloride concentrations at the inlet of the bag filter ranged between 171 and 180 mg Nm(-3) owing to de-acidification by limestone injection to the gasifier. More than 97.8% of hydrogen chlorides were removed by a bag filter in both of the flue gas treatment systems investigated. Sulfur dioxide concentrations at the inlet of the baghouse were 4.8 mg Nm(-3) and 12.7 mg Nm(-3), respectively. Nitrogen oxides are highly decomposed by a selective catalytic reduction system. Owing to the low regenerations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, and the selective catalytic reduction system, the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans at the stacks were significantly lower without activated carbon injection. More than 99% of chlorine is distributed in fly ash. Low-boiling-point heavy metals, such as lead and zinc, are distributed in fly ash at rates of 97.6% and 96.5%, respectively. Most high-boiling-point heavy metals, such as iron and copper, are distributed in metal. It is also clarified that the slag is stable and contains few harmful heavy metals, such as lead. The heavy metal distribution behaviors are almost the same regardless of the compositions of the processed waste. These results indicate that the gasification of municipal solid waste constitutes an ideal approach to environmental conservation and resource recycling. PMID:24019383

Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Fujinaga, Yasuka; Kajiyama, Hirohisa; Ishida, Yoshihiro

2013-09-09

61

Steam gasification of tyre waste, poplar, and refuse-derived fuel: A comparative analysis  

SciTech Connect

In the field of waste management, thermal disposal is a treatment option able to recover resources from 'end of life' products. Pyrolysis and gasification are emerging thermal treatments that work under less drastic conditions in comparison with classic direct combustion, providing for reduced gaseous emissions of heavy metals. Moreover, they allow better recovery efficiency since the process by-products can be used as fuels (gas, oils), for both conventional (classic engines and heaters) and high efficiency apparatus (gas turbines and fuel cells), or alternatively as chemical sources or as raw materials for other processes. This paper presents a comparative study of a steam gasification process applied to three different waste types (refuse-derived fuel, poplar wood and scrap tyres), with the aim of comparing the corresponding yields and product compositions and exploring the most valuable uses of the by-products.

Galvagno, S. [Department of Environment, Global Change and Sustainable Development, C.R. ENEA Portici, via Vecchio Macello loc. Granatello, 80055 Portici (Italy)], E-mail: sergio.galvagno@portici.enea.it; Casciaro, G. [Department of Physical Technologies and New Materials, C.R. ENEA Brindisi, SS. 7 Appia-km 706, 72100 Brindisi (Italy); Casu, S. [Department of Environment, Global Change and Sustainable Development, C.R. ENEA Bologna, via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Martino, M. [Department of Environment, Global Change and Sustainable Development, C.R. ENEA Trisaia, SS 106 Jonica km 419-500, 75026 Rotondella (Italy); Mingazzini, C. [Department of Physical Technologies and New Materials, C.R. ENEA Faenza, via Ravegnana 186, 48018 Faenza (Italy); Russo, A. [Department of Environment, Global Change and Sustainable Development, C.R. ENEA Trisaia, SS 106 Jonica km 419-500, 75026 Rotondella (Italy); Portofino, S. [Department of Environment, Global Change and Sustainable Development, C.R. ENEA Portici, via Vecchio Macello loc. Granatello, 80055 Portici (Italy)

2009-02-15

62

Gasification of waste?contaminated soil by the chem char process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reverse?burn gasification (RBG, the ChemChar Process) has been applied to the treatment of soil contaminated with hydrocarbons, poly?chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and thorium. Overall destruction of the PCBs in excess of 99.9999% (six nines) was achieved. No undesirable dibenzo dioxins or furans were produced, and metals and acid gases are retained in the char residue matrix. An overall hazardous waste treatment

Laura L. Kinner; Stanley E. Manahan; David W. Larsen

1993-01-01

63

Gasification of solid waste in dual fluidized-bed reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solid waste treatment process has been developed in Japan which involves circulating sand particles between 2 fluidized bed reactors. A continuous pilot test of the process has been conducted since 1974. A demonstration plant has also been constructed and has operated successfully since 1976 disposing of sludge from a pulp and paper mill, municipal wastes, plastics, and tires. The

M. Kagayama; M. Igarashi; M. Hasegawa; J. Fukuda; D. Kunii

1980-01-01

64

Use of waste plastic in concrete mixture as aggregate replacement.  

PubMed

Industrial activities in Iraq are associated with significant amounts of non-biodegradable solid waste, waste plastic being among the most prominent. This study involved 86 experiments and 254 tests to determine the efficiency of reusing waste plastic in the production of concrete. Thirty kilograms of waste plastic of fabriform shapes was used as a partial replacement for sand by 0%, 10%, 15%, and 20% with 800 kg of concrete mixtures. All of the concrete mixtures were tested at room temperature. These tests include performing slump, fresh density, dry density, compressive strength, flexural strength, and toughness indices. Seventy cubes were molded for compressive strength and dry density tests, and 54 prisms were cast for flexural strength and toughness indices tests. Curing ages of 3, 7, 14, and 28 days for the concrete mixtures were applied in this work. The results proved the arrest of the propagation of micro cracks by introducing waste plastic of fabriform shapes to concrete mixtures. This study insures that reusing waste plastic as a sand-substitution aggregate in concrete gives a good approach to reduce the cost of materials and solve some of the solid waste problems posed by plastics. PMID:17931848

Ismail, Zainab Z; Al-Hashmi, Enas A

2007-10-10

65

Plastic waste elimination by co-gasification with coal and biomass in fluidized bed with air in pilot plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of plastic waste by gasification in fluidized bed with air using dolomite as tar cracking catalyst has been studied. The gasifier has a 1 m high bed zone (diameter of 9.2 cm) followed by a 1 m high freeboard (diameter of 15.4 cm). The feedstock is composed of blends of plastic waste with pine wood sawdust and coal at

María P. Aznar; Miguel A. Caballero; Jesús A. Sancho; E. Francés

2006-01-01

66

Coal-gasification environmental data summary: solid wastes and by-product tars. Final report, September 1984December 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report, one of several data summary reports on the environmental aspects and pollutants specific to coal gasification, addresses characteristics of solid wastes (ash and cyclone dust) and by-product tars and oils analyzed in nine EPA source tests and evaluation studies and limited other data. Objectives of the report were to compile and summarize solid-waste properties and identify behavioral trends.

Eklund

1986-01-01

67

Low-temperature catalytic gasification of wet industrial wastes. FY 1991--1992 interim report  

SciTech Connect

A catalytic gasification system operating in a pressurized water environment has been developed and refined at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for over 12 years. Initial experiments were aimed at developing kinetics information for steam gasification of biomass in the presence of catalysts. The combined use of alkali and metal catalysts was reported for gasification of biomass and its components at low temperatures (350{degrees}C to 450{degrees}C). From the fundamental research evolved the concept of a pressurized, catalytic gasification system for converting wet biomass feedstocks to fuel gas. Extensive batch reactor testing and limited continuous reactor system (CRS) testing were undertaken in the development of this system under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. A wide range of biomass feedstocks were tested, and the importance of the nickel metal catalyst was identified. Specific use of this process for treating food processing wastes was also studied. The concept application was further expanded to encompass cleanup of hazardous wastewater streams, and results were reported for batch reactor tests and continuous reactor tests. Ongoing work at PNL focuses on refining the catalyst and scaling the system to long-term industrial needs. The process is licensed as the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg_sign}) to Onsite*Ofsite, Inc., of Duarte, California. This report is a follow-on to the 1989--90 interim report [Elliott et al. 1991], which reviewed the results of the studies conducted with a fixed-bed, continuous-feed, tubular reactor. The discussion here provides an overview of experiments on the wide range of potential feedstock materials conducted in a batch reactor; development of new catalyst materials; and tests performed in continuous-flow reactors at three scales. The appendices contain the history and background of the process development, as well as more detailed descriptions and results of the recent studies.

Elliott, D.C.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Hart, T.R.; Phelps, M.R.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.

1993-07-01

68

Disposal of soluble salt waste from coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses pollutants in the form of soluble salts and resource recovery in the form of water and land. A design for disposal of soluble salts has been produced. The interactions of its parameters have been shown by a process design study. The design will enable harmonious compliance with United States Public Laws 92-500 and 94-580, relating to water pollution and resource recovery. In the disposal of waste salt solutions, natural water resources need not be contaminated, because an encapsulation technique is available which will immobilize the salts. At the same time it will make useful landforms available, and water as a resource can be recovered. There is a cost minimum when electrodialysis and evaporation are combined, which is not realizable with evaporation alone, unless very low-cost thermal energy is available or unless very high-cost pretreatment for electrodialysis is required. All the processes making up the proposed disposal process are commercially available, although they are nowhere operating commercially as one process. Because of the commercial availability of the processes, the proposed process may be a candidate 'best commercially available treatment' for soluble salt disposal.

McKnight, C.E.

1980-06-01

69

Organic waste disposal system  

SciTech Connect

Organic waste material is pneumatically transported within air and mixed therewith by swirling flow through an annular ejector passage of varying radial width into a reaction flow passage of an eductor nozzle section receiving the output plume of a plasma torch for initiating therein thermal gasification of the waste mixture. The plasma torch plume projects from the eductor section into a diffuser section within which thermal gasification is continued before discharge of gasified waste.

Nolting, E.E.; Colfield, J.; Richard, R.; Peterson, S.

1997-12-31

70

Characterization of organic and inorganic byproducts from field?scale gasification\\/incinerator for waste tires  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the gasification reactor injecting air, the reaction takes place in two steps, the first one being true pyrolysis and the second one being the gasification step. The objective of this study is to estimate experimentally the distribution of gasification products such as condensed and noncondensed fuel, inorganic gas, and residue generated from the field?scale gasification incinerator connected directly with

1995-01-01

71

Two-stage steam gasification of waste biomass in fluidized bed at low temperature: Parametric investigations and performance optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steam gasification of waste biomass has been studied in a two-stage fluidized bed reactor, which has the primary pyrolysis fluidized bed using silica sand as bed material and the secondary reforming fixed bed with catalyst. The main objectives are parametric investigation and performance improvement especially at low temperature of around 600°C using the wood chip and the pig manure compost

Xianbin Xiao; Xianliang Meng; Duc Dung Le; Takayuki Takarada

2011-01-01

72

Environmental assessment of the atlas bio-energy waste wood fluidized bed gasification power plant. Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Atlas Bio-Energy Corporation is proposing to develop and operate a 3 MW power plant in Brooklyn, New York that will produce electricity by gasification of waste wood and combustion of the produced low-Btu gas in a conventional package steam boiler cou...

M. I. Holzman

1995-01-01

73

Techno-economic performance of energy-from-waste fluidized bed combustion and gasification processes in the UK context  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the technical and economic performance of energy-from-waste (EfW) fluidized bed combustion and gasification processes and reports on the implications of different scales and technologies on costs and efficiencies. Mass and energy balances of the processes were performed and the cost effectiveness of the different waste treatment options, for the generation of electric power, was assessed using a

Liban Yassin; Paola Lettieri; Stefaan J. R. Simons; Antonino Germanŕ

2009-01-01

74

Steam gasification of carbonaceous solids catalyzed by a mixture of potassium and nickel oxides below 1000 K  

SciTech Connect

The gasification of carbon with water vapor is an important reaction in the industrial production of H/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, CO and CO/sub 2/. The use of catalysts is necessary if the process is carried out at temperatures below 1400 K. Two recent reviews discuss the properties of the various catalysts used for this purpose. Alkaline and alkaline-earth hydroxides and carbonates are the catalysts most commonly studied. These compounds only show catalytic activity at temperatures above 1000 K. Previous work shows that below this temperature KOH reacts stochiometrically with graphite and water vapor to produce H/sub 2/ and a stable surface compound. Transition metals, in particular nickel and iron, are able to catalyse this process at temperatures as low as 750 K, but they deactivate much faster than the alkaline and alkaline-earth salts. Several authors have reported that nickel and iron are only active as catalysts for this process if the reaction conditions favors their presence in the metallic state. The authors have recently reported that several mixtures of a transition metal oxide with potassium hydroxide are excellent catalysts for the gasification of graphite with steam. These catalysts are active at temperatures much lower than the alkaline and alkaline-earth salts and they deactivate more slowly than nickel and iron. In this previous publication it was shown that there is a synergistic effect between the transition metal and potassium. This communication summarizes recent results in the study of this type of catalyst. The authors have focused on the use of mixtures of potassium hydroxide and nickel oxide, since they showed the highest activity of all the systems previously studied.

Carrazza, J.; Somorjai, G.A.; Heinemann, H.

1986-01-01

75

Demonstration of thermal plasma gasification/vitrification for municipal solid waste treatment.  

PubMed

Thermal plasma treatment has been regarded as a viable alternative for the treatment of highly toxic wastes, such as incinerator residues, radioactive wastes, and medical wastes. Therefore, a gasification/vitrification unit for the direct treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW), with a capacity of 10 tons/day, was developed using an integrated furnace equipped with two nontransferred thermal plasma torches. The overall process, as well as the analysis of byproducts and energy balance, has been presented in this paper to assess the performance of this technology. It was successfully demonstrated that the thermal plasma process converted MSW into innocuous slag, with much lower levels of environmental air pollutant emissions and the syngas having a utility value as energy sources (287 Nm3/MSW-ton for H2 and 395 Nm3/MSW-ton for CO), using 1.14 MWh/MSW-ton of electricity (thermal plasma torch (0.817 MWh/MSW-ton)+utilities (0.322 MWh/MSW-ton)) and 7.37 Nm3/MSW-ton of liquefied petroleum gas. PMID:20677789

Byun, Youngchul; Namkung, Won; Cho, Moohyun; Chung, Jae Woo; Kim, Young-Suk; Lee, Jin-Ho; Lee, Carg-Ro; Hwang, Soon-Mo

2010-09-01

76

Lethality and hepatotoxicity of complex waste mixtures (journal version)  

SciTech Connect

Male F344 rats were exposed by gavage to samples of complex mixtures and evaluated 24 hours later. Seven of the 10 samples caused death at doses ranging from 1 to 5 ml/kg body wt. Eight of the 10 samples were hepatotoxic based on histopathologic evaluation; 6 were centrilobular and 2 were periportal hepatotoxicants. The waste samples exerted toxicity through different mechanisms, as indicated by differences in the severity and lobular location of the tissue damage. With histopathological evaluation as the criterion, relative liver weight was the single best indicator of hepatotoxicity. Exposure to several of the waste samples increased serum total bilirubin and serum enzyme activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, and ornithine carbamyl transferase. As a battery, but not individually, the serum indicators separated the 8 hepatotoxic samples from the 2 nonhepatotoxic samples. In general, the hepatotoxicity of the waste samples did not appear to be readily predicted from (partial) chemical characterization data.

Simmons, J.E.; DeMarini, D.M.; Berman, E.

1988-01-01

77

Low-temperature catalytic gasification of wet industrial wastes. FY 1991--1992 interim report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A catalytic gasification system operating in a pressurized water environment has been developed and refined at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for over 12 years. Initial experiments were aimed at developing kinetics information for steam gasification of biomass in the presence of catalysts. The combined use of alkali and metal catalysts was reported for gasification of biomass and its components at

D. C. Elliott; G. G. Neuenschwander; T. R. Hart; M. R. Phelps; L. J. Jr. Sealock

1993-01-01

78

Biomass waste gasification – Can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of

Jind?ich Šulc; Ji?í Štojdl; Miroslav Richter; Jan Popelka; Karel Svoboda; Ji?í Smetana; Ji?í Vacek; Siarhei Skoblja; Petr Buryan

79

Methane reforming of syngas produced by co-gasification of coal and wastes. Effect of catalysts and of experimental conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Syngas obtained by co-gasification of coal and wastes was hot cleaned in two catalytic reactors, which allowed destroying tar and gaseous hydrocarbons with more than one carbon atom. H2S and NH3 contents were also significantly reduced, but CH4 concentrations varying between 2% and 10% and small amounts of H2S (below 100ppmv) were still found in syngas, depending on coal type

Filomena Pinto; Rui Neto André; Carlos Franco; Ricardo Costa; Ibrahim Gulyurtlu

2011-01-01

80

Environmental assessment of the atlas bio-energy waste wood fluidized bed gasification power plant. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Atlas Bio-Energy Corporation is proposing to develop and operate a 3 MW power plant in Brooklyn, New York that will produce electricity by gasification of waste wood and combustion of the produced low-Btu gas in a conventional package steam boiler coupled to a steam-electric generator. The objectives of this project were to assist Atlas in addressing the environmental permit

Holzman

1995-01-01

81

The gasification of coal-peat and coal-wood chip mixtures in the University of Minnesota, two-stage coal gasifier: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technical feasibility of gasifying coal-peat and coal-wood chip mixtures with the University of Minnesota, Duluth Campus commercially technology two-stage coal gasifier was demonstrated during a series of experimental tests. Three types of processed peat products were mixed with coal and gasified. The three peat products were: peat briquettes, peat pellets and sod peat. The best peat product for gasification

1986-01-01

82

Hydrothermal oxidation of ammonia/organic waste mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Hydrothermal oxidation is a promising new technology for the treatment of radioactive contaminated hazardous organic wastes. Los Alamos National Laboratory is currently evaluating this technology for the U. S. Department of Energy. In this paper, we present experimental results from the study of the hydrothermal oxidation of an ammonia/alcohol/uranium waste mixture. The use of a co-oxidant system consisting of hydrogen peroxide combined with nitrate is discussed. Experiments demonstrate near complete destruction of ammonia and organic compounds at 500{degrees} C, 38 MPa, and 50 seconds reaction time. The ammonia and total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations in a waste simulant is reduced from 8,500 mg/L of ammonia and 12,500 mg/L TOC to 30 mg/L ammonia and less than 10 mg/L TOC. The major reaction products are CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and a small amount of N{sub 2}O. Comparison experiments with nitrate and hydrogen peroxide used individually show the advantage of the co-oxidant system.

Luan, Li; Proesmans, P.I.; Buelow, S.J.

1997-05-01

83

Bench-scale reactor tests of low-temperature, catalytic gasification of wet, industrial wastes  

SciTech Connect

Bench-scale reactor tests are under way at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop a low-temperature, catalytic gasification system. The system, licensed under the trade name Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg sign}), is designed for to a wide variety of feedstocks ranging from dilute organics in water to waste sludges from food processing. The current research program is focused on the use of a continuous-feed, tubular reactor. The catalyst is nickel metal on an inert support. Typical results show that feedstocks such as solutions of 2% para-cresol or 5% and 10% lactose in water or cheese whey can be processed to >99% reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) at a rate of up to 2 L/hr. The estimated residence time is less than 5 min at 360{degree}C and 3000 psig, not including 1 to 2 min required in the preheating zone of the reactor. The liquid hourly space velocity has been varied from 1.8 to 2.9 L feedstock/L catalyst/hr depending on the feedstock. The product fuel gas contains 40% to 55% methane, 35% to 50% carbon dioxide, and 5% to 10% hydrogen with as much as 2% ethane, but less than 0.1% ethylene or carbon monoxide, and small amounts of higher hydrocarbons. The byproduct water stream carries residual organics amounting to less than 500 mg/L COD. 9 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Elliott, D.C.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Baker, E.G.; Butner, R.S.; Sealock, L.J.

1990-04-01

84

Analysis of products from the pyrolysis and liquefaction of single plastics and waste plastic mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste plastics in the form of two examples of real world municipal solid waste plastics and a simulated mixture of municipal waste plastics were pyrolysed and liquefied under moderate temperature and pressure in a batch autoclave reactor. In addition, the five main polymers which constitute the majority of plastics occurring in European municipal solid waste comprising, polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyethylene

Paul T. Williams; Edward Slaney

2007-01-01

85

Biomass waste gasification - Can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of one stage (co-current) and two stage gasification of wood pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Original arrangement with grate-less reactor and upward moving bed of the pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two stage gasification leads to drastic reduction of tar content in gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer One stage gasification produces gas with higher LHV at lower overall ER. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Content of ammonia in gas is lower in two stage moving bed gasification. - Abstract: A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of tar compounds, content of inorganic gas impurities) were compared for the two stage and the one stage method of the gasification arrangement with only the upward moving bed (co-current updraft). The main novel features of the gasifier conception include grate-less reactor, upward moving bed of biomass particles (e.g. pellets) by means of a screw elevator with changeable rotational speed and gradual expanding diameter of the cylindrical reactor in the part above the upper end of the screw. The gasifier concept and arrangement are considered convenient for thermal power range 100-350 kW{sub th}. The second stage of the gasifier served mainly for tar compounds destruction/reforming by increased temperature (around 950 Degree-Sign C) and for gasification reaction of the fuel gas with char. The second stage used additional combustion of the fuel gas by preheated secondary air for attaining higher temperature and faster gasification of the remaining char from the first stage. The measurements of gas composition and tar compound contents confirmed superiority of the two stage gasification system, drastic decrease of aromatic compounds with two and higher number of benzene rings by 1-2 orders. On the other hand the two stage gasification (with overall ER = 0.71) led to substantial reduction of gas heating value (LHV = 3.15 MJ/Nm{sup 3}), elevation of gas volume and increase of nitrogen content in fuel gas. The increased temperature (>950 Degree-Sign C) at the entrance to the char bed caused also substantial decrease of ammonia content in fuel gas. The char with higher content of ash leaving the second stage presented only few mass% of the inlet biomass stream.

Sulc, Jindrich; Stojdl, Jiri; Richter, Miroslav; Popelka, Jan [Faculty of the Environment, Jan Evangelista Purkyne University in Usti nad Labem, Kralova Vysina 7, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Svoboda, Karel, E-mail: svoboda@icpf.cas.cz [Faculty of the Environment, Jan Evangelista Purkyne University in Usti nad Labem, Kralova Vysina 7, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the ASCR, v.v.i., Rozvojova 135, 165 02 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Smetana, Jiri; Vacek, Jiri [D.S.K. Ltd., Ujezdecek - Dukla 264, 415 01 Teplice I (Czech Republic); Skoblja, Siarhei; Buryan, Petr [Dept. of Gas, Coke and Air protection, Institute of Chemical Technol., Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

2012-04-15

86

Low-temperature, catalytic gasification of wastes for simultaneous disposal and energy recovery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bench-scale reactor tests are under way at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop a low-temperature, catalytic gasification system. The system, licensed under the trade name Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES(reg sign)), is designed for tre...

D. C. Elliot E. G. Baker G. G. Neuenschwander L. J. Sealock

1991-01-01

87

Management of coal waste by energy recovery: mild gasification/flash pyrolysis of coal preparation wastes. Quarterly report, October-December 1985  

SciTech Connect

Feedstock characterization is now complete. Two of the refuse feedstocks, the bituminous coal feedstock and the subbituminous coal feedstock, were obtained and prepared for use in the mild gasification unit (MGU). Construction continued on the mild gasification unit and is estimated to be 95% complete. Most of the major equipment for the MGU is in place and operational. The vacuum pump and hydraulic limit switches are the remaining items to be installed on the unit. The final test plan was prepared. The test plan includes 24 tests, six with subbituminous coal, seven with coal preparation waste, and eleven with bituminous coal. The tests are designed to measure the effects of feedstock, particle size, temperature, residence time, sweep gas, and solid additives on unit performance, product quantity, and product quality. The MGU has performed well during five tests with only minor problems dealing with condensation of the hydrocarbon gases.

Gillespie, B.L.

1986-02-01

88

Mixture models versus free energy of hydration models for waste glass durability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two approaches for modeling high-level waste glass durability as a function of glass composition are compared. The mixture approach utilizes first-order mixture (FOM) or second-order mixture (SOM) polynomials in composition, whereas the free energy of hyd...

G. Piepel T. Redgate P. Masuga

1996-01-01

89

Management of coal waste by energy recovery: Mild gasification/flash pyrolysis of coal preparation waste: Quarterly report (draft) for the period July-September 1986  

SciTech Connect

One of the most perplexing problems facing the coal industry is how to properly dispose of the waste and/or even recovery a small fraction of the Btu value of the waste, while minimizing the environmental concerns. UCC Research considers this monumental environmental problems as an opportunity to recovery useable organic materials and reduce the environmental problems created by coal waste. Mild gasification is the method used by UCC Research to realize these objectives. Coal feedstocks are fed into the mild gasification system yielding liquids, char, and gases for commercial application. The program consists of seven tasks: Task 1, Characterize Management of Coal Preparation Wastes; Task 2, Review Design Specifications and Prepare Preliminary Test Plan; Task 3, Select and Characterize Test Feedstocks; Task 4, Acquire/Construct Process Elements; Task 5, Prepare Final Test Plan; Task 6, Implement Final Test Plan; Task 7, Analyze Test Results and Assess System Economics. A schedule of the program is given. The program was initiated on September 30, 1984. Tasks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 have been completed. Work is continuing on Task 7.

Chu, C.I.C.; Gillespie, B.L.

1986-11-01

90

New insulating particleboards prepared from mixture of solid wastes from tissue paper manufacturing and corn peel  

Microsoft Academic Search

New composite boards with low-thermal conductivity produced from a mixture of solid wastes from tissue paper manufacturing (solid waste TPM) and corn peel have been developed. The effects of solid waste TPM\\/corn peel ratio on the properties of the boards were investigated and the possibility of using recycled polystyrene packaging foam as a laminating agent to improve the quality of

Pranee Lertsutthiwong; Srichalai Khunthon; Krisana Siralertmukul; Khanittha Noomun; Suwalee Chandrkrachang

2008-01-01

91

Effects of a precomposting step on the vermicomposting of dairy manure-waste paper mixtures.  

PubMed

Thermophilic composting is being promoted as a means of sanitizing waste materials prior to vermicomposting. The precomposting duration is, however, critical to the success of the vermicomposting phase as it affects worm biomass. This study evaluated the effectiveness of different precomposting periods (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks) on the sanitization and vermicomposting of dairy manure-waste paper mixtures. The parameters measured were coliform bacteria and protozoa oocyst numbers, earthworm growth, as well as stabilization and nutrient content of vermicomposts. Over 95% of fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and of E. coli 0157 were eliminated from the waste materials within 1 week of precomposting and total elimination of these and protozoan oocysts was achieved after 3 weeks of precomposting. Microbial biomass carbon and water soluble carbon of waste mixtures decreased with increase in precomposting time and impacted negatively on earthworm growth and subsequent stabilization of the dairy manure-paper waste mixtures. Vermicomposts from waste mixtures precomposted for over 2 weeks were less stabilized, less humified and had lower nutrient contents than vermicomposts from waste mixtures precomposted for 1 week or less. A precomposting period of 1 week was found to be ideal for the effective vermicomposting of dairy manure-waste paper mixtures. PMID:20421247

Mupondi, Lushian T; Mnkeni, Pearson N S; Muchaonyerwa, Pardon

2010-04-26

92

Controlled atmosphere electron microscopy study of the gasification of graphite by water, hydrogen, and oxygen catalyzed by a nickel/potassium mixture  

SciTech Connect

The gasification of graphite by H/sub 2/O vapor, wet H/sub 2/, and wet O/sub 2/, catalyzed by a Ni/K mixture is studied using controlled atmosphere electron microscopy (CAEM). In H/sub 2/O vapor the carbon consumption, between 550 and 1100/sup 0/C, is catalyzed by an edge recession mode of attack in the (1120) direction, with no sign of deactivation. An activation energy of 30.8 +/- 0.9 kcal/mol is obtained in this case. This value is similar to those obtained in kinetic studies of the steam gasification of both graphite and char, using this catalyst. In wet H/sub 2/ both channeling and edge recession occur simultaneously. The activation energy obtained is equal to 30 +/- 2 kcal/mol. The catalyst deactivates above 1000/sup 0/C, but can be regenerated by treating the sample in H/sub 2/ vapor at 600/sup 0/C. In wet O/sub 2/ graphite is also gasified by edge recession, but no preferred direction is observed. The catalyst maintains its activity up to 1000/sup 0/C, and an activation energy of 25 +/- 2 kcal/mol is obtained. These results show that the catalytic properties of the Ni/K mixture are superior to those of Ni and K alone due to a cooperative effect between the components. 20 references.

Carrazza, J.; Chludzinski, J.J. Jr.; Heinemann, H.; Somorjai, G.A.; Baker, T.K.

1988-03-01

93

Use of waste plastic in concrete mixture as aggregate replacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial activities in Iraq are associated with significant amounts of non-biodegradable solid waste, waste plastic being among the most prominent. This study involved 86 experiments and 254 tests to determine the efficiency of reusing waste plastic in the production of concrete. Thirty kilograms of waste plastic of fabriform shapes was used as a partial replacement for sand by 0%, 10%,

Zainab Z. Ismail; Enas A. AL-Hashmi

2008-01-01

94

Biomass waste gasification - can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?  

PubMed

A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of tar compounds, content of inorganic gas impurities) were compared for the two stage and the one stage method of the gasification arrangement with only the upward moving bed (co-current updraft). The main novel features of the gasifier conception include grate-less reactor, upward moving bed of biomass particles (e.g. pellets) by means of a screw elevator with changeable rotational speed and gradual expanding diameter of the cylindrical reactor in the part above the upper end of the screw. The gasifier concept and arrangement are considered convenient for thermal power range 100-350 kW(th). The second stage of the gasifier served mainly for tar compounds destruction/reforming by increased temperature (around 950°C) and for gasification reaction of the fuel gas with char. The second stage used additional combustion of the fuel gas by preheated secondary air for attaining higher temperature and faster gasification of the remaining char from the first stage. The measurements of gas composition and tar compound contents confirmed superiority of the two stage gasification system, drastic decrease of aromatic compounds with two and higher number of benzene rings by 1-2 orders. On the other hand the two stage gasification (with overall ER=0.71) led to substantial reduction of gas heating value (LHV=3.15 MJ/Nm(3)), elevation of gas volume and increase of nitrogen content in fuel gas. The increased temperature (>950°C) at the entrance to the char bed caused also substantial decrease of ammonia content in fuel gas. The char with higher content of ash leaving the second stage presented only few mass% of the inlet biomass stream. PMID:21925858

Sulc, Jind?ich; Stojdl, Ji?í; Richter, Miroslav; Popelka, Jan; Svoboda, Karel; Smetana, Ji?í; Vacek, Ji?í; Skoblja, Siarhei; Buryan, Petr

2011-09-16

95

Air gasification of mixed plastic wastes using a two-stage gasifier for the production of producer gas with low tar and a high caloric value  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air gasification was conducted with a fraction of mixed plastic wastes in a newly developed two-stage gasifier. In this work, the influence of the reaction parameters, such as equivalence ratio, upper-reactor temperature and feed size, on the producer gas composition and tar removal were investigated. In addition, the effects of activated carbon and dolomite were also examined. At an equivalence

Jin-Won Kim; Tae-Young Mun; Jin-O Kim; Joo-Sik Kim

2011-01-01

96

The gasification of coal-peat and coal-wood chip mixtures in the University of Minnesota, two-stage coal gasifier: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The technical feasibility of gasifying coal-peat and coal-wood chip mixtures with the University of Minnesota, Duluth Campus commercially technology two-stage coal gasifier was demonstrated during a series of experimental tests. Three types of processed peat products were mixed with coal and gasified. The three peat products were: peat briquettes, peat pellets and sod peat. The best peat product for gasification and handling was found to be peat pellets with a diameter of 7/8 inch and a length of .75 to 2 inches. A mixture of 65% coal and 35% peat pellets was found to cause no loss in gasifier efficiency and no operational problems. However, there was found to be no economic advantage in using coal-peat mixtures. The very limited testing performed with coal-wood chip mixtures indicated that the wood chips would be difficult to handle with the coal handling-equipment and there would be no economic advantage in using wood chips. 3 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Lewis, R.P.

1986-12-01

97

Effect of feeding food waste-broiler litter and bakery by-product mixture to pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding aerobically processed and vacuum-dried food waste-broiler litter and bakery by-product mixture to finishing pigs on performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and taste panel test. A corn-soy diet (Control) was replaced with food waste mixture (FWM) at dietary levels of 25% (25% FWM) and 50% (50% FWM) on a dry matter

W. S. Kwak; J. S. Kang

2006-01-01

98

Recovery of plastic wastes from dumpsite as refuse-derived fuel and its utilization in small gasification system.  

PubMed

An effort to utilize solid wastes at dumpsite as refuse-derived fuel (RDF) was carried out. The produced RDF briquette was then utilized in the gasification system. These wastes were initially examined for their physical composition and chemical characteristics. The wastes contained high plastic content of 24.6-44.8%, majority in polyethylene plastic bag form. The plastic wastes were purified by separating them from other components through manual separation and trommel screen after which their content increased to 82.9-89.7%. Subsequently, they were mixed with binding agent (cassava root) and transformed into RDF briquette. Maximum plastic content in RDF briquette was limit to 55% to maintain physical strength and maximum chlorine content. The RDF briquette was tested in a down-draft gasifier. The produced gas contained average energy content of 1.76 MJ/m(3), yielding cold gas efficiency of 66%. The energy production cost from this RDF process was estimated as USD0.05 perkWh. PMID:19758801

Chiemchaisri, Chart; Charnnok, Boonya; Visvanathan, Chettiyappan

2009-09-15

99

TOXICITY OF COMPLEX WASTE MIXTURES: A COMPARISON OF OBSERVED AND PREDICTED LETHALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The ability to predict the biological effect of complex waste mixtures from chemical characterization data was examined by comparing observed mortality to that predicted by a mathematical additivity model with literature LD50 values for the chemicals identified in the mixtures. a...

100

Thermal reactivity of mixtures of VDDT lubricant and simulated Hanford Tank 241-SY-101 waste  

SciTech Connect

To predict whether the Polywater G lubricant residue remaining in the velocity, density, and temperature tree (VDTT) and the waste in Tank 241-SY-101 (101SY) will be chemically compatible with wastes in 101SY when two VDTTs are removed from 101SY, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory measured the thermal reaction sensitivity of the lubricant residue. This residue is a simulated 101SY waste containing the organic surrogate trisodium hydroxyethyl-ethylenediaminetriacetate (Na{sub 3}HEDTA) and two simulated potential waste and lubricant residue mixtures containing 10 and 90 percent lubricant residue. These studies using accelerating rate calorimetry found that the residue did not react at a rate exceeding 0.1 J/min/g mixture up to 190 degrees C with simulated 101SY waste containing Na{sub 3}HEDTA as the organic surrogate. Also, the dried lubricant residue did not decompose exothermically at a rate exceeding 0.1 J/min/g. Using guidelines used by the chemical industry, these results indicate that the lubricant residue should not react as a significant rate with the waste in 101SY when added to the waste at 60 degrees C or when the mixture cools to the waste`s temperature of 48 degrees C.

Scheele, R.D.; Panisko, F.E.; Sell, R.L.

1996-09-01

101

The deployment of an advanced gasification technology in the treatment of household and other waste streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gasplasma® process developed by APP is an advanced thermal conversion (ATC) technology which has been developed for the treatment of household and trade wastes and has also been successfully applied to the handling of wastes derived from landfill and would be capable of achieving effective energy conversion when utilised as an integrated part of the Enhanced Landfill Mining (ELFM)

Ruby Ray; Richard Taylor; Chris Chapman

102

Health and environmental research on complex organic mixtures: Proceedings  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the preceding decade, numerous studies involving chemists, biologists, environmental scientists, industrial hygienists and engineers were conducted to assess the potential harmful effects of various complex organic mixtures. As a result, a substantial health and environmental database had been developed on combustion products, coal conversion materials (liquefaction and gasification), shale oils, petroleum, solid wastes, dredging spoils, materials from biomass, and

R. H. Gray; E. K. Chess; P. J. Mellinger; R. G. Riley; D. L. Springer

1987-01-01

103

Nitrogen Conservation in Simulated Food Waste Aerobic Composting Process with Different Mg and P Salt Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the effects of three types of Mg and P salt mixtures (potassium phosphate [K3PO4]\\/magnesium sulfate [MgSO4], potassium dihydrogen phosphate [K2HPO4]\\/MgSO4, KH2PO4\\/MgSO4) on the conservation of N and the biodegradation of organic materials in an aerobic food waste composting process, batch experiments were undertaken in four reactors (each with an effective volume of 30 L). The synthetic food waste

Yu Li; Bensheng Su; Jianlin Liu; Xianyuan Du; Guohe Huang

2011-01-01

104

Two stage fluid bed-plasma gasification process for solid waste valorisation: Technical review and preliminary thermodynamic modelling of sulphur emissions  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate sulphur during MSW gasification within a fluid bed-plasma process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We review the literature on the feed, sulphur and process principles therein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The need for research in this area was identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We perform thermodynamic modelling of the fluid bed stage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Initial findings indicate the prominence of solid phase sulphur. - Abstract: Gasification of solid waste for energy has significant potential given an abundant feed supply and strong policy drivers. Nonetheless, significant ambiguities in the knowledge base are apparent. Consequently this study investigates sulphur mechanisms within a novel two stage fluid bed-plasma gasification process. This paper includes a detailed review of gasification and plasma fundamentals in relation to the specific process, along with insight on MSW based feedstock properties and sulphur pollutant therein. As a first step to understanding sulphur partitioning and speciation within the process, thermodynamic modelling of the fluid bed stage has been performed. Preliminary findings, supported by plant experience, indicate the prominence of solid phase sulphur species (as opposed to H{sub 2}S) - Na and K based species in particular. Work is underway to further investigate and validate this.

Morrin, Shane, E-mail: shane.morrin@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Advanced Plasma Power, South Marston Business park, Swindon, SN3 4DE (United Kingdom); Lettieri, Paola, E-mail: p.lettieri@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Chapman, Chris, E-mail: chris.chapman@app-uk.com [Advanced Plasma Power, South Marston Business park, Swindon, SN3 4DE (United Kingdom); Mazzei, Luca, E-mail: l.mazzei@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

2012-04-15

105

Solid and hazardous waste disposal at eastern coal gasification and liquefaction facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is designed to provide an examination of solid waste disposal options at synthetic fuels facilities. This first study is limited to the Northeastern-Appalachian region of the U.S., and to three technologies (solvent refined coal (SRC-II), slagging Lurgi, and dry ash Lurgi). This report is further limited to an examination of landfill disposal, for both hazardous and non-hazardous wastes.

B. Royce; D. Weeter; R. Shypailo; P. Meier; W. Metz; M. Williams

1981-01-01

106

PLFAs of the microbial communities in composting mixtures of agro-industry sludge with different proportions of household waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) were analysed at different time periods during composting of two waste mixtures rich in fats, M1 (22%) and M2 (39%), with the aim of monitoring changes in microbial community structure. The two mixtures consisted of a sludge sample collected from a vegetable oil refinery effluent treatment plant combined with household wastes. The PLFA profiles of both

Soumia Amir; Rajae Abouelwafa; Abdelilah Meddich; Salah Souabi; Peter Winterton; Géorge Merlina; Jean-Claude Revel; Eric Pinelli; Mohamed Hafidi

2010-01-01

107

Waste E-glass particles used in cementitious mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The properties of concretes containing various waste E-glass particle contents were investigated in this study. Waste E-glass particles were obtained from electronic grade glass yarn scrap by grinding to small particle size. The size distribution of cylindrical glass particle was from 38 to 300 {mu}m and about 40% of E-glass particle was less than 150 {mu}m. The E-glass mainly consists of SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ca O and MgO, and is indicated as amorphous by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Compressive strength and resistance of sulfate attack and chloride ion penetration were significantly improved by utilizing proper amount of waste E-glass in concrete. The compressive strength of specimen with 40 wt.% E-glass content was 17%, 27% and 43% higher than that of control specimen at age of 28, 91 and 365 days, respectively. E-glass can be used in concrete as cementitious material as well as inert filler, which depending upon the particle size, and the dividing size appears to be 75 {mu}m. The workability decreased as the glass content increased due to reduction of fineness modulus, and the addition of high-range water reducers was needed to obtain a uniform mix. Little difference was observed in ASR testing results between control and E-glass specimens. Based on the properties of hardened concrete, optimum E-glass content was found to be 40-50 wt.%.

Chen, C.H. [Institute of Materials Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, 2 Pei-Ning Road, Keelung, Taiwan 20248 (China); Huang, R. [Institute of Materials Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, 2 Pei-Ning Road, Keelung, Taiwan 20248 (China)]. E-mail: ranhuang@mail.ntou.edu.tw; Wu, J.K. [Institute of Materials Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, 2 Pei-Ning Road, Keelung, Taiwan 20248 (China); Yang, C.C. [Institute of Materials Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, 2 Pei-Ning Road, Keelung, Taiwan 20248 (China)

2006-03-15

108

Chemistry of coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal is a complex solid material containing a mixture of substances that chemically consist mostly of carbon with lesser amounts of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and ash. Gasification is the conversion of solid coal to combustible gases by combining the carbon with additional oxygen and\\/or hydrogen. Although thermal decomposition (pyrolysis) can produce gaseous fuels, they are usually produced by reaction

Vorres

1982-01-01

109

Prospects for energy recovery from plastic waste gasificators by means of MHD topping cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the authors present a feasibility study of a combined magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and steam turbine plant in which the working gas is made of burnt plastic waste. The possibility of MHD retrofit of existing plant, especially fed by fossil fuel, is well known, and has been studied both for its economical and environmental benefits. The environmental impact and

A. Geri; N. Verdone; A. Salvini

1999-01-01

110

Sustainable waste management using plasma gasification at the campus of the University of California - Merced  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its original conception, the newest campus of the University of California located in Merced, was intended to apply sustainable principles of building construction and campus operation. Achieving zero net energy and zero landfill waste by 2020 has become a challenging goal for UC Merced. A technology that will assist the campus in reaching this goal is related to plasma

G. Diaz; E. Leal-Quiros

111

New insulating particleboards prepared from mixture of solid wastes from tissue paper manufacturing and corn peel.  

PubMed

New composite boards with low-thermal conductivity produced from a mixture of solid wastes from tissue paper manufacturing (solid waste TPM) and corn peel have been developed. The effects of solid waste TPM/corn peel ratio on the properties of the boards were investigated and the possibility of using recycled polystyrene packaging foam as a laminating agent to improve the quality of the boards was also evaluated. Our results show that the density of the particleboards decrease with increasing the amount of corn peel added in the mixture, leading to a decrease in thermal conductivity of the final product. In contrary, larger amount of solid waste TPM added in the mixture produced stronger boards. The lamination of recycled polystyrene on the surface of particleboards improves the mechanical properties and reduces the thickness swelling of the boards. The best improvement in mechanical properties and swelling resistance could be achieved when 15% polystyrene (w/v) was coated on the surface of the boards. PMID:17977719

Lertsutthiwong, Pranee; Khunthon, Srichalai; Siralertmukul, Krisana; Noomun, Khanittha; Chandrkrachang, Suwalee

2007-10-30

112

Method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material  

DOEpatents

A method of destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500.degree. C. to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 900.degree. C. in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet.

McIntosh, Michael J. (Bolingbrook, IL); Arzoumanidis, Gregory G. (Naperville, IL)

1997-01-01

113

A method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material  

DOEpatents

A method is described for destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500 C to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200 C to about 900 C in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet.

McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.

1995-12-31

114

Semi-pilot scale test for production of hydrogen-rich fuel gas from different wastes by means of a gasification and smelting process with oxygen multi-blowing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Europe, most wastes are deposited in landfills, but a European Council directive has called for a 30% reduction of the landfill amount. Though the cement industry commonly burns waste as an alternative fuel together with fossil fuel (so-called waste co-incineration), it is necessary to reconsider this co-incineration from the viewpoints of sustainable development and cement quality. Gasification and smelting

R. Kikuchi; H. Sato; Y. Matsukura; T. Yamamoto

2005-01-01

115

Recycled tire rubber and other waste materials in asphalt mixtures. Transportation research record  

SciTech Connect

The papers in this volume, dealing with various facets of recycled tire rubber and other waste materials in asphalt mixtures, should be of interest to state and local construction, design, materials, and research engineers as well as contractors and material producers. In the first papers, Rebala and Estakhri, Malpass and Khosla, and Baker and Connolly describe research related to crumb rubber modified mixtures that was done for the Texas, North Carolina, and New Jersey State Departments of Transportation. Ali et al. report on their research in Canada to determine the feasibility of sing reclaimed roofing materials in hot mix asphalt pavement. Emery discusses the evaluation of 11 Ontario rubber modified demonstration projects in terms of pavement performance, environmental impacts, and recyclability. In the last paper, Fwa and Aziz report on their work in Singapore related to the use of incinerator residue in asphalt mixtures.

NONE

1995-12-31

116

Effects of Mixture Ratio and Hydraulic Retention Time on Single-Stage Anaerobic Co-digestion of Food Waste and Waste Activated Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biochemical methane potential (BMP) test was used to evaluate the anaerobic biodegradabilities of food waste (FW), waste activated sludge (WAS), and the mixtures having the ratios of 10:90, 30:70, 50:50, 70:30, and 90:10 (FW:WAS) on a volatile solid (VS) basis. The carbon\\/nitrogen (C\\/N) ratio and the biodegradability of the mixtures improved from 6.16 to 14.14 and increased from 36.6

Nam Hyo Heo; Soon Chul Park; Ho Kang

2004-01-01

117

Effect of feeding food waste-broiler litter and bakery by-product mixture to pigs.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding aerobically processed and vacuum-dried food waste-broiler litter and bakery by-product mixture to finishing pigs on performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and taste panel test. A corn-soy diet (Control) was replaced with food waste mixture (FWM) at dietary levels of 25% (25% FWM) and 50% (50% FWM) on a dry matter (DM) basis. Diets were fed to a total of 45 pigs (mean body weight 69.4kg) during the eight wk of finishing period. After slaughtering, longissmus muscle at 24h postmortem was used for meat quality analysis. Restaurant food waste was high in protein (22.0%) and fat (23.9%). Supplementing a corn-soy diet with FWM increased (P<0.05) feed DM intake, did not alter (P>0.05) average daily gain, decreased (P<0.05) feed efficiency especially for 50% FWM treatment, and substantially reduced (P<0.05) feed cost, compared with feeding a corn-soy diet only. Feeding FWM up to 50% did not affect (P>0.05) carcass characteristics (carcass weight, dressing percentage, backfat thickness and carcass grade), meat fatty acid composition, meat quality (marbling score, pH, water holding capacity, drip loss, L*, a*, b* values, Warner-Bratzler shear force, cooking loss), and taste panel test (flavor, taste, tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptance) compared with feeding a corn-soy diet. However, meat color was paler (P<0.05) for 50% FWM fed animals than a corn-soy diet fed animals. Meat color was the only limiting factor when FWM was fed to finishing pigs. In conclusion, aerobically processed and vacuum-dried food waste-broiler litter and bakery by-product mixture was similar to a corn-soy diet in feed value for finishing pigs. PMID:16171681

Kwak, W S; Kang, J S

2005-04-22

118

Management of Coal Waste by Energy Recovery: Mild Gasification/Flash Pyrolysis of Coal Preparation Wastes. Quarterly Report, April-June 1986.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several modifications were made to the Mild Gasification Unit, MGU. Modifications included relocating the condensing system from the second floor to the third floor, modifying the condensing system to enable water-cooling or dry ice-cooling, installation ...

C. I. C. Chu B. L. Gillespie

1986-01-01

119

Laboratory appraisal of organic carbon changes in mixtures made with different inorganic wastes.  

PubMed

Mixtures of organic and inorganic wastes were incubated to examine the changes in organic C (OC) contents. An anaerobic sludge and a CaO-treated aerobic sludge, with OC concentrations of 235 and 129 gkg(-1), were used. The inorganic wastes used - referred to as "conditioners" - were shot blasting scrap, fettling, Linz-Donawitz slag, foundry sand (FS), and fly ash from wood bark combustion (FA). The total OC (TOC) and KMnO(4)(-) oxidized OC were determined. DTA-TGA profiles and FTIR spectra were also obtained. Mixtures made with the FS contained significantly lower (P<0.05) amounts of TOC (45 gkg(-1)) than the rest of mixtures, which was attributed to the non-existence of reactive surfaces in the conditioner and the increased aeration induced by this material. Those made with FA contained significantly higher (P<0.05) amounts of TOC (170 gkg(-1)), which was attributed to: (i) the addition of an extra source of C - black carbon (BC) - in the FA, and (ii) the inhibition of mineralization from the compounds present in this conditioner (e.g., amorphous aluminosilicates, BC). The results highlight the importance of the characteristics of the conditioners on the fate of the OM originating from the sludges. PMID:19632821

Arbestain, M Camps; Ibargoitia, M L; Madinabeitia, Z; Gil, M V; Virgel, S; Morán, A; Pereira, R Calvelo; Macías, F

2009-07-25

120

Kinetic analysis of thermal degradation of recycled polycarbonate\\/acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene mixtures from waste electric and electronic equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of properties in waste polymeric materials is important for a further recycling and eventual reuse. The determination of thermal properties of PC–ABS mixtures obtained from waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) has been carried out in this work. Kinetic parameters, such as apparent activation energies, have been calculated by using the autocatalytic model,

R. Balart; L. Sánchez; J. López; A. Jiménez

2006-01-01

121

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A COMMERCIAL BOILER FIRED WITH A COAL/WASTE PLASTIC MIXTURE. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of comprehensive emissions testing and laboratory analyses of a stoker-fired commercial boiler firing a coal/waste plastic mixture. In one test, the unit fired its typical coal fuel; in the other, shredded waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) beverage b...

122

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A COMMERCIAL BOILER FIRED WITH A COAL/WASTE PLASTIC MIXTURE. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of comprehensive emissions testing and laboratory analyses of a stoker-fired commercial boiler firing a coal/waste plastic mixture. In one test, the unit fired its typical coal fuel; in the other, shredded waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) beverage b...

123

Coal-gasification support studies. Volume III, Task 3. Studies to improve the processing techniques of product and waste streams in coal-gasification processes. Final report, November 19, 1981-August 15, 1982  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes research conducted on several prospective gas- and effluent-handling systems for future coal-gasification plants. Included in the report are results on the resistance of a cobalt-molybdenum water-gas shift catalyst to hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and hydrogen chloride (HC1), which are found in raw fuel gases. HCN was found to have no measurable effect on the catalyst; HCl was found to cause irreversible poisoning. Also presented are data on the vapor-liquid equilibrium behavior of synthesis gas-benzene mixtures and of synthesis gas-water mixtures, including a few ammonia-carbon dioxide-water mixturs that are useful for quench system design. Studies that used a novel, air-regenerable sorbent to remove sulfur compounds from coal-drived fuel gases at elevated temperatures are discussed. In addition, this report discusses exploratory studies that were made on the catalytic properties of silica-supported Group IIA metal oxides toward the hydrolysis of carbonyl sulfide (COS) and HCN. The results suggest that magnesium- and strontium-based catalysts might be competitive with commercial COS hydrolysis catalysts. The ammonia decomposition activities of several materials at temperatures between 1000/sup 0/ and 1200/sup 0/F in the presence of hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) were examined. Although previous studies conducted at 1400/sup 0/F indicated good catalytic activity, these studies at the lower temperatures indicated that H/sub 2/S has an inhibitory effect on ammonia decomposition. Finally, experimental studies were made on the separation characteristics of several commercial microfiltration, ultrafiltration, and reverse osmosis membrane systems as applied to raw process condensates. The results suggest that membrane separation is a viable option when used in combination with other conventional treatment techniques and that it may offer significant economic benefits. 68 figures, 59 tables.

Not Available

1983-06-01

124

Nitrogen conservation in simulated food waste aerobic composting process with different Mg and P salt mixtures.  

PubMed

To assess the effects of three types of Mg and P salt mixtures (potassium phosphate [K3PO4]/magnesium sulfate [MgSO4], potassium dihydrogen phosphate [K2HPO4]/MgSO4, KH2PO4/MgSO4) on the conservation of N and the biodegradation of organic materials in an aerobic food waste composting process, batch experiments were undertaken in four reactors (each with an effective volume of 30 L). The synthetic food waste was composted of potatoes, rice, carrots, leaves, meat, soybeans, and seed soil, and the ratio of C and N was 17:1. Runs R1-R3 were conducted with the addition of K3PO4/ MgSO4, K2HPO4/MgSO4, and KH2PO4/MgSO4 mixtures, respectively; run R0 was a blank performed without the addition of Mg and P salts. After composting for 25 days, the degrees of degradation of the organic materials in runs R0-R3 were 53.87, 62.58, 59.14, and 49.13%, respectively. X-ray diffraction indicated that struvite crystals were formed in runs R1-R3 but not in run R0; the gaseous ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) losses in runs R0-R3 were 21.2, 32.8, 12.6, and 3.5% of the initial total N, respectively. Of the tested Mg/P salt mixtures, the K2HPO4/ MgSO4 system provided the best combination of conservation of N and biodegradation of organic materials in this food waste composting process. PMID:21850832

Li, Yu; Su, Bensheng; Liu, Jianlin; Du, Xianyuan; Huang, Guohe

2011-07-01

125

Conversion of a CFCs, HFCs and HCFCs waste mixture via reaction with methane.  

PubMed

The gas-phase reaction of a mixture of waste refrigerant gases, namely R22 (CHClF(2)), R12 (CCl(2)F(2)) and R134a (CH(2)FCF(3)) with CH(4) has been investigated over the temperature range of 873-1133K. The investigation was undertaken as an initial assessment of the viability of this process as a treatment option for waste mixtures of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and as a potential route for the synthesis of CH(2)=CF(2) (VDF). During the reaction, CH(2)=CF(2) is observed as the major product formed and a 43% selectivity to CH(2)=CF(2) is obtained at 1073K. A detailed mechanism is developed based on the mechanistic analysis from kinetic modeling, with the initiation reaction involving the formation of Cl radicals from CCl(2)F(2). Good agreement is achieved between the predictions and experimental results. Based on a mechanistic analysis, a summary of the major reaction pathways is proposed, which is consistent with the experimental observations. PMID:20875701

Han, Wenfeng; Kennedy, Eric M; Mackie, John C; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z

2010-09-26

126

Estimation of Benzo(a)Pyrene in bottom and fly ash from the gasification followed by incineration of waste tires  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes a determination of toxic compounds in ash produced from the gasification process followed by incineration of scrap tires. Determination of selected toxic compounds, including benzo(a)pyr?ene was carried out by Soxhlet extraction with benzene after spiking d12?benzo(a)pyrene to bottom and fly ash samples. The recovery of d12?BaP was dependent on both sorption and desorption efficiency controlled by carbonaceous

1992-01-01

127

Reaction products from the subcritical water gasification of food wastes and glucose with NaOH and H2O2.  

PubMed

The gasification of some selected components of food wastes using H(2)O(2) as the oxidant and in the presence of NaOH has been investigated under subcritical water conditions. Hydrogen production was enhanced when both NaOH and H(2)O(2) were used compared to when either NaOH or H(2)O(2) alone was used or in their absence. Results indicated that the H(2)O(2) acted to partially oxidize the samples while NaOH significantly increased hydrogen gas yields by promoting the water-gas shift reaction with subsequent CO(2) capture. In the presence of NaOH, the main components were Na(2)CO(3), CH(3)COONa and CH(3)COONa.3H(2)O. Char and tar production were suppressed in the presence of NaOH. PMID:20427179

Muangrat, Rattana; Onwudili, Jude A; Williams, Paul T

2010-04-27

128

Influence of operation conditions and additives on the development of producer gas and tar reduction in air gasification of construction woody wastes using a two-stage gasifier.  

PubMed

Air gasification was conducted with fractions of construction woody wastes in a two-stage gasifier, consisting of a fluidized bed zone and a tar cracking zone. The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of reaction conditions and additives on the composition of producer gas and tar content in producer gas. A producer gas obtained with activated carbon of 540 g at an ER of 0.26 was mainly composed of H(2) (25 vol.%), CO (22 vol.%) and CH(4) (5 vol.%). Regarding tar removal efficiency, activated carbon was better than olivine. The tar removal rate with virgin activated carbon reached up to 80%. The reuse of spent activated carbon caused an efficiency loss in tar removal to some extent. Overall, it seems that the strong need for intensive downstream tar removal measurements can be removed with the use of a two-stage gasifier and the application of activated carbon. PMID:21565495

Mun, Tae-Young; Kim, Jin-O; Kim, Jin-Won; Kim, Joo-Sik

2011-04-24

129

EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS  

SciTech Connect

Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification, SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the US Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP designs emphasize on recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from coal clean operations and will assess blends of the culm and coal or petroleum coke as feedstocks. The project is being carried out in three phases. Phase I involves definition of concept and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II consists of an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III involves updating the original EECP design, based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 BPD coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania.

Unknown

2001-12-01

130

EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS  

SciTech Connect

Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the technoeconomic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the United States to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases. Phase I is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report covers the period performance from July 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002.

Unknown

2003-01-01

131

GASIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION  

SciTech Connect

A recent emphasis in gasification technology development has been directed toward reduced-scale gasifier systems for distributed generation at remote sites. The domestic distributed power generation market over the next decade is expected to be 5-6 gigawatts per year. The global increase is expected at 20 gigawatts over the next decade. The economics of gasification for distributed power generation are significantly improved when fuel transport is minimized. Until recently, gasification technology has been synonymous with coal conversion. Presently, however, interest centers on providing clean-burning fuel to remote sites that are not necessarily near coal supplies but have sufficient alternative carbonaceous material to feed a small gasifier. Gasifiers up to 50 MW are of current interest, with emphasis on those of 5-MW generating capacity. Internal combustion engines offer a more robust system for utilizing the fuel gas, while fuel cells and microturbines offer higher electric conversion efficiencies. The initial focus of this multiyear effort was on internal combustion engines and microturbines as more realistic near-term options for distributed generation. In this project, we studied emerging gasification technologies that can provide gas from regionally available feedstock as fuel to power generators under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification, primarily coal-fed, has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries. Commercial-scale gasification activities are under way at 113 sites in 22 countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia, according to the Gasification Technologies Council. Gasification studies were carried out on alfalfa, black liquor (a high-sodium waste from the pulp industry), cow manure, and willow on the laboratory scale and on alfalfa, black liquor, and willow on the bench scale. Initial parametric tests evaluated through reactivity and product composition were carried out on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) equipment. These tests were evaluated and then followed by bench-scale studies at 1123 K using an integrated bench-scale fluidized-bed gasifier (IBG) which can be operated in the semicontinuous batch mode. Products from tests were solid (ash), liquid (tar), and gas. Tar was separated on an open chromatographic column. Analysis of the gas product was carried out using on-line Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). For selected tests, gas was collected periodically and analyzed using a refinery gas analyzer GC (gas chromatograph). The solid product was not extensively analyzed. This report is a part of a search into emerging gasification technologies that can provide power under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries, and it is probable that scaled-down applications for use in remote areas will become viable. The appendix to this report contains a list, description, and sources of currently available gasification technologies that could be or are being commercially applied for distributed generation. This list was gathered from current sources and provides information about the supplier, the relative size range, and the status of the technology.

Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt

2000-05-01

132

Partitioning of actinides from high-level waste streams of Purex process using mixtures of CMPO and TBP in dodecane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of actinides from high active aqueous raffinate waste (HAW) as well as high-level waste (HLW) solutions arising from Purex processing of thermal reactor fuels has been studied using a mixture of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoyl-methylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and TBP in dodecane. The results on the extraction and stripping of actinides, lanthanides, and other fission products are discussed. Optimum conditions are proposed

J. N. Mathur; M. S. Murali; P. R. Natarajan; L. P. Badheka; A. Banerji; A. Ramanujam; P. S. Dhami; V. Gopalakrishnan; R. K. Dhumwad; M. K. Rao

1993-01-01

133

Fuel Flexibility in Gasification  

SciTech Connect

In order to increase efficiencies of carbonizers, operation at high pressures is needed. In addition, waste biomass fuels of opportunity can be used to offset fossil fuel use. The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Fluidized Bed Gasifier/Combustor (FBG/C) was used to gasify coal and mixtures of coal and biomass (sawdust) at 425 psig. The purpose of the testing program was to generate steady state operating data for modeling efforts of carbonizers. A test program was completed with a matrix of parameters varied one at a time in order to avoid second order interactions. Variables were: coal feed rate, pressure, and varying mixtures of sawdust and coal types. Coal types were Montana Rosebud subbituminous and Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous. The sawdust was sanding waste from a furniture manufacturer in upstate New York. Coal was sieved from -14 to +60 mesh and sawdust was sieved to -14 mesh. The FBG/C operates at a nominal 425 psig, but pressures can be lowered. For the tests reported it was operated as a jetting, fluidized bed, ash-agglomerating gasifier. Preheated air and steam are injected into the center of the bottom along with the solid feed that is conveyed with cool air. Fairly stable reactor internal flow patterns develop and temperatures stabilize (with some fluctuations) when steady state is reached. At nominal conditions the solids residence time in the reactor is on the order of 1.5 to 2 hours, so changes in feed types can require on the order of hours to equilibrate. Changes in operating conditions (e.g. feed rate) usually require much less time. The operating periods of interest for these tests were only the steady state periods, so transient conditions were not monitored as closely. The test matrix first established a base case of operations to which single parameter changes in conditions could be compared. The base case used Montana Rosebud at a coal feed rate of 70 lbm/hr at 425 psig. The coal sawdust mixtures are reported as percent by weight coal to percent by weight sawdust. The mixtures of interest were: 65/35 subbituminous, 75/25 subbituminous, 85/15 subbituminous, and 75/25 bituminous. Steady state was achieved quickly when going from one subbituminous mixture to another, but longer when going from subbituminous to bituminous coal. The most apparent observation when comparing the base case to subbituminous coal/sawdust mixtures is that operating conditions are nearly the same. Product gas does not change much in composition and temperatures remain nearly the same. Comparisons of identical weight ratios of sawdust and subbituminous and bituminous mixtures show considerable changes in operating conditions and gas composition. The highly caking bituminous coal used in this test swelled up and became about half as dense as the comparable subbituminous coal char. Some adjustments were required in accommodating changes in solids removal during the test. Nearly all the solids in the bituminous coal sawdust were conveyed into the upper freeboard section and removed at the mid-level of the reactor. This is in marked contrast to the ash-agglomerating condition where most solids are removed at the very bottom of the gasifier. Temperatures in the bottom of the reactor during the bituminous test were very high and difficult to control. The most significant discovery of the tests was that the addition of sawdust allowed gasification of a coal type that had previously resulted in nearly instant clinkering of the gasifier. Several previous attempts at using Pittsburgh No. 8 were done only at the end of the tests when shutdown was imminent anyway. It is speculated that the fine wood dust somehow coats the pyrolyzed sticky bituminous coal particles and prevents them from agglomerating quickly. As the bituminous coal char particles swell, they are carried to the cooler upper regions of the reactor where they re-solidify. Other interesting phenomena were revealed regarding the transport (rheological) properties of the coal sawdust mixtures. The coal sawdust mixtures segregate quickly when transported. This is visi

McLendon, T. Robert; Pineault, Richard L.; Richardson, Steven W.; Rockey, John M.; Beer, Stephen K. (U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory); Lui, Alain P.; Batton, William A. (Parsons Infrastructure and Technology Group, Inc.)

2001-11-06

134

Effect of partially substituting concentrate feed mixture by either fresh or waste oil in sheep diets.  

PubMed

Seven digestibility trials were carried out on sheep to study the effect of replacing concentrate feed mixture (CFM) with varying amounts of fresh (raw) sunflower oil or heated oil from bean cake (Taamiah) frying, in almost isocalorific and isonitrogenous diets. Boiling altered the physical and chemical properties of oil but not significantly except for the peroxide value (P < or = 0.05). Substitution with fresh oil significantly increased the digestibility of nutrients, whereas the boiled lead to conflicting results where all the digestibilities tended to decrease. The feeding value was also affected by the addition of oil. The blood analyses of the animals reflected biochemical changes indicating some dysfunction of the internal organs, in particular the liver showed signs of hyperlipidaemia and hypercholesterolaemia. It was concluded that the loss of CFM energy could be partly substituted by fresh oil or by a small amount of waste oil. PMID:8215892

Abdelhamid, A M; Gabr, A A; el-Shinnawy, M M

1993-01-01

135

Solid state fermentation of food waste mixtures for single cell protein, aroma volatiles and fat production.  

PubMed

Growth of selected microorganisms of industrial interest (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus and kefir) by solid state fermentation (SSF) of various food industry waste mixtures was studied. The fermented products were analysed for protein, and nutrient minerals content, as well as for aroma volatile compounds by GC/MS. The substrate fermented by K. marxianus contained the highest sum of fat and protein concentration (59.2% w/w dm) and therefore it could be considered for utilisation of its fat content and for livestock feed enrichment. Regarding volatiles, the formation of high amounts of ?-pinene was observed only in the SSF product of kefir at a yield estimated to be 4kg/tn of SSF product. A preliminary design of a biorefinery-type process flow sheet and its economic analysis, indicated potential production of products (enriched livestock feed, fat and ?-pinene) of significant added value. PMID:24128535

Aggelopoulos, Theodoros; Katsieris, Konstantinos; Bekatorou, Argyro; Pandey, Ashok; Banat, Ibrahim M; Koutinas, Athanasios A

2013-07-29

136

Characterization of Aspen ASH, Sand and Log-Yard Waste Mixtures from an Aspen-Based Oriented Strand Board Mill for Use as an Intermediate Landfill Cover  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood ash has a variety of uses including land application, geotechnical construction and daily and final covers for landfills. The objective of this study was to determine the relevant chemical and physical properties of selected mixtures of aspen burner-ash, log-yard waste scrapings (sandy soil plus wood waste) and a sandy soil as an intermediate landfill cover. The treatment mixtures, per

R. M. A. Block; K. C. J. van Rees

2004-01-01

137

Study of lay people's perceptions of appropriate management of gasoline\\/soil mixtures, hazardous waste mixtures, and trash\\/garbage mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method used was a researcher-developed questionnaire that was given to San Diego residents who were either Naval Reservists or worked at the corporate headquarters of a fast food chain. The respondents were chosen to yield a cross section of lay people. The forced-choice questionnaire asked identical questions about each of the wastes. The sequence in which each waste appeared

Simon

1988-01-01

138

Plant response to FBC waste-coal slurry solid mixtures. [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to test the feasibility of stabilizing coal slurry solids (CSS) wastes by directly seeding plants into the waste. This is not done conventionally because the waste can generate toxic amounts of sulfuric acid. Our approach is to neutralize the potential acidity by mixing fluidized bed combustion (FBC) waste into the slurry. If successful, this approach would both help dispose of FBC wastes while providing a more economical slurry stabilization technique. The project involves growing forage plants in CSS-FBC mixtures in the greenhouse. This is the first quarter of the project. We have designed the experiment, secured greenhouse space, purchased the seeds, collected and dried the FBC and CSS samples. The samples represent a typical range of properties. We retrieved two FBC and two CSS samples. One CSS sample appears to have a higher pyrite content than the other.

Darmody, R.G.; Dunker, R.E. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States); Dreher, G.B.; Roy, W.R.; Steel, J.D. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Urbana, IL (United States)

1994-03-01

139

Study of Wood Pyrolysis and Gasification by Thermogravimetry and in a Catalyst Fluidized Bed.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of wood wastes pyrolysis and vapor gasification kinetics is presented together with a study of the implementation of sawdust vapor gasification in fluidized beds with sand, activated alumina and a Nickel/alumina catalyst. Based on thermogravimetri...

M. Hemati

1984-01-01

140

Nitrogen transformation during organic waste composting by the Rutgers system and its effects on pH, EC and maturity of the composting mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of the different forms of nitrogen during the composting of several wastes was studied, as well as its relation to the pH, electrical conductivity and parameters of maturity of the composts obtained. Four mixtures were prepared from different organic materials: sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, brewery sludge, sorghum bagasse, cotton waste and pine bark. The evolution of the

M. A. Sánchez-Monedero; A. Roig; C. Paredes; M. P. Bernal

2001-01-01

141

EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT--DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS  

SciTech Connect

Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power and Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement with the USDOE, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co--product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases: Phase 1 is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase 2 is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase 3 updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase 2, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report is WMPI's third quarterly technical progress report. It covers the period performance from October 1, 2001 through December 31, 2001.

John W. Rich

2001-03-01

142

Hazardous and Corrosive Gas Production in the Radiolysis of Water/Organic Mixtures in Model TRU Waste  

SciTech Connect

Experiments in combination with diffusion-kinetic modeling incorporating track structure simulations are used to examine the radiation chemistry of aqueous systems containing chlorinated hydrocarbons. Irradiations with both Co-60 gamma rays and alpha particles are employed in order to simulate typical mixed radiation environments encountered in waste management. The goal is to determine fundamental mechanisms, kinetics, and yields for the formation of potentially explosive gases and corrosive agents, such as H2 and HCl, respectively, in the radiolysis of water-organic mixtures. The radiation chemical systems studied are found throughout the DOE portfolio and are important in radioactive waste remediation and management.

LaVerne, Jay A.

2005-06-01

143

2007 gasification technologies conference papers  

SciTech Connect

Sessions covered: gasification industry roundtable; the gasification market in China; gasification for power generation; the gasification challenge: carbon capture and use storage; industrial and polygeneration applications; gasification advantage in refinery applications; addressing plant performance; reliability and availability; gasification's contribution to supplementing gaseous and liquid fuels supplies; biomass gasification for fuel and power markets; and advances in technology-research and development

NONE

2007-07-01

144

Neutralization/prevention of acid rock drainage using mixtures of alkaline by-products and sulfidic mine wastes.  

PubMed

Backfilling of open pit with sulfidic waste rock followed by inundation is a common method for reducing sulfide oxidation after mine closure. This approach can be complemented by mixing the waste rock with alkaline materials from pulp and steel mills to increase the system's neutralization potential. Leachates from 1 m(3) tanks containing sulfide-rich (ca.30 wt %) waste rock formed under dry and water saturated conditions under laboratory conditions were characterized and compared to those formed from mixtures. The waste rock leachate produced an acidic leachate (pH?waste rock had lower concentrations of As and Cu (<2 ?g/L), Pb and Zn (20 ?g/L and 5 mg/L), respectively, and its pH was around 6. Crushed (<6 mm) waste rock mixed with different fractions (1-5 wt %) of green liquid dregs, fly ash, mesa lime, and argon oxygen decarburization (AOD) slag was leached on a small scale for 65 day, and showed near-neutral pH values, except for mixtures of waste rock with AOD slag and fly ash (5 % w/w) which were more basic (pH?>?9). The decrease of elemental concentration in the leachate was most pronounced for Pb and Zn, while Al and S were relatively high. Overall, the results obtained were promising and suggest that alkaline by-products could be useful additives for minimizing ARD formation. PMID:23740301

Alakangas, Lena; Andersson, Elin; Mueller, Seth

2013-06-06

145

Kinetic study of hydroxide-catalyzed methanolysis of Jatropha curcas–waste food oil mixture for biodiesel production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroxide-catalyzed methanolysis kinetic reaction model that considers the side effects of saponification of glycerides, esters and free fatty acids (FFAs) was proposed. Methanolysis of a mixture of Jatropha curcas–waste food oil that contains 1%wt FFAs under reaction temperature 50°C, mixing speed 900rpm, methanol to oil molar ratio 6:1 and KOH to oil mass ratio 1%wt, was accurately and completely described

Hanny Johanes Berchmans; Kayoko Morishita; Takayuki Takarada

2010-01-01

146

Geochemistry of FBC waste-coal slurry solid mixtures. Technical report, December 1, 1992--February 28, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Three tasks are being conducted in this research project. All are related to understanding the chemistry and mineralogy of the co- disposal of fluidized bed combustion (FBC) wastes with coal slurry solid (CSS) from a coal preparation plant. During coal cleaning, pyrite and other heavy minerals and rock materials are rejected from the coal and discharged in an aqueous slurry to an impoundment. Soluble components and acid-base reaction products from mixtures of fluidized bed combustion (FBC) wastes and coal slurry solids (CSS) are being extracted in aqueous solution in a series of batch experiments. These experiments are being conducted in order to provide information on the solution chemistry associated with the mixtures over an extended time. Large volumes of extracts from three mixtures of FBC waste and CSS are being prepared for use in experiments to ascertain the adsorption/desorption reactions that occur between components of the extracts and three commonly occurring Illinois soils. A computer program that simulates the effects of pyrite oxidation and acid neutralization in a spoil heap is being corrected and improved.

Dreher, G.B.; Roy, W.R.; Steele, J.D.; Heidari, M. [Illinois Dept. of Energy and Natural Resources, Springfield, IL (United States). Geological Survey; Banerjee, D. [Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carterville, IL (United States)

1993-05-01

147

Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalysts to Poisons from High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures  

SciTech Connect

There has been a recent shift in interest in converting not only natural gas and coal derived syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, but also converting biomass-derived syngas, as well as syngas derived from coal and biomass mixtures. As such, conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt may not be suitable without proper development. This is because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier gasification gasification) than solely from coal, other compounds may actually be increased. Of particular concern are compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the first year, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) researchers completed a number of tasks aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts and a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to alkali halides. This included the preparation of large batches of 0.5%Pt-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 100Fe: 5.1Si: 3.0K: 2.0Cu (high alpha) catalysts that were split up among the four different entities participating in the overall project; the testing of the catalysts under clean FT and WGS conditions; the testing of the Fe-Cr WGS catalyst under conditions of co-feeding NaCl and KCl; and the construction and start-up of the continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) for poisoning investigations. In the second and third years, researchers from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) continued the project by evaluating the sensitivity of a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to a number of different compounds, including KHCO{sub 3}, NaHCO{sub 3}, HCl, HBr, HF, H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, and a combination of H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}. Cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts were also subjected to a number of the same compounds in order to evaluate their sensitivities at different concentration levels of added contaminant.

Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Dennis Sparks; Khalid Azzam; Janet Chakkamadathil Mohandas; Wilson Shafer; Venkat Ramana Rao Pendyala

2011-09-30

148

Gasification of Coal-Peat and Coal-Wood Chip Mixtures in the University of Minnesota, Two-Stage Coal Gasifier: Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The technical feasibility of gasifying coal-peat and coal-wood chip mixtures with the University of Minnesota, Duluth Campus commercially technology two-stage coal gasifier was demonstrated during a series of experimental tests. Three types of processed p...

R. P. Lewis

1986-01-01

149

Geochemistry of FBC waste-coal slurry solid mixtures. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1--May 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Three tasks are being conducted in this research project, all related to understanding the chemistry and mineralogy of the co-disposal of fluidized bed combustion (FBC) wastes with coal slurry solid (CSS) from a coal preparation plant. During coal cleaning, pyrite, other heavy minerals, and rock materials are rejected from the coal and discharged in an aqueous slurry to a slurry pond. After dewatering and abandonment of the pond, the pyrite may oxidize and produce acid that may migrate into the underlying groundwater system. If an alkaline product, such as FBC waste, is mixed with the CSS, then the acid will be effectively neutralized as it is produced. In Task 1, soluble components and acid-base reaction products from mixtures of FBC waste and CSS are being extracted for up to 180 days in a series of aqueous batch experiments. The final two sets of extractions, 90- and 180-days, were completed. The extracts and solids from these experiments were submitted for analysis of cations, anions, and mineralogy. In Task 2, 10 L of extracts from three mixtures of FBC waste and CSS were prepared for use in experiments to determine the adsorption/desorption reactions that occur between components of the extracts and three commonly occurring Illinois soils.

Dreher, G.B.; Roy, W.R.; Steele, J.D.; Heidari, M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

1993-09-01

150

Separation of products from mild coal gasification processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary mild coal gasification product mixture containing noncondensible gas, high-boiling hydrocarbon vapors and entrained fines is difficult to process into the desired pure products: gas, liquids, and dry solids. This challenge for mild coal gasification process development has been studied by surveying the technical literature for suitable separations processes and for similar issues in related processes. The choice for

Wallman

1991-01-01

151

Exergy analysis of biomass-to-synthetic natural gas (SNG) process via indirect gasification of various biomass feedstock  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an exergy analysis of SNG production via indirect gasification of various biomass feedstock, including virgin (woody) biomass as well as waste biomass (municipal solid waste and sludge). In indirect gasification heat needed for endothermic gasification reactions is produced by burning char in a separate combustion section of the gasifier and subsequently the heat is transferred to the

Caecilia R. Vitasari; Martin Jurascik; Krzysztof J. Ptasinski

2011-01-01

152

Management of coal waste by energy recovery: mild gasification/flash pyrolysis of coal preparation wastes. Quarterly report, April-June 1986  

SciTech Connect

Several modifications were made to the Mild Gasification Unit, MGU. Modifications included relocating the condensing system from the second floor to the third floor, modifying the condensing system to enable water-cooling or dry ice-cooling, installation of an equilibrium line between the char chute and the gas-exist lines, and mounting the condensing system on weigh scales to allow determination of the trend of hydrocarbon liquid production as a function of time. Six tests were conducted on the MGU. Four of the tests were shakedown tests while two of the tests were part of the final test plan. Different configurations were tried on the condensing system as well as different types of cooling. Various conditions were used during the tests including tests with bituminous and subbituminous coals, lime additive, and different residence times. Analytical data on the char and liquid products were received including boiling point distribution, /sup 1/H-NMR, LC-NMR, and ultimate and proximate analyses.

Chu, C.I.C.; Gillespie, B.L.

1986-08-01

153

The solid recovered fuel Stabilat®: Characteristics and fluidised bed gasification tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solid recovered fuel Stabilat® has a low water content which makes it ideal for thermochemical conversion processes such as gasification. The paper presents fuel characterisation and fluidised bed gasification experiments of the Stabilat® solid waste recovered fuel in two experimental facilities, aiming at assessing the product gas quality and bed agglomeration phenomena. The energy content of the gasification product

G. Dunnu; K. D. Panopoulos; S. Karellas; J. Maier; S. Touliou; G. Koufodimos; I. Boukis; E. Kakaras

154

Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle— A Review of IGCC Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past three decades, significant efforts have been made toward the development of cleaner and more efficient technology for power generation. Coal gasification technology received a big thrust with the concept of combined cycle power generation. The integration of coal gasification with combined cycle for power generation (IGCC) had the inherent characteristic of gas cleanup and waste minimization, which

MEDHA M. JOSHI; SUNGGYU LEE

1996-01-01

155

Use of gasification residues in aerated autoclaved concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two fine-grained residues produced by gasification of wastes were tested for their suitability in aerated autoclaved concrete (AAC). AAC typically has additional aluminium powder added to the raw ingredients to facilitate the formation of small gas bubbles which provide a low-density product. Both gasification residues had high amounts of metallic aluminium and thus were well suited for this application. Studies

Erika Holt; Paula Raivio

2005-01-01

156

Plant response to FBC waste-coal slurry solid mixtures. [Quarterly] technical report, December 1--February 28, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to test the feasibility of stabilizing coal slurry solids (CSS) wastes by directly seeding plants into the waste. This is not done conventionally because the waste can generate toxic amounts of sulfuric acid. Our approach is to neutralize the potential acidity by mixing fluidized bed combustion (FBC) waste into the slurry. If successful this approach would both help dispose of FBC wastes while providing a more economical slurry stabilization technique. The project involves growing forage plants in CSS-FBC mixtures in the greenhouse. This is the second quarter of the project. We have designed the experiment, secured greenhouse space, purchased the seeds, collected, dried, and are analyzing the FBC and CSS samples. The samples represent a typical range of properties. We retrieved two FBC and two CSS samples. One CSS sample had a relatively high CaCO{sub 3} content relative to the pyrite content and will require no FBC to neutralize the potential acidity. The other CSS sample will require from 4.2 to 2.7% FBC material to neutralize its potential acidity.

Darmody, R.G. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States); Dunker, R.E. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Agronomy; Dreher, G.B.; Roy, W.R.; Steel, J.D. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

1994-06-01

157

Fuel Flexibility in Gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to increase efficiencies of carbonizers, operation at high pressures is needed. In addition, waste biomass fuels of opportunity can be used to offset fossil fuel use. The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Fluidized Bed Gasifier\\/Combustor (FBG\\/C) was used to gasify coal and mixtures of coal and biomass (sawdust) at 425 psig. The purpose of the testing program was

T. Robert McLendon; Richard L. Pineault; Steven W. Richardson; John M. Rockey; Stephen K. Beer; Alain P. Lui; William A. Batton

2001-01-01

158

Removing lead from metallic mixture of waste printed circuit boards by vacuum distillation: Factorial design and removal mechanism.  

PubMed

The lead removal from the metallic mixture of waste printed circuit boards by vacuum distillation was optimized using experimental design, and a mathematical model was established to elucidate the removal mechanism. The variables studied in lead evaporation consisted of the chamber pressure, heating temperature, heating time, particle size and initial mass. The low-level chamber pressure was fixed at 0.1Pa as the operation pressure. The application of two-level factorial design generated a first-order polynomial that agreed well with the data for evaporation efficiency of lead. The heating temperature and heating time exhibited significant effects on the efficiency, which was validated by means of the copper-lead mixture experiments. The optimized operating conditions within the region studied were the chamber pressure of 0.1Pa, heating temperature of 1023K and heating time of 120min. After the conditions were employed to remove lead from the metallic mixture of waste printed circuit boards, the efficiency was 99.97%. The mechanism of the effects was elucidated by mathematical modeling that deals with evaporation, mass transfer and condensation, and can be applied to a wider range of metal removal by vacuum distillation. PMID:23830119

Li, Xingang; Gao, Yujie; Ding, Hui

2013-07-02

159

Advanced Thermochemical Biomass Gasification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Development of advanced biomass gasification systems offers the potential for increasing the industrial use of biomass. An overview of the limitations of thermal gasification systems for producing medium-Btu gas from biomass is presented. The use of an ex...

R. S. Butner D. C. Elliott L. J. Sealock

1986-01-01

160

Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gasification combined cycle continues to represent an important defining technology area for the forest products industry. The 'Forest Products Gasification Initiative', organized under the Industry's Agenda 2020 technology vision and supported by the DOE...

J. A. Kieffer

2000-01-01

161

Evaluation of Health Hazards Associated with Solid Waste/Sewage Sludge Mixtures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes and evaluates the health hazards associated with municipal solid waste/sewage sludge composting by the windrow composting process. The occurrence and survival of pathogens, parasites, and indicator bacteria at various stages during t...

W. L. Gaby

1975-01-01

162

Properties of Waste from Coal Gasification in Entrained Flow Reactors in the Aspect of Their Use in Mining Technology / W?a?ciwo?ci odpadów ze zgazowania w?gla w reaktorach dyspersyjnych w aspekcie ich wykorzystania w technologiach górniczych  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the coal gasification plants based of one of the three main types of reactors: fixed bed, fluidized bed or entrained flow. In recent years, the last ones, which works as "slagging" reactors (due to the form of generated waste), are very popular among commercial installations. The article discusses the characteristics of the waste from coal gasification in entrained flow reactors, obtained from three foreign installations. The studies was conducted in terms of the possibilities of use these wastes in mining technologies, characteristic for Polish underground coal mines. The results were compared with the requirements of Polish Standards for the materials used in hydraulic backfill as well as suspension technology: solidification backfill and mixtures for gob caulking. Wi?kszo?? przemys?owych instalacji zgazowania w?gla pracuje w oparciu o jeden z trzech g?ównych typów reaktorów: ze z?o?em sta?ym, dyspersyjny lub fluidalny. W zale?no?ci od rodzaju reaktora oraz szczegó?owych rozwi?za? instalacji, powstaj?ce uboczne produkty zgazowania mog? mie? ró?n? posta?. Zale?y ona w du?ej mierze od stosunku temperatury pracy reaktora do temperatury topnienia cz??ci mineralnych zawartych w paliwie, czyli do temperatury mi?knienia i topnienia popio?u. W ostatnich latach bardzo du?? popularno?? w?ród instalacji komercyjnych zdobywaj? reaktory dyspersyjne "?u?luj?ce". W takich instalacjach ?u?el jest wychwytywany i studzony po wyp?yni?ciu z reaktora. W niektórych przypadkach oprócz ?u?la powstaje jeszcze popió? lotny, wychwytywany w systemach odprowadzania spalin. Mo?e by? on pozyskiwany oddzielnie lub te? zawracany do komory reaktora, gdzie ulega stopieniu. Wszystkie z analizowanych odpadów - trzy ?u?le oraz popió? pochodz? w?a?nie z tego typu instalacji. Tylko z jednej z nich pozyskano zarówno ?u?el jak i popió?, z pozosta?ych dwóch jedynie ?u?el. Odpady te powsta?y, jako uboczny produkt zgazowania w?gla lub w?gla z dodatkami: bitumin (?u?el S1), czy biomasy (popió? A2, ?u?el S2). W polskim górnictwie podziemnym wyró?ni? mo?na kilka technologii podsadzkowych, w których do transportu materia?u wykorzystywana jest woda. Tradycyjnie oraz ze wzgl?dów historycznych, terminem "podsadzka hydrauliczna" okre?la si? t?, która spe?nia wymagania normy PN-93/G-11010. Do najwa?niejszych cech takiej podsadzki hydraulicznej zaliczy? nale?y wype?nienia uprzednio wydzielonej pustki poeksploatacyjnej, materia?em o jak najmniejszej ?ci?liwo?ci oraz o jak najwi?kszej wodoprzepuszczalno?ci. Materia? taki, po odprowadzeniu wody ma stanowi? mechaniczna podpor? stropu, a proces podsadzania jest ?ci?le powi?zany z procesem eksploatacji, jako sposób likwidacji zrobów. Najcz??ciej stosowanymi materia?ami s? piasek podsadzkowy oraz odpady górnicze lub hutnicze (Lisowski, 1997). Od ponad dwudziestu lat, w polskim górnictwie w?gla kamiennego obecna jest równie? inna technologia podsadzkowa, w której do transportu materia?ów wykorzystywana jest woda. W tym przypadku cz??ci sta?e to materia?y drobnoziarniste, najcz??ciej popio?y ró?nych typów, które po wymieszaniu z wod? tworz? zawiesin? (st?d termin "zawiesiny popio?owo-wodne"). Polska norma PN-G-11011:1998 wyró?nia dwie odmiany takich zawiesin i definiuje je, jako "podsadzk? zestalan?" oraz "mieszanin? do doszczelniania zrobów". Podstawow? ide? przy?wiecaj?c? stosowaniu zawiesin drobnoziarnistych w technologiach górniczych by?a pocz?tkowo troska o zagospodarowaniu odpadów energetycznych, a nast?pnie górniczych (Mazurkiewicz i in., 1998; Piotrowski i in., 2006; Piotrowski, 2010; Plewa i Mys?ek, 2000; Plewa i Sobota, 2002). Obecnie technologia zawiesinowa na sta?e zago?ci?a w kopalniach w?gla kamiennego staj?c si? m.in. nieodzownym ?rodkiem profilaktyki po?arowej i metanowej (Dziurzy?ski i Pomyka?a, 2006; Palarski, 2004; Pomyka?a, 2006). W artykule przedstawiono analiz? mo?liwo?ci wy

Pomyka?a, Rados?aw

2013-06-01

163

Ultrapyrolytic upgrading of plastic wastes and plastics\\/heavy oil mixtures to valuable light gas products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viable operating conditions were identified experimentally for maximizing the production of high-value products such as ethylene, propylene, styrene, and benzene, from the ultrapyrolysis of waste plastics. Using both a batch microreactor and a pilot-plant-sized reactor, the key operating variables considered were pyrolysis temperature, product reaction time, and quench time. In the microreactor experiments, polystyrene (PS), a significant component of waste

Scott Lovett; Franco Berruti; Leo A. Behie

1997-01-01

164

Study of the use of paper manufacturing waste in plaster composite mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reuse of by-products or waste from industrial processes in construction is an increasingly common practice. In this article, we present an experimental study aimed at evaluating the reuse of paper pulp waste generated in the manufacture of paper for non-structural elements in the form of a plaster–pulp composite material. The analysis of several variables, such as the proportion of

Luis Agulló; Antonio Aguado; Tomŕs Garcia

2006-01-01

165

Sequestration of CO2 in Mixtures of Caustic Byproduct and Saline Waste Water  

SciTech Connect

Ex-situ carbonation of mixtures of caustic byproduct materials and produced oil-field brine provides a niche opportunity to sequester anthropogenic CO2, while concomitantly reducing the basicity of the reactive slurry. A series of tests were conducted to investigate a novel reaction concept designed to achieve neutralization of mixtures of acidic oil field produced brine and caustic industrial byproducts while sequestering substantial quantities of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (C02) in a mixed-flow reactor. Experiments were conducted to determine the COrbearing capacity of reactive mixtures of brine from the Oriskany Sandstone Formation with three caustic industrial byproducts: flue gas desulfurization (FGO) spray dryer ash, Class C fly ash subbituminous coal combustion byproduct, and bauxite residue slurry from the alumina production process. Reactions were conducted in a closed, well-mixed (1,500 rpm) reactor with gas composed of 29.46% vol./vol. CO2 balanced by nitrogen gas (N2) fed at a rate of 300mL/min. Reactions were carried out at ambient conditions. Results show linear relationships between caustic byproduct addition and COrbearing capacity, with relatively small impact of brine addition as compared to deionized water addition. FGO spray dryer ash/brine mixtures exhibited higher CO2 reactivity than those using Class C fly ash (0.759 moles CO2, at 23.6% solids by weight and 0.036 moles CO2 at 23.3% solids by weight, respectively). Bauxite residue exhibited moderate capacities in mixtures with higher percent solids (0.335 moles CO2 in 40% solids bauxite residue slurry). Carbonation capacity of caustic byproduct/ acidic brine mixtures was shown to increase linearly with respect to percent caustic byproduct addition, but enhanced mineral carbonate precipitation resulting from synergistic reaction of brine cations with increased dissolved carbonate species was not observed in the short term.

Dilmore, R.M.; Howard, B.H.; Soong, Y.; Griffith, C.; Hedges,S.W.; DeGalbo, A.D.; Morreale, B.; Baltrus, J.P.; Allen, D.E.; Fu, J.K.

2009-01-01

166

Chemistry and mechanism of molten salt catalysts in coal gasification processes. Final report Dec 81Jan 84  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkali metal salts have been recognized as effective catalysts in coal gasification. The way in which these materials promote catalysis of the gasification reactions is largely unknown. Electrochemical methods, including cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry, have been applied to study the solution chemistry of salt catalysts based upon alkali carbonate sulfate and chloride mixtures equilibrated with gaseous components of coal gasification

S. H. White; U. M. Twardoch

1984-01-01

167

Sustainable valorization of plastic wastes for energy with environmental safety via High-Temperature Pyrolysis (HTP) and High-Temperature Steam Gasification (HTSG)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study the energetic valorization of electric cable shredder residues (mixed plastics) has been investigated. Thermochemical conversion by means of High-Temperature Steam Gasification (HTSG) and High-Temperature Pyrolysis (HTP) was studied. The effects of temperature and reaction time – process parameters – were investigated. Comparison of the results showed that HTSG seems a more suitable process in terms of

E. Kantarelis; P. Donaj; W. Yang; A. Zabaniotou

2009-01-01

168

Evaluation of wood chip gasification to produce reburrn fuel for coal-fired boilers: AWMA  

EPA Science Inventory

Gasification or reburn testing with biomass and other wastes is of interest to both the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Italian Ministry of the Environment & Territory (IMET). Gasification systems that use wastes as feedstock should provide a clean, efficient s...

169

Evaluation of Biomass Gasification to Produce Reburning Fuel for Coal-Fired Boilers  

EPA Science Inventory

Gasification and reburning testing with biomass and other wastes is of interest to both the U.S. EPA and the Italian Ministry of the Environment & Territory. Gasification systems that use biofuels or wastes as feedstock can provide a clean, efficient source of synthesis gas and p...

170

Evaluation of wood chip gasification to produce reburn fuel for coal-fired boilers  

EPA Science Inventory

Gasification/reburn testing with biomass and other wastes is of interest to both the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Italian Ministry of the Environment & Territory (IMET). Gasification systems that use wastes as feedstock should provide a clean, efficient sour...

171

Cation segregation in simulated radioactive-waste zeolite-A mixtures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Segregation of cations based on size is observed in samples of zeolite-A loaded with simulated radioactive-waste ((approximately)5 wt.% Li, K, Cs and Ba, 1 wt.% Sr and Y, <1 wt.% Na) prepared from chloride salts. In contrast to traditional Na zeolite-A, f...

J. W. Richardson M. A. Lewis B. R. McCart

1994-01-01

172

Combustible gas production (methane) and biodegradation of solid and liquid mixtures of meat industry wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is devoted to determine the optimal operational conditions on the methane production as well as on the biodegradation obtained from the anaerobic codigestión of solid (fat, intestines, rumen, bowels, whiskers, etc.) and liquid (blood, washing water, manure, etc.) wastes of meat industry, particularly the ones rising from the municipal slaughterhouse of Badajoz (Spain).The experiments were performed using a

A. Marcos; A. Al-Kassir; A. A. Mohamad; F. Cuadros; F. López-Rodríguez

2010-01-01

173

Power Production from Biomass II with Special Emphasis on Gasification and Pyrolysis R and DD. (Seminar) Held in Espoo, Finland on March 27-28, 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The IEA/Bioenergy implementing agreement and other activities; Biomass IGCC; IGCC technology and demonstration; Thermal gasification of biomass technology development in the U.S.A.; Gasification experience with biomass and wastes; Experience wit...

K. Sipilae M. Korhonen

1995-01-01

174

Co-conversion of coal/waste plastic mixtures under various pyrolysis and liquefaction conditions  

SciTech Connect

For strategic and economic reasons the conversion of coal to liquid fuels has been a constant goal of the coal science community. Although the economics of coal liquefaction are primarily governed by the price of crude oil, other factors such as the need for large quantities of hydrogen gas, play an important role. If methods could be found that reduce the amount of hydrogen gas required for liquefaction, considerable benefits would be realized. To explore this possibility the use of waste plastics as materials capable of upgrading coal into liquid fuel products has been investigated. The use of waste plastics for this purpose could become possible because over 30 million tons of synthetic polymer material is produced in the United States every year. In this study, several pyrolysis and liquefaction experiment were performed on an Illinois No. 6 coal and coal/plastic blends.

Palmer, S.R.; Hippo, E.J.; Tandon, D.; Blankenship, M. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1995-12-31

175

Study on the conversion of waste plastics\\/petroleum resid mixtures to transportation fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalytic coprocessing of model and waste plastics with light Arabian crude oil residue was investigated using NiMo\\/Al 2O 3, ZSM-5, FCC, and hydrocracking catalysts. Reaction systems that were studied included low density polyethylene (LDPE), high density polyethylene (HDPE), polystyrene (PS), and polypropylene (PP). A series of single (plastic\\/catalyst) and binary (plastic\\/resid\\/catalyst) reactions were carried out in a 25-cm 3 micro

Mohammad Farhat Ali; Mohammad Nahid; Siddiqui S. Halim Hamid Redhwi

2004-01-01

176

Magnetic characteristics of iron-containing glass originated from the mixture of various wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The devitrification of iron oxide containing waste generated from mixing blast furnace slag and blast furnace flue dust has shown magnetic characteristics. An investigation of the room temperature M–H hysteresis loops and saturation magnetization has been conducted in a different composition of iron-rich glass-ceramics with grain sizes ranging from ?45 to 500?m and at different heat treatment crystallization. Analysis of

A. A. Francis

2007-01-01

177

Gasification. 2nd. ed.  

SciTech Connect

This book covers gasification as a comprehensive topic, covering its many uses, from refining, to natural gas, to coal. It provides an overview of commercial processes and covers applications relevant to today's demands. The new edition is expanded and provides more detail on the integration issues for current generation, state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC); CO{sub 2} capture in the IGCC context addressing the issues of pre-investment and retrofitting as well as defining what the term 'CO{sub 2} capture ready' might mean in practice; issues of plant reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM) including as evaluation of feedback from existing plants; implementation of fuel cell technology in IGCC concepts. Contents are: Introduction; The Thermodynamics of Gasification; The Kinetics of Gasification and Reactor Theory; Feedstocks and Feedstock Characteristics; Gasification Processes; Practical Issues; Applications; Auxiliary Technologies; Economics, environmental, and Safety Issues; Gasification and the Future. 5 apps.

Christopher Higman; Maarten van der Burgt [Lurgi Oel Gas Chemie (Germany)

2008-02-15

178

Low-grade quarry products, reclaimed aggregates and inert wastes -- their use in unbound mixtures for road pavements  

SciTech Connect

The UK Specification for Highway Works appears to encourage the use of low-grade quarry products and a range of reclaimed aggregates and inert wastes in earthworks. However, in practice, materials used in earthworks are judged against requirements designed to assess the compatibility of soils. Compliance with compactibility criteria rather than fit for purpose criteria can lead to the use of higher quality aggregates than is strictly necessary. For many years UK clients have had supplies of good quality granular subbase material available at low cost. The use of such aggregates in non-structural fill layers presents few risks, but diverts the aggregate from more appropriate end uses, such as asphalts. Proponents of the greater use of wastes and reclaimed aggregates face the same dilemma. The development of European (CEN) Standards may influence the situation. These Standards are designed to ensure that barriers to trade are removed for products placed on the market. The new Standards aim to be blind to the source of the material and to reflect the wide range of national practices across Europe. The CEN work may give a status to a number of tests that are more appropriate to the control of unbound mixtures than those currently used in the UK.

Rockliff, D. [Tilcon North Ltd., Scotton (United Kingdom). Quality Systems Office

1996-12-31

179

Use of plastic waste (poly-ethylene terephthalate) in asphalt concrete mixture as aggregate replacement.  

PubMed

One of the environmental issues in most regions of Iran is the large number of bottles made from poly-ethylene terephthalate (PET) deposited in domestic wastes and landfills. Due to the high volume of these bottles, more than 1 million m3 landfill space is needed for disposal every year. The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the possibility of using PET waste in asphalt concrete mixes as aggregate replacement (Plastiphalt) to reduce the environmental effects of PET disposal. For this purpose the mechanical properties of plastiphalt mixes were compared with control samples. This study focused on the parameters of Marshall stability, flow, Marshall quotient (stability-to-flow ratio) and density. The waste PET used in this study was in the form of granules of about 3 mm diameter which would replace (by volume) a portion of the mineral coarse aggregates of an equal size (2.36-4.75 mm). In all prepared mixes the determined 6.6% optimum bitumen content was used. In this investigation, five different percentages of coarse aggregate replacement were used. The results showed that the aggregate replacement of 20% by volume with PET granules would result in a reduction of 2.8% in bulk compacted mix density. The value of flow in the plastiphalt mix was lower than that of the control samples. The results also showed that when PET was used as partial aggregate replacement, the corresponding Marshall stability and Marshall quotient were almost the same as for the control samples. According to most of specification requirement, these results introduce an asphalt mix that has properties that makes it suitable for practical use and furthermore, the recycling of PET for asphalt concrete roads helps alleviate an environmental problem and saves energy. PMID:16200982

Hassani, Abolfazl; Ganjidoust, Hossein; Maghanaki, Amir Abedin

2005-08-01

180

Dechlorination of liquid wastes containing chlorinated hydrocarbons by a binder mixture of cement and slag with Fe(II).  

PubMed

Iron-based degradative solidification/stabilization (DS/S-Fe(II)) is a modification of conventional solidification/stabilization (S/S) that incorporates degradative processes for organic contaminant destruction with immobilization. This study investigated the effectiveness of a binder mixture of Portland cement and slag in a DS/S-Fe(II) system to treat trichloroethylene (TCE), 1,1-dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE), vinyl chloride (VC), trichloromethane (CF), and dichloromethane (MC), which are major chlorinated hydrocarbons contained in waste oils and waste organic solvents. For TCE, 1,1-DCE, and VC, degradation experiments were conducted using three different binder combinations with Fe(II) (cement/Fe(II), slag/Fe(II), and cement/slag/Fe(II)). When cement and slag were mixed at a 1:1 ratio (% wt), the TCE and 1,1-DCE dechlorination rate was enhanced compared to that when cement or slag was used alone with Fe(II). Also, batch experiments were conducted in the solid phase consisting of cement, slag, sand, and Fe(II) to treat liquid wastes that contain chlorinated compounds at high concentrations. TCE was completely removed after 5 days in the cement/slag/sand/Fe(II) system, in which the initial TCE concentration was 11.8mM, with Fe(II) concentration of 565 mM. While the CF concentration was decreased by 95% after 5 days when the initial CF and Fe(II) concentration was 0.25 mM and 200 mM, respectively. However, MC was not degraded with the cement/slag/Fe(II) system. PMID:23454706

Jung, Bahngmi; Shin, Ja-Won; Ghorpade, Praveen A; Park, Joo-Yang

2013-02-26

181

Effects of Nutrient Additives and Sodium Hydroxide on Ensiling Characteristics and In Vitro Fiber Digestion Kinetics of Dairy Cattle Waste-Energy Feedstuff Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dairy waste fiber was mixed in ratio 1:1 (dry matter basis) with ground alfalfa hay, chopped cornstalks, chopped whole corn plant, or ground corn. Prior to ensiling, mixtures received either no additive, dry cane molasses at 5% of dry matter, urea at 1% of dry matter, dry cane molasses at 5% plus urea at 1% of dry matter, sodium hydroxide

C. R. Staples; R. L. Fernando; G. C. Fahey Jr.; L. L. Berger; E. H. Jaster

1985-01-01

182

Thermal characteristics of magnesium nitrate hexahydrate and magnesium chloride hexahydrate mixture as a phase change material for effective utilization of urban waste heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is effective utilization of urban waste heat from emerging co-generation systems, typically available at temperatures of 60–100 °C. The authors investigated latent heat storage by materials with phase change temperatures in the above range, and focused on a mixture of magnesium nitrate hexahydrate as a base material and magnesium chloride hexahydrate as an additive to

K. Nagano; K. Ogawa; T. Mochida; K. Hayashi; H. Ogoshi

2004-01-01

183

Maximising municipal solid waste - Legume trimming residue mixture degradation in composting by control parameters optimization.  

PubMed

Composting is one of the most successful biological processes for the treatment of the residues enriched in putrescible materials. The optimization of parameters which have an influence on the stability of the products is necessary in order to maximize recycling and recovery of waste components. The influence of the composting process parameters (aeration, moisture, C/N ratio, and time) on the stability parameters (organic matter, N-losses, chemical oxygen demand, nitrate, biodegradability coefficient) of the compost was studied. The composting experiment was carried out using Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) and Legume Trimming Residues (LTR) in 200 L isolated acrylic barrels following a Box-Behnken central composite experimental design. Second-order polynomial models were found for each of the studied compost stability parameter, which accurately described the relationship between the parameters. The differences among the experimental values and those estimated by using the equations never exceeded 10% of the former. Results of the modelling showed that excluding the time, the C/N ratio is the strongest variable influencing almost all the stability parameters studied in this case, with the exception of N-losses which is strongly dependent on moisture. Moreover, an optimized ratio MSW/LTR of 1/1 (w/w), moisture content in the range of 40-55% and moderate to low aeration rate (0.05-0.175 Lair kg(-)(1) min(-1)) is recommended to maximise degradation and to obtain a stable product during co-composting of MSW and LTR. PMID:23764508

Cabeza, I O; López, R; Ruiz-Montoya, M; Díaz, M J

2013-06-10

184

Evaluation and performance based mix design of rubber modified mixtures: Laboratory evaluation of asphalt concrete mixtures using waste tires. Final report  

SciTech Connect

New Jersey Department of Transportation has been investigating the use of rubber modified materials over the last few years with the design and use of dense and gap graded mixtures, and in some cases the incorporation of RAP materials, in selected projects. While the short term field performance of these materials is satisfactory, their long term performance is unknown. These mixtures were designed with the traditional Marshall mixture design method, and thus is was not considered design criteria related to mixture behavior and performance into mixture selection. The main objective of this study is the development of a mixture design methodology for rubber modified materials that considers mixture behavior and performance. In order to achieve this objective researchers conducted a laboratory investigation which was able to evaluate mixture properties that can be related to mixture performance, (in terms of rutting, low temperature cracking, and fatigue), and simulating the actual field loading conditions that the material is being exposed to. The possibility of coupling the traditional Marshall mix design method with parameters related to mixture behavior and performance was investigated since this technique has been used over the years by the agency, and the necessary testing apparatus is available to both the agency and material laboratories. The SHRP SUPERPAVE mix design methodology was reviewed and considered in this study for the development of an integrated performance based design procedure. However, its applicability and use on routine bases was not considered at this time since it requires specific equipment with ongoing evaluation for its repeatability and precision. Finally, for the conduct of this investigation materials and mixtures used by NJDOT in rubber modified paving projects were used.

Goulias, D.G.; Ali, A.H.M.

1997-02-01

185

Incentives boost coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

Higher energy prices are making technologies to gasify the USA's vast coal reserves attractive again. The article traces the development of coal gasification technology in the USA. IGCC and industrial gasification projects are now both eligible for a 20% investment tax credit and federal loan guarantees can cover up to 80% of construction costs. 4 photos.

Hess, G.

2006-01-16

186

Total energy by gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

An oil gasification plant may be used as a ''total energy'' system for supplying all the various energy needs of a large chemical or refining plant. The plant would produce a low-Btu gas from medium- and high-sulfur crude using either the Shell or Texaco gasification process. Special arrangements can be included in the plant to recycle carbon formed in the

J. B. Fortuin; D. Haag

1974-01-01

187

Characterizing rate inhibition in steam\\/hydrogen gasification via analysis of adsorbed hydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of hydrogen adsorbed onto Saran and coal char is conducted via post-gasification temperature programmed desorption to 1770K to characterize hydrogen inhibition in steam gasification. Exposure of annealed, outgassed chars to H2O\\/H2\\/Ar mixtures at 1120K and pressures to 3.1MPa results in rapid adsorption of hydrogen on the char over the initial 0.5% of char conversion. Steam gasification rate simultaneously declines

M. G. Lussier; Z. Zhang; Dennis J. Miller

1998-01-01

188

2006 gasification technologies conference papers  

SciTech Connect

Sessions covered: business overview, industry trends and new developments; gasification projects progress reports; industrial applications and opportunities; Canadian oil sands; China/Asia gasification markets - status and projects; carbon management with gasification technologies; gasification economics and performance issues addressed; and research and development, and new technologies initiatives.

NONE

2006-07-01

189

Thermochemical gasification of woody biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of gasification parameters for both catalyzed and raw wood in gasification experiments with hydrogen, hydrogen\\/steam, and steam are described. Calcium oxide, calcium carbonate, and wood ash were used as catalysts. Experimental results indicate that steam is a more effective gasification agent for wood than hydrogen. Steam gasification proceeds at a higher rate resulting in a greater net Btu

H. F. Feldmann; P. S. Choi; H. N. Conkle; S. P. Chauhan

1981-01-01

190

Liquefaction and dechlorination of hydrothermally treated waste mixture containing plastics with glass powder.  

PubMed

Additive effects of glass powder upon the product yields and chlorine distribution after liquefaction of hydrothermally pretreated mixed waste (HMW) are compared with liquefaction of HMW with any one of water, quartz sand, or glass powder plus water. As a result, addition of either water or quartz sand did not affect liquefaction and dechlorination of HMW. Further, water (5 g) addition did not enhance liquefaction and dechlorination of HMW with glass powder. On the other hand, after liquefaction of HMW with glass powder, the yields of chlorine in the gas and water insoluble constituents decreased and the chlorine yield in the water-soluble constituent increased significantly. Because sodium in glass powder dissolved in a small amount (0.5 g) of water resulted from dehydration of HMW during liquefaction. Further, hydrogen chloride derived from polyvinylchloride in HMW was neutralized by ion exchange between H(+) and Na(+) dissolved in a small amount of water forming NaCl in the Residue (water-soluble) constituent. Therefore, most of chlorine in HMW was removed easily by water extraction of the Residue constituent after liquefaction of HMW with glass powder. Further, upgrading of HMW into the oil constituent was enhanced due to inhibition of production of chlorine containing organic compounds. Accordingly, it was clarified that glass powder was the most effective additive for liquefaction and dechlorination of HMW. PMID:21344899

Sugano, Motoyuki; Shimizu, Takayuki; Komatsu, Akihiro; Kakuta, Yusuke; Hirano, Katsumi

2011-02-23

191

Mathematical modelling and simulation approaches of agricultural residues air gasification in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural residues (agro-biomass) can produce energy by thermochemical conversion. Gasification is becoming one of the best clean technologies for power production. Thermochemical process of gasification sets free the solid fuel inherent energy and converts the solid phase into a mixture of gases (producer gas or syngas) that carries a percentage of this energy. Fluidized bed reactors may be used for

D. A. Nemtsov; A. Zabaniotou

2008-01-01

192

Integrated bioenergy conversion concepts for small scale gasification power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal and biological gasification are promising technologies for addressing the emerging concerns in biomass-based renewable energy, environmental protection and waste management. However, technical barriers such as feedstock quality limitations, tars, and high NOx emissions from biogas fueled engines impact their full utilization and make them suffer at the small scale from the need to purify the raw gas for most downstream processes, including power generation other than direct boiler use. The two separate gasification technologies may be integrated to better address the issues of power generation and waste management and to complement some of each technologies' limitations. This research project investigated the technical feasibility of an integrated thermal and biological gasification concept for parameters critical to appropriately matching an anaerobic digester with a biomass gasifier. Specific studies investigated the thermal gasification characteristics of selected feedstocks in four fixed-bed gasification experiments: (1) updraft gasification of rice hull, (2) indirect-heated gasification of rice hull, (3) updraft gasification of Athel wood, and (4) downdraft gasification of Athel and Eucalyptus woods. The effects of tars and other components of producer gas on anaerobic digestion at mesophilic temperature of 36°C and the biodegradation potentials and soil carbon mineralization of gasification tars during short-term aerobic incubation at 27.5°C were also examined. Experiments brought out the ranges in performance and quality and quantity of gasification products under different operating conditions and showed that within the conditions considered in the study, these gasification products did not adversely impact the overall digester performance. Short-term aerobic incubation demonstrated variable impacts on carbon mineralization depending on tar and soil conditions. Although tars exhibited low biodegradation indices, degradation may be improved if the microorganisms used to deal with tars are selected and pre-conditioned to the tar environment. Overall, the results provided a basis for operational and design strategy for a combined gasification system but further study is recommended such as determination of the impacts in terms of emissions, power, efficiency and costs associated with the use of producer gas-enriched biogas taking advantage of hydrogen enrichment to reduce NOx and other pollutants in reciprocating engines and other energy conversion systems.

Aldas, Rizaldo Elauria

193

Characterisation and fingerprinting of PCBs in flue gas and ash from waste incineration and in technical mixtures.  

PubMed

Congener patterns of mono- to deca-chlorinated biphenyls (PC1-10B) were evaluated in (a) waste incineration flue gases collected in the post-combustion zone of a laboratory-scale fluidized-bed reactor, (b) ashes from two different MSW incineration plants, and (c) published data of eight Aroclor formulations. The congener patterns of the flue gases, ashes, and Aroclor mixtures clearly differed from each other, likely reflecting differences in formation pathways. The flue gas congener patterns were largely dominated by the least chlorinated congeners, whereas the ashes displayed more evenly distributed patterns. The most abundant congeners indicated a preference for 3,3',4,4'-oriented substitution, which may be related to de novo-type formation involving perylene. Principal component analysis confirmed that congener patterns differed among the three matrices and also distinguished flue gases collected at 200 °C from those collected at 300 °C and 450 °C. This distinction could be partly explained by the degree of chlorination, although the substitution status of the ortho-position, and substitution in the 3,3',4,4'-positions also seemed to be influential. Injecting biphenyl into the post-combustion zone of the reactor did not alter the patterns, indicating that availability of the backbone structure is not a limiting factor for PCB formation. PMID:21885088

Jansson, Stina; Lundin, Lisa; Grabic, Roman

2011-08-31

194

Apparatus for the gasification of fuel  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for the preparation of a combustible gas mixture from solid or liquid fuels, consists of a housing, which comprises at least one rotatably disposed, conical basket, a fuel inlet, an inlet for a gasification fluid, an ash outlet and an outlet for the produced combustible gas mixture. The fuel to be gasified is introduced into the inlet and the apparatus is so operated that a number of revolutions of the basket(S) is maintained such, that the fuel is pressed against said basket which also functions as a supporting grate.

Alink, A.J.W.O.; Hendriks, R.; van Marle, B.P.

1982-03-02

195

Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalysts to Poisons from High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal\\/Biomass Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful adaptation of conventional cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts for use in converting biomass-derived syngas hinges in part on understanding their susceptibility to byproducts produced during the biomass gasification process. With the possibility that oil production will peak in the near future, and due to concerns in maintaining energy security, the conversion of biomass-derived syngas and syngas derived

Burtron Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Khalid Azzam; Dennis Sparks; Wilson Shafer

2010-01-01

196

Steam Gasification of Biomass.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Construction of experimental equipment for research on basic parameters involved in the steam gasification of biomass was completed. Modifications were made on the equipment to improve performance. Information obtained from preliminary runs indicated that...

1977-01-01

197

Steam Gasification of Biomass.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress is reported in the construction of the biogasifier to be used in experiments on basic parameters involved in the steam gasification of biomass. Photographs illustrating various stages in the construction are included. (ERA citation 03:014252)

1977-01-01

198

Coal gasification by pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Garrett Research and Development Co. Inc. process and its development are described; and process economics for a 250 million cu ft\\/day pipeline gas plant are presented and compared with those for the Lurgi coal-gasification process.

D. E. Adam; S. Sack; A. Sass

1974-01-01

199

Analysis of the product gas from biomass gasification by means of laser spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of biomass and waste for decentralised combined heat and power production (CHP) requires highly efficient gasification processes. In the Technische Universität München (TUM), an innovative gasification technology has been developed. This allothermal gasifier is producing a hydrogen- rich, high-calorific gas, that can be further used in a microturbine or a fuel cell producing energy. For the operation of

S. Karellas; J. Karl

2007-01-01

200

Thermal expansion of slag and fly ash from coal gasification in IGCC power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated gasification in combined cycle (IGCC) is an electrical power generation system which is characterized to be a clean coal technology different than conventional process in combustible treatment. IGCC process gives rise to inorganic solid wastes in the form of vitreous slag and fly ashes with singular thermal properties. The gasification of the fuel takes place at high temperature and

M. Aineto; A. Acosta; J. Ma. Rincón; M. Romero

2006-01-01

201

Gasification slag rheology and crystallization in titanium-rich, iron–calcium–aluminosilicate glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Texaco Gasification Process employs a high temperature, high pressure slagging gasifier, in which the viscosity of the slag plays a key role in determining operating conditions. Empirical slag viscosity models available in the literature, as well as prior laboratory testing have generally concentrated on low titanium slags\\/ashes. During the gasification of waste materials, titanium dioxide is an important compound

J. C Groen; D. D Brooker; P. J Welch; M. S Oh

1998-01-01

202

Gasification Product Improvement Facility status.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) project is to provide a test site to support early commercialization of the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology. The design of this facility will by based on PyGas(...

R. D. Carson R. S. Sadowski W. H. Skinner V. B. Dixit R. A. Lisauskas

1994-01-01

203

Underground Gasification of Hard Coal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Large-scale underground gasification is at present impracticable, particularly for European conditions. This statement is based on considerations concerning technology, environmental protection, and economy. Control of the gasification process, control of...

J. Stuffken F. J. Wetzels

1974-01-01

204

Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Features of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power plants are described against the backdrop of the development and first commercial application of the shell coal gasification process. Focus is on the efficiency and excellent environmental ...

P. C. Richards J. Wijffels P. L. Zuideveld

1993-01-01

205

EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT--DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS  

SciTech Connect

Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the technoeconomic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the United States to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases. Phase I is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report covers the period performance from January 1, 2003 through March 31, 2003. Phase I Task 6 activities of Preliminary Site Analysis were documented and reported as a separate Topical Report on February 2003. Most of the other technical activities were on hold pending on DOE's announcement of the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) awards. WMPI was awarded one of the CCPI projects in late January 2003 to engineer, construct and operate a first-of-kind gasification/liquefaction facility in the U.S. as a continued effort for the current WMPI EECP engineering feasibility study. Since then, project technical activities were focused on: (1) planning/revising the existing EECP work scope for transition into CCPI, and (2) ''jump starting'' all environmentally related work in pursue of NEPA and PA DEP permitting approval.

John W. Rich

2003-06-01

206

Gasification of Biomass and Peat. Progress Report Phase 7 - 1983/07/01-1984/06/30.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experimental studies on pyrolysis and gasification of peat, solid waste and biomass were initiated in late 1974 at the Royal Institute of Technology. In 1977 studies on secondary tar conversion were initiated, to investigate both the production of ethylen...

K. Sjoestroem

1984-01-01

207

Catalytic gasification of coal using eutectic salts: identification of eutectics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No. 6 coal were identified and various impregnation or catalyst addition methods to improve catalyst dispersion were evaluated in this study. In addition, the effects of major process variables such as temperature, pressure, and steam\\/carbon ratio were investigated in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and fixed-bed bench scale reactor systems. The

Yaw D Yeboah; Yong Xu; Atul Sheth; Anuradha Godavarty; Pradeep K Agrawal

2003-01-01

208

Numerical Analysis of Unsteady Droplet Gasification Mechanism in Hot Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canonical fluid dynamic analysis is applied to account for the contributing physical mechanisms and the order of magnitude of the transient moving droplet gasification rate based on energy and species conservation equation as eigenvalues in the general aerothermochemical environment. The results show surprisingly well coordinated self-organized thermofluidchemical mechanisms of dynamic evolution, sequenced by preheating of exterior gaseous mixture and interior

H. L. Tsai

209

Gasification technology data base  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the background, philosophy, functions served, evolution process, specific results, and current status of the gasification technology data base activity at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). METC has lead reponsibility for coal gasification within the US Department of Energy. This responsibility includes the identification, planning, and execution of coal gasification activities which offer potentially high pay-offs for the National energy future. A well-organized and quantified descriptions of the state of the art (SOA) is a valuable reference tool in carrying out this obligation. The Gasification Technology Data Base (GTDB) will serve as a reference tool and mechanism by which lessons learned during the course of research and development can be captured. The GTDB activity was a significant extension of previous data base activities at METC. It was initiated by the realization that the Alternative Fuels legislation (Public Law 96-126) had created a unique window of technical opportunity; specifically, approximately 20 unusually credible design studies for coal gasification based commercial plants were being performed, and there was a likelihood that some of them would evolve into actual plants. Consequently, a significant fraction of corporate wisdom was being documented in coal gasification studies that could serve as an extraordinarily good input source for the GTDB. The basic objective of the GTDB was to intergrate the results of the various studies and the related METC work to define the SOA. Simultaneously, it was expected to provide a highly workable reference that would facilitate analyses to perform cross comparisons, to quantify the potential value of new approaches, to identify technology gaps, et cetera. In short, with proper integration, the value of the whole could readily exceed the sum of its parts. 5 figures, 8 tables.

Not Available

1983-12-01

210

Biomass gasification reaction velocities  

SciTech Connect

The propagation of gaseous flames is determined by the flame velocity, V/sub f/ (the rate at which the flame propagates into the unburned fuel/oxidant). In the same way, gasification of solid fuels depends on the gasification reaction velocity (V/sub r), the rate at which the reaction interface can move into the unreacted solid fuel. We have developed a simple laboratory transparent downdraft gasifier for measuring this velocity for a variety of fuels and conditions. Air or oxygen is drawn down through a 5-cm-diameter quartz tube. If the reaction zone remains stationary in the tube, V/sub r/ is simply the volumetric feed rate. For some input conditions, the position of the incandescent reaction zone is quite stable in the quartz tube. This position depends on the relative rates of production of charcoal by pyrolysis of the biomass and gasification of the charcoal by the pyrolysis combustion gases and can move up or down, depending on conditions. In an uninsulated tube the zone may move down indicating that the char gasification rate exceeds the pyrolysis rate. Adding insulation to the tube increases the tendency for the zone to move up, indicating that the pyrolysis rate is faster than the gasification rate. In practical gasifiers it is necessary to stabilize the reaction front such that the propagation rate equals the feed rate. A number of methods of stabilizing this front have been found. We believe the data and observations presented here help form the basis for a model of downdraft biomass gasification which is significantly different from previous models, and we are continuing to gather data for this model.

Reed, T.B.; Markson, M.

1983-09-01

211

Construction and startup of a wood gasification pilot plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Georgia Tech embarked on the development of a pilot plant for wood gasification research in March 1979. The pilot plant gasifier was designed for a wide range of research. This includes modeling and testing of gasifier feed systems, ash extraction systems, air and steam injection systems, burners, gas cleanup equipment, waste disposal systems, and safety equipment. Potential application to be

A. D. Jape; T. F. McGowan

1982-01-01

212

Autothermal gasification of low-grade fuels in fluidized bed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autothermal gasification of high-ash floatation wastes of Grade Zh Kuzbass coal and low-ash fuel in a suspended-spouted (fluidized) bed at atmospheric pressure is investigated, and a comparison is presented of experimental results that indicate that the ash content of fuels has only slight influence on the generator gas heating value.

Belyaev, A. A.

2009-01-01

213

The influence of different volume ratios of He and Ar in shielding gas mixture on the power waste parameters for Nd:YAG and CO2 laser welding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we numerically solve the Saha equations to drive the number densities of electrons and ions, the degrees of ionization of the plasma as well as the refractive indices and the inverse Bremsstrahlung absorption coefficients as a function of temperature for a variety of volume ratios of the (He+Ar) mixtures. Furthermore, the heat transfer equation was solved to determine the plasma temperature. The effect of shielding gas volume ratios on the power waste parameters was estimated during long pulse Nd:YAG and CW CO2 laser welding accompanying the experimental verification.

Hosseini Motlagh, N. S.; Parvin, P.; Jandaghi, M.; Torkamany, M. J.

2013-12-01

214

Advanced hybrid gasification facility  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this procurement is to provide a test facility to support early commercialization of advanced fixed-bed coal gasification technology for electric power generation applications. The proprietary CRS Sirrine Engineers, Inc. PyGas{trademark} staged gasifier has been selected as the initial gasifier to be developed under this program. The gasifier is expected to avoid agglomeration when used on caking coals. It is also being designed to crack tar vapors and ammonia, and to provide an environment in which volatilized alkali may react with aluminosilicates in the coal ash thereby minimizing their concentration in the hot raw coal gas passing through the system to the gas turbine. This paper describes a novel, staged, airblown, fixed-bed gasifier designed to solve both through the incorporation of pyrolysis (carbonization) with gasification. It employs a pyrolyzer (carbonizer) to avoid sticky coal agglomeration which occurs in a fixed-bed process when coal is gradually heated through the 400{degrees}F to 900{degrees}F range. In a pyrolyzer, the coal is rapidly heated such that coal tar is immediately vaporized. Gaseous tars are then thermally cracked prior to the completion of the gasification process. During the subsequent endothermic gasification reactions, volatilized alkali can be chemically bound to aluminosilicates in (or added to) the ash. To reduce NOx from fuel home nitrogen, moisture is minimized to control ammonia generation, and HCN in the upper gasifier region is partially oxidized to NO which reacts with NH3/HCN to form N2.

Sadowski, R.S.; Skinner, W.H. [CRS Sirrine, Inc., Greenville, SC (United States); Johnson, S.A. [PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States); Dixit, V.B. [Riley Stoker Corp., Worcester, MA (United States). Riley Research Center

1993-08-01

215

Variable capacity gasification burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variable capacity burner that may be used in gasification processes, the burner being adjustable when operating in its intended operating environment to operate at two different flow capacities, with the adjustable parts being dynamically sealed within a statically sealed structural arrangement to prevent dangerous blow-outs of the reactants to the atmosphere.

Saxon

1985-01-01

216

RESEARCH INTO EMERGING WASTE ISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this project is to investigate emerging waste issues. In particular, 2 issues have been raised in the last year that have major implications for the waste disposal industry: 1) waste gasification; and 2) proliferation of electronics waste. APPCD loaned a h...

217

Geochemistry of FBC waste-coal slurry solid mixtures. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The three tasks conducted in this research project were related to understanding the geochemistry and mineralogy of the co-disposal of fluidized bed combustion (FBC) wastes with coal slurry solid (CSS) from a coal preparation plant. During coal cleaning, ...

G. B. Dreher W. R. Roy J. D. Steele M. Heidari

1993-01-01

218

Assessment of Advanced Coal Gasification Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes is presented: high throughput gasification (HTG) process; single stage high mass flux (HMF) processes; (CS/R) hydrogasification process; and the catalytic coal gasification (CCG)...

J. Mccarthy J. Ferrall T. Charng J. Houseman

1981-01-01

219

A summary report on combustion and gasification processes  

SciTech Connect

Six poster papers regarding combustion and gasification were reviewed. These six papers address various different technology subjects: (1) underground coal gasification modeling, (2) wood gasification kinetics, (3) heat transfer surface pretreatment by iron implantation, (4) coal water slurry stabilization technology, (5) coal log pipeline technology, and (6) nuclear reactor decontamination. Summaries and comments of the following papers are presented: Characterization of Flow and Chemical Processes in an Underground Gasifier at Great Depth; Model for Reaction Kinetics in Pyrolysis of Wood; Development of a Stainless Steel Heat Transfer Surface with Low Scaling Tendency; Storage and Transportation of Coal Water Mixtures; Coal Log Pipeline: Development Status of the First Commercial System; and Decontamination of Nuclear Systems at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station.

Rath, L.K.; Lee, G.T.

1996-08-01

220

Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization  

SciTech Connect

As part of an ongoing effort of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to investigate the feasibility of gasification on a broader level, Nexant, Inc. was contracted to perform a comprehensive study to provide a set of gasification alternatives for consideration by the DOE. Nexant completed the first two tasks (Tasks 1 and 2) of the ''Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization Study'' for the DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in 2003. These tasks evaluated the use of the E-GAS{trademark} gasification technology (now owned by ConocoPhillips) for the production of power either alone or with polygeneration of industrial grade steam, fuel gas, hydrocarbon liquids, or hydrogen. NETL expanded this effort in Task 3 to evaluate Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasifier. The Task 3 study had three main objectives. The first was to examine the application of the gasifier at an industrial application in upstate New York using a Southeastern Ohio coal. The second was to investigate the GTI gasifier in a stand-alone lignite-fueled IGCC power plant application, sited in North Dakota. The final goal was to train NETL personnel in the methods of process design and systems analysis. These objectives were divided into five subtasks. Subtasks 3.2 through 3.4 covered the technical analyses for the different design cases. Subtask 3.1 covered management activities, and Subtask 3.5 covered reporting. Conceptual designs were developed for several coal gasification facilities based on the fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasifier. Subtask 3.2 developed two base case designs for industrial combined heat and power facilities using Southeastern Ohio coal that will be located at an upstate New York location. One base case design used an air-blown gasifier, and the other used an oxygen-blown gasifier in order to evaluate their relative economics. Subtask 3.3 developed an advanced design for an air-blown gasification combined heat and power facility based on the Subtask 3.2 design. The air-blown case was chosen since it was less costly and had a better return on investment than the oxygen-blown gasifier case. Under appropriate conditions, this study showed a combined heat and power air-blown gasification facility could be an attractive option for upgrading or expanding the utilities area of industrial facilities. Subtask 3.4 developed a base case design for a large lignite-fueled IGCC power plant that uses the advanced GE 7FB combustion turbine to be located at a generic North Dakota site. This plant uses low-level waste heat to dry the lignite that otherwise would be rejected to the atmosphere. Although this base case plant design is economically attractive, further enhancements should be investigated. Furthermore, since this is an oxygen-blown facility, it has the potential for capture and sequestration of CO{sub 2}. The third objective for Task 3 was accomplished by having NETL personnel working closely with Nexant and Gas Technology Institute personnel during execution of this project. Technology development will be the key to the long-term commercialization of gasification technologies. This will be important to the integration of this environmentally superior solid fuel technology into the existing mix of power plants and industrial facilities. As a result of this study, several areas have been identified in which research and development will further advance gasification technology. Such areas include improved system availability, development of warm-gas clean up technologies, and improved subsystem designs.

Samuel Tam; Alan Nizamoff; Sheldon Kramer; Scott Olson; Francis Lau; Mike Roberts; David Stopek; Robert Zabransky; Jeffrey Hoffmann; Erik Shuster; Nelson Zhan

2005-05-01

221

Sorption of Pb(II) onto a mixture of algae waste biomass and anion exchanger resin in a packed-bed column.  

PubMed

Sorption of Pb(II) was studied by using a biosorbent mixture of algae waste biomass and Purolite A-100 resin in a packed-bed column. Mixing these two components was done to prevent the clogging of the column and to ensure adequate flow rates. Increasing of solution flow rate and initial Pb(II) concentration make that the breakthrough and saturation points to be attained earlier. The experimental breakthrough curves were modeled using Bohart-Adams, Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models, and the parameters for all these models were calculated. A regeneration efficiency of 98% was achieved using 0.1 mol L(-1) HCl and not significant changes in lead uptake capacity after three biosorption/desorption cycles were noted. The biosorbent mixture was able to remove Pb(II) from synthetic wastewater at pH 5.0 and flow rate of 3.5 mL min(-1), and the obtained effluent has better quality characteristics. The biosorbent mixture it is suitable for a continuous system for large-scale applications. PMID:23262014

Bulgariu, Dumitru; Bulgariu, Laura

2012-11-07

222

Gasification Product Improvement Facility status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) project is to provide a test site to support early commercialization of the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology. The design of this facility will by based on PyGas{trademark}, a patented air blown fixed bed gasification process. The GPIF will be capable of processing run-of-mine high swelling coals that comprise 87%

R. D. Carson; R. S. Sadowski; W. H. Skinner; V. B. Dixit; R. A. Lisauskas; S. A. Johnson

1994-01-01

223

Westinghouse gasification process  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the coal gasification sytem, which utilizes a single-stage, pressurized, fluidized-bed gasifier, followed by heat recovery and gas cleaning. The gasifier can be fired with air or oxygen to produce a low- or medium-Btu gas, respectively. Byproducts from the gasification sytem include sulfur, ammonia and an agglomerated ash that are projected to be nontoxic and suitable for disposal by landfill. Design and operational design of a pilot plant, which has been tested since 1975, are included, along with operational results. Data are given on the methanol synthesis including economic considerations. Detailed engineering for a 1200 metric ton/d prototype is progressing according to schedule. The commercial prototype will be ready for start-up in 1983.

Schwartz, C.W.; Rath, L.K.; Freier, M.D.

1982-04-01

224

Advanced Biomass Gasification Projects  

SciTech Connect

DOE has a major initiative under way to demonstrate two high-efficiency gasification systems for converting biomass into electricity. As this fact sheet explains, the Biomass Power Program is cost-sharing two scale-up projects with industry in Hawaii and Vermont that, if successful, will provide substantial market pull for U.S. biomass technologies, and provide a significant market edge over competing foreign technologies.

Not Available

1997-08-01

225

Underground coal gasification review  

SciTech Connect

Underground coal gasification appears to be one of the most attractive sources of feedstock to produce synfuels from coal because the process can produce methanol and substitute natural gas at prices competitive with existing energy sources. Savings in the form of reduced oil and gas imports from the first year of commercial operations would pay for the entire R and D budget necessary to perfect the underground coal gasification process. The technical feasibility of underground coal gasification has been well established by 21 small scale field tests carried out in the US since 1973. Cost estimates based on the resultant data are encouraging. Methanol is estimated to cost $0.52/gal (without tax) and SNG is estimated to cost $5.19/10/sup 6/ Btu, all in 1982 dollars. The environmental effects associated with the technology appear to be acceptable. Successful commercialization of the process would probably triple the proven reserves of US coal, which would be sufficient to last for hundreds of years. At this stage of development, underground coal gasification is a high risk technology and will remain so until large scale field tests are successfully carried out. These tests are recommended by the Gas Research Institute and by the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. A seven year program costing about $200 million would permit initial commercial production in ten years. A recent small scale field test, the Centralia Partial Seam CRIP test, was very successful. Steam and oxygen was employed to gasify 2000 tons of coal over a 30 day period, producing 250 Btu/scf gas. A larger scale test is presently being planned for Centralia, Washington, involving the US DOE and an industrial consortium led by the Gas Research Institute. 28 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Stephens, D.R.; Hill, R.W.; Borg, I.Y.

1985-01-01

226

Kosova coal gasification plant health effects study: Volume 1, Summary  

SciTech Connect

This is the summary volume of a three-volume report of the Kosova coal gasification plant health effects study. The plant is of the Lurgi type and began commercial operation in 1971. The study was conducted under the auspices of the U.S.-Yugoslav Joint Board for Scientific and Technological Cooperation. It had five overall purposes: (1) Identify potential health risks in the gasification plant and provide information on possible control measures. (2) Use the experience in Kosova as a basis of judging potential health risks and avoiding potential problems at future commercial scale gasification plants in the United States and Yuogoslavia. (3) Acquire information on industrial hygiene practices at an operating commercial scale coal gasification plant. (4) Use the experience in Kosova to contribute to understanding dose-response relationships of exposure to complex organic mixtures. (5) Increase the scientific capabilities of scientists in Kosova in the areas of epidemiology and industrial hygiene. This report introduced the Kosova gasification plant and the study design and summarizes the preliminary studies of 1981 to 1983, the detailed characterization campaign of 1984, the retrospective epidemiology study, ongoing clinical studies, and the successful technology transfer. It presents conclusions and recommendations from the industrial hygiene and epidemiology studies. 18 refs.

Morris, S.C.; Jackson, J.O.; Haxhiu, M.A.

1987-03-01

227

Fundamental studies of catalytic gasification  

SciTech Connect

During the past two years, it has been found that the binary system of good gasification catalysts such as mixtures of potassium and nickel oxide or still better calcium and potassium oxide can be further improved by adding third components to this system. It has also been shown that petroleum cokes can be gasified as easily as coals. Addition of a ternary component such as nickel oxide to the calcium-potassium oxide catalyst has resulted in a material which can oxidatively couple methane to ethane, ethylene, propane, propylene and C{sub 4} hydrocarbons at very high selectivities and at reasonable conversions. The same type of catalyst can also function as a potentially good steam reforming catalyst and may have activity as a hydrocarbon synthesis catalyst for the direct conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons. The novel nature of this catalyst system needs extensive exploration both of the importance and effectiveness of various components for the ternary system and for an understanding of the mechanisms by which this catalytic system works. The ternary system of oxide catalysts holds the promise of novel reactions for the conversion of carbonaceous material and of low molecular weight hydrocarbons to valuable higher molecular weight hydrocarbons.

Heinemann, H.; Somorjai, G.A.

1991-12-01

228

Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle  

SciTech Connect

Gasification combined cycle continues to represent an important defining technology area for the forest products industry. The ''Forest Products Gasification Initiative'', organized under the Industry's Agenda 2020 technology vision and supported by the DOE ''Industries of the Future'' program, is well positioned to guide these technologies to commercial success within a five-to ten-year timeframe given supportive federal budgets and public policy. Commercial success will result in significant environmental and renewable energy goals that are shared by the Industry and the Nation. The Battelle/FERCO LIVG technology, which is the technology of choice for the application reported here, remains of high interest due to characteristics that make it well suited for integration with the infrastructure of a pulp production facility. The capital cost, operating economics and long-term demonstration of this technology area key input to future economically sustainable projects and must be verified by the 200 BDT/day demonstration facility currently operating in Burlington, Vermont. The New Bern application that was the initial objective of this project is not currently economically viable and will not be implemented at this time due to several changes at and around the mill which have occurred since the inception of the project in 1995. The analysis shows that for this technology, and likely other gasification technologies as well, the first few installations will require unique circumstances, or supportive public policies, or both to attract host sites and investors.

Judith A. Kieffer

2000-07-01

229

A novel approach to highly dispersing catalytic materials in coal for gasification  

SciTech Connect

This project seeks to develop a technique, based on coal surface properties, for highly dispersing catalysts in coal for gasification and to investigate the potential of using potassium carbonate and calcium acetate mixtures as catalysts for coal gasification. The lower cost and higher catalytic activity of the latter compound will produce economic benefits by reducing the amount of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} required for high coal char reactivities.

Abotsi, G.M.K.; Bota, K.B.

1992-01-01

230

Modeling of a high-temperature direct coal gasification process in a two-stream reactor  

SciTech Connect

A new scheme for direct gasification of pulverized coal has been analyzed by a mathematical model. Gasification occurs in the annular region of a cylindrical reactor during the cocurrent flow of a steam/coal mixture, with combustion products in the reactor core region serving as an internal heat source. The model incorporates the two equation model for turbulence, mass exchange between phases due to chemical reactions and radiative heat transfer. Detailed calculations are carried out to asses the feasibility of the scheme.

Hanjalic, K.; Sijercic, M. (Univ. of Sarajevo-Energoinvest, Sarajevo (YU)); Crowe, C.T.; Wojcicki, S. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (US))

1988-06-01

231

Modeling of a high-temperature direct coal gasification process in a two-stream reactor  

SciTech Connect

A new scheme for direct gasification of pulverized coal has been analyzed by a mathematical model. Gasification occurs in the annular region of a cylindrical reactor during the cocurrent flow of a steam/coal mixture, with combustion products in the reactor core region serving as an internal heat source. The model incorporates the two equation model for turbulence, mass exchange between phases due to chemical reactions and radiative heat transfer. Detailed calculations are carried out to assess the feasibility of the scheme.

Hanjalic, K.; Sijercic, M.; Crowe, C.T.; Wojcicki, S. (Univ. of Sarajevo-Energoinvest (Yugoslavia))

1988-01-01

232

Hazardous and Corrosive Gas Production in the Radiolysis of Water/Organic Mixtures in Model TRU Waste  

SciTech Connect

Scope. The radiation chemistry of aqueous systems containing chlorinated hydrocarbons is investigated using a multi-pronged approach employing 60Co gamma ray and alpha particle irradiation experiments in conjunction with diffusion-kinetic modeling incorporating track structure simulations. The goal is to determine mechanisms, kinetics, and yields for the formation of potentially explosive gases and corrosive agents, such as H2 and HCl, respectively, in the radiolysis of water-organic mixtures. The information obtained is of a fundamental nature, but the radiation chemical systems studied are found throughout the DOE portfolio and are important in radioactive waste remediation and management. Program Highlights. Radiation-induced production of H2 and HCl from chlorinated hydrocarbons. 60Co gamma-radiolysis experiments and stochastic kinetic modeling have been used to investigated the radiation-induced yield of H2 and Cl- from aqueous solutions of 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE) and 1,1-dichloroethane (1,1-DCE) over the concentration range 1-80 mM. In deoxygenated solution, the yield of H2 from both 1,2-DCE and 1,1-DCE solutions decreases as the concentration of DCE is increased. The decrease in the H2 yield shows that the reaction of H atom with DCE does not lead to the production of H2. This observation is unexpected and reflects the reverse of the effect seen in the gas phase, where the reaction of H atom with 1,2-DCE and 1,1-DCE leads to the production of H2. The yield of Cl- from 1,2-DCE and 1,1-DCE solutions increases slightly from 2.8 ions/100eV to 3.6 over the concentration range 10-50 mM, demonstrating the increased competition of the DCE with intra-track processes. Comparison of the measured yields of Cl- with the predictions of stochastic kinetic modeling shows that the reactions of eaq- with 1,2-DCE and with 1,1-DCE are quantitative, and that the reaction of H atom with both DCEs leads to the production of Cl- (and Haq+). In aerated solution, the yield of Cl- from 1,2-DCE and from 1,1-DCE solutions is very significantly higher ({approx} x 3-4) than from deoxygenated solution. Furthermore, the observed yield is both dose and dose rate dependent. The mechanisms for Cl- production in aerated aqueous solutions of 1,2-DCE and of 1,1-DCE are currently under investigation. Rate coefficients for the reaction of eaq- and -OH with chlorinated hydrocarbons. There is considerable disagreement over the rate coefficients for the reaction of the primary radiation-produced reducing and oxidizing radicals from water, eaq- and -OH respectively, with 1,2-DCE and with 1,1-DCE. Electron pulse-radiolysis experiments monitoring the decay of eaq- have been used to measure the rate coefficients: 1,2 DCE eaq- + CH2Cl-CH2Cl ' CH2Cl-CH2- + Cl- k1 = 2.3 x 109 dm3 mole-1 s-1 1,1 DCE eaq- + CH3Cl-CHCl2 ' CH3-CHCl- + Cl- k2 = 3.5 x 109 dm3 mole-1 s-1 while competition kinetic experiments were employed to determine the rate coefficients: 1,2 DCE -OH + CH2Cl-CH2Cl ' CH2Cl-CHCl- + H2O k3 = 1.8 x 108 dm3 mole-1 s-1 1,1 DCE -OH + CH3Cl-CHCl2 ' CH3-CCl2- + H2O k4 = 1.1 x 108 dm3 mole-1 s-1 The values obtained are similar to those measured by Asmus and co-workers, but there is a significant discrepancy from the estimate of Getoff and co-workers for k1. Rate coefficient for the reaction of OH with thiocyanide ion. The rate coefficient for the reaction of the -OH radical with a chlorinated hydrocarbon is obtained by a competition experiment, in which the change in the radiation-induced yield of (SCN)2-- from an aqueous SCN- solution is monitored on the addition of the hydrocarbon. The mechanism for the radiation-induced formation of (SCN)2-- from a SCN- is complex and involves a number of equilibria. Careful electron pulse radiolysis experiments have been performed and analyzed, employing the full, complex reaction mechanism, to re-evaluated the rate coefficient for the fundamental reaction -OH + SCN- ' (HOSCN)-- k5 = 1.4 x 1010 dm3 mole-1 s-1 This reaction is central to the experimental determination of the rate coefficient of a solute with OH using the

LaVerne, Jay A.

2004-12-01

233

Occupational Exposure Evaluation of Complex Vapor Mixtures at the Hanford Nuclear Waste Site, Washington Worksite Vapor Characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive sampling and analysis has been done over the years to characterize the radioactive and chemical properties of hazardous waste stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford site in eastern Washington State. The purpose of these analyses was to evaluate safety and environmental concerns related to tank stability. More recently, characterization studies have broadened to evaluate potential health hazards

2006-01-01

234

Olive orchard amended with two experimental olive mill wastes mixtures: Effects on soil organic carbon, plant growth and yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amendments of olive orchard soil with two different preparations of olive mill solid waste (OMWMs) at the rate of 9tonha?1 per year for five years in two different plots were compared with an industry standard soil amendment using urea. Both the OMWMs amendments showed significant increases in total organic carbon and humic substances in soil of approximately 40% and 58%,

Roberto Altieri; Alessandro Esposito

2008-01-01

235

Development of a high-temperature air-blown gasification system.  

PubMed

Current status of high-temperature air-blown gasification technology development is reviewed. This advanced gasification system utilizes preheated air to convert coal and waste-derived fuels into synthetic fuel gas and value-added byproducts. A series of demonstrated, independent technologies are combined to form the core of this gasification system. A high-temperature, rapid devolatilization process is used to enhance the volatile yields from the fuel and to improve the gasification efficiency. A high-temperature pebble bed filter is used to remove to the slag and particulates from the synthetic fuel gas. Finally, a novel regenerative heater is used to supply the high-temperature air for the gasifier. Component development tests have shown that higher gasification efficiencies can be obtained at more fuel-rich operating conditions when high-temperature air is used as the gasification agent. Test results also demonstrated the flex-fuel capabilities of the gasifier design. Potential uses of this technology range from large-scale integrated gasification power plants to small-scale waste-to-energy applications. PMID:11499577

Pian, C C; Yoshikawa, K

2001-09-01

236

Catalyst behavior in biomass gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conversion of biomass to specific products by steam gasification in the presence of catalysts is the subject of investigations conducted to determine the technical feasibility of catalytic processes for wood gasification to specific products and to evaluate the economic feasibility of the technically feasible processes. Studies focused on producing a methane rich gas and a 2:1 H2 to CO ratio

S. L. Weber; L. J. Sealock Jr.; L. K. Mudge; D. H. Mitchell; R. J. Robertus

1981-01-01

237

Catalysis in biomass gasification  

SciTech Connect

The objective of these studies is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of producing specific gas products by catalytic gasification of biomass. Catalyst performance is a key factor in the feasibility of catalytic gasification processes. The results of studies designed to gain a fundamental understanding of catalytic mechanisms and causes of deactivation, and discussion of the state-of-the-art of related catalytic processes are presented. Experiments with primary and secondary catalysts were conducted in a 5-cm-diameter, continuous-wood-feed, fixed-catalyst-bed reactor. The primary catalysts used in the experiments were alkali carbonates mixed with the biomass feed; the secondary catalysts included nickel or other transition metals on supports such as alumina, silica, or silica-alumina. The primary catalysts were found to influence wood pyrolysis as well as the char/steam reaction. Secondary catalysts were used in a fixed-bed configuration to direct gas phase reactions. Results of the performance of these catalysts are presented. Secondary catalysts were found to be highly effective for conversion of biomass to specific gas products: synthesis gases and methane-rich gas. With an active catalyst, equilibrium gas composition are obtained, and all liquid pyrolysis products are converted to gases. The major cause of catalyst deactivation was carbon deposition, or coking. Loss of surface area by sintering was also inportant. Catalyst deactivation by sulfur poisoning was observed when bagasse was used as the feedstock for catalytic gasification. Mechanisms of catalyst activity and deactivation are discussed. Model compounds (methane, ethylene, and phenol) were used to determine coking behavior of catalysts. Carbon deposition is more prevalent with ethylene and phenol than with methane. Catalyst formulations that are resistant to carbon deposition are presented. 60 references, 10 figures, 21 tables.

Baker, E.G.; Mudge, L.K.

1984-06-01

238

Toxicological investigations in the semiconductor industry: I. Studies on the acute oral toxicity of a complex mixture of waste products from the aluminium plasma etching process  

SciTech Connect

In dry etching processes--one of the sources of potential exposure to toxic wastes in the semiconductor industry--complex mixtures of inorganic and organic compounds arise from reactions between feed stock gases (BCl3/Cl2), top layers (aluminium photoresist), and the carrier gas (N2). Two different fractions of the complex mixture--one an ethanolic solution (ES) and the other an insoluble liquid residue (LR)--were examined for acute oral toxicity in rats. Analytical data showed that the ethanol soluble fraction contained mainly inorganic compounds, whereas the residue contained various halogenated hydrocarbons. Neither death nor behavioral changes occurred after oral administration and observation up to 23 days. ES caused a lower mean arterial blood pressure in both sexes, increased P-R-intervals in male rats, and caused some mild biochemical and hematological alterations and changes in relative organ weights compared to the control groups. Exposure to LR influenced food and water intake, and caused a significant decrease in body weights, signs of polyurie, as well as changes in various relative organ weights and biochemical and hematological parameters. The blood pressure of the male animals fell and the heart rates of both sexes decreased.

Bauer, S.; Wolff, I.; Werner, N.; Hoffmann, P.; Herzschuh, R.; Oemus, K.; Rath, F.W.; Voigt, R. (Institute of Industrial Toxicology, Martin Luther University, Halle (Germany))

1992-05-01

239

Gasification and Surface Modification of Vapor-Grown Carbon Fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Vapor-grown carbon fibers (VGCF) were produced from a methane-hydrogen mixture on a reconstituted graphite support using the\\u000a [Fe3(CO)12] complex as catalyst precursor. The fibers thus produced were submitted to different oxidative treatments: nitric acid, oxygen\\u000a plasma and partial gasification with air or carbon dioxide. The original and the oxidised fibers were characterised by X-ray\\u000a diffraction, SEM, AFM, nitrogen adsorption, XPS

J. L. Figueiredo; P H. Serp

240

Correlation between the growth and gasification processes of carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present work was to study the kinetics of the gasification of carbon, preliminarily deposited from the gaseous phase on a diamond dust AM 40\\/28 in the air plasma of a glow discharge. The deposition was carried out from a hexane-helium mixture by the method in [1] at 950~ at a partial pressure of 0.02 tort. The

D. V. Fedoseev; Yu. N. Tolmachev; V. L. Bukhovets; K. S. Uspenskaya

1979-01-01

241

Catalytic gasification of graphite and chars  

SciTech Connect

In earlier papers the authors reported on the low temperature catalytic gasification of carbonaceous materials with steam. The use of catalysts is necessary if the process is to be carried out at temperatures below 1000 K. While alkaline or alkaline-earth hydroxides and carbonates have been studied by many investigators, they show catalytic activity only at temperatures above 1000 K. Transition metals, in particular nickel and iron, are able to catalyze the process at temperatures as low as 750 K but they deactivate very fast. These transition metal catalysts are active only if the reaction conditions permit their presence in the metallic state. In the earlier work they described catalysts which are mixtures of potassium hydroxide and nickel oxide and have demonstrated that they showed the highest activity of all the systems previously studied at below 1000K. They also showed that this catalyst mixture formed a relatively low melting eutectic that can wet the surface of the carbon substrates forming a liquid film which attacks the carbonaceous material by edge recession mode rather than by a channeling mode which prevails for potassium hydroxide alone and nickel alone. A disadvantage found with the potassium-nickel catalysts is that they have a tendency to deactivate over a period of time when used on chars due to an interference or poisoning by ash components in the char. The present paper presents information on the role of ash components on catalytic gasification and describes another type of catalyst, namely a mixture of alkali and earth alkali oxides such as K/sub 2/O-CaO, which is almost as active and is less sensitive to poisoning than the potassium-nickel composition.

Heinemann, H.; Somorjai, G.A.; Pereira, P.; Carrazza, J.

1989-01-01

242

Environmental assessment of a commercial boiler fired with a coal/waste plastic mixture. Volume 1. Technical results. Final report, July 1983-July 1984  

SciTech Connect

The report gives results of comprehensive emissions testing and laboratory analyses of a stoker-fired commercial boiler firing a coal/waste plastic mixture. In one test, the unit fired its typical coal fuel; in the other, shredded waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) beverage bottles were added to the coal to about 16% by weight in the mixed fuel. NOx, total unburned hydrocarbon, and solid particulate were relatively unchanged for the two tests, as was the emitted particle size distribution. SOx emissions decreased with the coal/PET fuel in keeping with its lowered sulfur content; average CO emissions were also decreased. Flue-gas emissions of most trace elements were comparable for both tests, as were the trace-element compositions of corresponding ash streams. However, lead emissions were significantly increased for the coal/PET fuel, reflecting an increased lead content of the mixed fuel. The cyclone hopper ash for the coal/PET test had consistently lower leachable trace element and anion content than for the coal fuel test. Total flue-gas organic emissions were comparable for both tests, in the 1 mg/dscm range; however, levels of several semivolatile priority pollutants were higher for the mixed fuel.

DeRosier, R.; Lips, H.I.; Waterland, L.R.

1986-04-01

243

Environmental assessment of a commercial boiler fired with a coal/waste plastic mixture. Volume 2. Data supplement. Final report, July 1983-July 1984  

SciTech Connect

The report gives results of comprehensive emissions testing and laboratory analyses of a stoker-fired commercial boiler firing a coal/waste plastic mixture. In one test, the unit fired its typical coal fuel; in the other, shredded waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) beverage bottles were added to the coal to about 16% by weight in the mixed fuel. NOx, total unburned hydrocarbon, and solid particulate were relatively unchanged for the two tests, as was the emitted particle size distribution. SOx emissions decreased with the coal/PET fuel in keeping with its lowered sulfur content; average CO emissions were also decreased. Flue-gas emissions of most trace elements were comparable for both tests, as were the trace-element compositions of corresponding ash streams. However, lead emissions were significantly increased for the coal/PET fuel, reflecting an increased lead content of the mixed fuel. The cyclone hopper ash for the coal/PET-test had consistently lower trace element and anion content than for the coal fuel test. Total flue-gas organic emissions were comparable for both tests, in the 1 mg/dscm range; however levels of several semivolatile priority pollutants were higher for the mixed fuel.

DeRosier, R.; Lips, H.I.; Waterland, L.R.

1986-04-01

244

The O{sub 2}-enriched air gasification of coal, plastics and wood in a fluidized bed reactor  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of the O{sub 2} in the gasification stream of a BFB gasifier has been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Main advantage of the O{sub 2}-enriched air is the increasing of the bed temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No remarkable effects on tar reduction. Decreasing of recognized PAHs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gasification reactions completed inside the dense bed and splashing zone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polycondensation reactions occur mainly in the freeboard region. - Abstract: The effect of oxygen-enriched air during fluidized bed co-gasification of a mixture of coal, plastics and wood has been investigated. The main components of the obtained syngas were measured by means of on-line analyzers and a gas chromatograph while those of the condensate phase were off-line analysed by means of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The characterization of condensate phase as well as that of the water used as scrubbing medium completed the performed diagnostics. The experimental results were further elaborated in order to provide material and substances flow analyses inside the plant boundaries. These analyses allowed to obtain the main substance distribution between solid, gaseous and condensate phases and to estimate the conversion efficiency of carbon and hydrogen but also to easily visualise the waste streams produced by the process. The process performance was then evaluated on the basis of parameters related to the conversion efficiency of fuels into valuable products (i.e. by considering tar and particulate as process losses) as well as those related to the energy recovery.

Mastellone, Maria Laura, E-mail: mlaura.mastellone@unina2.it [Department of Environmental Sciences-Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi, 43 81100 Caserta (Italy); Zaccariello, Lucio; Santoro, Donato; Arena, Umberto [Department of Environmental Sciences-Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi, 43 81100 Caserta (Italy)

2012-04-15

245

Underground coal gasification: Technology status report  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy's Morgantown Energy Technology Center is conducting a program in underground coal gasification (UCG). The purpose of this program is to develop the technology for converting coal seams, in place, to a combustible gas that can be cleaned, treated, and upgraded for a variety of end uses, such as the production of chemicals, substitute natural gas, liquid fuels, and electrical power. Coal resources targeted for UCG processing are those coal seams that are unsuitable for recovery using current mining technology because of technical, environmental, health and safety, or economic factors. Conceptually, UCG processing is relatively simple and straightforward. Wells are drilled from the surface to provide access to the target coal seam. One well serves for injection of an oxidant, such as air or a mixture of oxygen and steam, into the seam, while another well serves as a production well for the gasification process gases. These two process wells are connected within the seam using one of several linking techniques to provide an open pathway for the flow of large quantities of gaseous products. Surface treatment of the product gas stream is similar to that for surface gasification processes. The Program is divided into two main technical areas or subprograms: (1) Process Technology, and (2) Process Monitoring, Control, and Environmental Impact Mitigation. The intent of this report is to present the research and accomplishments since 1983 by discussing the elements in these two subprograms that are inhibiting the commercialization of UCG: (1) site suitability, (2) process well linkage, (3) process control, and (4) environmental risks. 60 refs., 12 figs.

Not Available

1986-10-01

246

Catalyst behavior in biomass gasification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conversion of biomass to specific products by steam gasification in the presence of catalysts is the subject of investigations conducted to determine the technical feasibility of catalytic processes for wood gasification to specific products and to evaluate the economic feasibility of the technically feasible processes. Studies focused on producing a methane rich gas and a 2:1 H2 to CO ratio synthesis gas suitable for hydrocarbon or methanol production via conventional methods. Specific catalysts employed and their behavior for each gasification scheme are discussed.

Weber, S. L.; Sealock, L. J., Jr.; Mudge, L. K.; Mitchell, D. H.; Robertus, R. J.

1981-12-01

247

In Situ Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasification  

SciTech Connect

Black liquor gasification offers a number of attractive incentives to replace Tomlinson boilers but it also leads to an increase in the causticizing load. Reasons for this have been described in previous reports (FY04 ERC, et.al.). The chemistries have also been covered but will be reviewed here briefly. Experimental results of the causticizing reactions with black liquor are presented here. Results of the modeling work were presented in detail in the Phase 1 report. They are included in Table 2 for comparison but will not be discussed in detail. The causticizing agents were added to black liquor in the ratios shown in Table 1, mixed, and then spray-dried. The mixture ratios (doping levels) reflect amount calculated from the stoichiometry above to achieve specified conversions shown in the table. The solids were sieved to 63-90 microns for use in the entrained flow reactors. The firing conditions are shown in Table 2. Pictures and descriptions of the reactors can be found in the Phase 1 annual report. Following gasification, the solids (char) was collected and analyzed by coulometric titration (for carbonate and total carbon), and by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP) for a wide array of metals.

Scott Alan Sinquefield

2005-10-01

248

A life cycle evaluation of wood pellet gasification for district heating in British Columbia.  

PubMed

The replacement of natural gas combustion for district heating by wood waste and wood pellets gasification systems with or without emission control has been investigated by a streamlined LCA. While stack emissions from controlled gasification systems are lower than the applicable regulations, compared to the current base case, 12% and 133% increases are expected in the overall human health impacts for wood pellets and wood waste, respectively. With controlled gasification, external costs and GHG emission can be reduced by 35% and 82% on average, respectively. Between wood pellets and wood waste, wood pellets appear to be the better choice as it requires less primary energy and has a much lower impact on the local air quality. PMID:21377867

Pa, Ann; Bi, Xiaotao T; Sokhansanj, Shahab

2011-02-05

249

Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification  

SciTech Connect

The transport reactor development unit (TRDU) was modified to accommodate oxygen-blown operation in support of a Vision 21-type energy plex that could produce power, chemicals, and fuel. These modifications consisted of changing the loop seal design from a J-leg to an L-valve configuration, thereby increasing the mixing zone length and residence time. In addition, the standpipe, dipleg, and L-valve diameters were increased to reduce slugging caused by bubble formation in the lightly fluidized sections of the solid return legs. A seal pot was added to the bottom of the dipleg so that the level of solids in the standpipe could be operated independently of the dipleg return leg. A separate coal feed nozzle was added that could inject the coal upward into the outlet of the mixing zone, thereby precluding any chance of the fresh coal feed back-mixing into the oxidizing zone of the mixing zone; however, difficulties with this coal feed configuration led to a switch back to the original downward configuration. Instrumentation to measure and control the flow of oxygen and steam to the burner and mix zone ports was added to allow the TRDU to be operated under full oxygen-blown conditions. In total, ten test campaigns have been conducted under enriched-air or full oxygen-blown conditions. During these tests, 1515 hours of coal feed with 660 hours of air-blown gasification and 720 hours of enriched-air or oxygen-blown coal gasification were completed under this particular contract. During these tests, approximately 366 hours of operation with Wyodak, 123 hours with Navajo sub-bituminous coal, 143 hours with Illinois No. 6, 106 hours with SUFCo, 110 hours with Prater Creek, 48 hours with Calumet, and 134 hours with a Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coal were completed. In addition, 331 hours of operation on low-rank coals such as North Dakota lignite, Australian brown coal, and a 90:10 wt% mixture of lignite and wood waste were completed. Also included in these test campaigns was 50 hours of gasification on a petroleum coke from the Hunt Oil Refinery and an additional 73 hours of operation on a high-ash coal from India. Data from these tests indicate that while acceptable fuel gas heating value was achieved with these fuels, the transport gasifier performs better on the lower-rank feedstocks because of their higher char reactivity. Comparable carbon conversions have been achieved at similar oxygen/coal ratios for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation for each fuel; however, carbon conversion was lower for the less reactive feedstocks. While separation of fines from the feed coals is not needed with this technology, some testing has suggested that feedstocks with higher levels of fines have resulted in reduced carbon conversion, presumably due to the inability of the finer carbon particles to be captured by the cyclones. These data show that these low-rank feedstocks provided similar fuel gas heating values; however, even among the high-reactivity low-rank coals, the carbon conversion did appear to be lower for the fuels (brown coal in particular) that contained a significant amount of fines. The fuel gas under oxygen-blown operation has been higher in hydrogen and carbon dioxide concentration since the higher steam injection rate promotes the water-gas shift reaction to produce more CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} at the expense of the CO and water vapor. However, the high water and CO{sub 2} partial pressures have also significantly reduced the reaction of (Abstract truncated)

Michael L. Swanson

2005-08-30

250

Underground Coal Gasification Data Base.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed a data base containing results from fourteen DOE-sponsored underground coal gasification (UCG) field tests. These tests include three performed by LLNL near Gillette, Wyoming at the Hoe Creek site, ...

R. J. Cena C. B. Thorsness L. L. Ott

1982-01-01

251

Conversion of municipal solid waste to hydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

LLNL and Texaco are cooperatively developing a physical and chemical treatment method for the conversion of municipal solid waste (MSW) to hydrogen via the steps of hydrothermal pretreatment, gasification and purification. LLNL's focus has been on hydrothermal pretreatment of MSW in order to prepare a slurry of suitable viscosity and heating value to allow efficient and economical gasification and hydrogen

J. H. Richardson; R. S. Rogers; C. B. Thorsness

1995-01-01

252

Plasma Processing of Municipal Solid Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a review and assessment of the Hot Temperature Plasma Processing of Waste is presented. The environmental advantage of this method over incineration is clearly demonstrated. The present technology of Plasma Arcs and the Modern Plasma Torches Applications are also shown. An Assessment of the Heavy Duty Gasification Combined Cycle Turbines, Gasification Process, Magmavication\\/Vitrification process, and Environmental Engineering

Edbertho Leal-Quirós

2004-01-01

253

On the Propagation of a Reaction Front Through a Porous Fuel in the Presence of an Opposed Forced Flow: Application to Mixtures Characteristic of Municipal Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

An expression for the propagation velocity of a reaction front in a porous solid material is obtained by using a one-dimensional energy conservation equation. The reaction is divided in two distinct fronts.an ignition front where gasification of large part of the fuel occursand a flamingfront where gas phase oxidation takes place. Forced flow and reaction move in opposite directions, so,

X. ZHOU; J. L. TORERO; J. C. GOUDEAU; B. BREGEON

1995-01-01

254

Evaluating waste disposal systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste disposal systems conventionally exhibit many problems, such as difficulties in finding final disposal sites for incinerator\\u000a residues and the issue of how to recycle waste materials. Some new technologies have been developed to solve such problems,\\u000a including ash melting and gasification melting. Furthermore, to improve the power generation efficiency of waste treatment\\u000a facilities so that their energy is used

Yasuhiko Wada; Takuma Okumoto; Nariaki Wada

2008-01-01

255

Studies of biomass gasification  

SciTech Connect

A downdraft gas producer was designed and fabricated to investigate the thermal behavior and performance of several types of biomass under gasification conditions. The reactor was a batch fed system with a stationary grate which operated at near atmospheric pressures. Air was used as the oxidizer and was introduced to the midsection of the gasifier at various mass flow rates ranging between 1.1 to 15.9 Kg/hr. This resulted in the production of a low energy, producer gas with heating values as high as 9MJ/SCM. The particle size ranged from 1.3 to 4.1 cm depending upon the fuel type and preparation conditions. The dynamic measurements of the gas temperatures inside the reactor were made at various locations using an axial and a radial temperature probe. The gas samples were collected from the reaction zone and outside the gasifier and were analyzed to give product distribution using a gas-chromatographic system. The biomass fuels which were investigated as a possible feedstock in the reactor included several types of commercial brand charcoal and wood, densified Refuse Derived Fuel (d-RDF) and densified Digested Sewage Sludge (d-DDS). The unit was placed on a balance and the extent of the fuel conversion was determined directly by measuring the gasifier weight loss. It was found that the thermal response of the reactor could be divided into a transient and a pseudo steady state period. The dry gas yield for high content volatile matter fuels was found to be a function of fuel conversion and reached a maximum value which was significantly higher than that of charcoal depending upon the type of the biomass and flow conditions. Although the efficiency of charcoal gasification appeared to be higher than wood or d-RDF, the heating value of the gas produced from charcoal was lower due to excessive dilution by the inert nitrogen.

Tabatabaie-Raissi, A.

1982-01-01

256

Mild gasification of coal  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this initial year's mission-oriented multi-year program is to develop a process chemistry data base for the mild gasification of coal with emphasis on eastern bituminous coal. One important objective of this program was to obtain the trends in product formation from different coals as a function of several process variables which included temperature, pressure, coal particle residence time, coal flow rate, type of additives such as lime, limestone, silica flour and ash in a short period of time. This was achieved by a careful development of a test matrix using a fractional factorial statistical design. The equipment used was the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) combination stirred moving-bed, entrained-tubular reactor which is capable of processing 2 to 3 pounds of coal per hour. A Wellmore Kentucky No. 8 bituminous coal, a Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coal and a Mississippi lignite with particles having a size of 150 {mu}m or less were selected for this study. The mild gasification experiments were conducted at temperatures from 550{degree} to 650{degree}C at nitrogen sweep gas pressures of 15 to 50 psi and residence times of 0.1 to 2 min. The coal flow rate was 0. 4 to 1.0 lb/hr and the concentration of the lime additives was 0 to 10% by weight of the dry coal feed. All variables were tested at two different levels, low and high, corresponding to the above ranges of the variables. A rapid calculation of the main effects and interactions was made using Yate's algorithm and the significance of the effects was determined from the normal probability plots. 10 refs., 26 figs., 11 tabs.

Sundaram, M.S.; Fallon, P.T.; Steinberg, M.

1989-01-01

257

Materials of Gasification  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to accumulate and establish a database of construction materials, coatings, refractory liners, and transitional materials that are appropriate for the hardware and scale-up facilities for atmospheric biomass and coal gasification processes. Cost, fabricability, survivability, contamination, modes of corrosion, failure modes, operational temperatures, strength, and compatibility are all areas of materials science for which relevant data would be appropriate. The goal will be an established expertise of materials for the fossil energy area within WRI. This would be an effort to narrow down the overwhelming array of materials information sources to the relevant set which provides current and accurate data for materials selection for fossil fuels processing plant. A significant amount of reference material on materials has been located, examined and compiled. The report that describes these resources is well under way. The reference material is in many forms including texts, periodicals, websites, software and expert systems. The most important part of the labor is to refine the vast array of available resources to information appropriate in content, size and reliability for the tasks conducted by WRI and its clients within the energy field. A significant has been made to collate and capture the best and most up to date references. The resources of the University of Wyoming have been used extensively as a local and assessable location of information. As such, the distribution of materials within the UW library has been added as a portion of the growing document. Literature from recent journals has been combed for all pertinent references to high temperature energy based applications. Several software packages have been examined for relevance and usefulness towards applications in coal gasification and coal fired plant. Collation of the many located resources has been ongoing. Some web-based resources have been examined.

None

2005-09-15

258

GRI highlights underground gasification effort  

SciTech Connect

A consortium headed by the Gas Research Institute is supporting major underground coal gasification tests to take place over the next two years at a site near Hanna, Wyoming. About 200 tons of coal will be gasified per day. Directional drilling will be used to form the horizontal gasification pathways linking the injection and production wells. The objectives of the program include a further evaluation of the controlled-retracting-injection-point technology. The technology involves the use of a device that is capable of igniting successive coal zones as it is retracted through a borehole in the coal seam. Comparable data will also be obtained during the test in sections where a linked-vertical-well concept will be used instead of the retracting-injection method. The linked-vertical-well concept, which has been used in most coal gasification tests, involves drilling a series of vertical wells into the coal seam gasification pathway for the ignition of successive coal zones. A parallel program will be conducted to evaluate environmental control technology applicable to underground coal gasification and to define the process requirements that must be satisfied to meet environmental quality standards. The results of these combined programs will provide the process and environmental data bases necessary to assess the economic potential of underground coal gasification from various US locations for a variety of end-product applications.

Not Available

1987-03-01

259

Evaluation of treated gasification wastewater as cooling tower makeup  

SciTech Connect

The principal goal of gasification research at the University of North Dakota Energy Research Center (UNDERC) is to develop process and environmental data on the treatability and reuse of aqueous effluents from the fixed-bed gasification of lignite. It is the objective of the UNDERC wastewater research program to define the extent of treatment required to produce a gas liquor for use as cooling tower makeup that will have no adverse effects on operating equipment or on the environment. The UNDERC pilot wastewater treatment scheme was designed to simulate the wastewater reuse process being used at the Great Plains Gasification Associates (GPGA) lignite gasification facility near Beulah, North Dakota. At GPGA, aqueous gasifier waste streams are treated via the Phenosolvan and Phosam-W processes to remove the bulk of the wastewater organics as well as ammonia and acid gases. This minimally treated wastewater, referred to as stripped gas liquor (SGL), is fed to the process cooling towers. At UNDERC, SGL was produced from a pilot slagging fixed-bed gasifier (SFBG) followed by extraction and steam-stripping treatment. UNDERC wastewater was used initially to determine the effects of cooling tower wastewater reuse before GPGA wastewater became available. An additional cooling tower reuse test was performed with water from GPGA. This work addresses the comparative effects of wastewater from the UNDERC slagging gasifier and the GPGA dry-ash gasifier on cooling system operation. 14 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Galegher, S.J.; Mann, M.D.; Johnson, M.D.

1985-04-01

260

The development of Coke Carried-Heat Gasification Coal-Fired Combined Cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carried-Heat Partial Gasification Combined cycle is a novel combined cycle which was proposed by Thermal Engineering Department of Tsinghua University in 1992. The idea of the system comes from the situation that the efficiency of the power plants in China is much lower than that of the advanced countries, but the coal consumption is much higher, which brings about the waste of primary energy resources and the pollution of the environment. With the deep study of the gasification technology, Coke Carried-Heat Gasification Coal-Fired Combined Cycle, as the improved system, came into birth in 1996 based on the partial gasification one. At the end of 1997, a new cycle scheme similar to IGCC was created. This paper focuses on several classes combined cycle put forward by Tsinghua University, depending on the plant configuration and carbon conversion, making the solution a viable and attractive option for efficient coal utilization.

Zhao, Li; Xu, Xiangdong

1999-12-01

261

Costs and technical characteristics of environmental control processes for low-Btu coal gasification plants  

SciTech Connect

Technical characteristics and costs of 25 individual environmental control processes that can be used for treating low-Btu coal gas are given. These processes are chosen from a much larger array of potential environmental control processes because of their likely applicability to low-Btu coal gasification operations and because of the limited scope of this study. The selected processes cover gas treating, by-product recovery, wastewater treating, and particulate recovery operations that are expected to be encountered in coal gasification operations. Although the existence of the Resource Conservtion and Recovery Act of 1976 is recognized, no treatment schemes for solid wastes are evaluated because of the paucity of information in this area. The potential costs of emission controls (by using eight integrated combinations of these 25 environmental control processes) in conceptual low-Btu coal gasification plants are given in an adjunct report titled Evaluation of Eight Environmental Control Systems for Low-Btu Coal Gasification Plants, ORNL-5481.

Singh, S.P.N.; Salmon, R.; Fisher, J.F.; Peterson, G.R.

1980-06-01

262

Investigation of a sulfur reduction technique for mild gasification char  

SciTech Connect

The object of this program is to investigate the desulfurization of mild gasification char using hydrogen/methane mixtures in a laboratory-scale experimental study. In the first year of the two- year program, char is being treated with mixtures of H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} at temperatures of 1100{degrees}C to 1550{degrees}F and pressures of 50 to 100 psig. The effects of temperature, pressure, residence time, gas velocity, and gas composition on sulfur removal and carbon gasification are being determined. The batch experiments are being performed in a nominal 2-inch-ID stainless-steel, batch, fluidized-bed reactor. The char to be desulfurized was produced by the IGT mild gasification process research unit (PRU) in a recently completed DOE/METC-sponsored technology development program. The parent coal was Illinois No. 6 from a preparation plant, and the char from the selected test contains 4.58 wt% sulfur. In the first quarter, we have obtained and prepared a char for the desulfurization tests. Ultimate and proximate analyses were performed on this char, and its pore size distribution and surface area were determined. Also this quarter, the fluidized-bed reactor system was constructed and equipped with high pressure mass flow controllers and a high pressure sintered metal filter to remove fines from the effluent gas stream.

Knight, R.A.

1991-01-01

263

June 2007 gasification technologies workshop papers  

SciTech Connect

Topics covered in this workshop are fundamentals of gasification, carbon capture and sequestration, reviews of financial and regulatory incentives, co-production, and focus on gasification in the Western US.

NONE

2007-06-15

264

Single-Stage Fluidized-Bed Gasification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The single-stage fluidized-bed gasification process, in addition to being a simple system, maximizes gas production and allows the economic exploitation of small peat deposits. The objective of this gasification project is to conduct experiments in order ...

F. S. Lau D. M. Rue S. A. Weil D. V. Punwani

1982-01-01

265

Coal Gasification Environmental Baseline Studies. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In conjunction with the commercial development of the Texaco Coal Gasification Process, environmental baseline studies were considered necessary. Accordingly, tests on oxygen and enriched air gasification of a water slurry of Illinois No. 6 coal were cond...

J. R. Denchfield R. M. Dille H. A. Rhodes W. V. Taylor S. B. Wallon

1982-01-01

266

Technology Assessment Report: Aqueous Sludge Gasification Technologies  

EPA Science Inventory

The study reveals that sludge gasification is a potentially suitable alternative to conventional sludge handling and disposal methods. However, very few commercial operations are in existence. The limited pilot, demonstration or commercial application of gasification technology t...

267

Assessment of Advanced Coal-Gasification Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process, Bell Single - Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process, Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Proces...

J. Ferrall J. Houseman J. McCarthy T. Charng

1981-01-01

268

Shell coal gasification project: Gasification of eleven diverse feeds  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the gasification of the following feedstocks in the Shell Coal Gasification Process at SCGP-1: Texas Lignite, Pile County-washed, Pike County-run-of-mine, Dotiki, Newlands, El Cerrejon, Skyline, Robinson Creek, R F, Pocahontas No. 3, and Petroleum Coke. These results demonstrate the unique flexibility of the Shell Coal Gasification Process in handling a wide range of feedstocks with significant differences in moisture content, reactivity, ash content, as viscosity, and calcium, chlorine, and sulfur levels. Process results are presented for each feedstock, including gasifier performance and efficiency calculations. Analytical data, including trace element analyses, are provided for the feedstock, the slag and flyslag solids, and the major gas and liquid streams in the plant.

Phillips, J.N.; Mahagaokar, U.; Krewinghaus, A.B. (Shell Development Co., Houston, TX (United States))

1992-05-01

269

Carbon-catalyzed gasification of organic feedstocks in supercritical water  

SciTech Connect

Spruce wood charcoal, macadamia shell charcoal, coal activated carbon, and coconut shell activated carbon catalyze the gasification of organic compounds in supercritical water. Feedstocks studied in this paper include glycerol, glucose, cellobiose, whole biomass feedstocks (depithed bagasse liquid extract and sewage sludge), and representative Department of Defense (DoD) wastes (methanol, methyl ethyl ketone, ethylene glycol, acetic acid, and phenol). The effects of temperature, pressure, reactant concentration, weight hourly space velocity, and the type of catalyst on the gasification of glucose are reported. Complete conversion of glucose (22% by weight in water) to a hydrogen-rich synthesis gas was realized at a weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 22.2 h{sup {minus}1} in supercritical water at 600 C, 34.5 MPa. Complete conversions of the whole biomass feeds were also achieved at the same temperature and pressure. The destruction efficiencies for the representative DoD wastes were also high. Deactivation of the carbon catalyst was observed after 4 h of operation without swirl in the entrance region of the reactor, but the carbon gasification efficiency remained near 100% for more than 6 h when a swirl generator was employed in the entrance of the reactor.

Xu, X.; Matsumura, Y.; Stenberg, J.; Antal, M.J. Jr. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States). Hawaii Natural Energy Inst.

1996-08-01

270

Biomass alternative fuels program: final report. Feasibility study for fuels production: fluidized-bed gasification of wood, Potlatch Corporation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the engineering, economic, and environmental feasibility of a fludizied-bed wood gasification facility. The gasification plant would consume 264,000 tons per year of wood wastes that are generated by the Potlatch wood processing facility in Warren, Arkansas. Process steam and electric power would be produced by the gasification plant and used to run the existing Potlatch facility. The study successfully demonstrated the feasibility of fluidized-bed gasification of wood wastes. Pilot plant tests were successfully completed and preliminary plant designs were developed to meet the specific requirements of the Potlatch facility in Warren. The estimated price of the proposed plant is 21.8 million dollars. The estimated return on investment after taxes is 19%. No significant socioeconomic or environmental problems are anticipated.

Not Available

1981-10-01

271

Hydrogen production from allothermal biomass gasification by means of palladium membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most promising technologies for the production of hydrogen is the use of a Palladium Membrane in order to separate hydrogen from a gas mixture coming from the allothermal biomass gasification process. At the TU München, an innovative allothermal gasifier called Biomass Heat Pipe Reformer (BioHPR) has been developed. This gasifier produces a hydrogen rich gas which can

S. Karellas; E. Kakaras; T. Papadopoulos; C. Schäfer; J. Karl

2008-01-01

272

Device for the gasification of carbon by means of a molten metal bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

A device is disclosed for the gasification of carbon containing material to obtain the continuous production of gas, essentially a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, by using the molten metal bath process. The carbon material, oxidizing agents, and slag-forming additives as needed are introduced into a reactor below the surface of a molten metal bath. The reactor is provided

P. Paschen; A. Kryczun; R. Pfeiffer; R. Pufal; C. Rao; H. D. Waldhecker

1983-01-01

273

Interaction of subsurface waters with the combustion site during underground coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

and important problem determining the expediency of using UCG when mining coal deposits. The main sources of subsurface water pollution during UCG are the combustion site in the coal bed and gasification products, representing a mixture of steam and gas products of complete and incomplete combustion of coal and its thermal decomposition, which can enter substtrface waters and be dissolved

E. V. Dvornikova; E. V. Kreinin

1993-01-01

274

Beluga Coal Gasification - ISER  

SciTech Connect

ISER was requested to conduct an economic analysis of a possible 'Cook Inlet Syngas Pipeline'. The economic analysis was incorporated as section 7.4 of the larger report titled: 'Beluga Coal Gasification Feasibility Study, DOE/NETL-2006/1248, Phase 2 Final Report, October 2006, for Subtask 41817.333.01.01'. The pipeline would carry CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} from a synthetic gas plant on the western side of Cook Inlet to Agrium's facility. The economic analysis determined that the net present value of the total capital and operating lifecycle costs for the pipeline ranges from $318 to $588 million. The greatest contributor to this spread is the cost of electricity, which ranges from $0.05 to $0.10/kWh in this analysis. The financial analysis shows that the delivery cost of gas may range from $0.33 to $0.55/Mcf in the first year depending primarily on the price for electricity.

Steve Colt

2008-12-31

275

Private sector involvement in underground coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is considerable activity in the field of underground coal gasification: several projects are underway in addition to those sponsored by DOE. Basic Resources, Inc., a subsidiary of Texas Utilities Co., has licensed the Soviet technology and is developing underground gasification of lignites near Fairfield, Texas. The Atlantic Richfield Company has executed a successful field gasification test in a 100

Stephens

1979-01-01

276

Fuels from biomass and wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production, use, and effects of fuels from biomass and waste energy sources are discussed. Biomass procurement from silviculture, including hybrid poplar and sycamore farms, in addition to the growth of mass algal culture and Jerusalem artichokes for fuels are considered. The conversion of biomass and solid waste materials through biological and thermal gasification, hydrolysis and extraction, and fermentation to

D. L. Klass; G. H. Emert

1981-01-01

277

Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags. Quarterly report, September 15--November 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

Coal gasification technologies are finding increasing commercial applications for power generation or production of chemical feedstocks. The integrated-gasification-combined-cycle (IGCC) coal conversion process has been demonstrated to be a clean, efficient, and environmentally acceptable method of generating power. However, the gasification process produces relatively large quantities of a solid waste termed slag. Regulatory trends with respect to solid waste disposal, landfill development costs, and public concern make utilization of slag a high-priority issue. Therefore, it is imperative that slag utilization methods be developed, tested, and commercialized in order to offset disposal costs. This project aims to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of the slag utilization technologies developed by Praxis to produce lightweight aggregates (LWA) and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag in a large-scale pilot operation, followed by total utilization of these aggregates in a number of applications.

NONE

1997-07-01

278

Integrated gasification combined cycle -- A review of IGCC technology  

SciTech Connect

Over the past three decades, significant efforts have been made toward the development of cleaner and more efficient technology for power generation. Coal gasification technology received a big thrust with the concept of combined cycle power generation. The integration of coal gasification with combined cycle for power generation (IGCC) had the inherent characteristic of gas cleanup and waste minimization, which made this system environmentally preferable. Commercial-scale demonstration of a cool water plant and other studies have shown that the greenhouse gas and particulates emission from an IGCC plant is drastically lower than the recommended federal New Source Performance Standard levels. IGCC also offers a phased construction and repowering option, which allows multiple-fuel flexibility and the necessary economic viability. IGCC technology advances continue to improve efficiency and further reduce the emissions, making it the technology of the 21st century.

Joshi, M.M.; Lee, S. [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States)

1996-07-01

279

NETL, USDA design coal-stabilized biomass gasification unit  

SciTech Connect

Coal, poultry litter, contaminated corn, rice hulls, moldly hay, manure sludge - these are representative materials that could be tested as fuel feedstocks in a hybrid gasification/combustion concept studied in a recent US Department of Energy (DOE) design project. DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) collaborated to develop a design concept of a power system that incorporates Hybrid Biomass Gasification. This system would explore the use of a wide range of biomass and agricultural waste products as gasifier feedstocks. The plant, if built, would supply one-third of electrical and steam heating needs at the USDA's Beltsville (Maryland) Agricultural Research Center. 1 fig., 1 photo.

NONE

2008-09-30

280

Mild coal gasification: Product separation  

SciTech Connect

Our general objective is to further the development of efficient continuous mild coal gasification processes. The research this year has been focused on product separation problems and particularly the problem of separating entrained ultra-fine particles from the chemically reactive environment of the product gas stream. Specifically, the objective of the present work has been to study candidate barrier filters for application to mild coal gasification processes. Our approach has been to select the most promising existing designs, to develop a design of our own and to test the designs in our bench-scale gasification apparatus. As a first step towards selection of the most promising barrier filter we have determined coking rates on several candidate filter media.

Wallman, P.H.; Singleton, M.F.

1992-08-04

281

Characterization and optimization of sorbents utilized for emission control during coal gasification. 1997 Fourth quarter research report, October 1, 1997--December 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect

Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle and pressurized fluidized bed combustion power system requires both hot gas desulfurization and particulate filtration to improve system thermal efficiency and overall performance. Few metal oxides were evaluated to be the sorbent candidate for hot gas desulfurization process. The use of waste iron oxide as a disposable metal oxide sorbent will alleviate the constraints imposed on iron oxides including the degradation of sulfur capacity and its physical attrition required for a regenerable sorbent. The very low cost of waste iron oxides and the elimination of the investment associated with sorbent regeneration make it attractive to replace currently developed sorbent candidates. However, the use of waste iron oxides indicates a significant increase of dust loading for particulate filtration. The slower the reaction rate the iron oxide and coal ash mixture is, the longer residence time and higher iron oxide to coal ratio are required. One of the key issue of the use of waste iron oxides as a disposable sorbent material relies on the capability of particulate filtration efficiency. The current back pulse cleaning of the dust cake had been evaluated; and the preliminary test results indicated that the simultaneous operation of hot gas desulfurization and particulate filtration is feasible. A parametric testing will be performed on hot gas desulfurization and particulate independently first. The independent test results will help optimize the test design and evaluation of the integration of hot gas desulfurization testing and particulate filtration testing to be completed in the first two quarters 1998.

Huque, Z.; Mei, D.; Zhou, J.

1997-12-31

282

Mixture Experiments  

SciTech Connect

A mixture experiment involves combining two or more components in various proportions or amounts and then measuring one or more responses for the resulting end products. Other factors that affect the response(s), such as process variables and/or the total amount of the mixture, may also be studied in the experiment. A mixture experiment design specifies the combinations of mixture components and other experimental factors (if any) to be studied and the response variable(s) to be measured. Mixture experiment data analyses are then used to achieve the desired goals, which may include (i) understanding the effects of components and other factors on the response(s), (ii) identifying components and other factors with significant and nonsignificant effects on the response(s), (iii) developing models for predicting the response(s) as functions of the mixture components and any other factors, and (iv) developing end-products with desired values and uncertainties of the response(s). Given a mixture experiment problem, a practitioner must consider the possible approaches for designing the experiment and analyzing the data, and then select the approach best suited to the problem. Eight possible approaches include 1) component proportions, 2) mathematically independent variables, 3) slack variable, 4) mixture amount, 5) component amounts, 6) mixture process variable, 7) mixture of mixtures, and 8) multi-factor mixture. The article provides an overview of the mixture experiment designs, models, and data analyses for these approaches.

Piepel, Gregory F.

2007-12-01

283

Thermal biomass gasification  

SciTech Connect

The technology of gasifier suitable for agricultural wastes is summarized. Two types with the most potential are the moving-bed and the fluidized-bed gasifiers. Moving-bed gasifiers include downdraft, updraft and cross-flow types. Some commercially available gasifiers are assessed and recent research and development work is reviewed.

Clark, S.J.

1981-05-01

284

Coal gasification 2006: roadmap to commercialization  

SciTech Connect

Surging oil and gas prices, combined with supply security and environmental concerns, are prompting power generators and industrial firms to further develop coal gasification technologies. Coal gasification, the process of breaking down coal into its constituent chemical components prior to combustion, will permit the US to more effectively utilize its enormous, low cost coal reserves. The process facilitates lower environmental impact power generation and is becoming an increasingly attractive alternative to traditional generation techniques. The study is designed to inform the reader as to this rapidly evolving technology, its market penetration prospects and likely development. Contents include: Clear explanations of different coal gasification technologies; Emissions and efficiency comparisons with other fuels and technologies; Examples of US and global gasification projects - successes and failures; Commercial development and forecast data; Gasification projects by syngas output; Recommendations for greater market penetration and commercialization; Current and projected gasification technology market shares; and Recent developments including proposals for underground gasification process. 1 app.

NONE

2006-05-15

285

Early Entrance Co-Production Plant Decentralized Gasification Cogeneration Transportation Fuels and Steam From Available Feedstocks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Waste Processors Management, Inc.(WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE),...

2002-01-01

286

Gasification reactivity of charcoal with CO 2. Part II: Metal catalysis as a function of conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The catalytic influence of major metal species found with waste wood (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Pb, Cu) was studied during the gasification of nitrate salt impregnated charcoal with CO2 at 800°C in the kinetically controlled regime. In contrast with literature, the respective reaction rate data were analysed over the entire carbon conversion (X) range by using extended kinetic relations

R P. W. J. Struis; C von Scala; S Stucki; R Prins

2002-01-01

287

ADVANCED GASIFICATION-BASED FUEL CONVERSION AND ELECTRIC ENERGY PRODUCTION SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boise Paper Solutions and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) are cooperating to develop, demonstrate and place in continuous operation an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system suitable for near-term commercial deployment in the Forest Products Industry. The system will be used in conjunction with, rather than in place of, existing wood waste fired boilers and flue gas cleanup systems. The

Joseph Rabovitser; Bruce Bryan

2002-01-01

288

Gasification of low-grade fuels in a spouted bed for power generation  

SciTech Connect

Experimental data on the autothermal gasification of wastes from the flotation of Kuzbass coal of grade Zh and low-ash coal from the Kansk-Achinsk Basin in a spouted bed of an inert material at atmospheric pressure are presented. Capabilities for the development and use of this process for power generation based on closed-cycle gas turbine plants are analyzed.

A.A. Belyaev [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2008-12-15

289

ADVANCED GASIFICATION-BASED FUEL CONVERSION AND ELECTRIC ENERGY PRODUCTION SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boise Cascade Corporation and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) are cooperating to develop, demonstrate and place in continuous operation an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system suitable for near-term commercial deployment in the Forest Products Industry. The system will be used in conjunction with, rather than in place of, existing wood waste fired boilers and flue gas cleanup systems. The

Joseph Rabovitser; Bruce Bryan

2002-01-01

290

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the tasks on the project have successfully been completed and reported. A 12 month no-cost extension has been requested to complete the remaining tasks. This report summarizes the accomplishments of the first six months of the no-cost extensions period. The acetic acid extraction showed that acetic acid has more effect on the extraction of the ternary catalyst (LNK)

Atul Sheth; Chandramouli Sastry

2001-01-01

291

Coal gasification using solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An economic evaluation of conventional and solar thermal coal gasification processes is presented, together with laboratory bench scale tests of a solar carbonization unit. The solar design consists of a heliostat field, a central tower receiver, a gasifier, and a recirculation loop. The synthetic gas is produced in the gasifier, with part of the gas upgraded to CH4 and another

V. K. Mathur; R. W. Breault; S. Lakshmanan

1983-01-01

292

Underground coal gasification: environmental update  

SciTech Connect

To evaluate the potential for ground water contamination by underground coal gasification, extensive postburn groundwater monitoring programs are being continued at two test sites in Wyoming. An overview of the environmental concerns related to UCG and some results to date on the two field sites are presented in this report.

Dockter, L.; Mcternan, E.M.

1985-01-01

293

Two stage coal gasification plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention relates to a two stage coal gasification plant which comprises a gasifier 1 and a predistillation retort 2. The gasifier has a plurality of gas extraction outlets 4 located in the periphery thereof which feed into a manifold 5 from where a percentage of the gas from the gasifier is extracted. Gas from the predistillation retort is extracted

Shoebotham

1984-01-01

294

Biomass Gasification Pilot Plant Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives results of a gasification pilot program using two biomass feedstocks: bagasse pellets and wood chips. The object of the program was to determine the properties of biomass product gas and its suitability as a fuel for gas-turbine-based pow...

A. H. Furman S. G. Kimura R. E. Ayala J. F. Joyce

1993-01-01

295

Tar formation in corncob gasification  

SciTech Connect

Gasification of corncobs was studied to determine the amounts of tar and condensates produced. Variables studied included corncob particle size, moisture content, airflow rate, and reactor's operational mode (updraft and downdraft). The effect of temperature was also studied by running first with the unit noninsulated, and second adding insulation in the regions where pyrolysis, oxidation and gasification occurs. Results indicate that, over the range studied, tar and condensate yield increases with increasing fuel moisture, and that it does vary with air flow rate through the reactor. Updraft gasification of corncobs was found to produce about 3 to 4 times more tar than the downdraft gasification. Insulation of the reactor's pyrolysis, oxidation and reduction zones increased their operating temperature and significantly reduced the yield of tar and condensate in the gas stream. Production of tar and condensate were also found to fall off with respect to time. Ultimate analysis of the corncobs, corncob charcoal, condensate and tar was performed and constituent formulas were developed. Gas from the producer was also studied and its composition, heating value, molecular weight, density and specific heat were found. Reactor's mass and energy balance were also performed and gasifier efficiency was found to average 64%. Addition of oxygen in the reduction zone to the gasifier was found to have potential in reducing tar yield in the gas stream. Further studies, however, are needed and should be done before this result can be considered final.

da Silva, J.N.

1984-01-01

296

Study of a downdraft gasifier and externally fired gas turbine for olive industry wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive mill technology generates a variety of biomass wastes: olive pits\\/stones and remaining pomace resultant from olive oil extraction. Solid wastes are also generated during the pruning of olive trees (leaves and small branches). This renewable biomass could be a feasible option in gasification technology. Thermodynamic calculations evaluate the optimum operating parameters of a small scale gasification system. The product

D. Vera; F. Jurado; J. Carpio

2011-01-01

297

[Toxicity studies of mild gasification products]. [Quarterly report, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Mild gasification of coal is a technology being developed by the United States Department of Energy and private industry with the hope that a cleaner method of coal use can help meet future energy needs. As the technology develops and its commercial use becomes a more viable possibility, efforts are being made to study the safety or possible toxicity of the mild gasification products. DOE and the National Institute for occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) are cooperating through an interagency agreement to examine some of these products for their genotoxic potential. NIOSH has studied the mutagenicity of several mild gasification product samples using the Ames Salmonella/microsomal assay. As reported earlier PSIS{number_sign}830331 failed to demonstrate genotoxic activity in the Ames assay under all conditions tested. Since the mild gasification products are complex mixtures, interactions between various components are likely to occur. Such interactions between various components of complex mixtures may increase or decrease genotoxic activity in short-term assays like the Ames test. Although all synergistic interactions may not be detailed, the separate analysis of those components in several classes provides a more accurate view of the genotoxicity of each component and better allows for chemical characterization of the possible mutagens in the mixture. NIOSH has performed mutagenicity studies on the subfractions of PSIS{number_sign}830331. The results of those studies are detailed in this report.

Not Available

1992-12-31

298

Trend analysis of coal gasification product yields in an entrained flow reactor  

SciTech Connect

The coal gasification experiments performed by Bissett (1986) under a wide range of residence time, reaction temperatures and pressures form an excellent data base for either verification or predictive computational models. The experiments have been conducted on the METC advanced gasification facilities reactor. For the steam tests via the primary stream a mixture of pulverized coal and conveying Argon, and via the secondary stream (the annular region) a mixture of steam and Argon are introduced into the reactor. For the carbon dioxide tests, a mixture of pulverized coal and conveying Argon is introduced into the reactor via the primary stream; reactant CO{sub 2} is introduced into the reactor via the secondary stream. 8 refs., 20 figs., 9 tabs.

Celik, I.; Chattree, M.

1989-10-01

299

Why energy from waste incineration is an essential component of environmentally responsible waste management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines the key factors involved in adopting energy from waste incineration (EfWI) as part of a waste management strategy. Incineration means all forms of controlled direct combustion of waste. ‘Emerging’ technologies, such as gasification, are, in the author’s view, 5 to 10 years from proven commercial application. The strict combustion regimen employed and the emissions therefrom are detailed.

A. Porteous

2005-01-01

300

Fiscal 1997 report on the survey for a data book on new energy technology development. Waste power generation, solar energy utilization. geothermal power generation, clean energy vehicles, coal liquefaction/gasification, and traverse themes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper collected and arranged data on new energy technology. As to the waste power generation, in terms of general waste, 161 places have power generation facilities, 657,000 kW in output, as of the end of FY 1996. Out of them, 100 facilities (scale of...

1998-01-01

301

Woody biomass and RPF gasification using reforming catalyst and calcium oxide.  

PubMed

This study focused on steam gasification and reforming of waste biomass using a reforming catalyst. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the durability of a commercial Ni reforming catalyst and the effect of CaO on the reforming behavior, and to clarify detailed factors of catalytic performance, as well as the effect of operating parameters on the characteristics of produced gas composition. Moreover, catalyst regeneration was carried out and the behavior of catalytic activity based on gas composition was investigated. Using a fluidized bed gasifier and a fixed bed reformer, gasification and reforming of waste biomass were carried out. Commercial Ni-based catalyst and calcined limestone (CaO) were applied to the reforming reaction. Temperature of the gasifier and reformer was almost 1023K. Ratio of steam to carbon in the feedstock [molmol(-1)] and equivalence ratio (i.e., ratio of actual to theoretical amount of oxygen) [-] were set at about 2 and 0.3, respectively. The feed rate of the feedstock into the bench-scale gasifier was almost 15kgh(-1). The results of waste biomass gasification confirmed the improvement in H(2) composition by the CO(2) absorption reaction using the reforming catalyst and CaO. In addition, CaO proved to be especially effective in decreasing the tar concentration in the case of woody biomass gasification. Catalytic activity was maintained by means of catalyst regeneration processing by hydrogen reduction after air oxidation when woody biomass was used as feedstock. PMID:21459406

Kobayashi, Jun; Kawamoto, Katsuya; Fukushima, Ryutaro; Tanaka, Shingo

2011-04-02

302

Analysis of energetic and exergetic efficiency, and environmental benefits of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle technology.  

PubMed

The problem of the high carbon dioxide emissions linked to power generation makes necessary active research on the use of biofuels in gas turbine systems as a promising alternative to fossil fuels. Gasification of biomass waste is particularly of interest in obtaining a fuel to be run in gas turbines, as it is an efficient biomass-to-biofuel conversion process, and an integration into a combined cycle power plant leads to a high performance with regard to energetic efficiency. The goal of this study was to carry out an energetic, exergetic and environmental analysis of the behaviour of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant fuelled with different kinds of biomass waste by means of simulations. A preliminary economic study is also included. Although a technological development in gasification technology is necessary, the results of simulations indicate a high technical and environmental interest in the use of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BioIGCC) systems for large-scale power generation from biomass waste. PMID:23444152

Mínguez, María; Jiménez, Angel; Rodríguez, Javier; González, Celina; López, Ignacio; Nieto, Rafael

2013-02-26

303

Gasification of biomass for heat and power generation  

SciTech Connect

Experience in the field of thermal gasification has been mainly confined to the gasification of wood, whereas there is very little experience with fluidized-bed gas generators. Experience has already been gained with the first co-current and counter-current plants. Development of different types of gas generators is being concentrated on the following points: (1) preparation of material, (2) treatment of condensate, (3) filtering of gas (dust extraction), and (4) efficiency. In the Federal Republic of Germany the gasifiable biomass available for thermal gasification consists mainly of wood waste and straw residues. The energy content of these materials is estimated at approximately 11 x 10/sup 15/ J = 11 PJ (peta joule) for wood and 50 x 10/sup 15/J = 50 PJ (peta Joule) for straw. This would cover about 0.5% of the Federal Republic's consumption of primary energy. However, this amounts to about 1% of the mineral oil imports, or a value of almost 1 billion (10/sup 9/) DM (1980). The reasonable use of biomass-gasification techniques will therefore be restricted to decentralized generation of energy, thus making individual companies independent of outside sources of energy. Nevertheless, the contribution of biotechnology to the overall energy supply in the Federal Republic of Germany is limited. A breakthrough can only be made with this technology if it can enable a large number of individual firms to become independent of outside sources of energy in an economical way. This could be the case to some extent in the wood-processing industry and agriculture. 9 figures.

Feustel, J.E.; Leuchs, M.

1982-12-01

304

Gasification world database 2007. Current industry status  

SciTech Connect

Information on trends and drivers affecting the growth of the gasification industry is provided based on information in the USDOE NETL world gasification database (available on the www.netl.doe.gov website). Sectors cover syngas production in 2007, growth planned through 2010, recent industry changes, and beyond 2010 - strong growth anticipated in the United States. A list of gasification-based power plant projects, coal-to-liquid projects and coal-to-SNG projects under consideration in the USA is given.

NONE

2007-10-15

305

Fundamental studies of catalytic gasification: Quarterly report, October 1, 1987-December 31, 1987  

SciTech Connect

In the catalytic steam gasification of chars, North Dakota lignite char was selected for an investigation of ash component-catalyst interaction because of its high mineral content. Both nickel and potassium seem to react with minerals in the ash, greatly reducing catalytic activity of the nickel-potassium catalyst. Ash components initially catalyze gasification in the absence of an added catalyst, but this activity rapidly declines with time. When a nickel-potassium catalyst is added to the char after its gasification activity has ceased, gasification resumes with good activity and steady state gas production until almost all carbonaceous matter has been gasified. Demineralization of the char by HCl/HF treatment resulted in a char which had no catalytic activity of its own, but which was easily gasified after impregnation with Ni/K catalyst. Gasification proceeded at steady state and without the poisoning of activity observed in the presence of mineral matter. Potassium appears to interact with calcium in the ash giving an eutecticum which wets the carbon and acts as a gasification catalyst, which is superior to either potassium or calcium alone in the absence of ash. Alkali earth-alkali mixtures must therefore be investigated as potential catalysts. Nickel alone is very sensitive to the ash content of the char, apparently due to interaction between nickel and either calcium and/or sulfur. It has almost no activity for gasifying the North Dakota char in contrast to a short lived high level activity in the gasification of graphite and of low ash chars. 17 refs, 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Heinemann, H.; Somorjai, G.A.

1987-12-01

306

Development of mild gasification process  

SciTech Connect

Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1-Test Plan; Task 2-Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3-Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4-Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

Chu, C.I.C.; Gillespie, B.L.

1988-02-01

307

Development of mild gasification process  

SciTech Connect

Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

Chu, C.I.C.; Gillespie, B.L.

1987-11-01

308

Development of mild gasification process  

SciTech Connect

Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

Chu, C.I.C.; Derting, T.M.

1988-07-01

309

Development of mild gasification process  

SciTech Connect

Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

Chu, C.I.C.; Williams, S.W.

1989-01-01

310

Underground coal gasification using oxygen and steam  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, through model experiment of the underground coal gasification, the effects of pure oxygen gasification, oxygen-steam gasification, and moving-point gasification methods on the underground gasification process and gas quality were studied. Experiments showed that H{sub 2} and CO volume fraction in product gas during the pure oxygen gasification was 23.63-30.24% and 35.22-46.32%, respectively, with the gas heating value exceeding 11.00 MJ/m{sup 3}; under the oxygen-steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio stood at 2: 1, gas compositions remained virtually stable and CO + H{sub 2} was basically between 61.66 and 71.29%. Moving-point gasification could effectively improve the changes in the cavity in the coal seams or the effects of roof inbreak on gas quality; the ratio of gas flowing quantity to oxygen supplying quantity was between 3.1:1 and 3.5:1 and took on the linear changes; on the basis of the test data, the reasons for gas quality changes under different gasification conditions were analyzed.

Yang, L.H.; Zhang, X.; Liu, S. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

2009-07-01

311

Plasma gasification of coal in different oxidants  

SciTech Connect

Oxidant selection is the highest priority for advanced coal gasification-process development. This paper presents comparative analysis of the Powder River Basin bituminous-coal gasification processes for entrained-flow plasma gasifier. Several oxidants, which might be employed for perspective commercial applications, have been chosen, including air, steam/carbon-dioxide blend, carbon dioxide, steam, steam/air, steam/oxygen, and oxygen. Synthesis gas composition, carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and power efficiency for these processes were determined. The influence of the selected oxidant composition on the gasification-process main characteristics have been investigated.

Matveev, I.B.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Applied Plasma Technology, Mclean, VA (USA)

2008-12-15

312

Geosphere in underground coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of underground coal gasification (UCG), the in-situ conversion of coal to natural gas, has been demonstrated through 28 tests in the US alone, mainly in low-rank coals, since the early 1970s. Further, UCG is currently entering the commercial phase in the US with a planned facility in Wyoming for the production of ammonia-urea from UCG-generated natural gas. Although

D. J. Daly; G. H. Groenewold; C. R. Schmit; J. M. Evans

1988-01-01

313

EMERY BIOMASS GASIFICATION POWER SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Emery Recycling Corporation (now Emery Energy Company, LLC) evaluated the technical and economical feasibility of the Emery Biomass Gasification Power System (EBGPS). The gasifier technology is owned and being developed by Emery. The Emery Gasifier for this project was an oxygen-blown, pressurized, non-slagging gasification process that novelly integrates both fixed-bed and entrained-flow gasification processes into a single vessel. This unique internal geometry of the gasifier vessel will allow for tar and oil destruction within the gasifier. Additionally, the use of novel syngas cleaning processes using sorbents is proposed with the potential to displace traditional amine-based and other syngas cleaning processes. The work scope within this project included: one-dimensional gasifier modeling, overall plant process modeling (ASPEN), feedstock assessment, additional analyses on the proposed syngas cleaning process, plant cost estimating, and, market analysis to determine overall feasibility and applicability of the technology for further development and commercial deployment opportunities. Additionally, the project included the development of a detailed technology development roadmap necessary to commercialize the Emery Gasification technology. Process modeling was used to evaluate both combined cycle and solid oxide fuel cell power configurations. Ten (10) cases were evaluated in an ASPEN model wherein nine (9) cases were IGCC configurations with fuel-to-electricity efficiencies ranging from 38-42% and one (1) case was an IGFC solid oxide case where 53.5% overall plant efficiency was projected. The cost of electricity was determined to be very competitive at scales from 35-71 MWe. Market analysis of feedstock availability showed numerous market opportunities for commercial deployment of the technology with modular capabilities for various plant sizes based on feedstock availability and power demand.

Benjamin Phillips; Scott Hassett; Harry Gatley

2002-11-27

314

LLNL Capabilities in Underground Coal Gasification  

SciTech Connect

Underground coal gasification (UCG) has received renewed interest as a potential technology for producing hydrogen at a competitive price particularly in Europe and China. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) played a leading role in this field and continues to do so. It conducted UCG field tests in the nineteen-seventies and -eighties resulting in a number of publications culminating in a UCG model published in 1989. LLNL successfully employed the ''Controlled Retraction Injection Point'' (CRIP) method in some of the Rocky Mountain field tests near Hanna, Wyoming. This method, shown schematically in Fig.1, uses a horizontally-drilled lined injection well where the lining can be penetrated at different locations for injection of the O{sub 2}/steam mixture. The cavity in the coal seam therefore gets longer as the injection point is retracted as well as wider due to reaction of the coal wall with the hot gases. Rubble generated from the collapsing wall is an important mechanism studied by Britten and Thorsness.

Friedmann, S J; Burton, E; Upadhye, R

2006-06-07

315

Long term performance of biotrickling filters removing a mixture of volatile organic compounds from an artificial waste gas: dichloromethane and methylmethacrylate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two problems still hamper the widespread industrial application of biotrickling filters (BTFs) for waste gas treatment in practice: clogging of the filters at higher carbon loads and a decrease in the elimination of a target compound when more than one compound is present in the waste gas. To investigate these phenomena three identical BTFs removing dichloromethane (DCM) from an artificial

W. J. H. Okkerse; S. P. P. Ottengraf; R. M. M. Diks; B. Osinga-Kuipers; P. Jacobs

1999-01-01

316

Conceptual design study of a coal gasification combined-cycle powerplant for industrial cogeneration  

SciTech Connect

A conceptual design study was conducted to assess technical feasibility, environmental characteristics, and economics of coal gasification. The feasibility of a coal gasification combined cycle cogeneration powerplant was examined in response to energy needs and to national policy aimed at decreasing dependence on oil and natural gas. The powerplant provides the steam heating and baseload electrical requirements while serving as a prototype for industrial cogeneration and a modular building block for utility applications. The following topics are discussed: (1) screening of candidate gasification, sulfur removal and power conversion components (2) definition of a reference system (3) quantification of plant emissions and waste streams (4) estimates of capital and operating costs and (5) a procurement and construction schedule. It is concluded that the proposed powerplant is technically feasible and environmentally superior.

Bloomfield, H.S. (McKee (Davy); Nelson, S.G.; Straight, H.F. (McKee (Davy); Subramaniam, T.K.; Winklepleck, R.G. (McKee (Davy); Winklepleck, R.G.; Winklepleck, R.G. (McKee (Davy); Winklepleck, R.G.

1981-03-01

317

A novel approach to highly dispersing catalytic materials in coal for gasification. Tenth quarterly report, January 1, 1992--March 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This project seeks to develop a technique, based on coal surface properties, for highly dispersing catalysts in coal for gasification and to investigate the potential of using potassium carbonate and calcium acetate mixtures as catalysts for coal gasification. The lower cost and higher catalytic activity of the latter compound will produce economic benefits by reducing the amount of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} required for high coal char reactivities.

Abotsi, G.M.K.; Bota, K.B.

1992-07-01

318

Changes in char structure during the gasification of a Victorian brown coal in steam and oxygen at 800{degree}C  

SciTech Connect

Char structure is an important factor influencing its reactivity during gasification. This study aims to investigate the changes in char structure during the gasification of brown coal. A Victorian brown coal was gasified in a fluidized-bed/fixed-bed reactor at 800{degree}C in atmospheres containing 15% H{sub 2}O, 2000 ppm O{sub 2}, or 15% H{sub 2}O and 2000 ppm O{sub 2}, respectively. Although the char gasification in 2000 ppm O{sub 2} was mainly rate-limited by the external diffusion of O{sub 2}, the char-H{sub 2}O reaction was mainly rate-limited by the chemical reactions. The structural features of char at different levels of char gasification conversion were examined with FT-Raman spectroscopy. Our results show that the chars from the gasification in the mixture of 2000 ppm O{sub 2} and 15% H{sub 2}O had almost the same features as the chars from the gasification in 15% H{sub 2}O alone when the same levels of char conversion were achieved. Both the thermal decomposition of char and the char gasification reactions could result in changes in char structure during gasification. 29 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Xin Guo; Hui Ling Tay; Shu Zhang; Chun-Zhu Li [Monash University, Vic. (Australia). Department of Chemical Engineering

2008-11-15

319

Disposal of solid wastes with simultaneous energy recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for resource recovery from solid wastes is discussed. The incentives for a comprehensive system, a gasification based disposal system, and biological recovery methods are reviewed. Biogas process development and the Lanfilgas process are described. (MHR)

1980-01-01

320

Gasification of RDF (refuse-derived fuel) in a pressurized fluidized bed  

SciTech Connect

The pressurized thermal gasification of refuse-derived fuel (RDF), provides an alternative option to the current available municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal methods. A pressurized fuel gas from RDF offers a flexible product in terms of distribution, use, and environmental control benefits and eventually, a combined-cycle power generation. RDF gasification process research began at IGT in a process development unit (PDU) with an exploratory test of pressurized, fluidized-bed gasification conducted at 300 psig and 1450/degree/F at a feed rate of about 800 lb/h. These test results under air-blown conditions are presented in detail: the gas yield composition and the condensible liquid yield and composition. Analysis of the initial pressurized gasification test and a thermobalance decomposition test of the RDF feedstock indicated that the RDF char carbon was not completely converted under the test conditions. Changes in the process operating conditions are suggested to achieve complete carbon conversion in the single-stage, fluidized-bed gasifier. In developing a broad and sound technology base on pressurized RDF gasification, a variety of RDF feedstocks need to be tested with process information gathered for gas cleanup, ash disposal, and process control in response to short-term feed variation. 3 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Onischak, M.; Knight, R.A.; Evans, R.J.; Babu, S.P.

1987-01-01

321

Effect of some coal gasification and tar sand process waters on the viability of indicator bacteria of fecal contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research was undertaken to determine if a spill of either coal gasification or tar sand process waters could have detrimental effects on the numbers of indicator bacteria in receiving waters. The objectives were (i) to determine the effect of mixing process waters with natural waters on the numbers of fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci after storage of these mixtures

2009-01-01

322

Energy from biomass and wastes: an overview  

SciTech Connect

Energy from biomass and wastes already contributes about 850,000 barrels oil equivalent per day to US primary consumption. Recent changes in Federal funding of energy projects are expected to stimulate commercialization of additional biomass energy systems, particularly those processes that utilize biomass and wastes for the manufacture of ethanol fuel. However, although research and development on biomass production and conversion is progressing at a rapid rate, commercialization of non-ethanol and non-combustion based processes has been minimal. Commercial plants in the United States currently include one municipal solid waste gasification plant, one manure gasification plant which was recently shut down, and eight landfill methane recovery systems.

Klass, D.L.

1980-01-01

323

Underground coal gasification using oxygen and steam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-one field Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) tests have been carried out in the USA since 1973, along with related theoretical, laboratory and environmental programs. The product gas quality obtained from these field tests is comparable to that of surface gasification, using either air or steam and oxygen. Cost estimates are very favorable. The UCG process is found to be quite

D. R. Stephens; C. B. Thorsness; R. W. Hill

1984-01-01

324

Large block experiments in underground coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of in-situ coal gasification, while extremely simple in concept, is complicated in practice because, as the burn proceeds, the reacting volume is constantly changing geometry. In addition, the process takes place underground where it is extremely difficult to observe in detail. The five large block experiments described here were planned as a series of gasification experiments each of

R. W. Mill; C. B. Thorsness

1983-01-01

325

Large block experiments in underground coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of in-situ coal gasification, while extremely simple in concept, is complicated in practice because, as the burn proceeds, the reacting volume is constantly changing geometry. In addition, the process takes place underground where it is extremely difficult to observe in detail. The five large block experiments described here were planned as a series of gasification experiments, each of

R. W. Hill; C. B. Thorsness

1983-01-01

326

Biomass Gasification for Power Generation in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, different biomass gasification applications and strategies that affect the gasifier which makes electricity in Turkey were investigated. Gasification technologies provide the opportunity to convert renewable biomass materials into clean fuel gases or synthesis gases. These gaseous products can be burned to generate heat or electricity, or they can potentially be used in the synthesis of liquid transportation

Ayhan Demirbas

2006-01-01

327

Sulfur recovery in a coal gasification plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the most economical combination of processes for removing sulfur compounds from a coal gasification plant's gasifier raw gas and boiler flue gas, C. F. Braun and Co. examined alternatives for a 250 million cu ft\\/day plant using the Bituminous Coal Research Inc. Bi-Gas gasification process. For a western coal feed, the combination of a nonselective Selexol process for

W. S. Chia; F. A. Todd; W. J. Stupin

1978-01-01

328

The Garrett Energy Research biomass gasification process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiple hearth furnace is used for the gasification of biomass materials. Drying, pyrolysis, steam\\/char gasification, and combustion steps are carried out, each on its own hearth. Partially dry biomass feed is contacted on the top hearth of the furnace with hot flue gas from the combustion stage. The steam contained in the flue gas leaving the top hearth is

R. D. Mikesell; D. C. Hoang; D. E. Garrett

1978-01-01

329

Characteristics of Temperature Field during the Oxygen-enriched Underground Coal Gasification in Steep Seams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through the underground coal gasification model test in steep coal seams, the changing characteristics and effects of pure oxygen gasification, oxygen-steam gasification, moving-point gasification, backward gasification methods on the underground gasification process, and gas quality were discussed. Experiments showed that, under the pure oxygen gasification, the rising rate for the roof temperature of the coal seams to be gasified is

L. H. Yang; X. Zhang; S. Liu

2009-01-01

330

Energy from biomass and wastes. 1983 update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the technological developments in the production of fuels and energy from biomass and wastes are discussed. Woody, herbaceous and aquatic biomass are being developed. Wood and municipal solid wastes are combusted to give energy and there is now evidence to indicate that toxic dioxins can be formed in this process. Much research is being done on the gasification

Klass

1984-01-01

331

TEES process cleans waste and produces energy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A gasification system is under development that can be used with most types of wet organic wastes. The system operates at 350(degrees)C and 205 atm using a liquid water phase as the processing medium. Since a pressurized system is used, the wet waste can ...

D. C. Elliott L. J. Silva

1995-01-01

332

Gasification technologies 2005. Conference papers and presentations  

SciTech Connect

A total of 43 papers and two keynote addresses were presented at the conference in eight sessions entitled Four perspectives on gasification industry trends and new developments; Federal gasification incentives: opportunities and challenges; Carbon sequestration ready: What does it mean and who can do it?; Experience with gasifying low rank coals (panel discussion); What are current gasification-based offerings in the energy marketplace?; Coal to liquids and chemicals: prospects and challenges; Gasification market drivers panel; and Gasification technologies advancements continue. The CD-ROM contains 43 presentations plus on keynote address, all in slide/overview form as pdfs. In addition, the text of four presentations is included. These have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database.

NONE

2005-07-01

333

Low temperature steam-coal gasification catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Shrinking domestic supplies and larger dependence on foreign sources have made an assortment of fossil fuels attractive as possible energy sources. The high sulfur and mineral coals of Illinois would be an ideal candidate as possible gasification feedstock. Large reserves of coal as fossil fuel source and a projected shortage of natural gas (methane) in the US, have made development of technology for commercial production of high Btu pipeline gases from coal of interest. Several coal gasification processes exist, but incentives remain for the development of processes that would significantly increase efficiency and lower cost. A major problem in coal/char gasification is the heat required which make the process energy intensive. Hence, there is a need for an efficient and thermally neutral gasification process. Results are described for the gasification of an Illinois No. 6 coal with transition metal catalysts and added potassium hydroxide.

Hippo, E.J.; Tandon, D. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1996-12-31

334

Catalytic gasification of graphite or carbon. Annual report, October 1, 1984-September 30, 1985  

SciTech Connect

Highlights for this quarter are: (1) In the gasification of graphite over KOH/NiO catalysts at 860K, more hydrogen and less CO and methane are observed than corresponds to equilibrium. CO2 is a major product, along with hydrogen. (2) A char derived from Illinois No. 6 coal was gasified after impregnation with KOH-NiO. The gasification with steam resulted in almost identical results with those obtained from graphite. The char gave larger amounts of methane (about 1% of gas products) than graphite at gasification temperatures of up to 900K. (3) Nickel is a good gasification catalyst, but it is rapidly poisoned in graphite gasification. Nickel oxide alone is not a catalyst for gasification, but mixtures of NiO and KOH are and are greatly superior to either KOH or Ni alone. (4) The gasification rate of both graphite and char in the presence of KOH/NiO appears to be independent of steam partial pressure in the range tested. (5) To determine whether methane is a major primary product which is then decomposed by steam reforming, methane was added to the steam feed. The vast majority (95+%) of the added methane was recovered in the product, showing that steam reforming plays at most a minor role. However, in the presence of added methane the gasification rate declined. While the reasons for this are not yet clear, they must lie in a surface poisoning by some decomposition product of the small amounts of methane disappearance. Addition of hydrogen to the steam feed caused about a 25% decrease in the rate of gas production as did the addition of CO2 instead of hydrogen. (6) Addition of CO to the steam feed to KOH-NiO impregnated graphite resulted in a 25% increase in the rate of gasification. (7) Adsorption-desorption experiments on graphite using labelled CO, CO2 and H2O have been carried out. If CO is adsorbed at room temperature most of it is desorbed at relatively low temperature (450K). 12 figs.

Heinemann, H.

1985-09-01

335

Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF)  

SciTech Connect

The objective is to provide a test facility to support early commercialization of advanced fixed-bed coal gasification technology electric power generation applications. The proprietary CRS Sirrine Engineers, Inc. PyGas[trademark] staged gasifier has been selected as the initial gasifier to be developed under this program. The gasifier is expected to avoid agglomeration when used on caking coals. It is also being designed to crack tar vapors and ammonia, and to provide an environment in which volatilized alkali may condense onto aluminosilicates in the coal ash thereby minimizing their exiting with the hot raw coal gas and passing through the system to the gas turbine. The management plan calls for a three phased program. The initial phase (Phase 1), includes the CRS Sinine Engineers, Inc. proprietary gasification invention called PyGas[trademark], necessary coal and limestone receiving/storage/reclaim systems to allow closely metered coal and limestone to be fed into the gasifier for testing. The coal gas is subsequently piped to and combusted in an existing burner of the Monongahela Power Fort Martin Generating Station Unit No. 2. Continuous gasification process steam is generated by a small GPIF packaged boiler using light oil fuel at startup, and by switching from light oil to coal gas after startup. The major peripheral equipment such as foundations, process water system, ash handling, ash storage silo, emergency vent pipe, building, lavatory, electrical interconnect, control room, provisions for Phases II III, and control system are all included in Phase I. A future hot gas cleanup unit conceptualized to be a zinc ferrite based fluidized bed process constitutes the following phase (Phase H). The final phase (Phase III) contemplates the addition of a combustion turbine and generator set sized to accommodate the parasitic load of the entire system.

Sadowski, R.S.; Brooks, K.S.; Skinner, W.H.; Brown, M.J.

1992-01-01

336

Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF)  

SciTech Connect

The objective is to provide a test facility to support early commercialization of advanced fixed-bed coal gasification technology electric power generation applications. The proprietary CRS Sirrine Engineers, Inc. PyGas{trademark} staged gasifier has been selected as the initial gasifier to be developed under this program. The gasifier is expected to avoid agglomeration when used on caking coals. It is also being designed to crack tar vapors and ammonia, and to provide an environment in which volatilized alkali may condense onto aluminosilicates in the coal ash thereby minimizing their exiting with the hot raw coal gas and passing through the system to the gas turbine. The management plan calls for a three phased program. The initial phase (Phase 1), includes the CRS Sinine Engineers, Inc. proprietary gasification invention called PyGas{trademark}, necessary coal and limestone receiving/storage/reclaim systems to allow closely metered coal and limestone to be fed into the gasifier for testing. The coal gas is subsequently piped to and combusted in an existing burner of the Monongahela Power Fort Martin Generating Station Unit No. 2. Continuous gasification process steam is generated by a small GPIF packaged boiler using light oil fuel at startup, and by switching from light oil to coal gas after startup. The major peripheral equipment such as foundations, process water system, ash handling, ash storage silo, emergency vent pipe, building, lavatory, electrical interconnect, control room, provisions for Phases II & III, and control system are all included in Phase I. A future hot gas cleanup unit conceptualized to be a zinc ferrite based fluidized bed process constitutes the following phase (Phase H). The final phase (Phase III) contemplates the addition of a combustion turbine and generator set sized to accommodate the parasitic load of the entire system.

Sadowski, R.S.; Brooks, K.S.; Skinner, W.H.; Brown, M.J.

1992-11-01

337

Potential of underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

The results of underground coal gasification tests carried out in the US and sponsored by the Federal Government during the past 10 years are shown. The author considers that the technology shows great promise. Small-scale UCG plants would allow close matching of plant size to local market need, with lower economic risks. The use of otherwise unusable coals could quadruple US coal reserves. Due to the modular nature of UCG, only the 10 - 20 million dollars necessary for the first module of the UCG portion of a plant is at high risk, making it a viable option where development capital is limited.

Burwell, E.L.

1984-02-01

338

ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project  

SciTech Connect

ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Shell Mining Company, is constructing a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by Shell and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin Coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). The products, as alternative fuels sources, are expected to significantly reduce current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation, thereby reducing pollutants causing acid rain.

Not Available

1992-02-01

339

Catalytic steam gasification of carbon  

SciTech Connect

Unsupported carbide powders with high specific surface area, namely {alpha}-WC (35 m{sup 2}/g, hexagonal), {beta}-WC{sub 0.61} (100 m{sup 2}/g, cubic face centered) and {beta}-WC{sub 0.5} (15 m{sup 2}/g, hexagonal) have been prepared. The key element in this preparation is the successful removal of surface polymeric carbon by careful gasification to methane by means of dihydrogen. These tungsten carbide powders have been used in catalytic reactions of oxidation of H{sub 2} and hydrogenolysis of alkanes, such as butane, hexane, and neopentane.

Boudart, M.

1990-12-31

340

Study of the treatability of wastewater from a coal gasification plant. Supplementary report, July 15-December 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect

Three methods of treating coal gasification plant waste water have been studied experimentally: biological reaction kinetics of the activated sludge process; chemical precipitation with ferric chloride at the optimum pH value (alum and polymers were less effective); and adsorption in columns of granules of activated carbon. Detailed results of all three experiments are given. (LTN)

Iglar, A.F.

1980-01-01

341

Gasification Product Improvement Facility status  

SciTech Connect

Department of Energy (DOE) has awarded a two phase contract for the construction of a Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) to develop an innovative air blown, dry bottom, pressurized fixed bed gasifier based on the patented PyGas{trademark} fixed bed process. The objective of the project is to provide a test site to support early commercialization of the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology. The GPIF will be capable of processing run of mine high swelling coals that comprise 87% of all Eastern US coals. This program will generate useful scale up data that will be utilized to develop commercial size designs. The project will also support the development of a hot gas clean up subsystem and the gasifier infrastructure consisting of controls, special instrumentation and interconnects with Allegheny Power System`s host power plant, Fort Martin Station in Maidesville, West Virginia. This paper presents the status of the GPIF project. It describes the work performed in the past year on the PyGas process development, gasifier design, plant engineering/layout, tie in with the existing Fort Martin facility, procurement, site permitting and project scheduling.

Carson, R.D.; Dixit, V.B.; Sadowski, R.S.; Thamaraichelvan, P.; Culberson, H.

1995-11-01

342

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 10. Gasification of Benton lignite  

SciTech Connect

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the tenth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Benton lignite. The period of gasification test was November 1-8, 1983. 16 refs., 22 figs., 19 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-05-01

343

EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the technoeconomic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the United States to produce ultra

2003-01-01

344

EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the United States to produce ultra

John W. Rich

2003-01-01

345

EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification, SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the US Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation

2001-01-01

346

Reactions of different food classes during subcritical water gasification for hydrogen gas production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reactions of different food classes during alkaline subcritical water gasification have been investigated with a view on hydrogen gas production. Experiments were conducted with sub-stoichiometric amounts of H2O2 for partial oxidation. NaOH was added to aid sample decomposition, reduce char\\/tar formation and to promote water-gas shift reaction. In general, hydrogen gas production depended on the class of food wastes

Rattana Muangrat; Jude A. Onwudili; Paul T. Williams

347

Organic waste converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

An airtight chamber insulated with an anti-corrosive coating allows the control of the heat and moisture content of organic wastes for rapid aerobic decomposition by naturally occurring thermal bacteria. Air is drawn into the chamber, over and through the organic waste and carbonaceous filler materials and is exhausted through an air scrubber. Agitation of the waste mixture is by means

Schlichting

1981-01-01

348

Biomethanation of a mixture of salty cheese whey and poultry waste or cattle dung. A study of effect of temperature and retention time.  

PubMed

This paper describes the results of a study aimed at improving the efficiency of anaerobic digestion of salty cheese whey in combination with poultry waste or cattle dung. Best results were obtained when salty cheese whey was mixed with poultry waste in the ratio of 7:3, or cattle dung in the ration of 1:1, both on dry weight basis giving maximum gas production of 1.2 L/L of digester/d with enriched methane content of 64% and 1.3 L/L of digester/d having methane content of 63% respectively. Various conditions such as temperature and retention time have been optimized for maximum process performance. PMID:8856943

Patel, C; Madamwar, D

1996-08-01

349

Biomethanation of a mixture of salty cheese whey and poultry waste or cattle dung - a study of effect of temperature and retention time  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the results of a study aimed at improving the efficiency of anaerobic digestion of salty cheese whey in combination with poultry waste or cattle dung. Best results were obtained when salty cheese whey was mixed with poultry waste in the ratio of 7:3, or cattle dung in the ratio of 1:1, both on dry weight basis giving maximum gas production of 1.2 L/L of digester/d with enriched methane content of 64% and 1.3 L/L of digester/d having methane content of 63% respectively. Various conditions such as temperature and retention time have been optimized for maximum process performance. 16 refs., 3 figs.

Patel, C.; Madamwar, D. [Sardar Patel Univ., Gujarat (India)

1996-08-01

350

10 things to know about coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

Eastman Gasification Services Company was the first company to commercialise a coal gasification facility in the United States in 1983. Based on many years experience, David Denton, its business development director, lists ten features he believes everyone should know about coal gasification. These include its usefulness as a technology for increasing the US's energy security, being the cleanest coal-based technology, using less water than other coal-based technology, being able to remove high levels of volatile mercury from its production gas, providing a low-cost approach for carbon dioxide capture, and having potential to produce many chemicals and hydrogen. Costs of electricity production from integrated gasification combined cycle technology are now approaching those of other coal-based technologies. 1 fig.

NONE

2005-07-01

351

Catalytic fluid coking and gasification process  

SciTech Connect

An integrated catalytic fluid coking and gasification process is provided in which a portion of the coke produced in the coker is steam gasified to produce a hydrogen-containing gas and a catalytic partially gasified coke. Subsequently, a portion of the catalytic partially gasified coke is burned to provide heated partially gasified coke which is recycled to the gasification zone. A portion of the catalytic partially gasified coke is passed from the gasification zone to the coker to contact the coker vapor phase product comprising normally liquid hydrocarbons and to crack at least a portion of the normally liquid hydrocarbons. Optionally, solid fines recovered from the gaseous effluent of the gasification zone may be recycled to the carbonaceous chargestock of the coker.

Metrailer, W.J.

1982-04-20

352

Modeling Integrated Biomass Gasification Business Concepts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Biomass gasification is an approach to producing energy and/or biofuels that could be integrated into existing forest product production facilities, particularly at pulp mills. Existing process heat and power loads tend to favor integration at existing pu...

E. M. Bilek M. A. Dietenberger P. J. Ince

2011-01-01

353

Underground Coal Gasification Technology in the USSR.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over forty years of available, translated Soviet literature on the technology of underground gasification of coal has been reviewed. During that period a large program was undertaken estimated cumulatively at over $2 billion U.S. dollars equivalent. Many ...

J. L. Dossey

1976-01-01

354

Hydromechanical behaviour of bentonite pellet mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granular mixtures made of high-density pellets of bentonite are being evaluated as an alternative buffer material for waste isolation. Ease of handling is an often-mentioned advantage. The paper described the experimental program performed to characterize the hydro-mechanical behaviour of compacted pellet’s mixtures used in the engineered barrier (EB) experiment.The material tested in the laboratory was based in the pellet’s mixtures

C. Hoffmann; E. E. Alonso; E. Romero

2007-01-01

355

Tank Farm Waste Transfer Compatibility Program  

SciTech Connect

The compatibility program described in this document formalizes the process for determining waste compatibility. Goal is to ensure that sufficient controls are in place to prevent the formation of incompatible mixtures during future operations, could possibly result in an unreviewed safety question. Waste transfer decision rules are presented as a process for assessing compatibility of wastes or waste mixtures. The process involves characterizing the waste comparing waste characteristics with the criteria, resolving potential incompatibilities, and documenting the process.

Fowler, K.D.

1995-04-24

356

Experimental studies on producer gas generation from wood waste in a downdraft biomass gasifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process of conversion of solid carbonaceous fuel into combustible gas by partial combustion is known as gasification. The resulting gas, known as producer gas, is more versatile in its use than the original solid biomass. In the present study, a downdraft biomass gasifier is used to carry out the gasification experiments with the waste generated while making furniture in

Pratik N. Sheth; B. V. Babu

2009-01-01

357

Potential of underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

A rapidly growing interest in underground coal gasification (UCG), in the U.S. and several other countries, has developed in the past few years. This has been accompanied by in-depth evaluations of the potential of UCG, its technology, economics, risks, and rewards by a number of highly qualified engineering groups. Several common findings seem to emerge from each study as: sufficient technological feasibility has been proved to warrant further study; if long-term operation can be made to bear out the promise shown in field tests, the process will be economically competitive; actual development could greatly expand existing coal reserves; and significant potential advantages exist which made UCG a leading candidate for synfuels development.

Burwell, E.L.

1984-02-01

358

Coal gasification for electric power generation.  

PubMed

The electric utility industry is being severely affected by rapidly escalating gas and oil prices, restrictive environmental and licensing regulations, and an extremely tight money market. Integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants have the potential to be economically competitive with present commercial coal-fired power plants while satisfying stringent emission control requirements. The current status of gasification technology is discussed and the critical importance of the 100-megawatt Cool Water IGCC demonstration program is emphasized. PMID:17788466

Spencer, D F; Gluckman, M J; Alpert, S B

1982-03-26

359

Coal gasification and the Phenosolvan process  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a number of commercial coal gasification projects under design in the USA. By 1976-77, two such projects may be coming onstream in New Mexico, each producing 250 million standard cubic feet per day of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG). The gasification of coal produces large amounts of by-product phenol. The New Mexico projects will each involve about 25,000 tons

Beychok

1974-01-01

360

Investigation of plasma-aided bituminous coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents thermodynamic and kinetic modeling of plasma-aided bituminous coal gasification. Distributions of concentrations, temperatures, and velocities of the gasification products along the gasifier are calculated. Carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and heat engineering characteristics of synthesis gas at the outlet of the gasifier are determined at plasma air/steam and oxygen/steam gasification of Powder River Basin bituminous coal. Numerical simulation showed that the plasma oxygen/steam gasification of coal is a more preferable process in comparison with the plasma air/steam coal gasification. On the numerical experiments, a plasma vortex fuel reformer is designed.

Matveev, I.B.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Applied Plasma Technology, Mclean, VA (United States)

2009-04-15

361

Gasification slag rheology in titanium-rich, iron and calcium-aluminosilicate glasses  

SciTech Connect

The Texaco Gasification Process (TGP) employs a high temperature, high pressure stagging gasifier to produce synthesis gas for power, hydrogen, and chemicals. During gasification most of the ash collects on the refractory wall to form a molten glass or slag. The viscosity of the slag plays a key role in determining operating conditions. Insufficient operating temperatures can cause erratic slag flow from the unit, while excessive operating temperatures can result in rapid refractory wear. Waste streams that are high in titanium (e.g. plastics and tires where TiO{sub 2} is used as a pigment) are being tested for gasification by Texaco. Texaco has developed a process to liquify both used plastics and tires with heated oil to produce a pumpable feed referred to as plastic-oil or tire-oil. Other major elements found with the titanium in these feeds include calcium, aluminum, iron, silicon, and zinc. The zinc sublimes during gasification, leaving behind a titanium-rich calcium-aluminosilicate glass with various amounts of iron.

Brooker, D.D.; Groen, J.C. [Texaco, Inc., Beacon, NY (United States); Oh, M.S. [Hongik Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1996-12-31

362

Gasification of refuse derived fuel in a fixed bed reactor for syngas production  

SciTech Connect

Steam gasification of two different refuse derived fuels (RDFs), differing slightly in composition as well as thermal stability, was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor at atmospheric pressure. The proximate and ultimate analyses reveal that carbon and hydrogen are the major components in RDFs. The thermal analysis indicates the presence of cellulose and plastic based materials in RDFs. H{sub 2} and CO are found to be the major products, along with CO{sub 2} and hydrocarbons resulting from gasification of RDFs. The effect of gasification temperature on H{sub 2} and CO selectivities was studied, and the optimum temperature for better H{sub 2} and CO selectivity was determined to be 725 deg. C. The calorific value of product gas produced at lower gasification temperature is significantly higher than that of gas produced at higher process temperature. Also, the composition of RDF plays an important role in distribution of products gas. The RDF with more C and H content is found to produce more amounts of CO and H{sub 2} under similar experimental conditions. The steam/waste ratio showed a notable effect on the selectivity of syngas as well as calorific value of the resulting product gas. The flow rate of carrier gas did not show any significant effect on products yield or their distribution.

Dalai, Ajay K. [Catalysis and Chemical Reaction Engineering Laboratories, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5A9 (Canada)], E-mail: ajay.dalai@usask.ca; Batta, Nishant [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5A9 (Canada); Eswaramoorthi, I. [Catalysis and Chemical Reaction Engineering Laboratories, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5A9 (Canada); Schoenau, Greg J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5A9 (Canada)

2009-01-15

363

The genotoxic hazards of domestic wastes in surface waters 1 Summary of material presented at the workshop Sources, Effects and Potential Hazards of Genotoxic Complex Mixtures in the Environment held at the annual meeting of the Environmental Mutagen Society, April 20, 1997, Minneapolis, MN. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the noteworthy genotoxic potency of many industrial wastewaters, the genotoxic hazard posed to the downstream ecosystem and its associated biota will be determined by genotoxic loading. Municipal wastewaters, although ranking low in potency, can achieve loading values that are several orders of magnitude greater than those of most industries. Although these wastewaters are generally mixtures of wastes from several

Paul A. White; Joseph B. Rasmussen

1998-01-01

364

Assessment of black liquor gasification in supercritical water.  

PubMed

Supercritical water gasification of black liquor (waste pulping chemicals) has been examined. The aim was to evaluate the feasibility of using this technique to convert such bio-based waste to value added fuel products, as well as recovery of pulping materials. Supercritical gasification may improve overall process efficiency by eliminating the energy intensive evaporation step necessary in conventional process and product gas obtained at high pressure may be ready for utilization without any compression requirement. Appropriate operating parameters, including pressure, temperature, feed concentration, and reaction time, which would yield the highest conversion and energy efficiency were determined. Reaction was performed in a quartz capillary heated in a fluidized bed reactor. Results indicated that pressure between 220 and 400 atm has insignificant influence on the gas products and extent of carbon conversion. Increasing temperature and residence time between 375-650 degrees C and 5-120 s resulted in greater gas production, overall carbon conversion, and energy efficiency. Maximum conversion to H(2), CO, CH(4), and C(2)H(X) was achieved at the highest temperature and longest residence time tested showing an overall carbon conversion of 84.8%, gas energy content of 9.4 MJ/m(3) and energy conversion ratio of 1.2. Though higher carbon conversion and energy conversion ratio were obtained with more dilute liquor, energy content was lower than for those with higher solid contents. Due to anticipated complex design and high initial investment cost of this operation, further studies on overall feasibility should be carried out in order to identify the optimum operating window for this novel process. PMID:18762414

Sricharoenchaikul, V

2008-08-31

365

Fundamental studies of catalytic gasification: Quarterly report, January 1, 1987-March 31, 1987  

SciTech Connect

The gasification of graphite by H/sub 2/O vapor, wet H/sub 2/ and wet O/sub 2/, catalyzed by a Ni/K mixture has been studied using controlled atmosphere electron microscopy (CAEM). In H/sub 2/O vapor the carbon consumption, between 550 and 1100 C, is catalyzed by an edge recession mode of attack in the (1120) direction, with no sign of deactivation. In wet H/sub 2/ both channeling and edge recession occur simultaneously. The activation energy obtained was equal to 30 +- 2 Kcal/mol. The catalyst deactivates above 1000 C, but can be regenerated by treating the sample in H/sub 2/O vapor at 600 C. In wet O/sub 2/, graphite is also gasified by edge recession, but no preferred direction was observed. The catalyst maintains its activity up to 1000 C, and an activation energy of 25 +- 2 Kcal/mol was obtained. These results show that the catalytic properties of the Ni/K mixture are superior to those of Ni and K alone due to a cooperative effect between the components. The kinetic properties of a catalyst derived from a mixture of KOH and Ni(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ for steam gasification of three chars are presented. H/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/ and small amounts of CO and CH/sub 4/ are the reaction products. The product distribution is controlled by the activation energies for formation of the gases. The activation energies for H/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/ formation are 29 and 36 Kcal/mol respectively. The catalyst derived from the KOH/Ni(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ mixture has better catalytic properties, due to a cooperative effect between nickel and potassium, than catalyst derived by loading the components alone. The mixture has a higher activity and lower activation energies for H/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/ production than KOH alone, and higher resistance to deactivation than Ni(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ alone. Since char and graphite gasification have the same activation energies, it is concluded that there is a common mechanism for their gasification catalyzed by the KOH/Ni(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ mixture. 31 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

Heinemann, H.

1987-03-01

366

Char Consumption in the Underground Gasification of Eastern Bituminous Coal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of small-scale laboratory gasification experiments has been conducted to better understand the gasification process of Eastern bituminous coal constrained in an axisymmetric borehole geometry. It is clear that conditions and char consumption rate...

R. D. Skocypec D. W. Cook B. P. Engler

1986-01-01

367

Conceptual design report -- Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problems heretofore with coal gasification and IGCC concepts have been their high cost and historical poor performance of fixed-bed gasifiers, particularly on caking coals. The Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) project is being develope...

R. S. Sadowski W. H. Skinner L. S. House R. R. Duck R. A. Lisauskas

1994-01-01

368

ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARD RANKINGS OF POLLUTANTS GENERATED IN COAL GASIFICATION PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation and ranking of environmental hazards associated with coal gasification. Applied chemical analytical data were provided by (1) research with an experimental gasifier, and (2) sampling of four commercial gasification processes. Gas, liquid,...

369

Biomass Reactivity in Gasification by the Hynol Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper discusses the use of a thermobalance reactor to evaluate the reactivity of popular wood in gasification under the operating conditions specific for the Hynol process (30 atm and 800 C). The gasification involved a rapid devolization and pyrolysi...

Y. Dong R. H. Borgwardt

1995-01-01

370

Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant Public Design Report. Volume I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Public Design Report provides, in a single document, available nonproprietary design information for the Great Plains Gasification Project, the first commercial coal gasification facility in the United States. In addition to the design aspects, the h...

F. I. Honea H. M. Ness R. A. Lang R. J. Belt W. R. Miller

1985-01-01

371

Mathematical modelling of some chemical and physical processes in underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

Underground coal gasification normally involves two vertical wells which must be linked by a channel having low resistance to gas flow. There are several ways of establishing such linkage, but all leave a relatively open horizontal hole with a diameter on the order of a meter. To increase our understanding of the chemical and physical processes governing underground coal gasification LLNL has been conducting laboratory scale experiments accompanied by mathematical modelling. Blocks of selected coal types are cut to fit 55 gallon oil drums and sealed in place with plaster. A 1 cm. diameter hole is drilled the length of the block and plumbing attached to provide a flow of air or oxygen/steam mixture. After an instrumented burn the block is sawed open to examine the cavity. Mathematical modelling has been directed towards predicting the cavity shape. This paper describes some sub-models and examines their impact on predicted cavity shapes.

Creighton, J. R.

1981-08-01

372

Steady-state model for estimating gas production from underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

A pseudo-one-dimensional channel model has been developed to estimate gas production from underground coal gasification. The model incorporates a zero-dimensional steady-state cavity growth submodel and models mass transfer from the bulk gas to the coal wall using a correlation for natural convection. Simulations with the model reveal that the gas calorific value is sensitive to coal reactivity and the exposed reactive surface area per unit volume in the channel. A comparison of model results with several small-scale field trials conducted at Centralia in the U.S.A. show that the model can make good predictions of the gas production and composition under a range of different operating conditions, including operation with air and steam/oxygen mixtures. Further work is required to determine whether the model formulation is also suitable for simulating large-scale underground coal gasification field trials.

Greg Perkins; Veena Sahajwalla [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Materials Science and Engineering

2008-11-15

373

ADVANCED GASIFICATION-BASED FUEL CONVERSION AND ELECTRIC ENERGY PRODUCTION SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Boise Paper Solutions and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) are cooperating to develop, demonstrate and place in continuous operation an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system suitable for near-term commercial deployment in the Forest Products Industry. The system will be used in conjunction with, rather than in place of, existing wood waste fired boilers and flue gas cleanup systems. The novel system will include three advanced technological components based on GTI's RENUGAS{reg_sign} and three-stage stoker combustion technologies, and a gas turbine-based power generation concept developed in DOE's High Performance Power System (HIPPS) program. The system has, as its objective, to avoid the major hurdles of high-pressure gasification, i.e., high-pressure fuel feeding and ash removal, and hot gas cleaning that are typical for conventional IGCC power generation. It aims to also minimize capital intensity and technology risks. The system is intended to meet the immediate needs of the forest products industry for highly efficient and environmentally friendly electricity and steam generation systems utilizing existing wood waste as fuel resources. The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate the commercial applicability of an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system at Boise Paper Solutions' pulp and paper mill located at DeRidder, Louisiana.

Joseph Rabovitser; Bruce Bryan

2002-10-01

374

Biomass gasification: yesterday, today, and tomorrow  

SciTech Connect

The solid fuels, biomass and coal, can be converted by gasification into clean gaseous fuels that are easier to distribute and required for many technical processes. The simplest method of conversion is air gasification, producing a low-energy gas well suited for direct-heat or engine applications but unsuitable for pipeline use. Oxygen gasification produces a medium-energy gas composed primarily of CO and H/sub 2/, which can be used industrial pipelines for operation of turbines for power and heat cogeneration or for chemical synthesis of methanol or ammonia. Steam or hydrogen gasification are also possible but external heat and energy sources are required. Slow pyrolysis produces a medium-energy gas, charcoal, and oil. Gases resulting from fast pyrolysis contain a high concentration of olefins (primarily ethylene), which are quite useful for synthesis of fuels or chemicals. This paper presents some of the most pertinent material from the three-volume SERI report, A Survey of Biomass Gasification.

Reed, T.B.

1980-03-01

375

Coal gasification using solar energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An economic evaluation of conventional and solar thermal coal gasification processes is presented, together with laboratory bench scale tests of a solar carbonization unit. The solar design consists of a heliostat field, a central tower receiver, a gasifier, and a recirculation loop. The synthetic gas is produced in the gasifier, with part of the gas upgraded to CH4 and another redirected through the receiver with steam to form CO and H2. Carbonaceous fuels are burned whenever sunlight is not available. Comparisons are made for costs of Lurgi, Bi-gas, Hygas, CO2 Acceptor, and Peat Gas processes and hybrid units for each. Solar thermal systems are projected to become economical with 350 MWt output and production of 1,420,000 cu m of gas per day. The laboratory bench scale unit was tested with Montana rosebud coal to derive a heat balance assessment and analyse the product gas. Successful heat transfer through a carrier gas was demonstrated, with most of the energy being stored in the product gas.

Mathur, V. K.; Breault, R. W.; Lakshmanan, S.

376

Underground coal gasification test successful  

SciTech Connect

A recently completed underground coal gasification (UCG) test at Tennessee Colony, Texas, has been a success. Using technology licensed from the Soviet Union, the Texas Utilities Co. is exploring the potential of using the vast Texas lignite deposits for power generation. The research has included demonstration of the ability to make sequential well linkings while producing gas in 2 parallel channels, to determine the operational effects of local groundwater infiltration, and to assess environmental effects, particularly in the groundwater conducted in a lignite seam varying between 7.5 and 9 ft thick, at a nominal depth of 270 ft. Ten wells were linked by a reverse burn. The burn was initially air-blown, then centered on steam/oxygen oxidizing gas blown into the burn. The basic finding is that it is possible to conduct a reverse burn in a thin, wet lignite seam, and that water infiltration plays an important role. Researchers estimate that a low-Btu gas (85 to 100 Btu/SCF) can be produced from Texas lignite at a cost less than the current deregulated market price for heat from natural gas.

Not Available

1980-04-21

377

Underground Coal Gasification Program plan  

SciTech Connect

The Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) Program is directed toward the development of advanced technologies for recovering gas from large, currently unrecoverable coal resources. The overall goal of the UCG Program is to foster development within the private sector of an environmentally acceptable UCG industry whose products can compete with other electric utility fuels and as a chemical feedstock for liquid fuel production by the late 1990s. This goal includes appropriate environmental research to establish the information base required to identify and cost effectively mitigate potential problems. The objective of this environmental research is to characterize potential impacts and the performance of new and developmental systems in controlling these impacts so that more efficient solutions to environmental concerns are available on a schedule consistent with the development of advanced technology. To achieve this goal, a series of interrelated technology development steps must take place, some sponsored by DOE, some by other government agencies, and some by other governments and/or the private sector. These include basic and applied research and development, proof-of-concept activities, first-of-a-kind field tests, and associated commercial scale activity. This publication presents: (1) background and program goal; (2) technology description; (3) technology status and research needs; (4) program strategy; and (5) program management. 3 figs.

Not Available

1986-03-01

378

Dual Fluidized Bed Biomass Gasification  

SciTech Connect

The dual fluidized bed reactor is a recirculating system in which one half of the unit operates as a steam pyrolysis device for biomass. The pyrolysis occurs by introducing biomass and steam to a hot fluidized bed of inert material such as coarse sand. Syngas is produced during the pyrolysis and exits the top of the reactor with the steam. A crossover arm, fed by gravity, moves sand and char from the pyrolyzer to the second fluidized bed. This sand bed uses blown air to combust the char. The exit stream from this side of the reactor is carbon dioxide, water and ash. There is a second gravity fed crossover arm to return sand to the pyrolysis side. The recirculating action of the sand and the char is the key to the operation of the dual fluidized bed reactor. The objective of the project was to design and construct a dual fluidized bed prototype reactor from literature information and in discussion with established experts in the field. That would be appropriate in scale and operation to measure the relative performance of the gasification of biomass and low ranked coals to produce a high quality synthesis gas with no dilution from nitrogen or combustion products.

None

2005-09-30

379

Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energyâ??s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) is exploring affordable technologies and processes to convert domestic coal and biomass resources to high-quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This interest is primarily motivated by the need to increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Gasification technologies represent clean, flexible and efficient conversion pathways to utilize coal and biomass resources. Substantial experience and knowledge had been developed worldwide on gasification of either coal or biomass. However, reliable data on effects of blending various biomass fuels with coal during gasification process and resulting syngas composition are lacking. In this project, GE Global Research performed a complete characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products that result from the co-gasification of coal/biomass mixtures. This work was performed using a bench-scale gasifier (BSG) and a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier (EFG). This project focused on comprehensive characterization of the products from gasifying coal/biomass mixtures in a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. Results from this project provide guidance on appropriate gas clean-up systems and optimization of operating parameters needed to develop and commercialize gasification technologies. GEâ??s bench-scale test facility provided the bulk of high-fidelity quantitative data under temperature, heating rate, and residence time conditions closely matching those of commercial oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifiers. Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale test facility provided focused high temperature and pressure tests at entrained flow gasifier conditions. Accurate matching of syngas time-temperature history during cooling ensured that complex species interactions including homogeneous and heterogeneous processes such as particle nucleation, coagulation, surface condensation, and gas-phase reactions were properly reproduced and lead to representative syngas composition at the syngas cooler outlet. The experimental work leveraged other ongoing GE R&D efforts such as biomass gasification and dry feeding systems projects. Experimental data obtained under this project were used to provide guidance on the appropriate clean-up system(s) and operating parameters to coal and biomass combinations beyond those evaluated under this project.

Shawn Maghzi; Ramanathan Subramanian; George Rizeq; Surinder Singh; John McDermott; Boris Eiteneer; David Ladd; Arturo Vazquez; Denise Anderson; Noel Bates

2011-09-30

380

Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy‘s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) is exploring affordable technologies and processes to convert domestic coal and biomass resources to high-quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This interest is primarily motivated by the need to increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Gasification technologies represent clean, flexible and efficient conversion pathways to utilize coal and biomass resources. Substantial experience and knowledge had been developed worldwide on gasification of either coal or biomass. However, reliable data on effects of blending various biomass fuels with coal during gasification process and resulting syngas composition are lacking. In this project, GE Global Research performed a complete characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products that result from the co-gasification of coal/biomass mixtures. This work was performed using a bench-scale gasifier (BSG) and a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier (EFG). This project focused on comprehensive characterization of the products from gasifying coal/biomass mixtures in a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. Results from this project provide guidance on appropriate gas clean-up systems and optimization of operating parameters needed to develop and commercialize gasification technologies. GE‘s bench-scale test facility provided the bulk of high-fidelity quantitative data under temperature, heating rate, and residence time conditions closely matching those of commercial oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifiers. Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale test facility provided focused high temperature and pressure tests at entrained flow gasifier conditions. Accurate matching of syngas time-temperature history during cooling ensured that complex species interactions including homogeneous and heterogeneous processes such as particle nucleation, coagulation, surface condensation, and gas-phase reactions were properly reproduced and lead to representative syngas composition at the syngas cooler outlet. The experimental work leveraged other ongoing GE R&D efforts such as biomass gasification and dry feeding systems projects. Experimental data obtained under this project were used to provide guidance on the appropriate clean-up system(s) and operating parameters to coal and biomass combinations beyond those evaluated under this project.

Maghzi, Shawn; Subramanian, Ramanathan; Rizeq, George; Singh, Surinder; McDermott, John; Eiteneer, Boris; Ladd, David; Vazquez, Arturo; Anderson, Denise; Bates, Noel

2011-09-30

381

Gasification of fuels in molten sodium phosphate. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research project investigated the kinetics of steam and oxygen gasification of methane, petroleum coke and residual oil in molten sodium phosphate. The gasification of solid fuels such as petroleum coke in molten sodium phosphate is subject to two opposing effects: (i) the gasification rate is catalytically enhanced by the molten salt by a factor of two to five and

Gavalas

1981-01-01

382

Texaco Coal Gasification Wastewater Handling and Treatment Pilot Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radian was contracted by the Electric Power Research Institute to collect and analyze water, sludge, and vapor samples associated with the pilot study of the Texaco coal gasification wastewater process. The pilot plant tests, processing grey water produced from the gasification of SUFCO coal, were conducted at the Cool Water Coal Gasification Program (CWCGP) facility during the first four months

Dille

1990-01-01

383

A Review of Fixed Bed Gasification Systems for Biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gasification of biomass into useful fuel enhances its potential as a renewable energy resource. The fixed bed gasification systems are classified as updraft, Imbert downdraft, throatless downdraft, crossdraft and two stage gasifiers. Updraft gasifiers are suitable for gasification of biomass containing high ash (up to 15 %) and high moisture content (up to 50 %) and generate producer gas

Sangeeta Chopra; Anil Kr Jain

384

Research needs for coal gasification and coal liquefaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of coal-gasification and coal-liquefaction technologies is discussed. Consideration is given to applications of coal-gasification technologies, the principal coal-gasification systems, and process-research recommendations. Processing steps in direct and indirect coal liquefaction are outlined, with emphasis placed on past, current, and projected unit sizes of direct coal-liquefaction plants.

Penner, S. S.; Alpert, S. B.; Bendanillo, V.; Clardy, J.; Furlong, L. E.; Leder, F.; Lees, L.; Reichl, E.; Ross, J.; Sieg, R. P.

1980-11-01

385

Underground coal gasification site selection and characterization in Washington State and gasification test designs  

SciTech Connect

A program of investigation has been carried out to identify and characterize a site in Washington state suitable for underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments and possible commercial development. A site in the Tono Basin of the Centralia-Chehalis district containing an estimated 5 x 10/sup 10/ kg of subbituminous coal in two deeply buried seams (the Lower Thompson and the Big Dirty) was found that may be suitable for underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments and possible commercial development. Eight exploratory boreholes and two test wells were drilled to provide the primary subsurface geologic and hydrologic information about the site. A series of surface gasification tests using large blocks of coal cut free of the Big Dirty seam in mine exposures will be conducted to establish a preliminary set of in situ operational parameters-air injection pressures, flow rates, and coal consumption rates. If the site is found suitable, the surface gasification tests will be followed by two deep underground gasification experiments - one employing borehole linking and the other reverse combustion-linking. The proposed large coal block surface gasification tests and the UCG experiments will provide a basis for decisions concerning the nature of future gasification efforts in the Tono Basin.

Stone, R.; Hill, R.W.

1980-09-10

386

A low cost production of hydrogen from carbonaceous wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of gasifying carbonaceous materials such as coal, shredded waste tire or waste oil into syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas), and an apparatus therefore are presented. The method comprises the steps of supplying syngas and oxygen gas into syngas burners of the gasification reactor to produce steam and carbon dioxide gas, which in turn react with organic materials

H. Y Kim

2003-01-01

387

CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF LEACHATES FROM COAL SOLID WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of the chemical and mineralogical characterization of coal solid wastes. The wastes included three Lurgi gasification ashes, mineral residues from the SRC-1 and H-Coal liquefaction processes, two chars, two coal-cleaning residues, and a fly-ash-and-water-...

388

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 14. Gasification of Kemmerer subbituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) group. This report is the fourteen volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Kemmerer subbituminous coal, from August 11, 1984 to August 15, 1984. 4 refs., 20 figs., 13 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-05-01

389

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 13. Gasification of Blind Canyon bituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the thirteenth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Blind Canyon bituminous coal, from July 31, 1984 to August 11, 1984. 6 refs., 22 figs., 20 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-05-01

390

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 15. Gasification of ''fresh'' Rosebud subbituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and government agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) group. This report is the fifteenth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Rosebud subbituminous coal, from June 17, 1985 to June 24, 1985. 4 refs., 20 figs., 15 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-09-01

391

Energy implications of the thermal recovery of biodegradable municipal waste materials in the United Kingdom  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: > Energy balances were calculated for the thermal treatment of biodegradable wastes. > For wood and RDF, combustion in dedicated facilities was the best option. > For paper, garden and food wastes and mixed waste incineration was the best option. > For low moisture paper, gasification provided the optimum solution. - Abstract: Waste management policies and legislation in many developed countries call for a reduction in the quantity of biodegradable waste landfilled. Anaerobic digestion, combustion and gasification are options for managing biodegradable waste while generating renewable energy. However, very little research has been carried to establish the overall energy balance of the collection, preparation and energy recovery processes for different types of wastes. Without this information, it is impossible to determine the optimum method for managing a particular waste to recover renewable energy. In this study, energy balances were carried out for the thermal processing of food waste, garden waste, wood, waste paper and the non-recyclable fraction of municipal waste. For all of these wastes, combustion in dedicated facilities or incineration with the municipal waste stream was the most energy-advantageous option. However, we identified a lack of reliable information on the energy consumed in collecting individual wastes and preparing the wastes for thermal processing. There was also little reliable information on the performance and efficiency of anaerobic digestion and gasification facilities for waste.

Burnley, Stephen, E-mail: s.j.burnley@open.ac.uk [Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Phillips, Rhiannon, E-mail: rhiannon.jones@environment-agency.gov.uk [Strategy Unit, Welsh Assembly Government, Ty Cambria, 29 Newport Road, Cardiff CF24 0TP (United Kingdom); Coleman, Terry, E-mail: terry.coleman@erm.com [Environmental Resources Management Ltd, Eaton House, Wallbrook Court, North Hinksey Lane, Oxford OX2 0QS (United Kingdom); Rampling, Terence, E-mail: twa.rampling@hotmail.com [7 Thurlow Close, Old Town Stevenage, Herts SG1 4SD (United Kingdom)

2011-09-15

392

Analysis of the product gas from biomass gasification by means of laser spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of biomass and waste for decentralised combined heat and power production (CHP) requires highly efficient gasification processes. In the Technische Universität München (TUM), an innovative gasification technology has been developed. This allothermal gasifier is producing a hydrogen- rich, high-calorific gas, that can be further used in a microturbine or a fuel cell producing energy. For the operation of such a system, the online analysis of the composition of the product gas is of high importance, since the efficient working of the machines is linked with the gas quality. For this purpose an optical measurement system based on laser spectroscopy has been applied. This system can measure not only the basic components of the product gas (H2, CH4, CO, CO2, H2O), but it also gives information concerning the content of high hydrocarbons, the so-called tars, in the product gas.

Karellas, S.; Karl, J.

2007-09-01

393

Evaluation of cyclone gasifier performance for gasification of sugar cane residue—Part 2: gasification of cane trash  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Part 1 of this two-part paper, results from gasification of bagasse in a cyclone gasifier have been reported. In this paper results from gasification of cane trash in the same cyclone gasifier are presented. The cane trash powder is injected into the cyclone with air as transport medium. The gasification tests were made with two feeding rates, 39 and

Mohamed Gabra; Esbjörn Pettersson; Rainer Backman; Björn Kjellström

2001-01-01

394

Underground coal gasification using oxygen and steam  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-one field Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) tests have been carried out in the USA since 1973, along with related theoretical, laboratory and environmental programs. The product gas quality obtained from these field tests is comparable to that of surface gasification, using either air or steam and oxygen. Cost estimates are very favorable. The UCG process is found to be quite stable: experiments run continuously. Key features of the successful US program include: careful site selection, steam-oxygen gasification, extensive use of in-situ instrumentation, and theoretical modeling. Plans for commercial implementation of the technology are under development by four groups in the USA, all using steam/oxygen injections. 19 references, 13 figures, 6 tables.

Stephens, D.R.; Thorsness, C.B.; Hill, R.W.

1984-01-19

395

Large block experiments in underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

The process of in-situ coal gasification, while extremely simple in concept, is complicated in practice because, as the burn proceeds, the reacting volume is constantly changing geometry. In addition, the process takes place underground where it is extremely difficult to observe in detail. The five large block experiments described here were planned as a series of gasification experiments each of which was to be terminated at a fairly early stage of cavity development and examined by postburn excavation. The experiments included 1:1 and 3:1 steam:oxygen injection at two different flow-rate schedules, an air-injection burn, and a test of the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) system. The results indicate that the underground coal gasification process at this location is insensitive to changes in steam:oxygen ratios or flow rate over the range used. The burn cavities were all mostly filled with rubble and thermally altered coal.

Mill, R.W.; Thorsness, C.B.

1983-01-01

396

Large block experiments in underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

The process of in-situ coal gasification, while extremely simple in concept, is complicated in practice because, as the burn proceeds, the reacting volume is constantly changing geometry. In addition, the process takes place underground where it is extremely difficult to observe in detail. The five large block experiments described here were planned as a series of gasification experiments, each of which was to be terminated at a fairly early stage of cavity development and examined by postburn excavation. The experiments included 1:1 and 3:1 steam:oxygen injection at two different flow-rate schedules, an air-injection burn, and a test of the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) system. The results indicate that the underground coal gasification process at this location is insensitive to changes in steam:oxygen ratios or flow rate over the range used. The burn cavities were all mostly filled with rubble and thermally altered coal.

Hill, R.W.; Thorsness, C.B.

1983-01-01

397

ADVANCED GASIFICATION BY-PRODUCT UTILIZATION  

SciTech Connect

The results of laboratory investigations and supporting technical assessments conducted under DOE Subcontract No. DE-FG26-03NT41795 are reported for the period September 1, 2003 to August 31, 2004. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation, which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and The Pennsylvania State University Energy Institute. The worked described was part of a project entitled ''Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization''. This work involves the development of technologies for the separation and characterization of coal gasification slags from operating gasification units, activation of these materials to increase mercury and nitrogen oxide capture efficiency, assessment of these materials as sorbents for mercury and nitrogen oxides, and characterization of these materials for use as polymer fillers.

Rodney Andrews; Aurora Rubel; Jack Groppo; Ari Geertsema; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Zhe Lu; Harold Schobert

2005-04-01

398

Energy implications of the thermal recovery of biodegradable municipal waste materials in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste management policies and legislation in many developed countries call for a reduction in the quantity of biodegradable waste landfilled. Anaerobic digestion, combustion and gasification are options for managing biodegradable waste while generating renewable energy. However, very little research has been carried to establish the overall energy balance of the collection, preparation and energy recovery processes for different types of

Stephen Burnley; Rhiannon Phillips; Terry Coleman; Terence Rampling

2011-01-01

399

Thermodynamic equilibrium model and second law analysis of a downdraft waste gasifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management of municipal solid waste (MSW) and the current status of world energy resources crisis are important problems. Gasification is a kind of waste-to- energy conversion scheme that offers the most attractive solution to both waste disposal and energy problems. In this study, the thermodynamic equilibrium model based on equilibrium constant for predicting the composition of producer gas in

S. Jarungthammachote; A. Dutta

2007-01-01

400

A big leap forward for biomass gasification  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the McNeil Generating Station in Vermont, the first industrial scale-up of Battelle Columbus Laboratory`s biomass gasification process. The plant is part of a major US DOE initiative to demonstrate gasification of renewable biomass for electricity production. The project will integrate the Battelle high-through-put gasifier with a high-effiency gas turbine. The history of the project is described, along with an overview of the technology and the interest and resources available in Vermont that will help insure a successful project.

Moon, S.

1995-12-31

401

Coal-Gasification Modeling Workshop Proceedings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stage of development and availability of models and computer codes of gasifier and downstream process modeling efforts in surface gasification were summarized. Experimental efforts in gasification were reviewed. The applicability and availability of data for model testing and validation was determined. A responsive dialogue and feedback loop between modelers and experimentalists to improve the synergism between these complementary efforts was established and information concerning requirements to obtain gasifier and downstream process models and computer codes which are verified and validated over known operating ranges are provided.

Ghate, M.; Martin, J. W.

402

Geosphere in underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of underground coal gasification (UCG), the in-situ conversion of coal to natural gas, has been demonstrated through 28 tests in the US alone, mainly in low-rank coals, since the early 1970s. Further, UCG is currently entering the commercial phase in the US with a planned facility in Wyoming for the production of ammonia-urea from UCG-generated natural gas. Although the UCG process both affects and is affected by the natural setting, the majority of the test efforts have historically been focused on characterizing those aspects of the natural setting with the potential to affect the burn. With the advent of environmental legislation, this focus broadened to include the potential impacts of the process on the environment (e.g., subsidence, degradation of ground water quality). Experience to date has resulted in the growing recognition that consideration of the geosphere is fundamental to the design of efficient, economical, and environmentally acceptable UCG facilities. The ongoing RM-1 test program near Hanna, Wyoming, sponsored by the US Department of Energy and an industry consortium led by the Gas Research Institute, reflects this growing awareness through a multidisciplinary research effort, involving geoscientists and engineers, which includes (1) detailed geological site characterization, (2) geotechnical, hydrogeological, and geochemical characterization and predictive modeling, and (3) a strategy for ground water protection. Continued progress toward commercialization of the UCG process requires the integration of geological and process-test information in order to identify and address the potentially adverse environmental ramifications of the process, while identifying and using site characteristics that have the potential to benefit the process and minimize adverse impacts.

Daly, D.J.; Groenewold, G.H.; Schmit, C.R.; Evans, J.M.

1988-07-01

403

Treatment of mercury containing waste  

DOEpatents

A process is provided for the treatment of mercury containing waste in a single reaction vessel which includes a) stabilizing the waste with sulfur polymer cement under an inert atmosphere to form a resulting mixture and b) encapsulating the resulting mixture by heating the mixture to form a molten product and casting the molten product as a monolithic final waste form. Additional sulfur polymer cement can be added in the encapsulation step if needed, and a stabilizing additive can be added in the process to improve the leaching properties of the waste form.

Kalb, Paul D. (Wading River, NY); Melamed, Dan (Gaithersburg, MD); Patel, Bhavesh R (Elmhurst, NY); Fuhrmann, Mark (Babylon, NY)

2002-01-01

404

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 6. Gasification of delayed petroleum coke  

SciTech Connect

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the sixth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of delayed petroleum coke from Pine Bend, MN. The period of the gasification test was June 1-17, 1983. 2 refs., 15 figs., 22 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-05-01

405

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 7. Gasification of Piney Tipple bituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the seventh volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Piney Tipple bituminous coal. The period of the gasification test was July 18-24, 1983. 6 refs., 20 figs., 17 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-05-01

406

Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 5. Gasification of Stahlman Stoker bituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the fifth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Stahlman Stoker bituminous coal from Clarion County, PA. The period of the gasification test was April 30 to May 4, 1983. 4 refs., 16 figs., 10 tabs.

Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

1985-03-31

407

SYNTHETIC FUEL PRODUCTION FROM SOLID WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The work described in this report has two objectives: first, to evaluate potential catalysts for the commercial practice of the gasification of chars produced by the pyrolysis of municipal or industrial wastes; second, to determine the potential for synthetic fuel production from...

408

Early Entrance Co-Production Plant Decentralized Gasification Cogeneration Transportation Fuels and Steam From Available Feedstock. Quarterly Technical Progress Report January to March 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE...

2003-01-01

409

Experimental study of leachate from stored solids. Quarterly report, June 1, 1977January 1, 1978. [Landfilling solid residues from coal gasification facilities; coal storage pile  

Microsoft Academic Search

This quarterly report is the first one. The basic aim of the program is to determine the environmental acceptability of landfilling solid residues from coal gasification facilities, and also to evaluate potential environmental degradation caused by leachate produced by rainfall on coal storage piles. This report outlines the program plan, discusses waste types to be studied, provides details of the

W. J. Jr. Boegly; H. S. Arora; E. C. Davis; R. G. S. Rao; H. W. Jr. Wilson

1978-01-01

410

Solubility, sorption, and transport of hydrophobic organic chemicals in complex mixtures. Environmental research brief  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental contamination problems commonly involve wastes consisting of complex mixtures of chemicals. The behavior of these mixtures has not been well understood because the primary chemodynamic properties of organic chemicals have usually been characterized in aqueous solutions which are simple in composition relative to many waste mixtures found at or near disposal\\/spill sites. The research summarized in the report focuses

P. S. C. Rao; L. S. Lee; A. L. Wood

1991-01-01

411

Why energy from waste incineration is an essential component of environmentally responsible waste management  

SciTech Connect

This paper outlines the key factors involved in adopting energy from waste incineration (EfWI) as part of a waste management strategy. Incineration means all forms of controlled direct combustion of waste. 'Emerging' technologies, such as gasification, are, in the author's view, 5 to 10 years from proven commercial application. The strict combustion regimen employed and the emissions therefrom are detailed. It is shown that EfWI merits consideration as an integral part of an environmentally responsible and sustainable waste management strategy, where suitable quantities of waste are available.

Porteous, A. [Department of Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: s.j.lumbers@open.ac.uk

2005-07-01

412

EFFECT OF HEATING RATE OF BIOMASS FEEDSTOCK ON CARBON GASIFICATION EFFICIENCY IN SUPERCRITICAL WATER GASIFICATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of feedstock heating rate on the efficiency of gasification of a biomass in supercritical water was investigated using a continuous bench-scale reactor. A glucose solution (biomass model compound) and a cabbage slurry were gasified in supercritical water at various heating rates in a preheater. The results show that in the range of 10–30 K\\/s, carbon gasification efficiency improved as

Yukihiko Matsumura; Masaki Harada; Kyoko Nagata; Yoshihiro Kikuchi

2006-01-01

413

DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE (PGM)  

SciTech Connect

Foster Wheeler Development Corporation is working under DOE contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% while producing near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The unique aspect of the process is that it utilizes a pressurized circulating fluidized bed partial gasifier and does not attempt to consume the coal in a single step. To convert all the coal to syngas in a single step requires extremely high temperatures ({approx}2500 to 2800 F) that melt and vaporize the coal and essentially drive all coal ash contaminants into the syngas. Since these contaminants can be corrosive to power generating equipment, the syngas must be cooled to near room temperature to enable a series of chemical processes to clean the syngas. Foster Wheeler's process operates at much lower temperatures that control/minimize the release of contaminants; this eliminates/minimizes the need for the expensive, complicated syngas heat exchangers and chemical cleanup systems typical of high temperature gasification. By performing the gasification in a circulating bed, a significant amount of syngas can still be produced despite the reduced temperature and the circulating bed allows easy scale up to large size plants. Rather than air, it can also operate with oxygen to facilitate sequestration of stack gas carbon dioxide gases for a 100% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

Unknown

2002-03-29

414

DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE (PGM)  

SciTech Connect

Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy Contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building bock that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. Under this contract a series of pilot plant tests are being conducted to ascertain PGM performance with a variety of fuels. The performance and economics of a PGM based plant designed for the co-production of hydrogen and electricity will also be determined. This report describes the work performed during the April-June 30, 2004 time period.

Archie Robertson

2004-07-01

415

Analysis of results from the operation of a pilot plasma gasification/vitrification unit for optimizing its performance.  

PubMed

Plasma gasification/vitrification is an innovative and environmentally friendly method of waste treatment. A demonstration plasma gasification/vitrification unit was developed and installed in Viotia region in order to examine the efficiency of this innovative technology in dealing with hazardous waste. The preliminary results from the trial runs of the plasma unit, as well as the study of the influence of certain parameters in the system performance are presented and analyzed in this paper, contributing to the improvement of the operation performance. Finally, data on the final air emissions and the vitrified ash toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) results are provided in order to assess the environmental performance of the system. The produced slag was found to be characterized by extremely low leaching properties and can be utilized as construction material, while the values of the polluting parameters of the air emissions were satisfactory. PMID:17624665

Moustakas, K; Xydis, G; Malamis, S; Haralambous, K-J; Loizidou, M

2007-06-08

416

Biological treatment of Hygas coal gasification wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

An eight month experimental study was performed to assess biological treatability characteristics of Hygas coal gasification process pilot plant wastewater comprised of cyclone and quench condensates. The study evaluated treatability characteristics of ammonia stripped and unstripped wastewater at full strength and at 1:1 dilution. It was determined that minimum pretreatment required for biological oxidation consisted of reducing wastewater alkalinity, and

R. G. Luthy; J. T. Tallon

1978-01-01

417

Single-stage fluidized-bed gasification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The single-stage fluidized-bed gasification process, in addition to being a simple system, maximizes gas production and allows the economic exploitation of small peat deposits. The objective of this gasification project is to conduct experiments in order to obtain data for designing a single-stage fluidized-bed gasifier, and to evaluate the economics of converting peat to synthesis gas and to SNG by this process. An existing high-temperature and high-pressure process development unit (PDU) was modified to permit the direct feeding of peat to the fluidized bed. Peat flows by gravity from the feed hopper through a 6-inch line to the screw-feeder conveyor. From there, it is fed to the bottom tee section of the reactor and transported into the gasification zone. Oxygen and steam are fed through a distributing ring into the reactor. Gasification reactions occur in the annulus formed by the reactor tube and a central standpipe. Peat ash is discharged from the reactor by overflowing into the standpipe and is collected in a solids receiver.

Lau, F. S.; Rue, D. M.; Weil, S. A.; Punwani, D. V.

1982-04-01

418

Methanol from biomass via steam gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

R & D at Wright-Malta on gasification of biomass, and use of this gas in methanol synthesis, has now reached the stage where a demonstration plant is feasible. The gasifier has evolved into a long, slender, slightly declined, graded temperature series of stationary kiln sections, with box beam rotors and twin piston feed. The methanol reactor is envisioned as a

1995-01-01

419

Coal gasification - flexibility for an uncertain future  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past decade, the electric utility industry has experienced an unprecedented period of dramatic change and uncertainty that has changed the industry and its needs. There is now a need for small, low-cost, fuel-flexible, clean, and reliable plants for both new capacity and emissions retrofit situations. Coal gasification has demonstrated its flexibility to meet this challenge. Reduced economies of

L. A. Schmoe; J. Pietruszkiewicz

1987-01-01

420

Field performance of underground coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the state of art in underground coal gasification (UCG), with emphasis on the U.S. DOE program. UCG offers potential advantages as a source of pipeline quality gas cost competitive with other synfuels, the use of 1.2 trillion tons of coal that would not be economical to strip or deep mine, and possible environmental advantages. The environmental issues,

D. R. Stephens; C. F. Brandenburg; E. L. Burwell

1979-01-01

421

Environmental research for underground coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of the environmental impact of underground coal gasification (UCG), conducted at the four UCG test sites at Hanna, Wyo., by the Department of Energy, Laramie Energy Technology Center, included the effects of the process gas cleanup system, the effects of migrating water on the process and the surrounding ground water, and the effects of subsidence. In phase 2 of

Virgona

1978-01-01

422

Environmental research for underground coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of the environmental impact of underground coal gasification (UCG), conducted at the four UCG test sites at Hanna, WY, by the Department of Energy, Laramie Energy Technology Center, included the effects of the process gas cleanup system, the effects of migrating water on the process and the surrounding ground water, and the effects of subsidence. In phase 2 of

Virgona

1978-01-01

423

Natural pyrometamorphism: relevance to underground coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although 28 underground coal gasification (UCG) tests have been conducted since the early 1970s in the US, only limited information is available concerning the nature and formation of high-temperature, low-pressure alteration products in adjacent noncoal geologic materials - information basic to the evaluation of key process and environmental questions. A comprehensive literature search, conducted as part of the Gas Research

D. J. Daly; R. F. Stevenson; G. J. McCarthy

1988-01-01

424

Underground gasification for steeply dipping coal beds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two field tests were conducted in the G seam of the Fort Union Formation on the North Knobs track near the eastern rim of the Continental Divide Basin near Rawlins, Wyoming. The test site was selected in 1978. An environmental assessment and a general test plan were prepared. The first US test of underground coal gasification for steeply dipping beds

Bartke

1985-01-01

425

Commercialization strategy report for medium Btu gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions regarding the commercial readiness of medium Btu gasification may be summarized as follows: gasifiers and components for producing environmentally acceptable gas are available now; commercial demonstration in U.S. is needed; no significant environmental or institutional problems are anticipated; market penetration which cannot be resolved is related to policy on fuel pricing and conversion to coal regulations; advanced MBG technologies

R. Bardos; R. A. Passman; B. Almuala; D. J. Beecy; C. W. Draffin; J. Harlan; A. W. Hemenway; A. K. Ingberman; E. C. Luthy; B. J. Thompson

1979-01-01

426

Commercialization strategy report for low Btu gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following summary conclusions can be made with respect to the Readiness Assessment of low Btu gasification: Gasifiers and components are commercially available now. In the industrial sector, the number of individual potential users for low Btu gas is large; potential users are small users scattered all over the country in numerous industrial applications. In the utility sector, low Btu

R. Bardos; R. A. Passman; B. Almuala; D. J. Beecy; C. W. Draffin; J. Harlan; A. W. Hemenway; A. K. Ingberman; E. C. Luthy; B. J. Thompson

1979-01-01

427

Key tests set for underground coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underground coal gasification (UCG) is about to undergo some tests. The tests will be conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in a coal seam owned by Washington Irrigation and Development Co. A much-improved UCG system has been developed by Stephens and his associates at LLNL - the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) method. Pritchard Corp., Kansas City, has done

Haggin

1983-01-01

428

LLNL Capabilities in Underground Coal Gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underground coal gasification (UCG) has received renewed interest as a potential technology for producing hydrogen at a competitive price particularly in Europe and China. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) played a leading role in this field and continues to do so. It conducted UCG field tests in the nineteen-seventies and -eighties resulting in a number of publications culminating in

S J Friedmann; E Burton; R Upadhye

2006-01-01

429

Two-stage coal gasification and desulfurization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention is directed to a system which effectively integrates a two-stage, fixed-bed coal gasification arrangement with hot fuel gas desulfurization of a first stream of fuel gas from a lower stage of the two-stage gasifier and the removal of...

L. A. Bissett L. D. Strickland

1990-01-01

430

Biomass gasification, stage 2 LTH. Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the final report of the first phase of a project dealing with a comprehensive investigation on pressurized biomass gasification. The intention with the project first phase was firstly to design, install and to take in operation a PCFB...

I. Bjerle L. Chambert A. Hallgren R. Hellgren A. Johansson

1996-01-01

431

Coal gasification with internal recirculation catalysts  

SciTech Connect

One of the primary economic penalties of many catalytic coal gasification processes is recovery of the added catalysts from the spent char. For example, the EXXON catalytic coal gasification process as presently conceived, requires several stages of digestion with calcium hydroxide to recover potassium from the converted char and then the digestion only recovers between 65 and 85% of the potassium. Recently, IGT has been exploring a process concept that might avoid this complex and costly situation. In the IGT process concept, a coal gasification process with an inherent thermal gradient (e.g., Lurgi, staged fluidized-bed processes, etc.) and a catalyst that is semivolatile under gasification conditions are used. The semivolatile catalyst is sufficiently volatile at the highest temperature encountered in the lower section of the gasifier, that it is completely vaporized from the char before the char is discharged. The catalyst, however, is nonvolatile at the lowest temperature encountered in the upper section of the gasifier so that it precipitates on the cold, feed coal. The catalyst, therefore, is automatically recycled from the product char to the fresh coal and the need for catalyst recovery is eliminated. Three different materials have been undergoing testing by IGT as semivolatile catalysts. These materials were selected based on an examination of their vapor pressures and some process assumptions.

Hill, A.H.; Anderson, G.L.; Ghate, M.R.; Liou, W.

1986-01-01

432

Coal Gasification for Future Power Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

ecause of deregulation, rapidly changing market demands, fluctuations in natural-gas prices, and increased environmental concerns, gasifica- tion will become the centerpiece of tomorrow's advanced power plants. Large improvements in the efficiency, reliability, and feed- stock flexibility of gasification sys- tems are necessary for the success blown, entrained-flow, coal slurry gasifier, a key component in the configuration, has been devel- oped.

Shaoping Shi; Mehrdad Shahnam; Madhava Syamlal

2004-01-01

433

Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project  

SciTech Connect

The Destec gasification process features an oxygen-blown, two stage entrained flow gasifier. PSI will procure coal for the Project consistent with the design specification ranges of Destec's coal gasification facility. Destec's plant will be designed to accept coal with a maximum sulfur content of 5.9% (dry basis) and a minimum energy content of 13,5000 BTU/pound (moisture and ash free basis). PSI and Destec will test at least two other coals for significant periods during the demonstration period. In the Destec process, coal is ground with water to form a slurry. It is then pumped into a gasification vessel where oxygen is added to form a hot raw gas through partial combustion. Most of the noncarbon material in the coal melts and flows out the bottom of the vessel forming slag -- a black, glassy, non-leaching, sand-like material. Particulates, sulfur and other impurities are removed from the gas before combustion to make it acceptable fuel for the gas turbine. The synthetic fuel gas (syngas) is piped to a General Electric MS 7001F high temperature combustion turbine generator. A heat recovery steam generator recovers gas turbine exhaust heat to produce high pressure steam. This steam and the steam generated in the gasification process supply an existing steam turbine-generator. The plant will be designed to outperform air emission standards established by the Clean Air Act Amendments for the year 2000.

Amick, P.; Mann, G.J.; Cook, J.J.; Fisackerly, R.; Spears, R.C.

1992-01-01

434

Investigations on catalyzed steam gasification of biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technical and economic feasibility of producing specific gas products via the catalytic gasification of biomass are evaluated. Results of research conducted from December 1977 to October 1980 are presented. Laboratory studies were conducted to develop operating conditions and catalyst systems for generating methane-rich gas, synthesis gases, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide; these studies also developed techniques for catalyst recovery, regeneration,

L. K. Mudge; S. L. Weber; D. H. Mitchell; L. J. Sealock Jr.; R. J. Robertus

1981-01-01

435

Heat recovery process in coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overall process of cooling, dust removal, tar removal and heat recovery of high temperature gas generated in coal gasification furnaces, and apparatuses employed therefor are provided. In this process, specific apparatuses such as fluidized bed-cooler, fluidized bed-combustion furnace for regenerating granules, granular bed filter, gas cooler and, tar scrubber are successively and effectively employed. During the process, high, medium

Arisaki

1984-01-01

436

Heat recovery process in coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overall process of cooling, dust removal, tar removal and heat recovery of high temperature gas generated in coal gasification furnaces, and apparatuses employed therefor are provided. In this process, specific apparatuses such as fluidized bed-cooler, fluidized bed-combustion furnace for regenerating granules, granular bed filter, gas cooler, and tar scrubber are successively and effectively employed. During the process, high, medium

Arisaki

1984-01-01

437

Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions  

DOEpatents

A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

Cortright, Randy D. (Madison, WI); Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI)

2012-04-10

438

Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions  

DOEpatents

A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

Cortright, Randy D.; Dumesic, James A.

2013-04-02

439

Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions  

DOEpatents

A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

Cortright, Randy D. (Madison, WI); Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI)

2011-01-18

440

Catalytic gasification of coal using eutectic salts: reaction kinetics with binary and ternary eutectic catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetic studies of the catalytic steam gasification of Illinois No. 6 coal were carried out using binary and ternary eutectic salt mixtures in a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of major process variables such as temperature, pressure, catalyst loading and steam flow rate were evaluated for the binary 29% Na2CO3–71% K2CO3 and ternary 43.5% Li2CO3–31.5% Na2CO3–25% K2CO3 eutectic catalyst systems. A

Atul Sheth; Yaw D. Yeboah; Anuradha Godavarty; Yong Xu; Pradeep K. Agrawal

2003-01-01

441

Coal gasification by CO 2 gas bubbling in molten salt for solar\\/fossil energy hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal gasification with CO2 (the Boudouard reaction: C+CO2=2CO, ?rH°=169.2 kJ\\/mol at 1150 K), which can be applied to a solar thermochemical process to convert concentrated solar heat into chemical energy, was conducted in the molten salt medium (eutectic mixture of Na2CO3 and K2CO3, weight ratio=1\\/1) to provide thermal storage. When CO2 gas was bubbled through the molten salt, higher reaction

Jun Matsunami; Shinya Yoshida; Yoshinori Oku; Osamu Yokota; Yutaka Tamaura; Mitsunobu Kitamura

2000-01-01

442

Laboratory studies of the underground gasification of eastern bituminous coal: Final report  

SciTech Connect

To understand why conditions that are adequate to ignite solid carbon (1200/sup 0/C temperatures, 50% oxygen) only devolatized and did not combust and gasify bituminous coal, extensive postburn surface, material and structural analyses were conducted. They included scanning electron microscopy; cross-polarized reflected light microscopy; x-ray diffractometry; and spatial quantitative analyses. As a result, we have identified a process we believe to be of critical importance to gasification of bituminous coal constrained in a borehole geometry - the deposition of pyrolytic carbon. In the experiments, pyrolytic carbon deposited along the borehole surface and in the char pore structure from the hydrocarbon vapor outgas; it did not form in an experiment using subbituminous coal. Pyrolytic carbon is impervious to gas penetration, very resistant to oxidation and strengthens the char substrate; it forms a barrier to the diffusion of oxygen and feed gas to carbon in the char. In essence, it seals the char from reacting with the borehole gas mixture and it decreases the propensity of the char to spall and expose fresh char. Steam/oxygen injection, which produces gaseous hydrogen in the borehole, successfully inhibited pyrolytic carbon from depositing on the borehole surface but did not inhibit pyrolytic carbon deposition in radial fissures and within the char matrix pore structure. Since gasification requires the reaction of solid carbon in the char, the formation of pyrolytic carbon is detrimental to the gasification process. 27 refs.

Skocypec, R.D.; Cook, D.W.; Engler, B.P.

1987-01-01

443

A novel approach to highly dispersing catalytic materials in coal for gasification  

SciTech Connect

This project seeks to develop a technique, based on coal surface properties, for highly dispersing catalysts in coal for gasification and to investigate the potential of using potassium carbonate and calcium acetate mixtures as catalyst for coal gasification. The lower cost and high catalytic activity of the latter compound will produce economic benefits by reducing the amount of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} required for high coal char activities. The effects of potassium impregnation conditions (pH and coal surface charge) on the reactivities, in carbon dioxide, of chars derived from demineralized lignite, subbituminous and bituminous coals have been determined. Impregnation of the acid-leached coal with potassium from strongly acidic solutions resulted in initial slow char reactivity which progressively increased with reaction time. Higher reactivities were obtained for catalyst (potassium) loaded at pH 6 or 10. The dependence of char gasification rates on catalyst addition pH increased in the order: pH 6 {approximately} pH 10 {much gt} pH 1.

Abotsi, G.M.K.; Bota, K.B.

1991-01-01

444

The Distribution Coefficients and Gasification Ratios of [1,2-ąC] Sodium Acetate for Various Paddy Soils in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

For appropriate safety assessment of the disposal of TRU waste, distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) and gasification ratios of ąC labeled [1, 2-ąC] sodium acetate (ąC-NaOAc) were determined by batch sorption tests for 85 Japanese paddy soil samples. The soil studied were from four soil types: Andsol; Gley; Gray lowland; and Yellow. The range of K{sub d} values for all soil

N. Ishii; H. Takeda; S. Uchida

2008-01-01

445

Pyrolysis\\/gasification of biomass for synthetic fuel production using a hybrid gas–water stabilized plasma torch  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental plasma-chemical reactor equipped with a novel hybrid gas–water stabilized torch is available at IPP Prague for the innovative and environmentally friendly plasma treatment of waste streams with a view to their sustainable energetic and chemical valorization and to a reduction of the emission of greenhouse gases. Gasification\\/pyrolysis of biomass was experimentally studied using crushed wood as a model

G. Van Oost; M. Hrabovsky; V. Kopecky; M. Konrad; M. Hlina; T. Kavka

2008-01-01

446

EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT--DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the technoeconomic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the United States to produce ultra

John W. Rich

2003-01-01

447

EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT--DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power and Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement with the USDOE, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either

John W. Rich

2001-01-01

448

Novel and innovative pyrolysis and gasification technologies for energy efficient and environmentally sound MSW disposal  

SciTech Connect

Within the context of European Union (EU) energy policy and sustainibility in waste management, recent EU regulations demand energy efficient and environmentally sound disposal methods of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). Currently, landfill with its many drawbacks is the preferred option in the EU and many other industrialised countries. Within the waste management hierarchy thermal disposal especially incineration is a viable and proven alternative. But, the dominating method, mass-burn grate incineration has drawbacks as well particularly hazardous emissions and harmful process residues. In recent years, pyrolysis and gasification technologies have emerged to address these issues and improve the energy output. To keep the many players in the field comprehensively informed and up-to-date, novel and innovative technology approaches emphasising European developments are reviewed.

Malkow, Thomas

2004-07-01

449

40 CFR 279.21 - Hazardous waste mixing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Hazardous waste mixing. 279.21 Section 279...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE...Generators § 279.21 Hazardous waste mixing. (a) Mixtures of...

2012-07-01

450

Coal properties and system operating parameters for underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

Through the model experiment for underground coal gasification, the influence of the properties for gasification agent and gasification methods on underground coal gasifier performance were studied. The results showed that pulsating gasification, to some extent, could improve gas quality, whereas steam gasification led to the production of high heating value gas. Oxygen-enriched air and backflow gasification failed to improve the quality of the outlet gas remarkably, but they could heighten the temperature of the gasifier quickly. According to the experiment data, the longitudinal average gasification rate along the direction of the channel in the gasifying seams was 1.212 m/d, with transverse average gasification rate 0.069 m/d. Experiment indicated that, for the oxygen-enriched steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio was 2:1, gas compositions remained stable, with H{sub 2} + CO content virtually standing between 60% and 70% and O{sub 2} content below 0.5%. The general regularities of the development of the temperature field within the underground gasifier and the reasons for the changes of gas quality were also analyzed. The 'autopneumatolysis' and methanization reaction existing in the underground gasification process were first proposed.

Yang, L. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

2008-07-01

451

TSA waste stream and final waste form composition  

SciTech Connect

A final vitrified waste form composition, based upon the chemical compositions of the input waste streams, is recommended for the transuranic-contaminated waste stored at the Transuranic Storage Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The quantities of waste are large with a considerable uncertainty in the distribution of various waste materials. It is therefore impractical to mix the input waste streams into an ``average`` transuranic-contaminated waste. As a result, waste stream input to a melter could vary widely in composition, with the potential of affecting the composition and properties of the final waste form. This work examines the extent of the variation in the input waste streams, as well as the final waste form under conditions of adding different amounts of soil. Five prominent Rocky Flats Plant 740 waste streams are considered, as well as nonspecial metals and the ``average`` transuranic-contaminated waste streams. The metals waste stream is the most extreme variation and results indicate that if an average of approximately 60 wt% of the mixture is soil, the final waste form will be predominantly silica, alumina, alkaline earth oxides, and iron oxide. This composition will have consistent properties in the final waste form, including high leach resistance, irrespective of the variation in waste stream. For other waste streams, much less or no soil could be required to yield a leach resistant waste form but with varying properties.

Grandy, J.D.; Eddy, T.L.; Anderson, G.L.

1993-01-01

452

A Life Cycle Assessment on a Fuel Production Through Distributed Biomass Gasification Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we estimated life cycle inventories (energy intensities and CO2 emissions) on the biomass gasification CGS, Bio-H2, Bio-MeOH (methanol) and Bio-DME (di-methyl ether), using the bottom-up methodology. CO2 emissions and energy intensities on material's chipping, transportation and dryer operation were estimated. Also, the uncertainties on the moisture content of biomass materials and the transportation distance to the plant were considered by the Monte Carlo simulation. The energy conversion system was built up by gasification through the BLUE Tower process, with either CGS, PSA (Pressure Swing Absorption) system or the liquefaction process. In our estimation, the biomass materials were the waste products from Japanese Cedar. The uncertainties of moisture content and transportation distance were assumed to be 20 to 50 wt.% and 5 to 50 km, respectively. The capability of the biomass gasification plant was 10 t-dry/d, that is, an annual throughput of 3,000 t-dry/yr. The production energy in each case was used as a functional unit. Finally, the energy intensities of 1.12 to 3.09 MJ/MJ and CO2 emissions of 4.79 to 88.0 g-CO2/MJ were obtained. CGS case contributes to the environmental mitigation, and Bio-H2 and/or Bio-DME cases have a potential to reduce CO2 emissions, compared to the conventional ones.

Dowaki, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Tsutomu; Ohkubo, Rui; Genchi, Yutaka

453

Tar removal during the fluidized bed gasification of plastic waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recycled polyethylene was fed in a pilot plant bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, having an internal diameter of 0.381m and a maximum feeding capacity of 90kg\\/h. The experimental runs were carried out under various operating conditions: the bed temperature was kept at about 850°C, the equivalence ratio varied between 0.2 and 0.35, the amount of bed material was between 131

Umberto Arena; Lucio Zaccariello; Maria Laura Mastellone

2009-01-01

454

SOIL SORPTION OF VOLATILE AND SEMIVOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN A MIXTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies were conducted to evaluate lipophilicity as a predictor sorption for a mixture of organic compounds with high vapor pressures commonly present at hazardous waste sites. Sorption partition coefficients (Kp) for the mixture of 16 volatile and semivolatile ...

455

Biomass thermochemical gasification: Experimental studies and modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall goals of this research were to study the biomass thermochemical gasification using experimental and modeling techniques, and to evaluate the cost of industrial gas production and combined heat and power generation. This dissertation includes an extensive review of progresses in biomass thermochemical gasification. Product gases from biomass gasification can be converted to biopower, biofuels and chemicals. However, for its viable commercial applications, the study summarizes the technical challenges in the gasification and downstream processing of product gas. Corn stover and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), a non-fermentable byproduct of ethanol production, were used as the biomass feedstocks. One of the objectives was to determine selected physical and chemical properties of corn stover related to thermochemical conversion. The parameters of the reaction kinetics for weight loss were obtained. The next objective was to investigate the effects of temperature, steam to biomass ratio and equivalence ratio on gas composition and efficiencies. DDGS gasification was performed on a lab-scale fluidized-bed gasifier with steam and air as fluidizing and oxidizing agents. Increasing the temperature resulted in increases in hydrogen and methane contents and efficiencies. A model was developed to simulate the performance of a lab-scale gasifier using Aspen Plus(TM) software. Mass balance, energy balance and minimization of Gibbs free energy were applied for the gasification to determine the product gas composition. The final objective was to optimize the process by maximizing the net energy efficiency, and to estimate the cost of industrial gas, and combined heat and power (CHP) at a biomass feedrate of 2000 kg/h. The selling price of gas was estimated to be 11.49/GJ for corn stover, and 13.08/GJ for DDGS. For CHP generation, the electrical and net efficiencies were 37 and 86%, respectively for corn stover, and 34 and 78%, respectively for DDGS. For corn stover, the selling price of electricity was 0.1351/kWh. For DDGS, the selling price of electricity was 0.1287/kWh.

Kumar, Ajay