Sample records for waste mixture gasification

  1. Effect of experimental conditions on co-gasification of coal, biomass and plastics wastes with air\\/steam mixtures in a fluidized bed system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Filomena Pinto; Carlos Franco; Rui Neto André; C. Tavares; M. Dias; I. Gulyurtlu; I. Cabrita

    2003-01-01

    The effect of temperature and of gasification medium was studied, using only air, only steam and mixtures of both as gasification medium, with the aim of optimising co-gasification of coal and wastes. The rise in gasification temperature promoted hydrocarbons further reactions, leading to a decrease in tars and hydrocarbons contents and an increase in H2 release. Increasing temperature, from 750

  2. Plasma gasification of biomedical waste

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, G.W.; Tsangaris, A.V.

    1995-12-31

    Resorption Canada Limited (RCL) has operated a plasma gasification installation near Ottawa, Ontario, Canada for over ten years; therefore, the salient capabilities and advantages of plasma gasification over other state-of-the-art technologies for environmentally cleaner disposal of a number of waste materials became increasingly clearer as more and more experience was gained. Plasma gasification is a non-incineration thermal process which uses extremely high temperatures to completely decompose input waste material into very simple molecules. The capability to generate such high heat without using oxygen, unlike a combustion flame, and the temperature profile of the hot plasma gases being between 3,000 C and 8,000 C was ideal for the disposal of waste materials through gasification. RCL conducted two major plasma gasification projects with Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) which were highly successful, indicating very clearly that the basic technology for plasma gasification was a very viable alternative to conventional incineration techniques with resultant environmental benefits related to gaseous emission levels and slag properties. The experimentation ended with two tests which included full environmental analyses for each. These results provided the initiative for similar testing with biomedical waste. The work on the plasma gasification of biomedical waste is summarized. The work on MSW is presented in a separate paper.

  3. Updraft gasification of salmon processing waste.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Sarah; Bower, Cynthia K; Patil, Krushna N; DeWitt, Christina A Mireles

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to judge the feasibility of gasification for the disposal of waste streams generated through salmon harvesting. Gasification is the process of converting carbonaceous materials into combustible "syngas" in a high temperature (above 700 degrees C), oxygen deficient environment. Syngas can be combusted to generate power, which recycles energy from waste products. At 66% to 79% moisture, raw salmon waste streams are too wet to undergo pyrolysis and combustion. Ground raw or de-oiled salmon whole fish, heads, viscera, or frames were therefore "dried" by mixing with wood pellets to a final moisture content of 20%. Ground whole salmon with moisture reduced to 12% moisture was gasified without a drying agent. Gasification tests were performed in a small-scale, fixed-bed, updraft gasifer. After an initial start-up period, the gasifier was loaded with 1.5 kg of biomass. Temperature was recorded at 6 points in the gasifier. Syngas was collected during the short steady-state period during each gasifier run and analyzed. Percentages of each type of gas in the syngas were used to calculate syngas heating value. High heating value (HHV) ranged from 1.45 to 1.98 MJ/kg. Bomb calorimetry determined maximum heating value for the salmon by-products. Comparing heating values shows the efficiency of gasification. Cold gas efficiencies of 13.6% to 26% were obtained from the various samples gasified. Though research of gasification as a means of salmon waste disposal and energy production is ongoing, it can be concluded that pre-dried salmon or relatively low moisture content mixtures of waste with wood are gasifiable. PMID:19799663

  4. Gasification of solid waste fuels in a fixed bed gasifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. K. Mudge; C. A. Rohrmann

    1978-01-01

    The study was made with wood wastes, shredded cornstalks, cubed cornstalks, cubed grass seed straw, and mixtures of plastics and shredded rubber tires with cellulosic wastes as the feed materials. A cylindrical gasifier, 6 ft tall and 11 in. ID was used. The waste feed material gravitates through the gasifer through zones of increasing temperature and is dried and pyrolyzed

  5. Energy from gasification of solid wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Belgiorno; G. De Feo; C. Della Rocca; R. M. A. Napoli

    2003-01-01

    Gasification technology is by no means new: in the 1850s, most of the city of London was illuminated by “town gas” produced from the gasification of coal. Nowadays, gasification is the main technology for biomass conversion to energy and an attractive alternative for the thermal treatment of solid waste. The number of different uses of gas shows the flexibility of

  6. High temperature steam gasification of solid wastes: Characteristics and kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomaa, Islam Ahmed

    Greater use of renewable energy sources is of pinnacle importance especially with the limited reserves of fossil fuels. It is expected that future energy use will have increased utilization of different energy sources, including biomass, municipal solid wastes, industrial wastes, agricultural wastes and other low grade fuels. Gasification is a good practical solution to solve the growing problem of landfills, with simultaneous energy extraction and nonleachable minimum residue. Gasification also provides good solution to the problem of plastics and rubber in to useful fuel. The characteristics and kinetics of syngas evolution from the gasification of different samples is examined here. The characteristics of syngas based on its quality, distribution of chemical species, carbon conversion efficiency, thermal efficiency and hydrogen concentration has been examined. Modeling the kinetics of syngas evolution from the process is also examined. Models are compared with the experimental results. Experimental results on the gasification and pyrolysis of several solid wastes, such as, biomass, plastics and mixture of char based and plastic fuels have been provided. Differences and similarities in the behavior of char based fuel and a plastic sample has been discussed. Global reaction mechanisms of char based fuel as well polystyrene gasification are presented based on the characteristic of syngas evolution. The mixture of polyethylene and woodchips gasification provided superior results in terms of syngas yield, hydrogen yield, total hydrocarbons yield, energy yield and apparent thermal efficiency from polyethylene-woodchips blends as compared to expected weighed average yields from gasification of the individual components. A possible interaction mechanism has been established to explain the synergetic effect of co-gasification of woodchips and polyethylene. Kinetics of char gasification is presented with special consideration of sample temperature, catalytic effect of ash, geometric changes of pores inside char and diffusion limitations inside and outside the char particle.

  7. A comparison of circulating fluidised bed combustion and gasification power plant technologies for processing mixtures of coal, biomass and plastic waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. McIlveen-Wright; F. Pinto; L. Armesto; M. A. Caballero; M. P. Aznar; A. Cabanillas; Y. Huang; C. Franco; I. Gulyurtlu; J. T. McMullan

    2006-01-01

    Environmental regulations concerning emission limitations from the use of fossil fuels in large combustion plants have stimulated interest in biomass for electricity generation.The main objective of the present study was to examine the technical and economic viability of using combustion and gasification of coal mixed with biomass and plastic wastes, with the aim of developing an environmentally acceptable process to

  8. Updraft gasification of salmon processing waste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this research is to judge the feasibility of gasification for the disposal of waste streams generated through salmon harvesting. Gasification is the process of converting carbonaceous materials into combustible “syngas” in a high temperature (above 700 °C), oxygen deficient environmen...

  9. Pyrolysis and gasification of food waste: Syngas characteristics and char gasification kinetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. I. Ahmed; A. K. Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Characteristics of syngas from the pyrolysis and gasification of food waste has been investigated. Characteristic differences in syngas properties and overall yields from pyrolysis and gasification were determined at two distinct high temperatures of 800 and 900°C. Pyrolysis and gasification behavior were evaluated in terms of syngas flow rate, hydrogen flow rate, output power, total syngas yield, total hydrogen yield,

  10. Toxicity of waste gasification bottom ash leachate.

    PubMed

    Sivula, Leena; Oikari, Aimo; Rintala, Jukka

    2012-06-01

    Toxicity of waste gasification bottom ash leachate from landfill lysimeters (112 m(3)) was studied over three years. The leachate of grate incineration bottom ash from a parallel setup was used as reference material. Three aquatic organisms (bioluminescent bacteria, green algae and water flea) were used to study acute toxicity. In addition, an ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay was performed with mouse hepatoma cells to indicate the presence of organic contaminants. Concentrations of 14 elements and 15 PAH compounds were determined to characterise leachate. Gasification ash leachate had a high pH (9.2-12.4) and assays with and without pH adjustment to neutral were used. Gasification ash leachate was acutely toxic (EC(50) 0.09-62 vol-%) in all assays except in the algae assay with pH adjustment. The gasification ash toxicity lasted the entire study period and was at maximum after two years of disposal both in water flea (EC(50) 0.09 vol-%) and in algae assays (EC(50) 7.5 vol-%). The grate ash leachate showed decreasing toxicity during the first two years of disposal in water flea and algae assays, which then tapered off. Both in the grate ash and in the gasification ash leachates EROD-activity increased during the first two years of disposal and then tapered off, the highest inductions were observed with the gasification ash leachate. The higher toxicity of the gasification ash leachate was probably related to direct and indirect effects of high pH and to lower levels of TOC and DOC compared to the grate ash leachate. The grate ash leachate toxicity was similar to that previously reported in literature, therefore, confirming that used setup was both comparable and reliable. PMID:22285871

  11. Numerical simulation of waste tyres gasification.

    PubMed

    Janajreh, Isam; Raza, Syed Shabbar

    2015-05-01

    Gasification is a thermochemical pathway used to convert carbonaceous feedstock into syngas (CO and H2) in a deprived oxygen environment. The process can accommodate conventional feedstock such as coal, discarded waste including plastics, rubber, and mixed waste owing to the high reactor temperature (1000?°C-1600?°C). Pyrolysis is another conversion pathway, yet it is more selective to the feedstock owing to the low process temperature (350?°C-550?°C). Discarded tyres can be subjected to pyrolysis, however, the yield involves the formation of intermediate radicals additional to unconverted char. Gasification, however, owing to the higher temperature and shorter residence time, is more opted to follow quasi-equilibrium and being predictive. In this work, tyre crumbs are subjected to two levels of gasification modelling, i.e. equilibrium zero dimension and reactive multi-dimensional flow. The objective is to investigate the effect of the amount of oxidising agent on the conversion of tyre granules and syngas composition in a small 20?kW cylindrical gasifier. Initially the chemical compositions of several tyre samples are measured following the ASTM procedures for proximate and ultimate analysis as well as the heating value. The measured data are used to carry out equilibrium-based and reactive flow gasification. The result shows that both models are reasonably predictive averaging 50% gasification efficiency, the devolatilisation is less sensitive than the char conversion to the equivalence ratio as devolatilisation is always complete. In view of the high attained efficiency, it is suggested that the investigated tyre gasification system is economically viable. PMID:25755167

  12. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

    2001-12-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO{sub x}). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process.

  13. Plasma gasification of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, G.W.; Tsangaris, A.V. [Resorption Canada Ltd., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Resorption Canada Limited (RCL) has conducted extensive operational testing with plasma technology in their plasma facility near Ottawa, Ontario, Canada to develop an environmentally friendly waste disposal process. Plasma technology, when utilized in a reactor vessel with the exclusion of oxygen, provides for the complete gasification of all combustibles in source materials with non-combustibles being converted to a non-hazardous slag. The energy and environmental characteristics of the plasma gasification of carbonaceous waste materials were studied over a period of eight years during which RCL completed extensive experimentation with MSW. A plasma processing system capable of processing 200--400 lbs/hr of MSW was designed and built. The experimentation on MSW concentrated on establishing the optimum operating parameters and determining the energy and environmental characteristics at these operating parameters.

  14. Hydrogen recovery from the thermal plasma gasification of solid waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youngchul Byun; Moohyun Cho; Jae Woo Chung; Won Namkung; Hyeon Don Lee; Sung Duk Jang; Young-Suk Kim; Jin-Ho Lee; Carg-Ro Lee; Soon-Mo Hwang

    2011-01-01

    Thermal plasma gasification has been demonstrated as one of the most effective and environmentally friendly methods for solid waste treatment and energy utilization in many of studies. Therefore, the thermal plasma process of solid waste gasification (paper mill waste, 1.2 ton\\/day) was applied for the recovery of high purity H2 (>99.99%). Gases emitted from a gasification furnace equipped with a

  15. Catalytic Wet Gasification of Municipal and Animal Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Ro, Kyoung S.; Cantrell, Keri; Elliott, Douglas C.; Hunt, Patrick G.

    2007-02-21

    Applicability of wet gasification technology for various animal and municipal wastes was examined. Wet gasification of swine manure and raw sewage sludge generated high number of net energies. Furthermore, the moisture content of these wastes is ideal for current wet gasification technology. Significant quantities of water must be added to dry feedstock wastes such as poultry litter, feedlot manures and MSW to make the feedstock pumpable. Because of their high ash contents, MSW and unpaved feedlot manure would not generate positive energy return from wet gasification. The costs of a conceptual wet gasification manure management system for a model swine farm were significantly higher than that of the anaerobic lagoon system. However, many environmental advantages of the wet gasification system were identified, which might reduce the costs significantly. Due to high sulfur content of the wastes, pretreatment to prevent the poisoning of catalysts is critically needed.

  16. Catalytic wet gasification of municipal and animal wastes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, there is worldwide interest in deriving energy from bio-based materials via gasification. Our objective was to assess the feasibility of wet gasification for treatment/energy conversion of both animal and municipal wastes. Wet wastes such as swine manure and raw sewage sludge could be pro...

  17. Gasification of biomass wastes and residues for electricity production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    René van Ree; Lars Waldheim; Eva Olsson; André Oudhuis; Ad van Wijk; Cees Daey-Ouwens; Wim Turkenburg

    1997-01-01

    The technical feasibility and the economic and environmental performance of atmospheric gasification of biomass wastes and residues integrated with a combined cycle for electricity production are investigated for Dutch conditions. The system selected for study is an atmospheric circulating fluidized bed gasifier-combined cycle (ACFBCC) plant based on the General Electric LM 2500 gas turbine and atmospheric gasification technology, including flue

  18. Hydrogen production by gasification of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, R. III

    1994-05-20

    As fossil fuel reserves run lower and lower, and as their continued widespread use leads toward numerous environmental problems, the need for clean and sustainable energy alternatives becomes ever clearer. Hydrogen fuel holds promise as such as energy source, as it burns cleanly and can be extracted from a number of renewable materials such as municipal solid waste (MSW), which can be considered largely renewable because of its high content of paper and biomass-derived products. A computer model is being developed using ASPEN Plus flow sheeting software to simulate a process which produces hydrogen gas from MSW; the model will later be used in studying the economics of this process and is based on an actual Texaco coal gasification plant design. This paper gives an overview of the complete MSW gasification process, and describes in detail the way in which MSW is modeled by the computer as a process material. In addition, details of the gasifier unit model are described; in this unit modified MSW reacts under pressure with oxygen and steam to form a mixture of gases which include hydrogen.

  19. Gasification of Low Ash Partially Composted Dairy Biomass with Enriched Air Mixture 

    E-print Network

    Thanapal, Siva Sankar

    2012-02-14

    studies were done using a mixture of carbon dioxide and oxygen as the gasification medium and also a methodology was developed to determine the gasification efficiency based on mass and heat contents of gas. The results show that the peak temperature...

  20. Biotreatment of UCG waste water condensate. [Underground coal gasification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Humenick

    1984-01-01

    The process of underground coal gasification generates a waste water stream during the cooling and processing of the product gas. The character of the UCG condensate is similar to that produced by surface gasifiers, although there are some differences. The treatment options studied in this laboratory project were activated sludge treatment of raw condensate, activated sludge treatment of stripped condensate,

  1. Co-gasification study of biomass mixed with plastic wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Pinto; C. Franco; R. N. André; M. Miranda; I. Gulyurtlu; I. Cabrita

    2002-01-01

    Fluidised bed steam gasification has proven to be a possible way of converting biomass and plastic undesirable wastes into fuel gases. The addition of plastics to pine wastes decreased CO content, but increased H2 released, up to values of 50% (v\\/v). The highest gas yield obtained was 1.96Nl\\/g daf for 98% of energy conversion, when 60% (w\\/w) of plastic was

  2. Characterization of cellulosic wastes and gasification products from chicken farms

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, Paul, E-mail: p.joseph@ulster.ac.uk [School of the Built Environment and the Built Environment Research Institute, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey BT37 0QB, County Antrim, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Tretsiakova-McNally, Svetlana; McKenna, Siobhan [School of the Built Environment and the Built Environment Research Institute, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey BT37 0QB, County Antrim, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The gas chromatography indicated the variable quality of the producer gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The char had appreciable NPK values, and can be used as a fertiliser. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The bio-oil produced was of poor quality, having high moisture content and low pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mass and energy balances showed inadequate level energy recovery from the process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Future work includes changing the operating parameters of the gasification unit. - Abstract: The current article focuses on gasification as a primary disposal solution for cellulosic wastes derived from chicken farms, and the possibility to recover energy from this process. Wood shavings and chicken litter were characterized with a view to establishing their thermal parameters, compositional natures and calorific values. The main products obtained from the gasification of chicken litter, namely, producer gas, bio-oil and char, were also analysed in order to establish their potential as energy sources. The experimental protocol included bomb calorimetry, pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC), thermo-gravimetric analyses (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, elemental analyses, X-ray diffraction (XRD), mineral content analyses and gas chromatography. The mass and energy balances of the gasification unit were also estimated. The results obtained confirmed that gasification is a viable method of chicken litter disposal. In addition to this, it is also possible to recover some energy from the process. However, energy content in the gas-phase was relatively low. This might be due to the low energy efficiency (19.6%) of the gasification unit, which could be improved by changing the operation parameters.

  3. Incineration versus gasification: A comparison in waste to energy plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ghezzi, U.; Pasini, S.; Ferri, L.D.A. [Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Dipt. di Energetica

    1995-12-31

    Waste thermodestruction has obvious advantages; nevertheless, it encounters problems not very easy to solve, such as those related to gas cleaning and to restricting standards for emission control. One important aspect is the possibility of heat recovery with production of valuable energy such as electric energy. A new technology, at least as far as its application to waste disposal (mainly municipal waste) is concerned, is represented by gasification. It becomes interesting to establish a comparison between this new technology and the traditional one. This comparison does not appear, however, to be very simple, since for gasification only few documented experiments can be found, and these are often difficult to relate to a common evaluation factor. The present paper describes the state of the art of the traditional technology in the thermodestruction field to define a comparison basis. Then, a general discussion is given for the gasification technology, emphasizing different possible solutions to allow for a quantitative evaluation. At last the various aspects of the problem (related to plant, environment, energy, economics, etc.) are specifically compared for the purpose of finding elements which allow for a quantitative evaluation or for emphasizing parameters useful for a final choice.

  4. Hydrothermal gasification of biomass and organic wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Schmieder; J. Abeln; N. Boukis; E. Dinjus; A. Kruse; M. Kluth; G. Petrich; E. Sadri; M. Schacht

    2000-01-01

    Wet biomass and organic wastes can be efficiently gasified under hydrothermal conditions to produce a hydrogen rich fuel gas. New experiments in two tubular flow reactors and in two batch autoclaves with carbohydrates, with aromatic compounds, with glycine as a model compound for proteins and with real biomass are reported for different residence times, temperatures and pressures. It was found

  5. From waste to energy -- Catalytic steam gasification of broiler litter

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.A.; Sheth, A.C.

    1999-07-01

    In 1996, the production of broiler chickens in the US was approximately 7.60 billion head. The quantity of litter generated is enormous. In 1992, the Southeast region alone produced over five million tons of broiler litter. The litter removed from the broiler houses is rich in nutrients and often spread over land as a fertilizer. Without careful management, the associated agricultural runoff can cause severe environmental damage. With increasing broiler litter production, the implementation of alternative disposal technologies is essential to the sustainable development of the poultry industry. A process originally developed for the conversion of coals to clean gaseous fuel may provide an answer. Catalytic steam gasification utilities an alkali salt catalyst and steam to convert a carbonaceous feedstock to a gas mixture composed primarily of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and methane. The low to medium energy content gas produced may be utilized as an energy source or chemical feedstock. Broiler litter is an attractive candidate for catalytic steam gasification due to its high potassium content. Experiments conducted in UTSI's bench-scale high-pressure fixed bed gasifier have provided data for technical and economic feasibility studies of the process. Experiments have also been performed to examine the effects of temperature, pressure, and additional catalysts on the gasification rate.

  6. Effect of operating conditions on tar and gas composition in high temperature air\\/steam gasification (HTAG) of plastic containing waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Ponzio; Sylwester Kalisz; Wlodzimierz Blasiak

    2006-01-01

    In this work, the high temperature air\\/steam gasification (HTAG) technique has been tested for a fuel in pellet form made from waste material of woody and plastic origin. The feedstock was gasified in an updraft fixed bed reactor by mixtures of air and steam (102 Nm3\\/h, 4% to 82% steam) preheated to 1400 °C, a temperature well above the fluid

  7. Gasification of coal-derived chars in synthesis gas mixtures under intraparticle mass-transfer-controlled conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bliek; J. C. Lont; Swaaij van W. P. M

    1986-01-01

    A model has been formulated to describe the quasi-steady-state gasification of coal-derived chars in gas mixtures where both the reactants carbon dioxide and steam, and the gasification products carbon monoxide and hydrogen are present. As such, these conditions reflect the situation found in most practical gasification systems.\\u000a\\u000aThe model presented is applied under conditions where intraparticle mass transfer is rate-controlling.

  8. Co-gasification of municipal solid waste and material recovery in a large-scale gasification and melting system.

    PubMed

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Manako, Kazutaka; Osada, Morihiro

    2012-04-01

    This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of municipal solid waste with and without the municipal solid waste bottom ash using two large-scale commercial operation plants. From the viewpoint of operation data, there is no significant difference between municipal solid waste treatment with and without the bottom ash. The carbon conversion ratios are as high as 91.7% and 95.3%, respectively and this leads to significantly low PCDD/DFs yields via complete syngas combustion. The gross power generation efficiencies are 18.9% with the bottom ash and 23.0% without municipal solid waste bottom ash, respectively. The effects of the equivalence ratio are also evaluated. With the equivalence ratio increasing, carbon monoxide concentration is decreased, and carbon dioxide and the syngas temperature (top gas temperature) are increased. The carbon conversion ratio is also increased. These tendencies are seen in both modes. Co-gasification using the gasification and melting system (Direct Melting System) has a possibility to recover materials effectively. More than 90% of chlorine is distributed in fly ash. Low-boiling-point heavy metals, such as lead and zinc, are distributed in fly ash at rates of 95.2% and 92.0%, respectively. Most of high-boiling-point heavy metals, such as iron and copper, are distributed in metal. It is also clarified that slag is stable and contains few harmful heavy metals such as lead. Compared with the conventional waste management framework, 85% of the final landfill amount reduction is achieved by co-gasification of municipal solid waste with bottom ash and incombustible residues. These results indicate that the combined production of slag with co-gasification of municipal solid waste with the bottom ash constitutes an ideal approach to environmental conservation and resource recycling. PMID:22093706

  9. Fluidized bed gasification of waste-derived fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, Umberto, E-mail: umberto.arena@unina2.i [Department of Environmental Sciences, Second University of Naples, Via A. Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); AMRA s.c. a r.l., Via Nuova Agnano, 11, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Zaccariello, Lucio [Department of Environmental Sciences, Second University of Naples, Via A. Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Mastellone, Maria Laura [Department of Environmental Sciences, Second University of Naples, Via A. Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); AMRA s.c. a r.l., Via Nuova Agnano, 11, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    Five alternative waste-derived fuels obtained from municipal solid waste and different post-consumer packaging were fed in a pilot-scale bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, having a maximum feeding capacity of 100 kg/h. The experimental runs utilized beds of natural olivine, quartz sand or dolomite, fluidized by air, and were carried out under various values of equivalence ratio. The process resulted technically feasible with all the materials tested. The olivine, a neo-silicate of Fe and Mg with an olive-green colour, has proven to be a good candidate to act as a bed catalyst for tar removal during gasification of polyolefin plastic wastes. Thanks to its catalytic activity it is possible to obtain very high fractions of hydrogen in the syngas (between 20% and 30%), even using air as the gasifying agent, i.e. in the most favourable economical conditions and with the simplest plant and reactor configuration. The catalytic activity of olivine was instead reduced or completely inhibited when waste-derived fuels from municipal solid wastes and aggregates of different post-consumer plastic packagings were fed. Anyhow, these materials have given acceptable performance, yielding a syngas of sufficient quality for energy applications after an adequate downstream cleaning.

  10. Co-gasification of solid waste and lignite - a case study for Western Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Koukouzas, N; Katsiadakis, A; Karlopoulos, E; Kakaras, E

    2008-01-01

    Co-gasification of solid waste and coal is a very attractive and efficient way of generating power, but also an alternative way, apart from conventional technologies such as incineration and landfill, of treating waste materials. The technology of co-gasification can result in very clean power plants using a wide range of solid fuels but there are considerable economic and environmental challenges. The aim of this study is to present the available existing co-gasification techniques and projects for coal and solid wastes and to investigate the techno-economic feasibility, concerning the installation and operation of a 30MW(e) co-gasification power plant based on integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, using lignite and refuse derived fuel (RDF), in the region of Western Macedonia prefecture (WMP), Greece. The gasification block was based on the British Gas-Lurgi (BGL) gasifier, while the gas clean-up block was based on cold gas purification. The competitive advantages of co-gasification systems can be defined both by the fuel feedstock and production flexibility but also by their environmentally sound operation. It also offers the benefit of commercial application of the process by-products, gasification slag and elemental sulphur. Co-gasification of coal and waste can be performed through parallel or direct gasification. Direct gasification constitutes a viable choice for installations with capacities of more than 350MW(e). Parallel gasification, without extensive treatment of produced gas, is recommended for gasifiers of small to medium size installed in regions where coal-fired power plants operate. The preliminary cost estimation indicated that the establishment of an IGCC RDF/lignite plant in the region of WMP is not profitable, due to high specific capital investment and in spite of the lower fuel supply cost. The technology of co-gasification is not mature enough and therefore high capital requirements are needed in order to set up a direct co-gasification plant. The cost of electricity estimated was not competitive, compared to the prices dominating the Greek electricity market and thus further economic evaluation is required. The project would be acceptable if modular construction of the unit was first adopted near operating power plants, based on parallel co-gasification, and gradually incorporating the remaining process steps (gas purification, power generation) with the aim of eventually establishing a true direct co-gasification plant. PMID:17631995

  11. Solar gasification of coal, activated carbon, coke and coal and biomass mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Gregg; R. W. Taylor; J. H. Campbell; J. R. Taylor; A. Cotton

    1980-01-01

    The gasification of subbituminous coal, activated carbon, coke and a mixture of coal and biomass by direct solar irradiation in a solar furnace is investigated. Sunlight concentrated by a 23-kW solar furnace was focused directly on the fuel being gasified in a gravity-fed gasifier through a window in the reactor, and steam or CO2 was passed through the bed to

  12. Co-gasification of municipal solid waste and material recovery in a large-scale gasification and melting system

    SciTech Connect

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro, E-mail: tanigaki.nobuhiro@nsc-eng.co.jp [Nippon Steel Engineering Co., Ltd. (Head Office), Osaki Center Building 1-5-1, Osaki, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-8604 (Japan); Manako, Kazutaka [Nippon Steel Engineering Co., Ltd., 46-59, Nakabaru, Tobata-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 804-8505 (Japan); Osada, Morihiro [Nippon Steel Engineering Co., Ltd. (Head Office), Osaki Center Building 1-5-1, Osaki, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-8604 (Japan)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of MSW with MSW bottom ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No significant difference between MSW treatment with and without MSW bottom ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCDD/DFs yields are significantly low because of the high carbon conversion ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Slag quality is significantly stable and slag contains few hazardous heavy metals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The final landfill amount is reduced and materials are recovered by DMS process. - Abstract: This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of municipal solid waste with and without the municipal solid waste bottom ash using two large-scale commercial operation plants. From the viewpoint of operation data, there is no significant difference between municipal solid waste treatment with and without the bottom ash. The carbon conversion ratios are as high as 91.7% and 95.3%, respectively and this leads to significantly low PCDD/DFs yields via complete syngas combustion. The gross power generation efficiencies are 18.9% with the bottom ash and 23.0% without municipal solid waste bottom ash, respectively. The effects of the equivalence ratio are also evaluated. With the equivalence ratio increasing, carbon monoxide concentration is decreased, and carbon dioxide and the syngas temperature (top gas temperature) are increased. The carbon conversion ratio is also increased. These tendencies are seen in both modes. Co-gasification using the gasification and melting system (Direct Melting System) has a possibility to recover materials effectively. More than 90% of chlorine is distributed in fly ash. Low-boiling-point heavy metals, such as lead and zinc, are distributed in fly ash at rates of 95.2% and 92.0%, respectively. Most of high-boiling-point heavy metals, such as iron and copper, are distributed in metal. It is also clarified that slag is stable and contains few harmful heavy metals such as lead. Compared with the conventional waste management framework, 85% of the final landfill amount reduction is achieved by co-gasification of municipal solid waste with bottom ash and incombustible residues. These results indicate that the combined production of slag with co-gasification of municipal solid waste with the bottom ash constitutes an ideal approach to environmental conservation and resource recycling.

  13. Co-gasification of solid waste and lignite – A case study for Western Macedonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Koukouzas; A. Katsiadakis; E. Karlopoulos; E. Kakaras

    2008-01-01

    Co-gasification of solid waste and coal is a very attractive and efficient way of generating power, but also an alternative way, apart from conventional technologies such as incineration and landfill, of treating waste materials. The technology of co-gasification can result in very clean power plants using a wide range of solid fuels but there are considerable economic and environmental challenges.The

  14. GASIFICATION OF WASTE TYRE AND PLASTIC (PET) BY SOLAR THERMOCHEMICAL PROCESS FOR SOLAR ENERGY UTILIZATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Matsunami; S. Yoshida; O. Yokota; M. Nezuka; M. Tsuji; Y. Tamaura

    1999-01-01

    Waste tyre and plastic such as polyethylene terephthalate can be utilized as a useful material for conversion of solar energy into chemical energy by solar thermochemical gasification into synthesis gas (CO+H2) using concentrated solar energy. In the present paper, the gasification of waste tyre (C: 86 wt.%, H: 8.4 wt.%) and of PET (C10H8O4)n, were studied using ZnO as a

  15. Gasification of biomass/high density polyethylene mixtures in a downdraft gasifier.

    PubMed

    García-Bacaicoa, P; Mastral, J F; Ceamanos, J; Berrueco, C; Serrano, S

    2008-09-01

    In this work, an experimental study of the thermal decomposition of mixtures of wood particles and high density polyethylene in different atmospheres has been carried out in a downdraft gasifier with a nominal processing capacity of 50 kg/h. The main objective was to study the feasibility of the operation of the gasification plant using mixtures and to investigate the characteristics of the gas obtained. In order to do so, experiments with biomass only and with mixtures with up to 15% HDPE have been carried out. The main components of the gas generated are N(2) (50%), H(2) (14%), CO (9-22%) and CO(2) (7-17%) and its relatively high calorific value was adequate for using it in an internal combustion engine generator consisting of a modified diesel engine coupled with a 25 kV A alternator. PMID:18083026

  16. Modeling and comparative assessment of municipal solid waste gasification for energy production

    SciTech Connect

    Arafat, Hassan A., E-mail: harafat@masdar.ac.ae; Jijakli, Kenan

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • Study developed a methodology for the evaluation of gasification for MSW treatment. • Study was conducted comparatively for USA, UAE, and Thailand. • Study applies a thermodynamic model (Gibbs free energy minimization) using the Gasify software. • The energy efficiency of the process and the compatibility with different waste streams was studied. - Abstract: Gasification is the thermochemical conversion of organic feedstocks mainly into combustible syngas (CO and H{sub 2}) along with other constituents. It has been widely used to convert coal into gaseous energy carriers but only has been recently looked at as a process for producing energy from biomass. This study explores the potential of gasification for energy production and treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW). It relies on adapting the theory governing the chemistry and kinetics of the gasification process to the use of MSW as a feedstock to the process. It also relies on an equilibrium kinetics and thermodynamics solver tool (Gasify®) in the process of modeling gasification of MSW. The effect of process temperature variation on gasifying MSW was explored and the results were compared to incineration as an alternative to gasification of MSW. Also, the assessment was performed comparatively for gasification of MSW in the United Arab Emirates, USA, and Thailand, presenting a spectrum of socioeconomic settings with varying MSW compositions in order to explore the effect of MSW composition variance on the products of gasification. All in all, this study provides an insight into the potential of gasification for the treatment of MSW and as a waste to energy alternative to incineration.

  17. Characteristics and availability of biomass waste and residues in The Netherlands for gasification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joep van Doorn; Toine Curvers; Lars Waldheim; Eva Olsson; Ad van Wijk; Cees Daey-Ouwens

    1997-01-01

    Characteristics and availability of biomass waste streams and residues for power production by means of integrated gasification\\/combined cycle technology (BIG\\/CC), are evaluated for The Netherlands. Four main categories are investigated: streams from agriculture; organic waste; wood; and sludges. Altogether 18 different streams are distinguished. Gross availability and net availability are inventorized. Various properties (composition, heating value, supply patterns) are analysed

  18. Gasification characteristics of an activated carbon catalyst during the decomposition of hazardous waste material in supercritical water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yukihiko Matsumura; F. W. Nuessle; M. J. Jr. Antal

    1996-01-01

    Recently, carbonaceous materials including activated carbon were proven to be effective catalysts for hazardous waste gasification in supercritical water. Using coconut shell activated carbon catalyst, complete decomposition of industrial organic wastes including methanol and acetic acid was achieved. During this process, the total mass of the activated carbon catalyst changes by two competing processes: a decrease in weight via gasification

  19. Air gasification of polypropylene plastic waste in fluidized bed gasifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui Xiao; Baosheng Jin; Hongcang Zhou; Zhaoping Zhong; Mingyao Zhang

    2007-01-01

    An experimental study on air gasification of polypropylene was conducted in a fluidized bed gasifier with an insider diameter (i.d.) of 100mm and a height of 4.2m. The effect of the equivalence ratio, bed height and fluidization velocity on various gasification results, including the product yield distribution, gas composition, gas heating value and gas yield were studied. The equivalence ratio

  20. A thermocatalytic process for the gasification of high-moisture food processing wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Butner; E. G. Baker; D. C. Elliott; L. J. Sealock; N. G. Banns

    1988-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing a thermocatalytic gasification system that converts high-moisture organic solid wastes to a medium-Btu (450 to 550 Btu\\/scf) fuel gas. High-COD liquid wastes can also be treated but may require the use of supplemental fuel. A 1-liter batch reactor has been used to gasify a number of food processing wastes, including fruit pomace, potato peeling

  1. Utilization of solid wastes from the gasification of coal-water slurries

    SciTech Connect

    M.Y. Shpirt; N.P. Goryunova [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    It was found that only fly and bottom ashes are the solid wastes of water-coal slurry gasification in a direct-flow gasifier. The yields and chemical compositions of fly and bottom ashes obtained after the gasification of water-coal slurries prepared using brown (B) and long-flame (D) coals from the Berezovskii and Mokhovskii strip mines (Kansk-Achinsk and Kuznetsk Basins, respectively) were characterized. Based on an analysis of currently available information, the areas of utilization of fly and bottom ashes after water-coal slurry gasification with dry ash removal were summarized. The use of these wastes in the construction of high-ways and earthwork structures (for the parent coals of B and D grades) and in the manufacture of ash concrete (for the parent coal of D grade) is most promising.

  2. Low-temperature catalytic gasification of food processing wastes. 1995 topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.C.; Hart, T.R.

    1996-08-01

    The catalytic gasification system described in this report has undergone continuing development and refining work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for over 16 years. The original experiments, performed for the Gas Research Institute, were aimed at developing kinetics information for steam gasification of biomass in the presence of catalysts. From the fundamental research evolved the concept of a pressurized, catalytic gasification system for converting wet biomass feedstocks to fuel gas. Extensive batch reactor testing and limited continuous stirred-tank reactor tests provided useful design information for evaluating the preliminary economics of the process. This report is a follow-on to previous interim reports which reviewed the results of the studies conducted with batch and continuous-feed reactor systems from 1989 to 1994, including much work with food processing wastes. The discussion here provides details of experiments on food processing waste feedstock materials, exclusively, that were conducted in batch and continuous- flow reactors.

  3. COAL GASIFICATION ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SUMMARY: SOLID WASTES AND BY-PRODUCT TARS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, one of several data summary reports on the environmental aspects and pollutants specific to coal gasification, addresses characteristics of solid wastes (ash and cyclone dust) and by-product tars and oils analyzed in nine EPA source tests and evaluation studies and li...

  4. Waste to Energy Conversion by Stepwise Liquefaction, Gasification and "Clean" Combustion of Pelletized Waste Polyethylene for Electric Power Generation---in a Miniature Steam Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talebi Anaraki, Saber

    The amounts of waste plastics discarded in developed countries are increasing drastically, and most are not recycled. The small fractions of the post-consumer plastics which are recycled find few new uses as their quality is degraded; they cannot be reused in their original applications. However, the high energy density of plastics, similar to that of premium fuels, combined with the dwindling reserves of fossil fuels make a compelling argument for releasing their internal energy through combustion, converting it to thermal energy and, eventually, to electricity through a heat engine. To minimize the emission of pollutants this energy conversion is done in two steps, first the solid waste plastics undergo pyrolytic gasification and, subsequently, the pyrolyzates (a mixture of hydrocarbons and hydrogen) are blended with air and are burned "cleanly" in a miniature power plant. This plant consists of a steam boiler, a steam engine and an electricity generator.

  5. Energy recovery from solid waste fuels using advanced gasification technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Morris; L. Waldheim

    1998-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, TPS Termiska Processer AB has been working on the development of an atmospheric-pressure gasification process. A major aim at the start of this work was the generation of fuel gas from indigenous fuels to Sweden (i.e. biomass). As the economic climate changed and awareness of the damage to the environment caused by the use of fossil fuels

  6. Operating and environmental performances of commercial-scale waste gasification and melting technology.

    PubMed

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Fujinaga, Yasuka; Kajiyama, Hirohisa; Ishida, Yoshihiro

    2013-11-01

    Gasification technologies for waste processing are receiving increased interest. A lot of gasification technologies, including gasification and melting, have been developed in Japan and Europe. However, the flue gas and heavy metal behaviors have not been widely reported, even though those of grate furnaces have been reported. This article reports flue gas components of gasification and melting technology in different flue gas treatment systems. Hydrogen chloride concentrations at the inlet of the bag filter ranged between 171 and 180 mg Nm(-3) owing to de-acidification by limestone injection to the gasifier. More than 97.8% of hydrogen chlorides were removed by a bag filter in both of the flue gas treatment systems investigated. Sulfur dioxide concentrations at the inlet of the baghouse were 4.8 mg Nm(-3) and 12.7 mg Nm(-3), respectively. Nitrogen oxides are highly decomposed by a selective catalytic reduction system. Owing to the low regenerations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, and the selective catalytic reduction system, the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans at the stacks were significantly lower without activated carbon injection. More than 99% of chlorine is distributed in fly ash. Low-boiling-point heavy metals, such as lead and zinc, are distributed in fly ash at rates of 97.6% and 96.5%, respectively. Most high-boiling-point heavy metals, such as iron and copper, are distributed in metal. It is also clarified that the slag is stable and contains few harmful heavy metals, such as lead. The heavy metal distribution behaviors are almost the same regardless of the compositions of the processed waste. These results indicate that the gasification of municipal solid waste constitutes an ideal approach to environmental conservation and resource recycling. PMID:24019383

  7. Characterization of burning and CO 2 gasification of chars from mixtures of Zonguldak (Turkey) and Australian bituminous coals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Didem Erincin; Muammer Canel

    2005-01-01

    In this study, different mixtures (30wt.%+70wt.% and 50wt.%+50wt.%, respectively) of Zonguldak bituminous coal (Turkey) and an Australian bituminous coal are carbonized to obtain char samples. The ignition temperatures of the samples are determined by sending O2 onto the samples in a system designed for determining the ignition temperature. The gasification reactivity of the chars in a CO2 atmosphere is also

  8. Characterization of products obtained from pyrolysis and steam gasification of wood waste, RDF, and RPF.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In-Hee; Kobayashi, Jun; Kawamoto, Katsuya

    2014-02-01

    Pyrolysis and steam gasification of woody biomass chip (WBC) obtained from construction and demolition wastes, refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and refuse paper and plastic fuel (RPF) were performed at various temperatures using a lab-scale instrument. The gas, liquid, and solid products were examined to determine their generation amounts, properties, and the carbon balance between raw material and products. The amount of product gas and its hydrogen concentration showed a considerable difference depending on pyrolysis and steam gasification at higher temperature. The reaction of steam and solid product, char, contributed to an increase in gas amount and hydrogen concentration. The amount of liquid products generated greatly depended on temperature rather than pyrolysis or steam gasification. The compositions of liquid product varied relying on raw materials used at 500°C but the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons became the major compounds at 900°C irrespective of the raw materials used. Almost fixed carbon (FC) of raw materials remained as solid products under pyrolysis condition whereas FC started to decompose at 700°C under steam gasification condition. For WBC, both char utilization by pyrolysis at low temperature (500°C) and syngas recovery by steam gasification at higher temperature (900°C) might be practical options. From the results of carbon balance of RDF and RPF, it was confirmed that the carbon conversion to liquid products conspicuously increased as the amount of plastic increased in the raw material. To recover feedstock from RPF, pyrolysis for oil recovery at low temperature (500°C) might be one of viable options. Steam gasification at 900°C could be an option but the method of tar reforming (e.g. catalyst utilization) should be considered. PMID:24246576

  9. Gasification of waste plastics by steam reforming in a fluidized bed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshiro Tsuji; Akito Hatayama

    2009-01-01

    The process of producing synthetic gas from waste plastics by steam reforming was investigated. To evaluate this process,\\u000a the steam reforming of the oils derived from low-density polyethylene and polystyrene were carried out using a laboratory-scale\\u000a fluidized bed of Ni-Al2O3 catalysts. The performance of gasification in terms of carbon conversion, gas yield, and gas compositions was examined. Although\\u000a oils derived

  10. Fluid bed gasification – Plasma converter process generating energy from solid waste: Experimental assessment of sulphur species

    SciTech Connect

    Morrin, Shane, E-mail: shane.morrin@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Advanced Plasma Power, Swindon, Wiltshire SN3 4DE (United Kingdom); Lettieri, Paola, E-mail: p.lettieri@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Chapman, Chris, E-mail: chris.chapman@app-uk.com [Advanced Plasma Power, Swindon, Wiltshire SN3 4DE (United Kingdom); Taylor, Richard, E-mail: richard.taylor@app-uk.com [Advanced Plasma Power, Swindon, Wiltshire SN3 4DE (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • We investigate gaseous sulphur species whilst gasifying sulphur-enriched wood pellets. • Experiments performed using a two stage fluid bed gasifier – plasma converter process. • Notable SO{sub 2} and relatively low COS levels were identified. • Oxygen-rich regions of the bed are believed to facilitate SO{sub 2}, with a delayed release. • Gas phase reducing regions above the bed would facilitate more prompt COS generation. - Abstract: Often perceived as a Cinderella material, there is growing appreciation for solid waste as a renewable content thermal process feed. Nonetheless, research on solid waste gasification and sulphur mechanisms in particular is lacking. This paper presents results from two related experiments on a novel two stage gasification process, at demonstration scale, using a sulphur-enriched wood pellet feed. Notable SO{sub 2} and relatively low COS levels (before gas cleaning) were interesting features of the trials, and not normally expected under reducing gasification conditions. Analysis suggests that localised oxygen rich regions within the fluid bed played a role in SO{sub 2}’s generation. The response of COS to sulphur in the feed was quite prompt, whereas SO{sub 2} was more delayed. It is proposed that the bed material sequestered sulphur from the feed, later aiding SO{sub 2} generation. The more reducing gas phase regions above the bed would have facilitated COS – hence its faster response. These results provide a useful insight, with further analysis on a suite of performed experiments underway, along with thermodynamic modelling.

  11. Plastic waste elimination by co-gasification with coal and biomass in fluidized bed with air in pilot plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María P. Aznar; Miguel A. Caballero; Jesús A. Sancho; E. Francés

    2006-01-01

    Treatment of plastic waste by gasification in fluidized bed with air using dolomite as tar cracking catalyst has been studied. The gasifier has a 1 m high bed zone (diameter of 9.2 cm) followed by a 1 m high freeboard (diameter of 15.4 cm). The feedstock is composed of blends of plastic waste with pine wood sawdust and coal at

  12. Behavior of metals in ash melting and gasification-melting of municipal solid waste (MSW)

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, C.H. [Laboratory of Solid Waste Disposal Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Matsuto, T. [Laboratory of Solid Waste Disposal Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)]. E-mail: matsuto@eng.hokudai.ac.jp; Tanaka, N. [Laboratory of Solid Waste Disposal Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    In this study, metal behavior in ash-melting and municipal solid waste (MSW) gasification-melting facilities were investigated. Eight ash-melting and three MSW gasification-melting facilities with a variety of melting processes and feedstocks were selected. From each facility, melting furnace fly ash (MFA) and molten slag were sampled, and feedstock of the ash-melting processes was also taken. For the ash melting process, the generation rate of MFA was well correlated with the ratio of incineration fly ash (IFA) in feedstock, and this was because MFA was formed mostly by mass transfer from IFA and a limited amount from bottom ash (BA). Distribution ratios of metal elements to MFA were generally determined by volatility of the metal element, but chlorine content in feedstock had a significant effect on Cu and a marginal effect on Pb. Distribution ratio of Zn to MFA was influenced by the oxidizing atmosphere in the furnace. High MFA generation and distribution ratio of non-volatile metals to MFA in gasification-melting facilities was probably caused by carry-over of fine particles to the air pollution control system due to large gas volume. Finally, dilution effect was shown to have a significant effect on metal concentration in MFA.

  13. Chicken-Bio Nuggets Gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Sheth, A.C. [Univ. of Tennessee Space Institute, Tullahoma, TN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    With the cost of landfill disposal skyrocketing and land availability becoming scarce, better options are required for managing our nation`s biomass waste. In response to this need, the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) is evaluating an innovative idea (described as Chicken-Bio Nuggets Gasification process) to gasify waste products from the poultry industry and industrial wood/biomass-based residues in {open_quotes}as-is{close_quotes} or aggregate form. The presence of potassium salts in the poultry waste as well as in the biomass can act as a catalyst in reducing the severity of the thermal gasification. As a result, the mixture of these waste products can be gasified at a much lower temperature (1,300-1,400{degrees}F versus 1,800-2,000{degrees}F for conventional thermal gasification). Also, these potassium salts act as a catalyst by accelerating the gasification reaction and enhancing the mediation reaction. Hence, the product gas from this UTSI concept can be richer in methane and probably can be used as a source of fuel (to replace propane in hard reach remote places) or as a chemical feed stock. Exxon Research and Engineering Company has tested a similar catalytic gasification concept in a fluid-bed gasifier using coal in a one ton/day pilot plant in Baytown, Texas. If found technically and economically feasible, this concept can be later on extended to include other kinds of waste products such as cow manure and wastes from swine, etc.

  14. The effect of ash composition on gasification of poultry wastes in a fluidized bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Di Gregorio, Fabrizio; Santoro, Donato; Arena, Umberto

    2014-04-01

    The effect of ash composition on the fluidized bed gasification behaviour of poultry wastes was investigated by operating a pre-pilot scale reactor with two batches of manure obtained from an industrial chicken farm. The experimental runs were carried out by keeping the fluidized bed velocity fixed (at 0.4m s(-1)) and by varying the equivalence ratio between 0.27 and 0.40, so obtaining bed temperature values between 700 and 800 °C. The performance of the gasification process was assessed by means of mass balances as well as material and feedstock energy analyses, and reported in terms of cold gas efficiency (CGE), specific energy production, low heating value of obtained syngas and yield of undesired by-products. The experimental results indicate the crucial role of ash amount and composition of the two poultry wastes. In particular, higher ash content (25.1% instead of 17.2%) and higher fractions of calcium, phosphorous and potassium (with an increase of 24, 30 and 28%, respectively) induce a dramatic reduction of all the process performance parameters: CGE reduces from 0.63 to 0.33 and the specific energy from 2.1 to 1.1 kWh kg(fuel)(-1). At the same time, the formation of alkali compounds and their behaviour inside the fluidized bed reactor determine an increase of feedstock energy losses, which is related to occurrence of sintering and bridging between bed particles. PMID:24638275

  15. Production of high quality syngas from argon/water plasma gasification of biomass and waste.

    PubMed

    Hlina, M; Hrabovsky, M; Kavka, T; Konrad, M

    2014-01-01

    Extremely hot thermal plasma was used for the gasification of biomass (spruce sawdust, wood pellets) and waste (waste plastics, pyrolysis oil). The plasma was produced by a plasma torch with DC electric arc using unique hybrid stabilization. The torch input power of 100-110 kW and the mass flow rate of the gasified materials of tens kg/h was set up during experiments. Produced synthetic gas featured very high content of hydrogen and carbon monoxide (together approximately 90%) that is in a good agreement with theory. High quality of the produced gas is given by extreme parameters of used plasma--composition, very high temperature and low mass flow rate. PMID:24148259

  16. Liquefaction process for a hydrothermally treated waste mixture containing plastics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Motoyuki Sugano; Akihiro Komatsu; Masanori Yamamoto; Mika Kumagai; Takayuki Shimizu; Katsumi Hirano; Kiyoshi Mashimo

    2009-01-01

    Most landfilled plastic waste is a mixture or is in the form of composites with incombustible wastes such as glass, metals,\\u000a and ceramics. After hydrothermal treatment, including a steam-explosion process, the separation of mixed waste (MW) into organic\\u000a and inorganic substances becomes easy. However, the effect of hydrothermal pretreatment on the subsequent liquefaction of\\u000a organic substances from MW is not

  17. A thermocatalytic process for the gasification of high-moisture food processing wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Butner, R.S.; Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J.; Banns, N.G.

    1988-08-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing a thermocatalytic gasification system that converts high-moisture organic solid wastes to a medium-Btu (450 to 550 Btu/scf) fuel gas. High-COD liquid wastes can also be treated but may require the use of supplemental fuel. A 1-liter batch reactor has been used to gasify a number of food processing wastes, including fruit pomace, potato peeling sludge, cheese whey, and brewer's spent grain. The waste is gasified in the presence of a nickel catalyst at 350/degree/C to 400/degree/C and 2000 to 4000 psig. Carbon conversion to gas is typically 90 to 95 wt% after 15 to 30 min. Methane yields of up to 6.3 scf/dry pound of spent grain have been obtained, with the methane content of the raw gas ranging from 45 vol% to 55 vol%. Data obtained from the batch reactor studies indicate that the process is a net energy produced for most organic waste streams containing more than 2 wt% solids. The PNL process is currently being tested in a continuous reactor system designed to obtain reactor engineering and design data which will be required for process scaleup. Results from both the batch and continuous reactor systems are presented in this paper. Plans for a pilot-scale demonstration facility are also discussed. 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Use of waste plastic in concrete mixture as aggregate replacement.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Zainab Z; Al-Hashmi, Enas A

    2008-11-01

    Industrial activities in Iraq are associated with significant amounts of non-biodegradable solid waste, waste plastic being among the most prominent. This study involved 86 experiments and 254 tests to determine the efficiency of reusing waste plastic in the production of concrete. Thirty kilograms of waste plastic of fabriform shapes was used as a partial replacement for sand by 0%, 10%, 15%, and 20% with 800 kg of concrete mixtures. All of the concrete mixtures were tested at room temperature. These tests include performing slump, fresh density, dry density, compressive strength, flexural strength, and toughness indices. Seventy cubes were molded for compressive strength and dry density tests, and 54 prisms were cast for flexural strength and toughness indices tests. Curing ages of 3, 7, 14, and 28 days for the concrete mixtures were applied in this work. The results proved the arrest of the propagation of micro cracks by introducing waste plastic of fabriform shapes to concrete mixtures. This study insures that reusing waste plastic as a sand-substitution aggregate in concrete gives a good approach to reduce the cost of materials and solve some of the solid waste problems posed by plastics. PMID:17931848

  19. Demonstration of thermal plasma gasification/vitrification for municipal solid waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Byun, Youngchul; Namkung, Won; Cho, Moohyun; Chung, Jae Woo; Kim, Young-Suk; Lee, Jin-Ho; Lee, Carg-Ro; Hwang, Soon-Mo

    2010-09-01

    Thermal plasma treatment has been regarded as a viable alternative for the treatment of highly toxic wastes, such as incinerator residues, radioactive wastes, and medical wastes. Therefore, a gasification/vitrification unit for the direct treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW), with a capacity of 10 tons/day, was developed using an integrated furnace equipped with two nontransferred thermal plasma torches. The overall process, as well as the analysis of byproducts and energy balance, has been presented in this paper to assess the performance of this technology. It was successfully demonstrated that the thermal plasma process converted MSW into innocuous slag, with much lower levels of environmental air pollutant emissions and the syngas having a utility value as energy sources (287 Nm3/MSW-ton for H2 and 395 Nm3/MSW-ton for CO), using 1.14 MWh/MSW-ton of electricity (thermal plasma torch (0.817 MWh/MSW-ton)+utilities (0.322 MWh/MSW-ton)) and 7.37 Nm3/MSW-ton of liquefied petroleum gas. PMID:20677789

  20. An integrated approach to energy recovery from biomass and waste: Anaerobic digestion-gasification-water treatment.

    PubMed

    Milani, M; Montorsi, L; Stefani, M

    2014-06-19

    The article investigates the performance of an integrated system for the energy recovery from biomass and waste based on anaerobic digestion, gasification and water treatment. In the proposed system, the organic fraction of waste of the digestible biomass is fed into an anaerobic digester, while a part of the combustible fraction of the municipal solid waste is gasified. Thus, the obtained biogas and syngas are used as a fuel for running a cogeneration system based on an internal combustion engine to produce electric and thermal power. The waste water produced by the integrated plant is recovered by means of both forward and inverse osmosis. The different processes, as well as the main components of the system, are modelled by means of a lumped and distributed parameter approach and the main outputs of the integrated plant such as the electric and thermal power and the amount of purified water are calculated. Finally, the implementation of the proposed system is evaluated for urban areas with a different number of inhabitants and the relating performance is estimated in terms of the main outputs of the system. PMID:24946772

  1. Evaluation of gasification and novel thermal processes for the treatment of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Niessen, W.R.; Marks, C.H.; Sommerlad, R.E. [Camp Dresser and McKee, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Camp Dresser and McKee, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    This report identifies seven developers whose gasification technologies can be used to treat the organic constituents of municipal solid waste: Energy Products of Idaho; TPS Termiska Processor AB; Proler International Corporation; Thermoselect Inc.; Battelle; Pedco Incorporated; and ThermoChem, Incorporated. Their processes recover heat directly, produce a fuel product, or produce a feedstock for chemical processes. The technologies are on the brink of commercial availability. This report evaluates, for each technology, several kinds of issues. Technical considerations were material balance, energy balance, plant thermal efficiency, and effect of feedstock contaminants. Environmental considerations were the regulatory context, and such things as composition, mass rate, and treatability of pollutants. Business issues were related to likelihood of commercialization. Finally, cost and economic issues such as capital and operating costs, and the refuse-derived fuel preparation and energy conversion costs, were considered. The final section of the report reviews and summarizes the information gathered during the study.

  2. Element partitioning in combustion- and gasification-based waste-to-energy units

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, Umberto, E-mail: umberto.arena@unina2.it [Department of Environmental, Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences and Technologies – Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); AMRA s.c.a r.l., Via Nuova Agnano, 11, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Di Gregorio, Fabrizio [Department of Environmental, Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences and Technologies – Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? Element partitioning of waste-to-energy units by means of a substance flow analysis. ? A comparison between moving grate combustors and high temperature gasifiers. ? Classification of key elements according to their behavior during WtE processes. ? Slags and metals from waste gasifiers are completely and immediately recyclable. ? Potential reduction of amounts of solid residue to be sent to landfill disposal. - Abstract: A critical comparison between combustion- and gasification-based waste-to-energy systems needs a deep knowledge of the mass flows of materials and elements inside and throughout the units. The study collected and processed data from several moving grate conventional incinerators and high-temperature shaft gasifiers with direct melting, which are in operation worldwide. A material and substance flow analysis was then developed to systematically assess the flows and stocks of materials and elements within each waste-to-energy unit, by connecting the sources, pathways, and intermediate and final sinks of each species. The patterns of key elements, such as carbon, chloride and heavy metals, in the different solid and gaseous output streams of the two compared processes have been then defined. The combination of partitioning coefficients with the mass balances on atomic species and results of mineralogical characterization from recent literatures was used to estimate a composition of bottom ashes and slags from the two types of waste-to-energy technologies. The results also allow to quantify some of the performance parameters of the units and, in particular, the potential reduction of the amount of solid residues to be sent to final disposal.

  3. Simplex-centroid mixture formulation for optimised composting of kitchen waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Abdullah; N. L. Chin

    2010-01-01

    Composting is a good recycling method to fully utilise all the organic wastes present in kitchen waste due to its high nutritious matter within the waste. In this present study, the optimised mixture proportions of kitchen waste containing vegetable scraps (V), fish processing waste (F) and newspaper (N) or onion peels (O) were determined by applying the simplex-centroid mixture design

  4. Multi-gene genetic programming based predictive models for municipal solid waste gasification in a fluidized bed gasifier.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Daya Shankar; Pan, Indranil; Das, Saptarshi; Leahy, James J; Kwapinski, Witold

    2015-03-01

    A multi-gene genetic programming technique is proposed as a new method to predict syngas yield production and the lower heating value for municipal solid waste gasification in a fluidized bed gasifier. The study shows that the predicted outputs of the municipal solid waste gasification process are in good agreement with the experimental dataset and also generalise well to validation (untrained) data. Published experimental datasets are used for model training and validation purposes. The results show the effectiveness of the genetic programming technique for solving complex nonlinear regression problems. The multi-gene genetic programming are also compared with a single-gene genetic programming model to show the relative merits and demerits of the technique. This study demonstrates that the genetic programming based data-driven modelling strategy can be a good candidate for developing models for other types of fuels as well. PMID:25576988

  5. Microgravity and Hypogravity Compatible Methods for the Destruction of Solid Wastes by Magnetically Assisted Gasification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, James E.; Akse, James R.; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Jovanovic, Goran N.; Pinto-Espinoza, Joaquin; Reed, Brian; Sornchamni, Thana

    2003-01-01

    This report summarizes a three-year collaborative effort between researchers at UMPQUA Research Company (URC) and the Chemical Engineering Department at Oregon State University (OSU). The Magnetically Assisted Gasification (MAG) concept was originally conceived as a microgravity and hypogravity compatible means for the decomposition of solid waste materials generated aboard spacecraft, lunar and planetary habitations, and for the recovery of potentially valuable resources. While a number of methods such as supercritical water oxidation (SCW0), fluidized bed incineration, pyrolysis , composting and related biological processes have been demonstrated for the decomposition of solid wastes, none of these methods are particularly well- suited for employment under microgravity or hypogravity conditions. For example, fluidized bed incineration relies upon a balance between drag forces which the flowing gas stream exerts upon the fluidization particles and the opposing force of gravity. In the absence of gravity, conventional fluidization cannot take place. Hypogravity operation can also be problematic for conventional fluidized bed reactors, because the various factors which govern fluidization phenomena do not all scale linearly with gravity. For this reason it may be difficult to design and test fluidized bed reactors in lg, which are intended to operate under different gravitational conditions. However, fluidization can be achieved in microgravity (and hypogravity) if a suitable replacement force to counteract the forces between fluid and particles can be found. Possible alternatives include: centripetal force, electric fields, or magnetic fields. Of these, magnetic forces created by the action of magnetic fields and magnetic field gradients upon ferromagnetic media offer the most practical approach. The goal of this URC-OSU collaborative effort was to develop magnetic hardware and methods to control the degree of fluidization (or conversely consolidation) of granular ferromagnetic media and to employ these innovations in sequential filtration and fluidized bed processes for the segregation and decomposition of solid waste materials, and for the concentration and collection of inorganic residue (ash). This required the development of numerous enabling technologies and tools.

  6. Gasification system

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, Gaurang B. (Hempfield, PA); Anderson, Richard G. (Penn Hills, PA); Cherish, Peter (Bethel Park, PA)

    1985-01-01

    A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

  7. Gasification system

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, Gaurang B. (Hempfield, PA); Anderson, Richard G. (Penn Hills, PA); Cherish, Peter (Bethel Park, PA)

    1983-01-01

    A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

  8. Fluid bed gasification--plasma converter process generating energy from solid waste: experimental assessment of sulphur species.

    PubMed

    Morrin, Shane; Lettieri, Paola; Chapman, Chris; Taylor, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Often perceived as a Cinderella material, there is growing appreciation for solid waste as a renewable content thermal process feed. Nonetheless, research on solid waste gasification and sulphur mechanisms in particular is lacking. This paper presents results from two related experiments on a novel two stage gasification process, at demonstration scale, using a sulphur-enriched wood pellet feed. Notable SO2 and relatively low COS levels (before gas cleaning) were interesting features of the trials, and not normally expected under reducing gasification conditions. Analysis suggests that localised oxygen rich regions within the fluid bed played a role in SO2's generation. The response of COS to sulphur in the feed was quite prompt, whereas SO2 was more delayed. It is proposed that the bed material sequestered sulphur from the feed, later aiding SO2 generation. The more reducing gas phase regions above the bed would have facilitated COS--hence its faster response. These results provide a useful insight, with further analysis on a suite of performed experiments underway, along with thermodynamic modelling. PMID:24176239

  9. Steam gasification of waste tyre: influence of process temperature on yield and product composition.

    PubMed

    Portofino, Sabrina; Donatelli, Antonio; Iovane, Pierpaolo; Innella, Carolina; Civita, Rocco; Martino, Maria; Matera, Domenico Antonio; Russo, Antonio; Cornacchia, Giacinto; Galvagno, Sergio

    2013-03-01

    An experimental survey of waste tyre gasification with steam as oxidizing agent has been conducted in a continuous bench scale reactor, with the aim of studying the influence of the process temperature on the yield and the composition of the products; the tests have been performed at three different temperatures, in the range of 850-1000°C, holding all the other operational parameters (pressure, carrier gas flow, solid residence time). The experimental results show that the process seems promising in view of obtaining a good quality syngas, indicating that a higher temperature results in a higher syngas production (86 wt%) and a lower char yield, due to an enhancement of the solid-gas phase reactions with the temperature. Higher temperatures clearly result in higher hydrogen concentrations: the hydrogen content rapidly increases, attaining values higher than 65% v/v, while methane and ethylene gradually decrease over the range of the temperatures; carbon monoxide and dioxide instead, after an initial increase, show a nearly constant concentration at 1000°C. Furthermore, in regards to the elemental composition of the synthesis gas, as the temperature increases, the carbon content continuously decreases, while the oxygen content increases; the hydrogen, being the main component of the gas fraction and having a small atomic weight, is responsible for the progressive reduction of the gas density at higher temperature. PMID:22749720

  10. Bench-scale reactor tests of low-temperature, catalytic gasification of wet, industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.C.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Baker, E.G.; Butner, R.S.; Sealock, L.J.

    1990-04-01

    Bench-scale reactor tests are under way at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop a low-temperature, catalytic gasification system. The system, licensed under the trade name Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg sign}), is designed for to a wide variety of feedstocks ranging from dilute organics in water to waste sludges from food processing. The current research program is focused on the use of a continuous-feed, tubular reactor. The catalyst is nickel metal on an inert support. Typical results show that feedstocks such as solutions of 2% para-cresol or 5% and 10% lactose in water or cheese whey can be processed to >99% reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) at a rate of up to 2 L/hr. The estimated residence time is less than 5 min at 360{degree}C and 3000 psig, not including 1 to 2 min required in the preheating zone of the reactor. The liquid hourly space velocity has been varied from 1.8 to 2.9 L feedstock/L catalyst/hr depending on the feedstock. The product fuel gas contains 40% to 55% methane, 35% to 50% carbon dioxide, and 5% to 10% hydrogen with as much as 2% ethane, but less than 0.1% ethylene or carbon monoxide, and small amounts of higher hydrocarbons. The byproduct water stream carries residual organics amounting to less than 500 mg/L COD. 9 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  11. Desulfurization of bituminous coals: fluidized bed gasification of coal\\/phosphoric acid mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Stencel; J. Yang; J. K. Neathery

    1995-01-01

    The processing of coal:phosphoric acid mixtures using mild temperature (932°F) fluidized bed conditions is presented. Phosphoric acid promoted the desulfurization of the bituminous coals, producing chars that contained less than 20% of sulfur originally in the coals. Gaseous H2S was the primary sulfur-containing gaseous product. Pyritic sulfur was eliminated from the coal at a temperature as low as 410°F, whereas

  12. Biomass waste gasification - Can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?

    SciTech Connect

    Sulc, Jindrich; Stojdl, Jiri; Richter, Miroslav; Popelka, Jan [Faculty of the Environment, Jan Evangelista Purkyne University in Usti nad Labem, Kralova Vysina 7, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Svoboda, Karel, E-mail: svoboda@icpf.cas.cz [Faculty of the Environment, Jan Evangelista Purkyne University in Usti nad Labem, Kralova Vysina 7, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the ASCR, v.v.i., Rozvojova 135, 165 02 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Smetana, Jiri; Vacek, Jiri [D.S.K. Ltd., Ujezdecek - Dukla 264, 415 01 Teplice I (Czech Republic); Skoblja, Siarhei; Buryan, Petr [Dept. of Gas, Coke and Air protection, Institute of Chemical Technol., Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of one stage (co-current) and two stage gasification of wood pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Original arrangement with grate-less reactor and upward moving bed of the pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two stage gasification leads to drastic reduction of tar content in gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer One stage gasification produces gas with higher LHV at lower overall ER. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Content of ammonia in gas is lower in two stage moving bed gasification. - Abstract: A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of tar compounds, content of inorganic gas impurities) were compared for the two stage and the one stage method of the gasification arrangement with only the upward moving bed (co-current updraft). The main novel features of the gasifier conception include grate-less reactor, upward moving bed of biomass particles (e.g. pellets) by means of a screw elevator with changeable rotational speed and gradual expanding diameter of the cylindrical reactor in the part above the upper end of the screw. The gasifier concept and arrangement are considered convenient for thermal power range 100-350 kW{sub th}. The second stage of the gasifier served mainly for tar compounds destruction/reforming by increased temperature (around 950 Degree-Sign C) and for gasification reaction of the fuel gas with char. The second stage used additional combustion of the fuel gas by preheated secondary air for attaining higher temperature and faster gasification of the remaining char from the first stage. The measurements of gas composition and tar compound contents confirmed superiority of the two stage gasification system, drastic decrease of aromatic compounds with two and higher number of benzene rings by 1-2 orders. On the other hand the two stage gasification (with overall ER = 0.71) led to substantial reduction of gas heating value (LHV = 3.15 MJ/Nm{sup 3}), elevation of gas volume and increase of nitrogen content in fuel gas. The increased temperature (>950 Degree-Sign C) at the entrance to the char bed caused also substantial decrease of ammonia content in fuel gas. The char with higher content of ash leaving the second stage presented only few mass% of the inlet biomass stream.

  13. Development of a Segregated Municipal Solid Waste Gasification System for Electrical Power Generation 

    E-print Network

    Maglinao, Amado Latayan

    2013-04-11

    ) gasification for electrical power generation was conducted in a fluidized bed gasifier and the feasibility of using a control system was evaluated to facilitate its management and operation. The performance of an engine using the gas produced was evaluated. A...

  14. Integrated carbon dioxide/sludge gasification using waste heat from hot slags: syngas production and sulfur dioxide fixation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongqi; Zhang, Zuotai; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong

    2015-04-01

    The integrated CO2/sludge gasification using the waste heat in hot slags, was explored with the aim of syngas production, waste heat recovery and sewage sludge disposal. The results demonstrated that hot slags presented multiple roles on sludge gasification, i.e., not only a good heat carrier (500-950 °C) but also an effective desulfurizer (800-900 °C). The total gas yields increased from 0.022 kg/kgsludge at 500 °C to 0.422 kg/kgsludge at 900 °C; meanwhile, the SO2 concentration at 900 °C remarkably reduced from 164 ppm to 114 ppm by blast furnace slags (BFS) and 93 ppm by steel slags (SS), respectively. A three-stage reaction was clarified including volatile release, char transformation and fixed carbon using Gaussian fittings and the kinetic model was analyzed. Accordingly, a decline process using the integrated method was designed and the optimum slag/sludge ratio was deduced. These deciphered results appealed potential ways of reasonable disposal of sewage sludge and efficient recovery of waste heat from hot slags. PMID:25647028

  15. Composting dynamics and optimum mixture ratio of chicken manure and vineyard wastes.

    PubMed

    Kulcu, Recep; Yaldiz, Osman

    2005-04-01

    Vineyard waste and chicken manure mixtures are useful materials for composting but when these wastes are composted alone, many environmental problems occur because of their chemical characteristics. Whereas chicken manure is a very rich source of nitrogen, vineyard waste has a very high carbon content. In the present study experiments to determine an optimum mixture ratio of chicken manure and vineyard waste for composting were performed. The results showed that the optimum mixture ratio for composting these materials was 50% chicken manure and 50% vineyard waste on a dry basis. PMID:15864951

  16. Analysis of products from the pyrolysis and liquefaction of single plastics and waste plastic mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul T. Williams; Edward Slaney

    2007-01-01

    Waste plastics in the form of two examples of real world municipal solid waste plastics and a simulated mixture of municipal waste plastics were pyrolysed and liquefied under moderate temperature and pressure in a batch autoclave reactor. In addition, the five main polymers which constitute the majority of plastics occurring in European municipal solid waste comprising, polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyethylene

  17. Method and compositions for the degradation of tributyl phosphate in chemical waste mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Stoner, Daphne L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tien, Albert J. (Zurich, CH)

    1995-01-01

    A method and process for the degradation of tributyl phosphate in an organic waste mixture and a biologically pure, novel bacteria culture for accomplishing the same. A newly-discovered bacteria (a strain of Acinetobacter sp. ATCC 55587) is provided which is combined in a reactor vessel with a liquid waste mixture containing tributyl phosphate and one or more organic waste compounds capable of functioning as growth substrates for the bacteria. The bacteria is thereafter allowed to incubate within the waste mixture. As a result, the tributyl phosphate and organic compounds within the waste mixture are metabolized (degraded) by the bacteria, thereby eliminating such materials which are environmentally hazardous. In addition, the bacteria is capable of degrading waste mixtures containing high quantities of tributyl phosphate (e.g. up to about 1.0% by weight tributyl phosphate).

  18. Method and compositions for the degradation of tributyl phosphate in chemical waste mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Stoner, D.L.; Tien, A.J.

    1995-09-26

    A method and process are disclosed for the degradation of tributyl phosphate in an organic waste mixture and a biologically pure, novel bacteria culture for accomplishing the same. A newly-discovered bacteria (a strain of Acinetobacter sp. ATCC 55587) is provided which is combined in a reactor vessel with a liquid waste mixture containing tributyl phosphate and one or more organic waste compounds capable of functioning as growth substrates for the bacteria. The bacteria is thereafter allowed to incubate within the waste mixture. As a result, the tributyl phosphate and organic compounds within the waste mixture are metabolized (degraded) by the bacteria, thereby eliminating such materials which are environmentally hazardous. In addition, the bacteria is capable of degrading waste mixtures containing high quantities of tributyl phosphate (e.g. up to about 1.0% by weight tributyl phosphate). 6 figs.

  19. Toxicity of complex waste mixtures: A comparison of observed and predicted lethality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane Ellen Simmons; Ezra Berman

    1989-01-01

    The ability to predict the biological effect of complex waste mixtures from chemical characterization data was examined by comparing observed mortality to that predicted by a mathematical additivity model with literature LD50 values for the chemicals identified in the mixtures. Male F344 rats were exposed by gavage to 1 of 10 samples of complex industrial waste. Seven of the 10

  20. Simplex-centroid mixture formulation for optimised composting of kitchen waste.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, N; Chin, N L

    2010-11-01

    Composting is a good recycling method to fully utilise all the organic wastes present in kitchen waste due to its high nutritious matter within the waste. In this present study, the optimised mixture proportions of kitchen waste containing vegetable scraps (V), fish processing waste (F) and newspaper (N) or onion peels (O) were determined by applying the simplex-centroid mixture design method to achieve the desired initial moisture content and carbon-to-nitrogen (CN) ratio for effective composting process. The best mixture was at 48.5% V, 17.7% F and 33.7% N for blends with newspaper while for blends with onion peels, the mixture proportion was 44.0% V, 19.7% F and 36.2% O. The predicted responses from these mixture proportions fall in the acceptable limits of moisture content of 50% to 65% and CN ratio of 20-40 and were also validated experimentally. PMID:20624604

  1. Recovery of plastic wastes from dumpsite as refuse-derived fuel and its utilization in small gasification system.

    PubMed

    Chiemchaisri, Chart; Charnnok, Boonya; Visvanathan, Chettiyappan

    2010-03-01

    An effort to utilize solid wastes at dumpsite as refuse-derived fuel (RDF) was carried out. The produced RDF briquette was then utilized in the gasification system. These wastes were initially examined for their physical composition and chemical characteristics. The wastes contained high plastic content of 24.6-44.8%, majority in polyethylene plastic bag form. The plastic wastes were purified by separating them from other components through manual separation and trommel screen after which their content increased to 82.9-89.7%. Subsequently, they were mixed with binding agent (cassava root) and transformed into RDF briquette. Maximum plastic content in RDF briquette was limit to 55% to maintain physical strength and maximum chlorine content. The RDF briquette was tested in a down-draft gasifier. The produced gas contained average energy content of 1.76 MJ/m(3), yielding cold gas efficiency of 66%. The energy production cost from this RDF process was estimated as USD0.05 perkWh. PMID:19758801

  2. Equilibrium moisture content of waste mixtures from post-consumer carton packaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Bacelos; J. T. Freire

    2012-01-01

    The manufacturing of boards and roof tiles is one of the routes to reuse waste from the recycled-carton-packaging process. Such a process requires knowledge of the hygroscopic behaviour of these carton-packaging waste mixtures in order to guarantee the quality of the final product (e.g. boards and roof tiles). Thus, with four carton-packaging waste mixtures of selected compositions (A, B, C

  3. Two stage fluid bed-plasma gasification process for solid waste valorisation: technical review and preliminary thermodynamic modelling of sulphur emissions.

    PubMed

    Morrin, Shane; Lettieri, Paola; Chapman, Chris; Mazzei, Luca

    2012-04-01

    Gasification of solid waste for energy has significant potential given an abundant feed supply and strong policy drivers. Nonetheless, significant ambiguities in the knowledge base are apparent. Consequently this study investigates sulphur mechanisms within a novel two stage fluid bed-plasma gasification process. This paper includes a detailed review of gasification and plasma fundamentals in relation to the specific process, along with insight on MSW based feedstock properties and sulphur pollutant therein. As a first step to understanding sulphur partitioning and speciation within the process, thermodynamic modelling of the fluid bed stage has been performed. Preliminary findings, supported by plant experience, indicate the prominence of solid phase sulphur species (as opposed to H(2)S) - Na and K based species in particular. Work is underway to further investigate and validate this. PMID:21982278

  4. New insulating particleboards prepared from mixture of solid wastes from tissue paper manufacturing and corn peel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pranee Lertsutthiwong; Srichalai Khunthon; Krisana Siralertmukul; Khanittha Noomun; Suwalee Chandrkrachang

    2008-01-01

    New composite boards with low-thermal conductivity produced from a mixture of solid wastes from tissue paper manufacturing (solid waste TPM) and corn peel have been developed. The effects of solid waste TPM\\/corn peel ratio on the properties of the boards were investigated and the possibility of using recycled polystyrene packaging foam as a laminating agent to improve the quality of

  5. Use of waste plastic in concrete mixture as aggregate replacement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zainab Z. Ismail; Enas A. AL-Hashmi

    2008-01-01

    Industrial activities in Iraq are associated with significant amounts of non-biodegradable solid waste, waste plastic being among the most prominent. This study involved 86 experiments and 254 tests to determine the efficiency of reusing waste plastic in the production of concrete. Thirty kilograms of waste plastic of fabriform shapes was used as a partial replacement for sand by 0%, 10%,

  6. Identification and differentiation of individual beta emitters in waste mixtures by liquid scintillation spectrometry 

    E-print Network

    Siskel, Robin Lynn

    1988-01-01

    IDENTIFICATION AND DIFFERENTIATION OF INDIVIDUAL BETA EMITTERS IN WASTE MIXTURES BY LIQUID SCINTILLATION SPECTROMETRY A Thesis by ROBIN LYNN SISKEL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1988 Major Subject: Health Physics IDENTIFICATION AND DIFFERENTIATION OF INDIVIDUAL BETA EMITTERS IN WASTE MIXTURES BY LIQUID SCINTILLATION SPECTROMETRY A Thesis by ROBIN LYNN SISKEL Approved...

  7. TOXICITY OF COMPLEX WASTE MIXTURES: A COMPARISON OF OBSERVED AND PREDICTED LETHALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability to predict the biological effect of complex waste mixtures from chemical characterization data was examined by comparing observed mortality to that predicted by a mathematical additivity model with literature LD50 values for the chemicals identified in the mixtures. a...

  8. Development of water-slurry gasification systems for high-moisture biomass. [Spent grain, potato waste, kelp, water hyacinth, napier grass, sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Butner, R.S.; Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The development of a new biomass gasification system by Pacific Northwest Laboratory promises to allow the use of high-moisture biomass feedstocks. The reactor uses high pressure to allow the gasification of water-biomass slurries containing up to 95% moisture. Because the gasification takes place in an aqueous system, there is no need to dry or dewater the feedstocks prior to their use. Feedstocks under study include water hyacinths, kelp, napier grass, spent brewer's grain, and a waste stream obtained from the potato processing industry. Gasification products include hydrogen, CO/sub 2/ and methane. The effects of processing conditions including temperature, pressure, and catalyst are being studied in order to maximize both the rate of conversion and the yield of higher value products. The new reactor concept represents a significant opportunity for expanding the biomass resource base to include aquatic plants and other high-moisture feedstocks. Many of these feedstocks are uneconomical in conventional thermochemical and biological conversion schemes. By eliminating the need for energy intensive drying steps, the aqueous conversion route may also increase net energy yields from more conventional feedstocks. The work is being sponsored by the USDOE's Biomass Energy Technology Division, Thermochemical Conversion Program. 13 references, 4 figures, 4 tables.

  9. Characterization and disposal of coal-gasification waste products. Phase 2. Topical report, 1 May 1984-30 April 1986

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. W. Spaite; D. A. Dalrymple; G. C. Page

    1987-01-01

    The Gas Research Institute has sponsored a program to collect, organize, and evaluate information relevant to controlling potential environmental, health and safety (EHandS) impacts of coal gasification. A technology assessment was conducted using previously developed methodology, and the results were used as a basis for the development of GRI Coal Gasification EHandS Information System and a computerized information management program.

  10. Achieving waste to energy through sewage sludge gasification using hot slags: syngas production

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yongqi; Nakano, Jinichiro; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-01-01

    To relieve the environmental issues of sewage sludge (SS) disposal and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in China, we proposed an integrated method for the first time to simultaneously deal with these two problems. The hot slags below 920?°C could act as a good heat carrier for sludge gasification and the increasing CO2 concentration in CO2/O2 atmospheres enhanced the production of CO and H2 at 400–800?°C. Three stages of syngas release were clearly identified by Gaussian fittings, i.e., volatile release, char transformation and fixed carbon reaction. Additionally, the effect of sulfur retention of slags and the synergy effect of the stabilization of toxic elements in the solid residuals were discovered in this study. Furthermore, a novel prototype of multiple industrial and urban systems was put forward, in which the produced CO?+?H2 could be utilized for direct reduced iron (DRI) production and the solid residuals of sludge ash and glassy slags would be applied as cementitious materials. For a steel plant with an annual production of crude steel of 10 million tons in China, the total annual energy saving and GHG emission reduction achieved are 3.31*105 tons of standard coal and 1.74*106 tons of CO2, respectively. PMID:26074060

  11. Achieving waste to energy through sewage sludge gasification using hot slags: syngas production.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongqi; Nakano, Jinichiro; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-01-01

    To relieve the environmental issues of sewage sludge (SS) disposal and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in China, we proposed an integrated method for the first time to simultaneously deal with these two problems. The hot slags below 920?°C could act as a good heat carrier for sludge gasification and the increasing CO2 concentration in CO2/O2 atmospheres enhanced the production of CO and H2 at 400-800?°C. Three stages of syngas release were clearly identified by Gaussian fittings, i.e., volatile release, char transformation and fixed carbon reaction. Additionally, the effect of sulfur retention of slags and the synergy effect of the stabilization of toxic elements in the solid residuals were discovered in this study. Furthermore, a novel prototype of multiple industrial and urban systems was put forward, in which the produced CO?+?H2 could be utilized for direct reduced iron (DRI) production and the solid residuals of sludge ash and glassy slags would be applied as cementitious materials. For a steel plant with an annual production of crude steel of 10 million tons in China, the total annual energy saving and GHG emission reduction achieved are 3.31*10(5) tons of standard coal and 1.74*10(6) tons of CO2, respectively. PMID:26074060

  12. Study on chlorine removal from mixture of waste plastics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yusuke Kakuta; Katsumi Hirano; Motoyuki Sugano; Kiyoshi Mashimo

    2008-01-01

    The recycling of waste plastics that include plastics that contain chlorine, such as polyvinyl chloride, is difficult because the chlorine leads to the corrosion of equipment. Then, the dechlorination method of waste plastics containing chlorine (CCWP) that consists of a series of melt process and hot water process was examined. CCWP was put into the melt process with coal tar

  13. Pyrolysis and Gasification of Cotton Scrap Materials as a Municipal Solid Waste Material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Gülen; H. Arslan

    2009-01-01

    Fixed bed pyrolysis experiments have been conducted on waste cotton scrap materials for converting into fuel form. The effect of temperature on the pyrolysis experiments has been investigated at the temperatures of 250°C, 350°C, 500°C, 600°C, 700°C, 800°C, and 900°C. The maximum liquid amount (30%)was obtained at 500°C with 700 cm\\/min N2 sweep gas flow rate of 5°C\\/min heating rate.

  14. Arsenic, chromium and mercury removal using mussel shell ash or a sludge/ashes waste mixture.

    PubMed

    Seco-Reigosa, Natalia; Peña-Rodríguez, Susana; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Fernández-Sanjurjo, María J; Alvarez-Rodríguez, Esperanza; Núñez-Delgado, Avelino

    2013-04-01

    Different batches of valued mussel shell and waste mussel shell ash are characterised. Shell ash has pH > 12 and high electrical conductivities (between 16.01 and 27.27 dS m(-1)), while calcined shell shows pH values up to 10.7 and electrical conductivities between 1.19 and 3.55 dS m(-1). X-ray fluorescence, nitric acid digestion and water extractions show higher concentrations in shell ash for most parameters. Calcite is the dominant crystalline compound in this ash (95.6%), followed by aragonite. Adsorption/desorption trials were performed for mussel shell ash and for a waste mixture including shell ash, sewage sludge and wood ash, showing the following percentage adsorptions: Hg(II) >94%, As(V) >96% and Cr(VI) between 11 and 30% for shell ash; Hg(II) >98%, As(V) >88% and Cr(VI) between 30 and 88% for the waste mixture. Hg and As desorption was <5% for both shell ash and the waste mixture, while Cr desorption was between 92 and 45% for shell ash, and between 19 and 0% for the mixture. In view of that, mussel shell ash and the mixture including shell ash, sewage sludge and wood ash could be useful for Hg(II) and As(V) removal. PMID:22990579

  15. LETHALITY AND HEPATOTOXICITY OF COMPLEX WASTE MIXTURES (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Male F344 rats were exposed by gavage to samples of complex mixtures and evaluated 24 hours later. Seven of the 10 samples caused death at doses ranging from 1 to 5 ml/kg body wt. Eight of the 10 samples were hepatotoxic based on histopathologic evaluation; 6 were centrilobular a...

  16. Comparison of performance data of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell using biomass gasification gas and natural gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnstein Norheim; Johan E. Hustad; Jan Byrknes; Arild Vik

    Gasification of biomass produces a gas consisting mainly of H2, CO, CO2, H2, N2, CH4 and other light hydrocarbons. The composition of the gas mixture differs depending on the biomass used, gasification process conditions and technology. Gasification processes using air as gasification medium produces a diluted fuel gas, with high nitrogen content, up to 50 % (vol). Steam gasification on

  17. Method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material

    DOEpatents

    McIntosh, Michael J. (Bolingbrook, IL); Arzoumanidis, Gregory G. (Naperville, IL)

    1997-01-01

    A method of destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500.degree. C. to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 900.degree. C. in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet.

  18. PLFAs of the microbial communities in composting mixtures of agro-industry sludge with different proportions of household waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soumia Amir; Rajae Abouelwafa; Abdelilah Meddich; Salah Souabi; Peter Winterton; Géorge Merlina; Jean-Claude Revel; Eric Pinelli; Mohamed Hafidi

    2010-01-01

    Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) were analysed at different time periods during composting of two waste mixtures rich in fats, M1 (22%) and M2 (39%), with the aim of monitoring changes in microbial community structure. The two mixtures consisted of a sludge sample collected from a vegetable oil refinery effluent treatment plant combined with household wastes. The PLFA profiles of both

  19. Utilization of municipal solid waste incineration ash in stone mastic asphalt mixture: Pavement performance and environmental impact

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongjie Xue; Haobo Hou; Shujing Zhu; Jin Zha

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to the use of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash as a partial replacement of fine aggregate or mineral filler in stone matrix asphalt (SMA) mixture. For saving natural rock and reusing solid waste, basic oxygen furnace slag (BOF slag) was used as part of coarse aggregate. And this makes SMA mixtures contain

  20. Equilibrium moisture content of waste mixtures from post-consumer carton packaging.

    PubMed

    Bacelos, M S; Freire, J T

    2012-01-01

    The manufacturing of boards and roof tiles is one of the routes to reuse waste from the recycled-carton-packaging process. Such a process requires knowledge of the hygroscopic behaviour of these carton-packaging waste mixtures in order to guarantee the quality of the final product (e.g. boards and roof tiles). Thus, with four carton-packaging waste mixtures of selected compositions (A, B, C and D), the sorption isotherms were obtained at air temperature of 20, 40 and 60 degrees C by using the static method. This permits one to investigate which model can relate the equilibrium moisture content of the mixture with that of a pure component through the mass fraction of each component in the mixtures. The results show that the experimental data can be well described by the weighted harmonic mean model. This suggests that the mean equilibrium moisture content of the carton-packaging mixture presents a non-linear relationship with each single, pure compound. PMID:22720401

  1. Waste E-glass particles used in cementitious mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.H. [Institute of Materials Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, 2 Pei-Ning Road, Keelung, Taiwan 20248 (China); Huang, R. [Institute of Materials Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, 2 Pei-Ning Road, Keelung, Taiwan 20248 (China)]. E-mail: ranhuang@mail.ntou.edu.tw; Wu, J.K. [Institute of Materials Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, 2 Pei-Ning Road, Keelung, Taiwan 20248 (China); Yang, C.C. [Institute of Materials Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, 2 Pei-Ning Road, Keelung, Taiwan 20248 (China)

    2006-03-15

    The properties of concretes containing various waste E-glass particle contents were investigated in this study. Waste E-glass particles were obtained from electronic grade glass yarn scrap by grinding to small particle size. The size distribution of cylindrical glass particle was from 38 to 300 {mu}m and about 40% of E-glass particle was less than 150 {mu}m. The E-glass mainly consists of SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ca O and MgO, and is indicated as amorphous by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Compressive strength and resistance of sulfate attack and chloride ion penetration were significantly improved by utilizing proper amount of waste E-glass in concrete. The compressive strength of specimen with 40 wt.% E-glass content was 17%, 27% and 43% higher than that of control specimen at age of 28, 91 and 365 days, respectively. E-glass can be used in concrete as cementitious material as well as inert filler, which depending upon the particle size, and the dividing size appears to be 75 {mu}m. The workability decreased as the glass content increased due to reduction of fineness modulus, and the addition of high-range water reducers was needed to obtain a uniform mix. Little difference was observed in ASR testing results between control and E-glass specimens. Based on the properties of hardened concrete, optimum E-glass content was found to be 40-50 wt.%.

  2. RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT TO PREPARE AND CHARACTERIZE ROBUST COAL/BIOMASS MIXTURES FOR DIRECT CO-FEEDING INTO GASIFICATION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Felix, Larry; Farthing, William; Hoekman, S. Kent

    2014-12-31

    This project was initiated on October 1, 2010 and utilizes equipment and research supported by the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Award Number DE- FE0005349. It is also based upon previous work supported by the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Award Numbers DOE-DE-FG36-01GOl1082, DE-FG36-02G012011 or DE-EE0000272. The overall goal of the work performed was to demonstrate and assess the economic viability of fast hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) for transforming lignocellulosic biomass into a densified, friable fuel to gasify like coal that can be easily blended with ground coal and coal fines and then be formed into robust, weather-resistant pellets and briquettes. The specific objectives of the project include: • Demonstration of the continuous production of a uniform densified and formed feedstock from loblolly pine (a lignocellulosic, short rotation woody crop) in a hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process development unit (PDU). • Demonstration that finely divided bituminous coal and HTC loblolly pine can be blended to form 90/10 and 70/30 weight-percent mixtures of coal and HTC biomass for further processing by pelletization and briquetting equipment to form robust weather resistant pellets and/or briquettes suitable for transportation and long term storage. • Characterization of the coal-biomass pellets and briquettes to quantify their physical properties (e.g. flow properties, homogeneity, moisture content, particle size and shape), bulk physical properties (e.g. compressibility, heat transfer and friability) and assess their suitability for use as fuels for commercially-available coal gasifiers. • Perform economic analyses using Aspen-based process simulations to determine the costs for deploying and operating HTC processing facilities for the production of robust coal/biomass fuels suitable for fueling commercially-available coal-fired gasifiers. This Final Project Scientific/Technical Report discusses and documents the project work required to meet each of these objectives.

  3. A biomass combustion-gasification model: Validation and sensitivity analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Bettagli; D. Fiaschi; U. Desideri

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to study the gasification and combustion of biomass and waste materials. A model for the analysis of the chemical kinetics of gasification and combustion processes was developed with the main objective of calculating the gas composition at different operating conditions. The model was validated with experimental data for sawdust gasification. After having set

  4. Simulation of hybrid biomass gasification using Aspen plus: A comparative performance analysis for food, municipal solid and poultry waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naveed Ramzan; Asma Ashraf; Shahid Naveed; Abdullah Malik

    2011-01-01

    Steady state simulation model for gasification has been developed using Aspen Plus. The model can be used as a predictive tool for optimization of the gasifier performance.The Gasifier has been modeled in three stages. In first stage moisture content of biomass feed is reduced. In second stage biomass is decomposed into its elements by specifying yield distribution. In third stage

  5. Mixture models versus free energy of hydration models for waste glass durability

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, G.; Redgate, T.; Masuga, P.

    1996-03-01

    Two approaches for modeling high-level waste glass durability as a function of glass composition are compared. The mixture approach utilizes first-order mixture (FOM) or second-order mixture (SOM) polynomials in composition, whereas the free energy of hydration (FEH) approach assumes durability is linearly related to the FEH of glass. Both approaches fit their models to data using least squares regression. The mixture and FEH approaches are used to model glass durability as a function of glass composition for several simulated waste glass data sets. The resulting FEH and FOM model coefficients and goodness-of-fit statistics are compared, both within and across data sets. The goodness-of-fit statistics show that the FOM model fits/predicts durability in each data set better (sometimes much better) than the FEH model. Considerable differences also exist between some FEH and FOM model component coefficients for each of the data sets. These differences are due to the mixture approach having a greater flexibility to account for the effect of a glass component depending on the level and range of the component and on the levels of other glass components. The mixture approach can also account for higher-order (e.g., curvilinear or interactive) effects of components, whereas the FEH approach cannot. SOM models were developed for three of the data sets, and are shown to improve on the corresponding FOM models. Thus, the mixture approach has much more flexibility than the FEH approach for approximating the relationship between glass composition and durability for various glass composition regions.

  6. Optimization of Eisenia fetida stocking density for the bioconversion of rock phosphate enriched cow dung-waste paper mixtures.

    PubMed

    Unuofin, F O; Mnkeni, P N S

    2014-11-01

    Vermitechnology is gaining recognition as an environmental friendly waste management strategy. Its successful implementation requires that the key operational parameters like earthworm stocking density be established for each target waste/waste mixture. One target waste mixture in South Africa is waste paper mixed with cow dung and rock phosphate (RP) for P enrichment. This study sought to establish optimal Eisenia fetida stocking density for maximum P release and rapid bioconversion of RP enriched cow dung-paper waste mixtures. E. fetida stocking densities of 0, 7.5, 12.5, 17.5 and 22.5 g-worms kg(-1) dry weight of cow dung-waste paper mixtures were evaluated. The stocking density of 12.5 g-worms kg(-1) resulted in the highest earthworm growth rate and humification of the RP enriched waste mixture as reflected by a C:N ratio of <12 and a humic acid/fulvic acid ratio of >1.9 in final vermicomposts. A germination test revealed that the resultant vermicompost had no inhibitory effect on the germination of tomato, carrot, and radish. Extractable P increased with stocking density up to 22.5 g-worm kg(-1) feedstock suggesting that for maximum P release from RP enriched wastes a high stocking density should be considered. PMID:24997095

  7. Energy recovery from waste food by combustion or gasification with the potential for regenerative dehydration: A case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Caton; M. A. Carr; S. S. Kim; M. J. Beautyman

    2010-01-01

    Energy recovery from food waste was studied using the food service at the US Naval Academy as a case study. Post-consumer food waste was captured over a period of ten days to estimate individual waste per meal and total waste per month. The food waste was analyzed for chemical composition and water content using ultimate and proximate analysis, and for

  8. Direct liquefaction of waste plastics and coliquefaction of coal-plastic mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhen Feng; Jianmin Zhao; Jeff Rockwell; Dan Bailey; Gerald Huffman

    1996-01-01

    We have conducted further investigations of the direct liquefaction reactions of waste plastics, medium and high density polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PPE) and coal-plastic mixtures, varying the catalyst, temperature, gas, pressure, time and solvent. The experiments used four types of catalysts: a commercial HZSM-5 zeolite catalyst, and three catalysts synthesized in our laboratory, ferrihydrite treated with citric acid, coprecipitated Al2O3?SiO2, and

  9. Reuse of municipal solid wastes incineration fly ashes in concrete mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlo Collivignarelli; Sabrina Sorlini

    2002-01-01

    This study is aimed at assessing the feasibility of concrete production using stabilized m.s.w. (municipal solid waste) incineration fly ashes in addition to natural aggregates. The tested fly ashes were washed and milled, then stabilized by a cement-lime process and finally were reused as a “recycled aggregate” for cement mixture production, in substitution of a natural aggregate (with dosage of

  10. Effects of Mixture Ratio and Hydraulic Retention Time on Single-Stage Anaerobic Co-digestion of Food Waste and Waste Activated Sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nam Hyo Heo; Soon Chul Park; Ho Kang

    2004-01-01

    The biochemical methane potential (BMP) test was used to evaluate the anaerobic biodegradabilities of food waste (FW), waste activated sludge (WAS), and the mixtures having the ratios of 10:90, 30:70, 50:50, 70:30, and 90:10 (FW:WAS) on a volatile solid (VS) basis. The carbon\\/nitrogen (C\\/N) ratio and the biodegradability of the mixtures improved from 6.16 to 14.14 and increased from 36.6

  11. Fuel Flexibility in Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    McLendon, T. Robert; Pineault, Richard L.; Richardson, Steven W.; Rockey, John M.; Beer, Stephen K. (U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory); Lui, Alain P.; Batton, William A. (Parsons Infrastructure and Technology Group, Inc.)

    2001-11-06

    In order to increase efficiencies of carbonizers, operation at high pressures is needed. In addition, waste biomass fuels of opportunity can be used to offset fossil fuel use. The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Fluidized Bed Gasifier/Combustor (FBG/C) was used to gasify coal and mixtures of coal and biomass (sawdust) at 425 psig. The purpose of the testing program was to generate steady state operating data for modeling efforts of carbonizers. A test program was completed with a matrix of parameters varied one at a time in order to avoid second order interactions. Variables were: coal feed rate, pressure, and varying mixtures of sawdust and coal types. Coal types were Montana Rosebud subbituminous and Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous. The sawdust was sanding waste from a furniture manufacturer in upstate New York. Coal was sieved from -14 to +60 mesh and sawdust was sieved to -14 mesh. The FBG/C operates at a nominal 425 psig, but pressures can be lowered. For the tests reported it was operated as a jetting, fluidized bed, ash-agglomerating gasifier. Preheated air and steam are injected into the center of the bottom along with the solid feed that is conveyed with cool air. Fairly stable reactor internal flow patterns develop and temperatures stabilize (with some fluctuations) when steady state is reached. At nominal conditions the solids residence time in the reactor is on the order of 1.5 to 2 hours, so changes in feed types can require on the order of hours to equilibrate. Changes in operating conditions (e.g. feed rate) usually require much less time. The operating periods of interest for these tests were only the steady state periods, so transient conditions were not monitored as closely. The test matrix first established a base case of operations to which single parameter changes in conditions could be compared. The base case used Montana Rosebud at a coal feed rate of 70 lbm/hr at 425 psig. The coal sawdust mixtures are reported as percent by weight coal to percent by weight sawdust. The mixtures of interest were: 65/35 subbituminous, 75/25 subbituminous, 85/15 subbituminous, and 75/25 bituminous. Steady state was achieved quickly when going from one subbituminous mixture to another, but longer when going from subbituminous to bituminous coal. The most apparent observation when comparing the base case to subbituminous coal/sawdust mixtures is that operating conditions are nearly the same. Product gas does not change much in composition and temperatures remain nearly the same. Comparisons of identical weight ratios of sawdust and subbituminous and bituminous mixtures show considerable changes in operating conditions and gas composition. The highly caking bituminous coal used in this test swelled up and became about half as dense as the comparable subbituminous coal char. Some adjustments were required in accommodating changes in solids removal during the test. Nearly all the solids in the bituminous coal sawdust were conveyed into the upper freeboard section and removed at the mid-level of the reactor. This is in marked contrast to the ash-agglomerating condition where most solids are removed at the very bottom of the gasifier. Temperatures in the bottom of the reactor during the bituminous test were very high and difficult to control. The most significant discovery of the tests was that the addition of sawdust allowed gasification of a coal type that had previously resulted in nearly instant clinkering of the gasifier. Several previous attempts at using Pittsburgh No. 8 were done only at the end of the tests when shutdown was imminent anyway. It is speculated that the fine wood dust somehow coats the pyrolyzed sticky bituminous coal particles and prevents them from agglomerating quickly. As the bituminous coal char particles swell, they are carried to the cooler upper regions of the reactor where they re-solidify. Other interesting phenomena were revealed regarding the transport (rheological) properties of the coal sawdust mixtures. The coal sawdust mixtures segregate quickly when transported. This is visi

  12. Laboratory appraisal of organic carbon changes in mixtures made with different inorganic wastes.

    PubMed

    Arbestain, M Camps; Ibargoitia, M L; Madinabeitia, Z; Gil, M V; Virgel, S; Morán, A; Pereira, R Calvelo; Macías, F

    2009-12-01

    Mixtures of organic and inorganic wastes were incubated to examine the changes in organic C (OC) contents. An anaerobic sludge and a CaO-treated aerobic sludge, with OC concentrations of 235 and 129 gkg(-1), were used. The inorganic wastes used - referred to as "conditioners" - were shot blasting scrap, fettling, Linz-Donawitz slag, foundry sand (FS), and fly ash from wood bark combustion (FA). The total OC (TOC) and KMnO(4)(-) oxidized OC were determined. DTA-TGA profiles and FTIR spectra were also obtained. Mixtures made with the FS contained significantly lower (P<0.05) amounts of TOC (45 gkg(-1)) than the rest of mixtures, which was attributed to the non-existence of reactive surfaces in the conditioner and the increased aeration induced by this material. Those made with FA contained significantly higher (P<0.05) amounts of TOC (170 gkg(-1)), which was attributed to: (i) the addition of an extra source of C - black carbon (BC) - in the FA, and (ii) the inhibition of mineralization from the compounds present in this conditioner (e.g., amorphous aluminosilicates, BC). The results highlight the importance of the characteristics of the conditioners on the fate of the OM originating from the sludges. PMID:19632821

  13. Gaseous emissions from the combustion of a waste mixture containing a high concentration of N{sub 2}O

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Changqing [Key Laboratory of Condition Monitoring and Control for Power Plant Equipment, Ministry of Education, Beijing Key Laboratory of Safe and Clean Energy Technology, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China)], E-mail: dongcq@ncepu.edu.cn; Yang Yongping; Zhang Junjiao; Lu Xuefeng [Key Laboratory of Condition Monitoring and Control for Power Plant Equipment, Ministry of Education, Beijing Key Laboratory of Safe and Clean Energy Technology, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2009-01-15

    This paper is focused on reducing the emissions from the combustion of a waste mixture containing a high concentration of N{sub 2}O. A rate model and an equilibrium model were used to predict gaseous emissions from the combustion of the mixture. The influences of temperature and methane were considered, and the experimental research was carried out in a tabular reactor and a pilot combustion furnace. The results showed that for the waste mixture, the combustion temperature should be in the range of 950-1100 deg. C and the gas residence time should be 2 s or higher to reduce emissions.

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentration changes in sewage sludge and organic municipal waste mixtures during composting and anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Siebielska, Izabela; Side?ko, Robert

    2015-05-01

    We determined the changes in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in a mixture of sewage sludge and the organic fraction of municipal waste during composting and during anaerobic digestion. The processes were carried out on a laboratory scale. The PCBs were analyzed in the waste samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We evaluated the rates at which the PCB concentrations decreased during composting and during anaerobic digestion and compared the PCB degradation kinetics during these processes. The most important conclusion of this work is that anaerobic digestion is much more effective than composting at removing PCBs from a mixture of sewage sludge and the organic fraction of municipal waste. PMID:25618191

  15. Cation segregation in simulated radioactive-waste zeolite-A mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J.W. Jr.; Lewis, M.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); McCart, B.R. [Augustana Coll., Rock Island, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1994-01-01

    Segregation of cations based on size is observed in samples of zeolite-A loaded with simulated radioactive-waste ({approximately}5 wt.% Li, K, Cs and Ba, 1 wt.% Sr and Y, <1 wt.% Na) prepared from chloride salts. In contrast to traditional Na zeolite-A, for which all 8-ring access super ({alpha}) cages are identical and situated on a simple face-centered-cubic lattice, these simulated rad-waste mixtures contain two types of {alpha}-cages situated on a NaCl-like lattice. The long range ordering of extra-framework ions is propagated by severe distortion of frame work oxygens due to strong coordination with Li.

  16. STUDIES ON THE PARTITIONING OF ACTINIDES FROM HIGH LEVEL WASTE USING A MIXTURE OF HDEHP AND CMPO AS EXTRACTANT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Dhami; R. R. Chitnis; V. Gopalakrishnan; P. K. Wattal; A. Ramanujam; A. K. Bauri

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes the extraction and stripping behavior of actinides and lanthanides viz. americium, plutonium, uranium, cerium, and europium using a mixture of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) and octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoyl- methylphosphine oxide (CMPO) in n-paraffin as extractant. The extractant mixture combines the advantages of both the extractants for the partitioning of actinides from PUREX High Level Waste (HLW) solution. The extraction studies

  17. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-06-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors entered into a Cooperative Agreement with the USDOE, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases. Phase 1 is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report is WMPI's fourth quarterly technical progress report. It covers the period performance from January 1, 2002 through March 31, 2002.

  18. U.S. EPA'S EVALUATION OF A TEXACO GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gasification technologies are designed to produce, from carbonaceous organic materials (e.g., coal, oil), a useable mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen called synthesis gas, or syngas. yngas could be used to produce power or chemicals. he Texaco Gasification Process (TGP) emp...

  19. Exergy analysis of biomass-to-synthetic natural gas (SNG) process via indirect gasification of various biomass feedstock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caecilia R. Vitasari; Martin Jurascik; Krzysztof J. Ptasinski

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an exergy analysis of SNG production via indirect gasification of various biomass feedstock, including virgin (woody) biomass as well as waste biomass (municipal solid waste and sludge). In indirect gasification heat needed for endothermic gasification reactions is produced by burning char in a separate combustion section of the gasifier and subsequently the heat is transferred to the

  20. Plant response to FBC waste-coal slurry solid mixtures. [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Darmody, R.G.; Dunker, R.E. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States); Dreher, G.B.; Roy, W.R.; Steel, J.D. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The goal of this project is to test the feasibility of stabilizing coal slurry solids (CSS) wastes by directly seeding plants into the waste. This is not done conventionally because the waste can generate toxic amounts of sulfuric acid. Our approach is to neutralize the potential acidity by mixing fluidized bed combustion (FBC) waste into the slurry. If successful, this approach would both help dispose of FBC wastes while providing a more economical slurry stabilization technique. The project involves growing forage plants in CSS-FBC mixtures in the greenhouse. This is the first quarter of the project. We have designed the experiment, secured greenhouse space, purchased the seeds, collected and dried the FBC and CSS samples. The samples represent a typical range of properties. We retrieved two FBC and two CSS samples. One CSS sample appears to have a higher pyrite content than the other.

  1. Plant response to FBC waste-coal slurry solid mixtures. Technical report, 1 March--31 May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Darmody, R.G.; Dunker, R.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Dreher, G.B.; Roy, W.R.; Steel, J.D. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The goal of this project is to test the feasibility of stabilizing coal slurry solids (CSS) wastes by directly seeding plants into the waste. This is not done conventionally because the waste can generate toxic amounts of sulfuric acid. The approach is to neutralize the potential acidity by mixing fluidized bed combustion (FBC) waste into the slurry. If successful, this approach would both help dispose of FBC wastes while providing a more economical slurry stabilization technique. The project involves growing forage plants in CSS-FBC mixtures in the greenhouse. In the first two quarters the authors designed the experiment, secured greenhouse space, purchased the seeds, collected, dried, analyzed the FBC and CSS samples. The samples represent a typical range of properties. They retrieved two FBC and two CSS samples. One CSS sample had a relatively high CaCO{sub 3} content relative to the pyrite content and required no FBC to neutralize the potential acidity. The other CSS sample required from 4.2 to 2.7% FBC material to neutralize its potential acidity. This report covers the third quarter of the project. The authors produced the CSS-FBC mixtures, analyzed the soil fertility parameters of the mixtures,, planted the crops, and monitored their growth. All mixtures support at least some plant growth, although some plants did better than others. It is too early to analyze the results statistically. Next quarter the plants will be harvested, yields calculated, mineral uptake evaluated, and a final report will be written on plant response to CSS-FBC mixtures.

  2. Nitrogen transformation during organic waste composting by the Rutgers system and its effects on pH, EC and maturity of the composting mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Sánchez-Monedero; A. Roig; C. Paredes; M. P. Bernal

    2001-01-01

    The evolution of the different forms of nitrogen during the composting of several wastes was studied, as well as its relation to the pH, electrical conductivity and parameters of maturity of the composts obtained. Four mixtures were prepared from different organic materials: sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, brewery sludge, sorghum bagasse, cotton waste and pine bark. The evolution of the

  3. Gasification: redefining clean energy

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    2008-05-15

    This booklet gives a comprehensive overview of how gasification is redefining clean energy, now and in the future. It informs the general public about gasification in a straight-forward, non-technical manner.

  4. Development of UHPC Mixtures Utilizing Natural and Industrial Waste Materials as Partial Replacements of Silica Fume and Sand

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In the exploratory study presented in this paper, an attempt was made to develop different mixtures of ultrahigh performance concrete (UHPC) using various locally available natural and industrial waste materials as partial replacements of silica fume and sand. Materials such as natural pozzolana (NP), fly ash (FA), limestone powder (LSP), cement kiln dust (CKD), and pulverized steel slag (PSS), all of which are abundantly available in Saudi Arabia at little or no cost, were employed in the development of the UHPC mixtures. A base mixture of UHPC without replacement of silica fume or sand was selected and a total of 24 trial mixtures of UHPC were prepared using different percentages of NP, FA, LSP, CKD, and PSS, partially replacing the silica fume and sand. Flow and 28-d compressive strength of each UHPC mixture were determined to finally select those mixtures, which satisfied the minimum flow and strength criteria of UHPC. The test results showed that the utilization of NP, FA, LSP, CKD, and PSS in production of UHPC is possible with acceptable flow and strength. A total of 10?UHPC mixtures were identified with flow and strength equal to or more than the minimum required. PMID:25197709

  5. Method and apparatus for the selective separation of gaseous coal gasification products by pressure swing adsorption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Ghate; R. T. Yang

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes the method for bulk separation of multi-component gases generated in a coal gasification process wherein coal is gasified in a gasifier to produce gasification products including a mixture of gases comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, and acid gas components carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. It consists of the steps of conveying a stream comprising the mixture of

  6. Comparison of coal gasification and combustion residues

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.R.; Lowry, P.D.

    1983-04-01

    Slags produced from the entrained flow gasification and cyclone furnace combustion of Pittsburgh seam coal are morphologically similar and exhibit similar leaching behavior. Both wastes consist predominantly of dense glassy shards with low specific surface area (<1 m/sup 2//g). Based on aqueous extraction and inorganic analyses according to the extraction procedure specified under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), none of the combustion or gasification solid wastes examined in this study would be classified as hazardous under current federal regulations. The concentrations of most trace elements in RCRA and other batch extracts of the gasification slag and combustion bottom wastes were below current or proposed drinking water levels. In contrast, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, selenium, zinc, manganese, copper, and sulfate in batch extracts of two combustion fly ashes from Pittsburgh coal exceeded drinking water criteria. These results suggest that slags from entrained flow coal gasification should not require solid waste management practices substantially different from those currently used for coal combustion solid wastes.

  7. Layer modeling of zinc removal from metallic mixture of waste printed circuit boards by vacuum distillation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yujie; Li, Xingang; Ding, Hui

    2015-08-01

    A layer model was established to elucidate the mechanism of zinc removal from the metallic mixture of waste printed circuit boards by vacuum distillation. The removal process was optimized by response surface methodology, and the optimum operating conditions were the chamber pressure of 0.1Pa, heating temperature of 923K, heating time of 60.0min, particle size of 70 mesh (0.212mm) and initial mass of 5.25g. Evaporation efficiency of zinc, the response variable, was 99.79%, which indicates that the zinc can be efficiently removed. Based on the experimental results, a mathematical model, which bears on layer structure, evaporation, mass transfer and condensation, interprets the mechanism of the variable effects. Especially, in order to reveal blocking effect on the zinc removal, the Blake-Kozeny-Burke-Plummer equation was introduced into the mass transfer process. The layer model can be applied to a wider range of metal removal by vacuum distillation. PMID:25957936

  8. Physico-chemical properties of chars obtained in the co-pyrolysis of waste mixtures.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, M; Lapa, N; Gonçalves, M; Mendes, B; Pinto, F; Fonseca, I; Lopes, H

    2012-06-15

    The present work aims to perform a multistep upgrading of chars obtained in the co-pyrolysis of PE, PP and PS plastic wastes, pine biomass and used tires. The quality of the upgraded chars was evaluated by measuring some of their physico-chemical properties in order to assess their valorisation as adsorbents' precursors. The crude chars were submitted to a sequential solvent extraction with organic solvents of increasing polarity (hexane, mixture 1:1 v/v hexane:acetone and acetone) followed by an acidic demineralization procedure with 1M HCl solution. The results obtained showed that the upgrading treatment allow the recovery of 63-81% of the pyrolysis oils trapped in the crude chars and a reduction in the char's ash content in the range of 64-86%. The textural and adsorption properties of the upgraded chars were evaluated and the results indicate that the chars are mainly mesoporous and macroporous materials, with adsorption capacities in the range of 3.59-22.2 mg/g for the methylene blue dye. The upgrading treatment allowed to obtain carbonaceous materials with quality to be reused as adsorbents or as precursors for activated carbon. PMID:22520075

  9. Evaluation of Reactive Mixtures for Passive Treatment of Mine Drainage from a Waste Rock Storage Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeen, S. W.; Mattson, B.

    2014-12-01

    Laboratory column tests for a passive treatment system for mine drainage from a waste rock storage area was conducted to evaluate suitable reactive mixture, system configuration, flow rate, and residence time. Five columns containing straw, chicken manure, mushroom compost, and limestone, either in layered or mixed, were set up and operated for a total of 74 days to simulate the treatment system. The key variables determined from the tests include pH and redox adjustment of the treatment system, treatment efficiency for acidity and metals, sulfate removal rates, and precipitation of secondary minerals as sinks for metals. The results showed that all of the five columns removed metals of concern (i.e., Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn) with residence time of 15 hours and greater. The organic materials used in the test provided sufficient sulfate reduction that is available for metal removal in the mine drainage. The sulfate removal rates ranged between 200 and 600 mg/L/day. Reaction mechanisms responsible for the removal of metals may include sulfate reduction and subsequent sulfide precipitation, precipitation of secondary carbonates and hydroxides, co-precipitation, and sorption on organic materials and secondary precipitates. The results from the columns tests provide a basis for design of a pilot-scale field passive treatment system, such as permeable reactive barrier (PRB) or reducing and alkalinity producing system (RAPS).

  10. Hazardous and Corrosive Gas Production in the Radiolysis of Water/Organic Mixtures in Model TRU Waste

    SciTech Connect

    LaVerne, Jay A.

    2005-06-01

    Experiments in combination with diffusion-kinetic modeling incorporating track structure simulations are used to examine the radiation chemistry of aqueous systems containing chlorinated hydrocarbons. Irradiations with both Co-60 gamma rays and alpha particles are employed in order to simulate typical mixed radiation environments encountered in waste management. The goal is to determine fundamental mechanisms, kinetics, and yields for the formation of potentially explosive gases and corrosive agents, such as H2 and HCl, respectively, in the radiolysis of water-organic mixtures. The radiation chemical systems studied are found throughout the DOE portfolio and are important in radioactive waste remediation and management.

  11. Influence of feeding mixture composition in batch anaerobic co-digestion of stabilized municipal sludge and waste from dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Trulli, Ettore; Torretta, Vincenzo

    2015-06-01

    Waste anaerobic co-digestion applications are particularly useful in Southern Mediterranean areas where large quantities of agricultural waste materials and waste from agro-industries are produced. This waste can be added to urban waste together with the sludge produced by wastewater treatment processes, which, when combined, guarantee the supply of organic matrixes for treatment throughout the year. The implementation of facilities to service vast areas of the agricultural economy and which are heterogeneous in terms of production can provide a good solution. We present an experimental investigation into the anaerobic co-digestion of municipal sludge and bio-waste produced in the Mediterranean area. We conducted anaerobic treatability tests, with measures of biogas production and pH of the mixture in digestion. Our main aims were to identify an optimal mix of substrates for the production of biogas, and to analyse the influence on the composition of biogas and the variation in pH values of the substrates. This analysis was conducted considering the variation of the input, in particular due to the addition of waste acids, such as biological sewage sludge. PMID:25442095

  12. Tegoprens in anaerobic digestion of a mixture of cheese whey, poultry waste, and cattle dung for improved biomethanation

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, C.; Sastry, V.; Madamwar, D. [Sardar Patel Univ., Gujarat (India)

    1996-01-01

    To obtain enriched methane content and improve the anaerobic digestion of a mixture of cattle dung, poultry waste, and cheese whey, the effect of various doses of Tegoprens: T-3012, T-3099, T-5842, T-5843, T-5851, T-5852 has been studied, in bench-scale digesters. Among them, Tegoprens 3022 showed more than a 45% increase in gas production with higher methane content. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Chemical recycling of mixture of waste plastics using a new reactor system with stirred heat medium particles in steam atmosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takao Masuda; Tatsuhiko Kushino; Toshihiro Matsuda; Shin R Mukai; Kenji Hashimoto; Shu-ichi Yoshida

    2001-01-01

    A new reactor system was developed for recovery fuels from the waste plastic mixture in steam atmosphere. Firstly, the degradation mechanisms of eight kinds of plastics, two polyolefins (polyethylene and polypropylene), two polyamide resins (nylon-6 and nylon-6,6), polystyrene and three polyesters (polycarbonate, poly(butylene terephthalate) and poly(ethylene terephthalate), were investigated both in nitrogen and steam as the carrier gas. Plastics except

  14. Neutralization/prevention of acid rock drainage using mixtures of alkaline by-products and sulfidic mine wastes.

    PubMed

    Alakangas, Lena; Andersson, Elin; Mueller, Seth

    2013-11-01

    Backfilling of open pit with sulfidic waste rock followed by inundation is a common method for reducing sulfide oxidation after mine closure. This approach can be complemented by mixing the waste rock with alkaline materials from pulp and steel mills to increase the system's neutralization potential. Leachates from 1 m3 tanks containing sulfide-rich (ca.30 wt %) waste rock formed under dry and water saturated conditions under laboratory conditions were characterized and compared to those formed from mixtures. The waste rock leachate produced an acidic leachate (pH<2) with high concentrations of As (65 mg/L), Cu (6 mg/L), and Zn (150 mg/L) after 258 days. The leachate from water-saturated waste rock had lower concentrations of As and Cu (<2 ?g/L), Pb and Zn (20 ?g/L and 5 mg/L), respectively, and its pH was around 6. Crushed (<6 mm) waste rock mixed with different fractions (1-5 wt %) of green liquid dregs, fly ash, mesa lime, and argon oxygen decarburization (AOD) slag was leached on a small scale for 65 day, and showed near-neutral pH values, except for mixtures of waste rock with AOD slag and fly ash (5% w/w) which were more basic (pH>9). The decrease of elemental concentration in the leachate was most pronounced for Pb and Zn, while Al and S were relatively high. Overall, the results obtained were promising and suggest that alkaline by-products could be useful additives for minimizing ARD formation. PMID:23740301

  15. Comparison of coal gasification and combustion residues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph R. Turner; Philip D. Lowry

    1983-01-01

    Slags produced from the entrained flow gasification and cyclone furnace combustion of Pittsburgh seam coal are morphologically similar and exhibit similar leaching behavior. Both wastes consist predominantly of dense glassy shards with low specific surface area (<1 m²\\/g). Based on aqueous extraction and inorganic analyses according to the extraction procedure specified under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), none

  16. Properties of Waste from Coal Gasification in Entrained Flow Reactors in the Aspect of Their Use in Mining Technology / W?a?ciwo?ci odpadów ze zgazowania w?gla w reaktorach dyspersyjnych w aspekcie ich wykorzystania w technologiach górniczych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomyka?a, Rados?aw

    2013-06-01

    Most of the coal gasification plants based of one of the three main types of reactors: fixed bed, fluidized bed or entrained flow. In recent years, the last ones, which works as "slagging" reactors (due to the form of generated waste), are very popular among commercial installations. The article discusses the characteristics of the waste from coal gasification in entrained flow reactors, obtained from three foreign installations. The studies was conducted in terms of the possibilities of use these wastes in mining technologies, characteristic for Polish underground coal mines. The results were compared with the requirements of Polish Standards for the materials used in hydraulic backfill as well as suspension technology: solidification backfill and mixtures for gob caulking. Wi?kszo?? przemys?owych instalacji zgazowania w?gla pracuje w oparciu o jeden z trzech g?ównych typów reaktorów: ze z?o?em sta?ym, dyspersyjny lub fluidalny. W zale?no?ci od rodzaju reaktora oraz szczegó?owych rozwi?za? instalacji, powstaj?ce uboczne produkty zgazowania mog? mie? ró?n? posta?. Zale?y ona w du?ej mierze od stosunku temperatury pracy reaktora do temperatury topnienia cz??ci mineralnych zawartych w paliwie, czyli do temperatury mi?knienia i topnienia popio?u. W ostatnich latach bardzo du?? popularno?? w?ród instalacji komercyjnych zdobywaj? reaktory dyspersyjne "?u?luj?ce". W takich instalacjach ?u?el jest wychwytywany i studzony po wyp?yni?ciu z reaktora. W niektórych przypadkach oprócz ?u?la powstaje jeszcze popió? lotny, wychwytywany w systemach odprowadzania spalin. Mo?e by? on pozyskiwany oddzielnie lub te? zawracany do komory reaktora, gdzie ulega stopieniu. Wszystkie z analizowanych odpadów - trzy ?u?le oraz popió? pochodz? w?a?nie z tego typu instalacji. Tylko z jednej z nich pozyskano zarówno ?u?el jak i popió?, z pozosta?ych dwóch jedynie ?u?el. Odpady te powsta?y, jako uboczny produkt zgazowania w?gla lub w?gla z dodatkami: bitumin (?u?el S1), czy biomasy (popió? A2, ?u?el S2). W polskim górnictwie podziemnym wyró?ni? mo?na kilka technologii podsadzkowych, w których do transportu materia?u wykorzystywana jest woda. Tradycyjnie oraz ze wzgl?dów historycznych, terminem "podsadzka hydrauliczna" okre?la si? t?, która spe?nia wymagania normy PN-93/G-11010. Do najwa?niejszych cech takiej podsadzki hydraulicznej zaliczy? nale?y wype?nienia uprzednio wydzielonej pustki poeksploatacyjnej, materia?em o jak najmniejszej ?ci?liwo?ci oraz o jak najwi?kszej wodoprzepuszczalno?ci. Materia? taki, po odprowadzeniu wody ma stanowi? mechaniczna podpor? stropu, a proces podsadzania jest ?ci?le powi?zany z procesem eksploatacji, jako sposób likwidacji zrobów. Najcz??ciej stosowanymi materia?ami s? piasek podsadzkowy oraz odpady górnicze lub hutnicze (Lisowski, 1997). Od ponad dwudziestu lat, w polskim górnictwie w?gla kamiennego obecna jest równie? inna technologia podsadzkowa, w której do transportu materia?ów wykorzystywana jest woda. W tym przypadku cz??ci sta?e to materia?y drobnoziarniste, najcz??ciej popio?y ró?nych typów, które po wymieszaniu z wod? tworz? zawiesin? (st?d termin "zawiesiny popio?owo-wodne"). Polska norma PN-G-11011:1998 wyró?nia dwie odmiany takich zawiesin i definiuje je, jako "podsadzk? zestalan?" oraz "mieszanin? do doszczelniania zrobów". Podstawow? ide? przy?wiecaj?c? stosowaniu zawiesin drobnoziarnistych w technologiach górniczych by?a pocz?tkowo troska o zagospodarowaniu odpadów energetycznych, a nast?pnie górniczych (Mazurkiewicz i in., 1998; Piotrowski i in., 2006; Piotrowski, 2010; Plewa i Mys?ek, 2000; Plewa i Sobota, 2002). Obecnie technologia zawiesinowa na sta?e zago?ci?a w kopalniach w?gla kamiennego staj?c si? m.in. nieodzownym ?rodkiem profilaktyki po?arowej i metanowej (Dziurzy?ski i Pomyka?a, 2006; Palarski, 2004; Pomyka?a, 2006). W artykule przedstawiono analiz? mo?liwo?ci wy

  17. Biothermal gasification of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Chynoweth, D.P.; Srivastava, V.J.; Henry, M.P.; Tarman, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    The BIOTHERMGAS Process is described for conversion of biomass, organic residues, and peat to substitute natural gas (SNG). This new process, under development at IGT, combines biological and thermal processes for total conversion of a broad variety of organic feeds (regardless of water or nutrient content). The process employs thermal gasification for conversion of refractory digester residues. Ammonia and other inorganic nutrients are recycled from the thermal process effluent to the bioconversion unit. Biomethanation and catalytic methanation are presented as alternative processes for methanation of thermal conversion product gases. Waste heat from the thermal component is used to supply the digester heat requirements of the bioconversion component. The results of a preliminary systems analysis of three possible applications of this process are presented: (1) 10,000 ton/day Bermuda grass plant with catalytic methanation; (2) 10,000 ton/day Bermuda grass plant with biomethanation; and (3) 1000 ton/day municipal solid waste (MSW) sewage sludge plant with biomethanation. The results indicate that for these examples, performance is superior to that expected for biological or thermal processes used separately. The results of laboratory studies presented suggest that effective conversion of thermal product gases can be accomplished by biomethanation.

  18. Evaluation of Biomass Gasification to Produce Reburning Fuel for Coal-Fired Boilers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gasification and reburning testing with biomass and other wastes is of interest to both the U.S. EPA and the Italian Ministry of the Environment & Territory. Gasification systems that use biofuels or wastes as feedstock can provide a clean, efficient source of synthesis gas and p...

  19. Evaluation of wood chip gasification to produce reburn fuel for coal-fired boilers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gasification/reburn testing with biomass and other wastes is of interest to both the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Italian Ministry of the Environment & Territory (IMET). Gasification systems that use wastes as feedstock should provide a clean, efficient sour...

  20. Optimization of fly ash incorporation into cow dung-waste paper mixtures for enhanced vermidegradation and nutrient release.

    PubMed

    Mupambwa, Hupenyu A; Mnkeni, Pearson N S

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted to establish an appropriate mixture ratio of fly ash (F) to optimized cow dung-waste paper mixtures (CP) to develop a high-quality vermicompost using earthworms (). Fly ash was mixed with cow dung-waste paper mixtures at ratios of (F:CP) 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 2:1, and 3:1 or CP alone and composted for 14 wk. Olsen P, inorganic N (NO, NO, and NH), C:N ratio, ash content, microbial biomass C, and humification parameters were measured together with scanning electron micrograph images to determine compost maturity. Based on C:N ratio, the extent of vermidegradation of the waste mixtures followed the decreasing order (F:CP) of 1:3 > 1:2 > 1:1 > CP alone > 2:1 > 3:1. Similarly, Olsen P was significantly higher ( < 0.05) where earthworms were added. The mean percentage increase in extractable P was in the order CP alone > 1:2 > 1:3 > 1:1 > 2:1 > 3:1, with earthworm addition almost doubling P release across the 1:1, 1:2, and CP alone treatments. Fly ash incorporation enhanced conversion of organic N to the plant-available inorganic forms, with the 1:3 treatment resulting in the highest conversion. Scanning electron micrograph images confirmed the extent of vermidegradation reflected by the various humification parameters determined. Fly ash incorporation at the 1:2 ratio proved to be the most appropriate because it allows processing of more fly ash while giving a vermicompost with desirable maturity and nutritional properties. PMID:26024277

  1. Sustainable valorization of plastic wastes for energy with environmental safety via High-Temperature Pyrolysis (HTP) and High-Temperature Steam Gasification (HTSG)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Kantarelis; P. Donaj; W. Yang; A. Zabaniotou

    2009-01-01

    In the present study the energetic valorization of electric cable shredder residues (mixed plastics) has been investigated. Thermochemical conversion by means of High-Temperature Steam Gasification (HTSG) and High-Temperature Pyrolysis (HTP) was studied. The effects of temperature and reaction time – process parameters – were investigated. Comparison of the results showed that HTSG seems a more suitable process in terms of

  2. Gasification. 2nd. ed.

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Higman; Maarten van der Burgt [Lurgi Oel Gas Chemie (Germany)

    2008-02-15

    This book covers gasification as a comprehensive topic, covering its many uses, from refining, to natural gas, to coal. It provides an overview of commercial processes and covers applications relevant to today's demands. The new edition is expanded and provides more detail on the integration issues for current generation, state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC); CO{sub 2} capture in the IGCC context addressing the issues of pre-investment and retrofitting as well as defining what the term 'CO{sub 2} capture ready' might mean in practice; issues of plant reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM) including as evaluation of feedback from existing plants; implementation of fuel cell technology in IGCC concepts. Contents are: Introduction; The Thermodynamics of Gasification; The Kinetics of Gasification and Reactor Theory; Feedstocks and Feedstock Characteristics; Gasification Processes; Practical Issues; Applications; Auxiliary Technologies; Economics, environmental, and Safety Issues; Gasification and the Future. 5 apps.

  3. Gasification of hybrid feedstock using animal manures and hays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of a proprietary integrated gasification-internal combustion system in producing electricity from mixtures of animal manures such as swine solids, chicken litter, and hays. Five to 10 gallons of mixtures of swine manure, chicken litter, and h...

  4. Plant response to FBC waste-coal slurry solid mixtures. [Quarterly] technical report, December 1--February 28, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Darmody, R.G. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States); Dunker, R.E. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Agronomy; Dreher, G.B.; Roy, W.R.; Steel, J.D. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The goal of this project is to test the feasibility of stabilizing coal slurry solids (CSS) wastes by directly seeding plants into the waste. This is not done conventionally because the waste can generate toxic amounts of sulfuric acid. Our approach is to neutralize the potential acidity by mixing fluidized bed combustion (FBC) waste into the slurry. If successful this approach would both help dispose of FBC wastes while providing a more economical slurry stabilization technique. The project involves growing forage plants in CSS-FBC mixtures in the greenhouse. This is the second quarter of the project. We have designed the experiment, secured greenhouse space, purchased the seeds, collected, dried, and are analyzing the FBC and CSS samples. The samples represent a typical range of properties. We retrieved two FBC and two CSS samples. One CSS sample had a relatively high CaCO{sub 3} content relative to the pyrite content and will require no FBC to neutralize the potential acidity. The other CSS sample will require from 4.2 to 2.7% FBC material to neutralize its potential acidity.

  5. Start-up method for coal gasification plant

    SciTech Connect

    Farnia, K.; Petit, P.J.

    1983-04-05

    A method is disclosed for initiating operation of a coal gasification plant which includes a gasification reactor and gas cleansing apparatus fabricated in part from materials susceptible to chloride induced stress corrosion cracking the presence of oxygen. The reactor is preheated by combusting a stoichiometric mixture of air and fuel to produce an exhaust gas which is then diluted with steam to produce product gas which contains essentially no free oxygen. The product gas heats the reactor to a temperature profile necessary to maintain autothermic operation of the gasification process while maintaining air oxygen-free environment within the plant apparatus while chlorine is liberated from coal being gasified.

  6. Effects of mixture ratio on anaerobic co-digestion with fruit and vegetable waste and food waste of China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jia Lin; Jiane Zuo; Lili Gan; Peng Li; Fenglin Liu; Kaijun Wang; Lei Chen; Hainan Gan

    2011-01-01

    The biochemical methane potentials for typical fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) and food waste (FW) from a northern China city were investigated, which were 0.30, 0.56 m3 CH4\\/kgVS (volatile solids) with biodegradabilities of 59.3% and 83.6%, respectively. Individual anaerobic digestion testes of FVW and FW were conducted at the organic loading rate (OLR) of 3 kg VS\\/(m3·day) using a lab-scale

  7. Shuffler calibration and measurement of mixtures of uranium and plutonium TRU-waste in a plant environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hurd, J.R.

    1998-12-31

    The active-passive shuffler installed and certified a few years ago in Los Alamos National Laboratory`s plutonium facility has now been calibrated for different matrices to measure Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)-destined transuranic (TRU)-waste. Little or no data presently exist for these types of measurements in plant environments where there may be sudden large changes in the neutron background radiation which causes distortions in the results. Measurements and analyses of twenty-two 55-gallon drums, consisting of mixtures of varying quantities of uranium and plutonium, have been recently completed at the plutonium facility. The calibration and measurement techniques, including the method used to separate out the plutonium component, will be presented and discussed. Particular attention will be directed to those problems identified as arising from the plant environment. The results of studies to quantify the distortion effects in the data will be presented. Various solution scenarios will be indicated, along with those adopted here.

  8. Gasification: A Cornerstone Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Stiegel

    2008-03-26

    NETL is a leader in the science and technology of gasification - a process for the conversion of carbon-based materials such as coal into synthesis gas (syngas) that can be used to produce clean electrical energy, transportation fuels, and chemicals efficiently and cost-effectively using domestic fuel resources. Gasification is a cornerstone technology of 21st century zero emissions powerplants

  9. Pulverized coal plasma gasification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Kalinenko; A. P. Kuznetsov; A. A. Levitsky; V. E. Messerle; Yu. A. Mirokhin; L. S. Polak; Z. B. Sakipov; A. B. Ustimenko

    1993-01-01

    A number of experiments on the plasma-vapor gasification of brown coals of three types have been carried out using an experimental plant with an electric-arc reactor of the combined type. On the basis of the material and heat balances, process parameters have been obtained: the degree of carbon gasification (?c), the level of sulfur conversion into the gas phase (?s),

  10. Incentives boost coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, G.

    2006-01-16

    Higher energy prices are making technologies to gasify the USA's vast coal reserves attractive again. The article traces the development of coal gasification technology in the USA. IGCC and industrial gasification projects are now both eligible for a 20% investment tax credit and federal loan guarantees can cover up to 80% of construction costs. 4 photos.

  11. Investigation of combined effect of mixture variables on mechanical properties of cement treated demolition waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Xuan; L. J. M. Houben; A. A. A. Molenaar; Z. Shui

    2012-01-01

    One of high efficient ways to reuse the recycled construction and demolition waste (CDW) is to consider it as a road base material. The recycled CDW however is mainly a mix of recycled masonry and concrete with a wide variation in composition. This results that the mechanical properties of cement treated demolition waste are not only determined by cement content

  12. PELLETIZING WASTE COMPOST AND FLY ASH MIXTURE TO PRODUCE FERTILIZING MATERIAL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Orava; H. Kuopanportti; T. Tontti

    The basic idea in this study is to develop a method to convert compost waste into pellets with the addition of fly ash. The pellets are to be used as soil conditioners suitable for plant production. The article introduces a method of how to make compost waste and fly ash easier to process and distribute, to enhance their soil improving

  13. 2006 gasification technologies conference papers

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Sessions covered: business overview, industry trends and new developments; gasification projects progress reports; industrial applications and opportunities; Canadian oil sands; China/Asia gasification markets - status and projects; carbon management with gasification technologies; gasification economics and performance issues addressed; and research and development, and new technologies initiatives.

  14. On the gasification of biomass in a steam-oxygen blown CFB gasifier with the focus on gas quality upgrading: technology background, experiments and mathematical modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Siedlecki

    2011-01-01

    This work presents and discusses the results of the research on the gasification of biomass in an atmospheric circulating fluidized bed, with a mixture of steam and oxygen as fluidization \\/ gasification medium. The main objectives of this research were to investigate and improve the gasification process in order to produce hydrogen-rich gas from relatively dry woody and agricultural biomass.

  15. Integrated bioenergy conversion concepts for small scale gasification power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldas, Rizaldo Elauria

    Thermal and biological gasification are promising technologies for addressing the emerging concerns in biomass-based renewable energy, environmental protection and waste management. However, technical barriers such as feedstock quality limitations, tars, and high NOx emissions from biogas fueled engines impact their full utilization and make them suffer at the small scale from the need to purify the raw gas for most downstream processes, including power generation other than direct boiler use. The two separate gasification technologies may be integrated to better address the issues of power generation and waste management and to complement some of each technologies' limitations. This research project investigated the technical feasibility of an integrated thermal and biological gasification concept for parameters critical to appropriately matching an anaerobic digester with a biomass gasifier. Specific studies investigated the thermal gasification characteristics of selected feedstocks in four fixed-bed gasification experiments: (1) updraft gasification of rice hull, (2) indirect-heated gasification of rice hull, (3) updraft gasification of Athel wood, and (4) downdraft gasification of Athel and Eucalyptus woods. The effects of tars and other components of producer gas on anaerobic digestion at mesophilic temperature of 36°C and the biodegradation potentials and soil carbon mineralization of gasification tars during short-term aerobic incubation at 27.5°C were also examined. Experiments brought out the ranges in performance and quality and quantity of gasification products under different operating conditions and showed that within the conditions considered in the study, these gasification products did not adversely impact the overall digester performance. Short-term aerobic incubation demonstrated variable impacts on carbon mineralization depending on tar and soil conditions. Although tars exhibited low biodegradation indices, degradation may be improved if the microorganisms used to deal with tars are selected and pre-conditioned to the tar environment. Overall, the results provided a basis for operational and design strategy for a combined gasification system but further study is recommended such as determination of the impacts in terms of emissions, power, efficiency and costs associated with the use of producer gas-enriched biogas taking advantage of hydrogen enrichment to reduce NOx and other pollutants in reciprocating engines and other energy conversion systems.

  16. Two stage coprocessing of coal with model and commingled waste plastics mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mingsheng Luo; Christine W. Curtis

    1999-01-01

    Coprocessing of coal with waste plastics in two separate stages was investigated in order to tailor the reaction conditions and catalysts used in each stage for the materials present. In the first stage reaction, waste plastics were liquefied at 440°C (713 K) for 1 h with an initial H2 pressure of 2.8 MPa and a catalyst, either the zeolite HZSM-5

  17. Gasification Technologie: Opportunities & Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Breault, R.

    2012-01-01

    This course has been put together to provide a single source document that not only reviews the historical development of gasification but also compares the process to combustion. It also provides a short discussion on integrated gasification and combined cycle processes. The major focus of the course is to describe the twelve major gasifiers being developed today. The hydrodynamics and kinetics of each are reviewed along with the most likely gas composition from each of the technologies when using a variety of fuels under different conditions from air blown to oxygen blown and atmospheric pressure to several atmospheres. If time permits, a more detailed discussion of low temperature gasification will be included.

  18. Gasification of refuse derived fuel in the Battelle high throughput gasification system

    SciTech Connect

    Paisley, M.A.; Creamer, K.S.; Tweksbury, T.L.; Taylor, D.R. (Battelle Columbus Div., Washington, DC (USA))

    1989-07-01

    This report presents the results of an experimental program to demonstrate the suitability of the Battelle High Throughput Gasification Process to non-wood biomass fuels. An extensive data base on wood gasification was generated during a multi-year experimental program. This data base and subsequent design and economic analysis activities led to the discussion to study the gasification character of other fuels. The specific fuel studied was refuse derived fuel (RDF) which is a prepared municipal solid waste (MSW). The use of RDF, while providing a valuable fuel, can also provide a solution to MSW disposal problems. Gasification of MSW provides advantages over land fill or mass burn technology since a more usable form of energy, medium Btu gas, is produced. Land filling of wastes produces no usable products and mass burning while greatly reducing the volume of wastes for disposal can produce only steam. This steam must be used on site or very nearby this limiting the potential locations for mass burn facilities. Such a gas, if produced from currently available supplies of MSW, can contribute 2 quads to the US energy supply. 3 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Thermolysis and steam activation of a mixture of lignin and washed-off petroleum waste in the presence of copper acetate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. Simonova

    2008-01-01

    The thermal degradation of a mixture of lignin with washed-off petroleum waste in the presence of 2% Cu(Ac)2 was studied. The ion-exchange interaction of the copper cation with the oxygen-containing acidic groups of mixture components\\u000a occurred upon mixing the components. On a supramolecular level, this was accompanied by the compaction of carbon layers in\\u000a a crystallite and a considerable increase

  20. Characteristics of liquid product from the pyrolysis of waste plastic mixture at low and high temperatures: Influence of lapse time of reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyong-Hwan. Lee; Dae-Hyun Shin

    2007-01-01

    Pyrolysis of a waste plastic mixture (high-density polyethylene: low-density polyethylene: polypropylene: polystyrene=3:2:3:1) into a liquid product was carried out in a stirred semi-batch reactor at low (350°C) and high (400°C) temperatures. The effect of lapse time of reaction in the reactor and also degradation temperature on the characteristics of the liquid product from pyrolysis of the mixture was investigated. Liquid

  1. Acidogenic fermentation of source separated mixtures of vegetables and fruits wasted from supermarkets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Traverso; P. Pavan; D. Bolzonella; L. Innocenti; F. Cecchi; J. Mata-Alvarez

    2000-01-01

    A pilot scale mesophilic anaerobic acidogenic fermenter was fed with mixtures of vegetables and fruits shredded by a hammer mill and mixed in a stock tank, in order to produce a liquid phase suitable as RBCOD source in denitrification and EBPR processes. Different operative conditions were studied working with a HRT in the range 1–:12 days. The effluent coming from

  2. The effect of waste tire thread mesh on the dynamic behaviour of asphalt mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Arabani; S. M. Mirabdolazimi; A. R. Sasani

    2010-01-01

    The crack potential of the pavement under various loading conditions and temperature variations has been a problem for the application of asphalt pavements. Crack generation in asphalt pavement increases the maintenance and rehabilitation costs. Two principal solutions for the problem of asphalt pavement cracking have been introduced: first, applying a thicker asphalt pavement and, second, making an asphalt mixture with

  3. Gasification characteristics of MSW and an ANN prediction model.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Gang; Ni, Ming-jiang; Chi, Yong; Jin, Bao-sheng; Xiao, Rui; Zhong, Zhao-ping; Huang, Ya-ji

    2009-01-01

    Gasification characteristics make up the important parts of municipal solid waste (MSW) gasification and melting technology. These characteristics are closely related to the composition of MSW, which alters with climates and seasons. It is important to find a practical way to predict gasification characteristics. In this paper, five typical kinds of organic components (wood, paper, kitchen garbage, plastic, and textile) and three representative types of simulated MSW are gasified in a fluidized-bed at 400-800 degrees C with the equivalence ratio (ER) in the range of 0.2-0.6. The lower heating value (LHV) of gas, gasification products, and gas yield are reported. The results indicate that gasification characteristics are different from sample to sample. Based on the experimental data, an artificial neural networks (ANN) model is developed to predict gasification characteristics. The training and validating relative errors are within +/-15% and +/-20%, respectively, and predicting relative errors of an industrial sample are below +/-25%. This indicates that it is acceptable to predict gasification characteristics via ANN model. PMID:18420400

  4. Recycling of FRP composites: reusing fine GFRP waste in concrete mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    João R. Correia; Nuno M. Almeida; João R. Figueira

    2011-01-01

    Fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) materials are being increasingly used in several applications, but especially in the construction and transportation industries. The composites industry is now producing a wide range of FRP products that include strengthening strips and sheets, reinforcing bars, structural profiles, sandwich panels, moulded planks and piping. The waste management of FRP materials, in particular those made with thermosetting

  5. Nonthermal plasma alternative to the incineration of hazardous organic wastes. [Mixtures containing oil and trichloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethane

    SciTech Connect

    Rosocha, L.A.; McCulla, W.H.; Anderson, G.K.; Coogan, J.J.; Kang, M.; Tennant, R.A.; Wantuck, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    We are developing silent discharge plasma (SDP) oxidation technology as an alternative to incineration and as a post-incinerator treatment process for hazardous organic wastes. As an alternative to incineration, SDP apparatus has been coupled to a high-temperature packed-bed reactor, the plasma apparatus serving as a second stage for treating gaseous effluent from the packed bed. As a post- incinerator treatment process, SDP apparatus has been evaluated using a prepared gaseous feed containing hazardous organic compounds which are expected to be found in the machining fluids (trichloroethylene (TCE), carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), and trichloroethane (TCA)). In typical tests with the packed-bed reactor alone, we have treated mixtures containing oil and several per cent TCE, TCA, or CCl{sub 4} removing the chlorocarbons to levels of ppm-order for TCA and to order {approximately}100 ppb for TCE and CCl{sub 4}, as measured in the gaseous effluent. In representative stand-alone tests with the SDP reactor, we have removed TCE in the gaseous influent from 1,000 ppm concentrations to around 100 ppb in the gaseous effluent (CCl{sub 4} appears to be more treatment-resistant). The measured figures of merit for the SDP reactor (electrical energy per mass of removed chemical) are 10's of kW-hr/kg for >>99% removal of TCE and 100's of kW-hr/kg for 90% removal of CCl{sub 4}, both being non-optimized cases in terms of waste concentration, carrier gas composition, water content, flow rate, and electrical power. Using combined packed- bed/SDP reactors on chlorocarbon/oil mixtures, several per cent chlorocarbon concentrations have been removed to well below the 100-ppb level overall. We envision eventual reductions to levels of {approximately}10 ppb or less.

  6. Ethanol production of semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation from mixture of cotton gin waste and recycled paper sludge

    PubMed Central

    Agblevor, Foster A.

    2010-01-01

    Ethanol production from the steam-exploded mixture of 75% cotton gin waste and 25% recycled paper sludge in various conditions was investigated by semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSSF) consisting of a pre-hydrolysis and a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Four cases were studied: 24-h pre-hydrolysis + 48-h SSF (SSSF 24), 12-h pre-hydrolysis + 60-h SSF (SSSF 12), 72-h SSF, and 48-h hydrolysis + 24-h fermentation (SHF). The ethanol concentration, yield, and productivity of SSSF 24 were higher than those of the other operations. A model of SSF was used to simulate the data for four components in SSF. The analysis of the reaction rates of cellobiose, glucose, cell, and ethanol using the model and the parameters from the experiments showed that there was a transition point of the rate-controlling step at which the cell growth control in the initial 2 h was changed to the cellobiose reaction control in later period during ethanol production of SSF from the mixture. PMID:20559849

  7. Study on the conversion of waste plastics\\/petroleum resid mixtures to transportation fuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Farhat Ali; Mohammad Nahid; Siddiqui S. Halim Hamid Redhwi

    2004-01-01

    Catalytic coprocessing of model and waste plastics with light Arabian crude oil residue was investigated using NiMo\\/Al 2O 3, ZSM-5, FCC, and hydrocracking catalysts. Reaction systems that were studied included low density polyethylene (LDPE), high density polyethylene (HDPE), polystyrene (PS), and polypropylene (PP). A series of single (plastic\\/catalyst) and binary (plastic\\/resid\\/catalyst) reactions were carried out in a 25-cm 3 micro

  8. Identification and differentiation of individual beta emitters in waste mixtures by liquid scintillation spectrometry

    E-print Network

    Siskel, Robin Lynn

    1988-01-01

    counting of tritium-labeled water and organic compounds. . . The rapid development of scintillators and equipment made reliable assays of low-energy beta emitters possible -- previously a very difficult task, Prior to liquid scintillation counting (LSC... carbon-14, tritium, and iodine-125 liquid scintillation wastes, provided that the activity and isotopes present can be documented. This legislation has generated a significant interest in developing a quick, cost efficient method of identificatior...

  9. Fermentation of swine waste-corn mixtures for animal feed: Pilot-plant studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. Weiner

    1977-01-01

    Summary Aerobic culture with solid substrates of fresh swine waste combined with corn resulted in lactic acid fermentation with odor control. Heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria produced lactic and homologous tatty acids from acetic through valeric acid (0.1 meq\\/dry g) to reduce pH 2 units to 4.2 to 4.6. During the fermentation, lactic acid organisms increased from 107 to 109\\/dry g.

  10. Hydrogen production from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Wallman, P.H.; Richardson, J.H.; Thorsness, C.B. [and others

    1996-06-28

    We have modified a Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) hydrothermal pretreatment pilot plant for batch operation and blowdown of the treated batch to low pressure. We have also assembled a slurry shearing pilot plant for particle size reduction. Waste paper and a mixture of waste paper/polyethylene plastic have been run in the pilot plant with a treatment temperature of 275{degrees}C. The pilot-plant products have been used for laboratory studies at LLNL. The hydrothermal/shearing pilot plants have produced acceptable slurries for gasification tests from a waste paper feedstock. Work is currently underway with combined paper/plastic feedstocks. When the assembly of the Research Gasification Unit at Texaco (feed capacity approximately 3/4-ton/day) is complete (4th quarter of FY96), gasification test runs will commence. Laboratory work on slurry samples during FY96 has provided correlations between slurry viscosity and hydrothermal treatment temperature, degree of shearing, and the presence of surfactants and admixed plastics. To date, pumpable slurries obtained from an MSW surrogate mixture of treated paper and plastic have shown heating values in the range 13-15 MJ/kg. Our process modeling has quantified the relationship between slurry heating value and hydrogen yield. LLNL has also performed a preliminary cost analysis of the process with the slurry heating value and the MSW tipping fee as parameters. This analysis has shown that the overall process with a 15 MJ/kg slurry gasifier feed can compete with coal-derived hydrogen with the assumption that the tipping fee is of the order $50/ton.

  11. Evaluation of zeolite-sand mixtures as reactive materials protecting groundwater at waste disposal sites.

    PubMed

    Joanna, Fronczyk; Kazimierz, Garbulewski

    2013-09-01

    To recognize properties of a mixture of Vistula sand (medium sand acc. to USCS) with Slovak zeolite as reactive materials suitable for permeable reactive barriers proposed for protection of groundwater environment in vicinity of old landfills comprehensive laboratory investigations were performed. The present study investigates the removal of contaminants specific for landfill leachates onto zeolite-sand mixtures containing 20%, 50% and 80% of zeolite (ZS20, ZS50 and ZS80). Taking into account the results of batch tests it was concluded that the Langmuir isotherm best fitted the data. It was observed that the presence of ammonium, calcium and magnesium decreases the removal efficiency of copper by 32%. Column tests of contaminant migration through the attenuation zone of the reactive materials were interpreted using the software package CXTFIT, which solves a one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation. Column test results also indicate the strong influence of the presence of interfering substances on copper immobilisation; dynamic sorption capacities decrees twofold. Throughout the landfill leachate flow through ZS80 sample, a constant reduction of NH4+ (at 100%), K+ (at 93%) and Fe(total) (at an average of 86%) were observed. There was no reduction in chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand. PMID:24520718

  12. Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalysts to Poisons from High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal\\/Biomass Mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Burtron Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Khalid Azzam; Dennis Sparks; Wilson Shafer

    2010-01-01

    The successful adaptation of conventional cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts for use in converting biomass-derived syngas hinges in part on understanding their susceptibility to byproducts produced during the biomass gasification process. With the possibility that oil production will peak in the near future, and due to concerns in maintaining energy security, the conversion of biomass-derived syngas and syngas derived

  13. Use of plastic waste (poly-ethylene terephthalate) in asphalt concrete mixture as aggregate replacement.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Abolfazl; Ganjidoust, Hossein; Maghanaki, Amir Abedin

    2005-08-01

    One of the environmental issues in most regions of Iran is the large number of bottles made from poly-ethylene terephthalate (PET) deposited in domestic wastes and landfills. Due to the high volume of these bottles, more than 1 million m3 landfill space is needed for disposal every year. The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the possibility of using PET waste in asphalt concrete mixes as aggregate replacement (Plastiphalt) to reduce the environmental effects of PET disposal. For this purpose the mechanical properties of plastiphalt mixes were compared with control samples. This study focused on the parameters of Marshall stability, flow, Marshall quotient (stability-to-flow ratio) and density. The waste PET used in this study was in the form of granules of about 3 mm diameter which would replace (by volume) a portion of the mineral coarse aggregates of an equal size (2.36-4.75 mm). In all prepared mixes the determined 6.6% optimum bitumen content was used. In this investigation, five different percentages of coarse aggregate replacement were used. The results showed that the aggregate replacement of 20% by volume with PET granules would result in a reduction of 2.8% in bulk compacted mix density. The value of flow in the plastiphalt mix was lower than that of the control samples. The results also showed that when PET was used as partial aggregate replacement, the corresponding Marshall stability and Marshall quotient were almost the same as for the control samples. According to most of specification requirement, these results introduce an asphalt mix that has properties that makes it suitable for practical use and furthermore, the recycling of PET for asphalt concrete roads helps alleviate an environmental problem and saves energy. PMID:16200982

  14. Underground coal gasification. Presentations

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The 8 presentations are: underground coal gasification (UCG) and the possibilities for carbon management (J. Friedmann); comparing the economics of UCG with surface gasification technologies (E. Redman); Eskom develops UCG technology project (C. Gross); development and future of UCG in the Asian region (L. Walker); economically developing vast deep Powder River Basin coals with UCG (S. Morzenti); effectively managing UCG environmental issues (E. Burton); demonstrating modelling complexity of environmental risk management; and UCG research at the University of Queensland, Australia (A.Y. Klimenko).

  15. Carbon-catalyzed gasification of organic feedstocks in supercritical water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaodong Xu; Yukihiko Matsumura; Jonny Stenberg; Michael Jerry Antal

    1996-01-01

    Spruce wood charcoal, macadamia shell charcoal, coal activated carbon, and coconut shell activated carbon catalyze the gasification of organic compounds in supercritical water. Feedstocks studied in this paper include glycerol, glucose, cellobiose, whole biomass feedstocks (depithed bagasse liquid extract and sewage sludge), and representative Department of Defense (DoD) wastes (methanol, methyl ethyl ketone, ethylene glycol, acetic acid, and phenol). The

  16. Catalyzed gasification of biomass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. Jr. Sealock; R. J. Robertus; L. K. Mudge; D. H. Mitchell; J. L. Cox

    1978-01-01

    Catalyzed biomass gasification studies are being conducted by Battelle's Pacific Northwest Laboratories. Investigations are being carried out concurrently at the bench and process development unit scales. These studies are designed to test the technical and economic feasibility of producing specific gaseous products from biomass by enhancing its reactivity and product specificity through the use of specific catalysts. The program is

  17. Kinetics of coal gasification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Schmal; Jose Luiz Fontes Monteiro; Jorge Luiz Castellan

    1982-01-01

    This work reports on a kinetic study on the gasification of Brazilian mineral coal with steam using a thermobalance. The coal is a high ash content (>50 wt %) subbituminous, run of mine coal (Charqueadas). Isothermal runs were made at temperatures between 800 and 1000\\/degree\\/C and at atmospheric pressure, using -14 +20 mesh Tyler size particles. The coal was devolatilized

  18. Underground coal gasification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. F. Edgar; D. W. Gregg

    1978-01-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is a method whereby the mining and conversion of coal are accomplished in a single step. Many field tests of UCG have been operated worldwide since the 1930's with varying degrees of success; based on this experience (especially in the USSR and US), a field design which is applicable to a wide range of geological conditions

  19. Advanced hybrid gasification facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, R.S.; Skinner, W.H. [CRS Sirrine, Inc., Greenville, SC (United States); Johnson, S.A. [PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States); Dixit, V.B. [Riley Stoker Corp., Worcester, MA (United States). Riley Research Center

    1993-08-01

    The objective of this procurement is to provide a test facility to support early commercialization of advanced fixed-bed coal gasification technology for electric power generation applications. The proprietary CRS Sirrine Engineers, Inc. PyGas{trademark} staged gasifier has been selected as the initial gasifier to be developed under this program. The gasifier is expected to avoid agglomeration when used on caking coals. It is also being designed to crack tar vapors and ammonia, and to provide an environment in which volatilized alkali may react with aluminosilicates in the coal ash thereby minimizing their concentration in the hot raw coal gas passing through the system to the gas turbine. This paper describes a novel, staged, airblown, fixed-bed gasifier designed to solve both through the incorporation of pyrolysis (carbonization) with gasification. It employs a pyrolyzer (carbonizer) to avoid sticky coal agglomeration which occurs in a fixed-bed process when coal is gradually heated through the 400{degrees}F to 900{degrees}F range. In a pyrolyzer, the coal is rapidly heated such that coal tar is immediately vaporized. Gaseous tars are then thermally cracked prior to the completion of the gasification process. During the subsequent endothermic gasification reactions, volatilized alkali can be chemically bound to aluminosilicates in (or added to) the ash. To reduce NOx from fuel home nitrogen, moisture is minimized to control ammonia generation, and HCN in the upper gasifier region is partially oxidized to NO which reacts with NH3/HCN to form N2.

  20. Influence of mixture ratio and pH to solidification/stabilization process of hospital solid waste incineration ash in Portland cement.

    PubMed

    Sobiecka, Elzbieta; Obraniak, Andrzej; Antizar-Ladislao, Blanca

    2014-09-01

    Solidification/stabilization (S/S) is an established utilization technology to treat hazardous wastes. This research explored the influence of pH (3-12) on the immobilization of heavy metals present in five mixtures of hospital solid waste incinerator ash and Portland cement, following two different processes of waste solidification/stabilization (cement hydration and granulation). In general, cement hydration process resulted in more stable products than granulation process. A high ash content in the mixture with Portland cement (60wt%) resulted in the highest immobilization of Pb(2+) and Cu(2+), while a low ash content in the mixture (10wt%) resulted in the lowest leachability of Zn(2+). When ash and Portland cement was mixed in equal proportions (50wt%) the highest encapsulation was observed for Ni(2+), Cd(2+) and Cr(3+). Neutral and weak alkaline pH values within the range pH=7-8 resulted in the lowest leachability of the monitored heavy metals. PMID:24997895

  1. Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel Tam; Alan Nizamoff; Sheldon Kramer; Scott Olson; Francis Lau; Mike Roberts; David Stopek; Robert Zabransky; Jeffrey Hoffmann; Erik Shuster; Nelson Zhan

    2005-05-01

    As part of an ongoing effort of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to investigate the feasibility of gasification on a broader level, Nexant, Inc. was contracted to perform a comprehensive study to provide a set of gasification alternatives for consideration by the DOE. Nexant completed the first two tasks (Tasks 1 and 2) of the ''Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization Study'' for the DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in 2003. These tasks evaluated the use of the E-GAS{trademark} gasification technology (now owned by ConocoPhillips) for the production of power either alone or with polygeneration of industrial grade steam, fuel gas, hydrocarbon liquids, or hydrogen. NETL expanded this effort in Task 3 to evaluate Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasifier. The Task 3 study had three main objectives. The first was to examine the application of the gasifier at an industrial application in upstate New York using a Southeastern Ohio coal. The second was to investigate the GTI gasifier in a stand-alone lignite-fueled IGCC power plant application, sited in North Dakota. The final goal was to train NETL personnel in the methods of process design and systems analysis. These objectives were divided into five subtasks. Subtasks 3.2 through 3.4 covered the technical analyses for the different design cases. Subtask 3.1 covered management activities, and Subtask 3.5 covered reporting. Conceptual designs were developed for several coal gasification facilities based on the fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasifier. Subtask 3.2 developed two base case designs for industrial combined heat and power facilities using Southeastern Ohio coal that will be located at an upstate New York location. One base case design used an air-blown gasifier, and the other used an oxygen-blown gasifier in order to evaluate their relative economics. Subtask 3.3 developed an advanced design for an air-blown gasification combined heat and power facility based on the Subtask 3.2 design. The air-blown case was chosen since it was less costly and had a better return on investment than the oxygen-blown gasifier case. Under appropriate conditions, this study showed a combined heat and power air-blown gasification facility could be an attractive option for upgrading or expanding the utilities area of industrial facilities. Subtask 3.4 developed a base case design for a large lignite-fueled IGCC power plant that uses the advanced GE 7FB combustion turbine to be located at a generic North Dakota site. This plant uses low-level waste heat to dry the lignite that otherwise would be rejected to the atmosphere. Although this base case plant design is economically attractive, further enhancements should be investigated. Furthermore, since this is an oxygen-blown facility, it has the potential for capture and sequestration of CO{sub 2}. The third objective for Task 3 was accomplished by having NETL personnel working closely with Nexant and Gas Technology Institute personnel during execution of this project. Technology development will be the key to the long-term commercialization of gasification technologies. This will be important to the integration of this environmentally superior solid fuel technology into the existing mix of power plants and industrial facilities. As a result of this study, several areas have been identified in which research and development will further advance gasification technology. Such areas include improved system availability, development of warm-gas clean up technologies, and improved subsystem designs.

  2. Gasification of biomass model compounds and real biomass in supercritical water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takuya Yoshida; Yoshito Oshima; Yukihiko Matsumura

    2004-01-01

    Lignin, cellulose, and their mixture were gasified with a nickel catalyst in supercritical water at 673K and 25MPa. Gasification efficiency is low, but increases with the amount of the catalyst when softwood lignin is included in the feedstock. One possible mechanism is the catalyst being deactivated by tarry products from the reaction between cellulose and softwood lignin. Mixtures with hardwood

  3. Evaluation and performance based mix design of rubber modified mixtures: Laboratory evaluation of asphalt concrete mixtures using waste tires. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. G. Goulias; A. H. M. Ali

    1997-01-01

    New Jersey Department of Transportation has been investigating the use of rubber modified materials over the last few years with the design and use of dense and gap graded mixtures, and in some cases the incorporation of RAP materials, in selected projects. While the short term field performance of these materials is satisfactory, their long term performance is unknown. These

  4. Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Judith A. Kieffer

    2000-07-01

    Gasification combined cycle continues to represent an important defining technology area for the forest products industry. The ''Forest Products Gasification Initiative'', organized under the Industry's Agenda 2020 technology vision and supported by the DOE ''Industries of the Future'' program, is well positioned to guide these technologies to commercial success within a five-to ten-year timeframe given supportive federal budgets and public policy. Commercial success will result in significant environmental and renewable energy goals that are shared by the Industry and the Nation. The Battelle/FERCO LIVG technology, which is the technology of choice for the application reported here, remains of high interest due to characteristics that make it well suited for integration with the infrastructure of a pulp production facility. The capital cost, operating economics and long-term demonstration of this technology area key input to future economically sustainable projects and must be verified by the 200 BDT/day demonstration facility currently operating in Burlington, Vermont. The New Bern application that was the initial objective of this project is not currently economically viable and will not be implemented at this time due to several changes at and around the mill which have occurred since the inception of the project in 1995. The analysis shows that for this technology, and likely other gasification technologies as well, the first few installations will require unique circumstances, or supportive public policies, or both to attract host sites and investors.

  5. Catalytic gasification fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    Heinemann, H.; Somorjai, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    Last year it was found that Maya coke gasification could be greatly accelerated if the colting took place in the presence of small amounts (below 1%) of caustic. When the Maya coke thus prepared was impregnated with 1% of CaO-KO[sub x] catalyst, the rate of gasification was doubled. During the past year, this phenomenon has been further investigated and the work has been extended to two other and very different cokes. As shown in Figure 2, a Statfjord Bottoms coke prepared in the presence of 1% NaOH and then impregnated with CaO[sub x]-KO[sub x] catalyst gasified very much faster than the same material coked in the absence of NaOH. The same phenomenon is exhibited in Figure 3 for a Torrance Hondo coke, although in this case the difference between the cokes prepared in the presence and absence of NaOH is somewhat smaller. It is concluded that the preparation method of the coke is of major importance for the rate of gasification and that the phenomenon that presence of alkali during coking is helpful is a generic one.

  6. Catalytic gasification fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    Heinemann, H.; Somorjai, G.A.

    1992-11-01

    Last year it was found that Maya coke gasification could be greatly accelerated if the coking took place in the presence of small amounts (below 1%) of caustic. When the Maya coke thus prepared was impregnated with 1% of CaO-KO{sub x} catalyst, the rate of gasification was doubled. During the past year, this phenomenon has been further investigated and the work has been extended to two other and very different cokes. As shown in Figure 2, a Statfjord Bottoms coke prepared in the presence of 1% NaOH and then impregnated with CaO{sub x}-KO{sub x} catalyst gasified very much faster than the same material coked in the absence of NaOH. The same phenomenon is exhibited in Figure 3 for a Torrance Hondo coke, although in this case the difference between the cokes prepared in the presence and absence of NaOH is somewhat smaller. It is concluded that the preparation method of the coke is of major importance for the rate of gasification and that the phenomenon that presence of alkali during coking is helpful is a generic one.

  7. Plasma Treatments and Biomass Gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luche, J.; Falcoz, Q.; Bastien, T.; Leninger, J. P.; Arabi, K.; Aubry, O.; Khacef, A.; Cormier, J. M.; Lédé, J.

    2012-02-01

    Exploitation of forest resources for energy production includes various methods of biomass processing. Gasification is one of the ways to recover energy from biomass. Syngas produced from biomass can be used to power internal combustion engines or, after purification, to supply fuel cells. Recent studies have shown the potential to improve conventional biomass processing by coupling a plasma reactor to a pyrolysis cyclone reactor. The role of the plasma is twofold: it acts as a purification stage by reducing production of tars and aerosols, and simultaneously produces a rich hydrogen syngas. In a first part of the paper we present results obtained from plasma treatment of pyrolysis oils. The outlet gas composition is given for various types of oils obtained at different experimental conditions with a pyrolysis reactor. Given the complexity of the mixtures from processing of biomass, we present a study with methanol considered as a model molecule. This experimental method allows a first modeling approach based on a combustion kinetic model suitable to validate the coupling of plasma with conventional biomass process. The second part of the paper is summarizing results obtained through a plasma-pyrolysis reactor arrangement. The goal is to show the feasibility of this plasma-pyrolysis coupling and emphasize more fundamental studies to understand the role of the plasma in the biomass treatment processes.

  8. RESEARCH INTO EMERGING WASTE ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this project is to investigate emerging waste issues. In particular, 2 issues have been raised in the last year that have major implications for the waste disposal industry: 1) waste gasification; and 2) proliferation of electronics waste. APPCD loaned a h...

  9. Westinghouse gasification process: commercialization status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Holmgren; P. Cherish; W. J. Havener

    1983-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, Westinghouse Electric Corporation has been engaged in the development of a pressurized, fluidized bed, gasification process at its Waltz Mill Site located near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. This pressurized gasification technology has been developed jointly by the United States Department of Energy and its precursor agencies, the Gas Research Institute and Westinghouse. The process has been judged to

  10. Hybrid bio-thermal gasification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. P. Chtnoweth; P. B. Tarman

    1981-01-01

    A hybrid bio-thermal gasification process is disclosed for improved carbonaceous gasification. A biological feed is anaerobically digested with product methane and carbon dioxide containing gas withdrawn from the digester and biological residue separately withdrawn from the digester and introduced into a thermal gasifier where a substantial portion of the biological residue is gasified under elevated temperature conditions producing thermal gasifier

  11. Co-gasification of blended coal with feedlot and chicken litter biomass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soyuz Priyadarsan; Kalyan Annamalai; John M. Sweeten; Mark T. Holtzapple; Saqib Mukhtar

    2005-01-01

    Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed to avoid environmental degradation. Improper disposal leads to contamination of water supplies and poses serious health risks to humans. In this paper, fixed-bed gasification has been described as a technology for utilizing animal waste as a source of renewable energy, which can reduce its disposal

  12. Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalystes to Poisons form High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal\\/Biomass Mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Khalid Azzam; Janet ChakkamadathilMohandas; Wilson Shafer

    2009-01-01

    There has been a recent shift in interest in converting not only natural gas and coal derived syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, but also converting biomass-derived syngas, as well as syngas derived from coal and biomass mixtures. As such, conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt may not be suitable without proper development. This is because, while ash, sulfur compounds,

  13. Underground coal gasification: Technology status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-10-01

    The US Department of Energy's Morgantown Energy Technology Center is conducting a program in underground coal gasification (UCG). The purpose of this program is to develop the technology for converting coal seams, in place, to a combustible gas that can be cleaned, treated, and upgraded for a variety of end uses, such as the production of chemicals, substitute natural gas, liquid fuels, and electrical power. Coal resources targeted for UCG processing are those coal seams that are unsuitable for recovery using current mining technology because of technical, environmental, health and safety, or economic factors. Conceptually, UCG processing is relatively simple and straightforward. Wells are drilled from the surface to provide access to the target coal seam. One well serves for injection of an oxidant, such as air or a mixture of oxygen and steam, into the seam, while another well serves as a production well for the gasification process gases. These two process wells are connected within the seam using one of several linking techniques to provide an open pathway for the flow of large quantities of gaseous products. Surface treatment of the product gas stream is similar to that for surface gasification processes. The Program is divided into two main technical areas or subprograms: (1) Process Technology, and (2) Process Monitoring, Control, and Environmental Impact Mitigation. The intent of this report is to present the research and accomplishments since 1983 by discussing the elements in these two subprograms that are inhibiting the commercialization of UCG: (1) site suitability, (2) process well linkage, (3) process control, and (4) environmental risks. 60 refs., 12 figs.

  14. The O{sub 2}-enriched air gasification of coal, plastics and wood in a fluidized bed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Mastellone, Maria Laura, E-mail: mlaura.mastellone@unina2.it [Department of Environmental Sciences-Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi, 43 81100 Caserta (Italy); Zaccariello, Lucio; Santoro, Donato; Arena, Umberto [Department of Environmental Sciences-Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi, 43 81100 Caserta (Italy)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of the O{sub 2} in the gasification stream of a BFB gasifier has been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Main advantage of the O{sub 2}-enriched air is the increasing of the bed temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No remarkable effects on tar reduction. Decreasing of recognized PAHs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gasification reactions completed inside the dense bed and splashing zone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polycondensation reactions occur mainly in the freeboard region. - Abstract: The effect of oxygen-enriched air during fluidized bed co-gasification of a mixture of coal, plastics and wood has been investigated. The main components of the obtained syngas were measured by means of on-line analyzers and a gas chromatograph while those of the condensate phase were off-line analysed by means of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The characterization of condensate phase as well as that of the water used as scrubbing medium completed the performed diagnostics. The experimental results were further elaborated in order to provide material and substances flow analyses inside the plant boundaries. These analyses allowed to obtain the main substance distribution between solid, gaseous and condensate phases and to estimate the conversion efficiency of carbon and hydrogen but also to easily visualise the waste streams produced by the process. The process performance was then evaluated on the basis of parameters related to the conversion efficiency of fuels into valuable products (i.e. by considering tar and particulate as process losses) as well as those related to the energy recovery.

  15. A Cleaner Process for Selective Recovery of Valuable Metals from Electronic Waste of Complex Mixtures of End-of-Life Electronic Products.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhi; Xiao, Y; Sietsma, J; Agterhuis, H; Yang, Y

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, recovery of metals from electronic waste within the European Union has become increasingly important due to potential supply risk of strategic raw material and environmental concerns. Electronic waste, especially a mixture of end-of-life electronic products from a variety of sources, is of inherently high complexity in composition, phase, and physiochemical properties. In this research, a closed-loop hydrometallurgical process was developed to recover valuable metals, i.e., copper and precious metals, from an industrially processed information and communication technology waste. A two-stage leaching design of this process was adopted in order to selectively extract copper and enrich precious metals. It was found that the recovery efficiency and extraction selectivity of copper both reached more than 95% by using ammonia-based leaching solutions. A new electrodeposition process has been proven feasible with 90% current efficiency during copper recovery, and the copper purity can reach 99.8 wt %. The residue from the first-stage leaching was screened into coarse and fine fractions. The coarse fraction was returned to be releached for further copper recovery. The fine fraction was treated in the second-stage leaching using sulfuric acid to further concentrate precious metals, which could achieve a 100% increase in their concentrations in the residue with negligible loss into the leaching solution. By a combination of different leaching steps and proper physical separation of light materials, this process can achieve closed-loop recycling of the waste with significant efficiency. PMID:26061274

  16. Characterisation of metals in the electronic waste of complex mixtures of end-of-life ICT products for development of cleaner recovery technology.

    PubMed

    Sun, Z H I; Xiao, Y; Sietsma, J; Agterhuis, H; Visser, G; Yang, Y

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of valuable metals from electronic waste, especially complex mixtures of end-of-life information and communication technology (ICT) products, is of great difficulty due to their complexity and heterogeneity. One of the important reasons is the lack of comprehensive characterisation on such materials, i.e. accurate compositions, physical/chemical properties. In the present research, we focus on developing methodologies for the characterisation of metals in an industrially processed ICT waste. The morphology, particle size distribution, compositional distribution, occurrence, liberation as well as the thermo-chemical properties of the ICT waste were investigated with various characterisation techniques, including X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersed spectroscopy (EDS). Due to the high heterogeneity of the material, special sample preparation procedures were introduced to minimise the discrepancies during compositional analyses. As a result, a clearer overview of the ICT waste has been reached. This research provides better understanding of the extractability of each metal and improves the awareness of potential obstacles for extraction. It will lead to smarter decisions during further development of a clean and effective recovery process. PMID:25445262

  17. In Situ Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Alan Sinquefield

    2005-10-01

    Black liquor gasification offers a number of attractive incentives to replace Tomlinson boilers but it also leads to an increase in the causticizing load. Reasons for this have been described in previous reports (FY04 ERC, et.al.). The chemistries have also been covered but will be reviewed here briefly. Experimental results of the causticizing reactions with black liquor are presented here. Results of the modeling work were presented in detail in the Phase 1 report. They are included in Table 2 for comparison but will not be discussed in detail. The causticizing agents were added to black liquor in the ratios shown in Table 1, mixed, and then spray-dried. The mixture ratios (doping levels) reflect amount calculated from the stoichiometry above to achieve specified conversions shown in the table. The solids were sieved to 63-90 microns for use in the entrained flow reactors. The firing conditions are shown in Table 2. Pictures and descriptions of the reactors can be found in the Phase 1 annual report. Following gasification, the solids (char) was collected and analyzed by coulometric titration (for carbonate and total carbon), and by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP) for a wide array of metals.

  18. Synthetic olivine supported nickel catalysts for gasification of glycerol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Duangduen Atong; Chiravoot Pechyen; Duangdao Aht-Ong; Viboon Sricharoenchaikul

    2011-01-01

    Olivine and olivine-supported nickel catalysts were synthesized and tested to study their potential to be used as active in-bed materials for steam reforming\\/gasification of glycerol waste. Olivine was synthesized by a co-precipitation method followed by wet impregnation of nickel. Ni\\/olivine calcined at 800°C and then reduced at 700°C exhibited a desirable phase with the highest surface area and nickel content.

  19. Hybrid bio-thermal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Chtnoweth, D.P.; Tarman, P.B.

    1981-09-15

    A hybrid bio-thermal gasification process is disclosed for improved carbonaceous gasification. A biological feed is anaerobically digested with product methane and carbon dioxide containing gas withdrawn from the digester and biological residue separately withdrawn from the digester and introduced into a thermal gasifier where a substantial portion of the biological residue is gasified under elevated temperature conditions producing thermal gasifier products and thermal residue with at least a portion of the thermal gasifier products or their derivatives being returned to the digester. The process provides high conversion of the carbonaceous material and biological feed stocks to gas products and permits gasification of a wider variety of biological feeds by anaerobic digestion processes while requiring less external nutrient feeding to the process. The process of this invention provides a highly efficient process for production of substitute natural gas. Various advantages of interrelation between the anaerobic digester and thermal gasification are taught.

  20. Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Swanson

    2005-08-30

    The transport reactor development unit (TRDU) was modified to accommodate oxygen-blown operation in support of a Vision 21-type energy plex that could produce power, chemicals, and fuel. These modifications consisted of changing the loop seal design from a J-leg to an L-valve configuration, thereby increasing the mixing zone length and residence time. In addition, the standpipe, dipleg, and L-valve diameters were increased to reduce slugging caused by bubble formation in the lightly fluidized sections of the solid return legs. A seal pot was added to the bottom of the dipleg so that the level of solids in the standpipe could be operated independently of the dipleg return leg. A separate coal feed nozzle was added that could inject the coal upward into the outlet of the mixing zone, thereby precluding any chance of the fresh coal feed back-mixing into the oxidizing zone of the mixing zone; however, difficulties with this coal feed configuration led to a switch back to the original downward configuration. Instrumentation to measure and control the flow of oxygen and steam to the burner and mix zone ports was added to allow the TRDU to be operated under full oxygen-blown conditions. In total, ten test campaigns have been conducted under enriched-air or full oxygen-blown conditions. During these tests, 1515 hours of coal feed with 660 hours of air-blown gasification and 720 hours of enriched-air or oxygen-blown coal gasification were completed under this particular contract. During these tests, approximately 366 hours of operation with Wyodak, 123 hours with Navajo sub-bituminous coal, 143 hours with Illinois No. 6, 106 hours with SUFCo, 110 hours with Prater Creek, 48 hours with Calumet, and 134 hours with a Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coal were completed. In addition, 331 hours of operation on low-rank coals such as North Dakota lignite, Australian brown coal, and a 90:10 wt% mixture of lignite and wood waste were completed. Also included in these test campaigns was 50 hours of gasification on a petroleum coke from the Hunt Oil Refinery and an additional 73 hours of operation on a high-ash coal from India. Data from these tests indicate that while acceptable fuel gas heating value was achieved with these fuels, the transport gasifier performs better on the lower-rank feedstocks because of their higher char reactivity. Comparable carbon conversions have been achieved at similar oxygen/coal ratios for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation for each fuel; however, carbon conversion was lower for the less reactive feedstocks. While separation of fines from the feed coals is not needed with this technology, some testing has suggested that feedstocks with higher levels of fines have resulted in reduced carbon conversion, presumably due to the inability of the finer carbon particles to be captured by the cyclones. These data show that these low-rank feedstocks provided similar fuel gas heating values; however, even among the high-reactivity low-rank coals, the carbon conversion did appear to be lower for the fuels (brown coal in particular) that contained a significant amount of fines. The fuel gas under oxygen-blown operation has been higher in hydrogen and carbon dioxide concentration since the higher steam injection rate promotes the water-gas shift reaction to produce more CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} at the expense of the CO and water vapor. However, the high water and CO{sub 2} partial pressures have also significantly reduced the reaction of (Abstract truncated)

  1. The Caterpillar Coal Gasification Facility 

    E-print Network

    Welsh, J.; Coffeen, W. G., III

    1983-01-01

    INTO THE STEAM DRUM WHICH IS FITTED WITH WATER LEVEL AND STEAM PRESSURE CONTROLS. THE STEAM LEAVING THE TOP OF THE STEAM DRUM IS UTILIZED IN SATURATING THE AIR USED FOR GASIFICATION. THE WATER JACKET (ANNULAR BOILER) IS PROVIDED WITH A MANHOLE AND BLOWPOWN... EXPENSIVE AND A MORE RELIABLE SUPPLY. ALTHOUGH COAL GASIFICATION IS ONLY NOW BEING REDISCOVERD IN THE UNITED STATES, THE TECHNOLOGY HAS REMAINED RELA TIVELY COMMON IN OTHER PARTS OF THE WORLD, NOTABLY SOUTH AFRICA. A CATERPILLAR ENGINEERING TEAM VISITED...

  2. Hydrogen Production from Biomass via Supercritical Water Gasification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Demirbas

    2010-01-01

    Comparison with other biomass thermochemical gasification, such as air gasification or steam gasification, the supercritical water gasification can directly deal with the wet biomass without drying, and has high gasification efficiency in lower temperatures. The cost of hydrogen production from supercritical water gasification of wet biomass was several times higher than the current price of hydrogen from steam methane reforming.

  3. Numerical simulation of entrained flow coal gasifiers. Part I: modeling of coal gasification in an entrained flow gasifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caixia Chen; Masayuki Horio; Toshinori Kojima

    2000-01-01

    A comprehensive three-dimensional simulation model was developed for entrained flow coal gasifiers. In the model, the numerical methods and the submodels conventionally used for the pulverized coal combustion modeling were used. An extended coal gas mixture fraction model with the Multi Solids Progress Variables (MSPV) method was applied to simulate the gasification reaction and reactant mixing process. Four mixture fractions

  4. Co-firing of biomass waste-derived syngas in coal power boiler

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylwester Kalisz; Marek Pronobis; David Baxter

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with waste gasification as a technology allowing for indirect co-firing of large quantities of biodegradable wastes in coal-fired power boilers. In contrast to common landfilling and direct co-firing, gasification of wastes presents a number of advantages. Problematic species in original feedstocks can be partly safely incinerated in the furnace and partly retained in the gasification residues.The paper

  5. Evaluation of treated gasification wastewater as cooling tower makeup

    SciTech Connect

    Galegher, S.J.; Mann, M.D.; Johnson, M.D.

    1985-04-01

    The principal goal of gasification research at the University of North Dakota Energy Research Center (UNDERC) is to develop process and environmental data on the treatability and reuse of aqueous effluents from the fixed-bed gasification of lignite. It is the objective of the UNDERC wastewater research program to define the extent of treatment required to produce a gas liquor for use as cooling tower makeup that will have no adverse effects on operating equipment or on the environment. The UNDERC pilot wastewater treatment scheme was designed to simulate the wastewater reuse process being used at the Great Plains Gasification Associates (GPGA) lignite gasification facility near Beulah, North Dakota. At GPGA, aqueous gasifier waste streams are treated via the Phenosolvan and Phosam-W processes to remove the bulk of the wastewater organics as well as ammonia and acid gases. This minimally treated wastewater, referred to as stripped gas liquor (SGL), is fed to the process cooling towers. At UNDERC, SGL was produced from a pilot slagging fixed-bed gasifier (SFBG) followed by extraction and steam-stripping treatment. UNDERC wastewater was used initially to determine the effects of cooling tower wastewater reuse before GPGA wastewater became available. An additional cooling tower reuse test was performed with water from GPGA. This work addresses the comparative effects of wastewater from the UNDERC slagging gasifier and the GPGA dry-ash gasifier on cooling system operation. 14 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Experimental study on MSW gasification and melting technology.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Gang; Jin, Bao-sheng; Zhong, Zhao-ping; Chi, Yong; Ni, Ming-jiang; Cen, Ke-fa; Xiao, Rui; Huang, Ya-ji; Huang, He

    2007-01-01

    In order to develop municipal solid waste (MSW) gasification and melting technology, two preliminary experiments and a principle integrated experiment were fulfilled respectively. The gasification characteristics of MSW were studied at 500-750 degrees C when equivalence ratio (ER) was 0.2-0.5 using a fluidized-bed gasifier. When temperature was 550-700 degrees C and ER was 0.2-0.4, low heat value (LHV) of syngas reaches 4000-12000 kJ/Nm3. The melting characteristics of fly ash were investigated at 1100-1460 degrees C using a fixed-bed furnace. It was proved that over 99.9% of dioxins could be decomposed and most heavy-metals could be solidified when temperature was 1100-1300 degrees C. The principle integrated experiment was carried out in a fluidized-bed gasification and swirl-melting system. MSW was gasified efficiently at 550-650 degrees C, swirl-melting furnace maintains at 1200-1300 degrees C stably and over 95% of fly ash could be caught by the swirl-melting furnace. The results provided much practical experience and basic data to develop MSW gasification and melting technology. PMID:18232238

  7. Development of water slurry gasification systems for high-moisture biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Butner, R.S.; Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.

    1985-05-01

    The development of a new biomass gasification system by Pacific Northwest Laboratory is described. The system promises to allow the efficient thermochemical conversion of high-moisture biomass feedstocks. The reactor operates at 400 to 450/sup 0/C and 4000 to 5000 psig to allow the gasification of water-biomass slurries containing up to 95% moisture. Initial results of gasification studies are presented. Raw product gases containing up to 95% moisture. Initial results of gasification studies are presented. Raw product gases containing up to 40% methane have been obtained with carbon conversions in excess of 95%. Feedstocks being studied include aquatic plants, agricultural residues, food processing waste and effluent from an anaerobic methane digestor. 11 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Gasification of cyanobacterial in supercritical water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiwen; Zhu, Wei; Xu, Zhirong; Gong, Miao

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacterial collected from eutrophic freshwater lakes constituted intractable waste with a rich algae biomass content. Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) was proposed to treat the cyanobacterial and to produce hydrogen for energy. The H 2 yield reached 2.92 mol/kg at reaction conditions of 500 °C, 30 min and 22 MPa; this yield accounted for 26% of the total gaseous products. Abundant ammonia and dissolved reactive phosphorous were concentrated in the liquid product, which could be recovered and used as a liquid fertilizer. Solid residue, which accounted only for about 1% of the wet weight, was mainly composed of coke and ash. The efficiency of H 2 production was better than that from other biomass, because of the abundant organic matter in cyanobacterial. Thus, cyanobacterial are an ideal biomass feedstock for H 2 production from SCWG. PMID:25176482

  9. June 2007 gasification technologies workshop papers

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    2007-06-15

    Topics covered in this workshop are fundamentals of gasification, carbon capture and sequestration, reviews of financial and regulatory incentives, co-production, and focus on gasification in the Western US.

  10. Melt crystallization for refinement of triolein and palmitic acid mixture as a model waste oil for biodiesel fuel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukui, Keisuke; Maeda, Kouji; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi

    2013-06-01

    Melt crystallization using an annular vessel with two circular cylinders was applied to produce high-quality vegetable oil from waste oil. The inner cylinder was cooled at a constant rate and rotated, and the outer cylinder was heated at a constant temperature. The melt was solidified on the inner cylinder surface. The binary system of triolein and palmitic acid was used as the model waste oil. We measured the distribution coefficient of triolein. Suitable operation conditions were proposed to attain a high yield and a high purity of triolein from waste oil. The distribution coefficient correlated well with the theoretical equation derived on the basis of the "local lever rule" at the interface of the crystal layer and melt [1].

  11. Up-cycling waste glass to minimal water adsorption/absorption lightweight aggregate by rapid low temperature sintering: optimization by dual process-mixture response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Velis, Costas A; Franco-Salinas, Claudia; O'Sullivan, Catherine; Najorka, Jens; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2014-07-01

    Mixed color waste glass extracted from municipal solid waste is either not recycled, in which case it is an environmental and financial liability, or it is used in relatively low value applications such as normal weight aggregate. Here, we report on converting it into a novel glass-ceramic lightweight aggregate (LWA), potentially suitable for high added value applications in structural concrete (upcycling). The artificial LWA particles were formed by rapidly sintering (<10 min) waste glass powder with clay mixes using sodium silicate as binder and borate salt as flux. Composition and processing were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) modeling, and specifically (i) a combined process-mixture dual RSM, and (ii) multiobjective optimization functions. The optimization considered raw materials and energy costs. Mineralogical and physical transformations occur during sintering and a cellular vesicular glass-ceramic composite microstructure is formed, with strong correlations existing between bloating/shrinkage during sintering, density and water adsorption/absorption. The diametrical expansion could be effectively modeled via the RSM and controlled to meet a wide range of specifications; here we optimized for LWA structural concrete. The optimally designed LWA is sintered in comparatively low temperatures (825-835 °C), thus potentially saving costs and lowering emissions; it had exceptionally low water adsorption/absorption (6.1-7.2% w/wd; optimization target: 1.5-7.5% w/wd); while remaining substantially lightweight (density: 1.24-1.28 g.cm(-3); target: 0.9-1.3 g.cm(-3)). This is a considerable advancement for designing effective environmentally friendly lightweight concrete constructions, and boosting resource efficiency of waste glass flows. PMID:24871934

  12. Coal gasification for advanced power generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. Minchener

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the development and deployment of coal based gasification technologies for power generation. The global status of gasification is described covering the various process and technology options. The use of gasification for power generation is then highlighted including the advantages and disadvantages of this means for coal utilisation. The R, D & D needs and

  13. Method and apparatus for the selective separation of gaseous coal gasification products by pressure swing adsorption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Madhav R. Ghate; Ralph T. Yang

    1987-01-01

    Bulk separation of the gaseous components of multi-component gases provided by the gasification of coal including hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, and acid gases (carbon dioxide plus hydrogen sulfide) are selectively adsorbed by a pressure swing adsorption technique using activated carbon, zeolite or a combination thereof as the adsorbent. By charging a column containing the adsorbent with a gas mixture and

  14. Method and apparatus for the selective separation of gaseous coal gasification products by pressure swing adsorption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Ghate; R. T. Yang

    1985-01-01

    Bulk separation of the gaseous components of multi-component gases provided by the gasification of coal including hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, and acid gases (carbon dioxide plus hydrogen sulfide) are selectively adsorbed by a pressure swing adsorption technique using activated carbon zeolite or a combination thereof as the adsorbent. By charging a column containing the adsorbent with a gas mixture and

  15. Central waste processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kester, F. L.

    1973-01-01

    A new concept for processing spacecraft type wastes has been evaluated. The feasibility of reacting various waste materials with steam at temperatures of 538 - 760 C in both a continuous and batch reactor with residence times from 3 to 60 seconds has been established. Essentially complete gasification is achieved. Product gases are primarily hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, and carbon monoxide. Water soluble synthetic wastes are readily processed in a continuous tubular reactor at concentrations up to 20 weight percent. The batch reactor is able to process wet and dry wastes at steam to waste weight ratios from 2 to 20. Feces, urine, and synthetic wastes have been successfully processed in the batch reactor.

  16. Combustion of biodiesel fuel produced from hazelnut soapstock\\/waste sunflower oil mixture in a Diesel engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Usta; E. Öztürk; Ö. Can; E. S. Conkur; S. Nas; A. H. Çon; A. Ç. Can; M. Topcu

    2005-01-01

    Biodiesel is considered as an alternative fuel to Diesel fuel No. 2, which can be generally produced from different kinds of vegetable oils. Since the prices of edible vegetable oils are higher than that of Diesel fuel No. 2, waste vegetable oils and non-edible crude vegetable oils are preferred as potential low priced biodiesel sources. In addition, it is possible

  17. Development of grout formulations for 106-AN waste: Mixture-experiment results and analysis. Volume 1, Narrative and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, R.D.; McDaniel, E.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Anderson, C.M.; Lokken, R.O.; Piepel, G.F. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Twenty potential ingredients were identified for use in developing a 106-AN grout formulation, and 18 were subsequently obtained and tested. Four ingredients-Type II-LA (moderate heat of hydration) Portland cement, Class F fly ash, attapulgite 150 drilling clay, and ground air-cooled blast-furnace slag (GABFS) were selected for developing the 106-AN grout formulations. A mixture experiment was designed and conducted around the following formulation: 2.5 lb of cement per gallon, 1.2 lb of fly ash per gallon, 0.8 lb of attapulgite per gallon, and 3.5 lb of GABFS per gallon. Reduced empirical models were generated from the results of the mixture experiment. These models were used to recommend several grout formulations for 106-AN. Westinghouse Hanford Company selected one of these formulations to be verified for use with 106-AN and a backup formulation in case problems arise with the first choice.

  18. Beluga Coal Gasification - ISER

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Colt

    2008-12-31

    ISER was requested to conduct an economic analysis of a possible 'Cook Inlet Syngas Pipeline'. The economic analysis was incorporated as section 7.4 of the larger report titled: 'Beluga Coal Gasification Feasibility Study, DOE/NETL-2006/1248, Phase 2 Final Report, October 2006, for Subtask 41817.333.01.01'. The pipeline would carry CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} from a synthetic gas plant on the western side of Cook Inlet to Agrium's facility. The economic analysis determined that the net present value of the total capital and operating lifecycle costs for the pipeline ranges from $318 to $588 million. The greatest contributor to this spread is the cost of electricity, which ranges from $0.05 to $0.10/kWh in this analysis. The financial analysis shows that the delivery cost of gas may range from $0.33 to $0.55/Mcf in the first year depending primarily on the price for electricity.

  19. Carbon-catalyzed gasification of organic feedstocks in supercritical water

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X.; Matsumura, Y.; Stenberg, J.; Antal, M.J. Jr. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States). Hawaii Natural Energy Inst.] [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States). Hawaii Natural Energy Inst.

    1996-08-01

    Spruce wood charcoal, macadamia shell charcoal, coal activated carbon, and coconut shell activated carbon catalyze the gasification of organic compounds in supercritical water. Feedstocks studied in this paper include glycerol, glucose, cellobiose, whole biomass feedstocks (depithed bagasse liquid extract and sewage sludge), and representative Department of Defense (DoD) wastes (methanol, methyl ethyl ketone, ethylene glycol, acetic acid, and phenol). The effects of temperature, pressure, reactant concentration, weight hourly space velocity, and the type of catalyst on the gasification of glucose are reported. Complete conversion of glucose (22% by weight in water) to a hydrogen-rich synthesis gas was realized at a weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 22.2 h{sup {minus}1} in supercritical water at 600 C, 34.5 MPa. Complete conversions of the whole biomass feeds were also achieved at the same temperature and pressure. The destruction efficiencies for the representative DoD wastes were also high. Deactivation of the carbon catalyst was observed after 4 h of operation without swirl in the entrance region of the reactor, but the carbon gasification efficiency remained near 100% for more than 6 h when a swirl generator was employed in the entrance of the reactor.

  20. Contemporary issues in thermal gasification of biomass and its application to electricity and fuel production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lijun Wang; Curtis L. Weller; David D. Jones; Milford A. Hanna

    2008-01-01

    Gasification technology has been investigated to effectively and economically convert low-value and highly distributed solid biomass to a uniform gaseous mixture mainly including hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2). This gaseous mixture can be further used as an industrial feedstock for heat and power generation, H2 production and synthesis of liquid fuels. Significant advances have

  1. In situ formation of coal gasification catalysts from low cost alkali metal salts

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Bernard J. (Santa Clara, CA); Brittain, Robert D. (Cupertino, CA); Sancier, Kenneth M. (Menlo Park, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A carbonaceous material, such as crushed coal, is admixed or impregnated with an inexpensive alkali metal compound, such as sodium chloride, and then pretreated with a stream containing steam at a temperature of 350.degree. to 650.degree. C. to enhance the catalytic activity of the mixture in a subsequent gasification of the mixture. The treatment may result in the transformation of the alkali metal compound into another, more catalytically active, form.

  2. A model approach to highly dispersing catalytic materials in coal for gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Abotsi, G.M.K.; Bota, K.B.

    1992-01-01

    This project seeks to develop a technique, based on coal surface properties, for highly dispersing catalysts in coal for gasification and to investigate the potential of using potassium carbonate and calcium acetate mixtures as catalysts for coal gasification. The lower cost and higher catalytic activity of the latter compound will produce economic benefits by reducing the amount of K[sub 2]CO[sub 3] required for high coal char reactivities. As was shown in previous reports, coal loading with potassium or calcium at different pHs produced CO[sub 2] gasification activities which increased in the order pH 6 > pH 10 >>pH 1. A similar trend was obtained when calcium and potassium were simultaneously loaded and char reaction times were less than about 75 min. In the last quarter, the potential application of ammonia as a reactive medium for coal gasification has been investigated. This gas has not been previously applied to coal gasification. However, related work suggests that the potential chemical feedstock base can be broadened by using ammonia to generate hydrogen cyanide and cyanogen from coal. The current report shows that the reactivity of a demineralized lignite in ammonia is significantly higher in the presence of calcium or potassium catalyst than that for the char without added catalyst and suggests that ammonia is a potentially reactive gas for catalyzed coal gasification.

  3. Plasma gasification of organic containing substances as a promising way of development of alternative renewable power engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutberg, Ph G.; Bratsev, A. N.; Kuznetsov, V. A.; Kumkova, I. I.; Popov, V. E.; Surov, A. V.

    2012-12-01

    The paper deals with perspectives of large-scale implementation of the plasma gasification process of solid organic-containing substances as a source of renewable energy. First of all, such substances as wood waste, agriculture waste, solid household waste are considered. Thanks to the process of the plasma high-temperature gasification the energy of their combustion can be completely converted into the energy of the synthesis gas combustion, which use as a fuel for the combined cycle allows electricity generation with efficiency of ~60 %. Thus, if the psychogenesis production wastes are considered, this technology enables avoiding additional emission of carbon dioxide into biosphere as for production of biomass from biosphere it is extracted the same amount of carbon dioxide as is emitted at its combustion. The report represents the realized and developing designs of plasma gasification, their advantages and deficiencies.

  4. Subcontracted R and D final report: analysis of samples obtained from GKT gasification test of Kentucky coal. Nonproprietary version

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, S.V.

    1983-09-01

    A laboratory test program was performed to obtain detailed compositional data on the Gesellshaft fuer Kohle-Technologie (GKT) gasifier feed and effluent streams. GKT performed pilot gasification tests with Kentucky No. 9 coal and collected various samples which were analyzed by GKT and the Radian Corporation, Austin, Texas. The coal chosen had good liquefaction characteristics and a high gasification reactivity. No organic priority pollutants or PAH compounds were detected in the wash water, and solid waste leachates were within RCRA metals limits.

  5. Challenges using a {sup 252}Cf shuffler instrument in a plant environment to measure mixtures of uranium and plutonium transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hurd, J.R.

    1999-08-29

    An active-passive {sup 252}Cf shuffler instrument, installed and certified several years ago at Los Alamos National Laboratory's plutonium facility, has now been calibrated for different matrices to measure Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)-destined transuranic (TRU) waste. Little or no data currently exist for these types of measurements in plant environments where sudden large changes in the neutron background radiation can significantly distort the results. Measurements and analyses of twenty-two 55-gallon drums, consisting of mixtures of varying quantities of uranium and plutonium in mostly noncombustible matrices, have been recently completed at the plutonium facility. The calibration and measurement techniques, including the method used to separate out the plutonium component, will be presented and discussed. Calculations used to adjust for differences in uranium enrichment from that of the calibration standards will be shown. Methods used to determine various sources of both random and systematic error will be indicated. Particular attention will be directed to those problems identified as arising from the plant environment. The results of studies to quantify the aforementioned distortion effects in the data will be presented. Various solution scenarios will be outlined, along with those adopted here.

  6. In Plant Measurement and Analysis of Mixtures of Uranium and Plutonium TRU-Waste Using a {sup 252}Cf Shuffler Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Hurd, J.R.

    1998-11-02

    The active-passive {sup 252}Cf shuffler instrument, installed and certified several years ago in Los Alamos National Laboratory's plutonium facility, has now been calibrated for different matrices to measure Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)-destined transuranic (TRU)-waste. Little or no data currently exist for these types of measurements in plant environments where sudden large changes in the neutron background radiation can significantly distort the results. Measurements and analyses of twenty-two 55-gallon drums, consisting of mixtures of varying quantities of uranium and plutonium in mostly noncombustible matrices, have been recently completed at the plutonium facility. The calibration and measurement techniques, including the method used to separate out the plutonium component, will be presented and discussed. Calculations used to adjust for differences in uranium enrichment from that of the calibration standards will be shown. Methods used to determine various sources of both random and systematic error will be indicated. Particular attention will be directed to those problems identified as arising from the plant environment. The results of studies to quantify the aforementioned distortion effects in the data will be presented. Various solution scenarios will be outlined, along with those adopted here.

  7. Coal gasification 2006: roadmap to commercialization

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    2006-05-15

    Surging oil and gas prices, combined with supply security and environmental concerns, are prompting power generators and industrial firms to further develop coal gasification technologies. Coal gasification, the process of breaking down coal into its constituent chemical components prior to combustion, will permit the US to more effectively utilize its enormous, low cost coal reserves. The process facilitates lower environmental impact power generation and is becoming an increasingly attractive alternative to traditional generation techniques. The study is designed to inform the reader as to this rapidly evolving technology, its market penetration prospects and likely development. Contents include: Clear explanations of different coal gasification technologies; Emissions and efficiency comparisons with other fuels and technologies; Examples of US and global gasification projects - successes and failures; Commercial development and forecast data; Gasification projects by syngas output; Recommendations for greater market penetration and commercialization; Current and projected gasification technology market shares; and Recent developments including proposals for underground gasification process. 1 app.

  8. Coal Gasification for Power Generation, 3. edition

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    The report provides a concise look at the challenges faced by coal-fired generation, the ability of coal gasification to address these challenges, and the current state of IGCC power generation. Topics covered include: an overview of Coal Generation including its history, the current market environment, and the status of coal gasification; a description of gasification technology including processes and systems; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving increased interest in coal gasification; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the implementation of coal gasification projects; a discussion of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology; an evaluation of IGCC versus other generation technologies; a discussion of IGCC project development options; a discussion of the key government initiatives supporting IGCC development; profiles of the key gasification technology companies participating in the IGCC market; and, a detailed description of existing and planned coal IGCC projects.

  9. The O?-enriched air gasification of coal, plastics and wood in a fluidized bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Mastellone, Maria Laura; Zaccariello, Lucio; Santoro, Donato; Arena, Umberto

    2012-04-01

    The effect of oxygen-enriched air during fluidized bed co-gasification of a mixture of coal, plastics and wood has been investigated. The main components of the obtained syngas were measured by means of on-line analyzers and a gas chromatograph while those of the condensate phase were off-line analysed by means of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The characterization of condensate phase as well as that of the water used as scrubbing medium completed the performed diagnostics. The experimental results were further elaborated in order to provide material and substances flow analyses inside the plant boundaries. These analyses allowed to obtain the main substance distribution between solid, gaseous and condensate phases and to estimate the conversion efficiency of carbon and hydrogen but also to easily visualise the waste streams produced by the process. The process performance was then evaluated on the basis of parameters related to the conversion efficiency of fuels into valuable products (i.e. by considering tar and particulate as process losses) as well as those related to the energy recovery. PMID:21993077

  10. Physical properties of ash emitted from a fluidized-bed gasifer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. D. Jones; C. B. Parnell; W. A. LePori

    1985-01-01

    The physical properities of ash resulting from gasification of cotton gin trash, manure, and wood waste were determined and compared. This ash has been separated from LCV gas with a cyclone series and bag filter system prior to combustion. Bulk densities, particle densities, precent ash less than 100 \\/..mu..m, particle size distributions, surface areas, and carbon contents were reported.

  11. The role of a coal gasification fly ash as clay additive in building ceramic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mónica Aineto; Anselmo Acosta; Isabel Iglesias

    2006-01-01

    The clean coal integrated gasification in combined cycle (IGCC) technology of electrical power generation is different than conventional process in combustible treatment which generates inorganic wastes in the form of glassy slag and fly ash with singular properties. We have studied the fly ash coming from ELCOGAS IGCC power plant as additive to clays for building ceramic fabrication.The addition of

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT: SOURCE TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT - WELLMAN-GALUSHA (GLEN GERY) LOW-BTU GASIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a Source Test and Evaluation Program at a commercial coal gasification plant using a Wellman-Galusha gasifier to produce low-Btu fuel gas from anthracite coal. Major objective of the tests was to perform an environmental assessment of the plant's waste...

  13. Physical properties of ash emitted from a fluidized-bed gasifer

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.D.; Parnell, C.B.; LePori, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    The physical properities of ash resulting from gasification of cotton gin trash, manure, and wood waste were determined and compared. This ash has been separated from LCV gas with a cyclone series and bag filter system prior to combustion. Bulk densities, particle densities, precent ash less than 100 /..mu..m, particle size distributions, surface areas, and carbon contents were reported.

  14. Plasma Treatments and Biomass Gasification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Luche; Q Falcoz; T Bastien; J P Leninger; K Arabi; O Aubry; A Khacef; J M Cormier; J Lédé

    2012-01-01

    Exploitation of forest resources for energy production includes various methods of biomass processing. Gasification is one of the ways to recover energy from biomass. Syngas produced from biomass can be used to power internal combustion engines or, after purification, to supply fuel cells. Recent studies have shown the potential to improve conventional biomass processing by coupling a plasma reactor to

  15. BIMOMASS GASIFICATION PILOT PLANT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a gasification pilot program using two biomass feedstocks: bagasse pellets and wood chips. he object of the program was to determine the properties of biomass product gas and its suitability as a fuel for gas-turbine-based power generation cycles. he f...

  16. Separation of products from mild coal gasification processes

    SciTech Connect

    Wallman, P.H.

    1991-09-11

    The primary mild coal gasification product mixture containing noncondensible gas, high-boiling hydrocarbon vapors and entrained fines is difficult to process into the desired pure products: gas, liquids, and dry solids. This challenge for mild coal gasification process development has been studied by surveying the technical literature for suitable separations processes and for similar issues in related processes. The choice for a first-stage solids separation step is standard cyclones, arranged in parallel trains for large-volume applications in order to take advantage of the higher separation efficiency of smaller cyclones. However, mild gasification pilot-plant data show entrainment of ultrafine particles for which standard cyclones have poor separation efficiency. A hot secondary solids separation step is needed for the ultrafine entrainment in order to protect the liquid product from excessive amounts of contaminating solids. The secondary solids separation step is similar to many high-temperature flue-gas applications with an important complicating condition: Mild gasifier vapors form coke on surfaces in contact with the vapors. Plugging of the filter medium by coke deposition is concluded to be the main product separation problem for mild gasification. Three approaches to solution of this problem are discussed in the order of preference: (1) a barrier filter medium made of a perforated foil that is easy to regenerate, (2) a high-efficiency cyclone coupled with recycle of a solids-containing tar fraction for coking/cracking in the gasifier, and (3) a granular moving bed filter with regeneration of the bed material. The condensation of oil vapors diluted by noncondensible gas is analyzed thermodynamically, and the conclusion is that existing commercial oil fractionator designs are adequate as long as the vapor stream does not contain excessive amounts of solids. 34 refs., 4 figs.

  17. TOPICAL REVIEW: Thermal plasma waste treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joachim Heberlein; Anthony B. Murphy

    2008-01-01

    Plasma waste treatment has over the past decade become a more prominent technology because of the increasing problems with waste disposal and because of the realization of opportunities to generate valuable co-products. Plasma vitrification of hazardous slags has been a commercial technology for several years, and volume reduction of hazardous wastes using plasma processes is increasingly being used. Plasma gasification

  18. Biomethanization of mixtures of fruits and vegetables solid wastes and sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Lahoz, C; Fernández-Giménez, B; Garcia-Herruzo, F; Rodriguez-Maroto, J M; Vereda-Alonso, C

    2007-03-01

    The possible management of Fruit and Vegetable Solid Wastes (FVSWs) through their simultaneous digestion with the primary sludge of Municipal Wastewater Treatment plants is investigated. This alternative allows the recovery of energy and a solid product that can be used as an amendment for soils that generated the residue, while is not expensive. Results indicate that the ratio of FVSWs to sludge and the pH control are the main variables determining the methane production and concentration. NaHCO3 was selected to achieve the pH control. The results for a ratio of 50% sludge together with 10 g NaHCO3/kg of residue are among the best obtained, with a methane yield of about 90 L per kg of volatile solids, and a methane concentration of 40% (v/v) of the biogas. A 50% reduction of the total solids; 21% reduction of the volatile solids (in terms of total solids); and a pH value of the sludge, which is 6.9 indicate that the digested sludge can be a good material for soil amendment. PMID:17365318

  19. Gasification world database 2007. Current industry status

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    2007-10-15

    Information on trends and drivers affecting the growth of the gasification industry is provided based on information in the USDOE NETL world gasification database (available on the www.netl.doe.gov website). Sectors cover syngas production in 2007, growth planned through 2010, recent industry changes, and beyond 2010 - strong growth anticipated in the United States. A list of gasification-based power plant projects, coal-to-liquid projects and coal-to-SNG projects under consideration in the USA is given.

  20. Fluidized-bed gasification of dairy manure by Box-Behnken design.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hanjing; Hanna, Milford A; Jones, David D

    2012-05-01

    Application of excessive animal manure to the land may cause some environmental problems such as eutrophication of surface waters, degradation of ground water quality, and threats to human health. This paper reports an experimental study on the technology of biomass gasification to treat animal waste by analysing the effects of key operating parameters on gasification. In this research, dairy manure from the University of Nebraska dairy farm was first collected and dried, and then gasified in a fluidized-bed, laboratory-scale gasifier to generate syngas. The effects of three parameters, namely temperature, steam to biomass ratio (SBR) and the equivalence ratio (ER), on the gasification were described by a Box-Behnken design (BBD). Results showed that increasing the temperature favoured the formation of all three combustible gases, but the composition of each gas behaved differently according to the changing parameters. The lower heating value of the syngas varied from 2.0 to 4.7 MJ m(-3), indicating gasification could be used as a waste management option to produce bioenergy, and potentially reduce problems associated with the disposal of animal waste. PMID:22071174

  1. Analysis of energetic and exergetic efficiency, and environmental benefits of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle technology.

    PubMed

    Mínguez, María; Jiménez, Angel; Rodríguez, Javier; González, Celina; López, Ignacio; Nieto, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    The problem of the high carbon dioxide emissions linked to power generation makes necessary active research on the use of biofuels in gas turbine systems as a promising alternative to fossil fuels. Gasification of biomass waste is particularly of interest in obtaining a fuel to be run in gas turbines, as it is an efficient biomass-to-biofuel conversion process, and an integration into a combined cycle power plant leads to a high performance with regard to energetic efficiency. The goal of this study was to carry out an energetic, exergetic and environmental analysis of the behaviour of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant fuelled with different kinds of biomass waste by means of simulations. A preliminary economic study is also included. Although a technological development in gasification technology is necessary, the results of simulations indicate a high technical and environmental interest in the use of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BioIGCC) systems for large-scale power generation from biomass waste. PMID:23444152

  2. Woody biomass and RPF gasification using reforming catalyst and calcium oxide.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Jun; Kawamoto, Katsuya; Fukushima, Ryutaro; Tanaka, Shingo

    2011-05-01

    This study focused on steam gasification and reforming of waste biomass using a reforming catalyst. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the durability of a commercial Ni reforming catalyst and the effect of CaO on the reforming behavior, and to clarify detailed factors of catalytic performance, as well as the effect of operating parameters on the characteristics of produced gas composition. Moreover, catalyst regeneration was carried out and the behavior of catalytic activity based on gas composition was investigated. Using a fluidized bed gasifier and a fixed bed reformer, gasification and reforming of waste biomass were carried out. Commercial Ni-based catalyst and calcined limestone (CaO) were applied to the reforming reaction. Temperature of the gasifier and reformer was almost 1023K. Ratio of steam to carbon in the feedstock [molmol(-1)] and equivalence ratio (i.e., ratio of actual to theoretical amount of oxygen) [-] were set at about 2 and 0.3, respectively. The feed rate of the feedstock into the bench-scale gasifier was almost 15kgh(-1). The results of waste biomass gasification confirmed the improvement in H(2) composition by the CO(2) absorption reaction using the reforming catalyst and CaO. In addition, CaO proved to be especially effective in decreasing the tar concentration in the case of woody biomass gasification. Catalytic activity was maintained by means of catalyst regeneration processing by hydrogen reduction after air oxidation when woody biomass was used as feedstock. PMID:21459406

  3. Plasma gasification of coal in different oxidants

    SciTech Connect

    Matveev, I.B.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Applied Plasma Technology, Mclean, VA (USA)

    2008-12-15

    Oxidant selection is the highest priority for advanced coal gasification-process development. This paper presents comparative analysis of the Powder River Basin bituminous-coal gasification processes for entrained-flow plasma gasifier. Several oxidants, which might be employed for perspective commercial applications, have been chosen, including air, steam/carbon-dioxide blend, carbon dioxide, steam, steam/air, steam/oxygen, and oxygen. Synthesis gas composition, carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and power efficiency for these processes were determined. The influence of the selected oxidant composition on the gasification-process main characteristics have been investigated.

  4. Underground coal gasification using oxygen and steam

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, L.H.; Zhang, X.; Liu, S. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, through model experiment of the underground coal gasification, the effects of pure oxygen gasification, oxygen-steam gasification, and moving-point gasification methods on the underground gasification process and gas quality were studied. Experiments showed that H{sub 2} and CO volume fraction in product gas during the pure oxygen gasification was 23.63-30.24% and 35.22-46.32%, respectively, with the gas heating value exceeding 11.00 MJ/m{sup 3}; under the oxygen-steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio stood at 2: 1, gas compositions remained virtually stable and CO + H{sub 2} was basically between 61.66 and 71.29%. Moving-point gasification could effectively improve the changes in the cavity in the coal seams or the effects of roof inbreak on gas quality; the ratio of gas flowing quantity to oxygen supplying quantity was between 3.1:1 and 3.5:1 and took on the linear changes; on the basis of the test data, the reasons for gas quality changes under different gasification conditions were analyzed.

  5. Development of mild gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.I.C.; Gillespie, B.L.

    1987-11-01

    Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

  6. Underground coal gasification: environmental update

    SciTech Connect

    Dockter, L.; McTernon, E.M.

    1985-06-01

    Over the past decade underground coal gasification (UCG) in the US has progressed to the point where both its technical and economic prospects are causing industry to re-evaluate the process as a means of converting coal to gaseous fuels and synthesis gas. The technical feasibility of UCG has been demonstrated for subbituminous coals. Steeply dipping beds of these coals seem particularly amenable to recovery by this process. The fact that coal in currently uneconomical deposits or deposits which are difficult to mine can be converted into a useful gaseous product without large surface facilities, mines, and transportation requirements makes UCG very attractive. Contamination of ground water is a major concern in the development of underground coal gasification. A realistic evaluation of this possibility is presented.

  7. Biooxidation of coal gasification wastewaters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. L. Donaldson; G. W. Strandberg; J. D. Hewitt; G. S. Shields

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory studies were carried out on the feasibility of using a fixed-film fluidised-bed bioreactor to treat coal gasification wastewaters. Dilute synthetic wastewaters were treated successfully by this process for over a year, and dilute actual wastewaters for 9 months. The bioreactors were stable, and no serious operating problems occurred. Effluent phenol concentration of <0.001 kg\\/m³ was achieved with a synthetic

  8. EMERY BIOMASS GASIFICATION POWER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin Phillips; Scott Hassett; Harry Gatley

    2002-11-27

    Emery Recycling Corporation (now Emery Energy Company, LLC) evaluated the technical and economical feasibility of the Emery Biomass Gasification Power System (EBGPS). The gasifier technology is owned and being developed by Emery. The Emery Gasifier for this project was an oxygen-blown, pressurized, non-slagging gasification process that novelly integrates both fixed-bed and entrained-flow gasification processes into a single vessel. This unique internal geometry of the gasifier vessel will allow for tar and oil destruction within the gasifier. Additionally, the use of novel syngas cleaning processes using sorbents is proposed with the potential to displace traditional amine-based and other syngas cleaning processes. The work scope within this project included: one-dimensional gasifier modeling, overall plant process modeling (ASPEN), feedstock assessment, additional analyses on the proposed syngas cleaning process, plant cost estimating, and, market analysis to determine overall feasibility and applicability of the technology for further development and commercial deployment opportunities. Additionally, the project included the development of a detailed technology development roadmap necessary to commercialize the Emery Gasification technology. Process modeling was used to evaluate both combined cycle and solid oxide fuel cell power configurations. Ten (10) cases were evaluated in an ASPEN model wherein nine (9) cases were IGCC configurations with fuel-to-electricity efficiencies ranging from 38-42% and one (1) case was an IGFC solid oxide case where 53.5% overall plant efficiency was projected. The cost of electricity was determined to be very competitive at scales from 35-71 MWe. Market analysis of feedstock availability showed numerous market opportunities for commercial deployment of the technology with modular capabilities for various plant sizes based on feedstock availability and power demand.

  9. Gasification Product Improvement Facility status

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, R.D.; Sadowski, R.S.; Skinner, W.H. [CRS Sirrine Engineers, Inc., Greenville, SC (United States); Dixit, V.B.; Lisauskas, R.A. [Riley Stoker Corp., Worcester, MA (United States); Johnson, S.A. [PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States). PowerServe Div.

    1994-10-01

    The objective of the Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) project is to provide a test site to support early commercialization of the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology. The design of this facility will by based on PyGas{trademark}, a patented air blown fixed bed gasification process. The GPIF will be capable of processing run-of-mine high swelling coals that comprise 87% of all Eastern US coals. The GPIF project is expected to deliver a gasifier design that will satisfy the criteria for good process performance and cost effectiveness. The PyGas{trademark} process was conceived to handle high swelling coals, crack tars, and reduce ammonia and trace metal emissions. The GPIF program will generate useful scale up data. Initially, the PyGas{trademark}-IGCC systems will be offered as modular units for the repowering markets which will reduce the financial burden on utilities in comparison to large plants. In addition, modular designs will also reduce the plant construction schedules.

  10. LLNL Capabilities in Underground Coal Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, S J; Burton, E; Upadhye, R

    2006-06-07

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) has received renewed interest as a potential technology for producing hydrogen at a competitive price particularly in Europe and China. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) played a leading role in this field and continues to do so. It conducted UCG field tests in the nineteen-seventies and -eighties resulting in a number of publications culminating in a UCG model published in 1989. LLNL successfully employed the ''Controlled Retraction Injection Point'' (CRIP) method in some of the Rocky Mountain field tests near Hanna, Wyoming. This method, shown schematically in Fig.1, uses a horizontally-drilled lined injection well where the lining can be penetrated at different locations for injection of the O{sub 2}/steam mixture. The cavity in the coal seam therefore gets longer as the injection point is retracted as well as wider due to reaction of the coal wall with the hot gases. Rubble generated from the collapsing wall is an important mechanism studied by Britten and Thorsness.

  11. Changes in char structure during the gasification of a Victorian brown coal in steam and oxygen at 800{degree}C

    SciTech Connect

    Xin Guo; Hui Ling Tay; Shu Zhang; Chun-Zhu Li [Monash University, Vic. (Australia). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-11-15

    Char structure is an important factor influencing its reactivity during gasification. This study aims to investigate the changes in char structure during the gasification of brown coal. A Victorian brown coal was gasified in a fluidized-bed/fixed-bed reactor at 800{degree}C in atmospheres containing 15% H{sub 2}O, 2000 ppm O{sub 2}, or 15% H{sub 2}O and 2000 ppm O{sub 2}, respectively. Although the char gasification in 2000 ppm O{sub 2} was mainly rate-limited by the external diffusion of O{sub 2}, the char-H{sub 2}O reaction was mainly rate-limited by the chemical reactions. The structural features of char at different levels of char gasification conversion were examined with FT-Raman spectroscopy. Our results show that the chars from the gasification in the mixture of 2000 ppm O{sub 2} and 15% H{sub 2}O had almost the same features as the chars from the gasification in 15% H{sub 2}O alone when the same levels of char conversion were achieved. Both the thermal decomposition of char and the char gasification reactions could result in changes in char structure during gasification. 29 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Leachate formation and characteristics from gasification and grate incineration bottom ash under landfill conditions.

    PubMed

    Sivula, Leena; Sormunen, Kai; Rintala, Jukka

    2012-04-01

    Characteristics and formation of leachates from waste gasification and grate firing bottom ash were studied using continuous field measurements from 112 m(3) lysimeters embedded into landfill body for three years. In addition, the total element concentrations of the fresh ash were analysed and laboratory batch tests were performed to study leachate composition. The three-year continuous flow measurement showed that about one fifth of the leachates were formed, when the flow rate was >200 l/d, covering <3.5% of the study time. After three years, the liquid/solid-ratio for the quenched grate ash was 1 (l/kg (d.m.)) and for the initially dry gasification ash 0.4 (l/kg (d.m.)). The low initial water and residual carbon content of the gasification ash kept the leachate pH at a high level (>13) major part of the study. In the grate ash leachate pH was lower (<8) due to the presence of organic carbon and biodegradation indicated by biological oxygen demand and redox potential measurements. In the gasification ash the high pH probably delayed leaching of major elements such as Ca, therefore, raising the need for a longer after-care period. The high pH also explains the higher leaching of As from the gasification ash compared to the grate ash both in the batch test and under landfill conditions. PMID:22197667

  13. Stagewise gasification in a multiple hearth furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1978-01-01

    The gasification of sewage sludge and\\/or the combustible fraction of refuse in a multiple-hearth furnace is discussed. The furnace has a drying zone at the top, a pyrolysis zone in the middle, and a gasification zone at the bottom. The charge is fed into the top of the furnace, air and steam are fed into the bottom, the fuel gas

  14. TEXACO GASIFICATION PROCESS - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the evaluation of the Texaco Gasification Process (TGP) conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. The Texaco Gasification Process was developed by Texaco Inc. The TGP is a comm...

  15. Trace element partitioning during coal gasification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph J. Helble; Wahab Mojtahedi; Jussi Lyyränen; Jorma Jokiniemi; Esko Kauppinen

    1996-01-01

    The fate of trace element pollutants in integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) systems is closely tied to their volatilization in the gasifier and subsequent condensation or reaction with fine fly ash particles. The results of an experimental bench-scale programme to measure the partitioning of selected trace elements during atmospheric pressure entrained flow gasification of Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal are presented.

  16. Groundwater Pollution from Underground Coal Gasification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shu-qin LIU; Jing-gang LI; Mei MEI; Dong-lin DONG

    2007-01-01

    In situ coal gasification poses a potential environmental risk to groundwater pollution although it depends mainly on local hydrogeological conditions. In our investigation, the possible processes of groundwater pollution originating from underground coal gasification (UCG) were analyzed. Typical pollutants were identified and pollution control measures are proposed. Groundwater pollution is caused by the diffusion and penetration of contaminants generated by

  17. Iron sulfide deposition during coal gasification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Duane Brooker; Myongsook S. Oh

    1995-01-01

    Previous analysis of ash generated during coal gasification using a high calcium coal (SUFCo) suggested that iron sulfide was the dominant sulfide species in the system. During a recent analysis of ash material removed from a gasification pilot unit using Pittsburgh No. 8, a high iron coal, sub-?m to 5 ?m euhedral iron sulfide crystals were identified on the outer

  18. COAL GASIFICATION ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SUMMARY: TRACE ELEMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes trace element measurements made at several coal gasification facilities. Most of the measurements were made as part of EPA's source testing and evaluation program on low- and medium-Btu gasification. The behavior of trace elements is discussed in light of th...

  19. Hydrogen production by underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Li; Bao Deyou [China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China)

    1997-12-31

    A new technique of Long Tunnel, Large Section and Two-Stage (LLTS) Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) combines coal mining and coal gasification in one process and with abandoned coal mine resources. The new technique of UCG will be developed in China for producing hydrogen at a large scale at low cost.

  20. Underground coal gasification simulation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gunn, R.D.

    1984-07-01

    The underground coal gasification (UCG) process - both forward gasification and reverse combustion linkage - was mathematically modeled. The models were validated with field and laboratory data. They were then used to explain some important UCG phenomena that had not been predictable with other methods. Some views on the UCG technology status are also presented. 3 references, 25 figures, 10 tables.

  1. An Underground Coal Gasification Experiment, Hanna, Wyoming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leo Schrider; James Jennings; C. F. Brandenburg; D. F. Fischer

    1974-01-01

    In the fall of 1972, the U.S. Bureau of Mines began an experiment to investigate the technologic, economic, and environmental considerations of underground gasification of a W. subbituminous coal. The gasification site is near the town of Hanna, Wyo., approx. 70 miles northwest of Laramie. The test results indicate that gas volumes and gas heating values have fluctuated over a

  2. Improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    McKee, D.W.; Spiro, C.L.; Kosky, P.G.

    1984-05-25

    This invention relates to improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification and improved processes for catalytic coal gasification for the production of methane. The catalyst is composed of at least two alkali metal salts and a particulate carbonaceous substrate or carrier is used. 10 figures, 2 tables.

  3. Reactivity of coal gasification with steam and CO 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alejandro Molina; Fanor Mondragón

    1998-01-01

    A description of the main parameters affecting char gasification, as well as an evaluation of the kinetic models used for describing the char gasification reaction, are presented. By reviewing literature on char gasification reactivity it is shown that of all the parameters involved in char gasification, the thermal history of the char, the pore structure and the coal chemical composition

  4. Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, R.S.; Brooks, K.S.; Skinner, W.H.; Brown, M.J.

    1992-11-01

    The objective is to provide a test facility to support early commercialization of advanced fixed-bed coal gasification technology electric power generation applications. The proprietary CRS Sirrine Engineers, Inc. PyGas{trademark} staged gasifier has been selected as the initial gasifier to be developed under this program. The gasifier is expected to avoid agglomeration when used on caking coals. It is also being designed to crack tar vapors and ammonia, and to provide an environment in which volatilized alkali may condense onto aluminosilicates in the coal ash thereby minimizing their exiting with the hot raw coal gas and passing through the system to the gas turbine. The management plan calls for a three phased program. The initial phase (Phase 1), includes the CRS Sinine Engineers, Inc. proprietary gasification invention called PyGas{trademark}, necessary coal and limestone receiving/storage/reclaim systems to allow closely metered coal and limestone to be fed into the gasifier for testing. The coal gas is subsequently piped to and combusted in an existing burner of the Monongahela Power Fort Martin Generating Station Unit No. 2. Continuous gasification process steam is generated by a small GPIF packaged boiler using light oil fuel at startup, and by switching from light oil to coal gas after startup. The major peripheral equipment such as foundations, process water system, ash handling, ash storage silo, emergency vent pipe, building, lavatory, electrical interconnect, control room, provisions for Phases II & III, and control system are all included in Phase I. A future hot gas cleanup unit conceptualized to be a zinc ferrite based fluidized bed process constitutes the following phase (Phase H). The final phase (Phase III) contemplates the addition of a combustion turbine and generator set sized to accommodate the parasitic load of the entire system.

  5. Potential of underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Burwell, E.L.

    1984-02-01

    The results of underground coal gasification tests carried out in the US and sponsored by the Federal Government during the past 10 years are shown. The author considers that the technology shows great promise. Small-scale UCG plants would allow close matching of plant size to local market need, with lower economic risks. The use of otherwise unusable coals could quadruple US coal reserves. Due to the modular nature of UCG, only the 10 - 20 million dollars necessary for the first module of the UCG portion of a plant is at high risk, making it a viable option where development capital is limited.

  6. Study of the treatability of wastewater from a coal gasification plant. Annual report, July 15, 1978July 14, 1979

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iglar

    1979-01-01

    The first year of the study of the treatability of wastewater from the Holston Coal Gasification Plant has been completed. Nearly all the wastewater is recycled to the scrubber-coolers; excess wastewater could not be measured directly, but was estimated at 685 gal\\/day. Samples were collected from the decanter. Analyses on the raw waste have included BOD (on pretreated), COD, TOC,

  7. Study of the treatability of wastewater from a coal gasification plant. Supplementary report, July 15-December 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Iglar, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    Three methods of treating coal gasification plant waste water have been studied experimentally: biological reaction kinetics of the activated sludge process; chemical precipitation with ferric chloride at the optimum pH value (alum and polymers were less effective); and adsorption in columns of granules of activated carbon. Detailed results of all three experiments are given. (LTN)

  8. Fluidized bed catalytic coal gasification process

    DOEpatents

    Euker, Jr., Charles A. (15163 Dianna La., Houston, TX 77062); Wesselhoft, Robert D. (120 Caldwell, Baytown, TX 77520); Dunkleman, John J. (3704 Autumn La., Baytown, TX 77520); Aquino, Dolores C. (15142 McConn, Webster, TX 77598); Gouker, Toby R. (5413 Rocksprings Dr., LaPorte, TX 77571)

    1984-01-01

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids impregnated with gasification catalyst constituents (16) are oxidized by contact with a gas containing between 2 volume percent and 21 volume percent oxygen at a temperature between 50.degree. C. and 250.degree. C. in an oxidation zone (24) and the resultant oxidized, catalyst impregnated solids are then gasified in a fluidized bed gasification zone (44) at an elevated pressure. The oxidation of the catalyst impregnated solids under these conditions insures that the bed density in the fluidized bed gasification zone will be relatively high even though the solids are gasified at elevated pressure and temperature.

  9. Methods for sulfate removal in liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Douglas C; Oyler, James

    2013-12-17

    Processing of wet biomass feedstock by liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a pre-treatment temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent removal of soluble sulfate contaminants, or combinations thereof. Processing further includes reacting the soluble sulfate contaminants with cations present in the feedstock material to yield a sulfate-containing precipitate and separating the inorganic precipitates and/or the sulfate-containing precipitates out of the wet feedstock. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfate contaminants that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogenous catalyst for gasification.

  10. Converting Waste into Clean Renewable Fuel

    E-print Network

    Converting Waste into Clean Renewable Fuel Presented at TechRealization August 27th, 2008 #12 and development located in Richland, WA Executive team headquartered in Bend, OR Exclusive license for Plasma ­ Waste and biomass gasification ­ Standard cleaning of synthesis gas ­ Ultra-deep cleaning of synthesis

  11. Biotreatment of UCG waste water condensate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Humenick; R. Brauer; T. Caire; D. F. Lawler

    1984-01-01

    The process of underground coal gasification (UCG) generates a waste water stream during the cooling and processing of the product gas. The waste water stream is of large enough volume and contains a wide array of pollutants, thus posing a significant water pollution problem. The character of UCG condensate is similar to that produced by above-ground gasifiers, although some differences

  12. Removing CO2 and H2S from the Gas Produced during Underground Coal Gasification (UCG)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Yang; S. Liu; L. Yu

    2007-01-01

    The new method of simultaneous disposal of CO2 and H2S in coal gas generated during underground coal gasification (UCG) using industrial waste alkali liquor is put forward and studied for the first time. The rationale of absorption of CO2 and H2S by the alkali liquor is analyzed, and the mass transfer model for the above process is established. The impact

  13. Pilot-scale treatment of gasification wastewater and reuse in a cooling tower

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. G. Willson; G. G. Mayer; J. G. Hendrikson; S. L. Winton

    1985-01-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy Research Center has operated a 910 kg\\/hr, oxygen-blown fixed-bed gasifier to produce lignite-derived effluents for characterization, treatment, and reuse studies. Reuse of waste water in a cooling tower was investigated to define environmental and process effects as a function of pretreatment. The gasification wastewater was pretreated in pilot wastewater treatement units which simulate available

  14. The Role of Oxygen in Coal Gasification

    E-print Network

    Klosek, J.; Smith, A. R.; Solomon, J.

    Air Products supplies oxygen to a number of coal gasification and partial oxidation facilities worldwide. At the high operating pressures of these processes, economics favor the use of 90% and higher oxygen purities. The effect of inerts...

  15. Underground Coal Gasification at Tennessee Colony 

    E-print Network

    Garrard, C. W.

    1979-01-01

    The Tennessee Colony In Situ Coal Gasification Project conducted by Basic Resources Inc. is the most recent step in Texas Utilities Company's ongoing research into the utilization of Texas lignite. The project, an application of the Soviet...

  16. Underground Coal Gasification at Tennessee Colony

    E-print Network

    Garrard, C. W.

    1979-01-01

    The Tennessee Colony In Situ Coal Gasification Project conducted by Basic Resources Inc. is the most recent step in Texas Utilities Company's ongoing research into the utilization of Texas lignite. The project, an application of the Soviet...

  17. The Role of Oxygen in Coal Gasification 

    E-print Network

    Klosek, J.; Smith, A. R.; Solomon, J.

    1986-01-01

    Air Products supplies oxygen to a number of coal gasification and partial oxidation facilities worldwide. At the high operating pressures of these processes, economics favor the use of 90% and higher oxygen purities. The effect of inerts...

  18. Fluidized bed gasification of agricultural residue

    E-print Network

    Groves, John David

    1979-01-01

    advances in gasification technology have occurred. Among these are the use of oxygen, operation at elevated pressures, operation in a molten suspension, and use of' fluid beds (Rase, 1977). Fixed Bed Gasifiers Fixed bed gasifiers are currently being... and Horsfield (1977). The fuel gas obtained from the producer was used to power a small internal combustion engine attached to a ten kilowatt generator. Fluidized Bed Gasifiers One of the first systems to use a fluidized bed unit for gasification...

  19. Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Amick; G. J. Mann; J. J. Cook; R. Fisackerly; R. C. Spears

    1992-01-01

    The Destec gasification process features an oxygen-blown, two stage entrained flow gasifier. PSI will procure coal for the Project consistent with the design specification ranges of Destec`s coal gasification facility. Destec`s plant will be designed to accept coal with a maximum sulfur content of 5.9% (dry basis) and a minimum energy content of 13,5000 BTU\\/pound (moisture and ash free basis).

  20. Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Amick; G. J. Mann; J. J. Cook; R. Fisackerly; R. C. Spears

    1992-01-01

    The Destec gasification process features an oxygen-blown, two stage entrained flow gasifier. PSI will procure coal for the Project consistent with the design specification ranges of Destec's coal gasification facility. Destec's plant will be designed to accept coal with a maximum sulfur content of 5.9% (dry basis) and a minimum energy content of 13,5000 BTU\\/pound (moisture and ash free basis).

  1. Partial Gasification for CO 2 Emissions Reduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nirmal V. Gnanapragasam; Bale V. Reddy; Marc A. Rosen

    \\u000a From the perspective of energy security and environmental sustainability, highly effective uses for fossil fuel in energy\\u000a industries are demanded. Power plants having integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) with advanced configurations are\\u000a being developed worldwide to use coal and biomass more efficiently and thus cleanly. Gasification forms the major component\\u000a within the IGCC systems and has the best fuel flexibility

  2. Synfuel trends: underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, D.R.; Brandenburg, C.F.; Burwell, E.L.

    1980-04-01

    A major objective of the US energy program is to develop environmentally acceptable ways to use coal. Underground coal gasification (UCG) is one of the most promising of these processes. It offers 3 major advantages as a source of synthetic fuel: (1) pipeline quality gas at costs competitive with or lower than that of other synfuels; (2) use of as much as 1.2 trillion tons of coal (triple the present coal reserves) that would not be economical to strip or deep mine; and (3) possible environmental advantages. This study reviews the state of the art in UCG, with emphasis on the US Department of Energy program. The conclusion is that UCG can recover the energy in unminable coal seams to ease demand for imported oil and natural gas, and a commercial UCG process could be onstream by the late 1980s. 34 references.

  3. Potential of underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Burwell, E.L.

    1984-02-01

    A rapidly growing interest in underground coal gasification (UCG), in the U.S. and several other countries, has developed in the past few years. This has been accompanied by in-depth evaluations of the potential of UCG, its technology, economics, risks, and rewards by a number of highly qualified engineering groups. Several common findings seem to emerge from each study as: sufficient technological feasibility has been proved to warrant further study; if long-term operation can be made to bear out the promise shown in field tests, the process will be economically competitive; actual development could greatly expand existing coal reserves; and significant potential advantages exist which made UCG a leading candidate for synfuels development.

  4. Investigation of plasma-aided bituminous coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Matveev, I.B.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Applied Plasma Technology, Mclean, VA (United States)

    2009-04-15

    This paper presents thermodynamic and kinetic modeling of plasma-aided bituminous coal gasification. Distributions of concentrations, temperatures, and velocities of the gasification products along the gasifier are calculated. Carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and heat engineering characteristics of synthesis gas at the outlet of the gasifier are determined at plasma air/steam and oxygen/steam gasification of Powder River Basin bituminous coal. Numerical simulation showed that the plasma oxygen/steam gasification of coal is a more preferable process in comparison with the plasma air/steam coal gasification. On the numerical experiments, a plasma vortex fuel reformer is designed.

  5. Demonstration plant for pressurized gasification of biomass feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Trenka, A.R. (Pacific International Center for High Technology Research, Honolulu, HI (United States)); Kinoshita, C.M.; Takahashi, P.K.; Phillips, V.D. (Hawaii Natural Energy Inst., Honolulu, HI (United States)); Caldwell, C. (Parsons (Ralph M.) Co., Pasadena, CA (United States)); Kwok, R. (Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Co., HI (United States)); Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P. (Institute of Gas Technology

    1991-01-01

    A project to design, construct, and operate a pressurized biomass gasification plant in Hawaii will begin in 1991. Negotiations are underway with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) which is co-funding the project with the state of Hawaii and industry. The gasifier is a scale-up of the pressurized fluidized-bed RENUGAS process developed by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT). The project team consists of Pacific International Center for High Technology Research (PICHTR), Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) of the University of Hawaii, Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Company (HC S), The Ralph M. Parsons Company, and IGT. The gasifier will be designed for 70 tons per day of sugarcane fiber (bagasse) and will be located at the Paia factory of HC S on the island of Maui. In addition to bagasse, other feedstocks such as wood, biomass wastes, and refuse-derived-fuel may be evaluated. The demonstration plant will ultimately supply part of the process energy needs for the sugar factory. The operation and testing phase will provide process information for both air- and oxygen-blown gasification, and at both low and high pressures. The process will be evaluated for both fuel gas and synthesis gas production, and for electrical power production with advanced power generation schemes. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Catalytic combustor for integrated gasification combined cycle power plant

    DOEpatents

    Bachovchin, Dennis M. (Mauldin, SC); Lippert, Thomas E. (Murrysville, PA)

    2008-12-16

    A gasification power plant 10 includes a compressor 32 producing a compressed air flow 36, an air separation unit 22 producing a nitrogen flow 44, a gasifier 14 producing a primary fuel flow 28 and a secondary fuel source 60 providing a secondary fuel flow 62 The plant also includes a catalytic combustor 12 combining the nitrogen flow and a combustor portion 38 of the compressed air flow to form a diluted air flow 39 and combining at least one of the primary fuel flow and secondary fuel flow and a mixer portion 78 of the diluted air flow to produce a combustible mixture 80. A catalytic element 64 of the combustor 12 separately receives the combustible mixture and a backside cooling portion 84 of the diluted air flow and allows the mixture and the heated flow to produce a hot combustion gas 46 provided to a turbine 48. When fueled with the secondary fuel flow, nitrogen is not combined with the combustor portion.

  7. Gasification of refuse derived fuel in a fixed bed reactor for syngas production

    SciTech Connect

    Dalai, Ajay K. [Catalysis and Chemical Reaction Engineering Laboratories, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5A9 (Canada)], E-mail: ajay.dalai@usask.ca; Batta, Nishant [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5A9 (Canada); Eswaramoorthi, I. [Catalysis and Chemical Reaction Engineering Laboratories, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5A9 (Canada); Schoenau, Greg J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5A9 (Canada)

    2009-01-15

    Steam gasification of two different refuse derived fuels (RDFs), differing slightly in composition as well as thermal stability, was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor at atmospheric pressure. The proximate and ultimate analyses reveal that carbon and hydrogen are the major components in RDFs. The thermal analysis indicates the presence of cellulose and plastic based materials in RDFs. H{sub 2} and CO are found to be the major products, along with CO{sub 2} and hydrocarbons resulting from gasification of RDFs. The effect of gasification temperature on H{sub 2} and CO selectivities was studied, and the optimum temperature for better H{sub 2} and CO selectivity was determined to be 725 deg. C. The calorific value of product gas produced at lower gasification temperature is significantly higher than that of gas produced at higher process temperature. Also, the composition of RDF plays an important role in distribution of products gas. The RDF with more C and H content is found to produce more amounts of CO and H{sub 2} under similar experimental conditions. The steam/waste ratio showed a notable effect on the selectivity of syngas as well as calorific value of the resulting product gas. The flow rate of carrier gas did not show any significant effect on products yield or their distribution.

  8. ENERGY CONTENT ESTIMATION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE BY MULTIPLE REGRESSION ANALYSIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ebru AKKAYA; Ahmet DEMIR

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is produced and accumulated due to human activities. The waste will bring about severe ecological contamination unless an appropriate solid waste management system is applied. In this context, it is reasonable to recover energy from municipal solid waste through a variety of processes such as combustion, pyrolysis and gasification. In the design of these processes, it

  9. Steam plasmatron gasification of distillers grains residue from ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Shie, Je-Lueng; Tsou, Feng-Ju; Lin, Kae-Long

    2010-07-01

    In this study, a plasmatron reactor was used for gasifying the waste of distillers grains at different temperatures (773, 873, 973 K) and water flow rates (1, 2, 3 mL min(-1)), which were heated to produce steam. Among all the gas products, syngas was the major component (88.5 wt.% or 94.66 vol.%) with temperatures yielding maximum concentrations at 873 K with a relatively high reaction rate. The maximum concentrations regarding gaseous production occurring times are all below 1 min. With the increase of steam, the recovery mass yield of syngas also increases from 34.14 to 45.47 approximately 54.66 wt.% at 873 K. Water-gas reactions and steam-methane reforming reactions advance the production of syngas with the increase of steam. Furthermore, the water-shift reaction also increases in the context of steam gasification which leads to the decrease of CO(2) at the same time. PMID:20163957

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARD RANKINGS OF POLLUTANTS GENERATED IN COAL GASIFICATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation and ranking of environmental hazards associated with coal gasification. Applied chemical analytical data were provided by (1) research with an experimental gasifier, and (2) sampling of four commercial gasification processes. Gas, liquid,...

  11. Mathematical modelling of some chemical and physical processes in underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Creighton, J. R.

    1981-08-01

    Underground coal gasification normally involves two vertical wells which must be linked by a channel having low resistance to gas flow. There are several ways of establishing such linkage, but all leave a relatively open horizontal hole with a diameter on the order of a meter. To increase our understanding of the chemical and physical processes governing underground coal gasification LLNL has been conducting laboratory scale experiments accompanied by mathematical modelling. Blocks of selected coal types are cut to fit 55 gallon oil drums and sealed in place with plaster. A 1 cm. diameter hole is drilled the length of the block and plumbing attached to provide a flow of air or oxygen/steam mixture. After an instrumented burn the block is sawed open to examine the cavity. Mathematical modelling has been directed towards predicting the cavity shape. This paper describes some sub-models and examines their impact on predicted cavity shapes.

  12. Solid fuel gasification in the global energy sector (a review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ol'khovskii, G. G.

    2015-07-01

    In the review of the Conference on Gasification of Solid Fuels, which was held on October 2013 by the United States, the commercial use of the most advanced coal gasification systems in the chemical and power industry is considered. Data on the projects of integrated solid fuel gasification combined-cycle plants, either being developed or exploited in the United States, as well as the nature and results performed in specialized organizations to improve the existing gasification equipment and systems, are presented.

  13. Continuous salt precipitation and separation from supercritical water. Part 2. Type 2 salts and mixtures of two salts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Schubert; Johann W. Regler; Frédéric Vogel

    2010-01-01

    Using a continuously operated laboratory plant for the catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass featuring a supercritical water salt separator we investigated the separation performance of three different binary type 2 salt–water mixtures and three ternary salt–water mixtures that consisted either of two type 1 salts or two type 2 salts dissolved in water. It turned out that a concentrated salt

  14. The Public Perceptions of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG)

    E-print Network

    Watson, Andrew

    The Public Perceptions of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG): A Pilot Study Simon Shackley #12;The Public Perceptions of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG): A Pilot Study Dr Simon Shackley of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) in the United Kingdom. The objectives were to identify the main dangers

  15. Numerical simulation of coal gasification in entrained flow coal gasifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Watanabe; M. Otaka

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents modeling of a coal gasification reaction, and prediction of gasification performance for an entrained flow coal gasifier. The purposes of this study are to develop an evaluation technique for design and performance optimization of coal gasifiers using a numerical simulation technique, and to confirm the validity of the model. The coal gasification model suggested in this paper

  16. From coal to biomass gasification: Comparison of thermodynamic efficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark J. Prins; Krzysztof J. Ptasinski; Frans J. J. G. Janssen

    2007-01-01

    The effect of fuel composition on the thermodynamic efficiency of gasifiers and gasification systems is studied. A chemical equilibrium model is used to describe the gasifier. It is shown that the equilibrium model presents the highest gasification efficiency that can be possibly attained for a given fuel. Gasification of fuels with varying composition of organic matter, in terms of O\\/C

  17. Texaco Coal Gasification Wastewater Handling and Treatment Pilot Plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dille

    1990-01-01

    Radian was contracted by the Electric Power Research Institute to collect and analyze water, sludge, and vapor samples associated with the pilot study of the Texaco coal gasification wastewater process. The pilot plant tests, processing grey water produced from the gasification of SUFCO coal, were conducted at the Cool Water Coal Gasification Program (CWCGP) facility during the first four months

  18. Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Shawn Maghzi; Ramanathan Subramanian; George Rizeq; Surinder Singh; John McDermott; Boris Eiteneer; David Ladd; Arturo Vazquez; Denise Anderson; Noel Bates

    2011-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energyâ??s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) is exploring affordable technologies and processes to convert domestic coal and biomass resources to high-quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This interest is primarily motivated by the need to increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Gasification technologies represent clean, flexible and efficient conversion pathways to utilize coal and biomass resources. Substantial experience and knowledge had been developed worldwide on gasification of either coal or biomass. However, reliable data on effects of blending various biomass fuels with coal during gasification process and resulting syngas composition are lacking. In this project, GE Global Research performed a complete characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products that result from the co-gasification of coal/biomass mixtures. This work was performed using a bench-scale gasifier (BSG) and a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier (EFG). This project focused on comprehensive characterization of the products from gasifying coal/biomass mixtures in a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. Results from this project provide guidance on appropriate gas clean-up systems and optimization of operating parameters needed to develop and commercialize gasification technologies. GEâ??s bench-scale test facility provided the bulk of high-fidelity quantitative data under temperature, heating rate, and residence time conditions closely matching those of commercial oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifiers. Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale test facility provided focused high temperature and pressure tests at entrained flow gasifier conditions. Accurate matching of syngas time-temperature history during cooling ensured that complex species interactions including homogeneous and heterogeneous processes such as particle nucleation, coagulation, surface condensation, and gas-phase reactions were properly reproduced and lead to representative syngas composition at the syngas cooler outlet. The experimental work leveraged other ongoing GE R&D efforts such as biomass gasification and dry feeding systems projects. Experimental data obtained under this project were used to provide guidance on the appropriate clean-up system(s) and operating parameters to coal and biomass combinations beyond those evaluated under this project.

  19. Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Maghzi, Shawn; Subramanian, Ramanathan; Rizeq, George; Singh, Surinder; McDermott, John; Eiteneer, Boris; Ladd, David; Vazquez, Arturo; Anderson, Denise; Bates, Noel

    2011-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy‘s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) is exploring affordable technologies and processes to convert domestic coal and biomass resources to high-quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This interest is primarily motivated by the need to increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Gasification technologies represent clean, flexible and efficient conversion pathways to utilize coal and biomass resources. Substantial experience and knowledge had been developed worldwide on gasification of either coal or biomass. However, reliable data on effects of blending various biomass fuels with coal during gasification process and resulting syngas composition are lacking. In this project, GE Global Research performed a complete characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products that result from the co-gasification of coal/biomass mixtures. This work was performed using a bench-scale gasifier (BSG) and a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier (EFG). This project focused on comprehensive characterization of the products from gasifying coal/biomass mixtures in a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. Results from this project provide guidance on appropriate gas clean-up systems and optimization of operating parameters needed to develop and commercialize gasification technologies. GE‘s bench-scale test facility provided the bulk of high-fidelity quantitative data under temperature, heating rate, and residence time conditions closely matching those of commercial oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifiers. Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale test facility provided focused high temperature and pressure tests at entrained flow gasifier conditions. Accurate matching of syngas time-temperature history during cooling ensured that complex species interactions including homogeneous and heterogeneous processes such as particle nucleation, coagulation, surface condensation, and gas-phase reactions were properly reproduced and lead to representative syngas composition at the syngas cooler outlet. The experimental work leveraged other ongoing GE R&D efforts such as biomass gasification and dry feeding systems projects. Experimental data obtained under this project were used to provide guidance on the appropriate clean-up system(s) and operating parameters to coal and biomass combinations beyond those evaluated under this project.

  20. Fixed Bed Countercurrent Low Temperature Gasification of Dairy Biomass and Coal-Dairy Biomass Blends Using Air-Steam as Oxidizer

    E-print Network

    Gordillo Ariza, Gerardo

    2010-10-12

    mixtures in H2 and CO2 but poor in CO. Increased ER produces gases with higher HHV but decreases the ECE due to higher tar and char production. Gasification of DB under the operating conditions 1.59less than0.8 yielded gas...

  1. Apparatus for fixed bed coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Sadowski, Richard S. (Greenville, SC)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for fixed-bed coal gasification is described in which coal such as caking coal is continuously pyrolyzed with clump formation inhibited, by combining the coal with a combustible gas and an oxidant, and then continually feeding the pyrolyzed coal under pressure and elevated temperature into the gasification region of a pressure vessel. The materials in the pressure vessel are allowed to react with the gasifying agents in order to allow the carbon contents of the pyrolyzed coal to be completely oxidized. The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

  2. Inhalation Cancer Risk Associated with Exposure to Complex Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Mixtures in an Electronic Waste and Urban Area in South China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Chen, Shejun; Tian, Mi; Zheng, Xiaobo; Gonzales, Leah; Ohura, Takeshi; Mai, Bixian; Simonich, Staci L. Massey

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter samples were collected from May 2010 to April 2011 in a rural e-waste area and in Guangzhou, South China, to estimate the lifetime inhalation cancer risk from exposure to parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), high molecular weight PAHs (MW 302 PAHs), and halogenated PAHs (HPAHs). Seasonal variations in the PAH concentrations and profile within and between the e-waste and urban areas indicated different PAH sources in the two areas. Benzo[b]fluoranthene, BaP, dibenz[ah]anthracene, and dibenzo[al]pyrene made the most significant contribution to the inhalation cancer risk. MW 302 PAHs accounting for 18.0% of the total cancer risk in the e-waste area and 13.6% in the urban area, while HPAHs made a minor contribution (< 0.1%) in both the areas. The number of lifetime excess lung cancers due to exposure to parent PAHs, MW 302 PAHs, and HPAHs ranged from 15.1 to 1198 per million people in the e-waste area and from 9.3 to 737 per million people in Guangzhou. PAH exposure accounted for 0.02 to 1.94% of the total lung cancer cases in Guangzhou. On average, the inhalation cancer risk in the e-waste area was 1.6 times higher than in the urban area. The e-waste dismantling activities in South China led to higher inhalation cancer risk due to PAH exposure than the urban area. PMID:22913732

  3. Underground Coal Gasification Program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-03-01

    The Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) Program is directed toward the development of advanced technologies for recovering gas from large, currently unrecoverable coal resources. The overall goal of the UCG Program is to foster development within the private sector of an environmentally acceptable UCG industry whose products can compete with other electric utility fuels and as a chemical feedstock for liquid fuel production by the late 1990s. This goal includes appropriate environmental research to establish the information base required to identify and cost effectively mitigate potential problems. The objective of this environmental research is to characterize potential impacts and the performance of new and developmental systems in controlling these impacts so that more efficient solutions to environmental concerns are available on a schedule consistent with the development of advanced technology. To achieve this goal, a series of interrelated technology development steps must take place, some sponsored by DOE, some by other government agencies, and some by other governments and/or the private sector. These include basic and applied research and development, proof-of-concept activities, first-of-a-kind field tests, and associated commercial scale activity. This publication presents: (1) background and program goal; (2) technology description; (3) technology status and research needs; (4) program strategy; and (5) program management. 3 figs.

  4. Angrenskaya underground coal gasification station

    SciTech Connect

    Olness, D.

    1982-06-17

    This report continues our survey of the Soviet effort in underground coal gasification (UCG) and summarizes production data and process improvements developed at the Angrenskaya Station. Of the six UCG stations operated in the Soviet Union, only the Angrenskaya Station was established from the outset as a commercial venture rather than as a research facility. Development began in 1952. Industrial operation began in 1961 and has continued to the present. It was anticipated that improvements planned for the Angren system, coupled with the assumed advantages of thick seams, would make the UCG process developed at Tula both efficient and profitable as operated at Angren. Unfortunately, this was not the case, and the cost of UCG at Angren has remained relatively high despite the various system changes that have been tried over the years. Although the Angrenskaya Station presently operates at only about 20% capacity, undoubtedly a consequence of the disappointing results, the Soviets keep it in operation as a demonstration facility for foreign investors who may wish to enter into licensing agreements and as a place for testing new process developments.

  5. A model approach to highly dispersing catalytic materials in coal for gasification. Eleventh quarterly report, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Abotsi, G.M.K.; Bota, K.B.

    1992-10-01

    This project seeks to develop a technique, based on coal surface properties, for highly dispersing catalysts in coal for gasification and to investigate the potential of using potassium carbonate and calcium acetate mixtures as catalysts for coal gasification. The lower cost and higher catalytic activity of the latter compound will produce economic benefits by reducing the amount of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} required for high coal char reactivities. As was shown in previous reports, coal loading with potassium or calcium at different pHs produced CO{sub 2} gasification activities which increased in the order pH 6 > pH 10 >>pH 1. A similar trend was obtained when calcium and potassium were simultaneously loaded and char reaction times were less than about 75 min. In the last quarter, the potential application of ammonia as a reactive medium for coal gasification has been investigated. This gas has not been previously applied to coal gasification. However, related work suggests that the potential chemical feedstock base can be broadened by using ammonia to generate hydrogen cyanide and cyanogen from coal. The current report shows that the reactivity of a demineralized lignite in ammonia is significantly higher in the presence of calcium or potassium catalyst than that for the char without added catalyst and suggests that ammonia is a potentially reactive gas for catalyzed coal gasification.

  6. Organic waste converter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Schlichting

    1981-01-01

    An airtight chamber insulated with an anti-corrosive coating allows the control of the heat and moisture content of organic wastes for rapid aerobic decomposition by naturally occurring thermal bacteria. Air is drawn into the chamber, over and through the organic waste and carbonaceous filler materials and is exhausted through an air scrubber. Agitation of the waste mixture is by means

  7. System for waste disposal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Romeo

    1981-01-01

    Flammable waste material and nonflammable waste material are concurrently treated in the apparatus. Flammable waste material such as oil-contaminated solids and liquids is treated by a system which in a first stage reduces the material to small particles mixed and soaked with water, then in a second stage countersprays the mixture into an oil or gas fired flame in a

  8. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 15. Gasification of ''fresh'' Rosebud subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-09-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and government agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) group. This report is the fifteenth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Rosebud subbituminous coal, from June 17, 1985 to June 24, 1985. 4 refs., 20 figs., 15 tabs.

  9. Biomass Gasification Technology Assessment: Consolidated Report

    SciTech Connect

    Worley, M.; Yale, J.

    2012-11-01

    Harris Group Inc. (HGI) was commissioned by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to assess gasification and tar reforming technologies. Specifically, the assessments focused on gasification and tar reforming technologies that are capable of producing a syngas suitable for further treatment and conversion to liquid fuels. HGI gathered sufficient information to analyze three gasification and tar reforming systems. This report summarizes the equipment, general arrangement of the equipment, operating characteristics, and operating severity for each technology. The order of magnitude capital cost estimates are supported by a basis-of-estimate write-up, which is also included in this report. The report also includes Microsoft Excel workbook models, which can be used to design and price the systems. The models can be used to analyze various operating capacities and pressures. Each model produces a material balance, equipment list, capital cost estimate, equipment drawings and preliminary general arrangement drawings. Example outputs of each model are included in the Appendices.

  10. Assessment of advanced coal gasification processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

    1981-01-01

    A technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes is presented: high throughput gasification (HTG) process; single stage high mass flux (HMF) processes; (CS/R) hydrogasification process; and the catalytic coal gasification (CCG) process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce synthetic natural gas from a bituminous coal. Key similarities, differences, strengths, weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The HTG and the HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging, and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R hydrogasifier is also SRT, but is nonslagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

  11. Process for fixed bed coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Sadowski, Richard S. (Greenville, SC)

    1992-01-01

    The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

  12. Tank Farm Waste Transfer Compatibility Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, K.D.

    1995-04-24

    The compatibility program described in this document formalizes the process for determining waste compatibility. Goal is to ensure that sufficient controls are in place to prevent the formation of incompatible mixtures during future operations, could possibly result in an unreviewed safety question. Waste transfer decision rules are presented as a process for assessing compatibility of wastes or waste mixtures. The process involves characterizing the waste comparing waste characteristics with the criteria, resolving potential incompatibilities, and documenting the process.

  13. Analysis of the product gas from biomass gasification by means of laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karellas, S.; Karl, J.

    2007-09-01

    The use of biomass and waste for decentralised combined heat and power production (CHP) requires highly efficient gasification processes. In the Technische Universität München (TUM), an innovative gasification technology has been developed. This allothermal gasifier is producing a hydrogen- rich, high-calorific gas, that can be further used in a microturbine or a fuel cell producing energy. For the operation of such a system, the online analysis of the composition of the product gas is of high importance, since the efficient working of the machines is linked with the gas quality. For this purpose an optical measurement system based on laser spectroscopy has been applied. This system can measure not only the basic components of the product gas (H 2, CH 4, CO, CO 2, H 2O), but it also gives information concerning the content of high hydrocarbons, the so-called tars, in the product gas.

  14. Production of Hydrogen from Underground Coal Gasification

    DOEpatents

    Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2008-10-07

    A system of obtaining hydrogen from a coal seam by providing a production well that extends into the coal seam; positioning a conduit in the production well leaving an annulus between the conduit and the coal gasification production well, the conduit having a wall; closing the annulus at the lower end to seal it from the coal gasification cavity and the syngas; providing at least a portion of the wall with a bifunctional membrane that serves the dual purpose of providing a catalyzing reaction and selectively allowing hydrogen to pass through the wall and into the annulus; and producing the hydrogen through the annulus.

  15. Geosphere in underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, D.J.; Groenewold, G.H.; Schmit, C.R.; Evans, J.M.

    1988-07-01

    The feasibility of underground coal gasification (UCG), the in-situ conversion of coal to natural gas, has been demonstrated through 28 tests in the US alone, mainly in low-rank coals, since the early 1970s. Further, UCG is currently entering the commercial phase in the US with a planned facility in Wyoming for the production of ammonia-urea from UCG-generated natural gas. Although the UCG process both affects and is affected by the natural setting, the majority of the test efforts have historically been focused on characterizing those aspects of the natural setting with the potential to affect the burn. With the advent of environmental legislation, this focus broadened to include the potential impacts of the process on the environment (e.g., subsidence, degradation of ground water quality). Experience to date has resulted in the growing recognition that consideration of the geosphere is fundamental to the design of efficient, economical, and environmentally acceptable UCG facilities. The ongoing RM-1 test program near Hanna, Wyoming, sponsored by the US Department of Energy and an industry consortium led by the Gas Research Institute, reflects this growing awareness through a multidisciplinary research effort, involving geoscientists and engineers, which includes (1) detailed geological site characterization, (2) geotechnical, hydrogeological, and geochemical characterization and predictive modeling, and (3) a strategy for ground water protection. Continued progress toward commercialization of the UCG process requires the integration of geological and process-test information in order to identify and address the potentially adverse environmental ramifications of the process, while identifying and using site characteristics that have the potential to benefit the process and minimize adverse impacts.

  16. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 6. Gasification of delayed petroleum coke

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the sixth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of delayed petroleum coke from Pine Bend, MN. The period of the gasification test was June 1-17, 1983. 2 refs., 15 figs., 22 tabs.

  17. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 4. Gasification of Leucite Hills subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-03-31

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the fourth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Leucite Hills subbituminous coal from Sweetwater County, Wyoming. The period of the gasification test was April 11-30, 1983. 4 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs.

  18. Clean coal technology—Study on the pilot project experiment of underground coal gasification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lanhe Yang; Jie Liang; Li Yu

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the gasification conditions, the gasifier structure, the measuring system and the gasification rationale of a pilot project experiment of underground coal gasification (UCG) in the Liuzhuang Colliery, Tangshan, are illustrated. The technique of two-phase underground coal gasification is proposed. The detection of the moving speed and the length of the gasification working face is made using radon

  19. Experimental study of leachate from stored solids. Quarterly report, June 1, 1977January 1, 1978. [Landfilling solid residues from coal gasification facilities; coal storage pile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Jr. Boegly; H. S. Arora; E. C. Davis; R. G. S. Rao; H. W. Jr. Wilson

    1978-01-01

    This quarterly report is the first one. The basic aim of the program is to determine the environmental acceptability of landfilling solid residues from coal gasification facilities, and also to evaluate potential environmental degradation caused by leachate produced by rainfall on coal storage piles. This report outlines the program plan, discusses waste types to be studied, provides details of the

  20. EFFECT OF UNDERGROUND COAL GASIFICATION ON GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential effect of underground coal gasification on groundwater has been examined in a laboratory study. The study was directed at Fruitland Formation subbituminous coal of the San Juan Basin and at the groundwater found in this coal seam. Two wells were drilled into the coa...

  1. Market opportunities for coal gasification in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Attwood; V. Fung; W. W. Clark

    2003-01-01

    Coal gasification is a technology that has been around for 200 yr. With the recent technology advances in the past 20 yr, it has become an option for the clean production of power and other energy forms. China will continue to be the largest user of coal in the world. Coal is the source of energy in almost every area

  2. COAL GASIFICATION ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SUMMARY: ORGANICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the organics data from environmental assessments of several low- and medium-Btu coal gasification processes conducted between 1977 and 1981 under the sponsorship of the U.S. EPA. The data summary focuses on the concentration, composition, and mass flow of or...

  3. BIOMASS GASIFICATION PILOT STUDY PLANT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a gasification pilot program using two biomass feedstocks: bagasse pellets and wood chips. he object of the program was to determine the properties of biomass product gas and its suitability as a fuel for gas-turbine-based power generation cycles. he f...

  4. Novel gas turbine cycles with coal gasification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Lehman

    1979-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a study to devise efficient gas turbine cycles without steam bottoming for use with coal gasification. Substitution of other forms of heat recovery in place of steam bottoming offers a potential cost saving. A novel form of the intercooled-reheat-regenerative cycle was devised with thermal efficiency nearly as high as that of combined cycles. As

  5. Environmental effects of in situ coal gasification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Humenick; T. F. Edgar; R. J. Charbeneau

    1983-01-01

    An assessment of avialable engineering, geological and operating data on underground coal gasification indicates that this process can cause significant air and water pollution and land subsidence. Of the possible impacts, groundwater pollution is the most serious. Modeling studies and large-scale field tests are needed to determine the long-term fate of pollutants and the degree of restoration required before UCG

  6. Environmental effects of in situ coal gasification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Humenick; R. J. Charbeneau; T. F. Edgar

    1983-01-01

    A study of the literature has evaluated the environmental impact of underground coal gasification (UCG) on the air, land, and water. Current knowledge on air pollutants, lend subsidence, potential ground and surface water pollutants is summarized. Evaluations of the dispersion of pollutant species and the application of mathematical models to predict pollutant transport and dispersion in ground water are also

  7. HR 160 performance in coal gasification equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, G.S. [Eastman Chemical Co., Kingsport, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    An alloy 825 water-cooled component failed by sulfidation enhanced thermal fatigue in a commercial coal gasification system. In an attempt to improve component life the material of construction was changed to Haynes HR-160. After several years of operating experience the HR-160 has not provided the desired improvement. Analysis shows the failure mechanism has remained the same.

  8. Single-stage fluidized-bed gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, F. S.; Rue, D. M.; Weil, S. A.; Punwani, D. V.

    1982-04-01

    The single-stage fluidized-bed gasification process, in addition to being a simple system, maximizes gas production and allows the economic exploitation of small peat deposits. The objective of this gasification project is to conduct experiments in order to obtain data for designing a single-stage fluidized-bed gasifier, and to evaluate the economics of converting peat to synthesis gas and to SNG by this process. An existing high-temperature and high-pressure process development unit (PDU) was modified to permit the direct feeding of peat to the fluidized bed. Peat flows by gravity from the feed hopper through a 6-inch line to the screw-feeder conveyor. From there, it is fed to the bottom tee section of the reactor and transported into the gasification zone. Oxygen and steam are fed through a distributing ring into the reactor. Gasification reactions occur in the annulus formed by the reactor tube and a central standpipe. Peat ash is discharged from the reactor by overflowing into the standpipe and is collected in a solids receiver.

  9. Co-gasification of biomass and plastics: pyrolysis kinetics studies, experiments on 100 kW dual fluidized bed pilot plant and development of thermodynamic equilibrium model and balances.

    PubMed

    Narobe, M; Golob, J; Klinar, D; Franceti?, V; Likozar, B

    2014-06-01

    Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) of volatilization reaction kinetics for 50 wt.% mixtures of plastics (PE) and biomass (wood pellets) as well as for 100 wt.% plastics was conducted to predict decomposition times at 850°C and 900°C using iso-conversional model method. For mixtures, agreement with residence time of dual fluidized bed (DFB) reactor, treated as continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR), was obtained at large conversions. Mono-gasification of plastics and its co-gasification with biomass were performed in DFB pilot plant, using olivine as heterogeneous catalyst and heat transfer agent. It was found that co-gasification led to successful thermochemical conversion of plastics as opposed to mono-gasification. Unknown flow rates were determined applying nonlinear regression to energy and mass balances acknowledging combustion fuel, air, steam, feedstock, but also exiting char, tar, steam and other components in DFB gasification unit. Water-gas shift equilibrium and methanol synthesis requirements were incorporated into gasification model, based on measurements. PMID:24736208

  10. Energy implications of the thermal recovery of biodegradable municipal waste materials in the United Kingdom

    SciTech Connect

    Burnley, Stephen, E-mail: s.j.burnley@open.ac.uk [Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Phillips, Rhiannon, E-mail: rhiannon.jones@environment-agency.gov.uk [Strategy Unit, Welsh Assembly Government, Ty Cambria, 29 Newport Road, Cardiff CF24 0TP (United Kingdom); Coleman, Terry, E-mail: terry.coleman@erm.com [Environmental Resources Management Ltd, Eaton House, Wallbrook Court, North Hinksey Lane, Oxford OX2 0QS (United Kingdom); Rampling, Terence, E-mail: twa.rampling@hotmail.com [7 Thurlow Close, Old Town Stevenage, Herts SG1 4SD (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > Energy balances were calculated for the thermal treatment of biodegradable wastes. > For wood and RDF, combustion in dedicated facilities was the best option. > For paper, garden and food wastes and mixed waste incineration was the best option. > For low moisture paper, gasification provided the optimum solution. - Abstract: Waste management policies and legislation in many developed countries call for a reduction in the quantity of biodegradable waste landfilled. Anaerobic digestion, combustion and gasification are options for managing biodegradable waste while generating renewable energy. However, very little research has been carried to establish the overall energy balance of the collection, preparation and energy recovery processes for different types of wastes. Without this information, it is impossible to determine the optimum method for managing a particular waste to recover renewable energy. In this study, energy balances were carried out for the thermal processing of food waste, garden waste, wood, waste paper and the non-recyclable fraction of municipal waste. For all of these wastes, combustion in dedicated facilities or incineration with the municipal waste stream was the most energy-advantageous option. However, we identified a lack of reliable information on the energy consumed in collecting individual wastes and preparing the wastes for thermal processing. There was also little reliable information on the performance and efficiency of anaerobic digestion and gasification facilities for waste.

  11. Coal properties and system operating parameters for underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, L. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2008-07-01

    Through the model experiment for underground coal gasification, the influence of the properties for gasification agent and gasification methods on underground coal gasifier performance were studied. The results showed that pulsating gasification, to some extent, could improve gas quality, whereas steam gasification led to the production of high heating value gas. Oxygen-enriched air and backflow gasification failed to improve the quality of the outlet gas remarkably, but they could heighten the temperature of the gasifier quickly. According to the experiment data, the longitudinal average gasification rate along the direction of the channel in the gasifying seams was 1.212 m/d, with transverse average gasification rate 0.069 m/d. Experiment indicated that, for the oxygen-enriched steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio was 2:1, gas compositions remained stable, with H{sub 2} + CO content virtually standing between 60% and 70% and O{sub 2} content below 0.5%. The general regularities of the development of the temperature field within the underground gasifier and the reasons for the changes of gas quality were also analyzed. The 'autopneumatolysis' and methanization reaction existing in the underground gasification process were first proposed.

  12. Biomethanation of a mixture of salty cheese whey and poultry waste or cattle dung - a study of effect of temperature and retention time

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, C.; Madamwar, D. [Sardar Patel Univ., Gujarat (India)

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes the results of a study aimed at improving the efficiency of anaerobic digestion of salty cheese whey in combination with poultry waste or cattle dung. Best results were obtained when salty cheese whey was mixed with poultry waste in the ratio of 7:3, or cattle dung in the ratio of 1:1, both on dry weight basis giving maximum gas production of 1.2 L/L of digester/d with enriched methane content of 64% and 1.3 L/L of digester/d having methane content of 63% respectively. Various conditions such as temperature and retention time have been optimized for maximum process performance. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Pyrolysis\\/gasification of biomass for synthetic fuel production using a hybrid gas–water stabilized plasma torch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Van Oost; M. Hrabovsky; V. Kopecky; M. Konrad; M. Hlina; T. Kavka

    2008-01-01

    An experimental plasma-chemical reactor equipped with a novel hybrid gas–water stabilized torch is available at IPP Prague for the innovative and environmentally friendly plasma treatment of waste streams with a view to their sustainable energetic and chemical valorization and to a reduction of the emission of greenhouse gases. Gasification\\/pyrolysis of biomass was experimentally studied using crushed wood as a model

  14. Novel and innovative pyrolysis and gasification technologies for energy efficient and environmentally sound MSW disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Malkow, Thomas

    2004-07-01

    Within the context of European Union (EU) energy policy and sustainibility in waste management, recent EU regulations demand energy efficient and environmentally sound disposal methods of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). Currently, landfill with its many drawbacks is the preferred option in the EU and many other industrialised countries. Within the waste management hierarchy thermal disposal especially incineration is a viable and proven alternative. But, the dominating method, mass-burn grate incineration has drawbacks as well particularly hazardous emissions and harmful process residues. In recent years, pyrolysis and gasification technologies have emerged to address these issues and improve the energy output. To keep the many players in the field comprehensively informed and up-to-date, novel and innovative technology approaches emphasising European developments are reviewed.

  15. SYNTHETIC FUEL PRODUCTION FROM SOLID WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The work described in this report has two objectives: first, to evaluate potential catalysts for the commercial practice of the gasification of chars produced by the pyrolysis of municipal or industrial wastes; second, to determine the potential for synthetic fuel production from...

  16. NH3 Abatement in Fluidized Bed Co-Gasification of RDF and Coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyurtlu, I.; Pinto, Filomena; Dias, Mário; Lopes, Helena; André, Rui Neto; Cabrita, I.

    Gasification of wastes may come out as an alternative technology to produce a gas with many potential applications, from direct burning in a boiler or motor to the production of synthetic chemicals and hydrogen. High tar production and high operational costs are preventing gasification wider dissemination. Besides these problems, the presence of NH3 in the syngas may have a negative impact as it can be converted into nitrogen oxides if the gas is further burnt. To reduce NH3 formation it is required a full understanding of how operational parameters contribute to the formation/reduction of this pollutant. A full studyon the effect of fuel composition, temperature and equivalence ratio on the formation of NH3 is given. Experimental results are compared to theoretical ones obtained with FactSage software. It is also analyzed the effect of feedstock mineral matterin NH3 release during gasification. Toaccomplish a significant decrease in the release of NH3, different catalysts and sorbents were tested with the aim of achieving high energy conversions and low environmental impact.

  17. Co-gasification of different rank coals with biomass and petroleum coke in a high-pressure reactor for H(2)-rich gas production.

    PubMed

    Fermoso, J; Arias, B; Gil, M V; Plaza, M G; Pevida, C; Pis, J J; Rubiera, F

    2010-05-01

    Four coals of different rank were gasified, using a steam/oxygen mixture as gasifying agent, at atmospheric and elevated pressure in a fixed bed reactor fitted with a solids feeding system in continuous mode. Independently of coal rank, an increase in gasification pressure led to a decrease in H(2) + CO production and carbon conversion. Gasification of the different rank coals revealed that the higher the carbon content and reactivity, the greater the hydrogen production. Co-gasification experiments of binary (coal-biomass) and ternary blends (coal-petcoke-biomass) were conducted at high pressure to study possible synergetic effects. Interactions between the blend components were found to modify the gas production. An improvement in hydrogen production and cold gas efficiency was achieved when the coal was gasified with biomass. PMID:20061144

  18. Biomass thermochemical gasification: Experimental studies and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ajay

    The overall goals of this research were to study the biomass thermochemical gasification using experimental and modeling techniques, and to evaluate the cost of industrial gas production and combined heat and power generation. This dissertation includes an extensive review of progresses in biomass thermochemical gasification. Product gases from biomass gasification can be converted to biopower, biofuels and chemicals. However, for its viable commercial applications, the study summarizes the technical challenges in the gasification and downstream processing of product gas. Corn stover and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), a non-fermentable byproduct of ethanol production, were used as the biomass feedstocks. One of the objectives was to determine selected physical and chemical properties of corn stover related to thermochemical conversion. The parameters of the reaction kinetics for weight loss were obtained. The next objective was to investigate the effects of temperature, steam to biomass ratio and equivalence ratio on gas composition and efficiencies. DDGS gasification was performed on a lab-scale fluidized-bed gasifier with steam and air as fluidizing and oxidizing agents. Increasing the temperature resulted in increases in hydrogen and methane contents and efficiencies. A model was developed to simulate the performance of a lab-scale gasifier using Aspen Plus(TM) software. Mass balance, energy balance and minimization of Gibbs free energy were applied for the gasification to determine the product gas composition. The final objective was to optimize the process by maximizing the net energy efficiency, and to estimate the cost of industrial gas, and combined heat and power (CHP) at a biomass feedrate of 2000 kg/h. The selling price of gas was estimated to be 11.49/GJ for corn stover, and 13.08/GJ for DDGS. For CHP generation, the electrical and net efficiencies were 37 and 86%, respectively for corn stover, and 34 and 78%, respectively for DDGS. For corn stover, the selling price of electricity was 0.1351/kWh. For DDGS, the selling price of electricity was 0.1287/kWh.

  19. Performance of a semi-industrial scale gasification process for the destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Alberto; Caballero, Porfirio; Villarreal, Juan A; Viramontes, Ricardo

    2006-11-01

    A semi-industrial scale test was conducted to thermally treat mixtures of spent oil and askarels at a concentration of 50,000 ppm and 100,000 ppm of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) under a reductive atmosphere. In average, the dry-basis composition of the synthesis gas (syngas) obtained from the gasification process was: hydrogen 46%, CO 34%, CO2 18%, and CH4 0.8%. PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) in the gas stream were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry. The coplanar PCBs congeners 77, 105, 118, 156/ 157, and 167 were detected in the syngas at concentrations < 2 x 10(-7) mg/m3 (at 298 K, 1 atm, dry basis, 7% O2). The chlorine released in the destruction of the PCBs was transformed to hydrogen chloride and separated from the gas by an alkaline wet scrubber. The concentration of PCBs in the water leaving the scrubber was below the detection limit of 0.002 mg/L, whereas the destruction and removal efficiency was > 99.9999% for both tests conducted. The concentration of PCDDs/PCDFs in the syngas were 8.1 x 10(-6) ng-toxic equivalent (TEQ)/m3 and 7.1 x 10(-6) ng-TEQ/m3 (at 298 K, 1 atm, dry basis, 7% O2) for the tests at 50,000 ppm and 100,000 ppm PCBs, respectively. The only PCDD/F congener detected in the gas was the octachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin, which has a toxic equivalent factor of 0.001. The results obtained for other pollutants (e.g., metals and particulate matter) meet the maximum allowed emission limits according to Mexican, U.S., and European regulations for the thermal treatment of hazardous waste (excluding CO, which is a major component of the syngas, and total hydrocarbons, which mainly represent the presence of CH4). PMID:17117746

  20. The Powerton gasification combined-cycle test facility - A preview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. E. Stauffer; D. E. Welty; A. Sacker; W. A. Boothe

    1978-01-01

    A demonstration power plant integrating coal gasification and combined-cycle electrical generation is under development. The gasification facility will use the Lurgi process to convert coal into a clean, low-Btu fuel gas. The combined-cycle plant will provide an efficient source of air and steam for the gasification facility. Since the fuel gas will have an adiabatic flame temperature lower than natural

  1. Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Marvin W. (Fairview, WV)

    1988-01-01

    The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water-splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

  2. Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, M.W.

    1987-03-23

    The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water- splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

  3. Anaerobic toxic wastes treatment: dilution effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. F. Nakhla; M. T. Suidan

    1995-01-01

    The impact of waste strength on the treatability of toxic wastes such as coal gasification wastewater by the anaerobic GAC reactor operating with periodic GAC replacement was assessed by operating three units treating 30%, 60% and full strength wastewater. At a COD loading of 4.7 kg\\/m3 d performance was unimpacted by dilution at all the GAC replacement rates investigated in

  4. Solar heated fluidized bed gasification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qader, S. A.

    1981-09-01

    A solar-powered fluidized bed gasification system for gasifying carbonaceous material is presented. The system includes a solar gasifier which is heated by fluidizing gas and steam. Energy to heat the gas and steam is supplied by a high heat capacity refractory honeycomb which surrounds the fluid bed reactor zone. The high heat capacity refractory honeycomb is heated by solar energy focused on the honeycomb by solar concentrator through solar window. The fluid bed reaction zone is also heated directly and uniformly by thermal contact of the high heat capacity ceramic honeycomb with the walls of the fluidized bed reactor. Provisions are also made for recovering and recycling catalysts used in the gasification process. Back-up furnace is provided for start-up procedures and for supplying heat to the fluid bed reaction zone when adequate supplies of solar energy are not available.

  5. Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal

    DOEpatents

    Aquino, D.C.; DaPrato, P.L.; Gouker, T.R.; Knoer, P.

    1984-07-06

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65/sup 0/C and 110/sup 0/C for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution, and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m/sup 3/. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal

    DOEpatents

    Aquino, Dolores C. (Houston, TX); DaPrato, Philip L. (Westfield, NJ); Gouker, Toby R. (Baton Rouge, LA); Knoer, Peter (Houston, TX)

    1986-01-01

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone (12) with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65.degree. C. and 110.degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m.sup.3. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step.

  7. Supercritical droplet gasification experiments with forced convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron; Parigger, Chris; Jeng, San-Mou

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary results of a comprehensive experimental program are presented which offer the first direct observations of suspended n-heptane droplet gasifications in pure nitrogen with forced convection without the interference to optical probing associated with a flame. Measurements show attainment of a wet-bulb temperature until reduced pressures exceed about 1.0 under supercritical gas temperatures. Thereafter, temperature measurements indicate fully transient heat-up through the critical temperature. The surface is found to regress in a continuous manner with the measured temperature approaching the critical value at the end of the droplet lifetime under supercritical conditions with very mild level of convection. At increased level of convection for the same ambient conditions, similar sized droplets will undergo significant deformation during the gasification process until partially convected away as a dense vapor cloud as the critical temperature is approached.

  8. Fluidized bed injection assembly for coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Cherish, Peter (Bethel Park, PA); Salvador, Louis A. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

    1981-01-01

    A coaxial feed system for fluidized bed coal gasification processes including an inner tube for injecting particulate combustibles into a transport gas, an inner annulus about the inner tube for injecting an oxidizing gas, and an outer annulus about the inner annulus for transporting a fluidizing and cooling gas. The combustibles and oxidizing gas are discharged vertically upward directly into the combustion jet, and the fluidizing and cooling gas is discharged in a downward radial direction into the bed below the combustion jet.

  9. Spectrum of underground coal gasification in Tianjin

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Yongsheng; Bai Xiaohong [Tianjin Urban Construction Inst. (China)

    1997-12-31

    A feasibility study on underground coal gasification in Tianjin is conducted and a program for exploitation of these coal reserves with UCG techniques is suggested. Some issues, such as the coal resources in Tianjin, the geological features of the selected for UCG trial, the characteristics of local coal deposits and the coal quality are discussed. A proposal for a combination of the production of coalbed methane and underground coal gas was summarized.

  10. Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The gasifier selected for development under this contract is an innovative and patented hybrid technology which combines the best features of both fixed-bed and fluidized-bed types. PyGas{trademark}, meaning Pyrolysis Gasification, is well suited for integration into advanced power cycles such as IGCC. It is also well matched to hot gas clean-up technologies currently in development. Unlike other gasification technologies, PyGas can be designed into both large and small scale systems. It is expected that partial repowering with PyGas could be done at a cost of electricity of only 2.78 cents/kWh, more economical than natural gas repowering. It is extremely unfortunate that Government funding for such a noble cause is becoming reduced to the point where current contracts must be canceled. The Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) project was initiated to provide a test facility to support early commercialization of advanced fixed-bed coal gasification technology at a cost approaching $1,000 per kilowatt for electric power generation applications. The project was to include an innovative, advanced, air-blown, pressurized, fixed-bed, dry-bottom gasifier and a follow-on hot metal oxide gas desulfurization sub-system. To help defray the cost of testing materials, the facility was to be located at a nearby utility coal fired generating site. The patented PyGas{trademark} technology was selected via a competitive bidding process as the candidate which best fit overall DOE objectives. The paper describes the accomplishments to date.

  11. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING

    SciTech Connect

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert Toerne; John Bick

    2003-01-01

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this widespread fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be used as a supplemental fuel in an existing utility boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with a variety of conventional boilers including natural gas and oil fired boilers, pulverized coal fired conventional and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a wider selection of biomass as fuel and providing opportunity in reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere through the commercialization of this technology. This study evaluated two plants: Wester Kentucky Energy Corporation's (WKE's) Reid Plant and TXU Energy's Monticello Plant for technical and economical feasibility. These plants were selected for their proximity to large supply of poultry litter in the area. The Reid plant is located in Henderson County in southwest Kentucky, with a large poultry processing facility nearby. Within a fifty-mile radius of the Reid plant, there are large-scale poultry farms that generate over 75,000 tons/year of poultry litter. The local poultry farmers are actively seeking environmentally more benign alternatives to the current use of the litter as landfill or as a farm spread as fertilizer. The Monticello plant is located in Titus County, TX near the town of Pittsburgh, TX, where again a large poultry processor and poultry farmers in the area generate over 110,000 tons/year of poultry litter. Disposal of this litter in the area is also a concern. This project offers a model opportunity to demonstrate the feasibility of biomass co-firing and at the same time eliminate poultry litter disposal problems for the area's poultry farmers.

  12. Assessment of Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarthy, John; Ferrall, Joseph; Charng, Thomas; Houseman, John

    1981-01-01

    This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process; Bell Single-Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process; Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process; Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier. The report makes the following assessments: 1) while each process has significant potential as coal gasifiers, the CS/R and Exxon processes are better suited for SNG production; 2) the Exxon process is the closest to a commercial level for near-term SNG production; and 3) the SRT processes require significant development including scale-up and turndown demonstration, char processing and/or utilization demonstration, and reactor control and safety features development.

  13. Method and apparatus for the selective separation of gaseous coal gasification products by pressure swing adsorption

    DOEpatents

    Ghate, M.R.; Yang, R.T.

    1985-10-03

    Bulk separation of the gaseous components of multi-component gases provided by the gasification of coal including hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, and acid gases (carbon dioxide plus hydrogen sulfide) are selectively adsorbed by a pressure swing adsorption technique using activated carbon zeolite or a combination thereof as the adsorbent. By charging a column containing the adsorbent with a gas mixture and pressurizing the column to a pressure sufficient to cause the adsorption of the gases and then reducing the partial pressure of the contents of the column, the gases are selectively and sequentially desorbed. Hydrogen, the least absorbable gas of the gaseous mixture, is the first gas to be desorbed and is removed from the column in a co-current direction followed by the carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane. With the pressure in the column reduced to about atmospheric pressure the column is evacuated in a countercurrent direction to remove the acid gases from the column. The present invention is particularly advantageous as a producer of high purity hydrogen from gaseous products of coal gasification and as an acid gas scrubber. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Method and apparatus for the selective separation of gaseous coal gasification products by pressure swing adsorption

    DOEpatents

    Ghate, Madhav R. (Morgantown, WV); Yang, Ralph T. (Williamsville, NY)

    1987-01-01

    Bulk separation of the gaseous components of multi-component gases provided by the gasification of coal including hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, and acid gases (carbon dioxide plus hydrogen sulfide) are selectively adsorbed by a pressure swing adsorption technique using activated carbon, zeolite or a combination thereof as the adsorbent. By charging a column containing the adsorbent with a gas mixture and pressurizing the column to a pressure sufficient to cause the adsorption of the gases and then reducing the partial pressure of the contents of the column, the gases are selectively and sequentially desorbed. Hydrogen, the least absorbable gas of the gaseous mixture, is the first gas to be desorbed and is removed from the column in a co-current direction followed by the carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane. With the pressure in the column reduced to about atmospheric pressure the column is evacuated in a countercurrent direction to remove the acid gases from the column. The present invention is particularly advantageous as a producer of high parity hydrogen from gaseous products of coal gasification and as an acid gas scrubber.

  15. Characterization of Pricetown I underground gasification knockout pot condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Craven, S.M.; Craft, B.D.; Franchetti, V.M.; Kinard, C.; Nunn, E.B.; Pitre, E.M.; Ryan, R.L.

    1980-11-20

    The light oil collected in the knockout pot during the underground coal gasification (UCG) experiment at Pricetown, West Virginia, was characterized. Boiling range, elution chromatography, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and physical tests were used to characterize the oil. The oil can be characterized as a light, highly aromatic mixture with significant amounts of phenols (10 to 25%). Results of various analyses are internally consistent and correlate with process changes. Oil characteristics, then, may be used to monitor UCG experiments. The oil differs from that produced from Western UCG subbituminous coal experiments in that it does not contain significant amounts of aliphatic molecules like paraffins and naphthenes. Its potential value is dependent on the amount of oil produced. It can be either a pollutant or a valuable source of chemicals depending on the quantities produced. The water from the knockout pot contains many polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons at the milligram per liter level and phenols at the gram per liter level. The work was done for the following reasons: (1) The coal tar (from hereon called oil because of its volatile nature) may contain environmentally hazardous chemical compounds; (2) It may be useful as a synthetic fuel; (3) It may be useful as a petrochemical feedstock; and (4) It may be useful in monitoring the UCG process.

  16. Gasification Characteristics of Coal/Biomass Mixed Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Reginald

    2013-09-30

    A research project was undertaken that had the overall objective of developing the models needed to accurately predict conversion rates of coal/biomass mixtures to synthesis gas under conditions relevant to a commercially-available coal gasification system configured to co- produce electric power as well as chemicals and liquid fuels. In our efforts to accomplish this goal, experiments were performed in an entrained flow reactor in order to produce coal and biomass chars at high heating rates and temperatures, typical of the heating rates and temperatures fuel particles experience in real systems. Mixed chars derived from coal/biomass mixtures containing up to 50% biomass and the chars of the pure coal and biomass components were subjected to a matrix of reactivity tests in a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) in order to obtain data on mass loss rates as functions of gas temperature, pressure and composition as well as to obtain information on the variations in mass specific surface area during char conversion under kinetically-limited conditions. The experimental data were used as targets when determining the unknown parameters in the chemical reactivity and specific surface area models developed. These parameters included rate coefficients for the reactions in the reaction mechanism, enthalpies of formation and absolute entropies of adsorbed species formed on the carbonaceous surfaces, and pore structure coefficients in the model used to describe how the mass specific surface area of the char varies with conversion. So that the reactivity models can be used at high temperatures when mass transport processes impact char conversion rates, Thiele modulus – effectiveness factor relations were also derived for the reaction mechanisms developed. In addition, the reactivity model and a mode of conversion model were combined in a char-particle gasification model that includes the effects of chemical reaction and diffusion of reactive gases through particle pores and energy exchange between the particle and its environment. This char-particle gasification model is capable of predicting the average mass loss rates, sizes, apparent densities, specific surface areas, and temperatures of the char particles produced when co-firing coal and biomass to the type environments established in entrained flow gasifiers operating at high temperatures and elevated pressures. A key result of this work is the finding that the reactivities of the mixed chars were not always in between the reactivities of the pure component chars at comparable gasification conditions. Mixed char reactivity to CO{sub 2} was lower than the reactivities of both the pure Wyodak coal and pure corn stover chars to CO{sub 2}. In contrast, mixed char reactivity to H{sub 2}O was higher than the reactivities of both the pure Wyodak coal and pure corn stover chars to H{sub 2}O. This was found to be in part, a consequence of the reduced mass specific surface areas of the coal char particles formed during devolatilization when the coal and biomass particles are co-fired. The biomass particles devolatilize prior to the coal particles, impacting the temperature and the composition of the environment in which the coal particles devolatilize. This situation results in coal char particles within the mixed char that differ in specific surface area and reactivity from the coal char particles produced in the absence of the devolatilizing biomass particles. Due to presence of this “affected” coal char, it was not possible to develop a mixed char reactivity model that uses linear mixing rules to determine the reactivity of a mixed char from only the reactivities of the pure mixture components. However, it was possible to predict both mixed char specific surface area and reactivity for a wide range of fuel mixture rat os provided the specific surface area and reactivity of the affected coal char particles are known. Using the kinetic parameters determined for the Wyodak coal and corn stover chars, the model was found to adequately predict the observed conversion times a

  17. Tar removal during the fluidized bed gasification of plastic waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Umberto Arena; Lucio Zaccariello; Maria Laura Mastellone

    2009-01-01

    A recycled polyethylene was fed in a pilot plant bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, having an internal diameter of 0.381m and a maximum feeding capacity of 90kg\\/h. The experimental runs were carried out under various operating conditions: the bed temperature was kept at about 850°C, the equivalence ratio varied between 0.2 and 0.35, the amount of bed material was between 131

  18. Gasification of agricultural residues in a demonstrative plant: corn cobs.

    PubMed

    Biagini, Enrico; Barontini, Federica; Tognotti, Leonardo

    2014-12-01

    Biomass gasification couples the high power efficiency with the possibility of valuably using the byproducts heat and biochar. The use of agricultural wastes instead of woody feedstock extends the seasonal availability of biomasses. The downdraft type is the most used reactor but has narrow ranges of feedstock specifications (above all on moisture and particle size distribution), so tests on a demonstrative scale are conducted to prove the versatility of the gasifier. Measurements on pressure drops, syngas flow rate and composition are studied to assess the feasibility of such operations with corn cobs. Material and energy balances, and performance indexes are compared for the four tests carried out under different biomass loads (66-85 kg/h). A good operability of the plant and interesting results are obtained (gas specific production of 2 m3/kg, gas heating value 5.6-5.8 MJ/m3, cold gas efficiency in the range 66-68%, potential net power efficiency 21.1-21.6%). PMID:25299486

  19. Underground coal gasification: a leading contender in the synfuels industry

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, D.R.

    1981-10-27

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) promieses to be a relatively low cost, environmentaly sound method for producing clean fuels from coal deposits that are unattractive for mining. The coal is gasified in place, with the reactions supported by oxygen and steam piped down from the surface. Gases produced by the combustion reactions are piped to the surface, where they can be converted to various useful fuels such as pipeline quality gas or gasoline at costs estimated to be competitive with those for fuels from conventional sources. Huge deposits of deep coal exist in the US which are not economically recoverable by mining. It appears that a successful UCG process could recover enough of these presently unusable resources to quadruple our coal reserves. Thus there is a strong economic incentive to develop the UCG process. As a further advantage, the UCG process is expected to have only minor environmental impact since the coal is consumed underground and most of the waste products remain there. In the US, an R and D program in UCG has been supported by the Department of Energy and its predecessor agencies for about a decade, and private industry has also been active in developing the process; elsewhere in the world, development programs are being carried on in a number of countries. Results have been very encouraging, and it appears that if government and industry continue to support UCG development, then the UCG process could become commercially established by the 1990s.

  20. Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Sears; G. H. Griswold; M. O. Fankhanel; C. E. Kastner; D. H. Pontium

    1992-01-01

    Efficiencies in advanced power generation systems such as integrated gasification combined cycle, pressurized fluidized bed combustion and integrated gasification fuel cells can be maximized by feeding hot fuel gas or flue gas to the power block. However, advanced gas turbines have strict particulate requirements to minimize wear on the blades due to the close tolerances used to maximize the efficiency

  1. Coal gasification for power generation. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    2006-10-15

    The report gives an overview of the opportunities for coal gasification in the power generation industry. It provides a concise look at the challenges faced by coal-fired generation, the ability of coal gasification to address these challenges, and the current state of IGCC power generation. Topics covered in the report include: An overview of coal generation including its history, the current market environment, and the status of coal gasification; A description of gasification technology including processes and systems; An analysis of the key business factors that are driving increased interest in coal gasification; An analysis of the barriers that are hindering the implementation of coal gasification projects; A discussion of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology; An evaluation of IGCC versus other generation technologies; A discussion of IGCC project development options; A discussion of the key government initiatives supporting IGCC development; Profiles of the key gasification technology companies participating in the IGCC market; and A description of existing and planned coal IGCC projects.

  2. Modelling coal gasification with a hybrid neural network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bing Guo; Youting Shen; Dingkai Li; Fu Zhao

    1997-01-01

    Gasification of two coals was carried out in a batch feed fluidized bed reactor at atmospheric pressure using steam as fluidizing medium. A model of coal gasification was developed, incorporating a first-principles model with a neural network parameter estimator. The hybrid neural network was trained with experimental data for the two coals and gave good performance in process modelling. A

  3. Evaluation of treated gasification wastewater as cooling tower makeup

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Galegher; M. D. Mann; M. D. Johnson

    1985-01-01

    The principal goal of gasification research at the University of North Dakota Energy Research Center (UNDERC) is to develop process and environmental data on the treatability and reuse of aqueous effluents from the fixed-bed gasification of lignite. It is the objective of the UNDERC wastewater research program to define the extent of treatment required to produce a gas liquor for

  4. Granular bed filtration of high temperature biomass gasification gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Stanghelle; Torbjørn Slungaard; Otto K. Sønju

    2007-01-01

    High temperature cleaning of producer gas from biomass gasification has been investigated with a granular filter. Field tests were performed for several hours on a single filter element at about 550°C. The results show cake filtration on the granular material and indicate good filtration of the biomass gasification producer gas. The relatively low pressure drop over the filter during filtration

  5. Chemical Equilibrium Computations for Gasification of Biomass to Produce Methanol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHARLES M. KINOSHITA; YUE WANG; PATRICK K. TAKAHASHI

    1991-01-01

    Gasification of biomass into synthesis gas is the first step in producing methanol from biomass. Catalytic conversion of the gas produced by the gasifier into methanol is strongly affected by the composition of the product gas. It is thus important to know what the gas composition would be under different gasification conditions and to be able to identify those conditions

  6. Steam gasification of biomass with nickel secondary catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eddie G. Baker; Lyle K. Mudge; Michael D. Brown

    1987-01-01

    Nickel secondary catalysts are effective for increasing the gas yield from steam gasification of biomass by converting tars and other hydrocarbons to gas. Coke buildup on the catalyst can cause loss of catalyst effectiveness in a very short time. Bench-scale gasification tests showed that coke buildup can be prevented if the catalyst is used in a separate fluid bed reactor.

  7. Catalytic gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. G. Baker; M. D. Brown; R. J. Robertus

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of catalytic gasification of bagasse to produce methanol. In previous studies, a catalytic steam gasification process was developed which converted wood to methanol synthesis gas in one step using nickel based catalysts in a fluid-bed gasifier. Tests in a nominal 1 ton\\/day process development unit (PDU) gasifier

  8. Texaco coal gasification wastewater handling and treatment pilot plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. V. Klock; D. C. Vuong; G. H. Webster

    1990-01-01

    The Cool Water Coal Gasification Program (CWCGP) provided the first commercial scale demonstration of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power production from coal. Water treating at Cool Water was simplified by the plant's location in the Mojave desert which allowed the use of evaporation ponds. Because most utilities will not be able to dispose of plant wastewater in evaporation ponds,

  9. Methods for sequestering carbon dioxide into alcohols via gasification fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Gaddy, James L; Ko, Ching-Whan; Phillips, J. Randy; Slape, M. Sean

    2013-11-26

    The present invention is directed to improvements in gasification for use with synthesis gas fermentation. Further, the present invention is directed to improvements in gasification for the production of alcohols from a gaseous substrate containing at least one reducing gas containing at least one microorganism.

  10. BIOMASS REACTIVITY IN GASIFICATION BY THE HYNOL PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A thermobalance reactor was used to evaluate the reactivity of poplar wood in gasification under the operating conditions specific for the Hynol process where biomass is gasified at 30 atm and 800E C with a hydrogen-rich gas recycled from methane synthesis. The gasification invol...

  11. THEORETICAL INVESTIGATION OF SELECTED TRACE ELEMENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a theoretical investigation of the disposition of five volatile trace elements (arsenic, boron, lead, selenium, and mercury) in SNG-producing coal gasification plants. Three coal gasification processes (dry-bottom Lurgi, Koppers-Totzek, and HYGAS) were...

  12. Biomass steam gasification – an extensive parametric modeling study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Schuster; G. Löffler; K. Weigl; H. Hofbauer

    2001-01-01

    A model for steam gasification of biomass was developed by applying thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. With this model, the simulation of a decentralized combined heat and power station based on a dual fluidized-bed steam gasifier was carried out. Fuel composition (ultimate analysis and moisture content) and the operating parameters, temperature and amount of gasification agent, were varied over a wide range.

  13. Combined coal gasifer and fuel cell system and method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. D. Gmeindl; R. A. Geisbrecht

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a coal gasification and fuel cell system. It comprises: in combination coal gasification means for endothermically reacting coal or coal char in the presence of a catalyst, an external source of heat and steam for producing a stream of gaseous products containing carbon dioxide and hydrogen at a temperature in the range of about 1150° to 1050°

  14. Energy production from biomass (part 3): gasification technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter McKendry

    2002-01-01

    The conversion of biomass by gasification into a fuel suitable for use in a gas engine increases greatly the potential usefulness of biomass as a renewable resource. Gasification is a robust proven technology that can be operated either as a simple, low technology system based on a fixed-bed gasifier, or as a more sophisticated system using fluidized-bed technology. The properties

  15. Pyrolysis and gasification of meat-and-bone-meal: energy balance and GHG accounting.

    PubMed

    Cascarosa, Esther; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Meat-and-bone-meal (MBM) produced from animal waste has become an increasingly important residual fraction needing management. As biodegradable waste is routed away from landfills, thermo-chemical treatments of MBM are considered promising solution for the future. Pyrolysis and gasification of MBM were assessed based on data from three experimental lab and pilot-scale plants. Energy balances were established for the three technologies, providing different outcomes for energy recovery: bio-oil was the main product for the pyrolysis system, while syngas and a solid fraction of biochar were the main products in the gasification system. These products can be used - eventually after upgrading - for energy production, thereby offsetting energy production elsewhere in the system. Greenhouse gases (GHG) accounting of the technologies showed that all three options provided overall GHG savings in the order of 600-1000kg CO2-eq. per Mg of MBM treated, mainly as a consequence of avoided fossil fuel consumption in the energy sector. Local conditions influencing the environmental performance of the three systems were identified, together with critical factors to be considered during decision-making regarding MBM management. PMID:23916845

  16. Energy recovery from sewage sludge by means of fluidised bed gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, Bodo [IZES gGmbH, Altenkesseler Strasse 17, D-66115 Saarbruecken (Germany); Eder, Christian [CET, Christian Eder Technology, Eduard-Didion Strasse, D-66539 Neunkirchen (Germany); Grziwa, Peter [BISANZ Anlagenbau GmbH, Scheidter Strasse 2, D-66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Horst, Juri [IZES gGmbH, Altenkesseler Strasse 17, D-66115 Saarbruecken (Germany)], E-mail: horst@izes.de; Kimmerle, Klaus [IZES gGmbH, Altenkesseler Strasse 17, D-66115 Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Because of its potential harmful impact on the environment, disposal of sewage sludge is becoming a major problem all over the world. Today the available disposal measures are at the crossroads. One alternative would be to continue its usage as fertiliser or to abandon it. Due to the discussions about soil contamination caused by sewage sludge, some countries have already prohibited its application in agriculture. In these countries, thermal treatment is now presenting the most common alternative. This report describes two suitable methods to directly convert sewage sludge into useful energy on-site at the wastewater treatment plant. Both processes consist mainly of four devices: dewatering and drying of the sewage sludge, gasification by means of fluidised bed technology (followed by a gas cleaning step) and production of useful energy via CHP units as the final step. The process described first (ETVS-Process) is using a high pressure technique for the initial dewatering and a fluidised bed technology utilising waste heat from the overall process for drying. In the second process (NTVS-Process) in addition to the waste heat, solar radiation is utilised. The subsequent measures - gasification, gas cleaning and electric and thermal power generation - are identical in both processes. The ETVS-Process and the NTVS-Process are self-sustaining in terms of energy use; actually a surplus of heat and electricity is generated in both processes.

  17. Program for large-scale underground-coal-gasification tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammesfahr, F. W.; Winter, P. L.

    1982-11-01

    The continuing development of underground coal gasification technology requires extended multi-module field programs in which the output gas is linked to surface usage. An effort was to appraise whether existing surface facilities in the utility, petroleum refinery, or natural gas industries could be used to reduce the cost of such an extended multi-module test and whether regional demand in areas having underground coal gasification coal resources could support the manufacture of transportation fuels from underground coal gasification gases. To limit the effort to a reasonable level but yet to permit a fair test of the concept, effort was focused on five states, Illinois, New Mexico, Texas, Washington, and Wyoming, which have good underground coal gasification reserves. Studies of plant distribution located 25 potential sites within 3 miles of the underground coal gasification amenable reserves in the five states. Distribution was 44% to utilities, 44% to refineries, and 12% to gas processing facilities.

  18. LWA demonstration applications using Illinois coal gasification slag: Phase II. Technical report, 1 March--31 May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhry, V. [Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States); Steck, P. [Harvey Cement Products, Inc. (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The major objective of this project is to demonstrate the suitability of using ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) produced by thermal expansion of solid residues (slag) generated during the gasification of Illinois coals as substitutes for conventional aggregates, which are typically produced by pyroprocessing of perlite ores. To meet this objective, expanded slag aggregates produced from an Illinois coal slag feed in Phase I will be subjected to characterization and applications-oriented testing. Target applications include the following: aggregates in precast products (blocks and rooftiles); construction aggregates (loose fill insulation and insulating concrete); and other applications as identified from evaluation of expanded slag properties. The production of value-added products from slag is aimed at eliminating a solid waste and possibly enhancing the overall economics of the gasification process, especially when the avoided costs of disposal are taken into consideration.

  19. Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping

    SciTech Connect

    Herbert Andrus; Gregory Burns; John Chiu; Gregory Lijedahl; Peter Stromberg; Paul Thibeault

    2009-01-07

    For the past several years Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), a leading world-wide power system manufacturer and supplier, has been in the initial stages of developing an entirely new, ultra-clean, low cost, high efficiency power plant for the global power market. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion-gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology The process consists of the oxidation, reduction, carbonation, and calcination of calcium-based compounds, which chemically react with coal, biomass, or opportunity fuels in two chemical loops and one thermal loop. The chemical and thermal looping technology can be alternatively configured as (i) a combustion-based steam power plant with CO{sub 2} capture, (ii) a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas for gas turbines or fuel cells, or (iii) an integrated hybrid combustion-gasification process producing hydrogen for gas turbines, fuel cells or other hydrogen based applications while also producing a separate stream of CO{sub 2} for use or sequestration. In its most advanced configuration, this new concept offers the promise to become the technology link from today's Rankine cycle steam power plants to tomorrow's advanced energy plants. The objective of this work is to develop and verify the high temperature chemical and thermal looping process concept at a small-scale pilot facility in order to enable AL to design, construct and demonstrate a pre-commercial, prototype version of this advanced system. In support of this objective, Alstom and DOE started a multi-year program, under this contract. Before the contract started, in a preliminary phase (Phase 0) Alstom funded and built the required small-scale pilot facility (Process Development Unit, PDU) at its Power Plant Laboratories in Windsor, Connecticut. Construction was completed in calendar year 2003. The objective for Phase I was to develop the indirect combustion loop with CO{sub 2} separation, and also syngas production from coal with the calcium sulfide (CaS)/calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}) loop utilizing the PDU facility. The results of Phase I were reported in Reference 1, 'Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping Coal Power Development Technology Development Phase I Report' The objective for Phase II was to develop the carbonate loop--lime (CaO)/calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) loop, integrate it with the gasification loop from Phase I, and ultimately demonstrate the feasibility of hydrogen production from the combined loops. The results of this program were reported in Reference 3, 'Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping Coal Power Development Technology Development Phase II Report'. The objective of Phase III is to operate the pilot plant to obtain enough engineering information to design a prototype of the commercial Chemical Looping concept. The activities include modifications to the Phase II Chemical Looping PDU, solids transportation studies, control and instrumentation studies and additional cold flow modeling. The deliverable is a report making recommendations for preliminary design guidelines for the prototype plant, results from the pilot plant testing and an update of the commercial plant economic estimates.

  20. Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Rodney Andrews; Aurora Rubel; Jack Groppo; Ari Geertsema; Frank Huggins; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Brandie M. Markley; Harold Schobert

    2006-02-01

    With the recent passing of new legislation designed to permanently cap and reduce mercury emissions from coal-fired utilities, it is more important than ever to develop and improve upon methods of controlling mercury emissions. One promising technique is carbon sorbent injection into the flue gas of the coal-fired power plant. Currently, this technology is very expensive as costly commercially activated carbons are used as sorbents. There is also a significant lack of understanding of the interaction between mercury vapor and the carbon sorbent, which adds to the difficulty of predicting the amount of sorbent needed for specific plant configurations. Due to its inherent porosity and adsorption properties as well as on-site availability, carbons derived from gasifiers are potential mercury sorbent candidates. Furthermore, because of the increasing restricted use of landfilling, the coal industry is very interested in finding uses for these materials as an alternative to the current disposal practice. The results of laboratory investigations and supporting technical assessments conducted under DOE Subcontract No. DE-FG26-03NT41795 are reported for the period September 1, 2004 to August 31, 2005. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation, which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and The Pennsylvania State University Energy Institute. The worked described was part of a project entitled ''Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization''. This work involves the development of technologies for the separation and characterization of coal gasification slags from operating gasification units, activation of these materials to increase mercury and nitrogen oxide capture efficiency, assessment of these materials as sorbents for mercury and nitrogen oxides, and characterization of these materials for use as polymer fillers.

  1. Steam decomposition in underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Mastalerz, J.; Matyjaszczyk, M.S.; Rauk, J.

    1987-02-01

    An idea for probing the combustion zone temperature (CZT) in underground coal gasification (UCG) by using the hydrogen amount in product gas coming from the steam decomposition (HS) is proposed. It seems, from both experimental and theoretical analyses of three generators, that the increase in CZT results in the increase of HS and vice versa. Experimental results of UCG in single well and multiwell generators, blind and open, constructed in bituminous coal seam by the shaft method with ambient and heated air and oxygen as oxidizing agents are presented, and good agreement with theoretical predictions is reached after taking into account the carbon dioxide trapping and hydrogen burning processes.

  2. Underground coal gasification modelling activities in Belgium

    SciTech Connect

    Coeeme, A.; Mostade, M. [Institution pour le Developpement de la Gazeification Souterraine, Liege (Belgium); Pirard, J.P.; Pirlot, P. [Univ. de Liege (Belgium). Institut de Chimie; Sintzoff, I. [Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes recent modelling studies in Belgium. The models were developed within the framework of the two European Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) field trials at great depth: Thulin (Belgium), 1980--1987 and Alcorisa (Spain), 1992--1997 (in progress). UCG process modelling can be divided into two categories according to the degree of physicochemical description details: (1) models based on a macroscopic or ``global`` description of phenomena and (2) models based on a more detailed description of the mechanisms involved. In parallel to UCG process modelling activities, a production well model was developed on the same detailed description of the mechanisms involved.

  3. Key tests set for underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Haggin, J.

    1983-07-18

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is about to undergo some tests. The tests will be conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in a coal seam owned by Washington Irrigation and Development Co. A much-improved UCG system has been developed by Stephens and his associates at LLNL - the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) method. Pritchard Corp., Kansas City, has done some conceptual process design and has further studied the feasibility of using the raw gas from a UCG burn as a feedstock for methanol synthesis and/or MTG gasoline. Each method was described. (DP)

  4. Asbestos tailings as aggregates for asphalt mixture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoming Liu; Linrong Xu

    2011-01-01

    To use many asbestos tailings collected in Ya-Lu highway, and to explore the feasibility of using asbestos tailings as aggregates\\u000a in common asphalt mixtures, and properties of some asphalt mixtures were evaluated as well. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray\\u000a fluorescent (XRF), and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) were employed to determine the solid waste content of copper,\\u000a zinc, lead, and cadmium. Volume

  5. Process for treating fission waste. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Rohrmann, C.A.; Wick, O.J.

    1981-11-17

    A method is described for the treatment of fission waste. A glass forming agent, a metal oxide, and a reducing agent are mixed with the fission waste and the mixture is heated. After melting, the mixture separates into a glass phase and a metal phase. The glass phase may be used to safely store the fission waste, while the metal phase contains noble metals recovered from the fission waste.

  6. NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC Waste-to-Energy Technologies

    E-print Network

    Future Primary Feedstock ProductsGasification Biomass MSW Others Syngas (CO+H2) Syngas to Liquids Syngas of Biomass Gasifier Source: Princeton Environmental Gasification Emissions Profile: Kinsei Technology - About 25 units operable in the U.S. using waste material feedstocks, including biomass - Primary challenge

  7. Crime in the waste oil industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan A. Block; Thomas J. Bernard

    1988-01-01

    In the late 1970s, a new pattern of criminality appeared: the illegal disposal of toxic wastes by previously legitimate waste oil dealers, especially by selling a mixture of liquid toxic wastes and waste oils as fuel oil. This pattern of crime was caused by changes in the social conditions determining economic self?interest in the petroleum industry, and by changes in

  8. Wabash River coal gasification repowering project: Public design report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project (the Project), conceived in October of 1990 and selected by the US Department of Energy as a Clean Coal IV demonstration project in September 1991, is expected to begin commercial operations in August of 1995. The Participants, Destec Energy, Inc., (Destec) of Houston, Texas and PSI Energy, Inc., (PSI) of Plainfield, Indiana, formed the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project Joint Venture (the JV) to participate in the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program by demonstrating the coal gasification repowering of an existing 1950`s vintage generating unit affected by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). The Participants, acting through the JV, signed the Cooperative Agreement with the DOE in July 1992. The Participants jointly developed, and separately designed, constructed, own, and will operate an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (CGCC) power plant using Destec`s coal gasification technology to repower Unit {number_sign}1 at PSI`s Wabash River Generating Station located in Terre Haute, Indiana. PSI is responsible for the new power generation facilities and modification of the existing unit, while Destec is responsible for the coal gasification plant. The Project demonstrates integration of the pre-existing steam turbine generator, auxiliaries, and coal handling facilities with a new combustion turbine generator/heat recovery steam generator tandem and the coal gasification facilities.

  9. Supercritical gasification for the treatment of o-cresol wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chao-hai; Hu, Cheng-sheng; Wu, Chao-fei; Yan, Bo

    2006-01-01

    The supercritical water gasification of phenolic wastewater without oxidant was performed to degrade pollutants and produce hydrogen-enriched gases. The simulated o-cresol wastewater was gasified at 440-650 degrees C and 27.6 MPa in a continuous Inconel 625 reactor with the residence time of 0.42-1.25 min. The influence of the reaction temperature, residence time, pressure, catalyst, oxidant and the pollutant concentration on the gasification efficiency was investigated. Higher temperature and longer residence time enhanced the o-cresol gasification. The TOC removal rate and hydrogen gasification rate were 90.6% and 194.6%, respectively, at the temperature of 650 degrees C and the residence time of 0.83 min. The product gas was mainly composed of H2, CO2, CH4 and CO, among which the total molar percentage of H2 and CH4 was higher than 50%. The gasification efficiency decreased with the pollutant concentration increasing. Both the catalyst and oxidant could accelerate the hydrocarbon gasification at a lower reaction temperature, in which the catalyst promoted H2 production and the oxidant enhanced CO2 generation. The intermediates of liquid effluents were analyzed and phenol was found to be the main composition. The results indicate that the supercritical gasification is a promising way for the treatment of hazardous organic wastewater. PMID:17078539

  10. Launch Vehicle with Combustible Polyethylene Case Gasification Chamber Design Basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yemets, V.

    A single-stage launch vehicle equipped with a combustible tank shell of polyethylene and a moving propulsion plant is proposed. The propulsion plant is composed of a chamber for the gasification of the shell, a compressor of pyrolysed polyethylene and a magnetic powder obturator. It is shown that the “dental” structure of the gasification chamber is necessary to achieve the necessary contact area with the polyethylene shell. This conclusion is drawn from consideration of the thermo- physical properties of polyethylene, calculating quasisteady temperature field in the gasification chamber, estimating gasification rate of polyethylene, launch vehicle shortening rate and area of gasification. Experimental determination of the gasification rate is described. The gasification chamber specific mass as well as the propulsion plant weight-to-thrust ratio are estimated under some assumptions concerning the obturator and compressor. Combustible launch vehicles are compared with conventional launch vehicles taking into consideration their payload mass ratios. Combustible launchers are preferable as small launchers for micro and nano satellites. Reusable versions of such launchers seem suitable if polyethylene tank shells filled with metal or metal hydride fine dusts are used.

  11. Advanced gasification-based biomass power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.H.; Larson, E.D. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1993-12-31

    A promising strategy for modernizing bioenergy is the production of electricity or the cogeneration of electricity and heat using gasified biomass with advanced conversion technologies. Major advances that have been made in coal gasification technology, to marry the gas turbine to coal, are readily adaptable to biomass applications. Integrating biomass gasifiers with aeroderivative gas turbines in particular makes it possible to achieve high efficiencies and low unit capital costs at the modest scales required for bioenergy systems. Electricity produced with biomass-integrated gasifier/gas turbine (BIG/GT) power systems not only offers major environmental benefits but also would be competitive with electricity produced from fossil fuels and nuclear energy under a wide range of circumstances. Initial applications will be with biomass residues generated in the sugarcane, pulp and paper, and other agro- and forest-product industries. Eventually, biomass grown for energy purposes on dedicated energy farms will also be used to fuel these gas turbine systems. Continuing improvements in jet engine and biomass gasification technologies will lead to further gains in the performance of BIG/GT systems over the next couple of decades. Fuel cells operated on gasified biomass offer the promise of even higher performance levels in the period beyond the turn of the century. 79 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs.

  12. Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, T.B.

    1980-09-01

    All the products now obtained from oil can be provided by thermal conversion of the solid fuels biomass and coal. As a feedstock, biomass has many advantages over coal and has the potential to supply up to 20% of US energy by the year 2000 and significant amounts of energy for other countries. However, it is imperative that in producing biomass for energy we practice careful land use. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed-bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized-bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products - gas, wood tars, and charcoal - can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best-developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel today, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

  13. ENCOAL mild coal gasification project. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This document is the combination of the fourth quarter report (July--September 1993) and the 1993 annual report for the ENCOAL project. The following pages include the background and process description for the project, brief summaries of the accomplishments for the first three quarters, and a detailed fourth quarter report. Its purpose is to convey the accomplishments and current progress of the project. ENCOAL Corporation, has completed the construction of a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company`s Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by SMC and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). ENCOAL submitted an application to the US Department of Energy (DOE) in August 1989, soliciting joint funding of the project in the third round of the Clean Coal Technology Program. The project was selected by DOE in December, 1989 and the Cooperative Agreement approved in September, 1990. Construction, commissioning, and start-up of the ENCOAL mild coal gasification facility was completed in June of 1992, and the project is currently in the operations phase. Some plant modifications have been required and are discussed in this report.

  14. Investigations on catalyzed steam gasification of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Mudge, L.K.; Weber, S.L.; Mitchell, D.H.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Robertus, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of producing specific gas products via the catalytic gasification of biomass. This report presents the results of research conducted from December 1977 to October 1980. The study was comprised of laboratory studies, process development, and economic analyses. The laboratory studies were conducted to develop operating conditions and catalyst systems for generating methane-rich gas, synthesis gases, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide; these studies also developed techniques for catalyst recovery, regeneration, and recycling. A process development unit (PDU) was designed and constructed to evaluate laboratory systems at conditions approximating commercial operations. The economic analyses, performed by Davy McKee, Inc. for PNL, evaluated the feasibility of adapting the wood-to-methane and wood-to-methanol processes to full-scale commercial operations. Plants were designed in the economic analyses to produce fuel-grade methanol from wood and substitute natural gas (SNG) from wood via catalytic gasification with steam.

  15. FEED SYSTEM INNOVATION FOR GASIFICATION OF LOCALLY ECONOMICAL ALTERNATIVE FUELS (FIGLEAF)

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Swanson; Mark A. Musich; Darren D. Schmidt

    2001-11-01

    The Feed System Innovation for Gasification of Locally Economical Alternative Fuels (FIGLEAF) project is being conducted by the Energy and Environmental Research Center and Gasification Engineering Corporation of Houston, Texas (a subsidiary of Global Energy Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio), with 80% cofunding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The goal of the project is to identify and evaluate low-value fuels that could serve as alternative feedstocks and to develop a feed system to facilitate their use in integrated gasification combined cycle and gasification coproduction facilities. The long-term goal, to be accomplished in a subsequent project, is to install a feed system for the selected fuels at Global Energy's commercial-scale 262-MW Wabash River Coal Gasification Facility in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The feasibility study undertaken for the project consists of identifying and evaluating the economic feasibility of potential fuel sources, developing a feed system design capable of providing a fuel at 400 psig to the second stage of the E-Gas (Destec) gasifier to be cogasified with coal at up to 30% on a Btu basis, performing bench- and pilot-scale testing to verify concepts and clarify decision-based options, reviewing prior art with respect to high-pressure feed system designs, and determining the economics of cofeeding alternative feedstocks with the conceptual feed system design. Activities and results thus far include the following. Several potential alternative fuels have been obtained for evaluation and testing as potential feedstocks, including sewage sludge, used railroad ties, urban wood waste, municipal solid waste, and used waste tires/tire-derived fuel. Only fuels with potential tipping fees were considered; potential energy crop fuels were not considered since they would have a net positive cost to the plant. Based on the feedstock assessment, sewage sludge has been selected as one of the primary feedstocks for consideration at the Wabash plant. Because of the limited waste heat available for drying and the ability of the gasifier to operate with alternative feedstocks at up to 80% moisture, a decision was made to investigate a pumping system for delivering the as-received fuel across the pressure boundary. High-temperature drop-tube furnace tests were conducted to determine if explosive fragmentation of high-moisture sludge droplets could be expected, but showed that these droplets underwent a shrinking and densification process that implies that the sludge will have to be well dispersed when injected into the gasifier. Fuel dispersion nozzles have been obtained for measuring how well the sludge can be dispersed in the second stage of the gasifier. Future work will include leasing a Schwing America pump to test pumping sewage sludge against 400 psig. In addition, sludge dispersion testing will be completed using two different dispersion nozzles to determine their ability to generate sludge particles small enough to be entrained out of the E-Gas entrained-flow gasifier.

  16. Modeling biomass gasification in circulating fluidized beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Qi

    In this thesis, the modeling of biomass gasification in circulating fluidized beds was studied. The hydrodynamics of a circulating fluidized bed operating on biomass particles were first investigated, both experimentally and numerically. Then a comprehensive mathematical model was presented to predict the overall performance of a 1.2 MWe biomass gasification and power generation plant. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to test its response to several gasifier operating conditions. The model was validated using the experimental results obtained from the plant and two other circulating fluidized bed biomass gasifiers (CFBBGs). Finally, an ASPEN PLUS simulation model of biomass gasification was presented based on minimization of the Gibbs free energy of the reaction system at chemical equilibrium. Hydrodynamics plays a crucial role in defining the performance of gas-solid circulating fluidized beds (CFBs). A 2-dimensional mathematical model was developed considering the hydrodynamic behavior of CFB gasifiers. In the modeling, the CFB riser was divided into two regions: a dense region at the bottom and a dilute region at the top of the riser. Kunii and Levenspiel (1991)'s model was adopted to express the vertical solids distribution with some other assumptions. Radial distributions of bed voidage were taken into account in the upper zone by using Zhang et al. (1991)'s correlation. For model validation purposes, a cold model CFB was employed, in which sawdust was transported with air as the fluidizing agent. A comprehensive mathematical model was developed to predict the overall performance of a 1.2 MWe biomass gasification and power generation demonstration plant in China. Hydrodynamics as well as chemical reaction kinetics were considered. The fluidized bed riser was divided into two distinct sections: (a) a dense region at the bottom of the bed where biomass undergoes mainly heterogeneous reactions and (b) a dilute region at the top where most of homogeneous reactions occur in gas phase. Each section was divided into a number of small cells, over which mass and energy balances were applied. Due to the high heating rate in circulating fluidized bed, the pyrolysis was considered instantaneous. A number of homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions were considered in the model. Mass transfer resistance was considered negligible since the reactions were under kinetic control due to good gas-solid mixing. The model is capable of predicting the bed temperature distribution along the gasifier, the concentration and distribution of each species in the vertical direction of the bed, the composition and lower heating value (LHV) of produced gas, the gasification efficiency, the overall carbon conversion and the produced gas production rate. A sensitivity analysis was performed to test its response to several gasifier operating conditions. The model sensitivity analysis showed that equivalence ratio (ER), bed temperature, fluidization velocity, biomass feed rate and moisture content had various effects on the gasifier performance. However, the model was more sensitive to variations in ER and bed temperature. The model was validated using the experimental results obtained from the demonstration plant. The reactor was operated on rice husk at various ERs, fluidization velocities and biomass feed rates. The model gave reasonable predictions. The model was also validated by comparing the simulation results with two other different size CFBBGs using different biomass feedstock, and it was concluded that the developed model can be applied to other CFBBGs using various biomass fuels and having comparable reactor geometries. A thermodynamic model was developed under ASPEN PLUS environment. Using the approach of Gibbs free energy minimization, the model was essentially independent of kinetic parameters. A sensitivity analysis was performed on the model to test its response to operating variables, including ER and biomass moisture content. The results showed that the ER has the most effect on the product gas composition and LHV. The simulation

  17. GASIFICATION PLANT COST AND PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel S. Tam

    2002-05-01

    The goal of this series of design and estimating efforts was to start from the as-built design and actual operating data from the DOE sponsored Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project and to develop optimized designs for several coal and petroleum coke IGCC power and coproduction projects. First, the team developed a design for a grass-roots plant equivalent to the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project to provide a starting point and a detailed mid-year 2000 cost estimate based on the actual as-built plant design and subsequent modifications (Subtask 1.1). This unoptimized plant has a thermal efficiency of 38.3% (HHV) and a mid-year 2000 EPC cost of 1,681 $/kW. This design was enlarged and modified to become a Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant (Subtask 1.2) that produces hydrogen, industrial grade steam, and fuel gas for an adjacent Gulf Coast petroleum refinery in addition to export power. A structured Value Improving Practices (VIP) approach was applied to reduce costs and improve performance. The base case (Subtask 1.3) Optimized Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant increased the power output by 16% and reduced the plant cost by 23%. The study looked at several options for gasifier sparing to enhance availability. Subtask 1.9 produced a detailed report on this availability analyses study. The Subtask 1.3 Next Plant, which retains the preferred spare gasification train approach, only reduced the cost by about 21%, but it has the highest availability (94.6%) and produces power at 30 $/MW-hr (at a 12% ROI). Thus, such a coke-fueled IGCC coproduction plant could fill a near term niche market. In all cases, the emissions performance of these plants is superior to the Wabash River project. Subtasks 1.5A and B developed designs for single-train coal and coke-fueled power plants. This side-by-side comparison of these plants, which contain the Subtask 1.3 VIP enhancements, showed their similarity both in design and cost (1,318 $/kW for the coal plant and 1,260 $/kW for the coke plant). Therefore, in the near term, a coke IGCC power plant could penetrate the market and provide a foundation for future coal-fueled facilities. Subtask 1.6 generated a design, cost estimate and economics for a multiple train coal-fueled IGCC powerplant, also based on the Subtaks 1.3 cases. The Subtask 1.6 four gasification train plant has a thermal efficiency of 40.6% (HHV) and cost 1,066 $/kW. The single-train advanced Subtask 1.4 plant, which uses an advanced ''G/H-class'' combustion turbine, can have a thermal efficiency of 45.4% (HHV) and a plant cost of 1,096 $/kW. Multi-train plants will further reduce the cost. Again, all these plants have superior emissions performance. Subtask 1.7 developed an optimized design for a coal to hydrogen plant. At current natural gas prices, this facility is not competitive with hydrogen produced from natural gas. The preferred scenario is to coproduce hydrogen in a plant similar to Subtask 1.3, as described above. Subtask 1.8 evaluated the potential merits of warm gas cleanup technology. This study showed that selective catalytic oxidation of hydrogen sulfide (SCOHS) is promising. As gasification technology matures, SCOHS and other improvements identified in this study will lead to further cost reductions and efficiency improvements.

  18. The role of high-Btu coal gasification technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, M. I.

    An analysis is given of the role and economic potential of Lurgi-technology gasification of coal to the year 2000, in relation to other gas-supply options, the further development of gasifier designs, and probable environmental impact. It is predicted that coal gasification may reach 10% of total gas supplies by the year 2000, with Eastern U.S. coal use reaching commercially significant use in the 1990's. It is concluded that coal gasification is the cleanest way of using coal, with minimal physical, chemical, biological and socioeconomic impacts.

  19. Gasification of an Indonesian subbituminous coal in a pilot-scale coal gasification system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongseung Yun; Seok Woo Chung

    2007-01-01

    Indonesian Roto Middle subbituminous coal was gasified in a pilot-scale dry-feeding gasification system and the produced syngas\\u000a was purified with hot gas filtering and by low temperature desulfurization to the quality that can be utilized as a feedstock\\u000a for chemical conversion. Roto middle coal produced syngas that has a typical composition of 36–38% CO, 14–16% H2, and 5–8% CO2. Particulates

  20. Combined-cycle power stations using clean-coal technologies: Thermodynamic analysis of full gasification versus fluidized bed combustion with partial gasification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Lozza; P. Chiesa; L. DeVita

    1996-01-01

    A novel class of power plants for clean conversion of coal into power has been recently proposed, based on the concept of partial coal gasification and fluidized-bed combustion of unconverted char from gasification. This paper focuses on the thermodynamic aspects of these plants, in comparison with full gasification cycles, assessing their performance on the basis of a common advanced power

  1. FRACTIONATION OF COMPLEX MIXTURES USING AND ION-EXCHANGE METHODOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fractionation of particle emission extracts captured from complex combustion mixtures gas performed upon environmental samples using an ion-exchange technique. aptured emissions from hazardous waste, municipal and medical/pathological incinerators along with urban air imputed by ...

  2. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 11. Gasification of Minnesota peat. [Peat pellets and peat sods

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a coooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the eleventh volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of peat pellets and peat sods during 3 different test periods. 2 refs., 20 figs., 13 tabs.

  3. Method and apparatus for reducing mixed waste

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Michael L. (Kennewick, WA); Perez, Jr., Joseph M. (Richland, WA); Chapman, Chris C. (Richland, WA); Peters, Richard D. (Pasco, WA)

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is a method and apparatus for in-can waste reduction. The method is mixing waste with combustible material prior to placing the waste into a waste reduction vessel. The combustible portion is ignited, thereby reducing combustible material to ash and non-combustible material to a slag. Further combustion or heating may be used to sinter or melt the ash. The apparatus is a waste reduction vessel having receiving canister connection means on a first end, and a waste/combustible mixture inlet on a second end. An oxygen supply is provided to support combustion of the combustible mixture.

  4. Conversion of cellulosic and waste polymer material to gasoline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuester

    1979-01-01

    The present status and future plans for a project to convert cellulosic (biomass) and waste synthetic polymer materials to quality liquid fuels is presented. A thermal gasification approach is utilized followed by catalytic liquid fuels synthesis steps. Potential products include a medium quality substitute for natural gas or liquid fuel equivalents of diesel fuel, kerosene or high octane gasoline. The

  5. Physical and chemical characterization of waste wood derived biochars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar, a solid byproduct generated during waste biomass pyrolysis or gasification in the absence (or near-absence) of oxygen, has recently garnered interest for both agricultural and environmental management purposes owing to its unique physicochemical properties, such as its high surface area and...

  6. Investigation of a sulfur reduction technique for mild gasification char. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1--May 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1993-09-01

    The objective of this program is to investigate the desulfurization of mild gasification char using H{sub 2}:CH{sub 4} mixtures. Mild gasification of coal produces char, liquids, and gases at 1000{degrees}--1500{degrees}F and near-ambient pressure. Char, comprising 60--70% of the product, can be used to make high-value form coke for steel making and foundries. However, a sulfur content below 1 wt% is desirable, and char from high-sulfur Illinois coals must be upgraded to meet this criterion. Illinois No. 6 chars were treated in a batch fluidized bed with H{sub 2}:CH{sub 4} blends containing 9--24 vol% CH{sub 4} at 1100{degrees}--1600{degrees}F and 50--200 psig. Sulfur removal up to 92.5 wt% were obtainer, and the char desulfurization susceptibility was related to porosity, density, and crystallite size. The relationships among mild gasification parameters, char properties, and char desulfurization susceptibility are being studied. Acid washing of coal to remove Ca and Fe is being explored for its effect on subsequent sulfur removal, and secondary desulfurization of form coke produced from the desulfurized chars is also being studied. Desulfurization tests of entrained and fluidized-bed reactor chars from IBC-105 coal (4.1--4.3 wt% sulfur) were completed. Desulfurization conditions were 1400{degrees}F, 100--200 psig and reactant gas compositions of 15-49 vol% CH{sub 4} in H{sub 2}. Sulfur removal ranged from 28 to 95%, with carbon losses from 5 to 29%. Acid-washing of the coal prior to mild gasification or the char prior to desulfurization increased its susceptibility to desulfurization, with sulfur content reduced to as low as 0.10 wt% dry char. Fluidized-bed chars were easier to desulfurize than entrained chars, and were less affected by acid-washing.

  7. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING - PHASE I

    SciTech Connect

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert F. Toerne

    2001-12-01

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this locally available fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be fed directly into the boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with variety of conventional boilers including natural gas fired boilers as well as pulverized coal fired and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a reduction in the primary fossil fuel consumption in the boiler and thereby reducing the greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere.

  8. Underground coal gasification: a brief review of current status

    SciTech Connect

    Shafirovich, E.; Varma, A. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Chemical Engineering

    2009-09-15

    Coal gasification is a promising option for the future use of coal. Similarly to gasification in industrial reactors, underground coal gasification (UCG) produces syngas, which can be used for power generation or for the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels and other valuable chemical products. As compared with conventional mining and surface gasification, UCG promises lower capital/operating costs and also has other advantages, such as no human labor underground. In addition, UCG has the potential to be linked with carbon capture and sequestration. The increasing demand for energy, depletion of oil and gas resources, and threat of global climate change lead to growing interest in UCG throughout the world. In this article, we review the current status of this technology, focusing on recent developments in various countries.

  9. INITIAL ENVIRONMENTAL TEST PLAN FOR SOURCE ASSESSMENT OF COAL GASIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes an initial source assessment environmental test plan, developed to investigate the fate of various constituents during coal gasification. The plan is an approach to the problems associated with sampling point selection, sample collection, and sample analysis ...

  10. Coal gasification: New challenge for the Beaumont rotary feeder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stelian, J.

    1977-01-01

    The use of rotary feeders in the coal gasification process is described with emphasis on the efficient conversion of coal to clean gaseous fuels. Commercial applications of the rotary feeder system are summarized.

  11. Modeling, Optimization and Economic Evaluation of Residual Biomass Gasification 

    E-print Network

    Georgeson, Adam

    2012-02-14

    Gasification is a thermo-chemical process which transforms biomass into valuable synthesis gas. Integrated with a biorefinery it can address the facility’s residue handling challenges and input demands. A number of feedstock, technology, oxidizer...

  12. Wood Gasification: Where It's At, Where It's Going 

    E-print Network

    Murphy, M. L.

    1981-01-01

    This paper discusses the principles and practice of various designs of biomass/wood gasifiers. In general, the basic principle of gasification is reviewed. A look at existing gasifier schemes, including packed bed updraft, downdraft, and fluidized...

  13. Demonstration of Black Liquor Gasification at Big Island

    SciTech Connect

    Robert DeCarrera

    2007-04-14

    This Final Technical Report provides an account of the project for the demonstration of Black Liquor Gasification at Georgia-Pacific LLC's Big Island, VA facility. This report covers the period from May 5, 2000 through November 30, 2006.

  14. Gasification and combustion modeling for porous char particles

    E-print Network

    Singer, Simcha Lev

    2012-01-01

    Gasification and combustion of porous char particles occurs in many industrial applications. Reactor-scale outputs of importance depend critically on processes that occur at the particle-scale. Because char particles often ...

  15. The suitability of coal gasification in India's energy sector

    E-print Network

    Simpson, Lori Allison

    2006-01-01

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC), an advanced coal-based power generation technology, may be an important technology to help India meet its future power needs. It has the potential to provide higher generating ...

  16. Methane Production from Catalytic Wet Gasification of Animal Manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research investigates the technical and economical viability of a proprietary catalytic wet gasification process in treating animal wastewater, capturing nutrients, destroying pharmaceutically active compounds (PACs) and estrogens, and producing methane. This study reviews and analyzes physicoc...

  17. Catalytic gasification of wet biomass in supercritical water

    SciTech Connect

    Antal, M.J. Jr.; Matsumura, Yukihiko; Xu, Xiaodong [Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    A pressurized catalytic gasification process, operated at 600{degrees}C, 34.5 MPa, efficiently produces a hydrogen rich synthesis gas from high-moisture content biomass. Glucose was selected as a model compound for catalytic biomass gasification. A proprietary heterogeneous catalyst X was extremely effective for the gasification of both the model compound and whole biomass feeds. The effect of temperature, pressure, reactant concentration on the gasification of glucose with catalyst X were investigated. Complete conversion of glucose (22% by weight in water) to gas was obtained at a weight hourly space velocity of 22.2 (g/h)/g in supercritical water at 600{degrees}C, 34.5 MPa. Complete conversion of whole biomass feeds including water hyacinth, depithed bagasse liquid extract, sewage sludge, and paper sludge was also achieved at the same temperature and pressure. The propriety catalyst X is inexpensive and extremely effective.

  18. Carbon dioxide sorption capacities of coal gasification residues.

    PubMed

    Kempka, Thomas; Fernández-Steeger, Tomás; Li, Dong-Yong; Schulten, Marc; Schlüter, Ralph; Krooss, Bernhard M

    2011-02-15

    Underground coal gasification is currently being considered as an economically and environmentally sustainable option for development and utilization of coal deposits not mineable by conventional methods. This emerging technology in combination with carbon capture and sorptive CO2 storage on the residual coke as well as free-gas CO2 storage in the cavities generated in the coal seams after gasification could provide a relevant contribution to the development of Clean Coal Technologies. Three hard coals of different rank from German mining districts were gasified in a laboratory-scale reactor (200 g of coal at 800 °C subjected to 10 L/min air for 200 min). High-pressure CO2 excess sorption isotherms determined before and after gasification revealed an increase of sorption capacity by up to 42%. Thus, physical sorption represents a feasible option for CO2 storage in underground gasification cavities. PMID:21210659

  19. Utilisation of Malaysian Coal: Merit Pila in the Gasification System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, Nor Fadzilah; Bosrooh, Mohd Hariffin; Majid, Kamsani Abdul

    2011-06-01

    Gasification is the most efficient Clean Coal Technology. Gasification of Merit Pila coal had been studied in a laboratory-scale, atmospheric fluidized bed gasifier using air and air-steam as fluidizing agent. Merit Pila coal was chosen for the gasification study because of its high reactivity in nitrogen. Determination of the producer gas compositions were conducted using Gas Chromatography. Gasification experiments were conducted at bed temperature of 650-800 °C, different equivalence ratios, ER and different bed heights. Low heating value, LHVpg of the producer gas were in the range of 2.0-5.5 MJ/Nm3. Introduction of steam as the gasifying agents had shown significant increased of CO, CH4 and H2 contents in producer gas. LHV also increased about 35% with the presence of steam.

  20. Estimation of heavy metal transformations in municipal solid waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Flyhammar

    1997-01-01

    The behaviour of heavy metals bound to municipal solid waste (MSW) and exposed to 2 decades of anaerobic waste stabilization processes have been estimated. Heavy metal solid forms in a waste degradation residue have been compared with a reconstructed waste similar to that initially disposed of in 1973. The initial waste was composed of a mixture of shredded MSW (95%

  1. FEED SYSTEM INNOVATION FOR GASIFICATION OF LOCALLY ECONOMICAL ALTERNATIVE FUELS (FIGLEAF)

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Swanson; Mark A. Musich; Darren D. Schmidt; Joseph K. Schultz

    2003-02-01

    The Feed System Innovation for Gasification of Locally Economical Alternative Fuels (FIGLEAF) project was conducted by the Energy & Environmental Research Center and Gasification Engineering Corporation of Houston, Texas (a subsidiary of Global Energy Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio), with 80% cofunding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of the project was to identify and evaluate low-value fuels that could serve as alternative feedstocks and to develop a feed system to facilitate their use in integrated gasification combined-cycle and gasification coproduction facilities. The long-term goal, to be accomplished in a subsequent project, is to install a feed system for the selected fuel(s) at Global Energy's commercial-scale 262-MW Wabash River Coal Gasification Facility in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The feasibility study undertaken for the project consisted of identifying and evaluating the economic feasibility of potential fuel sources, developing a feed system design capable of providing a fuel at 400 psig to the second stage of the E-Gas (Destec) gasifier to be cogasified with coal, performing bench- and pilot-scale testing to verify concepts and clarify decision-based options, reviewing information on high-pressure feed system designs, and determining the economics of cofeeding alternative feedstocks with the conceptual feed system design. A preliminary assessment of feedstock availability within Indiana and Illinois was conducted. Feedstocks evaluated included those with potential tipping fees to offset processing cost: sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, used railroad ties, urban wood waste (UWW), and used tires/tire-derived fuel. Agricultural residues and dedicated energy crop fuels were not considered since they would have a net positive cost to the plant. Based on the feedstock assessment, sewage sludge was selected as the primary feedstock for consideration at the Wabash River Plant. Because of the limited waste heat available for drying and the ability of the gasifier to operate with alternative feedstocks at up to 80% moisture, a decision was made to investigate a pumping system for delivering the as-received fuel across the pressure boundary into the second stage of the gasifier. A high-pressure feed pump and fuel dispersion nozzles were tested for their ability to cross the pressure boundary and adequately disperse the sludge into the second stage of the gasifier. These results suggest that it is technically feasible to get the sludge dispersed to an appropriate size into the second stage of the gasifier although the recycle syngas pressure needed to disperse the sludge would be higher than originally desired. A preliminary design was prepared for a sludge-receiving, storage, and high-pressure feeding system at the Wabash River Plant. The installed capital costs were estimated at approximately $9.7 million, within an accuracy of {+-}10%. An economic analysis using DOE's IGCC Model, Version 3 spreadsheet indicates that in order to justify the additional capital cost of the system, Global Energy would have to receive a tipping fee of $12.40 per wet ton of municipal sludge delivered. This is based on operation with petroleum coke as the primary fuel. Similarly, with coal as the primary fuel, a minimum tipping of $16.70 would be required. The availability of delivered sludge from Indianapolis, Indiana, in this tipping-fee range is unlikely; however, given the higher treatment costs associated with sludge treatment in Chicago, Illinois, delivery of sludge from Chicago, given adequate rail access, might be economically viable.

  2. Selection of antifreeze moistener for ramming mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Babkina; Yu. A. Pirogov; P. Ya. Pustovar; L. N. Soloshenko; N. S. Shevtsov; A. D. Efimenko; R. N. Ishchenko; L. A. Inyushina

    1994-01-01

    It has been established that orthophosphoric acid, which is used as an antifreeze moistener in ramming mixtures for sand-blasting ramming of walls of steel-teeming ladles, can be replaced by an aqueous solution of sodium acetate, a waste product of the Kaluzhskii Integrated Works of Synthetic Aromatic Substances.

  3. A model for moving-bed coal gasification reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heeyoung Yoon; James Wei; Morton M. Denn

    1978-01-01

    A steady state model of moving-bed coal gasification reactors has been developed. Model predictions are in agreement with published commercial plant data for Lurgi pressurized gasification reactors and a pilot plant slagging gasifier. The dependence of reactor performance on operating variables has been studied for Illinois and Wyoming coals. For a given coal, maximum efficiency is determined by the coal-to-oxygen

  4. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Coal Gasification Power Generation Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Ruether; Massood Ramezan; Peter C. Balash

    2004-01-01

    Life cycle assessments (LCA) of coal gasification-based electricity generation technologies for emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), principally CO2, are computed. Two approaches for computing LCAs are compared for construction and operation of integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants: a traditional process-based approach, and one based on economic input-output analysis named Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA). It is shown

  5. Gasification and shell characteristics in slurry droplet burning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Lee; C. K. Law

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the gasification process of the liquid component of freely falling carbon slurry droplets in a hot oxidizing environment is studied both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical model formulated describes droplet gasification as consisting of two periods: An initial period of regressing droplet size governed by the classical d²-law, and a subsequent d³-law period which the droplet size

  6. Effect of woody biomass components on air-steam gasification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshiaki Hanaoka; Seiichi Inoue; Seiji Uno; Tomoko Ogi; Tomoaki Minowa

    2005-01-01

    The effect of woody biomass components on air-steam gasification was investigated using the downdraft fixed-bed gasifier at 1173K and at atmospheric pressure. Cellulose, xylan, and lignin as model compounds of woody biomass components, and Japanese oak and Japanese red pine bark as woody biomass were employed as feedstock. The gasification conversions in cellulose, xylan, and lignin were 97.9%, 92.2%, and

  7. Catalytic gasification of glycine and glycerol in supercritical water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donghai Xu; Shuzhong Wang; Xin Hu; Chongming Chen; Qingming Zhang; Yanmeng Gong

    2009-01-01

    Glycine and glycerol were used as the model compounds of protein and fattiness, respectively. A continuous tubular-flow reactor was used for the gasification experiments operated at 380–500°C and 25MPa with or without Na2CO3 catalyst. Compared with a negative effect on glycerol gasification, Na2CO3 could increase hydrogen yield and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) destruction efficiency, and the catalytic performance of 0.1wt%

  8. Supercritical water gasification of biomass: Thermodynamic constraints.

    PubMed

    Castello, Daniele; Fiori, Luca

    2011-08-01

    In the present work, the supercritical water gasification (SCWG) of biomass is analyzed with a view to outlining the possible thermodynamic constraints that must be taken into account to develop this new process. In particular, issues concerning the formation of solid carbon and the process heat duty are discussed. The analysis is conducted by means of a two-phase non-stoichiometric thermodynamic model, based on Gibbs free energy minimization. Results show that char formation at equilibrium only occurs at high biomass concentrations, with a strong dependence on biomass composition. As regards the process heat duty, SCWG is mostly endothermic when biomass concentration is low, although a very small amount of oxidizing agent is able to make the process exothermic, with only a small loss in the heating value of the syngas produced. PMID:21640582

  9. Heat exchanger for coal gasification process

    DOEpatents

    Blasiole, George A. (Greensburg, PA)

    1984-06-19

    This invention provides a heat exchanger, particularly useful for systems requiring cooling of hot particulate solids, such as the separated fines from the product gas of a carbonaceous material gasification system. The invention allows effective cooling of a hot particulate in a particle stream (made up of hot particulate and a gas), using gravity as the motive source of the hot particulate. In a preferred form, the invention substitutes a tube structure for the single wall tube of a heat exchanger. The tube structure comprises a tube with a core disposed within, forming a cavity between the tube and the core, and vanes in the cavity which form a flow path through which the hot particulate falls. The outside of the tube is in contact with the cooling fluid of the heat exchanger.

  10. Biological treatment of underground coal gasification wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, C.W. Jr.; Humenick, M.J.; Cawein, C.C.; Nolan, B.T. III

    1985-05-01

    Biotreatability studies using underground coal gasification (UCG) wastewaters were performed by the University of Arizona and the University of Wyoming. The University of Arizona researchers found that UCG condensate could be effectively treated by activated sludge, using feed wastewaters of up to 50% strength. Total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals approached 90% during this research. The University of Wyoming researchers found that solvent extraction and hot-gas stripping were effective pretreatments for undiluted UCG condensate and that addition of powdered activated carbon enhanced the biotreatment process. TOC and COD removals resulting from the combination of pretreatments and biotreatment were 91% and 95%, respectively. The yield, decay, and substrate removal rate coefficients were greater in the University of Wyoming study than in the University of Arizona study. This was possibly caused by removing bioinhibitory substances, such as ammonia, with pretreatment. 18 refs., 25 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Underground coal gasification: a preliminary evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) offers the promise of being more economically attractive, safer, less socially and less environmentally disruptive than other forms of coal-based synthetic fuel development. These advantages may outweigh some process uncertainties which - similar to most mining processes - are largely specific to the site under development and must be addressed on a site specific basis. Recent announcements by ARCO and Gulf indicate that serious development is underway with significant financial commitments to be made. DOE also projects a joint pilot plant program with industry in 1981. UCG appears to have strong development potential in Colorado because of the State's great coal resource base (fourth largest in the US, more than 90% recoverable by underground mining) and because Gulf's initial site choice for its steeply-dipping-bed test program was in Weld County. A continuing effort to define specific site characteristics will be required within the state in areas showing potential for UCG development.

  12. Biomass Gasification Research Facility Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Todd R.; Bush, Vann; Felix, Larry G.; Farthing, William E.; Irvin, James H.

    2007-09-30

    While thermochemical syngas production facilities for biomass utilization are already employed worldwide, exploitation of their potential has been inhibited by technical limitations encountered when attempting to obtain real-time syngas compositional data required for process optimization, reliability, and syngas quality assurance. To address these limitations, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) carried out two companion projects (under US DOE Cooperative Agreements DE-FC36-03GO13175 and DE-FC36-02GO12024) to develop and demonstrate the equipment and methods required to reliably and continuously obtain accurate and representative on-line syngas compositional data. These objectives were proven through a stepwise series of field tests of biomass and coal gasification process streams. GTI developed the methods and hardware for extractive syngas sample stream delivery and distribution, necessary to make use of state-of-the-art on-line analyzers to evaluate and optimize syngas cleanup and conditioning. This multi-year effort to develop methods to effectively monitor gaseous species produced in thermochemical process streams resulted in a sampling and analysis approach that is continuous, sensitive, comprehensive, accurate, reliable, economical, and safe. The improved approach for sampling thermochemical processes that GTI developed and demonstrated in its series of field demonstrations successfully provides continuous transport of vapor-phase syngas streams extracted from the main gasification process stream to multiple, commercially available analyzers. The syngas stream is carefully managed through multiple steps to successfully convey it to the analyzers, while at the same time bringing the stream to temperature and pressure conditions that are compatible with the analyzers. The primary principle that guides the sample transport is that throughout the entire sampling train, the temperature of the syngas stream is maintained above the maximum condensation temperature of the vapor phase components of the conveyed sample gas. In addition, to minimize adsorption or chemical changes in the syngas components prior to analysis, the temperature of the transported stream is maintained as hot as is practical, while still being cooled only as much necessary prior to entering the analyzer(s). The successful transport of the sample gas stream to the analyzer(s) is accomplished through the managed combination of four basic gas conditioning methods that are applied as specifically called for by the process conditions, the gas constituent concentrations, the analyzer requirements, and the objectives of the syngas analyses: 1) removing entrained particulate matter from the sample stream; 2) maintaining the temperature of the sample gas stream; 3) lowering the pressure of the sample gas stream to decrease the vapor pressures of all the component vapor species in the sample stream; and 4) diluting the gas stream with a metered, inert gas, such as nitrogen. Proof-of-concept field demonstrations of the sampling approach were conducted for gasification process streams from a black liquor gasifier, and from the gasification of biomass and coal feedstocks at GTI’s Flex-Fuel Test Facility. In addition to the descriptions and data included in this Final Report, GTI produced a Special Topical Report, Design and Protocol for Monitoring Gaseous Species in Thermochemical Processes, that explains and describes in detail the objectives, principles, design, hardware, installation, operation and representative data produced during this successful developmental effort. Although the specific analyzers used under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-02GO12024 were referenced in the Topical Report and this Final Report, the sampling interface design they present is generic enough to adapt to other analyzers that may be more appropriate to alternate process streams or facilities.

  13. Co-processing methane in high temperature steam gasification of biomass.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, Aaron W; Jorgensen, Erica L; Sorli, Jeni C; Weimer, Alan W

    2013-01-01

    High temperature steam gasification/reforming of biomass-methane mixtures was carried out in an indirectly heated entrained flow reactor to analyze the feasibility of controlling the output composition of the major synthesis gas products: H(2), CO, CO(2), CH(4). A 2(3) factorial experimental design was carried out and compared to thermodynamic equilibrium predictions. Experiments demonstrated the product gas composition is mostly dependent on temperature and that excess steam contributes to CO(2) formation. Results showed that with two carbon-containing reactants it is possible to control the gas composition of the major products. At 1500 °C, the equilibrium results accurately predicted the syngas composition and can be used to guide optimization of the syngas for downstream liquid fuel synthesis technologies. PMID:23208181

  14. Ames test mutagenicity studies of the subfractions of the mild gasification composite material, MG-120

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-17

    Mutagenicity of six mild gasification product samples was studied using the Ames Salmonella/microsomal assay system. The results of the Ames testing of the MG-119 and MG-120 subfractions indicate significant mutagenic activity only in the nonpolar neutral fraction. The activity was evident on bacterial strains, TA98 and TA100, with and without metabolic activation for MG-120, and with metabolic activation for MG-119. Previous testing of MG-119 and MG-120 when solvated in DMSO had shown possible, but unconfirmable, mutagenic activity. Tween 80-solvated MG-119 and MG-120 showed low, but significant, mutagenic activity only on TA98 with metabolic activation. Comparison of these results indicate an inhibition of the mutagenic components by nonmutagenic components in the complex mixture. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. Gasification Studies Task 4 Topical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Whitty, Kevin; Fletcher, Thomas; Pugmire, Ronald; Smith, Philip; Sutherland, James; Thornock, Jeremy; Boshayeshi, Babak; Hunsacker, Isaac; Lewis, Aaron; Waind, Travis; Kelly, Kerry

    2014-02-01

    A key objective of the Task 4 activities has been to develop simulation tools to support development, troubleshooting and optimization of pressurized entrained-flow coal gasifiers. The overall gasifier models (Subtask 4.1) combine submodels for fluid flow (Subtask 4.2) and heat transfer (Subtask 4.3) with fundamental understanding of the chemical processes (Subtask 4.4) processes that take place as coal particles are converted to synthesis gas and slag. However, it is important to be able to compare predictions from the models against data obtained from actual operating coal gasifiers, and Subtask 4.6 aims to provide an accessible, non-proprietary system, which can be operated over a wide range of conditions to provide well-characterized data for model validation. Highlights of this work include: • Verification and validation activities performed with the Arches coal gasification simulation tool on experimental data from the CANMET gasifier (Subtask 4.1). • The simulation of multiphase reacting flows with coal particles including detailed gas-phase chemistry calculations using an extension of the one-dimensional turbulence model’s capability (Subtask 4.2). • The demonstration and implementation of the Reverse Monte Carlo ray tracing (RMCRT) radiation algorithm in the ARCHES code (Subtask 4.3). • Determination of steam and CO{sub 2} gasification kinetics of bituminous coal chars at high temperature and elevated pressure under entrained-flow conditions (Subtask 4.4). In addition, attempts were made to gain insight into the chemical structure differences between young and mature coal soot, but both NMR and TEM characterization efforts were hampered by the highly reacted nature of the soot. • The development, operation, and demonstration of in-situ gas phase measurements from the University of Utah’s pilot-scale entrained-flow coal gasifier (EFG) (Subtask 4.6). This subtask aimed at acquiring predictable, consistent performance and characterizing the environment within the gasifier.

  16. Toxicity studies of mild gasification products

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, T.M.; Whong, W.Z.; Ma, J.; Zhong, B.Z.; Bryant, D.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this project are: (1) to perform mutagenicity studies with the Ames Salmonella/microsomal assay system on coal liquids produced by mild gasification from different coals and/or processing conditions, (2) to determine whether coal liquids which are mutagenic to bacteria are also genotoxic to mammalian cells, (3) to establish correlations between mutagenicity, aromaticity, and boiling point range of coal liquids, and (4) to identify the chemical classes which are likely to be responsible for the mutagenic activity of gasification products. Four of the seven samples tested so far failed to demonstrate any mutagenic activity under any conditions tested. Those samples were SHELL[number sign]830331, MG-122IBP-420[degree]F, MG-122 420--720[degree]F, and MG-122 720[degree]F+. Table 1 summarizes the results from all samples tested in DMSO and Tween 80. When solvated in DMSO, MG-119 and MG-120 composite materials displayed slight, but ultimately insignificant, genotoxic activity on TA98 and TA1OO in the presence of S9. When Tween 80 was used as the solvent, MG-119 and MG-120 displayed slight, but significant, geno-toxic activity on TA98 with S9 (Figure 4). CTC[number sign]11 in DMSO displayed significant genotoxic activity on both TA98 and TA1OO with and without S9. The activity was higher on TA98 than TA100, and higher with S9 than without, primarily indicating the presence of indirect-acting frameshift mutagen. The results of the testing on CTC[number sign]11 were similar for both solvents, DMSO and Tween 80 (Table 2).

  17. Toxicity studies of mild gasification products

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, T.M.; Whong, W.Z.; Ma, J.; Zhong, B.Z.; Bryant, D.

    1992-11-01

    The objectives of this project are: (1) to perform mutagenicity studies with the Ames Salmonella/microsomal assay system on coal liquids produced by mild gasification from different coals and/or processing conditions, (2) to determine whether coal liquids which are mutagenic to bacteria are also genotoxic to mammalian cells, (3) to establish correlations between mutagenicity, aromaticity, and boiling point range of coal liquids, and (4) to identify the chemical classes which are likely to be responsible for the mutagenic activity of gasification products. Four of the seven samples tested so far failed to demonstrate any mutagenic activity under any conditions tested. Those samples were SHELL{number_sign}830331, MG-122IBP-420{degree}F, MG-122 420--720{degree}F, and MG-122 720{degree}F+. Table 1 summarizes the results from all samples tested in DMSO and Tween 80. When solvated in DMSO, MG-119 and MG-120 composite materials displayed slight, but ultimately insignificant, genotoxic activity on TA98 and TA1OO in the presence of S9. When Tween 80 was used as the solvent, MG-119 and MG-120 displayed slight, but significant, geno-toxic activity on TA98 with S9 (Figure 4). CTC{number_sign}11 in DMSO displayed significant genotoxic activity on both TA98 and TA1OO with and without S9. The activity was higher on TA98 than TA100, and higher with S9 than without, primarily indicating the presence of indirect-acting frameshift mutagen. The results of the testing on CTC{number_sign}11 were similar for both solvents, DMSO and Tween 80 (Table 2).

  18. Potassium-catalyzed steam gasification of petroleum coke for H 2 production: Reactivity, selectivity and gas release

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youqing Wu; Jianjian Wang; Shiyong Wu; Sheng Huang; Jinsheng Gao

    2011-01-01

    Potassium-catalyzed steam gasification of petroleum coke for H2 production was performed using a laboratory fixed-bed reaction system with an on-line quadruple mass spectrometer. The gasification reactivity, gasification selectivity and gas release for the catalytic gasification were investigated, compared with the non-catalytic gasification. The catalytic gasification could not only effectively promote these reactions (the water–carbon reaction, the water–gas shift reaction and

  19. Distribution of nitrogen species during vitrinite pyrolysis and gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, J.Y.; Li, W.Y.; Chang, L.P.; Feng, J.; Zhao, W.; Xie, K.C. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)

    2006-08-15

    The formation of HCN and NH3 during pyrolysis in Ar and gasification in CO{sub 2} and steam/Ar was investigated. Vitrinites were separated and purified from different rank coal from lignite to anthracite. Pyrolysis and gasification were carried out in the drop-tube/fixed-bed reactor at temperatures of 600-900{sup o}C. Results showed that with increase of reaction temperature the yield of HCN increased significantly during pyrolysis and gasification. Decrease of coal rank also increased the yield of HCN. Vitrinite from lower rank of coal with high volatile content released more HCN. The yield of NH3 was the highest at 800 {sup o}C during pyrolysis and gasification. And the yield of NH3 from gasification in steam/Ar was far higher than that from gasification in CO{sub 2}, where the hydrogen radicals play a key role. Nitrogen retained in char was also investigated. The yield of char-N decreased with an increase of pyrolysis temperature. Vitrinite from lower rank coal had lower yield of char-N than that from the high rank coal.

  20. Modeling of contaminant transport in underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Lanhe Yang; Xing Zhang [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). College of Resources and Geosciences

    2009-01-15

    In order to study and discuss the impact of contaminants produced from underground coal gasification on groundwater, a coupled seepage-thermodynamics-transport model for underground gasification was developed on the basis of mass and energy conservation and pollutant-transport mechanisms, the mathematical model was solved by the upstream weighted multisell balance method, and the model was calibrated and verified against the experimental site data. The experiment showed that because of the effects of temperature on the surrounding rock of the gasification panel the measured pore-water-pressure was higher than the simulated one; except for in the high temperature zone where the simulation errors of temperature, pore water pressure, and contaminant concentration were relatively high, the simulation values of the overall gasification panel were well fitted with the measured values. As the gasification experiment progressed, the influence range of temperature field expanded, the gradient of groundwater pressure decreased, and the migration velocity of pollutant increased. Eleven months and twenty months after the test, the differences between maximum and minimum water pressure were 2.4 and 1.8 MPa, respectively, and the migration velocities of contaminants were 0.24-0.38 m/d and 0.27-0.46 m/d, respectively. It was concluded that the numerical simulation of the transport process for pollutants from underground coal gasification was valid. 42 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Solar coal gasification reactor with pyrolysis gas recycle

    DOEpatents

    Aiman, William R. (Livermore, CA); Gregg, David W. (Morago, CA)

    1983-01-01

    Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a duct gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor (10), and solar energy (20) is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front (16) and a pyrolysis front (12). A gasification zone (32) is produced well above the coal level within the reactor. A pyrolysis zone (34) is produced immediately above the coal level. Steam (18), injected into the reactor adjacent to the gasification zone (32), reacts with char to generate product gases. Solar energy supplies the energy for the endothermic steam-char reaction. The hot product gases (38) flow from the gasification zone (32) to the pyrolysis zone (34) to generate hot char. Gases (38) are withdrawn from the pyrolysis zone (34) and reinjected into the region of the reactor adjacent the gasification zone (32). This eliminates hydrocarbons in the gas by steam reformation on the hot char. The product gas (14) is withdrawn from a region of the reactor between the gasification zone (32) and the pyrolysis zone (34). The product gas will be free of tar and other hydrocarbons, and thus be suitable for use in many processes.

  2. Modeling and simulation of self-gasification of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, H.L.; Edgar, T.F.; Himmelblau, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Self-gasification of coal is an important factor in underground coal gasification (UCG). Self-gasification occurs within the coal near the walls of a UCG cavity and thus has some influence on cavity growth. A model of self-gasification has been developed as part of a code to predict sweep efficiency in UCG. In this model the porous coal seam is divided into five zones (layers): ash, pyrolysis/gasification, drying, wet coal, and undisturbed coal. Four gas-char reactions, the water gas shift reaction, and four pyrolysis reactions are considered, using H/sub 2/O, CO, CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/, and CH/sub 4/ as the principal gas constituents. Twelve ordinary differential equations comprising the model must be solved during simulation; this is done using a stiff equation integrator developed at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LSODES). Of primary interest in the simulations is the effect of moisture influx on the consumption of coal. Comparison of predictions by the model with laboratory and field data shows that self-gasification contributes most of the cavity growth in the reduction zone but is insufficient to predict growth rates in the oxidation zone (near the injection well).

  3. Conceptual design report -- Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, R.S.; Skinner, W.H.; House, L.S.; Duck, R.R. [CRS Sirrine Engineers, Inc., Greenville, SC (United States); Lisauskas, R.A.; Dixit, V.J. [Riley Stoker Corp., Worcester, MA (United States); Morgan, M.E.; Johnson, S.A. [PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States). PowerServe Div.; Boni, A.A. [PSI-Environmental Instruments Corp., Andover, MA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The problems heretofore with coal gasification and IGCC concepts have been their high cost and historical poor performance of fixed-bed gasifiers, particularly on caking coals. The Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) project is being developed to solve these problems through the development of a novel coal gasification invention which incorporates pyrolysis (carbonization) with gasification (fixed-bed). It employs a pyrolyzer (carbonizer) to avoid sticky coal agglomeration caused in the conventional process of gradually heating coal through the 400 F to 900 F range. In so doing, the coal is rapidly heated sufficiently such that the coal tar exists in gaseous form rather than as a liquid. Gaseous tars are then thermally cracked prior to the completion of the gasification process. During the subsequent endothermic gasification reactions, volatilized alkali can become chemically bound to aluminosilicates in (or added to) the ash. To reduce NH{sub 3} and HCN from fuel born nitrogen, steam injection is minimized, and residual nitrogen compounds are partially chemically reduced in the cracking stage in the upper gasifier region. Assuming testing confirms successful deployment of all these integrated processes, future IGCC applications will be much simplified, require significantly less mechanical components, and will likely achieve the $1,000/kWe commercialized system cost goal of the GPIF project. This report describes the process and its operation, design of the plant and equipment, site requirements, and the cost and schedule. 23 refs., 45 figs., 23 tabs.

  4. Subtask 4.2 - Coal Gasification Short Course

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Galbreath

    2009-06-30

    Major utilities, independent power producers, and petroleum and chemical companies are intent on developing a fleet of gasification plants primarily because of high natural gas prices and the implementation of state carbon standards, with federal standards looming. Currently, many projects are being proposed to utilize gasification technologies to produce a synthesis gas or fuel gas stream for the production of hydrogen, liquid fuels, chemicals, and electricity. Financing these projects is challenging because of the complexity, diverse nature of gasification technologies, and the risk associated with certain applications of the technology. The Energy & Environmental Research Center has developed a gasification short course that is designed to provide technical personnel with a broad understanding of gasification technologies and issues, thus mitigating the real or perceived risk associated with the technology. Based on a review of research literature, tutorial presentations, and Web sites on gasification, a short course presentation was prepared. The presentation, consisting of about 500 PowerPoint slides, provides at least 7 hours of instruction tailored to an audience's interests and needs. The initial short course is scheduled to be presented September 9 and 10, 2009, in Grand Forks, North Dakota.

  5. Summary of the groundwater monitoring program at the Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification test sites

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, S.D.; Oliver, R.L.

    1985-07-01

    Water quality analyses of groundwaters at the Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification (UCG) test sites comprise part of a continuing monitoring program to assess the impact of UCG on the environment. Collection and analysis of groundwater samples by DOE and various DOE contractor laboratories were initiated in 1974 and intensified in 1980. Samples from 48 wells were tested for 46 chemical and physical water quality parameters. This report includes data collected through December 1982. The objectives of this report are to make the raw data available and to draw preliminary conclusions on the extent of contamination at the site based on data analysis. Critical analysis of the water quality data is limited by the fact that the Hanna UCG test sites were primarily designed to provide engineering data rather than environmental data. However, the environmental monitoring program has been able to provide some conclusions about water quality based on the presence and levels of the two major UCG water-borne wastes, which are pyrolysis products and leachates. Pyrolysis products and leachates were detected in wells completed in both the coal and overburden aquifers. The impact was greatest in the gasification cavities, with some evidence of contamination in noncavity wells proximate to the burn areas. Contamination detected in both the cavity and noncavity wells was greater for those wells completed in the coal aquifer. 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Scale-up of mild gasification to a process development unit

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.L.; Carty, R.H.; Saladin, N.; Foster, H.

    1992-06-01

    The work performed during the second quarterly reporting period (February 21 through May 20, 1992) on the research program, Scale-Up of Mild Gasification to a Process Development Unit'' is presented in this report. The overall objective of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: (1) design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup. (2) obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation. (3) prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit. (4) develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. The MILDGAS process is a continuous closed system for producing liquid and solid (char) co-products at mild operating conditions up to 50 psig and 1300[degrees]F. It is capable of processing a wide range of both eastern caking and western noncaking coals. The PDU to be constructed is comprised of a 2.5-ft ID adiabatic gasifier for the production of char, coal liquids, and gases; a thermal cracker for upgrading of the coal liquids; and a hot briquetting unit for the production of form coke and smokeless fuel briquettes. The facility will also incorporate support equipment for environmentally acceptable disposal of process waste.

  7. Gasification of dried sewage sludge: status of the demonstration and the pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Judex, Johannes W; Gaiffi, Michael; Burgbacher, H Christian

    2012-04-01

    The disposal of sewage sludge from municipal waste water treatment plants is suffering from raising costs. The gasification is an alternative way of treatment, which can reduce the amount of solid residues that must be disposed from a water treatment plant. The produced gas can be used very flexible to produce electrical energy, to burn it very cleanly or to use it for upgrading. The gasification in the fluidised bed and the gas cleaning with the granular bed filter has shown successful operation. A demonstration plant in Balingen was set up in 2002 and rebuilt to a larger throughput in 2010. As a next step a demonstration plant was built in Mannheim and is now at the end of the commissioning phase. Nowadays the product gas is blended with biogas from sludge fermentation and utilized in a gas engine or combustion chamber to produce heat. In the future the process control for a maximized efficiency and the removal of organic and inorganic impurities in the gas will be further improved. PMID:22284442

  8. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 8. Gasification of River King Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the eighth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of River King Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal. The period of gasification test was July 28 to August 19, 1983. 6 refs., 23 figs., 25 tabs.

  9. Computerized composting of municipal wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Chesnin, L.

    1982-01-01

    Windrow composting of organic wastes generally requires the addition of an organic drying-bulking agent to reduce the moisture content of the mixture and to increase the porosity of the organic raw material. Moisture contents of the wastes above 60% were generally associated with easily detectable septic odors. A computer program called ''compost'' was developed for the AGNET system to determine the optimum moisture content for composting mixtures under different climatic conditions using a hydraulic auger-type feed mixing wagon.

  10. Process for removing nitrogen oxides from gaseous mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Yoshida; K. Saga

    1977-01-01

    A process for removing nitrogen oxides including nitrogen monoxide from a gaseous mixture such as industrial waste gases is provided. The gaseous mixture is contacted, first, with an aqueous solution of a chlorate and, then, with water, an aqueous solution or dispersion of a basic compound or an aqueous alkaline solution or dispersion of a reducing agent.

  11. Carbon mineralization from organic wastes at different composting stages during their incubation with soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. P. Bernal; M. A. Sánchez-Monedero; C. Paredes; A. Roig

    1998-01-01

    The decomposition of seven different organic waste mixtures prepared with sewage sludges, animal manures, city refuse and industrial and plant residues, was studied during their aerobic incubation with soil. The waste mixtures were composted by the Rutgers static pile system, and four samples of each mixture were collected at various composting stages: the initial mixture, and samples taken during the

  12. Devolatilization of wood and wastes in fluidized bed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alberto Gomez-Barea; Susanna Nilsson; Fernando Vidal Barrero; Manuel Campoy

    2010-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in a laboratory fluidized bed (FB) to characterize the devolatilization behavior of wood and various wastes at temperatures applicable to FB gasification and combustion, i.e. 750–900°C. The fuels tested were pellets made of wood, meat and bone meal, and compost (from municipal solid wastes), as well as dried granulates of sewage sludge (DSS). Determination of yields

  13. Waste plastics recycling by an entrained-flow gasifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takatoshi Shoji; Kenjiro Shindoh; Hironori Ozaki; Atsushi Sodeyama

    2001-01-01

    We studied an entrained-flow gasification process which efficiently converts waste plastics to energy at a high energy recovery\\u000a rate. Waste plastics, after being shredded to <8?mm or <14?mm, were fed into an entrained-flow gasifier with air and oxygen.\\u000a In the gasifier, organic substances were pyrolyzed, partially combusted, and then converted into synthetic gas (CO, H2) at a high temperature (over

  14. Assessment of advanced coal-gasification processes. [AVCO high throughput gasification in process; Bell High Mass Flux process; CS-R process; and Exxon Gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

    1981-06-01

    This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process, Bell Single - Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process, Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process, and the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

  15. Investigation of an integrated switchgrass gasification/fuel cell power plant. Final report for Phase 1 of the Chariton Valley Biomass Power Project

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.C.; Smeenk, J. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Steinfeld, G. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)

    1998-09-30

    The Chariton Valley Biomass Power Project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy Biomass Power Program, has the goal of converting switchgrass grown on marginal farmland in southern Iowa into electric power. Two energy conversion options are under evaluation: co-firing switchgrass with coal in an existing utility boiler and gasification of switchgrass for use in a carbonate fuel cell. This paper describes the second option under investigation. The gasification study includes both experimental testing in a pilot-scale gasifier and computer simulation of carbonate fuel cell performance when operated on gas derived from switchgrass. Options for comprehensive system integration between a carbonate fuel cell and the gasification system are being evaluated. Use of waste heat from the carbonate fuel cell to maximize overall integrated plant efficiency is being examined. Existing fuel cell power plant design elements will be used, as appropriate, in the integration of the gasifier and fuel cell power plant to minimize cost complexity and risk. The gasification experiments are being performed by Iowa State University and the fuel cell evaluations are being performed by Energy Research Corporation.

  16. Low-Btu gasifer emissions toxicology status report, December 1, 1980-May 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, J M [ed.

    1982-03-01

    The goal is to assess inhalation hazards to plant workers and the general population that may be associated with low Btu coal gasification. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to characterize the potential toxicants in liquid and solid process and waste streams. To these ends, the experimental low Btu gasifier at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has been sampled to determine aerosol components in gaseous process streams and to assess potential toxicants in liquid and solid effluent streams. The most recent sampling efforts were in September 1980 and June 1981. This report concentrates on results obtained from December 1, 1980 to June 1, 1981 and does not include results of the June 1981 sampling trip.

  17. Simulation of biomass and/or coal gasification systems integrated with fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ersoz, A.; Ozdogan, S.; Caglayan, E.; Olgun, H. [TUBITAK Marmara Research Center, Kocaeli (Turkey). Institute of Energy

    2006-11-15

    This paper presents the results of a system simulation study. The HYSYS 3.1 - ASPEN code has been used for simulation. The system consists of a fixed bed gasifier followed by reforming and clean-up units. The produced hydrogen gas is fed to a PEM fuel cell. The gasified hydrocarbons are hazelnut shells, bark, rice straw, animal waste, and two lignites. Hydrocarbon properties, gasification, and reforming process parameters all affect the system efficiency. The effect of the moisture content and oxygen to carbon ratio of the hydrocarbon fees on the fuel processing and overall system efficiencies are presented. The overall efficiency of the system increases with increasing hydrocarbon fees oxygen to carbon ratio; this tendency is more evident at higher moisture levels.

  18. Influence of pressure on coal pyrolysis and char gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Haiping Yang; Hanping Chen; Fudong Ju; Rong Yan; Shihong Zhang [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion

    2007-12-15

    Coal char structure varied greatly with pyrolysis pressure, which has a significant influence on the gasification reactivity. In this study, the influence of pressure on the behavior of coal pyrolysis and physicochemical structure and gasification characteristics of the resultant coal char was investigated using a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer combined with an ambient thermogravimetric analyzer. First, the pyrolysis of Shenfu (SF) bituminous coal was performed in a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) at different pressures (0.1, 0.8, 1.5, 3, and 5 MPa). The volatile mainly evolved out at 400-800{sup o}C. The gas products are mainly CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, and light aliphatics with some water. It was observed that the pyrolysis of coal was shifted to lower temperature (50{sup o}C) with pressure increasing from ambient to 5 MPa, and the devolatilization rate of coal pyrolysis was decreased and the coal char yield was increased slightly. The structure of solid coal char was analyzed using FTIR, ASAP2020, and CNHS. In the solid char, the main organic functional groups are mainly CO, C-C (alkane), C-H ar, C-O-C, and C=C ar. The carbon content was increased while H content decreased. Finally, the gasification of the solid char was preformed at ambient pressure with CO{sub 2} as gasify agent. The gasification process of coal char can be divided into postpyrolysis and char gasification. Higher pressure accelerated the initial stage of char gasification, and higher gasification reactivity was observed for char derived at 5 MPa. 23 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. The Development of a Hydrothermal Method for Slurry Feedstock Preparation for Gasification Technology

    E-print Network

    He, Wei

    2011-01-01

    the syngas composition is limited in biomass gasification,on syngas production by co- gasification of coal and biomassbiomass, and can restrict the use of additional steam as an agent for the modification of the syngas

  20. 30 CFR 1206.463 - In-situ and surface gasification and liquefaction operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.463 In-situ and surface gasification and liquefaction operations. If an ad valorem Federal coal lease is developed by in-situ or surface gasification or liquefaction...

  1. 30 CFR 1206.463 - In-situ and surface gasification and liquefaction operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.463 In-situ and surface gasification and liquefaction operations. If an ad valorem Federal coal lease is developed by in-situ or surface gasification or liquefaction...

  2. 30 CFR 1206.264 - In-situ and surface gasification and liquefaction operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.264 In-situ and surface gasification and liquefaction operations. If an ad valorem Federal coal lease is developed by in-situ or surface gasification or liquefaction...

  3. 30 CFR 1206.264 - In-situ and surface gasification and liquefaction operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.264 In-situ and surface gasification and liquefaction operations. If an ad valorem Federal coal lease is developed by in-situ or surface gasification or liquefaction...

  4. 30 CFR 1206.463 - In-situ and surface gasification and liquefaction operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.463 In-situ and surface gasification and liquefaction operations. If an ad valorem Federal coal lease is developed by in-situ or surface gasification or liquefaction...

  5. 30 CFR 1206.463 - In-situ and surface gasification and liquefaction operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.463 In-situ and surface gasification and liquefaction operations. If an ad valorem Federal coal lease is developed by in-situ or surface gasification or liquefaction...

  6. 30 CFR 1206.264 - In-situ and surface gasification and liquefaction operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.264 In-situ and surface gasification and liquefaction operations. If an ad valorem Federal coal lease is developed by in-situ or surface gasification or liquefaction...

  7. 30 CFR 1206.264 - In-situ and surface gasification and liquefaction operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.264 In-situ and surface gasification and liquefaction operations. If an ad valorem Federal coal lease is developed by in-situ or surface gasification or liquefaction...

  8. 30 CFR 206.264 - In-situ and surface gasification and liquefaction operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 206.264 In-situ and surface gasification and liquefaction operations. If an ad valorem Federal coal lease is developed by in-situ or surface gasification or liquefaction...

  9. 78 FR 52764 - Extension of Public Comment Period Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification Combined...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ...ENERGY Extension of Public Comment Period Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification...and announces public hearings for the Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification...Commission (CEC) or DOE concerning the Hydrogen Energy California Project (HECA)...

  10. 78 FR 43870 - Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project; Preliminary Staff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Notice of Availability Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification...DOE) announces the availability of the Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification...environmental impacts associated with the Hydrogen Energy California's (HECA)...

  11. 78 FR 54640 - Extension of Public Comment Period Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification Combined...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Extension of Public Comment Period Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle...Extension of Public Comment Period and Public Hearing for the Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification Combined...

  12. Behavior of mineral matters in Chinese coal ash melting during char-CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O gasification reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaojiang Wu; Zhongxiao Zhang; Guilin Piao; Xiang He; Yushuang Chen; Nobusuke Kobayashi; Shigekatsu Mori; Yoshinori Itaya [University of Shanghai for Science & Technology, Shanghai (China). Department of Power Engineering

    2009-05-15

    The typical Chinese coal ash melting behavior during char-CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O gasification reaction was studied by using TGA, XRD, and SEM-EDX analysis. It was found that ash melting behavior during char gasification reaction is quite different from that during coal combustion process. Far from the simultaneously ash melting behavior during coal combustion, the initial melting behavior of ash usually occurs at a middle or later stage of char-CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O reaction because of endothermic reaction and more reactivity of char gasification reaction as compared with that of mineral melting reactions in ash. In general, the initial melting temperature of ash is as low as 200-300 K below the deformation temperature (T{sub def}) of ash with ASTM test. The initial molten parts in ash are mainly caused by iron bearing minerals such as wustite and iron-rich ferrite phases under gasification condition. Along with the proceeding of ash melting, the melting behavior appears to be accelerated by the presence of calcium to form eutectic mixtures in the FeO-SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaO-SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} system. The different states of iron are the dominant reason for different melting behaviors under gasification and combustion conditions. Even under both reducing conditions, the ash fusion temperature (AFT) of coal under char-CO{sub 2} reaction is about 50-100 K lower than that under char-H{sub 2}O reaction condition. The main reason of that is the higher content of CO under char-CO{sub 2} reaction, which can get a lower ratio of Fe{sup 3+}/{Sigma}Fe in NaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-FeO melts. 38 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Suppression of Allium white rot ( Sclerotium cepivorum ) in different soils using vegetable wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Coventry; R. Noble; A. Mead; J. M. Whipps

    2005-01-01

    Mixtures of wet vegetable wastes (Brassica, carrot or onion) and dry onion waste were composted at 50 °C for 7 days. The incorporation of the raw or composted vegetable waste mixtures into sandy loam, silt and peat soils reduced the viability of sclerotia of S. cepivorum in glasshouse pot bioassays. The reduction in viability was dependent on waste type, rate

  14. Evaluation of yield of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus pulmonarius) grown on cotton waste and cassava peel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grillo Joseph Adebayo; Banjo Nusirat Omolara; Abikoye Elizabeth Toyin

    2009-01-01

    This work evaluated the yield of Pleurotus pulmonarius on different mixtures of cotton waste and cassava peel. P. pulmonarius demonstrated significantly higher colonization rate on cotton waste substrate (100 g cotton waste) 3 weeks after inoculation of spawn than any other substrate mixtures. Cotton waste had the shortest time for full mycelial ramification (3 weeks) and mushroom primodial appearance (3

  15. Application of biologically activated sorptive columns for textile waste water treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Paprowicz; S. S?odczyk

    1988-01-01

    Technological studies of mixture of communal and industrial waste water treatment on a pilot ? scale are described in the paper. Treatment of waste waters mixture was carried out in the following stages: coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and sorption. After pre ?treatment and the removal of the suspension, waste water was directed on 3 columns filled with granular activated carbon. Waste

  16. 40 CFR 265.17 - General requirements for ignitable, reactive, or incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...or disposal of ignitable or reactive waste, and the mixture or commingling of incompatible wastes, or incompatible wastes and materials, must be conducted so...reaction; (2) Produce uncontrolled toxic mists, fumes, dusts, or gases...

  17. 40 CFR 265.17 - General requirements for ignitable, reactive, or incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...or disposal of ignitable or reactive waste, and the mixture or commingling of incompatible wastes, or incompatible wastes and materials, must be conducted so...reaction; (2) Produce uncontrolled toxic mists, fumes, dusts, or gases...

  18. 40 CFR 265.17 - General requirements for ignitable, reactive, or incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...or disposal of ignitable or reactive waste, and the mixture or commingling of incompatible wastes, or incompatible wastes and materials, must be conducted so...reaction; (2) Produce uncontrolled toxic mists, fumes, dusts, or gases...

  19. 40 CFR 265.17 - General requirements for ignitable, reactive, or incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...or disposal of ignitable or reactive waste, and the mixture or commingling of incompatible wastes, or incompatible wastes and materials, must be conducted so...reaction; (2) Produce uncontrolled toxic mists, fumes, dusts, or gases...

  20. 40 CFR 265.17 - General requirements for ignitable, reactive, or incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...or disposal of ignitable or reactive waste, and the mixture or commingling of incompatible wastes, or incompatible wastes and materials, must be conducted so...reaction; (2) Produce uncontrolled toxic mists, fumes, dusts, or gases...

  1. Damage monitoring of refractory wall in a generic entrained-bed slagging gasification system

    E-print Network

    Ray, Asok

    INTRODUCTION Modern day gasification plants offer a versatile and clean way to convert coal and other791 Damage monitoring of refractory wall in a generic entrained-bed slagging gasification system-bed slagging gasification systems is attributed to evolution of structural damage in the refractory walls

  2. Formation of CO precursors during char gasification with O2, CO2 and H2O

    E-print Network

    Truong, Thanh N.

    Formation of CO precursors during char gasification with O2, CO2 and H2O Alejandro Montoya a are presented to get insight into an unified mechanism of uncatalyzed carbon gasification. D 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Gasification; Chemisorption; Molecular simulation; Surface

  3. Co-gasification behavior of meat and bone meal char and coal char

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haijun Ren; Yongqi Zhang; Yitian Fang; Yang Wang

    2011-01-01

    The co-gasification behavior of meat and bone meal (MBM) char and two types of coal (Jincheng anthracite (JC) and Huolinhe lignite (HLH)) char was investigated using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The effects of coal type, mineral matter in MBM, gasification temperatures and contacting conditions between MBM char and coal char on the gasification behavior were studied. The results show that

  4. Element, Mixture, Compound

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students gain a better understanding of the different types of materials as pure substances and mixtures and learn to distinguish between homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures by discussing an assortment of example materials they use and encounter in their daily lives.

  5. Countercurrent fixed-bed gasification of biomass at laboratory scale

    SciTech Connect

    Di Blasi, C.; Signorelli, G.; Portoricco, G. [Univ. degli Studi di Napoli Federico II (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica

    1999-07-01

    A laboratory-scale countercurrent fixed-bed gasification plant has been designed and constructed to produce data for process modeling and to compare the gasification characteristics of several biomasses (beechwood, nutshells, olive husks, and grape residues). The composition of producer gas and spatial temperature profiles have been measured for biomass gasification at different air flow rates. The gas-heating value always attains a maximum as a function of this operating variable, associated with a decrease of the air-to-fuel ratio. Optical gasification conditions of wood and agricultural residues give rise to comparable gas-heating values, comprised in the range 5--5.5 MJ/Nm{sup 3} with 28--30% CO, 5--7% CO{sub 2}, 6--8% H{sub 2}, 1--2% CH{sub 4}, and small amounts of C{sub 2}- hydrocarbons (apart from nitrogen). However, gasification of agricultural residues is more difficult because of bed transport, partial ash sintering, nonuniform flow distribution, and the presence of a muddy phase in the effluents, so that proper pretreatments are needed for largescale applications.

  6. Texaco coal gasification wastewater handling and treatment pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Klock, B.V.; Vuong, D.C.; Webster, G.H. (Texaco, Inc., Port Arthur, TX (USA). Port Arthur Research Labs.)

    1990-07-01

    The Cool Water Coal Gasification Program (CWCGP) provided the first commercial scale demonstration of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power production from coal. Water treating at Cool Water was simplified by the plant's location in the Mojave desert which allowed the use of evaporation ponds. Because most utilities will not be able to dispose of plant wastewater in evaporation ponds, a water treating pilot plant was installed at Cool Water to provide a basis for the design of future effluent treatment facilities. All of the pilot plant's equipment and operations costs were paid by Texaco. The overall treatment results were sponsored by EPRI and are being made available to member utilities in this report. The pilot plant test, which processes wastewater from the gasification of SUFCo coal, were conducted during the first four months of 1989. The wastewater (grey water) was characterized by the presence of cyanide, sulfide, ammonia, coal ash particles, and formate. The Texaco process removed these constituents from the wastewater by: (1) reacting cyanide and sulfide with ferrous iron; (2) settling and filtering out the solids; (3) steam stripping the ammonia; and (4) biologically treating for formate. The work showed that the Texaco Gasification Wastewater Treatment Process (TGWTP) can be utilized to treat Texaco coal gasification plant wastewater to very low contaminant levels. The work also indicated that a reduction in water treatment capital cost can be obtained by concentrating the wastewater prior to treatment.

  7. Numerical study on the underground coal gasification for inclined seams

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, L.H. [China University of Mining & Technology, Jiangsu (China). College for Resources & Geoscience

    2005-11-01

    According to the characteristics for combustion and gasification reactions occurring in the gasification gallery, the mathematical functional relationship between the chemical reaction rate and every influencing factor is studied. The dynamic nonlinear coupling mathematical models on underground coal gasification of inclined seams are established. The determination methods of major model parameters are introduced. Additionally, the control volume method is adopted to find the numerical solution to the mathematical models. The patterns of development and variation for temperature field, concentration field and pressure field in gasification panel are studied. On the basis of the model test, calculation results are analyzed. From the distribution of temperature field, its calculation value is a little higher than the experimental one, with the relative error of every measuring point virtually within 17%. Research shows that the experiment value of gas heat value and calculated value take on a good conformity; due to the influence of temperature, in the high temperature zone, the change gradient of the experiment value for concentration field of gas compositions is greater than that of the calculation value. The simulated results indicate that the relative error of the pressure field calculation is 4.13%-12.69% and 8.25%-17.47%, respectively, 7 h and 45 h after the ignition. The drop rate for the fluid pressure is 6 01 % and 10. 91 %, respectively. Research shows that the simulated values conform with experimental values comparatively well, which demonstrates that the numerical simulation on the 'three fields' in underground coal gasification is correct.

  8. Investigation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal gasification.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hong-cang; Jin, Bao-sheng; Zhong, Zhao-ping; Huang, Ya-ji; Xiao, Rui; Li, Da-ji

    2005-01-01

    The hazardous organic pollutants generated from coal gasification, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs), are highly mutagenic and carcinogenic. More researchers have paid particular attention to them. Using air and steam as gasification medium, the experiments of three kinds of coals were carried out in a bench-scale atmospheric fluidized bed gasifier. The contents of the 16 PAHs specified by US EPA in raw coal, slag, bag house coke, cyclone coke and gas were measured by HPLC to study the contents of PAHs in raw coal and the effects of the inherent characters of coals on the formation and release of PAHs in coal gasification. The experimental results showed that the distributions of PAHs in the gasified products are similar to raw coals and the total-PAHs content in coal gasification is higher than in raw coal(except Coal C). The total-PAHs contents increase and then decrease with the rise of fixed carbon and sulfur of coal while there has an opposite variation when volatile matters content increase. The quantities of PAHs reduce with the increase of ash content or the drop of heating value during coal gasification. PMID:15900777

  9. Investigation of a sulfur reduction technique for mild gasification char. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The objective of this program is to investigate the desulfurization of mild gasification char using H{sub 2}:CH{sub 4} mixtures. Mild gasification of coal produces char, liquids, and gases at 1000{degrees}--1500{degrees}F and near-ambient pressure. Char, comprising 60--70% of the product, can be used to make high-value form coke for steel making and foundries. A sulfur content below 1 wt% is desirable, and char from high-sulfur Illinois coals must be upgraded to meet this criterion. In the first year of the program, Illinois No. 6 chars were treated in a batch fluidized bed with H{sub 2}:CH{sub 4} blends containing 9--24 vol% CH{sub 4} at 1100{degrees}--1600{degrees}F and 50--200 psig. Sulfur removals up to 92.5 wt% were obtained, and the char desulfurization susceptibility was related to porosity, density, and carbon crystallite size. During the second year, the relationships among mild gasification parameters, char properties, char desulfurization susceptibility, and form coke properties were studied. Acid washing of coal to remove Ca and Fe was explored for its effect on subsequent sulfur removal, and secondary desulfurization of form coke produced from the desulfurized chars was studied. Desulfurization tests of entrained and fluidized-bed reactor chars from IBC-105 coal were completed. Acid-washing of the coal prior to mild gasification or the char prior to desulfurization increased its susceptibility to desulfurization, with sulfur content reduced to as low as 0.10 wt % dry char. Fluidized-bed chars were easier to desulfurize than entrained chars, with or without acid-washing. Form coke briquettes were prepared from selected chars and mild gasification pitch binder, and then carbonized under both N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}:CH{sub 4} atmospheres. carbonization in H{sub 2}:CH{sub 4} removed additional sulfur from the form coke. Adequate tensile strength (837 psi) was achieved in briquettes with 1.2 wt% sulfur made from desulfurized char.

  10. An economic analysis of biomass gasification and power generation in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, C Z; Huang, H; Zheng, S P; Yin, X L

    2002-05-01

    With vast territory and abundant biomass resources China appears to have suitable conditions to develop biomass utilization technologies. As an important decentralized power technology, biomass gasification and power generation (BGPG) has a potential market in making use of biomass wastes. In spite of the relatively high cost for controlling secondary pollution by wastewater, BGPG is economically feasible and can give a financial return owing to the low price of biomass wastes and insufficient power supply at present in some regions of China. In this work, experimental data from 1 MW-scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) BGPG plants constructed recently in China were analyzed; and it was found that the unit capital cost of BGPG is only 60-70% of coal power station and its operation cost is much lower than that of conventional power plants. However, due to the relatively low efficiency of small-scale plant, the current BGPG technology will lose its economic attraction when its capacity is smaller than 160 kW or the price of biomass is higher than 200 Yuan RMB/ton. The development of medium-scale BGPG plants, with capacity ranging from 1000 to 5000 kW, is recommended; as is the demonstration of BGPG technology in suitable enterprises (e.g. rice mill and timber mill) in developing countries where large amounts of biomass wastes are available so that biomass collection and transportation can be avoided and the operation cost can be lowered. PMID:12058832

  11. Prospects for utilizing coal washery wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shpirt; M. Ya

    1979-01-01

    Published Soviet research on the production of porous ballast (algoporite gravel) from coal washery wastes by sintering has led to pilot commercial development. Basic specification have been laid down for wastes to be used to make agloporite and a procedure has been worked out for blending various wastes into suitable mixtures for processing (contents of fuel substance and the oxides

  12. Thermal valorization of post-consumer film waste in a bubbling bed gasifier

    SciTech Connect

    Martínez-Lera, S., E-mail: susanamartinezlera@gmail.com; Torrico, J.; Pallarés, J.; Gil, A.

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: • Film waste from packaging is a common waste, a fraction of which is not recyclable. • Gasification can make use of the high energy value of the non-recyclable fraction. • This waste and two reference polymers were gasified in a bubbling bed reactor. • This experimental research proves technical feasibility of the process. • It also analyzes impact of composition and ER on the performance of the plant. - Abstract: The use of plastic bags and film packaging is very frequent in manifold sectors and film waste is usually present in different sources of municipal and industrial wastes. A significant part of it is not suitable for mechanical recycling but could be safely transformed into a valuable gas by means of thermal valorization. In this research, the gasification of film wastes has been experimentally investigated through experiments in a fluidized bed reactor of two reference polymers, polyethylene and polypropylene, and actual post-consumer film waste. After a complete experimental characterization of the three materials, several gasification experiments have been performed to analyze the influence of the fuel and of equivalence ratio on gas production and composition, on tar generation and on efficiency. The experiments prove that film waste and analogue polymer derived wastes can be successfully gasified in a fluidized bed reactor, yielding a gas with a higher heating value in a range from 3.6 to 5.6 MJ/m{sup 3} and cold gas efficiencies up to 60%.

  13. Gasification research on wood grow project

    SciTech Connect

    Flanigan, V J

    1981-01-09

    The GROW (Gasification Research on Wood) project consists of a research project on thermochemical degradation of wood particles (sawdust or hammermilled wood) on a pilot plant scale and utilizes a 100 cm (40 in.) diameter fluidized sand bed reactor at capacities of up to 1000 Kg/Hr (2200 lb/hr). Supplementary facilities include wood preparation and air conveying, a wood feed bin, feed and transfer screws, an air compressor with storage and filter tanks, an electrical preheater, a propane-fired preheater, a cyclone separator removing solids from product gas, a water scrubber to cool and clean product gas, a scrubber wate settling tank, a scrubber water cooler, a knockout drum, a demister to be installed in the future, a recycle compressor for recirculation, a recycle gas storage tank, a flare and stack with air blower to dispose of the gas, 2 CO/sub 2/ stripper columns to be installed in the future to remove CO/sub 2/ by caustic adsorption, caustic tanks, and the necessary piping, pumps, sampling, and measurement facilities. A brief report of progress on the project is given, followed by the safety implementation plan and operating, maintenance, and safety procedures. (MHR)

  14. Environmental impacts of underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, W.A.

    1982-09-01

    Investigations of underground coal gasification (UCG) have been actively pursued by the U.S. Department of Energy since the early 1970s; the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) conducted its first field experiment in 1976. In conjunction with field and laboratory studies of the process of recovering energy in the form of combustible gases from the burning of coal deposits in situ, an extensive environmental program has been conducted at LLNL under the auspices of both the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This program has focused on groundwater contamination and ground surface subsidence caused by UCG. The material presented in this paper is a summary of results from the environmental studies of UCG activities conducted by LLNL as described by Mead, et al. (1981) and supplemented by the author's experience with this program in 1980 and 1981. The following sections describe specific groundwater contamination and surface subsidence problems encountered during field experiments in northeastern Wyoming, and will discuss implications of preliminary findings from geohydrological investigations of a site in southwestern Washington. Finally, possible environmental control technologies that are most likely to be effective in mitigating environmental impacts are discussed.

  15. Underground coal gasification: status and proposed program

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, D.R.; Hill, R.W.; Borg, I.Y.

    1984-08-13

    Technical uncertainties remaining in the UCG technology include specific criteria for site selection, large-scale burn interactions, details of process control, multiple well operation, overall system reliability, subsidence, and water quality effects. Considerable effort has been expended on understanding and controlling the process, on predicting and mitigating subsidence, and on maintaining water quality. Some data are available on site acceptability, but as yet information from large-scale field tests are not in the public domain. Commercialization of UCG will not be possible until such data become available. A program plan to commercialize UCG in an orderly, paced manner has been developed. The program would cost $200 million over seven years, some of which could be cost-shared with industry. The proposed program includes development of a more detailed program plan. The laboratory component of the program, although only a small fraction of the budget, is crucial. It contains environmental research, modeling, experimental studies, economic and system studies, instrumentation development, and materials studies. The field component includes UCG of both flat and steeply dipping coal beds as well as of less tractable bituminous coal. The field projects involve development of criteria for site selection and characterization, large block tests in bituminous coal, simple, small-scale field tests, subsequent more complex and longer-running tests, and finally large scale, or pilot tests. Steam-oxygen gasification would probably be used. 48 references, 11 figures, 6 tables.

  16. Pulsed combustion process for black liquor gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Durai-Swamy, K.; Mansour, M.N.; Warren, D.W.

    1991-02-01

    The objective of this project is to test an energy efficient, innovative black liquor recovery system on an industrial scale. In the MTCI recovery process, black liquor is sprayed directly onto a bed of sodium carbonate solids which is fluidized by steam. Direct contact of the black liquor with hot bed solids promotes high rates of heating and pyrolysis. Residual carbon, which forms as a deposit on the particle surface, is then gasified by reaction with steam. Heat is supplied from pulse combustor resonance tubes which are immersed within the fluid bed. A portion of the gasifier product gas is returned to the pulse combustors to provide the energy requirements of the reactor. Oxidized sulfur species are partially reduced by reaction with the gasifier products, principally carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The reduced sulfur decomposed to solid sodium carbonate and gaseous hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S). Sodium values are recovered by discharging a dry sodium carbonate product from the gasifier. MTCI's indirectly heated gasification technology for black liquor recovery also relies on the scrubbing of H{sub 2}S for product gases to regenerate green liquor for reuse in the mill circuit. Due to concerns relative to the efficiency of sulfur recovery in the MTCI integrated process, an experimental investigation was undertaken to establish performance and design data for this portion of the system.

  17. Influence of roofing shingles on asphalt concrete mixture properties. Final report, 1992-1993

    SciTech Connect

    Newcomb, D.; Stroup-Gardiner, M.; Weikle, B.; Drescher, A.

    1993-06-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the use of waste shingles from manufacturing and roof reconstruction projects in hot mix asphalt concrete mixtures. In dense-graded asphalt mixtures, it was hypothesized that the waste material might serve as an extender for the new asphalt in the mix as well as a fiber reinforcement. In the stone mastic asphalt (SMA), it could serve as the binder stiffener typically used to prevent the asphalt from draining out of these types of mixtures.

  18. Thermochemical analysis of biomass gasification by Gibbs free energy minimization model-Part: I (Optimization of pressure and temperature)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. C. Sreejith; P. Arun; C. Muraleedharan

    2012-01-01

    The choice of gasifying medium significantly affects the fuel gas composition and its heating value in biomass gasification. Generally, steam gasification is superior to air or steam-air or pure oxygen gasification in terms of hydrogen concentration and heating value of product gas. In this context, a thermodynamic equilibrium model for steam gasification of biomass based on minimization of Gibbs free

  19. Gasification of pelletized biomass in a pilot scale downdraft gasifier.

    PubMed

    Simone, Marco; Barontini, Federica; Nicolella, Cristiano; Tognotti, Leonardo

    2012-07-01

    This work presents a pilot-scale investigation aimed at assessing the feasibility and reliability of biomass pellet gasification. Wood sawdust and sunflower seeds pellets were tested in a 200 kW downdraft gasifier operating with air as gasifying agent. The gasification of pelletized biomass led to rather high and unstable pressure drops, reducing the gasifier productivity and stability. Furthermore the generation of fine residues compromised the operation of wet ash removal systems. On the other hand, good syngas compositions (H(2) 17.2%, N(2) 46.0%, CH(4) 2.5%, CO 21.2%, CO(2) 12.6%, and C(2)H(4) 0.4%), specific gas production (2.2-2.4 N m(3) kg(-1)) and cold gas efficiency (67.7-70.0%) were achieved. For these reasons pelletized biomass should be considered only as complementary fuel in co-gasification with other feedstock. PMID:22537399

  20. Pyrolysis, combustion and gasification characteristics of Nannochloropsis gaditana microalgae.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Silva, L; López-González, D; Garcia-Minguillan, A M; Valverde, J L

    2013-02-01

    Pyrolysis, combustion and gasification characteristics of Nannochloropsis gaditana microalgae (NG microalgae) were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). NG microalgae pyrolysis and combustion could be divided into three main stages: dehydration, proteins and polysaccharides degradation and char decomposition. The effects of the initial sample mass, particle size and gas flow on the pyrolysis and combustion processes were studied. In addition, gasification operation conditions such as temperature, initial sample mass, particle size, sweep gas flow and steam concentration, were experimentally evaluated. The evolved gases were analyzed online using mass spectroscopy (MS). In pyrolysis and combustion processes, most of the gas products were generated at the second degradation step. N-compounds evolution was associated with the degradation of proteins. Furthermore, SO(2) release from combustion could be related to sulphated polysaccharides decomposition. The main products detected during gasification were CO(2), CO, H(2), indicating that oxidation reactions, water gas and water gas shift reactions, were predominant. PMID:23313676