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1

Solid waste gasification and energy utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following questions concerning solid waste gasification are answered in this discussion: what is gasification; why gasify solid waste; how is gasification accomplished; what is the present industrial application, and what is the future of solid waste gasification.

Rinker

1980-01-01

2

Updraft gasification of salmon processing waste.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to judge the feasibility of gasification for the disposal of waste streams generated through salmon harvesting. Gasification is the process of converting carbonaceous materials into combustible "syngas" in a high temperature (above 700 degrees C), oxygen deficient environment. Syngas can be combusted to generate power, which recycles energy from waste products. At 66% to 79% moisture, raw salmon waste streams are too wet to undergo pyrolysis and combustion. Ground raw or de-oiled salmon whole fish, heads, viscera, or frames were therefore "dried" by mixing with wood pellets to a final moisture content of 20%. Ground whole salmon with moisture reduced to 12% moisture was gasified without a drying agent. Gasification tests were performed in a small-scale, fixed-bed, updraft gasifer. After an initial start-up period, the gasifier was loaded with 1.5 kg of biomass. Temperature was recorded at 6 points in the gasifier. Syngas was collected during the short steady-state period during each gasifier run and analyzed. Percentages of each type of gas in the syngas were used to calculate syngas heating value. High heating value (HHV) ranged from 1.45 to 1.98 MJ/kg. Bomb calorimetry determined maximum heating value for the salmon by-products. Comparing heating values shows the efficiency of gasification. Cold gas efficiencies of 13.6% to 26% were obtained from the various samples gasified. Though research of gasification as a means of salmon waste disposal and energy production is ongoing, it can be concluded that pre-dried salmon or relatively low moisture content mixtures of waste with wood are gasifiable. PMID:19799663

Rowland, Sarah; Bower, Cynthia K; Patil, Krushna N; DeWitt, Christina A Mireles

2009-10-01

3

Plasma gasification of waste as a method of energy saving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several versions of the organizations of the process of plasma-chemical gasification with the use of air, carbon dioxide, steam and their mixtures as the plasma-forming gas are considered in the presentation. The results of the calculation-theoretical evaluations of the quality of synthesis gas and efficiency of gasification, and also the results of experiments on plasma gasification of wood waste carried

V. E. Popov; A. N. Bratsev; V. A. Kuznetsov; S. V. Shtengel; A. A. Ufimtsev

2011-01-01

4

GASIFICATION OF HAZARDOUS ORGANIC WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this project is to co-gasify a simulated chlorinated organic waste stream with coal and determine if toxic chlorinated organics are formed during the gasification process. EPA's Office of Solid Waste (OSW) recently proposed regulatory changes in which hazardous wa...

5

Large-Scale Plasma Waste Gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plasma resource recovery system is a two-stage plasma gasification and vitrification system used to process mu- nicipal solid waste. A transferred arc discharge is used to generate syngas from the waste, and an air plasma torch is used to polish the gasification products. Online syngas monitoring can be employed to compensate for variations in waste feed, thus maintaining both

Jason Robert Tavares; Lakshminarayana Rao; Chawki Derboghossian; Pierre Carabin; Aïda Kaldas; Philippe Chevalier; Gillian Holcroft

2011-01-01

6

Energy from gasification of solid wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gasification technology is by no means new: in the 1850s, most of the city of London was illuminated by “town gas” produced from the gasification of coal. Nowadays, gasification is the main technology for biomass conversion to energy and an attractive alternative for the thermal treatment of solid waste. The number of different uses of gas shows the flexibility of

V. Belgiorno; G. De Feo; C. Della Rocca; R. M. A. Napoli

2003-01-01

7

A comparison of circulating fluidised bed combustion and gasification power plant technologies for processing mixtures of coal, biomass and plastic waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental regulations concerning emission limitations from the use of fossil fuels in large combustion plants have stimulated interest in biomass for electricity generation.The main objective of the present study was to examine the technical and economic viability of using combustion and gasification of coal mixed with biomass and plastic wastes, with the aim of developing an environmentally acceptable process to

D. R. McIlveen-Wright; F. Pinto; L. Armesto; M. A. Caballero; M. P. Aznar; A. Cabanillas; Y. Huang; C. Franco; I. Gulyurtlu; J. T. McMullan

2006-01-01

8

High temperature steam gasification of solid wastes: Characteristics and kinetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greater use of renewable energy sources is of pinnacle importance especially with the limited reserves of fossil fuels. It is expected that future energy use will have increased utilization of different energy sources, including biomass, municipal solid wastes, industrial wastes, agricultural wastes and other low grade fuels. Gasification is a good practical solution to solve the growing problem of landfills, with simultaneous energy extraction and nonleachable minimum residue. Gasification also provides good solution to the problem of plastics and rubber in to useful fuel. The characteristics and kinetics of syngas evolution from the gasification of different samples is examined here. The characteristics of syngas based on its quality, distribution of chemical species, carbon conversion efficiency, thermal efficiency and hydrogen concentration has been examined. Modeling the kinetics of syngas evolution from the process is also examined. Models are compared with the experimental results. Experimental results on the gasification and pyrolysis of several solid wastes, such as, biomass, plastics and mixture of char based and plastic fuels have been provided. Differences and similarities in the behavior of char based fuel and a plastic sample has been discussed. Global reaction mechanisms of char based fuel as well polystyrene gasification are presented based on the characteristic of syngas evolution. The mixture of polyethylene and woodchips gasification provided superior results in terms of syngas yield, hydrogen yield, total hydrocarbons yield, energy yield and apparent thermal efficiency from polyethylene-woodchips blends as compared to expected weighed average yields from gasification of the individual components. A possible interaction mechanism has been established to explain the synergetic effect of co-gasification of woodchips and polyethylene. Kinetics of char gasification is presented with special consideration of sample temperature, catalytic effect of ash, geometric changes of pores inside char and diffusion limitations inside and outside the char particle.

Gomaa, Islam Ahmed

9

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures'', is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (GT). The aims of the project are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal; evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods

1999-01-01

10

Investigation of plasma gasification of carbonaceous technogeneous wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of efficient application of plasma equipment for gasification of various technogeneous carbonaceous wastes (domestic wastes, waste wood, rice hull, biologic wastes) is studied. Gasification of carbonaceous wastes is analysed thermodynamically. Possible prediction of gasification results is proved experimentally using the plasma equipment. It is shown that syngas appropriate for needs of power engineering and chemical industry is produced

A. S. An'shakov; V. A. Faleev; A. A. Danilenko; E. K. Urbakh; A. E. Urbakh

2007-01-01

11

Catalytic Wet Gasification of Municipal and Animal Wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently there is worldwide interest in deriving energy from bio-based materials via gasification. Our objective was to assess the feasibility of wet gasification for treatment\\/energy conversion of both animal and municipal wastes. Wet wastes such as swine manure and raw sewage sludge could be processed directly via current wet gasification technology. Furthermore, these wastes generated high amounts of net energy

Kyoung S. Ro; Keri Cantrell; Douglas Elliott; Patrick G. Hunt

2007-01-01

12

Solid waste plasma gasification: Equilibrium model development and exergy analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma gasification technology has been demonstrated in recent studies as one of the most effective and environmentally friendly methods for solid waste treatment and energy utilization. This study focuses on the thermodynamic analysis of plasma gasification technology, which includes prediction of the produced synthesis gas, energy and exergy calculations. To that purpose, an equilibrium plasma gasification model, called GasifEq, is

A. Mountouris; E. Voutsas; D. Tassios

2006-01-01

13

Investigation of plasma gasification of carbonaceous technogeneous wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of efficient application of plasma equipment for gasification of various technogeneous carbonaceous wastes\\u000a (domestic wastes, waste wood, rice hull, biologic wastes) is studied. Gasification of carbonaceous wastes is analysed thermodynamically.\\u000a Possible prediction of gasification results is proved experimentally using the plasma equipment. It is shown that syngas appropriate\\u000a for needs of power engineering and chemical industry is produced

A. S. An’shakov; V. A. Faleev; A. A. Danilenko; E. K. Urbakh; A. E. Urbakh

2007-01-01

14

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO{sub x}). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process.

Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

2001-12-01

15

Catalytic Gasification of Coal using Eutectic Salt Mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this study are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. A review of the collected literature was carried out. The catalysts which have been used for gasification can be roughly classified under the following five groups: alkali metal salts; alkaline earth metal oxides and salts; mineral substances or ash in coal; transition metals and their oxides and salts; and eutectic salt mixtures. Studies involving the use of gasification catalysts have been conducted. However, most of the studies focused on the application of individual catalysts. Only two publications have reported the study of gasification of coal char in CO2 and steam catalyzed by eutectic salt mixture catalysts. By using the eutectic mixtures of salts that show good activity as individual compounds, the gasification temperature can be reduced possibly with still better activity and gasification rates due to improved dispersion of the molten catalyst on the coal particles. For similar metal/carbon atomic ratios, eutectic catalysts were found to be consistently more active than their respective single salts. But the exact roles that the eutectic salt mixtures play in these are not well understood and details of the mechanisms remain unclear. The effects of the surface property of coals and the application methods of eutectic salt mixture catalysts with coal chars on the reactivity of gasification will be studied. Based on our preliminary evaluation of the literature, a ternary eutectic salt mixture consisting of Li- Na- and K- carbonates has the potential as gasification catalyst. To verify the literature reported, melting points for various compositions consisting of these three salts and the temperature range over which the mixture remained molten were determined in the lab. For mixtures with different concentrations of the three salts, the temperatures at which the mixtures were found to be in complete molten state were recorded. By increasing the amount of Li2CO3, the melting temperature range was reduced significantly. In the literature, the eutectic mixtures of Li- Na- and K-carbonates are claimed to have a lower activation energy than that of K2CO3 alone and they remain molten at a lower temperature than pure K2CO3. The slow increase in the gasification rates with eutectics reported in the literature is believed to be due to a gradual penetration of the coals and coal char particles by the molten and viscous catalyst phase. The even spreading of the salt phase seems to increase the overall carbon conversion rate. In the next reporting period, a number of eutectic salts and methods of their application on the coal will be identified and tested.

Atul Sheth; Pradeep Agrawal; Yaw D. Yeboah

1998-12-04

16

Alkaline subcritical water gasification of dairy industry waste (Whey).  

PubMed

The near-critical water gasification of dairy industry waste in the form of Whey, a product composed of mixtures of carbohydrates (mainly lactose) and amino acids such as glycine and glutamic acid, has been studied. The gasification process involved partial oxidation with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of NaOH. The reactions were studied over the temperature range from 300°C to 390°C, corresponding pressures of 9.5-24.5 MPa and reaction times from 0 min to 120 min. Hydrogen production was affected by the presence of NaOH, the concentration of H(2)O(2), temperature, reaction time and feed concentration. Up to 40% of the theoretical hydrogen gas production was achieved at 390°C. Over 80% of the Whey nitrogen content was found as ammonia, mainly in the liquid effluent. PMID:21398111

Muangrat, Rattana; Onwudili, Jude A; Williams, Paul T

2011-05-01

17

Hydrogen recovery from the thermal plasma gasification of solid waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal plasma gasification has been demonstrated as one of the most effective and environmentally friendly methods for solid waste treatment and energy utilization in many of studies. Therefore, the thermal plasma process of solid waste gasification (paper mill waste, 1.2 ton\\/day) was applied for the recovery of high purity H2 (>99.99%). Gases emitted from a gasification furnace equipped with a

Youngchul Byun; Moohyun Cho; Jae Woo Chung; Won Namkung; Hyeon Don Lee; Sung Duk Jang; Young-Suk Kim; Jin-Ho Lee; Carg-Ro Lee; Soon-Mo Hwang

2011-01-01

18

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

The project, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures'', is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (GT). The aims of the project are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal; evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods to improve catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (e.g., temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts in a bench-scale fixed bed reactor; and conduct thorough analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. The eutectic catalysts increased gasification rate significantly. The methods of catalyst preparation and addition had significant effect on the catalytic activity and coal gasification. The incipient wetness method gave more uniform catalyst distribution than that of physical mixing for the soluble catalysts resulting in higher gasification rates for the incipient wetness samples. The catalytic activity increased by varying degrees with catalyst loading. The above results are especially important since the eutectic catalysts (with low melting points) yield significant gasification rates even at low temperatures. Among the ternary eutectic catalysts studied, the system 39% Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-38.5% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-22.5% Rb{sub 2}CO{sub 3} showed the best activity and will be used for further bench scale fixed-bed gasification reactor in the next period. Based on the Clark Atlanta University studies in the previous reporting period, the project team selected the 43.5% Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-31.5% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-25% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} ternary eutectic and the 29% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-71% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} binary eutectic for the fixed-bed studies at UTSI during this reporting period. Temperature was found to have a significant effect on the rate of gasification of coal. The rate of gasification increased up to 1400 F. Pressure did not have much effect on the gasification rates. The catalyst loading increased the gasification rate and approached complete conversion when 10 wt% of catalyst was added to the coal. Upon further increasing the catalyst amount to 20-wt% and above, there was no significant rise in gasification rate. The rate of gasification was lower for a 2:1 steam to char molar ratio (60%) compared to gasification rates at 3.4:1 molar ratio of steam-to-char where the conversion approached 100%. The characterization results of Georgia Tech are very preliminary and inconclusive and will be made available in the next report.

Unknown

1999-04-01

19

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

This progress report on the Department of Energy project DE-FG-97FT97263 entitled, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures'', covers the period April-September 1998. The specific aims of the project for this period were to identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal, evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods to improve catalyst dispersion, and evaluate gasification performance in a bench-scale fixed bed reactor. The project is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) with CAU as the prime contractor. Several single salt catalysts and binary and ternary eutectic catalysts were investigated at Clark Atlanta University. Physical mixing and incipient wetness methods were investigated as catalyst addition techniques. Gasification was carried out using TGA at CAU and UTSI and with a fixed-bed reactor at UTSI. The results showed better gasification activity in the presence of the catalysts tested. The eutectic salt studies showed clear agreement between the melting points of the prepared eutectics and reported literature values. The order of catalytic activity observed was ternary > binary > single salt. With the soluble single salt catalysts, the incipient wetness method was found to give better results than physical mixing technique. Also, catalyst preparation conditions such as catalyst loading, drying time and temperature were found to influence the gasification rate. Based on the Clark Atlanta University studies on Task 1, the project team selected the 43.5%Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-31.5%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-25%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} ternary eutectic and the 29%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-71%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and 2.3% KNO{sub 3}-97.7%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} binary eutectic for the fixed bed studies at UTSI. The eutectic salts were found to be highly insoluble in aqueous medium. As a result the technique of adding the eutectic to the raw coal was found to be better than using wet methods. Also, addition of the catalyst to the raw coal appeared to give better gasification results than addition to pyrolyzed coal. In addition, eutectic catalysts added to the coal yielded better gasification rates than rates obtained by mixing the individual salts in the eutectic ratio with the coal. These results, especially with the eutectic catalysts are very significant since the use of the low melting eutectics will reduce the severity of gasification processes.

NONE

2000-04-01

20

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

This progress report on the Department of Energy project DE-FG-97FT97263 entitled, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures,'' covers the period April-September 1998. The specific aims of the project for this period were to identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal, evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods to improve catalyst dispersion, and evaluate gasification performance in a bench-scale fixed bed reactor. The project is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) with CAU as the prime contractor. Several single salt catalysts and binary and ternary eutectic catalysts were investigated at Clark Atlanta University. Physical mixing and incipient wetness methods were investigated as catalyst addition techniques. Gasification was carried out using TGA at CAU and UTSI and with a fixed-bed reactor at UTSI. The results showed better gasification activity in the presence of the catalysts tested. The eutectic salt studies showed clear agreement between the melting points of the prepared eutectics and reported literature values. The order of catalytic activity observed was ternary > binary > single salt. With the soluble single salt catalysts, the incipient wetness method was found to give better results than physical mixing technique. Also, catalyst preparation conditions such as catalyst loading, drying time and temperature were found to influence the gasification rate. Based on the Clark Atlanta University studies on Task 1, the project team selected the 43.5%Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-31.5%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-25%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} ternary eutectic and the 29%Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-71%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and 2.3%KNO{sub 3}-97.7%K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} binary eutectic for the fixed bed studies at UTSI. The eutectic salts were found to be highly insoluble in aqueous medium. As a result the technique of adding the eutectic to the raw coal was found to be better than using wet methods. Also, addition of the catalyst to the raw coal appeared to give better gasification results than addition to pyrolyzed coal. In addition, eutectic catalysts added to the coal yielded better gasification rates than rates obtained by mixing the individual salts in the eutectic ratio with the coal. These results, especially with the eutectic catalysts are very significant since the use of the low melting eutectics will reduce the severity of gasification processes.

NONE

1998-10-01

21

Assessment of plasma gasification of high caloric waste streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma gasification is an innovative technology for transforming high calorific waste streams into a valuable synthesis gas and a vitrified slag by means of a thermal plasma. A test program has been set up to evaluate the feasibility of plasma gasification and the impact of this process on the environment. RDF (refuse derived fuel) from carpet and textile waste was

Bert Lemmens; Helmut Elslander; Ive Vanderreydt; Kurt Peys; Ludo Diels; Michel Oosterlinck; Marc Joos

2007-01-01

22

STUDY OF THE STEAM GASIFICATION OF ORGANIC WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemical kinetic data describing the pyrolysis/gasification characteristics of organic waste (biomass) materials is needed for the design of improved conversion reactors. Unfortunately, little data is available in the literature on the pyrolysis kinetics of waste materials, and e...

23

An Environment Friendly Energy Recovery Technology: Municipal Solid Waste Gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy from waste, is a perspective source to replace fossil fuels in the future, municipal solid waste (MSW) gasification is a new technique for waste treatment. MSW can be combusted directly to generate heat and electricity, and by means of gasification it can also be converted into bio-fuels in the forms of liquid (e.g., bio-oils, methanol and ethanol), and gas

Lei Ma; Chuanhua Liao; Yuezhao Zhu; Haijun Chen; Yanghuiqin Ding

2011-01-01

24

Gasification of biomass wastes and residues for electricity production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technical feasibility and the economic and environmental performance of atmospheric gasification of biomass wastes and residues integrated with a combined cycle for electricity production are investigated for Dutch conditions. The system selected for study is an atmospheric circulating fluidized bed gasifier-combined cycle (ACFBCC) plant based on the General Electric LM 2500 gas turbine and atmospheric gasification technology, including flue

René van Ree; Lars Waldheim; Eva Olsson; André Oudhuis; Ad van Wijk; Cees Daey-Ouwens; Wim Turkenburg

1997-01-01

25

Comparison of Solid Wastes from Coal Combustion and Pilot Coal-Gasification Plants. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Comparisons of the physical and chemical properties of solid wastes from coal combustion and gasification processes should assist in deciding whether gasification solid wastes can be utilized or disposed of in the same manner as combustion solid wastes. I...

C. W. Gehrs

1983-01-01

26

Hydrogen production by gasification of municipal solid waste  

SciTech Connect

As fossil fuel reserves run lower and lower, and as their continued widespread use leads toward numerous environmental problems, the need for clean and sustainable energy alternatives becomes ever clearer. Hydrogen fuel holds promise as such as energy source, as it burns cleanly and can be extracted from a number of renewable materials such as municipal solid waste (MSW), which can be considered largely renewable because of its high content of paper and biomass-derived products. A computer model is being developed using ASPEN Plus flow sheeting software to simulate a process which produces hydrogen gas from MSW; the model will later be used in studying the economics of this process and is based on an actual Texaco coal gasification plant design. This paper gives an overview of the complete MSW gasification process, and describes in detail the way in which MSW is modeled by the computer as a process material. In addition, details of the gasifier unit model are described; in this unit modified MSW reacts under pressure with oxygen and steam to form a mixture of gases which include hydrogen.

Rogers, R. III

1994-05-20

27

Energy Recovery from Municipal Solid Wastes by Gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recovery of energy from MSW by combustion in Waste-to-Energy (WTE) plants reduces landfilling and air\\/water emissions, and also lessens dependence on fossil fuels for power generation. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of gasification processes as an alternative to the combustion of MSW. Gasification uses a relatively small amount of oxygen or water vapor to convert

Alexander Klein; Nickolas J. Themelis

2003-01-01

28

Gasification of biomass chars in steam–nitrogen mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some agricultural and waste biomass samples such as sunflower shell, pinecone, rapeseed, cotton refuse and olive refuse were first pyrolyzed in nitrogen, and then, their chars were gasified in a gas mixture of steam and nitrogen. Experiments were performed using the thermogravimetric analysis technique. Pyrolysis of the biomass samples was performed at a heating rate of 20K\\/min from ambient to

H. Haykiri-Acma; S. Yaman; S. Kucukbayrak

2006-01-01

29

Hydrogen recovery from the thermal plasma gasification of solid waste.  

PubMed

Thermal plasma gasification has been demonstrated as one of the most effective and environmentally friendly methods for solid waste treatment and energy utilization in many of studies. Therefore, the thermal plasma process of solid waste gasification (paper mill waste, 1.2 ton/day) was applied for the recovery of high purity H(2) (>99.99%). Gases emitted from a gasification furnace equipped with a nontransferred thermal plasma torch were purified using a bag-filter and wet scrubber. Thereafter, the gases, which contained syngas (CO+H(2)), were introduced into a H(2) recovery system, consisting largely of a water gas shift (WGS) unit for the conversion of CO to H(2) and a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit for the separation and purification of H(2). It was successfully demonstrated that the thermal plasma process of solid waste gasification, combined with the WGS and PSA, produced high purity H(2) (20 N m(3)/h (400 H(2)-Nm(3)/PMW-ton), up to 99.99%) using a plasma torch with 1.6 MWh/PMW-ton of electricity. The results presented here suggest that the thermal plasma process of solid waste gasification for the production of high purity H(2) may provide a new approach as a future energy infrastructure based on H(2). PMID:21497018

Byun, Youngchul; Cho, Moohyun; Chung, Jae Woo; Namkung, Won; Lee, Hyeon Don; Jang, Sung Duk; Kim, Young-Suk; Lee, Jin-Ho; Lee, Carg-Ro; Hwang, Soon-Mo

2011-06-15

30

Treatment of Mixed Wastes via Fixed Bed Gasification  

SciTech Connect

This report outlines the details of research performed under USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-96MC33258 to evaluate the ChemChar hazardous waste system for the destruction of mixed wastes, defined as those that contain both RCRA-regulated haz- ardous constituents and radionuclides. The ChemChar gasification system uses a granular carbonaceous char matrix to immobilize wastes and feed them into the gasifier. In the gasifier wastes are subjected to high temperature reducing conditions, which destroy the organic constituents and immobilize radionuclides on the regenerated char. Only about 10 percent of the char is consumed on each pass through the gasifier, and the regenerated char can be used to treat additional wastes. When tested on a 4-inch diameter scale with a continuous feed unit as part of this research, the ChemChar gasification system was found to be effective in destroying RCRA surrogate organic wastes (chlorobenzene, dichloroben- zene, and napht.halene) while retaining on the char RCRA heavy metals (chromium, nickel, lead, and cadmium) as well as a fission product surrogate (cesium) and a plutonium surrogate (cerium). No generation of harmful byproducts was observed. This report describes the design and testing of the ChemChar gasification system and gives the operating procedures to be followed in using the system safely and effectively for mixed waste treatment.

None

1998-10-28

31

A facility for plasma gasification of waste of various types  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given in the paper is a brief description of the main stages in the development of a facility for plasma gasification of waste.\\u000a Preliminary experimental data are given, as well as some predicted parameters, used as a basis in designing and constructing.\\u000a A detailed description is given of the facility, its basic specifications, and functional capabilities.

A. N. Bratsev; V. E. Popov; A. F. Rutberg; S. V. Shtengel’

2006-01-01

32

Wood waste gasification as a source of energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood waste and agricultural material gasification technology is reviewed with reference to the gasifier types, design, and construction, process control, properties of the feedstock, operating problems, and construction materials. Wood gasifiers are evaluated in terms of heat balance, thermal efficiency, and properties of the produced gas.

A. G. Buekens; H. Masson

1979-01-01

33

Characterization of cellulosic wastes and gasification products from chicken farms.  

PubMed

The current article focuses on gasification as a primary disposal solution for cellulosic wastes derived from chicken farms, and the possibility to recover energy from this process. Wood shavings and chicken litter were characterized with a view to establishing their thermal parameters, compositional natures and calorific values. The main products obtained from the gasification of chicken litter, namely, producer gas, bio-oil and char, were also analysed in order to establish their potential as energy sources. The experimental protocol included bomb calorimetry, pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC), thermo-gravimetric analyses (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, elemental analyses, X-ray diffraction (XRD), mineral content analyses and gas chromatography. The mass and energy balances of the gasification unit were also estimated. The results obtained confirmed that gasification is a viable method of chicken litter disposal. In addition to this, it is also possible to recover some energy from the process. However, energy content in the gas-phase was relatively low. This might be due to the low energy efficiency (19.6%) of the gasification unit, which could be improved by changing the operation parameters. PMID:22014379

Joseph, Paul; Tretsiakova-McNally, Svetlana; McKenna, Siobhan

2012-04-01

34

Treatability of Textile-Domestic Waste Mixtures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Qualitative and quantitative treatability information was obtained on highly alkaline mixtures of textile and domestic waste without pH adjustment. Mixture ratios, detention time, rate of solids recycle, and temperature effects were investigated. The kine...

J. F. Judkins

1975-01-01

35

Assessment of plasma gasification of high caloric waste streams.  

PubMed

Plasma gasification is an innovative technology for transforming high calorific waste streams into a valuable synthesis gas and a vitrified slag by means of a thermal plasma. A test program has been set up to evaluate the feasibility of plasma gasification and the impact of this process on the environment. RDF (refuse derived fuel) from carpet and textile waste was selected as feed material for semi-pilot gasification tests. The aim of the tests was: (1) to evaluate the technical feasibility of making a stable synthesis gas; (2) to characterize the composition of this synthesis gas; (3) to define a suitable after-treatment configuration for purification of the syngas and (4) to characterize the stability of the slag, i.e., its resistance to leaching for use as a secondary building material. The tests illustrate that plasma gasification can result in a suitable syngas quality and a slag, characterized by an acceptable leachability. Based on the test results, a further scale-up of this technology will be prepared and validation tests run. PMID:17134888

Lemmens, Bert; Elslander, Helmut; Vanderreydt, Ive; Peys, Kurt; Diels, Ludo; Oosterlinck, Michel; Joos, Marc

2007-01-01

36

Characterization of cellulosic wastes and gasification products from chicken farms  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The gas chromatography indicated the variable quality of the producer gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The char had appreciable NPK values, and can be used as a fertiliser. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The bio-oil produced was of poor quality, having high moisture content and low pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mass and energy balances showed inadequate level energy recovery from the process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Future work includes changing the operating parameters of the gasification unit. - Abstract: The current article focuses on gasification as a primary disposal solution for cellulosic wastes derived from chicken farms, and the possibility to recover energy from this process. Wood shavings and chicken litter were characterized with a view to establishing their thermal parameters, compositional natures and calorific values. The main products obtained from the gasification of chicken litter, namely, producer gas, bio-oil and char, were also analysed in order to establish their potential as energy sources. The experimental protocol included bomb calorimetry, pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC), thermo-gravimetric analyses (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, elemental analyses, X-ray diffraction (XRD), mineral content analyses and gas chromatography. The mass and energy balances of the gasification unit were also estimated. The results obtained confirmed that gasification is a viable method of chicken litter disposal. In addition to this, it is also possible to recover some energy from the process. However, energy content in the gas-phase was relatively low. This might be due to the low energy efficiency (19.6%) of the gasification unit, which could be improved by changing the operation parameters.

Joseph, Paul, E-mail: p.joseph@ulster.ac.uk [School of the Built Environment and the Built Environment Research Institute, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey BT37 0QB, County Antrim, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Tretsiakova-McNally, Svetlana; McKenna, Siobhan [School of the Built Environment and the Built Environment Research Institute, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey BT37 0QB, County Antrim, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

2012-04-15

37

A steam dried municipal solid waste gasification and melting process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering high-moisture municipal solid waste (MSW) of China, a steam dried MSW gasification and melting process was proposed,\\u000a the feasibility was tested, and the mass and energy balance was analyzed. Preliminary experiments were conducted using a fixed-bed\\u000a drying apparatus, a 200 kg per day fluidized-bed gasifier, and a swirl melting furnace. Moisture percentage was reduced from\\u000a 50% to 20% roughly

Gang Xiao; Baosheng Jin; Mingjiang Ni; Kefa Cen; Yong Chi; Zhongxin Tan

2011-01-01

38

Steam catalytic gasification of municipal solid waste for producing tar-free fuel gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper, a two-region municipal solid waste (MSW) steam catalytic gasification process was proposed. The gasifier was composed of two individual reactors: one is the gasification reactors and the other is the catalytic reactor. The MSW was initially gasified and the produced tar was gasified in the gasification reactor, and further, the tar not gasified entered the catalytic reactor

Yanwen Guan; Siyi Luo; Shiming Liu; Bo Xiao; Lei Cai

2009-01-01

39

Plan for acquistion, handling and characterization of coal gasification solid wastes. Topical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long term viability of the gas industry will depend increasingly on the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) from the gasification of coal. Coal gasification produces a number of solid wastes, of which the major type is ash. The ash results directly from the gasification process and from the supporting combustion units that produce steam and electricity for the

G. J. McCarthy; G. H. Groenewold; D. J. Hassett; M. L. Jones; O. E. Manz

1983-01-01

40

Fixed Bed Gasification of Steam Treated Food Waste (FW) and Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gasification of biomass is becoming popular for production of energy to meet the challenges of time. The rapid depletion of fossil fuel reserve, environmental regulation, cost effective technologies allowing the use of low-grade natural resource for potential gains have led to use the waste material as a resource. The potential of energy recovery using Food waste (FW) and Municipal Solid

A. Malik; S. Naveed; M. Akram; N. Ramzan

41

Waste gasification vs. conventional Waste-to-Energy: a comparative evaluation of two commercial technologies.  

PubMed

A number of waste gasification technologies are currently proposed as an alternative to conventional Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants. Assessing their potential is made difficult by the scarce operating experience and the fragmentary data available. After defining a conceptual framework to classify and assess waste gasification technologies, this paper compares two of the proposed technologies with conventional WtE plants. Performances are evaluated by proprietary software developed at Politecnico di Milano and compared on the basis of a coherent set of assumptions. Since the two gasification technologies are configured as "two-step oxidation" processes, their energy performances are very similar to those of conventional plants. The potential benefits that may justify their adoption relate to material recovery and operation/emission control: recovery of metals in non-oxidized form; collection of ashes in inert, vitrified form; combustion control; lower generation of some pollutants. PMID:22285961

Consonni, Stefano; Viganò, Federico

2012-04-01

42

Sfw-Funk Process for Gasification of Solid Urban and Industrial Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development and testing of an urban and industrial waste gasification plant are described. Domestic waste of different compostion, grain size and closeness of grain and rubber and wood were gasified at varying operating conditions (composition, quanti...

H. Hummelsiep F. Heinrich

1982-01-01

43

Management of coal waste by energy recovery: Mild gasification of coal preparation wastes: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This final technical report documents the technical effort completed over roughly two year period by UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) on the research program sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) to recover the energy value of coal preparation plant wastes by the Mild Gasification Process. The major tasks of the project included a literature survey to characterize current and potential

C. I. C. Chu; B. L. Gillespie

1986-01-01

44

Fluidized bed gasification of waste-derived fuels.  

PubMed

Five alternative waste-derived fuels obtained from municipal solid waste and different post-consumer packaging were fed in a pilot-scale bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, having a maximum feeding capacity of 100 kg/h. The experimental runs utilized beds of natural olivine, quartz sand or dolomite, fluidized by air, and were carried out under various values of equivalence ratio. The process resulted technically feasible with all the materials tested. The olivine, a neo-silicate of Fe and Mg with an olive-green colour, has proven to be a good candidate to act as a bed catalyst for tar removal during gasification of polyolefin plastic wastes. Thanks to its catalytic activity it is possible to obtain very high fractions of hydrogen in the syngas (between 20% and 30%), even using air as the gasifying agent, i.e. in the most favourable economical conditions and with the simplest plant and reactor configuration. The catalytic activity of olivine was instead reduced or completely inhibited when waste-derived fuels from municipal solid wastes and aggregates of different post-consumer plastic packagings were fed. Anyhow, these materials have given acceptable performance, yielding a syngas of sufficient quality for energy applications after an adequate downstream cleaning. PMID:20172708

Arena, Umberto; Zaccariello, Lucio; Mastellone, Maria Laura

2010-07-01

45

Fluidized bed gasification of waste-derived fuels  

SciTech Connect

Five alternative waste-derived fuels obtained from municipal solid waste and different post-consumer packaging were fed in a pilot-scale bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, having a maximum feeding capacity of 100 kg/h. The experimental runs utilized beds of natural olivine, quartz sand or dolomite, fluidized by air, and were carried out under various values of equivalence ratio. The process resulted technically feasible with all the materials tested. The olivine, a neo-silicate of Fe and Mg with an olive-green colour, has proven to be a good candidate to act as a bed catalyst for tar removal during gasification of polyolefin plastic wastes. Thanks to its catalytic activity it is possible to obtain very high fractions of hydrogen in the syngas (between 20% and 30%), even using air as the gasifying agent, i.e. in the most favourable economical conditions and with the simplest plant and reactor configuration. The catalytic activity of olivine was instead reduced or completely inhibited when waste-derived fuels from municipal solid wastes and aggregates of different post-consumer plastic packagings were fed. Anyhow, these materials have given acceptable performance, yielding a syngas of sufficient quality for energy applications after an adequate downstream cleaning.

Arena, Umberto, E-mail: umberto.arena@unina2.i [Department of Environmental Sciences, Second University of Naples, Via A. Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); AMRA s.c. a r.l., Via Nuova Agnano, 11, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Zaccariello, Lucio [Department of Environmental Sciences, Second University of Naples, Via A. Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Mastellone, Maria Laura [Department of Environmental Sciences, Second University of Naples, Via A. Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); AMRA s.c. a r.l., Via Nuova Agnano, 11, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

2010-07-15

46

Co-gasification of municipal solid waste and material recovery in a large-scale gasification and melting system.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of municipal solid waste with and without the municipal solid waste bottom ash using two large-scale commercial operation plants. From the viewpoint of operation data, there is no significant difference between municipal solid waste treatment with and without the bottom ash. The carbon conversion ratios are as high as 91.7% and 95.3%, respectively and this leads to significantly low PCDD/DFs yields via complete syngas combustion. The gross power generation efficiencies are 18.9% with the bottom ash and 23.0% without municipal solid waste bottom ash, respectively. The effects of the equivalence ratio are also evaluated. With the equivalence ratio increasing, carbon monoxide concentration is decreased, and carbon dioxide and the syngas temperature (top gas temperature) are increased. The carbon conversion ratio is also increased. These tendencies are seen in both modes. Co-gasification using the gasification and melting system (Direct Melting System) has a possibility to recover materials effectively. More than 90% of chlorine is distributed in fly ash. Low-boiling-point heavy metals, such as lead and zinc, are distributed in fly ash at rates of 95.2% and 92.0%, respectively. Most of high-boiling-point heavy metals, such as iron and copper, are distributed in metal. It is also clarified that slag is stable and contains few harmful heavy metals such as lead. Compared with the conventional waste management framework, 85% of the final landfill amount reduction is achieved by co-gasification of municipal solid waste with bottom ash and incombustible residues. These results indicate that the combined production of slag with co-gasification of municipal solid waste with the bottom ash constitutes an ideal approach to environmental conservation and resource recycling. PMID:22093706

Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Manako, Kazutaka; Osada, Morihiro

2012-04-01

47

Application of Plasma Gasification Technology in Waste to Energy—Challenges and Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilization of plasma gasification in waste to energy (WTE) is one of the novel applications of a technology that was introduced several decades ago. In this application, plasma arc gasifies the carbon-based part of waste materials such as municipal solid waste, sludge, agricultural waste, etc., and generates a synthetic gas which can be used to produce energy through reciprocating engine

Masoud Pourali

2010-01-01

48

Application of plasma gasification technology in waste to energy challenges and opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilization of plasma gasification in waste to energy is one of the novel applications of a technology that was introduced several decades ago. In this application, plasma arc, gasifies the carbon based part of waste materials such as municipal solid waste, sludge, agricultural waste, etc. and generates a synthetic gas which can be used to produce energy through reciprocating engine

Masoud Pourali

2009-01-01

49

Catalytic gasification of coal using eutectic salt mixtures. Report for the Period September 1, 1998-March 31, 1999.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project, 'Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures', is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (GT). The aims of the proj...

1999-01-01

50

Analysis of energy recovery potential using innovative technologies of waste gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, two alternative thermo-chemical processes for waste treatment were analysed: high temperature gasification and gasification associated to plasma process. The two processes were analysed from the thermodynamic point of view, trying to reconstruct two simplified models, using appropriate simulation tools and some support data from existing\\/planned plants, able to predict the energy recovery performances by process application. In

Lidia Lombardi; Ennio Carnevale; Andrea Corti

51

Co-gasification of solid waste and lignite - a case study for Western Macedonia.  

PubMed

Co-gasification of solid waste and coal is a very attractive and efficient way of generating power, but also an alternative way, apart from conventional technologies such as incineration and landfill, of treating waste materials. The technology of co-gasification can result in very clean power plants using a wide range of solid fuels but there are considerable economic and environmental challenges. The aim of this study is to present the available existing co-gasification techniques and projects for coal and solid wastes and to investigate the techno-economic feasibility, concerning the installation and operation of a 30MW(e) co-gasification power plant based on integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, using lignite and refuse derived fuel (RDF), in the region of Western Macedonia prefecture (WMP), Greece. The gasification block was based on the British Gas-Lurgi (BGL) gasifier, while the gas clean-up block was based on cold gas purification. The competitive advantages of co-gasification systems can be defined both by the fuel feedstock and production flexibility but also by their environmentally sound operation. It also offers the benefit of commercial application of the process by-products, gasification slag and elemental sulphur. Co-gasification of coal and waste can be performed through parallel or direct gasification. Direct gasification constitutes a viable choice for installations with capacities of more than 350MW(e). Parallel gasification, without extensive treatment of produced gas, is recommended for gasifiers of small to medium size installed in regions where coal-fired power plants operate. The preliminary cost estimation indicated that the establishment of an IGCC RDF/lignite plant in the region of WMP is not profitable, due to high specific capital investment and in spite of the lower fuel supply cost. The technology of co-gasification is not mature enough and therefore high capital requirements are needed in order to set up a direct co-gasification plant. The cost of electricity estimated was not competitive, compared to the prices dominating the Greek electricity market and thus further economic evaluation is required. The project would be acceptable if modular construction of the unit was first adopted near operating power plants, based on parallel co-gasification, and gradually incorporating the remaining process steps (gas purification, power generation) with the aim of eventually establishing a true direct co-gasification plant. PMID:17631995

Koukouzas, N; Katsiadakis, A; Karlopoulos, E; Kakaras, E

2008-01-01

52

Co-gasification of municipal solid waste and material recovery in a large-scale gasification and melting system  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of MSW with MSW bottom ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No significant difference between MSW treatment with and without MSW bottom ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCDD/DFs yields are significantly low because of the high carbon conversion ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Slag quality is significantly stable and slag contains few hazardous heavy metals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The final landfill amount is reduced and materials are recovered by DMS process. - Abstract: This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of municipal solid waste with and without the municipal solid waste bottom ash using two large-scale commercial operation plants. From the viewpoint of operation data, there is no significant difference between municipal solid waste treatment with and without the bottom ash. The carbon conversion ratios are as high as 91.7% and 95.3%, respectively and this leads to significantly low PCDD/DFs yields via complete syngas combustion. The gross power generation efficiencies are 18.9% with the bottom ash and 23.0% without municipal solid waste bottom ash, respectively. The effects of the equivalence ratio are also evaluated. With the equivalence ratio increasing, carbon monoxide concentration is decreased, and carbon dioxide and the syngas temperature (top gas temperature) are increased. The carbon conversion ratio is also increased. These tendencies are seen in both modes. Co-gasification using the gasification and melting system (Direct Melting System) has a possibility to recover materials effectively. More than 90% of chlorine is distributed in fly ash. Low-boiling-point heavy metals, such as lead and zinc, are distributed in fly ash at rates of 95.2% and 92.0%, respectively. Most of high-boiling-point heavy metals, such as iron and copper, are distributed in metal. It is also clarified that slag is stable and contains few harmful heavy metals such as lead. Compared with the conventional waste management framework, 85% of the final landfill amount reduction is achieved by co-gasification of municipal solid waste with bottom ash and incombustible residues. These results indicate that the combined production of slag with co-gasification of municipal solid waste with the bottom ash constitutes an ideal approach to environmental conservation and resource recycling.

Tanigaki, Nobuhiro, E-mail: tanigaki.nobuhiro@nsc-eng.co.jp [Nippon Steel Engineering Co., Ltd. (Head Office), Osaki Center Building 1-5-1, Osaki, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-8604 (Japan); Manako, Kazutaka [Nippon Steel Engineering Co., Ltd., 46-59, Nakabaru, Tobata-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 804-8505 (Japan); Osada, Morihiro [Nippon Steel Engineering Co., Ltd. (Head Office), Osaki Center Building 1-5-1, Osaki, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-8604 (Japan)

2012-04-15

53

Purification of coal gasification combined with brewery waste waters in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket digesters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) digesters containing granular sludge adapted to brewery effluent were fed increasing concentrations of artificial coal gasification (CG) waste water in brewery effluent and were effective at purifying this combined waste water up to a CG effluent concentration of 15%. At higher CG waste water concentrations and flow rates, performance declined rapidly.

Alan R. Howgrave-Graham; Mike B. Nicholls

1997-01-01

54

Low-temperature catalytic gasification of wet industrial wastes  

SciTech Connect

Bench-scale reactor tests are in progress at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop a low-temperature, catalytic gasification system. The system, licensed under the trade name Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg sign}), is designed for treating a wide variety of feedstocks ranging from dilute organics in water to waste sludges from food processing. This report describes a test program which used a continuous-feed tubular reactor. This test program is an intermediate stage in the process development. The reactor is a laboratory-scale version of the commercial concept as currently envisioned by the process developers. An energy benefit and economic analysis was also completed on the process. Four conceptual commercial installations of the TEES process were evaluated for three food processing applications and one organic chemical manufacturing application. Net energy production (medium-Btu gas) was achieved in all four cases. The organic chemical application was found to be economically attractive in the present situation. Based on sensitivity studies included in the analysis, the three food processing cases will likely become attractive in the near future as waste disposal regulations tighten and disposal costs increase. 21 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

Elliott, D C; Neuenschwander, G G; Baker, E G; Sealock, Jr, L J; Butner, R S

1991-04-01

55

Modeling and comparative assessment of municipal solid waste gasification for energy production.  

PubMed

Gasification is the thermochemical conversion of organic feedstocks mainly into combustible syngas (CO and H(2)) along with other constituents. It has been widely used to convert coal into gaseous energy carriers but only has been recently looked at as a process for producing energy from biomass. This study explores the potential of gasification for energy production and treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW). It relies on adapting the theory governing the chemistry and kinetics of the gasification process to the use of MSW as a feedstock to the process. It also relies on an equilibrium kinetics and thermodynamics solver tool (Gasify(®)) in the process of modeling gasification of MSW. The effect of process temperature variation on gasifying MSW was explored and the results were compared to incineration as an alternative to gasification of MSW. Also, the assessment was performed comparatively for gasification of MSW in the United Arab Emirates, USA, and Thailand, presenting a spectrum of socioeconomic settings with varying MSW compositions in order to explore the effect of MSW composition variance on the products of gasification. All in all, this study provides an insight into the potential of gasification for the treatment of MSW and as a waste to energy alternative to incineration. PMID:23726119

Arafat, Hassan A; Jijakli, Kenan

2013-08-01

56

Gasification of biomass/high density polyethylene mixtures in a downdraft gasifier.  

PubMed

In this work, an experimental study of the thermal decomposition of mixtures of wood particles and high density polyethylene in different atmospheres has been carried out in a downdraft gasifier with a nominal processing capacity of 50 kg/h. The main objective was to study the feasibility of the operation of the gasification plant using mixtures and to investigate the characteristics of the gas obtained. In order to do so, experiments with biomass only and with mixtures with up to 15% HDPE have been carried out. The main components of the gas generated are N(2) (50%), H(2) (14%), CO (9-22%) and CO(2) (7-17%) and its relatively high calorific value was adequate for using it in an internal combustion engine generator consisting of a modified diesel engine coupled with a 25 kV A alternator. PMID:18083026

García-Bacaicoa, P; Mastral, J F; Ceamanos, J; Berrueco, C; Serrano, S

2008-09-01

57

Analysis of energy recovery potential using innovative technologies of waste gasification  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy recovery from waste by gasification was simulated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two processes: high temperature gasification and gasification associated to plasma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two types of feeding waste: Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) and pulper residues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different configurations for the energy cycles were considered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison with performances from conventional Waste-to-Energy process. - Abstract: In this paper, two alternative thermo-chemical processes for waste treatment were analysed: high temperature gasification and gasification associated to plasma process. The two processes were analysed from the thermodynamic point of view, trying to reconstruct two simplified models, using appropriate simulation tools and some support data from existing/planned plants, able to predict the energy recovery performances by process application. In order to carry out a comparative analysis, the same waste stream input was considered as input to the two models and the generated results were compared. The performances were compared with those that can be obtained from conventional combustion with energy recovery process by means of steam turbine cycle. Results are reported in terms of energy recovery performance indicators as overall energy efficiency, specific energy production per unit of mass of entering waste, primary energy source savings, specific carbon dioxide production.

Lombardi, Lidia, E-mail: lidia.lombardi@unifit.it [Dipartimento di Energetica, University of Florence, via Santa Marta 3, 50139 Florence (Italy); Carnevale, Ennio [Dipartimento di Energetica, University of Florence, via Santa Marta 3, 50139 Florence (Italy); Corti, Andrea [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell'Informazione, University of Siena, via Roma 56, 56100 Siena (Italy)

2012-04-15

58

Presence of an Unusual Methanogenic Bacterium in Coal Gasification Waste  

PubMed Central

Methanogenic bacteria growing on a pilot-scale, anaerobic filter processing coal gasification waste were enriched in a mineral salts medium containing hydrogen and acetate as potential energy sources. Transfer of the enrichments to methanol medium resulted in the initial growth of a strain of Methanosarcina barkeri, but eventually small cocci became dominant. The cocci growing on methanol produced methane and exhibited the typical fluorescence of methanogenic bacteria. They grew in the presence of the cell wall synthesis-inhibiting antibiotics d-cycloserine, fosfomycin, penicillin G, and vancomycin as well as in the presence of kanamycin, an inhibitor of protein synthesis in eubacteria. The optimal growth temperature was 37°C, and the doubling time was 7.5 h. The strain lysed after reaching stationary phase. The bacterium grew poorly with hydrogen as the energy source and failed to grow on acetate. Morphologically, the coccus shared similarities with Methanosarcina sp. Cells were 1 ?m wide, exhibited the typical thick cell wall and cross-wall formation, and formed tetrads. Packets and cysts were not formed. Images

Tomei, Francisco A.; Rouse, Dwight; Maki, James S.; Mitchell, Ralph

1988-01-01

59

Production of hydrogen energy through biomass (waste wood) gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass gasification, conversion of solid carbonaceous fuel into combustible gas by partial combustion, is a prominent technology for the production of hydrogen from biomass. The concentration of hydrogen in the gas generated from gasification depends mainly upon moisture content, type and composition of biomass, operating conditions and configuration of the biomass gasifier. The potential of production of hydrogen from wood

Pratik N. Sheth; B. V. Babu

2010-01-01

60

Energy (and Resource) Recovery from Paper Pulp Waste through Residue Derived Fuel and Plasma Gasification Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To meet the condition for reutilization of derived energy and melting ash, the plasma gasification process was adopted to use high temperature of plasma furnace to gasify wastes (e.g., paper reject, paper sludge and hydro-cleaner residues). Processing paper pulp to residue derived fuel (RDF) can enhance physical stability and improve gasification efficiency. Paper pulp derived RDF has 12% ash, 15~20%

Jai-Houng Leu; Ay Su

2011-01-01

61

Regenerative gasification systems operating on farm-waste and bioenergy-crop feedstocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigates the feasibility of using an advanced gasifier to convert dairy-farm animal wastes and biomass willow wood into fuel gas that could be utilized for power production. In our energy conversion scheme, a high-temperature air-blown, regenerative gasification system is used to convert the biomass to synthetic fuel gas. The preheated gasification air is supplied by a ceramic heater.

Carlson C. P. Pian

2002-01-01

62

Gasification of solid waste in accordance with the SFW-FUNK process  

SciTech Connect

The Saarberg-Fernwaerme in Saarbruecken, West Germany is planning to build a pilot plant to demonstrate the feasibility of solid waste gasification after having gained long range experience in operating incinerators. The Federal Ministry of Research and Technology of West Germany agreed to support this project because the two committees, one for energy conservation and the other for environmental protection, recommended it for implementation. A description of the gasification process is presented.

Funk, H.; Hummelsiep, H.

1980-01-01

63

Technology Status Review of Waste\\/Biomass Co-Gasification with Coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal might be co-gasified with waste or biomass for environmental, technical or commercial reasons. It allows larger, more efficient plants than those sized for the biomass grown or waste arisings within a reasonable transport distance; specific operating costs are likely to be lower; and, fuel supply security is assured. This review paper assesses the current status of co-gasification technologies and

Brian Ricketts; Richard Hotchkiss; Bill Livingston; Martin Hall

64

High-temperature, air-blown gasification of dairy-farm wastes for energy production  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out to investigate the feasibility of integrating an advanced gasifier into the operation of a dairy farm for converting biomass wastes into fuel gas that can be used for power production. The disposal\\/utilization of excess animal wastes is a serious problem facing the dairy industry. Implementation of a gasification system on the dairy farm may provide

Lincoln Young; Carlson C. P. Pian

2003-01-01

65

Process and technological aspects of municipal solid waste gasification. A review  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical assessment of the main commercially available MSW gasifiers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detailed discussion of the basic features of gasification process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Description of configurations of gasification-based waste-to-energy units. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental performance analysis, on the basis of independent sources data. - Abstract: The paper proposes a critical assessment of municipal solid waste gasification today, starting from basic aspects of the process (process types and steps, operating and performance parameters) and arriving to a comparative analysis of the reactors (fixed bed, fluidized bed, entrained bed, vertical shaft, moving grate furnace, rotary kiln, plasma reactor) as well as of the possible plant configurations (heat gasifier and power gasifier) and the environmental performances of the main commercially available gasifiers for municipal solid wastes. The analysis indicates that gasification is a technically viable option for the solid waste conversion, including residual waste from separate collection of municipal solid waste. It is able to meet existing emission limits and can have a remarkable effect on reduction of landfill disposal option.

Arena, Umberto, E-mail: umberto.arena@unina2.it [Department of Environmental Sciences, Second University of Naples, Via A. Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy)

2012-04-15

66

Waste to Energy:The Waste Incineration Directive and its Implementation in the Netherlands: Assessment of Essent\\\\'s Waste Wood Gasification Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essent operates a coal-fired power plant, called AC-9, in Geertruidenberg. A gasifier connected to AC-9 thermally treats waste wood through gasification. The waste wood Essent used is demolition and construction wood, the so-called B-wood. The gas produced through gasification is fed into the connected AC-9 where it is used as fuel. However, after the BVA’s (Besluit Verbranden Afvalstoffen) entry into

Murat Duman; Luciaan Boels

2007-01-01

67

Co-gasification of wet sewage sludge and forestry waste in situ steam agent.  

PubMed

The co-gasification of wet sewage sludge (80 wt.% moisture, WSS) and forestry waste (FW) blends was studied. The thermogravimetric analysis showed that weight loss and the maximum weight loss rate of the sample increased with the increase in FW content. The co-gasification process was performed in a lab-scale fixed bed gasifier to investigate the effects of WSS content and reactor temperature on product yields, gas composition and gasification performance. The results indicated that steam generated from the moisture content in WSS took part in the gasification with char. The gas yield decreased with the increasing WSS content. And the concentrations of H(2) and CO reached the maximum when the WSS content was 50%. The LHV of fuel gas ranged from 11.89 MJ/Nm(3) to 12.72 MJ/Nm(3) when the reactor temperature increased from 700 °C to 900 °C. PMID:22503423

Peng, Lixin; Wang, Yongxiu; Lei, Zhihong; Cheng, Gong

2012-06-01

68

Lethality and hepatotoxicity of complex waste mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Male F344 rats were exposed by gavage to samples of complex mixtures and evaluated 24 hr later. Seven of the 10 samples caused death at doses ranging from 1 to 5 ml/kg body wt. Eight of the 10 samples were hepatotoxic based on histopathologic evaluation; 6 were centrilobular and 2 were periportal hepatotoxicants. The waste samples exerted toxicity through different mechanisms, as indicated by differences in the severity and lobular location of the tissue damage. Nine of the 10 samples caused an increase in the ratio of liver weight to body weight (relative liver weight). With histopathological evaluation as the criterion, relative liver weight was the single best indicator of hepatotoxicity. Exposure to several of the waste samples increased serum total bilirubin and serum enzyme activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, and ornithine carbamyl transferase. As a battery, but not individually, the serum indicators separated the 8 hepatotoxic samples from the 2 nonhepatotoxic samples. In general, the hepatotoxicity of the waste samples did not appear to be readily predicted from (partial) chemical characterization data. An approach that includes both chemical characterization and biological testing should provide valuable information regarding the hazardous nature of complex wastes.

Simmons, J.E.; DeMarini, D.M.; Berman, E.

1988-06-01

69

Catalytic gasification of coal chars by potassium sulphate and ferrous sulphate mixtures. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1989.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main objective of this investigation is to evaluate the catalytic activity of (K(sub 2)SO(sub 4) + FeSO(sub 4)) mixtures in the steam gasification of coal char and to compare it with that of K(sub 2)CO(sub 3). The research has been planned such that t...

J. F. Akyurtlu A. Akyurtlu A. A. Adeyiga

1989-01-01

70

Catalytic Gasification of Coal Chars by Potassium Sulphate and Ferrous Sulphate Mixtures: Sixth Quarterly Technical Progress Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main objective of this investigation is to evaluate the catalytic activity of (K(sub 2)SO(sub 4) + FeSO(sub 4)) mixtures in the steam gasification of coal char and to compare it with that of K(sub 2)CO(sub 3). The research has been planned such that t...

J. F. Akyurtlu A. Akyurtlu A. A. Adeyiga

1989-01-01

71

Catalytic gasification of coal using eutectic salt mixtures. Report for the Period April 1-September 30, 1998.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This progress report on the Department of Energy project DE-FG-97FT97263 entitled, 'Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures' covers the period April-September 1998. The specific aims of the project for this period were to identify appr...

1998-01-01

72

The potential for adding plastic waste fuel at a coal gasification power plant.  

PubMed

Plastics wastes from a municipal solid waste plant have a high energy content which make it an interesting option for co-processing with coal. The potential for adding plastic waste to a coal fired Texaco IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) power station is examined. The resulting efficiency increases due to the improved gasification qualities of plastic over coal. For the overall economics to be the same as the coal only case, the maximum amount that the power station can afford to spend on preparing the plastic waste for use is similar to the assumed coal cost, plus the avoided landfill cost, minus the transport cost. The location of the power station plays a key role, since this has an effect on the transport costs as well as on the landfill charges. The sensitivity of the economics of co-processing plastic waste with coal for a variety of power station operational parameters is presented. PMID:12201682

Campbell, P E; Evans, R H; McMullan, J T; Williams, B C

2001-12-01

73

Process and technological aspects of municipal solid waste gasification. A review.  

PubMed

The paper proposes a critical assessment of municipal solid waste gasification today, starting from basic aspects of the process (process types and steps, operating and performance parameters) and arriving to a comparative analysis of the reactors (fixed bed, fluidized bed, entrained bed, vertical shaft, moving grate furnace, rotary kiln, plasma reactor) as well as of the possible plant configurations (heat gasifier and power gasifier) and the environmental performances of the main commercially available gasifiers for municipal solid wastes. The analysis indicates that gasification is a technically viable option for the solid waste conversion, including residual waste from separate collection of municipal solid waste. It is able to meet existing emission limits and can have a remarkable effect on reduction of landfill disposal option. PMID:22035903

Arena, Umberto

2012-04-01

74

Demonstration plasma gasification/vitrification system for effective hazardous waste treatment.  

PubMed

Plasma gasification/vitrification is a technologically advanced and environmentally friendly method of disposing of waste, converting it to commercially usable by-products. This process is a drastic non-incineration thermal process, which uses extremely high temperatures in an oxygen-starved environment to completely decompose input waste material into very simple molecules. The intense and versatile heat generation capabilities of plasma technology enable a plasma gasification/vitrification facility to treat a large number of waste streams in a safe and reliable manner. The by-products of the process are a combustible gas and an inert slag. Plasma gasification consistently exhibits much lower environmental levels for both air emissions and slag leachate toxicity than other thermal technologies. In the framework of a LIFE-Environment project, financed by Directorate General Environment and Viotia Prefecture in Greece, a pilot plasma gasification/vitrification system was designed, constructed and installed in Viotia Region in order to examine the efficiency of this innovative technology in treating industrial hazardous waste. The pilot plant, which was designed to treat up to 50kg waste/h, has two main sections: (i) the furnace and its related equipment and (ii) the off-gas treatment system, including the secondary combustion chamber, quench and scrubber. PMID:15878635

Moustakas, K; Fatta, D; Malamis, S; Haralambous, K; Loizidou, M

2005-08-31

75

Low-temperature catalytic gasification of food processing wastes. 1995 topical report  

SciTech Connect

The catalytic gasification system described in this report has undergone continuing development and refining work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for over 16 years. The original experiments, performed for the Gas Research Institute, were aimed at developing kinetics information for steam gasification of biomass in the presence of catalysts. From the fundamental research evolved the concept of a pressurized, catalytic gasification system for converting wet biomass feedstocks to fuel gas. Extensive batch reactor testing and limited continuous stirred-tank reactor tests provided useful design information for evaluating the preliminary economics of the process. This report is a follow-on to previous interim reports which reviewed the results of the studies conducted with batch and continuous-feed reactor systems from 1989 to 1994, including much work with food processing wastes. The discussion here provides details of experiments on food processing waste feedstock materials, exclusively, that were conducted in batch and continuous- flow reactors.

Elliott, D.C.; Hart, T.R.

1996-08-01

76

Utilization of solid wastes from the gasification of coal-water slurries  

SciTech Connect

It was found that only fly and bottom ashes are the solid wastes of water-coal slurry gasification in a direct-flow gasifier. The yields and chemical compositions of fly and bottom ashes obtained after the gasification of water-coal slurries prepared using brown (B) and long-flame (D) coals from the Berezovskii and Mokhovskii strip mines (Kansk-Achinsk and Kuznetsk Basins, respectively) were characterized. Based on an analysis of currently available information, the areas of utilization of fly and bottom ashes after water-coal slurry gasification with dry ash removal were summarized. The use of these wastes in the construction of high-ways and earthwork structures (for the parent coals of B and D grades) and in the manufacture of ash concrete (for the parent coal of D grade) is most promising.

M.Y. Shpirt; N.P. Goryunova [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2009-07-01

77

Gasification of municipal solid waste in the Plasma Gasification Melting process  

Microsoft Academic Search

â–º 6 tests are conducted to study the performance of a PGM reactor. â–º For air gasification, increasing ER will decrease syngas LHV value. â–º Increasing ER will increase syngas yield and energy efficiency. â–º High-temperature steam injection can significantly increase syngas yield. â–º High-temperature steam injection will also increase syngas LHV value.

Qinglin Zhang; Liran Dor; Dikla Fenigshtein; Weihong Yang; Wlodzmierz Blasiak

2012-01-01

78

Process and technological aspects of municipal solid waste gasification. A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper proposes a critical assessment of municipal solid waste gasification today, starting from basic aspects of the process (process types and steps, operating and performance parameters) and arriving to a comparative analysis of the reactors (fixed bed, fluidized bed, entrained bed, vertical shaft, moving grate furnace, rotary kiln, plasma reactor) as well as of the possible plant configurations (heat

Umberto Arena

79

Co-Gasification of Densified Sludge and Solid Waste in a Downdraft Gasifier.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thermal gasification, the subject of this report, is a new process for the co-disposal of densified sewage sludge and solid waste in a co-current flow, fixed bed reactor (also called a downdraft gasifier). The advantages of this technology include lower c...

S. A. Vigil G. Tchobanoglous

1982-01-01

80

Pyrolysis and catalytic steam gasification of olive oil waste in two stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the pyrolysis and catalytic gasification of a waste from the extraction of olive oil has been carried out. The work objective was to characterize the solid and gaseous phases generated in the process for their possible utilization in energy generation. The experimental system consists of two cylindrical stainless steel reactors connected in series. A conventional pyrolysis is

J. M. Encinar; J. F. González; G. Martínez; M. J. Martín

81

Hydrogen energy from coupled waste gasification and cement production—a thermochemical concept study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plant concept for hydrogen production from waste gasification coupled with cement manufacturing is presented. Hot precalcined cement meal, from the operating cement process, is used as heat carrier to provide energy required by the parallel arranged gasifier. The amount of CaO present in the cement meal operates simultaneously as an effective in situ CO2-sorbent. First, a practical case study

Steffen Weil; Stefan Hamel; Wolfgang Krumm

2006-01-01

82

Evaluation of gasification and novel thermal processes for the treatment of municipal solid waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report identifies seven developers whose gasification technologies can be used to treat the organic constituents of municipal solid waste: Energy Products of Idaho; TPS Termiska Processor AB; Proler International Corporation; Thermoselect Inc.; Battelle; Pedco Incorporated; and ThermoChem, Incorporated. Their processes recover heat directly, produce a fuel product, or produce a feedstock for chemical processes. The technologies are on the

W. R. Niessen; C. H. Marks; R. E. Sommerlad

1996-01-01

83

Prospects for energy recovering from plastic waste gasificators by means of MHD topping cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the authors analyse their proposal consisting of equipping a plastic waste gasification plant both with a conventional steam power plant and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) topping cycle. One of the major advantages of this technique is the neutralization of the acid gases present in the fumes accomplished by the alkaline cations deriving from the salt used for plasma seeding.

A. Geri; N. Verdone; Alessandro Salvini

1997-01-01

84

SFW-Funk Process for Gasification of Solid Urban and Industrial Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It was the purpose of the R+D-project, to develop the SFW-Funk process for gasification of solid urban and industrial waste for commercial plants. On the base of a literature study and some experiments on a laboratory plant, a demonstration plant was desi...

H. Hummelsiep F. Heinrich

1982-01-01

85

Gasification of solid waste in accordance with the SFW-FUNK process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Saarberg-Fernwaerme in Saarbruecken, West Germany is planning to build a pilot plant to demonstrate the feasibility of solid waste gasification after having gained long range experience in operating incinerators. The Federal Ministry of Research and Technology of West Germany agreed to support this project because the two committees, one for energy conservation and the other for environmental protection, recommended

H. Funk; H. Hummelsiep

1980-01-01

86

CO-GASIFICATION OF DENSIFIED SLUDGE AND SOLID WASTE IN A DOWNDRAFT GASIFIER  

EPA Science Inventory

Thermal gasification, the subject of this report, is a new process for the co-disposal of densified sewage sludge and solid waste in a co-current flow, fixed bed reactor (also called a downdraft gasifier). The advantages of this technology include lower costs than other sewage sl...

87

Pyrolysis and gasification of landfilled plastic wastes with Ni? Mg? La\\/Al2O3 catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrolysis and gasification processes were utilized to study the feasibility of producing fuels from landfilled plastic wastes. These wastes were converted in a gasifier at 700–900 °C. The equivalence ratio (ER) was varied from 0.4–0.6 with or without addition of a Ni? Mg? La\\/Al2O3 catalyst. The pyrolysis and gasification of plastic wastes without catalyst resulted in relatively low H2, CO and

Prangtip Kaewpengkrow; Duangduen Atong; Viboon Sricharoenchaikul

2012-01-01

88

Waste to Energy Conversion by Stepwise Liquefaction, Gasification and "Clean" Combustion of Pelletized Waste Polyethylene for Electric Power Generation---in a Miniature Steam Engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amounts of waste plastics discarded in developed countries are increasing drastically, and most are not recycled. The small fractions of the post-consumer plastics which are recycled find few new uses as their quality is degraded; they cannot be reused in their original applications. However, the high energy density of plastics, similar to that of premium fuels, combined with the dwindling reserves of fossil fuels make a compelling argument for releasing their internal energy through combustion, converting it to thermal energy and, eventually, to electricity through a heat engine. To minimize the emission of pollutants this energy conversion is done in two steps, first the solid waste plastics undergo pyrolytic gasification and, subsequently, the pyrolyzates (a mixture of hydrocarbons and hydrogen) are blended with air and are burned "cleanly" in a miniature power plant. This plant consists of a steam boiler, a steam engine and an electricity generator.

Talebi Anaraki, Saber

89

Demonstration plasma gasification\\/vitrification system for effective hazardous waste treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma gasification\\/vitrification is a technologically advanced and environmentally friendly method of disposing of waste, converting it to commercially usable by-products. This process is a drastic non-incineration thermal process, which uses extremely high temperatures in an oxygen-starved environment to completely decompose input waste material into very simple molecules. The intense and versatile heat generation capabilities of plasma technology enable a plasma

K. Moustakas; D. Fatta; S. Malamis; K. Haralambous; M. Loizidou

2005-01-01

90

Analysis of energy recovery potential using innovative technologies of waste gasification.  

PubMed

In this paper, two alternative thermo-chemical processes for waste treatment were analysed: high temperature gasification and gasification associated to plasma process. The two processes were analysed from the thermodynamic point of view, trying to reconstruct two simplified models, using appropriate simulation tools and some support data from existing/planned plants, able to predict the energy recovery performances by process application. In order to carry out a comparative analysis, the same waste stream input was considered as input to the two models and the generated results were compared. The performances were compared with those that can be obtained from conventional combustion with energy recovery process by means of steam turbine cycle. Results are reported in terms of energy recovery performance indicators as overall energy efficiency, specific energy production per unit of mass of entering waste, primary energy source savings, specific carbon dioxide production. PMID:21889326

Lombardi, Lidia; Carnevale, Ennio; Corti, Andrea

2012-04-01

91

Operating and environmental performances of commercial-scale waste gasification and melting technology.  

PubMed

Gasification technologies for waste processing are receiving increased interest. A lot of gasification technologies, including gasification and melting, have been developed in Japan and Europe. However, the flue gas and heavy metal behaviors have not been widely reported, even though those of grate furnaces have been reported. This article reports flue gas components of gasification and melting technology in different flue gas treatment systems. Hydrogen chloride concentrations at the inlet of the bag filter ranged between 171 and 180 mg Nm(-3) owing to de-acidification by limestone injection to the gasifier. More than 97.8% of hydrogen chlorides were removed by a bag filter in both of the flue gas treatment systems investigated. Sulfur dioxide concentrations at the inlet of the baghouse were 4.8 mg Nm(-3) and 12.7 mg Nm(-3), respectively. Nitrogen oxides are highly decomposed by a selective catalytic reduction system. Owing to the low regenerations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, and the selective catalytic reduction system, the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans at the stacks were significantly lower without activated carbon injection. More than 99% of chlorine is distributed in fly ash. Low-boiling-point heavy metals, such as lead and zinc, are distributed in fly ash at rates of 97.6% and 96.5%, respectively. Most high-boiling-point heavy metals, such as iron and copper, are distributed in metal. It is also clarified that the slag is stable and contains few harmful heavy metals, such as lead. The heavy metal distribution behaviors are almost the same regardless of the compositions of the processed waste. These results indicate that the gasification of municipal solid waste constitutes an ideal approach to environmental conservation and resource recycling. PMID:24019383

Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Fujinaga, Yasuka; Kajiyama, Hirohisa; Ishida, Yoshihiro

2013-11-01

92

Steam gasification of tyre waste, poplar, and refuse-derived fuel: a comparative analysis.  

PubMed

In the field of waste management, thermal disposal is a treatment option able to recover resources from "end of life" products. Pyrolysis and gasification are emerging thermal treatments that work under less drastic conditions in comparison with classic direct combustion, providing for reduced gaseous emissions of heavy metals. Moreover, they allow better recovery efficiency since the process by-products can be used as fuels (gas, oils), for both conventional (classic engines and heaters) and high efficiency apparatus (gas turbines and fuel cells), or alternatively as chemical sources or as raw materials for other processes. This paper presents a comparative study of a steam gasification process applied to three different waste types (refuse-derived fuel, poplar wood and scrap tyres), with the aim of comparing the corresponding yields and product compositions and exploring the most valuable uses of the by-products. PMID:18657408

Galvagno, S; Casciaro, G; Casu, S; Martino, M; Mingazzini, C; Russo, A; Portofino, S

2009-02-01

93

Steam gasification of tyre waste, poplar, and refuse-derived fuel: A comparative analysis  

SciTech Connect

In the field of waste management, thermal disposal is a treatment option able to recover resources from 'end of life' products. Pyrolysis and gasification are emerging thermal treatments that work under less drastic conditions in comparison with classic direct combustion, providing for reduced gaseous emissions of heavy metals. Moreover, they allow better recovery efficiency since the process by-products can be used as fuels (gas, oils), for both conventional (classic engines and heaters) and high efficiency apparatus (gas turbines and fuel cells), or alternatively as chemical sources or as raw materials for other processes. This paper presents a comparative study of a steam gasification process applied to three different waste types (refuse-derived fuel, poplar wood and scrap tyres), with the aim of comparing the corresponding yields and product compositions and exploring the most valuable uses of the by-products.

Galvagno, S. [Department of Environment, Global Change and Sustainable Development, C.R. ENEA Portici, via Vecchio Macello loc. Granatello, 80055 Portici (Italy)], E-mail: sergio.galvagno@portici.enea.it; Casciaro, G. [Department of Physical Technologies and New Materials, C.R. ENEA Brindisi, SS. 7 Appia-km 706, 72100 Brindisi (Italy); Casu, S. [Department of Environment, Global Change and Sustainable Development, C.R. ENEA Bologna, via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Martino, M. [Department of Environment, Global Change and Sustainable Development, C.R. ENEA Trisaia, SS 106 Jonica km 419-500, 75026 Rotondella (Italy); Mingazzini, C. [Department of Physical Technologies and New Materials, C.R. ENEA Faenza, via Ravegnana 186, 48018 Faenza (Italy); Russo, A. [Department of Environment, Global Change and Sustainable Development, C.R. ENEA Trisaia, SS 106 Jonica km 419-500, 75026 Rotondella (Italy); Portofino, S. [Department of Environment, Global Change and Sustainable Development, C.R. ENEA Portici, via Vecchio Macello loc. Granatello, 80055 Portici (Italy)

2009-02-15

94

Domestic waste plasma gasification technology and its comparison with ordinary one burning on the final products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental data on the plasma gasification of solid domestic wastes received at a pilot plasma furnace of 150 kg\\/h productivity are presented. The calculation of final synthesis gas output on 1 t\\/h productivity plasma furnace as a function of air plasma gas flow rate in a range of 0-250 g\\/s is presented. A further plant of SDW plasma treatment is

V. S. Cherednichenko; A. S. Anshakov; A. A. Danilenko; V. E. Michajlov; V. A. Faleev; D. D. Kezevich

2002-01-01

95

Low-temperature, catalytic gasification of wastes for simultaneous disposal and energy recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bench-scale reactor tests are under way at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop a low-temperature, catalytic gasification system. The system, licensed under the trade name Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg sign}), is designed for treatment of a wide variety of feedstocks ranging from dilute organics in wastewater to waste sludges from food processing. The current research program is focused on the

D. C. Elliot; G. G. Neuenschwander; E. G. Baker; L. J. Jr. Sealock

1991-01-01

96

Two stage fluid bed-plasma gasification process for solid waste valorisation: Technical review and preliminary thermodynamic modelling of sulphur emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gasification of solid waste for energy has significant potential given an abundant feed supply and strong policy drivers. Nonetheless, significant ambiguities in the knowledge base are apparent. Consequently this study investigates sulphur mechanisms within a novel two stage fluid bed-plasma gasification process. This paper includes a detailed review of gasification and plasma fundamentals in relation to the specific process, along

Shane Morrin; Paola Lettieri; Chris Chapman; Luca Mazzei

97

Characterization and disposal of coal-gasification waste products. Phase 2. Final report, April 1, 1984-December 31, 1989  

SciTech Connect

The GRI Coal Gasification Environmental, Health and Safety (EH S) Information System provides access to technical information relevant to advances in coal conversion and associated control technologies. An overview of the system and GRI's EH S R D program is presented. Appendixes include reports on tests conducted to determine system coverage on the health and safety aspects of coal tars, water contamination from coal gasification, and R D on the environmental impact of coal gasification on surface and groundwater. Literature searches on low volume wastes and fugitive emissions are summarized. A list of system users is included.

Meserole, N.P.

1989-06-30

98

78 FR 33986 - Indiana: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Treatment Exemptions for Hazardous Waste Mixtures, Checklist 211...Final Standards for Hazardous Waste Combustors (Phase I Final...Secondary Materials Processed in a Gasification System to Produce Synthesis...Final Standards for Hazardous Waste Combustors (Phase I...

2013-06-06

99

Behavior of metals in ash melting and gasification-melting of municipal solid waste (MSW)  

SciTech Connect

In this study, metal behavior in ash-melting and municipal solid waste (MSW) gasification-melting facilities were investigated. Eight ash-melting and three MSW gasification-melting facilities with a variety of melting processes and feedstocks were selected. From each facility, melting furnace fly ash (MFA) and molten slag were sampled, and feedstock of the ash-melting processes was also taken. For the ash melting process, the generation rate of MFA was well correlated with the ratio of incineration fly ash (IFA) in feedstock, and this was because MFA was formed mostly by mass transfer from IFA and a limited amount from bottom ash (BA). Distribution ratios of metal elements to MFA were generally determined by volatility of the metal element, but chlorine content in feedstock had a significant effect on Cu and a marginal effect on Pb. Distribution ratio of Zn to MFA was influenced by the oxidizing atmosphere in the furnace. High MFA generation and distribution ratio of non-volatile metals to MFA in gasification-melting facilities was probably caused by carry-over of fine particles to the air pollution control system due to large gas volume. Finally, dilution effect was shown to have a significant effect on metal concentration in MFA.

Jung, C.H. [Laboratory of Solid Waste Disposal Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Matsuto, T. [Laboratory of Solid Waste Disposal Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)]. E-mail: matsuto@eng.hokudai.ac.jp; Tanaka, N. [Laboratory of Solid Waste Disposal Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

2005-07-01

100

Low-temperature catalytic gasification of wet industrial wastes. FY 1991--1992 interim report  

SciTech Connect

A catalytic gasification system operating in a pressurized water environment has been developed and refined at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for over 12 years. Initial experiments were aimed at developing kinetics information for steam gasification of biomass in the presence of catalysts. The combined use of alkali and metal catalysts was reported for gasification of biomass and its components at low temperatures (350{degrees}C to 450{degrees}C). From the fundamental research evolved the concept of a pressurized, catalytic gasification system for converting wet biomass feedstocks to fuel gas. Extensive batch reactor testing and limited continuous reactor system (CRS) testing were undertaken in the development of this system under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. A wide range of biomass feedstocks were tested, and the importance of the nickel metal catalyst was identified. Specific use of this process for treating food processing wastes was also studied. The concept application was further expanded to encompass cleanup of hazardous wastewater streams, and results were reported for batch reactor tests and continuous reactor tests. Ongoing work at PNL focuses on refining the catalyst and scaling the system to long-term industrial needs. The process is licensed as the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg_sign}) to Onsite*Ofsite, Inc., of Duarte, California. This report is a follow-on to the 1989--90 interim report [Elliott et al. 1991], which reviewed the results of the studies conducted with a fixed-bed, continuous-feed, tubular reactor. The discussion here provides an overview of experiments on the wide range of potential feedstock materials conducted in a batch reactor; development of new catalyst materials; and tests performed in continuous-flow reactors at three scales. The appendices contain the history and background of the process development, as well as more detailed descriptions and results of the recent studies.

Elliott, D.C.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Hart, T.R.; Phelps, M.R.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.

1993-07-01

101

Disposal of soluble salt waste from coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses pollutants in the form of soluble salts and resource recovery in the form of water and land. A design for disposal of soluble salts has been produced. The interactions of its parameters have been shown by a process design study. The design will enable harmonious compliance with United States Public Laws 92-500 and 94-580, relating to water pollution and resource recovery. In the disposal of waste salt solutions, natural water resources need not be contaminated, because an encapsulation technique is available which will immobilize the salts. At the same time it will make useful landforms available, and water as a resource can be recovered. There is a cost minimum when electrodialysis and evaporation are combined, which is not realizable with evaporation alone, unless very low-cost thermal energy is available or unless very high-cost pretreatment for electrodialysis is required. All the processes making up the proposed disposal process are commercially available, although they are nowhere operating commercially as one process. Because of the commercial availability of the processes, the proposed process may be a candidate 'best commercially available treatment' for soluble salt disposal.

McKnight, C.E.

1980-06-01

102

Treatment of Waste Water-Waste Oil Mixtures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cold reduction of steel strip results in the production of large quantities of waste water containing variable amounts of oil. A five stand tandem cold mill located at Armco Steel Corporation's Ashland, Kentucky Works produces 200 to 500 gpm of waste wate...

1970-01-01

103

The effect of ash composition on gasification of poultry wastes in a fluidized bed reactor.  

PubMed

The effect of ash composition on the fluidized bed gasification behaviour of poultry wastes was investigated by operating a pre-pilot scale reactor with two batches of manure obtained from an industrial chicken farm. The experimental runs were carried out by keeping the fluidized bed velocity fixed (at 0.4m s(-1)) and by varying the equivalence ratio between 0.27 and 0.40, so obtaining bed temperature values between 700 and 800 °C. The performance of the gasification process was assessed by means of mass balances as well as material and feedstock energy analyses, and reported in terms of cold gas efficiency (CGE), specific energy production, low heating value of obtained syngas and yield of undesired by-products. The experimental results indicate the crucial role of ash amount and composition of the two poultry wastes. In particular, higher ash content (25.1% instead of 17.2%) and higher fractions of calcium, phosphorous and potassium (with an increase of 24, 30 and 28%, respectively) induce a dramatic reduction of all the process performance parameters: CGE reduces from 0.63 to 0.33 and the specific energy from 2.1 to 1.1 kWh kgfuel (-1). At the same time, the formation of alkali compounds and their behaviour inside the fluidized bed reactor determine an increase of feedstock energy losses, which is related to occurrence of sintering and bridging between bed particles. PMID:24638275

Di Gregorio, Fabrizio; Santoro, Donato; Arena, Umberto

2014-04-01

104

Production of high quality syngas from argon/water plasma gasification of biomass and waste.  

PubMed

Extremely hot thermal plasma was used for the gasification of biomass (spruce sawdust, wood pellets) and waste (waste plastics, pyrolysis oil). The plasma was produced by a plasma torch with DC electric arc using unique hybrid stabilization. The torch input power of 100-110 kW and the mass flow rate of the gasified materials of tens kg/h was set up during experiments. Produced synthetic gas featured very high content of hydrogen and carbon monoxide (together approximately 90%) that is in a good agreement with theory. High quality of the produced gas is given by extreme parameters of used plasma--composition, very high temperature and low mass flow rate. PMID:24148259

Hlina, M; Hrabovsky, M; Kavka, T; Konrad, M

2014-01-01

105

Organic waste disposal system  

SciTech Connect

Organic waste material is pneumatically transported within air and mixed therewith by swirling flow through an annular ejector passage of varying radial width into a reaction flow passage of an eductor nozzle section receiving the output plume of a plasma torch for initiating therein thermal gasification of the waste mixture. The plasma torch plume projects from the eductor section into a diffuser section within which thermal gasification is continued before discharge of gasified waste.

Nolting, E.E.; Colfield, J.; Richard, R.; Peterson, S.

1997-12-31

106

Continuous in-line gasification\\/vitrification process for thermal waste treatment: process technology and current status of projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Thermoselect High Temperature Recycling process has been developed in order to make available a thermal waste treatment technology avoiding major problems as known from traditional techniques like landfills or ashes, filter dust and emission producing processes. It combines slow degassing with fixed bed oxygen blown gasification and mineral and metal residue melting in a closed loop system. Municipal, industrial

Bernd Calaminus; R. Stahlberg

1998-01-01

107

Characterization and disposal of coal-gasification waste products. Phase 1-program design. Final report, March-December, 1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this Phase I problem definition and scoping effort has been to design a Phase II program for developing the data base needed for assessment of the potential environmental impacts of land disposal of solid wastes from coal gasification plants, for analyzing disposal site design options and for meeting the requirements of the permitting agencies. The Phase I

M. Ghassemi; G. Richard; M. Haro; K. Crawford; H. White

1982-01-01

108

Commercial steam reforming catalysts to improve biomass gasification with steam-oxygen mixtures. 2: Catalytic tar removal  

SciTech Connect

Eight different commercial catalysts, nickel based, for steam reforming of naphthas and of natural gas are tested in biomass gasification for hot gas cleanup and conditioning. They were manufactured by BASF AG, ICI-Katalco, UCI, and Haldor Topsoee a/s. The catalysts were tested in a slip flow after a biomass gasifier of fluidized bed type at small pilot-plant scale (10--20 kg of biomass/h). The gasifying agent used is steam-oxygen mixtures. A guard bed containing a calcined dolomite is used to decrease the tar content in the gas at the inlet of the catalytic bed. Main variables studied are catalyst type, bed temperature, H{sub 2}O + O{sub 2} to biomass feed ratio, and time-on-stream. All catalysts for reforming of naphthas show to be very active and useful for tar removal and gas conditioning (in biomass gasification). 98% tar removal is easily obtained with space velocities of 14,000 h{sup {minus}1} (n.c.). No catalysts deactivation is found in 48 h-on-stream tests when the catalyst temperature is relatively high (780--830 C). Using a simple first-order kinetic model for the overall tar removal reaction, apparent energies of activation (of around 58 kJ/mol) and preexponential factors are obtained for the most active catalysts.

Aznar, M.P.; Caballero, M.A.; Gil, J.; Martin, J.A. [Univ. of Saragossa (Spain). Chemical and Environmental Engineering Dept.] [Univ. of Saragossa (Spain). Chemical and Environmental Engineering Dept.; Corella, J. [Univ. Complutense of Madrid (Spain). Chemical Engineering Dept.] [Univ. Complutense of Madrid (Spain). Chemical Engineering Dept.

1998-07-01

109

Demonstration of thermal plasma gasification/vitrification for municipal solid waste treatment.  

PubMed

Thermal plasma treatment has been regarded as a viable alternative for the treatment of highly toxic wastes, such as incinerator residues, radioactive wastes, and medical wastes. Therefore, a gasification/vitrification unit for the direct treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW), with a capacity of 10 tons/day, was developed using an integrated furnace equipped with two nontransferred thermal plasma torches. The overall process, as well as the analysis of byproducts and energy balance, has been presented in this paper to assess the performance of this technology. It was successfully demonstrated that the thermal plasma process converted MSW into innocuous slag, with much lower levels of environmental air pollutant emissions and the syngas having a utility value as energy sources (287 Nm3/MSW-ton for H2 and 395 Nm3/MSW-ton for CO), using 1.14 MWh/MSW-ton of electricity (thermal plasma torch (0.817 MWh/MSW-ton)+utilities (0.322 MWh/MSW-ton)) and 7.37 Nm3/MSW-ton of liquefied petroleum gas. PMID:20677789

Byun, Youngchul; Namkung, Won; Cho, Moohyun; Chung, Jae Woo; Kim, Young-Suk; Lee, Jin-Ho; Lee, Carg-Ro; Hwang, Soon-Mo

2010-09-01

110

Waste to energy by industrially integrated supercritical water gasification – Effects of alkali salts in residual by-products from the pulp and paper industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) is a method by which biomass can be converted into a hydrogen-rich gas product. Wet industrial waste streams, which contain both organic and inorganic material, are well suited for treatment by SCWG. In this study, the gasification of two streams of biomass resulting from the pulp and paper industry, black liquor and paper sludge, has been investigated.

I. Rönnlund; L. Myréen; K. Lundqvist; J. Ahlbeck; T. Westerlund

2011-01-01

111

Evaluation of gasification and novel thermal processes for the treatment of municipal solid waste  

SciTech Connect

This report identifies seven developers whose gasification technologies can be used to treat the organic constituents of municipal solid waste: Energy Products of Idaho; TPS Termiska Processor AB; Proler International Corporation; Thermoselect Inc.; Battelle; Pedco Incorporated; and ThermoChem, Incorporated. Their processes recover heat directly, produce a fuel product, or produce a feedstock for chemical processes. The technologies are on the brink of commercial availability. This report evaluates, for each technology, several kinds of issues. Technical considerations were material balance, energy balance, plant thermal efficiency, and effect of feedstock contaminants. Environmental considerations were the regulatory context, and such things as composition, mass rate, and treatability of pollutants. Business issues were related to likelihood of commercialization. Finally, cost and economic issues such as capital and operating costs, and the refuse-derived fuel preparation and energy conversion costs, were considered. The final section of the report reviews and summarizes the information gathered during the study.

Niessen, W.R.; Marks, C.H.; Sommerlad, R.E. [Camp Dresser and McKee, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Camp Dresser and McKee, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1996-08-01

112

Management of coal waste by energy recovery: mild gasification\\/flash pyrolysis of coal preparation wastes. Quarterly report, April-June, 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

The topical report, which summarized the literature survey on waste and its management, was issued and approved by the Department of Energy; this completed Task 1. In consideration of favorable information received from several sources, it was previously recommended that the original high pressure gasification system be changed to a larger low pressure unit. The proposed new system required a

McCown

1985-01-01

113

Low-temperature catalytic gasification of wet industrial wastes. FY 1993--1994 interim report  

SciTech Connect

Process development research is continuing on a low-temperature, catalytic gasification system that has been demonstrated to convert organics in water (dilute or concentrated) to useful and environmentally safe gases. The system, licensed under the trade name Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEESO), treats a wide variety of feedstocks ranging from hazardous organics in water to waste sludges from food processing. The current research program is focused on the use of continuous-feed, tubular reactors systems for testing catalysts and feedstocks in the process. A range of catalysts have been tested, including nickel and other base metals, as well as ruthenium and other precious metals. Results of extensive testing show that feedstocks, ranging from 2% para-cresol in water to potato waste and spent grain, can be processed to > 99% reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD). The product fuel gas contains from 40% up to 75% methane, depending on the feedstock. The balance of the gas is mostly carbon dioxide with < 5% hydrogen and usually < 1% ethane and higher hydrocarbons. The byproduct water stream carries residual organics from 10 to 1,000 mg/l COD, depending on the feedstock. The level of development of TEES has progressed to the initial phases of industrial process demonstration. Testing of industrial waste streams is under way at both the bench scale and engineering scale of development.

Elliott, D.C.; Hart, T.R.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Deverman, G.S.; Werpy, T.A.; Phelps, M.R.; Baker, E.G.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.

1995-03-01

114

Element partitioning in combustion- and gasification-based waste-to-energy units.  

PubMed

A critical comparison between combustion- and gasification-based waste-to-energy systems needs a deep knowledge of the mass flows of materials and elements inside and throughout the units. The study collected and processed data from several moving grate conventional incinerators and high-temperature shaft gasifiers with direct melting, which are in operation worldwide. A material and substance flow analysis was then developed to systematically assess the flows and stocks of materials and elements within each waste-to-energy unit, by connecting the sources, pathways, and intermediate and final sinks of each species. The patterns of key elements, such as carbon, chloride and heavy metals, in the different solid and gaseous output streams of the two compared processes have been then defined. The combination of partitioning coefficients with the mass balances on atomic species and results of mineralogical characterization from recent literatures was used to estimate a composition of bottom ashes and slags from the two types of waste-to-energy technologies. The results also allow to quantify some of the performance parameters of the units and, in particular, the potential reduction of the amount of solid residues to be sent to final disposal. PMID:23465309

Arena, Umberto; Di Gregorio, Fabrizio

2013-05-01

115

Biomass waste gasification – Can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of

Jind?ich Šulc; Ji?í Štojdl; Miroslav Richter; Jan Popelka; Karel Svoboda; Ji?í Smetana; Ji?í Vacek; Siarhei Skoblja; Petr Buryan

116

Lethality and hepatotoxicity of complex waste mixtures (journal version)  

SciTech Connect

Male F344 rats were exposed by gavage to samples of complex mixtures and evaluated 24 hours later. Seven of the 10 samples caused death at doses ranging from 1 to 5 ml/kg body wt. Eight of the 10 samples were hepatotoxic based on histopathologic evaluation; 6 were centrilobular and 2 were periportal hepatotoxicants. The waste samples exerted toxicity through different mechanisms, as indicated by differences in the severity and lobular location of the tissue damage. With histopathological evaluation as the criterion, relative liver weight was the single best indicator of hepatotoxicity. Exposure to several of the waste samples increased serum total bilirubin and serum enzyme activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, and ornithine carbamyl transferase. As a battery, but not individually, the serum indicators separated the 8 hepatotoxic samples from the 2 nonhepatotoxic samples. In general, the hepatotoxicity of the waste samples did not appear to be readily predicted from (partial) chemical characterization data.

Simmons, J.E.; DeMarini, D.M.; Berman, E.

1988-01-01

117

Report: Atmospheric pollutants discharged from municipal solid waste incineration and gasification-melting facilities in Japan.  

PubMed

This article reports on the discharge of particulate matter, acid gases, nitrogen oxides, and dioxins from 107 municipal solid waste incineration and gasification-melting facilities in Japan between the years 2001 and 2003; the pollution control methods and the operational data are summarized. The knowledge on amounts of slaked lime used and the emission of acid gases is reported, the emission concentrations did not exceed the limit values in all facilities. In Japan, the regulation of dioxin emissions by the revised Waste Management and Public Cleansing Law (Ministry of the Environment, Government of Japan 2007) has been enforced since December 1997. Bag filters have been installed in all facilities constructed after this time, and catalytic reactors have been installed in 66% of these facilities. The regulated values for combustion temperature, the cooling temperature of gases discharged from furnaces and the concentration of carbon monoxide in the gases discharged from stacks were satisfactory in almost all facilities. In facilities constructed since December 1997, the dioxin concentrations in the discharged gases were considerably lower than in those constructed before this time. All facilities met the emission limit values for particulate matter, acid gases, nitrogen oxides and dioxins. PMID:19470540

Inoue, Kenichiro; Yasuda, Kenji; Kawamoto, Katsuya

2009-09-01

118

Radioactive waste forms stabilized by ChemChar gasification: characterization and leaching behavior of cerium, thorium, protactinium, uranium, and neptunium.  

PubMed

The uses of a thermally reductive gasification process in conjunction with vitrification and cementation for the long-term disposal of low level radioactive materials have been investigated. gamma-ray spectroscopy was used for analysis of carrier-free protactinium-233 and neptunium-239 and a stoichiometric amount of cerium (observed cerium-141) subsequent to gasification and leaching, up to 48 days. High resolution ICP-MS was used to analyze the cerium, thorium, and uranium from 46 to 438 days of leaching. Leaching procedures followed the guidance of ASTM Procedure C 1220-92, Standard Test Method for Static Leaching of Monolithic Waste Forms for Disposal of Radioactive Waste. The combination of the thermally reductive pretreatment, vitrification and cementation produced a highly non-leachable form suitable for long-term disposal of cerium, thorium, protactinium, uranium, and neptunium. PMID:14637345

Marrero, T W; Morris, J S; Manahan, S E

2004-02-01

119

Environmental assessment of the atlas bio-energy waste wood fluidized bed gasification power plant. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Atlas Bio-Energy Corporation is proposing to develop and operate a 3 MW power plant in Brooklyn, New York that will produce electricity by gasification of waste wood and combustion of the produced low-Btu gas in a conventional package steam boiler coupled to a steam-electric generator. The objectives of this project were to assist Atlas in addressing the environmental permit

Holzman

1995-01-01

120

Microgravity and Hypogravity Compatible Methods for the Destruction of Solid Wastes by Magnetically Assisted Gasification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes a three-year collaborative effort between researchers at UMPQUA Research Company (URC) and the Chemical Engineering Department at Oregon State University (OSU). The Magnetically Assisted Gasification (MAG) concept was originally conceived as a microgravity and hypogravity compatible means for the decomposition of solid waste materials generated aboard spacecraft, lunar and planetary habitations, and for the recovery of potentially valuable resources. While a number of methods such as supercritical water oxidation (SCW0), fluidized bed incineration, pyrolysis , composting and related biological processes have been demonstrated for the decomposition of solid wastes, none of these methods are particularly well- suited for employment under microgravity or hypogravity conditions. For example, fluidized bed incineration relies upon a balance between drag forces which the flowing gas stream exerts upon the fluidization particles and the opposing force of gravity. In the absence of gravity, conventional fluidization cannot take place. Hypogravity operation can also be problematic for conventional fluidized bed reactors, because the various factors which govern fluidization phenomena do not all scale linearly with gravity. For this reason it may be difficult to design and test fluidized bed reactors in lg, which are intended to operate under different gravitational conditions. However, fluidization can be achieved in microgravity (and hypogravity) if a suitable replacement force to counteract the forces between fluid and particles can be found. Possible alternatives include: centripetal force, electric fields, or magnetic fields. Of these, magnetic forces created by the action of magnetic fields and magnetic field gradients upon ferromagnetic media offer the most practical approach. The goal of this URC-OSU collaborative effort was to develop magnetic hardware and methods to control the degree of fluidization (or conversely consolidation) of granular ferromagnetic media and to employ these innovations in sequential filtration and fluidized bed processes for the segregation and decomposition of solid waste materials, and for the concentration and collection of inorganic residue (ash). This required the development of numerous enabling technologies and tools.

Atwater, James E.; Akse, James R.; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Jovanovic, Goran N.; Pinto-Espinoza, Joaquin; Reed, Brian; Sornchamni, Thana

2003-01-01

121

Pyrolysis and gasification of landfilled plastic wastes with Ni-Mg-La/Al2O3 catalyst.  

PubMed

Pyrolysis and gasification processes were utilized to study the feasibility of producing fuels from landfilled plastic wastes. These wastes were converted in a gasifier at 700-900 degrees C. The equivalence ratio (ER) was varied from 0.4-0.6 with or without addition ofa Ni-Mg-La/Al2O3 catalyst. The pyrolysis and gasification of plastic wastes without catalyst resulted in relatively low H2, CO and other fuel gas products with methane as the major gaseous species. The highest lower heating value (LHV) was obtained at 800 degrees C and for an ER of 0.4, while the maximum cold gas efficiency occurred at 700 degrees C and for an ER of 0.4. The presence of the Ni-Mg-La/Al2O3 catalyst significantly enhanced H2 and CO production as well as increasing the gas energy content to 15.76-19.26 MJ/m3, which is suitable for further usage as quality fuel gas. A higher temperature resulted in more H2 and CO and other product gas yields, while char and liquid (tars) decreased. The maximum gas yield, gas calorific value and cold gas efficiency were achieved when the Ni-Mg-La/Al2O3 catalyst was used at 900 degrees C. In general, addition of prepared catalyst resulted in greater H2, CO and other light hydrocarbon yields from superior conversion of wastes to these gases. Thus, thermochemical treatment of these problematic wastes using pyrolysis and gasification processes is a very attractive alternative for sustainable waste management. PMID:23437645

Kaewpengkrow, Prangtip; Atong, Duangduen; Sricharoenchaikul, Viboon

2012-12-01

122

Steam gasification of waste tyre: influence of process temperature on yield and product composition.  

PubMed

An experimental survey of waste tyre gasification with steam as oxidizing agent has been conducted in a continuous bench scale reactor, with the aim of studying the influence of the process temperature on the yield and the composition of the products; the tests have been performed at three different temperatures, in the range of 850-1000°C, holding all the other operational parameters (pressure, carrier gas flow, solid residence time). The experimental results show that the process seems promising in view of obtaining a good quality syngas, indicating that a higher temperature results in a higher syngas production (86 wt%) and a lower char yield, due to an enhancement of the solid-gas phase reactions with the temperature. Higher temperatures clearly result in higher hydrogen concentrations: the hydrogen content rapidly increases, attaining values higher than 65% v/v, while methane and ethylene gradually decrease over the range of the temperatures; carbon monoxide and dioxide instead, after an initial increase, show a nearly constant concentration at 1000°C. Furthermore, in regards to the elemental composition of the synthesis gas, as the temperature increases, the carbon content continuously decreases, while the oxygen content increases; the hydrogen, being the main component of the gas fraction and having a small atomic weight, is responsible for the progressive reduction of the gas density at higher temperature. PMID:22749720

Portofino, Sabrina; Donatelli, Antonio; Iovane, Pierpaolo; Innella, Carolina; Civita, Rocco; Martino, Maria; Matera, Domenico Antonio; Russo, Antonio; Cornacchia, Giacinto; Galvagno, Sergio

2013-03-01

123

A techno-economic comparison of fluidized bed gasification of two mixed plastic wastes.  

PubMed

A comparison between the most promising design configurations for the industrial application of gasification based, plastics-to-energy cogenerators in the 2-6 MWe range is presented. A pilot scale bubbling fluidized bed air gasifier, having a feeding capacity of 100 kg/h, provided experimental data: the syngas complete composition, the characterization of the bed material, the entrained fines collected at the cyclone and the purge material from the scrubber. Mass and energy balances and material and substance flow analyses have been therefore drawn to assess and compare design solutions utilizing two mixed plastic wastes (MPW) obtained from separate collection of plastic packaging, after different levels of pre-treatments. The related techno-economic performances have been finally estimated on the basis of the manufacturer's specifications. The study concludes that the MPW obtained after a very simple pre-treatment and fed to a gasifier coupled with a steam turbine is the solution that currently offers the higher reliability and provides the higher internal rate of return for the investigated range of electrical energy production. PMID:21377344

Arena, U; Di Gregorio, F; Amorese, C; Mastellone, M L

2011-07-01

124

Hydrothermal gasification of waste biomass: process design and life cycle asessment.  

PubMed

A process evaluation methodology is presented that incorporates flowsheet mass and energy balance modeling, heat and power integration, and life cycle assessment Environmental impacts are determined by characterizing and weighting (using CO2 equivalents, Eco-indicator 99, and Eco-scarcity) the flowsheet and inventory modeling results. The methodology is applied to a waste biomass to synthetic natural gas (SNG) conversion process involving a catalytic hydrothermal gasification step. Several scenarios are constructed for different Swiss biomass feedstocks and different scales depending on logistical choices: large-scale (155 MW(SNG)) and small-scale (5.2 MW(SNG)) scenarios for a manure feedstock and one scenario (35.6 MW(SNG))for a wood feedstock. Process modeling shows that 62% of the manure's lower heating value (LHV) is converted to SNG and 71% of wood's LHV is converted to SNG. Life cycle modeling shows that, for all processes, about 10% of fossil energy use is imbedded in the produced renewable SNG. Converting manure and replacing it, as a fertilizer, with the process mineral byproduct leads to reduced N20 emissions and an improved environmental performance such as global warming potential: -0.6 kg(CO2eq)/MJ(SNG) vs. -0.02 kg(CO2eq)/MJ(SNG) for wood scenarios. PMID:19350938

Luterbacher, Jeremy S; Fröling, Morgan; Vogel, Frederic; Maréchal, François; Tester, Jefferson W

2009-03-01

125

Fluid bed gasification--plasma converter process generating energy from solid waste: experimental assessment of sulphur species.  

PubMed

Often perceived as a Cinderella material, there is growing appreciation for solid waste as a renewable content thermal process feed. Nonetheless, research on solid waste gasification and sulphur mechanisms in particular is lacking. This paper presents results from two related experiments on a novel two stage gasification process, at demonstration scale, using a sulphur-enriched wood pellet feed. Notable SO2 and relatively low COS levels (before gas cleaning) were interesting features of the trials, and not normally expected under reducing gasification conditions. Analysis suggests that localised oxygen rich regions within the fluid bed played a role in SO2's generation. The response of COS to sulphur in the feed was quite prompt, whereas SO2 was more delayed. It is proposed that the bed material sequestered sulphur from the feed, later aiding SO2 generation. The more reducing gas phase regions above the bed would have facilitated COS--hence its faster response. These results provide a useful insight, with further analysis on a suite of performed experiments underway, along with thermodynamic modelling. PMID:24176239

Morrin, Shane; Lettieri, Paola; Chapman, Chris; Taylor, Richard

2014-01-01

126

Leaching Studies of Coal Gasification Solid Waste to Meet RCRA Requirements for Land Disposal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this paper is to describe the research currently underway at ORNL related to the land disposal of coal gasification ash. Included are data on the chemical composition and properties of ash from five of six proposed gasification/liquefaction...

T. Tamura W. J. Boegly

1980-01-01

127

Two-stage steam gasification of waste biomass in fluidized bed at low temperature: parametric investigations and performance optimization.  

PubMed

Steam gasification of waste biomass has been studied in a two-stage fluidized bed reactor, which has the primary pyrolysis fluidized bed using silica sand as bed material and the secondary reforming fixed bed with catalyst. The main objectives are parametric investigation and performance improvement especially at low temperature of around 600 °C using the wood chip and the pig manure compost as feedstock. Main operating variables studied are pyrolysis temperature, catalytic temperature, steam/biomass-C ratio, space velocity and different catalyst. Reaction temperatures and steam/C ratio have important role on the gasification process. About 60 vol.% H2 (dry and N2 free) and about 2.0 Nm3/kg biomass (dry and ash free basis) can be obtained under good conditions. Compared to Ni/Al2O3, Ni/BCC (Ni-loaded brown coal char) has a better ability and a hopeful prospect for the stability with coking resistance. PMID:20889337

Xiao, Xianbin; Meng, Xianliang; Le, Duc Dung; Takarada, Takayuki

2011-01-01

128

Hydrogen-Rich Gas Production from Steam Gasification of Palm Oil Wastes Using the Supported Nano-NiO\\/?-Al2O3 Catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

The catalytic steam gasification of palm oil wastes for hydrogen-rich gas production was experimentally investigated in a combined fixed bed reactor using the newly developed nano-NiO\\/??-Al2O3 catalyst. The results indicated that the nano-NiO\\/??-Al2O3 catalyst had greater activity for the cracking of tar in vapor and of hydrocarbons and a higher hydrogen yield than the calcined dolomite in catalytic steam gasification

Jianfen Li; Yanfang Yin; Jianjun Liu; Rong Yan

2009-01-01

129

Study of lay people's perceptions of appropriate management of gasoline/soil mixtures, hazardous waste mixtures, and trash/garbage mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The method used was a researcher-developed questionnaire that was given to San Diego residents who were either Naval Reservists or worked at the corporate headquarters of a fast food chain. The respondents were chosen to yield a cross section of lay people. The forced-choice questionnaire asked identical questions about each of the wastes. The sequence in which each waste appeared was varied in order not to imply a ranking. One-way ANOVA and Bonferroni's Method was used to identify any significant differences. On all eight elements, there was a significant difference between each of the wastes at the p < .05 level. Lay people perceive a significant difference in what constitutes appropriate management of the three waste mixtures. Lay people who participated in the study saw Gasoline/Soil Mixtures as requiring management that was significantly more lenient that what they saw as needed for Hazardous Waste Mixtures and significantly more strict than what they saw as needed for Trash/Garbage Mixtures. The establishment of an intermediate category of solid waste between the existing categories of Hazardous Waste and Non-Hazardous Waste was clearly identified as a possibility by the respondents. If such a category were established it would: (1) clarify and resolve existing contradictions between various regulations; (2) reduce unnecessary filling of scarce hazardous waste disposal capacity; (3) reduce uncertainty, delay and expense to businesses trying to comply with the regulations.

Simon, L.E.

1988-01-01

130

Composting dynamics and optimum mixture ratio of chicken manure and vineyard wastes.  

PubMed

Vineyard waste and chicken manure mixtures are useful materials for composting but when these wastes are composted alone, many environmental problems occur because of their chemical characteristics. Whereas chicken manure is a very rich source of nitrogen, vineyard waste has a very high carbon content. In the present study experiments to determine an optimum mixture ratio of chicken manure and vineyard waste for composting were performed. The results showed that the optimum mixture ratio for composting these materials was 50% chicken manure and 50% vineyard waste on a dry basis. PMID:15864951

Kulcu, Recep; Yaldiz, Osman

2005-04-01

131

Gasification system  

DOEpatents

A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

Haldipur, Gaurang B. (Hempfield, PA); Anderson, Richard G. (Penn Hills, PA); Cherish, Peter (Bethel Park, PA)

1985-01-01

132

Catalytic gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for catalytic gasification of heavy oil of a specific gravity of higher than 0.7 with steam or steam\\/oxygen-containing gas characterized in that the heavy oil is contacted with chromium oxide catalyst or a catalyst comprising a mixture of chromium oxide and one or more of alkaline earth metal oxides, aluminum oxide, zirconium oxide, nickel oxide and cobalt oxide.

K. Isogaya; K. Kikuchi; E. Sugiyama; K. Yoshida

1982-01-01

133

Gasification system  

DOEpatents

A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

Haldipur, Gaurang B. (Hempfield, PA) [Hempfield, PA; Anderson, Richard G. (Penn Hills, PA) [Penn Hills, PA; Cherish, Peter (Bethel Park, PA) [Bethel Park, PA

1983-01-01

134

Biomass waste gasification - Can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of one stage (co-current) and two stage gasification of wood pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Original arrangement with grate-less reactor and upward moving bed of the pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two stage gasification leads to drastic reduction of tar content in gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer One stage gasification produces gas with higher LHV at lower overall ER. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Content of ammonia in gas is lower in two stage moving bed gasification. - Abstract: A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of tar compounds, content of inorganic gas impurities) were compared for the two stage and the one stage method of the gasification arrangement with only the upward moving bed (co-current updraft). The main novel features of the gasifier conception include grate-less reactor, upward moving bed of biomass particles (e.g. pellets) by means of a screw elevator with changeable rotational speed and gradual expanding diameter of the cylindrical reactor in the part above the upper end of the screw. The gasifier concept and arrangement are considered convenient for thermal power range 100-350 kW{sub th}. The second stage of the gasifier served mainly for tar compounds destruction/reforming by increased temperature (around 950 Degree-Sign C) and for gasification reaction of the fuel gas with char. The second stage used additional combustion of the fuel gas by preheated secondary air for attaining higher temperature and faster gasification of the remaining char from the first stage. The measurements of gas composition and tar compound contents confirmed superiority of the two stage gasification system, drastic decrease of aromatic compounds with two and higher number of benzene rings by 1-2 orders. On the other hand the two stage gasification (with overall ER = 0.71) led to substantial reduction of gas heating value (LHV = 3.15 MJ/Nm{sup 3}), elevation of gas volume and increase of nitrogen content in fuel gas. The increased temperature (>950 Degree-Sign C) at the entrance to the char bed caused also substantial decrease of ammonia content in fuel gas. The char with higher content of ash leaving the second stage presented only few mass% of the inlet biomass stream.

Sulc, Jindrich; Stojdl, Jiri; Richter, Miroslav; Popelka, Jan [Faculty of the Environment, Jan Evangelista Purkyne University in Usti nad Labem, Kralova Vysina 7, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Svoboda, Karel, E-mail: svoboda@icpf.cas.cz [Faculty of the Environment, Jan Evangelista Purkyne University in Usti nad Labem, Kralova Vysina 7, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the ASCR, v.v.i., Rozvojova 135, 165 02 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Smetana, Jiri; Vacek, Jiri [D.S.K. Ltd., Ujezdecek - Dukla 264, 415 01 Teplice I (Czech Republic); Skoblja, Siarhei; Buryan, Petr [Dept. of Gas, Coke and Air protection, Institute of Chemical Technol., Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

2012-04-15

135

Disposal of Soluble Coal-Gasification Wastes: Salts are encapsulated in a hard impermeable mass.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. A method has been proposed for the disposal of soluble salts fround in the wastewater from coal-gasification plants. The new process combines several different proce...

1982-01-01

136

Toxicity of complex waste mixtures: A comparison of observed and predicted lethality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to predict the biological effect of complex waste mixtures from chemical characterization data was examined by comparing observed mortality to that predicted by a mathematical additivity model with literature LD50 values for the chemicals identified in the mixtures. Male F344 rats were exposed by gavage to 1 of 10 samples of complex industrial waste. Seven of the 10

Jane Ellen Simmons; Ezra Berman

1989-01-01

137

Simplex-centroid mixture formulation for optimised composting of kitchen waste.  

PubMed

Composting is a good recycling method to fully utilise all the organic wastes present in kitchen waste due to its high nutritious matter within the waste. In this present study, the optimised mixture proportions of kitchen waste containing vegetable scraps (V), fish processing waste (F) and newspaper (N) or onion peels (O) were determined by applying the simplex-centroid mixture design method to achieve the desired initial moisture content and carbon-to-nitrogen (CN) ratio for effective composting process. The best mixture was at 48.5% V, 17.7% F and 33.7% N for blends with newspaper while for blends with onion peels, the mixture proportion was 44.0% V, 19.7% F and 36.2% O. The predicted responses from these mixture proportions fall in the acceptable limits of moisture content of 50% to 65% and CN ratio of 20-40 and were also validated experimentally. PMID:20624604

Abdullah, N; Chin, N L

2010-11-01

138

Gasification of carbon-bearing raw materials in plasma-arc electric furnace with heater and risk of explosion in syngas mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saw dust was gasified at combined and separated impact of the heater and arc discharge on the raw material. It is shown that because of combustion of a part of produced syngas in the heater the raw material can be gasified with power inputs reduced by 20-25 % in comparison with plasma gasification. Data on parameters of combustion and detonation of syngas mixtures with oxygen and air at a change in the ratio between fuel components CO and H2 and between fuel and oxidizer are shown for the first time.

Anshakov, A. S.; Vasiliev, A. A.; Pinaev, A. V.; Faleev, V. A.

2010-12-01

139

Toxicity of complex waste mixtures: A comparison of observed and predicted lethality  

SciTech Connect

The ability to predict the biological effect of complex waste mixtures from chemical characterization data was examined by comparing observed mortality to that predicted by a mathematical additivity model with literature LD50 values for the chemicals identified in the mixtures. Male F344 rats were exposed to one of ten samples of complex industrial waste by gavage. Seven of the ten waste samples caused death within 24 hours of administration at dosages ranging from 1 to 5 ml/kg body weight. Two of the seven lethal waste samples produced 100% mortality at a dosage of 2.5 ml/kg; another two waste samples produced 100% mortality at 5 ml/kg. The partial chemical analysis, although providing more extensive information on chemical composition than might normally be available for most complex waste mixtures, was not sufficient to distinguish lethal from nonlethal waste samples or to indicate lethal potency.

Simmons, J.E.; Berman, E.

1989-01-01

140

Fuel production from wastes using molten salts  

SciTech Connect

The Rockwell International molten salt process for gasification of wastes with resource recovery has been shown here to be well-suited for the processing of a variety of wastes. A variety of waste forms may be processed, that is, solids, liquids, and solid-liquid mixtures. The process is suitable for applications which involve either small or large throughputs. The gasification medium, sodium carbonate, is stable, non-volatile, inexpensive, and nontoxic. Sulfur-containing pollutants are retained in the melt when sulfur-containing wastes are gasified. In the same manner, halogen-containing pollutants are retained during gasification of halogen-containing wastes. The gasification of a high-nitrogen-content waste (leather scraps) produces very little NO/sub x/ in the off-gas. Valuable minerals may be recovered by processing of the salt after gasification of mineral-laden wastes. In general, the molten salt process is best applied to waste materials involving potential pollutants (such as sulfur or chromium) or to wastes where gasification and resource recovery are important (such as the recovery of silver with simultaneous gasification of x-ray film).

Gay, R.L.; Barclay, K.M.; Grantham, L.F.; Yosim, S.J.

1980-01-01

141

Effects of a precomposting step on the vermicomposting of dairy manure-waste paper mixtures.  

PubMed

Thermophilic composting is being promoted as a means of sanitizing waste materials prior to vermicomposting. The precomposting duration is, however, critical to the success of the vermicomposting phase as it affects worm biomass. This study evaluated the effectiveness of different precomposting periods (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks) on the sanitization and vermicomposting of dairy manure-waste paper mixtures. The parameters measured were coliform bacteria and protozoa oocyst numbers, earthworm growth, as well as stabilization and nutrient content of vermicomposts. Over 95% of fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and of E. coli 0157 were eliminated from the waste materials within 1 week of precomposting and total elimination of these and protozoan oocysts was achieved after 3 weeks of precomposting. Microbial biomass carbon and water soluble carbon of waste mixtures decreased with increase in precomposting time and impacted negatively on earthworm growth and subsequent stabilization of the dairy manure-paper waste mixtures. Vermicomposts from waste mixtures precomposted for over 2 weeks were less stabilized, less humified and had lower nutrient contents than vermicomposts from waste mixtures precomposted for 1 week or less. A precomposting period of 1 week was found to be ideal for the effective vermicomposting of dairy manure-waste paper mixtures. PMID:20421247

Mupondi, Lushian T; Mnkeni, Pearson N S; Muchaonyerwa, Pardon

2011-02-01

142

TREATMENT OF AQUEOUS WASTE STREAMS FROM KRW ENERGY SYSTEMS COAL GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a bench-scale evaluation to determine the extent to which process wastewaters from the KRW Energy Systems coal gasification process are treatable using commercially proven wastewater treatment technology. (NOTE: The process--formerly called the Westingh...

143

Recovery of plastic wastes from dumpsite as refuse-derived fuel and its utilization in small gasification system.  

PubMed

An effort to utilize solid wastes at dumpsite as refuse-derived fuel (RDF) was carried out. The produced RDF briquette was then utilized in the gasification system. These wastes were initially examined for their physical composition and chemical characteristics. The wastes contained high plastic content of 24.6-44.8%, majority in polyethylene plastic bag form. The plastic wastes were purified by separating them from other components through manual separation and trommel screen after which their content increased to 82.9-89.7%. Subsequently, they were mixed with binding agent (cassava root) and transformed into RDF briquette. Maximum plastic content in RDF briquette was limit to 55% to maintain physical strength and maximum chlorine content. The RDF briquette was tested in a down-draft gasifier. The produced gas contained average energy content of 1.76 MJ/m(3), yielding cold gas efficiency of 66%. The energy production cost from this RDF process was estimated as USD0.05 perkWh. PMID:19758801

Chiemchaisri, Chart; Charnnok, Boonya; Visvanathan, Chettiyappan

2010-03-01

144

Commercial steam reforming catalysts to improve biomass gasification with steam-oxygen mixtures. 2: Catalytic tar removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight different commercial catalysts, nickel based, for steam reforming of naphthas and of natural gas are tested in biomass gasification for hot gas cleanup and conditioning. They were manufactured by BASF AG, ICI-Katalco, UCI, and Haldor Topsoee a\\/s. The catalysts were tested in a slip flow after a biomass gasifier of fluidized bed type at small pilot-plant scale (10--20 kg

María P. Aznar; Miguel A. Caballero; Javier Gil; J. A. Martin; José Corella

1998-01-01

145

Water Quality Analysis of Mixtures Obtained from Tannery Waste Effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the mixing of waste solution obtained from chrome tanning process and waste solution derived from liming of bovine leather was investigated. The liming process of bovine leather was performed using calcium carbonate and sodium sulfide, and the tanning process was performed using alkaline chromium sulfate. The analyses of waste solutions and sediments formed during the mixing process

Zeljko Bajza; Ivana Vinkovic Vrcek

2001-01-01

146

TOXICITY OF COMPLEX WASTE MIXTURES: A COMPARISON OF OBSERVED AND PREDICTED LETHALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The ability to predict the biological effect of complex waste mixtures from chemical characterization data was examined by comparing observed mortality to that predicted by a mathematical additivity model with literature LD50 values for the chemicals identified in the mixtures. a...

147

From waste to electricity through integrated plasma gasification\\/fuel cell (IPGFC) system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The waste management is become a very crucial issue in many countries, due to the ever- increasing amount of waste material, both domiciliary and industrial, generated.The main strategies for the waste management are the increase of material recovery (MR), which can reduce the landfill disposal, the improvement of energy recovery (ER) from waste and the minimization of the environmental impact.These

G. Galeno; M. Minutillo; A. Perna

2011-01-01

148

Two stage fluid bed-plasma gasification process for solid waste valorisation: technical review and preliminary thermodynamic modelling of sulphur emissions.  

PubMed

Gasification of solid waste for energy has significant potential given an abundant feed supply and strong policy drivers. Nonetheless, significant ambiguities in the knowledge base are apparent. Consequently this study investigates sulphur mechanisms within a novel two stage fluid bed-plasma gasification process. This paper includes a detailed review of gasification and plasma fundamentals in relation to the specific process, along with insight on MSW based feedstock properties and sulphur pollutant therein. As a first step to understanding sulphur partitioning and speciation within the process, thermodynamic modelling of the fluid bed stage has been performed. Preliminary findings, supported by plant experience, indicate the prominence of solid phase sulphur species (as opposed to H(2)S) - Na and K based species in particular. Work is underway to further investigate and validate this. PMID:21982278

Morrin, Shane; Lettieri, Paola; Chapman, Chris; Mazzei, Luca

2012-04-01

149

Commercial steam reforming catalysts to improve biomass gasification with steam-oxygen mixtures. 1: Hot gas upgrading by the catalytic reactor  

SciTech Connect

Commercial steam reforming (nickel-based) catalysts are used for hot gas cleaning and upgrading in biomass gasification with steam-oxygen mixtures. The gasifier used was an atmospheric and bubbling fluidized bed with an internal diameter of 15 cm and a total height of 3.2 m and was continuously fed with 5--20 kg of biomass/h. Eight different catalysts from four different manufacturers (BASF AG, TOPSOE A/S, ICI, and UCI) have been tested. They were located in a downflow fixed-bed reactor of 4 cm i.d. placed in a slip flow after the gasifier. A guard bed with a calcined dolomite was also used before the catalytic bed to decrease the tar content in the raw gas below the limit of 2 g of tar/m{sup 3}{sub n}, thus avoiding the catalyst deactivation by coke formation. The main variables studied were the temperature of the catalytic bed and the gas composition in the bed. Effects concerning tar elimination will be reported in part 2 of this work. This paper is mainly devoted to characterization of catalysts and to upgrading of the flue gas. H{sub 2} and CO contents increased by 4--14 and 1--8 vol%, dry basis, respectively. CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and steam contents decreased by 0--14, 87--99, and 2--6 vol %, dry basis, respectively. Other parameters varied in the following ways: the lower heating value decreased by 0.3--1.7 MJ/m{sup 3}{sub n}, gas yield increased by 0.1--0.4 m{sup 3}{sub n}/kg of biomass daf, and apparent thermal efficiency increased by 1--20%. The results presented allow screening of the best catalysts to get an upgraded and useful gas in biomass gasification with steam-oxygen mixtures.

Caballero, M.A.; Aznar, M.P.; Gil, J.; Martin, J.A.; Frances, E. [Univ. of Saragossa (Spain). Chemical and Environmental Engineering Dept.] [Univ. of Saragossa (Spain). Chemical and Environmental Engineering Dept.; Corella, J. [Univ. of Complutense of Madrid (Spain). Chemical Engineering Dept.] [Univ. of Complutense of Madrid (Spain). Chemical Engineering Dept.

1997-12-01

150

Toxicity of complex waste mixtures: A comparison of observed and predicted lethality  

SciTech Connect

The ability to predict the biological effect of complex waste mixtures from chemical characterization data was examined by comparing observed mortality to that predicted by a mathematical additivity model with literature LD50 values for the chemicals identified in the mixtures. Male F344 rats were exposed by gavage to 1 of 10 samples of complex industrial waste. Seven of the 10 waste samples caused death within 24 h of administration at dosages ranging from 1 to 5 ml/kg body weight. Two of the 7 lethal waste samples produced 100% mortality at a dosage of 2.5 ml/kg; another 2 waste samples produced 100% mortality at 5 ml/kg. The partial chemical analysis, although providing more extensive information on chemical composition than might normally be available for most complex waste mixtures, was not sufficient to distinguish lethal from nonlethal waste samples or to indicate lethal potency. Possible explanations for the apparent inability to predict readily lethality from the chemical characterization data include the possible inappropriateness of an additivity model due to the presence of interactions, such as synergism of antagonism; the kinetics of chemical absorption, distribution, and elimination, which may be affected by administration of the chemical in a complex matrix; and the presence of unidentified chemicals in the mixture that may have contributed to the observed toxicity.

Simmons, J.E.; Berman, E. (Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA))

1989-01-01

151

Life cycle assessment of a pyrolysis\\/gasification plant for hazardous paint waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal, Scope and Background  Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) remains an important tool in Dutch waste management policies. In 2002 the new National Waste Management\\u000a Plan 2002–2012 (NWMP) became effective. It was supported by some 150 LCA studies for more than 20 different waste streams.\\u000a The LCA results provided a benchmark level for new waste management technologies. Although not new, operational techniques

Robert Jan Saft

2007-01-01

152

Development of water-slurry gasification systems for high-moisture biomass. [Spent grain, potato waste, kelp, water hyacinth, napier grass, sorghum  

SciTech Connect

The development of a new biomass gasification system by Pacific Northwest Laboratory promises to allow the use of high-moisture biomass feedstocks. The reactor uses high pressure to allow the gasification of water-biomass slurries containing up to 95% moisture. Because the gasification takes place in an aqueous system, there is no need to dry or dewater the feedstocks prior to their use. Feedstocks under study include water hyacinths, kelp, napier grass, spent brewer's grain, and a waste stream obtained from the potato processing industry. Gasification products include hydrogen, CO/sub 2/ and methane. The effects of processing conditions including temperature, pressure, and catalyst are being studied in order to maximize both the rate of conversion and the yield of higher value products. The new reactor concept represents a significant opportunity for expanding the biomass resource base to include aquatic plants and other high-moisture feedstocks. Many of these feedstocks are uneconomical in conventional thermochemical and biological conversion schemes. By eliminating the need for energy intensive drying steps, the aqueous conversion route may also increase net energy yields from more conventional feedstocks. The work is being sponsored by the USDOE's Biomass Energy Technology Division, Thermochemical Conversion Program. 13 references, 4 figures, 4 tables.

Butner, R.S.; Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.

1985-01-01

153

Two stage fluid bed-plasma gasification process for solid waste valorisation: Technical review and preliminary thermodynamic modelling of sulphur emissions  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate sulphur during MSW gasification within a fluid bed-plasma process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We review the literature on the feed, sulphur and process principles therein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The need for research in this area was identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We perform thermodynamic modelling of the fluid bed stage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Initial findings indicate the prominence of solid phase sulphur. - Abstract: Gasification of solid waste for energy has significant potential given an abundant feed supply and strong policy drivers. Nonetheless, significant ambiguities in the knowledge base are apparent. Consequently this study investigates sulphur mechanisms within a novel two stage fluid bed-plasma gasification process. This paper includes a detailed review of gasification and plasma fundamentals in relation to the specific process, along with insight on MSW based feedstock properties and sulphur pollutant therein. As a first step to understanding sulphur partitioning and speciation within the process, thermodynamic modelling of the fluid bed stage has been performed. Preliminary findings, supported by plant experience, indicate the prominence of solid phase sulphur species (as opposed to H{sub 2}S) - Na and K based species in particular. Work is underway to further investigate and validate this.

Morrin, Shane, E-mail: shane.morrin@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Advanced Plasma Power, South Marston Business park, Swindon, SN3 4DE (United Kingdom); Lettieri, Paola, E-mail: p.lettieri@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Chapman, Chris, E-mail: chris.chapman@app-uk.com [Advanced Plasma Power, South Marston Business park, Swindon, SN3 4DE (United Kingdom); Mazzei, Luca, E-mail: l.mazzei@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

2012-04-15

154

Thermal analysis of growing media obtained from mixtures of paper mill waste materials and sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study deals with thermal analysis of growing media obtained from mixtures of paper will waste materials (one de-inking\\u000a paper sludge, HP, and one reject from paper mill producing paper from virgin wood, RT) with sewage sludge. For the growing\\u000a media formulation, one sewage sludge (L) was mixed with both paper mill waste materials at 10, 20, and 30% in

A. Méndez; S. Barriga; F. Guerrero; G. Gascó

2011-01-01

155

Analytical Methods for Hazardous Organics in Liquid Wastes from Coal Gasification and Liquefaction Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was conducted by the University of Southern California group to provide methods for the analysis of coal liquefaction wastes from coal conversion processing plants. Several methods of preliminary fractionation prior to analysis were considered....

T. F. Yen J. I. S. Tang M. Wasburne S. Cohanim

1982-01-01

156

Utilization of municipal solid waste incineration ash in stone mastic asphalt mixture: Pavement performance and environmental impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to the use of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash as a partial replacement of fine aggregate or mineral filler in stone matrix asphalt (SMA) mixture. For saving natural rock and reusing solid waste, basic oxygen furnace slag (BOF slag) was used as part of coarse aggregate. And this makes SMA mixtures contain

Yongjie Xue; Haobo Hou; Shujing Zhu; Jin Zha

2009-01-01

157

Adaptation of the Simplex gasification process to the co-conversion of municipal solid waste and sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the findings and recommendations of a research investigation designed to adapt the Simplex coal and biomass gasification process to the codisposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) and dewatered sewage sludge (DSS). The rationale of the Phase I study was to delimit and optimize briquette formulation parameters and to set experimental targets for the Phase II process optimization study that will lead directly to the pilot plant demonstration of the Simplex S process in large scale Simplex gasifier facilities. The Phase I program attained its experimental objectives in that it identified a practical range of briquette formulation parameters that permit the production of sturdy briquettes while incorporating fractions of DSS along with MSW and coal. These preferred formulations, which were developed after testing 225 experimental compositions, retain their structural integrity in all zones of the gasifier, do not cake or agglomerate in the pyrolysis and coking zone, and can stand prolonged storage without fungal growth. The operable ratio of coal to waste is from 1:1 to 2:1. The acceptable moisture content in the finished briquette ranges from 12 to 19%. Sound briquettes were produced from DSS containing 20% solids, provided the ratio of RDF (refuse-derived fuel) to DSS is above 8. When employing DSS with a solids content of 40%, the ratio of RDF to DSS may be as low as 4.The critical determinant is the moisture content in the pressed briquette which must be attained without expressing excess water. Recommendations are provided for the Phase II process optimization study that has for its principal goal the production of sturdy, non-caking sludge-freighted briquettes on commercial briquette fabrication equipment.

Arbo, J.C.; Glaser, D.P.; Lipowicz, M.A.; Schulz, R.B.; Spencer, J.L.

1981-04-01

158

Physical properties of briquettes from waste paper and wheat straw mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Briquetting may be considered as a good idea to utilise low grade combustible materials obtained from biomass sources. Studies demonstrated that waste paper and wheat straw or their mixtures can be compressed to a relative density greater than unity and stabilised at that density without binder material. A reduction in the volume of the material also provides its technological benefit,

A Demirba?

1999-01-01

159

Equilibrium moisture content of waste mixtures from post-consumer carton packaging.  

PubMed

The manufacturing of boards and roof tiles is one of the routes to reuse waste from the recycled-carton-packaging process. Such a process requires knowledge of the hygroscopic behaviour of these carton-packaging waste mixtures in order to guarantee the quality of the final product (e.g. boards and roof tiles). Thus, with four carton-packaging waste mixtures of selected compositions (A, B, C and D), the sorption isotherms were obtained at air temperature of 20, 40 and 60 degrees C by using the static method. This permits one to investigate which model can relate the equilibrium moisture content of the mixture with that of a pure component through the mass fraction of each component in the mixtures. The results show that the experimental data can be well described by the weighted harmonic mean model. This suggests that the mean equilibrium moisture content of the carton-packaging mixture presents a non-linear relationship with each single, pure compound. PMID:22720401

Bacelos, M S; Freire, J T

2012-01-01

160

Effect of catalysts in the quality of syngas and by-products obtained by co-gasification of coal and wastes. 2: Heavy metals, sulphur and halogen compounds abatement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the formation of sulphur and halogens compounds during co-gasification of low grade coals with different types of wastes that include: pine, petcoke and polyethylene (PE) with the aim of taking profit of waste energy value with the smallest possible impact on the environment. The influence of different types of catalysts or sorbents was studied: calcined dolomite, dolomite

Filomena Pinto; Helena Lopes; Rui Neto André; I. Gulyurtlu; I. Cabrita

2008-01-01

161

MIXED WASTE FACILITY RISK ASSESSMENT FOR A COMMERCIAL PLASMA-BASED GASIFICATION AND VITRIFICATION (GASVIT™) SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Allied Technology Group (ATG) has submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US EPA Region 10 a Preliminary Risk Assessment (PRA) of the potential risks resulting from exposure to both chemical and radioactive constituents. These constituents may be released from a proposed thermal facility for treating low level and mixed waste. The thermal facility will include

Moses Jaraysi; Catherine Massimino; David Domingo; Fred Feizollahi; Steve Goldenberg; William J. Smith

162

Sustainable waste management using plasma gasification at the campus of the University of California - Merced  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its original conception, the newest campus of the University of California located in Merced, was intended to apply sustainable principles of building construction and campus operation. Achieving zero net energy and zero landfill waste by 2020 has become a challenging goal for UC Merced. A technology that will assist the campus in reaching this goal is related to plasma

G. Diaz; E. Leal-Quiros

163

Prospects for energy recovery from plastic waste gasificators by means of MHD topping cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the authors present a feasibility study of a combined magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and steam turbine plant in which the working gas is made of burnt plastic waste. The possibility of MHD retrofit of existing plant, especially fed by fossil fuel, is well known, and has been studied both for its economical and environmental benefits. The environmental impact and

A. Geri; N. Verdone; A. Salvini

1999-01-01

164

Mixtures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mixtures allows exploration of percents through two piles of colored and uncolored chips. The user must decide how many chips to color to create the desired percentage of colored chips compared to the total pile. Mixtures is one of the Interactivate assessment explorers.

165

Gasification of Natural and Waste Biomass in a Pilot Scale Fluidized Bed Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three commercially available biomass fuels, made of natural and waste wood, were fed in a pilot scale bubbling fluidized bed gasifier having an internal diameter of 0.381 m and a maximum feeding capacity of 100 kg\\/h. The experimental runs were carried out at about 850°C and under values of the equivalence ratio between 0.20 and 0.30. The fluidized bed was generally made

U. Arena; L. Zaccariello; M. L. Mastellone

2010-01-01

166

New insulating particleboards prepared from mixture of solid wastes from tissue paper manufacturing and corn peel.  

PubMed

New composite boards with low-thermal conductivity produced from a mixture of solid wastes from tissue paper manufacturing (solid waste TPM) and corn peel have been developed. The effects of solid waste TPM/corn peel ratio on the properties of the boards were investigated and the possibility of using recycled polystyrene packaging foam as a laminating agent to improve the quality of the boards was also evaluated. Our results show that the density of the particleboards decrease with increasing the amount of corn peel added in the mixture, leading to a decrease in thermal conductivity of the final product. In contrary, larger amount of solid waste TPM added in the mixture produced stronger boards. The lamination of recycled polystyrene on the surface of particleboards improves the mechanical properties and reduces the thickness swelling of the boards. The best improvement in mechanical properties and swelling resistance could be achieved when 15% polystyrene (w/v) was coated on the surface of the boards. PMID:17977719

Lertsutthiwong, Pranee; Khunthon, Srichalai; Siralertmukul, Krisana; Noomun, Khanittha; Chandrkrachang, Suwalee

2008-07-01

167

Management of coal waste by energy recovery: mild gasification\\/flash pyrolysis of coal preparation wastes. Quarterly report, October-December 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feedstock characterization is now complete. Two of the refuse feedstocks, the bituminous coal feedstock and the subbituminous coal feedstock, were obtained and prepared for use in the mild gasification unit (MGU). Construction continued on the mild gasification unit and is estimated to be 95% complete. Most of the major equipment for the MGU is in place and operational. The vacuum

Gillespie

1986-01-01

168

Method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material  

DOEpatents

A method is described for destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500 C to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200 C to about 900 C in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet. 5 figs.

McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.

1997-09-02

169

Method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material  

DOEpatents

A method of destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500.degree. C. to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 900.degree. C. in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet.

McIntosh, Michael J. (Bolingbrook, IL) [Bolingbrook, IL; Arzoumanidis, Gregory G. (Naperville, IL) [Naperville, IL

1997-01-01

170

Mixture models versus free energy of hydration models for waste glass durability  

SciTech Connect

Two approaches for modeling high-level waste glass durability as a function of glass composition are compared. The mixture approach utilizes first-order mixture (FOM) or second-order mixture (SOM) polynomials in composition, whereas the free energy of hydration (FEH) approach assumes durability is linearly related to the FEH of glass. Both approaches fit their models to data using least squares regression. The mixture and FEH approaches are used to model glass durability as a function of glass composition for several simulated waste glass data sets. The resulting FEH and FOM model coefficients and goodness-of-fit statistics are compared, both within and across data sets. The goodness-of-fit statistics show that the FOM model fits/predicts durability in each data set better (sometimes much better) than the FEH model. Considerable differences also exist between some FEH and FOM model component coefficients for each of the data sets. These differences are due to the mixture approach having a greater flexibility to account for the effect of a glass component depending on the level and range of the component and on the levels of other glass components. The mixture approach can also account for higher-order (e.g., curvilinear or interactive) effects of components, whereas the FEH approach cannot. SOM models were developed for three of the data sets, and are shown to improve on the corresponding FOM models. Thus, the mixture approach has much more flexibility than the FEH approach for approximating the relationship between glass composition and durability for various glass composition regions.

Piepel, G.; Redgate, T.; Masuga, P.

1996-03-01

171

Effect of feeding food waste-broiler litter and bakery by-product mixture to pigs.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding aerobically processed and vacuum-dried food waste-broiler litter and bakery by-product mixture to finishing pigs on performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and taste panel test. A corn-soy diet (Control) was replaced with food waste mixture (FWM) at dietary levels of 25% (25% FWM) and 50% (50% FWM) on a dry matter (DM) basis. Diets were fed to a total of 45 pigs (mean body weight 69.4kg) during the eight wk of finishing period. After slaughtering, longissmus muscle at 24h postmortem was used for meat quality analysis. Restaurant food waste was high in protein (22.0%) and fat (23.9%). Supplementing a corn-soy diet with FWM increased (P<0.05) feed DM intake, did not alter (P>0.05) average daily gain, decreased (P<0.05) feed efficiency especially for 50% FWM treatment, and substantially reduced (P<0.05) feed cost, compared with feeding a corn-soy diet only. Feeding FWM up to 50% did not affect (P>0.05) carcass characteristics (carcass weight, dressing percentage, backfat thickness and carcass grade), meat fatty acid composition, meat quality (marbling score, pH, water holding capacity, drip loss, L*, a*, b* values, Warner-Bratzler shear force, cooking loss), and taste panel test (flavor, taste, tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptance) compared with feeding a corn-soy diet. However, meat color was paler (P<0.05) for 50% FWM fed animals than a corn-soy diet fed animals. Meat color was the only limiting factor when FWM was fed to finishing pigs. In conclusion, aerobically processed and vacuum-dried food waste-broiler litter and bakery by-product mixture was similar to a corn-soy diet in feed value for finishing pigs. PMID:16171681

Kwak, W S; Kang, J S

2006-01-01

172

Environmental Assessment of a Commercial Boiler Fired with a Coal/Waste Plastic Mixture. Volume 1. Technical Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives results of comprehensive emissions testing and laboratory analyses of a stoker-fired commercial boiler firing a coal/waste plastic mixture. In one test, the unit fired its typical coal fuel; in the other, shredded waste polyethylene terep...

R. DeRosier H. I. Lips L. R. Waterland

1986-01-01

173

Hydraulic Conductivity Tests for Evaluating Compatibility of Lateritic Soil—Fly Ash Mixtures with Municipal Waste Leachate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long term competent performance of liner systems is a critical issue in the design and construction of waste repositories\\u000a due to adverse interactions associated with leachate generated by wastes. This study was conducted to verify the efficacy\\u000a of fly ash stabilization in enhancing compatibility between lateritic soil and municipal waste leachate. Applications investigated\\u000a include soil mixtures containing 0, 5, 10,

Agapitus Ahamefule Amadi

2011-01-01

174

Energy recovery from waste food by combustion or gasification with the potential for regenerative dehydration: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy recovery from food waste was studied using the food service at the US Naval Academy as a case study. Post-consumer food waste was captured over a period of ten days to estimate individual waste per meal and total waste per month. The food waste was analyzed for chemical composition and water content using ultimate and proximate analysis, and for

P. A. Caton; M. A. Carr; S. S. Kim; M. J. Beautyman

2010-01-01

175

Cation segregation in simulated radioactive-waste zeolite-A mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Segregation of cations based on size is observed in samples of zeolite-A loaded with simulated radioactive-waste ({approximately}5 wt.% Li, K, Cs and Ba, 1 wt.% Sr and Y, <1 wt.% Na) prepared from chloride salts. In contrast to traditional Na zeolite-A, for which all 8-ring access super ({alpha}) cages are identical and situated on a simple face-centered-cubic lattice, these simulated rad-waste mixtures contain two types of {alpha}-cages situated on a NaCl-like lattice. The long range ordering of extra-framework ions is propagated by severe distortion of frame work oxygens due to strong coordination with Li.

Richardson, J.W. Jr.; Lewis, M.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); McCart, B.R. [Augustana Coll., Rock Island, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics

1994-01-01

176

Gasification of carbon-bearing raw materials in plasma-arc electric furnace with heater and risk of explosion in syngas mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saw dust was gasified at combined and separated impact of the heater and arc discharge on the raw material. It is shown that because of combustion of a part of produced syngas in the heater the raw material can be gasified with power inputs reduced by 20-25 % in comparison with plasma gasification. Data on parameters of combustion and detonation

A. S. Anshakov; A. A. Vasiliev; A. V. Pinaev; V. A. Faleev

2010-01-01

177

Considerations on coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial processes for gasification of coal with oxygen are discussed. The Koppers-Totzek process of gasification of coal dust gasification, in which fine dust-like fuel particles are carried through the gasification chamber in the flow of the gasification medium, is described. The outlook for future application of coal gasification is discussed.

J. E. Franzen

1977-01-01

178

Gasification of leached orujillo (olive oil waste) in a pilot plant circulating fluidised bed reactor. Preliminary results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly a quarter of the world's olive oil production takes place in Spain, where energy companies are starting to exploit the potential of the residues from this industry as biomass fuel for energy production. Approximately, 2milliont\\/yr of orujillo (a residual by-product of the olive oil production industry) are generated in Spain.Fluidised bed gasification is considered to be the most advanced

P. Garc??a-Ibañez; A. Cabanillas; J. M. Sánchez

2004-01-01

179

Removal of acetone and methylacetate mixtures from waste gases by a trickle-bed air biofilter.  

PubMed

The biofilter process is a relatively new technology that has been proven more cost-effective than traditional technologies for treating low-strength and some high-strength volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from waste gases. Acetone (AT) and methylacetate (MA) mixtures are commonly encountered from the manufacture of artificial rubber or polyurethane resin. This research attempts to employ a trickle-bed air biofilter (TBAB) for treating AT and MA mixtures under different influent carbon loadings. In the pseudo-steady-states, the elimination capacities of AT and MA increased but the removal efficiencies decreased with increased influent carbon loading. The removal efficiencies of MA were higher than those of AT showing that MA is a preferred substrate in the ATMA waste gas and the differences were enhanced at a high carbon loading. Greater than 95% AT removal and nearly complete MA removal were achieved with influent carbon loadings of AT and MA below 20 and 27 g m(-1) h(-1), respectively. The TBAB appears very efficient for treating ATMA emission with low to medium carbon loadings. PMID:11999986

Lu, C; Lin, M R; Wey, I

2002-03-01

180

Conversion of a CFCs, HFCs and HCFCs waste mixture via reaction with methane.  

PubMed

The gas-phase reaction of a mixture of waste refrigerant gases, namely R22 (CHClF(2)), R12 (CCl(2)F(2)) and R134a (CH(2)FCF(3)) with CH(4) has been investigated over the temperature range of 873-1133K. The investigation was undertaken as an initial assessment of the viability of this process as a treatment option for waste mixtures of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and as a potential route for the synthesis of CH(2)=CF(2) (VDF). During the reaction, CH(2)=CF(2) is observed as the major product formed and a 43% selectivity to CH(2)=CF(2) is obtained at 1073K. A detailed mechanism is developed based on the mechanistic analysis from kinetic modeling, with the initiation reaction involving the formation of Cl radicals from CCl(2)F(2). Good agreement is achieved between the predictions and experimental results. Based on a mechanistic analysis, a summary of the major reaction pathways is proposed, which is consistent with the experimental observations. PMID:20875701

Han, Wenfeng; Kennedy, Eric M; Mackie, John C; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z

2010-12-15

181

Influence of operation conditions and additives on the development of producer gas and tar reduction in air gasification of construction woody wastes using a two-stage gasifier.  

PubMed

Air gasification was conducted with fractions of construction woody wastes in a two-stage gasifier, consisting of a fluidized bed zone and a tar cracking zone. The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of reaction conditions and additives on the composition of producer gas and tar content in producer gas. A producer gas obtained with activated carbon of 540 g at an ER of 0.26 was mainly composed of H(2) (25 vol.%), CO (22 vol.%) and CH(4) (5 vol.%). Regarding tar removal efficiency, activated carbon was better than olivine. The tar removal rate with virgin activated carbon reached up to 80%. The reuse of spent activated carbon caused an efficiency loss in tar removal to some extent. Overall, it seems that the strong need for intensive downstream tar removal measurements can be removed with the use of a two-stage gasifier and the application of activated carbon. PMID:21565495

Mun, Tae-Young; Kim, Jin-O; Kim, Jin-Won; Kim, Joo-Sik

2011-07-01

182

Management of coal waste by energy recovery: mild gasification\\/flash pyrolysis of coal preparation wastes. Quarterly report, January-March 1986  

Microsoft Academic Search

Construction continued on the Mild Gasification Unit, MGU, with the addition of the vacuum pump. The MGU can now be operated under vacuum conditions. Modifications were made to the reactor tube packing box after leaks were discovered around the old packing boxes. The new packing box is taller and wider than the old packing box allowing more effective packing. Preliminary

Charles I. C. Chu; B. L. Gillespie

1986-01-01

183

Fundamental studies of catalytic gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past two years, it has been found that the binary system of good gasification catalysts such as mixtures of potassium and nickel oxide or still better calcium and potassium oxide can be further improved by adding third components to this system. It has also been shown that petroleum cokes can be gasified as easily as coals. Addition of

H. Heinemann; G. A. Somorjai

1991-01-01

184

Gasification of carbon-bearing raw materials in plasma-arc electric furnace with heater and risk of explosion in syngas mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saw dust was gasified at combined and separated impact of the heater and arc discharge on the raw material. It is shown that\\u000a because of combustion of a part of produced syngas in the heater the raw material can be gasified with power inputs reduced\\u000a by 20–25 % in comparison with plasma gasification. Data on parameters of combustion and detonation

A. S. Anshakov; A. A. Vasiliev; A. V. Pinaev; V. A. Faleev

2010-01-01

185

Removal of acrylonitrile and styrene mixtures from waste gases by a trickle-bed air biofilter.  

PubMed

The trickle-bed air biofilter (TBAB) performance for treating acrylonitrile (AN) and styrene (SR) mixtures was evaluated under different influent carbon loadings. In the pseudo steady state conditions, the elimination capacities of AN and SR increased but the removal efficiencies decreased with increased influent carbon loading. The removal efficiencies of AN were higher than those of SR, indicating that AN is a preferred substrate in the ANSR waste gas. More than 80% removal efficiencies were achieved with influent carbon loadings of AN and SR below 28 and 22 g/m(3)/h, respectively. The TBAB appears to be efficient for controlling ANSR emission with low to medium carbon loadings, and the effectiveness could be maintained over 175 days of laboratory operation. The elimination capacities of AN and SR for a pure volatile organic compound (VOC) feed were higher than those for a mixed VOC feed and the differences increased with increased influent VOC loading. PMID:14505021

Lu, C; Lin, M-R; Wey, I

2002-04-01

186

Solid state fermentation of food waste mixtures for single cell protein, aroma volatiles and fat production.  

PubMed

Growth of selected microorganisms of industrial interest (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus and kefir) by solid state fermentation (SSF) of various food industry waste mixtures was studied. The fermented products were analysed for protein, and nutrient minerals content, as well as for aroma volatile compounds by GC/MS. The substrate fermented by K. marxianus contained the highest sum of fat and protein concentration (59.2% w/w dm) and therefore it could be considered for utilisation of its fat content and for livestock feed enrichment. Regarding volatiles, the formation of high amounts of ?-pinene was observed only in the SSF product of kefir at a yield estimated to be 4 kg/tn of SSF product. A preliminary design of a biorefinery-type process flow sheet and its economic analysis, indicated potential production of products (enriched livestock feed, fat and ?-pinene) of significant added value. PMID:24128535

Aggelopoulos, Theodoros; Katsieris, Konstantinos; Bekatorou, Argyro; Pandey, Ashok; Banat, Ibrahim M; Koutinas, Athanasios A

2014-02-15

187

Management of coal waste by energy recovery: mild gasification\\/flash pyrolysis of coal preparation wastes. Quarterly report, April-June 1986  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several modifications were made to the Mild Gasification Unit, MGU. Modifications included relocating the condensing system from the second floor to the third floor, modifying the condensing system to enable water-cooling or dry ice-cooling, installation of an equilibrium line between the char chute and the gas-exist lines, and mounting the condensing system on weigh scales to allow determination of the

C. I. C. Chu; B. L. Gillespie

1986-01-01

188

Energy recovery via mild gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mild gasification research process unit capable of processing up to one ton of coal per day has been constructed at UCC Research Corporation, Bristol, Virginia. The unit is very flexible utilizing coal preparation waste, bituminous, and subbituminous coal as feedstocks. The results, to date, have been encouraging, in that a high quality condensable hydrocarbon has been produced and a

R. A. Wolfe; C. J. Im; B. L. Gillespie; M. R. Ghate

1986-01-01

189

Evaluation of Reactive Mixtures for Treatment of Mine Drainage From a Waste Rock Storage Area in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

A column experiment has been conducted to evaluate the performance of three reactive mixtures which may be used in a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for the treatment of low quality mine drainage water from a waste rock storage area in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. The key element of concern in the drainage water is dissolved Ni, which occurs at approximately 13

S. Jeen; J. G. Bain; D. W. Blowes

2007-01-01

190

Study of lay people's perceptions of appropriate management of gasoline\\/soil mixtures, hazardous waste mixtures, and trash\\/garbage mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method used was a researcher-developed questionnaire that was given to San Diego residents who were either Naval Reservists or worked at the corporate headquarters of a fast food chain. The respondents were chosen to yield a cross section of lay people. The forced-choice questionnaire asked identical questions about each of the wastes. The sequence in which each waste appeared

Simon

1988-01-01

191

Management of coal waste by energy recovery: mild gasification\\/flash pyrolysis of coal preparation wastes. Topical report No. one: literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this literature review is to collect and assess the available literature of the management of coal preparation wastes. Three areas in particular will be examined. They are: (1) current and projected future production of coal preparation wastes, (2) characteristics of regulated constituents present in such wastes, and (3) current and potential future techniques available for managing such

F. E. McCown; B. L. Gillespie

1985-01-01

192

Management of coal waste by energy recovery: Mild gasification\\/flash pyrolysis of coal preparation waste: Quarterly report (draft) for the period July-September 1986  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most perplexing problems facing the coal industry is how to properly dispose of the waste and\\/or even recovery a small fraction of the Btu value of the waste, while minimizing the environmental concerns. UCC Research considers this monumental environmental problems as an opportunity to recovery useable organic materials and reduce the environmental problems created by coal waste.

C. I. C. Chu; B. L. Gillespie

1986-01-01

193

Chemistry of coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

Coal is a complex solid material containing a mixture of substances that chemically consist mostly of carbon with lesser amounts of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and ash. Gasification is the conversion of solid coal to combustible gases by combining the carbon with additional oxygen and/or hydrogen. Although thermal decomposition (pyrolysis) can produce gaseous fuels, they are usually produced by reaction with oxygen, hydrogen, steam and carbon dioxide. The elemental composition range of coal and several combustible gases that may be derived from coal are given. At one extreme, the sole addition of oxygen provides carbon monoxide, the main component of a fuel gas called producer gas. At the other extreme, the addition of only hydrogen provides methane, the main constituent of substitute natural gas (SNG). In between these extremes, the addition of both oxygen and hydrogen provides a mixture of CO and H/sub 2/, which can be used either for fuel or for a chemical feedstock (synthesis gas or syngas). Coal gasification is carried out at high temperatures and chemical heat effects play an important part in controlling the process as well as providing for the process energy needs. The most important reactions for gasifying carbon are given in Table 2. Combinations with oxygen result in heat evolution (exothermic reactions). Conversely, the reaction of carbon with steam (H/sub 2/O(g)) to form H/sub 2/ and CO or to form H/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/ requires the input of heat (an endothermic reaction). Also, carbon may be gasified by the direct addition of hydrogen (hydrogasification) to form methane (an exothermic reaction) or by CO/sub 2/ to form CO (an endothermic reaction). Most gasification processes are controlled by balancing the heat effects of the exothermic and endothermic reactions.

Vorres, K.S.

1982-01-01

194

Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 6, Appendix D, Pyrolysis and gasification of MSW.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Appendix summarizes information available in the open literature describing the technology and operating experierice of pyrolysis technology as applied to the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). The literature search, which emphasized the time...

1992-01-01

195

Stabilization and gasification of soft-drink manufacturing waste by conventional and two-phase anaerobic digestion  

SciTech Connect

Energy recovery and waste stabilization accomplished simultaneously in the beverage industry by anaerobic digestion are investigated. The applicability and limitation of the conventional high-rate anaerobic digestion process are tested. A rapid-rate waste conversion process, two-phase anaerobic digestion, developed for enhanced net energy production with COD reduction comparable to that obtainable by application of a conventional digestion process is discussed. The high-rate digestion run was developed from a mixed MSW-sludge-biomass-fed inoculum.

Ghosh, S.; Henry, M.P.

1981-01-01

196

2007 gasification technologies conference papers  

SciTech Connect

Sessions covered: gasification industry roundtable; the gasification market in China; gasification for power generation; the gasification challenge: carbon capture and use storage; industrial and polygeneration applications; gasification advantage in refinery applications; addressing plant performance; reliability and availability; gasification's contribution to supplementing gaseous and liquid fuels supplies; biomass gasification for fuel and power markets; and advances in technology-research and development

NONE

2007-07-01

197

Kansas refinery starts up coke gasification unit  

SciTech Connect

Texaco Refining and Marketing Inc. has started up a gasification unit at its El Dorado, Kan., refinery. The unit gasifies delayed coke and other refinery waste products. This is the first refinery to install a coke-fueled gasification unit for power generation. Start-up of the $80-million gasification-based power plant was completed in mid-June. The gasifier produces syngas which, along with natural gas, fuels a combustion turbine. The turbine produces virtually 100% of the refinery`s electricity needs and enough heat to generate 40% of its steam requirements.

Rhodes, A.K.

1996-08-05

198

Analytical methods for hazardous organics in liquid wastes from coal gasification and liquefaction processes. Report for Feb 79-Oct 80  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted by the University of Southern California group to provide methods for the analysis of coal liquefaction wastes from coal conversion processing plants. Several methods of preliminary fractionation prior to analysis were considered. The most satisfactory method is that employing column separation, using macroreticular absorbent resins and dividing the wastewaters into hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions. By subsequent

T. F. Yen; J. I. S. Tang; M. Wasburne; S. Cohanim

1982-01-01

199

Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 6, Appendix D, Pyrolysis and gasification of MSW  

SciTech Connect

This Appendix summarizes information available in the open literature describing the technology and operating experierice of pyrolysis technology as applied to the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). The literature search, which emphasized the time frame of greatest activity in MSW pyrolysis (i.e., the mid-1960s to the mid-1980s), focused on the scale of application, material feedstock, technical limitations and economic considerations. Smaller scale facilities, either laboratory/research scale (< I TPD) or process development/pilot scale plants (1-20 TPD) for municipal waste and related materials (agricultural, forest residues, industrial wastes, etc.), are mentioned in the literature (275, 495). However, such data are sparse, dated, and often have limited applicability to MSW in general, and for design scale-up in particular. Therefore, greatest emphasis was placed on identifying demonstration scale (20--150 TPD) will commercial seals (> 150 TPD) studies which could be expected to provide economic, environmental, and energy data that can be scaled with possibly less risk. While the promise of pyrolysis of MSW lies in its ability to transform municipal waste into gaseous and liquid chemicals and fuel products, the major limitation is the unproven technical and economic feasibility of a large scale facility.

none,

1992-10-01

200

EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS  

SciTech Connect

Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors entered into a Cooperative Agreement with the USDOE, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases. Phase 1 is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report is WMPI's fourth quarterly technical progress report. It covers the period performance from January 1, 2002 through March 31, 2002.

Unknown

2002-06-01

201

Neutralization/prevention of acid rock drainage using mixtures of alkaline by-products and sulfidic mine wastes.  

PubMed

Backfilling of open pit with sulfidic waste rock followed by inundation is a common method for reducing sulfide oxidation after mine closure. This approach can be complemented by mixing the waste rock with alkaline materials from pulp and steel mills to increase the system's neutralization potential. Leachates from 1 m3 tanks containing sulfide-rich (ca.30 wt %) waste rock formed under dry and water saturated conditions under laboratory conditions were characterized and compared to those formed from mixtures. The waste rock leachate produced an acidic leachate (pH<2) with high concentrations of As (65 mg/L), Cu (6 mg/L), and Zn (150 mg/L) after 258 days. The leachate from water-saturated waste rock had lower concentrations of As and Cu (<2 ?g/L), Pb and Zn (20 ?g/L and 5 mg/L), respectively, and its pH was around 6. Crushed (<6 mm) waste rock mixed with different fractions (1-5 wt %) of green liquid dregs, fly ash, mesa lime, and argon oxygen decarburization (AOD) slag was leached on a small scale for 65 day, and showed near-neutral pH values, except for mixtures of waste rock with AOD slag and fly ash (5% w/w) which were more basic (pH>9). The decrease of elemental concentration in the leachate was most pronounced for Pb and Zn, while Al and S were relatively high. Overall, the results obtained were promising and suggest that alkaline by-products could be useful additives for minimizing ARD formation. PMID:23740301

Alakangas, Lena; Andersson, Elin; Mueller, Seth

2013-11-01

202

Chemical recycling of mixture of waste plastics using a new reactor system with stirred heat medium particles in steam atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new reactor system was developed for recovery fuels from the waste plastic mixture in steam atmosphere. Firstly, the degradation mechanisms of eight kinds of plastics, two polyolefins (polyethylene and polypropylene), two polyamide resins (nylon-6 and nylon-6,6), polystyrene and three polyesters (polycarbonate, poly(butylene terephthalate) and poly(ethylene terephthalate), were investigated both in nitrogen and steam as the carrier gas. Plastics except

Takao Masuda; Tatsuhiko Kushino; Toshihiro Matsuda; Shin R Mukai; Kenji Hashimoto; Shu-ichi Yoshida

2001-01-01

203

Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle— A Review of IGCC Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past three decades, significant efforts have been made toward the development of cleaner and more efficient technology for power generation. Coal gasification technology received a big thrust with the concept of combined cycle power generation. The integration of coal gasification with combined cycle for power generation (IGCC) had the inherent characteristic of gas cleanup and waste minimization, which

MEDHA M. JOSHI; SUNGGYU LEE

1996-01-01

204

Study of the Treatability of Wastewater from a Coal-Gasification Plant. Final Report, July 15, 1978-July 14, 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study focused on the coal gasification facility serving the Holston Army Ammunition Plant in Kingsport, Tennessee. Objectives were to characterize the wastewater produced by the gasification facility, and to evaluate technology for treating the waste...

A. F. Iglar

1980-01-01

205

Fuel Flexibility in Gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to increase efficiencies of carbonizers, operation at high pressures is needed. In addition, waste biomass fuels of opportunity can be used to offset fossil fuel use. The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Fluidized Bed Gasifier\\/Combustor (FBG\\/C) was used to gasify coal and mixtures of coal and biomass (sawdust) at 425 psig. The purpose of the testing program was

T. Robert McLendon; Richard L. Pineault; Steven W. Richardson; John M. Rockey; Stephen K. Beer; Alain P. Lui; William A. Batton

2001-01-01

206

Plant response to FBC waste-coal slurry solid mixtures. [Quarterly] technical report, December 1--February 28, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to test the feasibility of stabilizing coal slurry solids (CSS) wastes by directly seeding plants into the waste. This is not done conventionally because the waste can generate toxic amounts of sulfuric acid. Our approach is to neutralize the potential acidity by mixing fluidized bed combustion (FBC) waste into the slurry. If successful this approach would both help dispose of FBC wastes while providing a more economical slurry stabilization technique. The project involves growing forage plants in CSS-FBC mixtures in the greenhouse. This is the second quarter of the project. We have designed the experiment, secured greenhouse space, purchased the seeds, collected, dried, and are analyzing the FBC and CSS samples. The samples represent a typical range of properties. We retrieved two FBC and two CSS samples. One CSS sample had a relatively high CaCO{sub 3} content relative to the pyrite content and will require no FBC to neutralize the potential acidity. The other CSS sample will require from 4.2 to 2.7% FBC material to neutralize its potential acidity.

Darmody, R.G. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States); Dunker, R.E. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Agronomy; Dreher, G.B.; Roy, W.R.; Steel, J.D. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

1994-06-01

207

Optimization of marine waste based-growth media for microbial lipase production using mixture design methodology.  

PubMed

Lipase production by Staphylococcus xylosus and Rhizopus oryzae was investigated using a culture medium based on a mixture of synthetic medium and supernatants generated from tuna by-products and Ulva rigida biomass. The proportion of the three medium components was optimized using the simplex-centroid mixture design method (SCMD). Results indicated that the experimental data were in good agreement with predicted values, indicating that SCMD was a reliable method for determining the optimum mixture proportion of the growth medium. Maximal lipase activities of 12.5 and 23.5 IU/mL were obtained with a 50:50 (v:v) mixture of synthetic medium and tuna by-product supernatant for Staphylococcus xylosus and Rhizopus oryzae, respectively. The predicted responses from these mixture proportions were also validated experimentally. PMID:24350480

Sellami, Mohamed; Kedachi, Samiha; Frikha, Fakher; Miled, Nabil; Ben Rebah, Faouzi

2013-01-01

208

Advanced Thermochemical Biomass Gasification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Development of advanced biomass gasification systems offers the potential for increasing the industrial use of biomass. An overview of the limitations of thermal gasification systems for producing medium-Btu gas from biomass is presented. The use of an ex...

R. S. Butner D. C. Elliott L. J. Sealock

1986-01-01

209

Gasification: redefining clean energy  

SciTech Connect

This booklet gives a comprehensive overview of how gasification is redefining clean energy, now and in the future. It informs the general public about gasification in a straight-forward, non-technical manner.

NONE

2008-05-15

210

The challenge posed to children's health by mixtures of toxic waste: the Tar Creek superfund site as a case-study.  

PubMed

In the United States, many of the millions of tons of hazardous wastes that have been produced since World War II have accumulated in sites throughout the nation. Citizen concern about the extent of this problem led Congress to establish the Superfund Program in 1980 to locate, investigate, and clean up the worst sites nationwide. Most such waste exists as a complex mixture of many substances. This article discusses the issue of toxic mixtures and children's health by focusing on the specific example of mining waste at the Tar Creek Superfund Site in Northeast Oklahoma. PMID:17306689

Hu, Howard; Shine, James; Wright, Robert O

2007-02-01

211

2010 Worldwide Gasification Database  

DOE Data Explorer

The 2010 Worldwide Gasification Database describes the current world gasification industry and identifies near-term planned capacity additions. The database lists gasification projects and includes information (e.g., plant location, number and type of gasifiers, syngas capacity, feedstock, and products). The database reveals that the worldwide gasification capacity has continued to grow for the past several decades and is now at 70,817 megawatts thermal (MWth) of syngas output at 144 operating plants with a total of 412 gasifiers.

212

Ethanol production of semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation from mixture of cotton gin waste and recycled paper sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol production from the steam-exploded mixture of 75% cotton gin waste and 25% recycled paper sludge in various conditions\\u000a was investigated by semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSSF) consisting of a pre-hydrolysis and a simultaneous\\u000a saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Four cases were studied: 24-h pre-hydrolysis + 48-h SSF (SSSF 24), 12-h pre-hydrolysis + 60-h\\u000a SSF (SSSF 12), 72-h SSF, and 48-h hydrolysis + 24-h fermentation (SHF). The

Jiacheng ShenFoster; Foster A. Agblevor

2011-01-01

213

PELLETIZING WASTE COMPOST AND FLY ASH MIXTURE TO PRODUCE FERTILIZING MATERIAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic idea in this study is to develop a method to convert compost waste into pellets with the addition of fly ash. The pellets are to be used as soil conditioners suitable for plant production. The article introduces a method of how to make compost waste and fly ash easier to process and distribute, to enhance their soil improving

H. Orava; H. Kuopanportti; T. Tontti

214

Considerations on coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial processes for the gasification of coal with oxygen are discussed. The Koppers-Totzek process for the gasification of coal dust entrained in a stream of gasifying agents is described in particular detail. The outlook for future applications of coal gasification is presented. Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred format for this abstract (see Preferences) Find Similar Abstracts: Use: Authors Title

J. E. Franzen

1978-01-01

215

Belgium, FRG underground coal gasification project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plans for the underground coal gasification of one to five K deep coal reserves are described. The European energy market is surveyed. Retrocombustion with a mixture of pure oxygen and high pressure steam at a depth of 860 m is under investigation.

Willems, L.

1982-04-01

216

EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT-DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS  

SciTech Connect

Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors entered into a Cooperative Agreement with the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases. Phase 1 is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase 2 is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase 3 updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase 2, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report covers the period performance from April 1, 2002 through June 30, 2002.

Unknown

2002-07-01

217

Ultrapyrolytic upgrading of plastic wastes and plastics\\/heavy oil mixtures to valuable light gas products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viable operating conditions were identified experimentally for maximizing the production of high-value products such as ethylene, propylene, styrene, and benzene, from the ultrapyrolysis of waste plastics. Using both a batch microreactor and a pilot-plant-sized reactor, the key operating variables considered were pyrolysis temperature, product reaction time, and quench time. In the microreactor experiments, polystyrene (PS), a significant component of waste

Scott Lovett; Franco Berruti; Leo A. Behie

1997-01-01

218

Coal Gasification (chapter only)  

SciTech Connect

Coal gasification is presented in terms of the chemistry of coal conversion and the product gas characteristics, the historical development of coal gasifiers, variations in the types and performance of coal gasifiers, the configuration of gasification systems, and the status and economics of coal gasification. In many ways, coal gasification processes have been tailored to adapt to the different types of coal feedstocks available. Gasification technology is presented from a historical perspective considering early uses of coal, the first practical demonstration and utilization of coal gasification, and the evolution of the various processes used for coal gasification. The development of the gasification industry is traced from its inception to its current status in the world economy. Each type of gasifier is considered focusing on the process innovations required to meet the changing market needs. Complete gasification systems are described including typical system configurations, required system attributes, and aspects of the industry's environmental and performance demands. The current status, economics of gasification technology, and future of gasification are also discussed.

Shadle, L.J.; Berry, D.A.; Syamlal, Madhava

2002-11-15

219

Sequestration of CO2 in Mixtures of Caustic Byproduct and Saline Waste Water  

SciTech Connect

Ex-situ carbonation of mixtures of caustic byproduct materials and produced oil-field brine provides a niche opportunity to sequester anthropogenic CO2, while concomitantly reducing the basicity of the reactive slurry. A series of tests were conducted to investigate a novel reaction concept designed to achieve neutralization of mixtures of acidic oil field produced brine and caustic industrial byproducts while sequestering substantial quantities of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (C02) in a mixed-flow reactor. Experiments were conducted to determine the COrbearing capacity of reactive mixtures of brine from the Oriskany Sandstone Formation with three caustic industrial byproducts: flue gas desulfurization (FGO) spray dryer ash, Class C fly ash subbituminous coal combustion byproduct, and bauxite residue slurry from the alumina production process. Reactions were conducted in a closed, well-mixed (1,500 rpm) reactor with gas composed of 29.46% vol./vol. CO2 balanced by nitrogen gas (N2) fed at a rate of 300mL/min. Reactions were carried out at ambient conditions. Results show linear relationships between caustic byproduct addition and COrbearing capacity, with relatively small impact of brine addition as compared to deionized water addition. FGO spray dryer ash/brine mixtures exhibited higher CO2 reactivity than those using Class C fly ash (0.759 moles CO2, at 23.6% solids by weight and 0.036 moles CO2 at 23.3% solids by weight, respectively). Bauxite residue exhibited moderate capacities in mixtures with higher percent solids (0.335 moles CO2 in 40% solids bauxite residue slurry). Carbonation capacity of caustic byproduct/ acidic brine mixtures was shown to increase linearly with respect to percent caustic byproduct addition, but enhanced mineral carbonate precipitation resulting from synergistic reaction of brine cations with increased dissolved carbonate species was not observed in the short term.

Dilmore, R.M.; Howard, B.H.; Soong, Y.; Griffith, C.; Hedges,S.W.; DeGalbo, A.D.; Morreale, B.; Baltrus, J.P.; Allen, D.E.; Fu, J.K.

2009-01-01

220

Investigation of first stage liquefaction of coal with model plastic waste mixtures  

SciTech Connect

As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Fossil Energy program, the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) recently initiated research in coal-waste coprocessing. Coal-waste coprocessing is conversion to liquid feedstocks of a combination of any or all of the following: coal, rubber, plastics, heavy oil, and waste oil. The current effort is on the combined processing of coal, waste oil, and plastics. One reason commonly cited for coprocessing of coal and plastic materials is the higher hydrogen-to-carbon ratio in most plastics as compared to coal, which is hydrogen deficient relative to the petroleum-like liquids desired as products. Furthermore, the free radicals which are present in coal and believed to be produced in the early stages of coal dissolution could aid in the breakdown of plastic polymers. In this study, screening tests have been conducted in microautoclave reactors, 1-L semi-batch stirred autoclave reactors, and a small-scale continuous unit. All tests employed Black Thunder subbituminous coal with plastic waste streams containing polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) in various combinations and proportions. The materials and conditions were chosen to be compatible with those being investigated by other participants in the USDOE Fossil Energy program, including the proof-of-concept (POC) scale plant at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc. (HRI) in Princeton, NJ. Due to the rapidly evolving nature of the coal-waste coprocessing initiative, many of the experiments reported here were designed to identify potential problem areas for scheduled runs on larger units rather than to systematically map out the chemistry involved with coliquefaction of coal and plastic materials. However, insights into both chemistry and operability of coal-waste coprocessing can be gained from the data.

Rothenberger, K.S.; Cugini, A.V.; Ciocco, M.V. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31

221

Sustainable valorization of plastic wastes for energy with environmental safety via High-Temperature Pyrolysis (HTP) and High-Temperature Steam Gasification (HTSG)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study the energetic valorization of electric cable shredder residues (mixed plastics) has been investigated. Thermochemical conversion by means of High-Temperature Steam Gasification (HTSG) and High-Temperature Pyrolysis (HTP) was studied. The effects of temperature and reaction time – process parameters – were investigated. Comparison of the results showed that HTSG seems a more suitable process in terms of

E. Kantarelis; P. Donaj; W. Yang; A. Zabaniotou

2009-01-01

222

SOLAR ASSISTED GASIFICATION: IMPLEMENTATION AND SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste-to-Energy through gasification is a two-sided solution to the threat of fossil fuel depletion and to the environmental impact of methane and carbon dioxide emissions from the landfills. This practice is rewarding since it generates a renewable and sustainable source when it is used to produce fuels and chemicals from waste (industrial, medical, municipal) and the byproducts of downstream processes

Rana Qudaih; Zaki Al-Nahari; Ilham Talab; Isam Janajreh

223

Sequestration of CO{sub 2} in Mixtures of Caustic Byproduct and Saline Waste Water  

SciTech Connect

A series of tests were conducted to investigate a novel reaction concept designed to achieve neutralization of mixtures of acidic oil field produced brine and caustic industrial byproducts while sequestering substantial quantities of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in a mixed-flow reactor. Experiments were conducted to determine the CO{sub 2}-bearing capacity of reactive mixtures of brine from the Oriskany Sandstone Formation with three caustic industrial byproducts: flue gas desulfurization (FGD) spray dryer ash, Class C fly ash subbituminous coal combustion byproduct, and bauxite residue slurry from the alumina production process. Reactions were conducted in a closed, well-mixed (1,500 rpm) reactor with gas composed of 29.46% vol./vol. CO{sub 2} balanced by nitrogen gas fed at a rate of 300 mL/min. Reactions were carried out at ambient conditions. Results show linear relationships between caustic byproduct addition and CO{sub 2}-bearing capacity, with relatively small impact of brine addition as compared to deionized water addition. FGD spray dryer ash/brine mixtures exhibited higher CO{sub 2} reactivity than those using Class C fly ash (0.759 moles CO{sub 2}, at 23.6% solids by weight and 0.036 moles CO{sub 2} at 23.3% solids by weight, respectively). Bauxite residue exhibited moderate capacities in mixtures with higher percent solids (0.335 moles CO{sub 2} in 40% solids bauxite residue slurry). Carbonation capacity of caustic byproduct/acidic brine mixtures was shown to increase linearly with respect to percent caustic byproduct addition, but enhanced mineral carbonate precipitation resulting from synergistic reaction of brine cations with increased dissolved carbonate species was not observed in the short term.

Dilmore, R.M.; Howard, B.H.; Soong, Y.; Griffith, C.; Hedges, S.W.; DeGalbo, A.D.; Morreale, B.; Baltrus, J.P.; Allen, D.E.; Fu, J.K. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

2009-08-15

224

Evaluation of Biomass Gasification to Produce Reburning Fuel for Coal-Fired Boilers  

EPA Science Inventory

Gasification and reburning testing with biomass and other wastes is of interest to both the U.S. EPA and the Italian Ministry of the Environment & Territory. Gasification systems that use biofuels or wastes as feedstock can provide a clean, efficient source of synthesis gas and p...

225

Evaluation of wood chip gasification to produce reburn fuel for coal-fired boilers  

EPA Science Inventory

Gasification/reburn testing with biomass and other wastes is of interest to both the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Italian Ministry of the Environment & Territory (IMET). Gasification systems that use wastes as feedstock should provide a clean, efficient sour...

226

Evaluation of wood chip gasification to produce reburrn fuel for coal-fired boilers: AWMA  

EPA Science Inventory

Gasification or reburn testing with biomass and other wastes is of interest to both the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Italian Ministry of the Environment & Territory (IMET). Gasification systems that use wastes as feedstock should provide a clean, efficient s...

227

Evaluation of Reactive Mixtures for Treatment of Mine Drainage From a Waste Rock Storage Area in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A column experiment has been conducted to evaluate the performance of three reactive mixtures which may be used in a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for the treatment of low quality mine drainage water from a waste rock storage area in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. The key element of concern in the drainage water is dissolved Ni, which occurs at approximately 13 mg/L. The water is low pH ~4.3, oxidized, contains high concentrations of dissolved sulfate (4400-4750 mg/L), Al (45 mg/L), Zn (3 mg/L), Co (3 mg/L) and relatively low concentrations of other dissolved heavy metals and iron. Three columns, each containing one of the mixtures, were constructed: column A (peat/lime/limestone/gravel), column B (peat/zero valent iron (ZVI) filings (20%/vol)/limestone/gravel), and column C (peat/ZVI filings (10%/vol)/limestone/gravel). The experimental results have shown that the mixtures promote bacterially-mediated sulfate reduction and metal removal by precipitation of metal sulfides, metal precipitation, and adsorption under relatively high pH conditions (pH of 7 to 8). Reducing conditions (Eh of 0 to -200 mV) have developed in all of the columns, from the highly oxidized influent water (Eh of +500 to +600 mV). Hydrogen sulfide is detected in the effluent water, and dissolved sulfate concentrations decrease by several hundred mg/L. Based on sulfate removal, sulfate reduction occurs more strongly in columns B and C than column A. All of the columns are removing Ni to below the limit of detection (typically < 0.01 mg/L); however, the removal rate in column A is slower than in columns B and C and has decreased over time. Most other metals are removed to low concentrations in all of the columns. The results suggest that while the longevity of mixtures including ZVI will be much longer than mixtures containing only peat, considering economic aspects, the PRB consisting of only peat could also be an alternative option, if breakthrough time can be predicted and replacement of peat can be conducted in a timely manner. This study shows that the use of reactive mixtures that facilitate microbial activities and redox reactions in subsurface could be a valuable means to remove various metal contaminants originated from mine drainage sites.

Jeen, S.; Bain, J. G.; Blowes, D. W.

2007-12-01

228

Toxicological investigations in the semiconductor industry: I. Studies on the acute oral toxicity of a complex mixture of waste products from the aluminium plasma etching process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In dry etching processes--one of the sources of potential exposure to toxic wastes in the semiconductor industry--complex mixtures of inorganic and organic compounds arise from reactions between feed stock gases (BCl3\\/Cl2), top layers (aluminium photoresist), and the carrier gas (N2). Two different fractions of the complex mixture--one an ethanolic solution (ES) and the other an insoluble liquid residue (LR)--were examined

S. Bauer; I. Wolff; N. Werner; P. Hoffmann; R. Herzschuh; K. Oemus; F. W. Rath; R. Voigt

1992-01-01

229

The Protein Quality of Waste-grown Green Algae I. QUALITY OF PROTEIN IN MIXTURES OF ALGAE, NONFAT POWDERED MILK, AND CEREALS1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protein efficiency ratio (PER) was determined, as a measure of protein quality, on thick gruels and on baked products containing waste-grown green algae, a mixture of Scenedesmus quadricauda and Chlorella, spp., at a ratio of 10:1. Algae-cereal-nonfat dry milk mixtures (the algae and cereals boiled for 30 minutes to make a thick gruel) and milk added to the cooked

BESSIE B. COOK; ESTHER W. LAU; ANDBETTY M. BAILEY

230

Power Production from Biomass II with Special Emphasis on Gasification and Pyrolysis R and DD. (Seminar) Held in Espoo, Finland on March 27-28, 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The IEA/Bioenergy implementing agreement and other activities; Biomass IGCC; IGCC technology and demonstration; Thermal gasification of biomass technology development in the U.S.A.; Gasification experience with biomass and wastes; Experience wit...

K. Sipilae M. Korhonen

1995-01-01

231

Gasification. 2nd. ed.  

SciTech Connect

This book covers gasification as a comprehensive topic, covering its many uses, from refining, to natural gas, to coal. It provides an overview of commercial processes and covers applications relevant to today's demands. The new edition is expanded and provides more detail on the integration issues for current generation, state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC); CO{sub 2} capture in the IGCC context addressing the issues of pre-investment and retrofitting as well as defining what the term 'CO{sub 2} capture ready' might mean in practice; issues of plant reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM) including as evaluation of feedback from existing plants; implementation of fuel cell technology in IGCC concepts. Contents are: Introduction; The Thermodynamics of Gasification; The Kinetics of Gasification and Reactor Theory; Feedstocks and Feedstock Characteristics; Gasification Processes; Practical Issues; Applications; Auxiliary Technologies; Economics, environmental, and Safety Issues; Gasification and the Future. 5 apps.

Christopher Higman; Maarten van der Burgt [Lurgi Oel Gas Chemie (Germany)

2008-02-15

232

Potential use of densified polymer-pastefill mixture as waste containment barrier materials.  

PubMed

Mining activities generate a large amount of solid waste, such as waste rock and tailings. The surface disposal of such waste can create several environmental and geotechnical problems. Public perception and strict government regulations with regards to the disposal of such waste compel the mining industry to develop new strategies which are environmentally sound and cost effective. In this scenario, recycling of such waste into mining or civil engineering construction materials have become a great challenge for the mining and civil engineering community. Hence, in this study, taking advantage of the inherent low hydraulic conductivity of paste tailings (pastefill), small amounts (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5%) of a super absorbent polymer (SAP) are added to the latter after moisturizing the tailings. The resulting densified polymer-pastefill (PP) materials are compacted and submitted to permeability tests at room temperature and performance tests under cyclic freeze-thaw and wet-dry conditions to evaluate their suitability as a barrier for waste containment facilities. Valuable results are obtained. It is found that the hydraulic conductivity of the proposed barrier material (PP) decreases as the amount of SAP increases. Hydraulic conductivity values as low as 1 × 10(-7) and 6 × 10(-9)cm/s are obtained for PPs which contain 0.1-0.5% SAP, respectively. The PP material also shows relatively good resistance to cyclic freeze-thaw and wet-dry stresses. The results show that negligible to acceptable changes in hydraulic conductivity occur after five freeze-thaw and six wet-dry cycles. None of the changes reach one order of magnitude. As a final step, a cost analysis is undertaken to evaluate the economical benefits that could be drawn from such a proposed barrier material. When compared to a conventional compacted sand-bentonite barrier with 12% bentonite concentration, it is found that the benefit realized could be estimated to 98, 96 and 90% when using PP material that contains 0.10, 0.20 and 0.5% of SAP. From this study, it can be concluded that PP materials show encouraging performance properties for barrier design. PMID:20822894

Fall, M; Célestin, J; Sen, H F

2010-12-01

233

Biomass gasification chars for mercury capture from a simulated flue gas of coal combustion.  

PubMed

The combustion of coal can result in trace elements, such as mercury, being released from power stations with potentially harmful effects for both human health and the environment. Research is ongoing to develop cost-effective and efficient control technologies for mercury removal from coal-fired power plants, the largest source of anthropogenic mercury emissions. A number of activated carbon sorbents have been demonstrated to be effective for mercury retention in coal combustion power plants. However, more economic alternatives need to be developed. Raw biomass gasification chars could serve as low-cost sorbents for capturing mercury since they are sub-products generated during a thermal conversion process. The aim of this study was to evaluate different biomass gasification chars as mercury sorbents in a simulated coal combustion flue gas. The results were compared with those obtained using a commercial activated carbon. Chars from a mixture of paper and plastic waste showed the highest retention capacity. It was found that not only a high carbon content and a well developed microporosity but also a high chlorine content and a high aluminium content improved the mercury retention capacity of biomass gasification chars. No relationship could be inferred between the surface oxygen functional groups and mercury retention in the char samples evaluated. PMID:22325640

Fuente-Cuesta, A; Diaz-Somoano, M; Lopez-Anton, M A; Cieplik, M; Fierro, J L G; Martínez-Tarazona, M R

2012-05-15

234

Nonthermal plasma alternative to the incineration of hazardous organic wastes. [Mixtures containing oil and trichloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethane  

SciTech Connect

We are developing silent discharge plasma (SDP) oxidation technology as an alternative to incineration and as a post-incinerator treatment process for hazardous organic wastes. As an alternative to incineration, SDP apparatus has been coupled to a high-temperature packed-bed reactor, the plasma apparatus serving as a second stage for treating gaseous effluent from the packed bed. As a post- incinerator treatment process, SDP apparatus has been evaluated using a prepared gaseous feed containing hazardous organic compounds which are expected to be found in the machining fluids (trichloroethylene (TCE), carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), and trichloroethane (TCA)). In typical tests with the packed-bed reactor alone, we have treated mixtures containing oil and several per cent TCE, TCA, or CCl{sub 4} removing the chlorocarbons to levels of ppm-order for TCA and to order {approximately}100 ppb for TCE and CCl{sub 4}, as measured in the gaseous effluent. In representative stand-alone tests with the SDP reactor, we have removed TCE in the gaseous influent from 1,000 ppm concentrations to around 100 ppb in the gaseous effluent (CCl{sub 4} appears to be more treatment-resistant). The measured figures of merit for the SDP reactor (electrical energy per mass of removed chemical) are 10's of kW-hr/kg for >>99% removal of TCE and 100's of kW-hr/kg for 90% removal of CCl{sub 4}, both being non-optimized cases in terms of waste concentration, carrier gas composition, water content, flow rate, and electrical power. Using combined packed- bed/SDP reactors on chlorocarbon/oil mixtures, several per cent chlorocarbon concentrations have been removed to well below the 100-ppb level overall. We envision eventual reductions to levels of {approximately}10 ppb or less.

Rosocha, L.A.; McCulla, W.H.; Anderson, G.K.; Coogan, J.J.; Kang, M.; Tennant, R.A.; Wantuck, P.J.

1992-01-01

235

Hydrogen-rich gas from catalytic steam gasification of municipal solid waste (MSW): Influence of catalyst and temperature on yield and product composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study the catalytic steam gasification of MSW to produce hydrogen-rich gas or syngas (H2+CO) with calcined dolomite as a catalyst in a bench-scale downstream fixed bed reactor was investigated. The influence of the catalyst and reactor temperature on yield and product composition was studied at the temperature range of 750–950°C, with a steam to MSW ratio of

Maoyun He; Zhiquan Hu; Bo Xiao; Jianfen Li; Xianjun Guo; Siyi Luo; Fan Yang; Yu Feng; Guangjun Yang; Shiming Liu

2009-01-01

236

The kinetics of gasification of char derived from sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gasification of char derived from sewage sludge was studied under different oxidizing atmospheres containing CO2, O2 or H2O. The gasification tests were carried out in thermobalance at different temperatures and oxidizing reagent concentrations.\\u000a The most efficient were the gaseous mixtures containing oxygen. The reaction took place at temperature 400–500 °C, whilst\\u000a in the case of CO2 and steam much higher temperatures

Lech Nowicki; Anna Antecka; Tomasz Bedyk; Pawe? Stolarek; Stanis?aw Ledakowicz

2011-01-01

237

Supercritical gasification of wastewater from updraft wood gasifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) of the wood tar fraction soluble in water is discussed. The mixture is collected downstream of an updraft wood gasification plant and presents tar compounds typical of low-temperature pyrolysis, with the highest yields attained by acetic acid, levoglucosan and 1-hydroxy-2-propanone. SCWG tests, using a laboratory-scale reactor with a plug-flow behavior, temperatures of 723–821K, residence times of

Colomba Di Blasi; Carmen Branca; Antonio Galgano; Dietrich Meier; Ina Brodzinski; Olof Malmros

2007-01-01

238

Evaluation of zeolite-sand mixtures as reactive materials protecting groundwater at waste disposal sites.  

PubMed

To recognize properties of a mixture of Vistula sand (medium sand acc. to USCS) with Slovak zeolite as reactive materials suitable for permeable reactive barriers proposed for protection of groundwater environment in vicinity of old landfills comprehensive laboratory investigations were performed. The present study investigates the removal of contaminants specific for landfill leachates onto zeolite-sand mixtures containing 20%, 50% and 80% of zeolite (ZS20, ZS50 and ZS80). Taking into account the results of batch tests it was concluded that the Langmuir isotherm best fitted the data. It was observed that the presence of ammonium, calcium and magnesium decreases the removal efficiency of copper by 32%. Column tests of contaminant migration through the attenuation zone of the reactive materials were interpreted using the software package CXTFIT, which solves a one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation. Column test results also indicate the strong influence of the presence of interfering substances on copper immobilisation; dynamic sorption capacities decrees twofold. Throughout the landfill leachate flow through ZS80 sample, a constant reduction of NH4+ (at 100%), K+ (at 93%) and Fe(total) (at an average of 86%) were observed. There was no reduction in chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand. PMID:24520718

Joanna, Fronczyk; Kazimierz, Garbulewski

2013-09-01

239

Organic tank safety project: Preliminary results of energetics and thermal behavior studies of model organic nitrate and/or nitrite mixtures and a simulated organic waste  

SciTech Connect

As a result of years of production and recovery of nuclear defense materials and subsequent waste management at the Hanford Site, organic-bearing radioactive high-level wastes (HLW) are currently stored in large (up to 3. ML) single-shell storage tanks (SSTs). Because these wastes contain both fuels (organics) and the oxidants nitrate and nitrite, rapid energetic reactions at certain conditions could occur. In support of Westinghouse Hanford Company`s (WHC) efforts to ensure continued safe storage of these organic- and oxidant-bearing wastes and to define the conditions necessary for reactions to occur, we measured the thermal sensitivities and thermochemical and thermokinetic properties of mixtures of selected organics and sodium nitrate and/or nitrite and a simulated Hanford organic-bearing waste using thermoanalytical technologies. These thermoanalytical technologies are used by chemical reactivity hazards evaluation organizations within the chemical industry to assess chemical reaction hazards.

Scheele, R.D.; Sell, R.L.; Sobolik, J.L.; Burger, L.L.

1995-08-01

240

Maximising municipal solid waste--legume trimming residue mixture degradation in composting by control parameters optimization.  

PubMed

Composting is one of the most successful biological processes for the treatment of the residues enriched in putrescible materials. The optimization of parameters which have an influence on the stability of the products is necessary in order to maximize recycling and recovery of waste components. The influence of the composting process parameters (aeration, moisture, C/N ratio, and time) on the stability parameters (organic matter, N-losses, chemical oxygen demand, nitrate, biodegradability coefficient) of the compost was studied. The composting experiment was carried out using Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) and Legume Trimming Residues (LTR) in 200 L isolated acrylic barrels following a Box-Behnken central composite experimental design. Second-order polynomial models were found for each of the studied compost stability parameter, which accurately described the relationship between the parameters. The differences among the experimental values and those estimated by using the equations never exceeded 10% of the former. Results of the modelling showed that excluding the time, the C/N ratio is the strongest variable influencing almost all the stability parameters studied in this case, with the exception of N-losses which is strongly dependent on moisture. Moreover, an optimized ratio MSW/LTR of 1/1 (w/w), moisture content in the range of 40-55% and moderate to low aeration rate (0.05-0.175 Lair kg(-)(1) min(-1)) is recommended to maximise degradation and to obtain a stable product during co-composting of MSW and LTR. PMID:23764508

Cabeza, I O; López, R; Ruiz-Montoya, M; Díaz, M J

2013-10-15

241

Gasification: A Cornerstone Technology  

SciTech Connect

NETL is a leader in the science and technology of gasification - a process for the conversion of carbon-based materials such as coal into synthesis gas (syngas) that can be used to produce clean electrical energy, transportation fuels, and chemicals efficiently and cost-effectively using domestic fuel resources. Gasification is a cornerstone technology of 21st century zero emissions powerplants

Gary Stiegel

2008-03-26

242

Pulverized coal plasma gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of experiments on the plasma-vapor gasification of brown coals of three types have been carried out using an experimental plant with an electric-arc reactor of the combined type. On the basis of the material and heat balances, process parameters have been obtained: the degree of carbon gasification (?c), the level of sulfur conversion into the gas phase (?s),

R. A. Kalinenko; A. P. Kuznetsov; A. A. Levitsky; V. E. Messerle; Yu. A. Mirokhin; L. S. Polak; Z. B. Sakipov; A. B. Ustimenko

1993-01-01

243

Plasma gasification of coals  

SciTech Connect

To avoid problems of transporting coal from Siberia to the European part of the Soviet Union, plasma gasification could be used to give methane and liquid methyl fuel which could be transported by pipeline. Plasma-assisted gasification is particularly effective in the case of brown coals. (11 refs.)

Kruzhilin, G.I.; Khudyakov, G.N.; Tselishchev, P.A.

1981-01-01

244

Gasification: A Cornerstone Technology  

ScienceCinema

NETL is a leader in the science and technology of gasification - a process for the conversion of carbon-based materials such as coal into synthesis gas (syngas) that can be used to produce clean electrical energy, transportation fuels, and chemicals efficiently and cost-effectively using domestic fuel resources. Gasification is a cornerstone technology of 21st century zero emissions powerplants

Gary Stiegel

2010-01-08

245

Biothermal gasification of biomass and organic residues  

SciTech Connect

The BIOTHERMGAS process is described for gasification of biomass and organic residues to substitute natural gas (SNG). This process combines biological and thermochemical unit operations for the conversion of a broad variety of organic feeds such as plant materials, organic residues, and peat to SNG or other fuels, regardless of their water and nutrient content. The process employs biological gasification followed by thermochemical gasification of refractory digester residues. Ammonia and other inorganic nutrients are recycled from the thermochemical process unit to the biological gasification unit (digester). Waste heat from thermochemical conversion components is used to supply the heat requirement of the bioconversion component. The product gases from the thermochemical unit can be upgraded to SNG by either biological or catalytic methanation. The results of preliminary systems analyses of three different operating conditions are presented here: 9.1 x 10/sup 6/ kg/day Bermuda grass plant with catalytic methanation, 9.1 x 10/sup 6/ kg/day Bermuda grass plant with biomethanation, and 0.9 x 10/sup 6/ kg/day municipal solid waste (MSW) and sewage sludge plant with biomethanation. The results of these analyses indicate that the performance of this process is superior to biological or thermochemical processes used separately. Laboratory studies conducted on conversion of typical thermochemical product gases (H/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/, and CO) to methane in a sewage sludge digester showed that effective conversion of gases can be accomplished by biomethanation without any adverse effect on the sludge bioconversion process.

Chynoweth, D.D.; Srivastava, V.J.; Jerger, D.E.; Tarman, P.B.

1980-01-01

246

Sustainable valorization of plastic wastes for energy with environmental safety via High-Temperature Pyrolysis (HTP) and High-Temperature Steam Gasification (HTSG).  

PubMed

In the present study the energetic valorization of electric cable shredder residues (mixed plastics) has been investigated. Thermochemical conversion by means of High-Temperature Steam Gasification (HTSG) and High-Temperature Pyrolysis (HTP) was studied. The effects of temperature and reaction time--process parameters--were investigated. Comparison of the results showed that HTSG seems a more suitable process in terms of produced syngas quality (64%, v/v and 13MJ/Nm(3)) than HTP because of higher H(2) yield and lower tar content. PMID:19237247

Kantarelis, E; Donaj, P; Yang, W; Zabaniotou, A

2009-08-15

247

Nitrogen transformation during organic waste composting by the Rutgers system and its effects on pH, EC and maturity of the composting mixtures.  

PubMed

The evolution of the different forms of nitrogen during the composting of several wastes was studied, as well as its relation to the pH, electrical conductivity and parameters of maturity of the composts obtained. Four mixtures were prepared from different organic materials: sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, brewery sludge, sorghum bagasse, cotton waste and pine bark. The evolution of the different forms of nitrogen during composting depended on the material which supplied the nitrogen to the mixtures and the organic matter (OM) degradation rate during composting. The greatest concentration of ammonium was observed during the first weeks of composting, coinciding with the most intense period of OM degradation, and ammonium then decreased gradually to reach final values of below 0.04%. The use of urea as a nitrogen source in the mixtures led to high ammonium levels during the first weeks as a result of its rapid hydrolysis. The nitrification process began only when the temperature of the mixtures had dropped below 40 degrees C and its intensity depended on the quantity of ammonium present when the process began. The highest concentrations of NO3-N were always produced at the end of maturation, reaching values of 0.52%, 0.53%, 0.12% and 0.20% in the four mixtures studied. Nitrogen losses during composting depended on the materials used and on the pH values of the mixtures. Mixtures with the highest lignocellulose content showed the lowest losses (below 25%), while those containing municipal solid waste lost more than 40% of the initial content. Statistically significant correlations at a high probability level were found between the NO3-N concentration and pH and electrical conductivity. confirming that nitrification was responsible for the falling pH values and increasing electrical conductivity. The ratio of NH4-N and NO3-N concentrations was shown to be a clear indicator of the maturity of the mixtures during composting, the final values of 0.08, 0.04, 0,16 and 0.11 for the four mixtures being equal to, or below the maximum value established as a maturity index in other materials. PMID:11341692

Sánchez-Monedero, M A; Roig, A; Paredes, C; Bernal, M P

2001-07-01

248

Biomass to dimethyl ether by gasification\\/synthesis technology—an alternative biofuel production route  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technical and economic analysis was done for the biomass to dimethyl ether (DME) technology to promote the gasification\\/synthesis\\u000a route for biofuel production and its application as a fossil fuel substitute. The technology of biomass gasification\\/synthesis\\u000a has obvious advantages, including production flexibility, environmental friendliness, economic feasibility, and application\\u000a versatility. Biomass gasification\\/synthesis technology integrates bio-DME synthesis, fertilizer production, electricity generation,\\u000a and waste

Tiejun Wang; Yuping Li; Longlong Ma; Chuangzhi Wu

2011-01-01

249

Integrated bioenergy conversion concepts for small scale gasification power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal and biological gasification are promising technologies for addressing the emerging concerns in biomass-based renewable energy, environmental protection and waste management. However, technical barriers such as feedstock quality limitations, tars, and high NOx emissions from biogas fueled engines impact their full utilization and make them suffer at the small scale from the need to purify the raw gas for most downstream processes, including power generation other than direct boiler use. The two separate gasification technologies may be integrated to better address the issues of power generation and waste management and to complement some of each technologies' limitations. This research project investigated the technical feasibility of an integrated thermal and biological gasification concept for parameters critical to appropriately matching an anaerobic digester with a biomass gasifier. Specific studies investigated the thermal gasification characteristics of selected feedstocks in four fixed-bed gasification experiments: (1) updraft gasification of rice hull, (2) indirect-heated gasification of rice hull, (3) updraft gasification of Athel wood, and (4) downdraft gasification of Athel and Eucalyptus woods. The effects of tars and other components of producer gas on anaerobic digestion at mesophilic temperature of 36°C and the biodegradation potentials and soil carbon mineralization of gasification tars during short-term aerobic incubation at 27.5°C were also examined. Experiments brought out the ranges in performance and quality and quantity of gasification products under different operating conditions and showed that within the conditions considered in the study, these gasification products did not adversely impact the overall digester performance. Short-term aerobic incubation demonstrated variable impacts on carbon mineralization depending on tar and soil conditions. Although tars exhibited low biodegradation indices, degradation may be improved if the microorganisms used to deal with tars are selected and pre-conditioned to the tar environment. Overall, the results provided a basis for operational and design strategy for a combined gasification system but further study is recommended such as determination of the impacts in terms of emissions, power, efficiency and costs associated with the use of producer gas-enriched biogas taking advantage of hydrogen enrichment to reduce NOx and other pollutants in reciprocating engines and other energy conversion systems.

Aldas, Rizaldo Elauria

250

Gasification of refuse derived fuel in the Battelle high throughput gasification system  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an experimental program to demonstrate the suitability of the Battelle High Throughput Gasification Process to non-wood biomass fuels. An extensive data base on wood gasification was generated during a multi-year experimental program. This data base and subsequent design and economic analysis activities led to the discussion to study the gasification character of other fuels. The specific fuel studied was refuse derived fuel (RDF) which is a prepared municipal solid waste (MSW). The use of RDF, while providing a valuable fuel, can also provide a solution to MSW disposal problems. Gasification of MSW provides advantages over land fill or mass burn technology since a more usable form of energy, medium Btu gas, is produced. Land filling of wastes produces no usable products and mass burning while greatly reducing the volume of wastes for disposal can produce only steam. This steam must be used on site or very nearby this limiting the potential locations for mass burn facilities. Such a gas, if produced from currently available supplies of MSW, can contribute 2 quads to the US energy supply. 3 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

Paisley, M.A.; Creamer, K.S.; Tweksbury, T.L.; Taylor, D.R. (Battelle Columbus Div., Washington, DC (USA))

1989-07-01

251

Gasification Technologie: Opportunities & Challenges  

SciTech Connect

This course has been put together to provide a single source document that not only reviews the historical development of gasification but also compares the process to combustion. It also provides a short discussion on integrated gasification and combined cycle processes. The major focus of the course is to describe the twelve major gasifiers being developed today. The hydrodynamics and kinetics of each are reviewed along with the most likely gas composition from each of the technologies when using a variety of fuels under different conditions from air blown to oxygen blown and atmospheric pressure to several atmospheres. If time permits, a more detailed discussion of low temperature gasification will be included.

Breault, R.

2012-01-01

252

Rheology Of MonoSodium Titanate (MST) And Modified Mst (mMST) Mixtures Relevant To The Salt Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River National Laboratory performed measurements of the rheology of suspensions and settled layers of treated material applicable to the Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility. Suspended solids mixtures included monosodium titanate (MST) or modified MST (mMST) at various solid concentrations and soluble ion concentrations with and without the inclusion of kaolin clay or simulated sludge. Layers of settled solids were MST/sludge or mMST/sludge mixtures, either with or without sorbed strontium, over a range of initial solids concentrations, soluble ion concentrations, and settling times.

Koopman, D. C.; Martino, C. J.; Shehee, T. C.; Poirier, M. R.

2013-07-31

253

Characterisation and fingerprinting of PCBs in flue gas and ash from waste incineration and in technical mixtures.  

PubMed

Congener patterns of mono- to deca-chlorinated biphenyls (PC1-10B) were evaluated in (a) waste incineration flue gases collected in the post-combustion zone of a laboratory-scale fluidized-bed reactor, (b) ashes from two different MSW incineration plants, and (c) published data of eight Aroclor formulations. The congener patterns of the flue gases, ashes, and Aroclor mixtures clearly differed from each other, likely reflecting differences in formation pathways. The flue gas congener patterns were largely dominated by the least chlorinated congeners, whereas the ashes displayed more evenly distributed patterns. The most abundant congeners indicated a preference for 3,3',4,4'-oriented substitution, which may be related to de novo-type formation involving perylene. Principal component analysis confirmed that congener patterns differed among the three matrices and also distinguished flue gases collected at 200 °C from those collected at 300 °C and 450 °C. This distinction could be partly explained by the degree of chlorination, although the substitution status of the ortho-position, and substitution in the 3,3',4,4'-positions also seemed to be influential. Injecting biphenyl into the post-combustion zone of the reactor did not alter the patterns, indicating that availability of the backbone structure is not a limiting factor for PCB formation. PMID:21885088

Jansson, Stina; Lundin, Lisa; Grabic, Roman

2011-10-01

254

Analysis of results from the operation of a pilot plasma gasification\\/vitrification unit for optimizing its performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma gasification\\/vitrification is an innovative and environmentally friendly method of waste treatment. A demonstration plasma gasification\\/vitrification unit was developed and installed in Viotia region in order to examine the efficiency of this innovative technology in dealing with hazardous waste. The preliminary results from the trial runs of the plasma unit, as well as the study of the influence of certain

K. Moustakas; G. Xydis; S. Malamis; K.-J. Haralambous; M. Loizidou

2008-01-01

255

Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalysts to Poisons from High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal\\/Biomass Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful adaptation of conventional cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts for use in converting biomass-derived syngas hinges in part on understanding their susceptibility to byproducts produced during the biomass gasification process. With the possibility that oil production will peak in the near future, and due to concerns in maintaining energy security, the conversion of biomass-derived syngas and syngas derived

Burtron Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Khalid Azzam; Dennis Sparks; Wilson Shafer

2010-01-01

256

High Throughput Gasification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experimental investigation of pulverized coal gasification in a batch process reactor under conditions of high temperature and high heating rate is described. Effects of process variables such as background gas composition, particle size, mass loading ...

D. B. Northam C. W. von Rosenberg

1979-01-01

257

Steam Gasification of Biomass.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress is reported in the construction of the biogasifier to be used in experiments on basic parameters involved in the steam gasification of biomass. Photographs illustrating various stages in the construction are included. (ERA citation 03:014252)

1977-01-01

258

Steam Gasification of Biomass.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Construction of experimental equipment for research on basic parameters involved in the steam gasification of biomass was completed. Modifications were made on the equipment to improve performance. Information obtained from preliminary runs indicated that...

1977-01-01

259

Dehydrochlorination of plastic mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dehydrochlorination of plastic mixtures from domestic waste as well as from other chlorine containing mixtures such as electronic scrap is an essential reaction step in waste incineration, pyrolysis and chemical recycling of polymers. For designing pyrolysis procedures, controlled combustion processes and to control the emissions from incinerators, the behaviour of polymers in thermal decomposition with regard to decomposition products and

H Bockhorn; A Hornung; U Hornung; P Jakobströer; M Kraus

1999-01-01

260

Vanadium-catalysed gasification of carbon and its application in the carbothermic reduction of barite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium vanadate, a waste from Bayer's alumina process was used as a catalyst in the CO2 gasification of active charcoal. The catalytic effect was quite evident with the observed enhanced rate of gasification accompanied by the typical compensation effect. This effect has been able to predict the observed anamolous behaviour of the vanadium catalysed carbothermic reduction of barite.

A. N Gokarn; S. D Pradhan; G Pathak; S. S Kulkarni

2000-01-01

261

Thermal expansion of slag and fly ash from coal gasification in IGCC power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated gasification in combined cycle (IGCC) is an electrical power generation system which is characterized to be a clean coal technology different than conventional process in combustible treatment. IGCC process gives rise to inorganic solid wastes in the form of vitreous slag and fly ashes with singular thermal properties. The gasification of the fuel takes place at high temperature and

M. Aineto; A. Acosta; J. Ma. Rincón; M. Romero

2006-01-01

262

Gasification characteristics of MSW and an ANN prediction model.  

PubMed

Gasification characteristics make up the important parts of municipal solid waste (MSW) gasification and melting technology. These characteristics are closely related to the composition of MSW, which alters with climates and seasons. It is important to find a practical way to predict gasification characteristics. In this paper, five typical kinds of organic components (wood, paper, kitchen garbage, plastic, and textile) and three representative types of simulated MSW are gasified in a fluidized-bed at 400-800 degrees C with the equivalence ratio (ER) in the range of 0.2-0.6. The lower heating value (LHV) of gas, gasification products, and gas yield are reported. The results indicate that gasification characteristics are different from sample to sample. Based on the experimental data, an artificial neural networks (ANN) model is developed to predict gasification characteristics. The training and validating relative errors are within +/-15% and +/-20%, respectively, and predicting relative errors of an industrial sample are below +/-25%. This indicates that it is acceptable to predict gasification characteristics via ANN model. PMID:18420400

Xiao, Gang; Ni, Ming-jiang; Chi, Yong; Jin, Bao-sheng; Xiao, Rui; Zhong, Zhao-ping; Huang, Ya-ji

2009-01-01

263

Influence of mixture ratio and pH to solidification/stabilization process of hospital solid waste incineration ash in Portland cement.  

PubMed

Solidification/stabilization (S/S) is an established utilization technology to treat hazardous wastes. This research explored the influence of pH (3-12) on the immobilization of heavy metals present in five mixtures of hospital solid waste incinerator ash and Portland cement, following two different processes of waste solidification/stabilization (cement hydration and granulation). In general, cement hydration process resulted in more stable products than granulation process. A high ash content in the mixture with Portland cement (60wt%) resulted in the highest immobilization of Pb(2+) and Cu(2+), while a low ash content in the mixture (10wt%) resulted in the lowest leachability of Zn(2+). When ash and Portland cement was mixed in equal proportions (50wt%) the highest encapsulation was observed for Ni(2+), Cd(2+) and Cr(3+). Neutral and weak alkaline pH values within the range pH=7-8 resulted in the lowest leachability of the monitored heavy metals. PMID:24997895

Sobiecka, Elzbieta; Obraniak, Andrzej; Antizar-Ladislao, Blanca

2014-09-01

264

Gasification of bagasse in the presence of a pilot flame in a modified fluidized bed  

SciTech Connect

Solid waste can be efficiently gasified in the presence of a pilot flame in a modified fluidized bed. About 95% of the feed solids were gasified at a moderate temperature by this gasification process. The data of the degree of gasification were obtained and the factors that affected the formation and characteristics of the solid particles of products during gasification are described. The air-to-solid feed ratio was a major operating variable in this process. The reaction mechanisms of solid gasification in the presence of a pilot flame are also discussed.

Chou, T.C.; Chang, K.T.

1981-01-01

265

Coal Gasification and Coal Hydrogenation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present state of the development works on the coal gasification and coal hydrogenation processes carried out by the coal producing and engineering companies is presented. The coal gasification projects are the following: Texaco suspended dust gasifica...

1980-01-01

266

Stabilization of spent sorbents from coal gasification. (Quarterly) technical report, March 1--May 31, 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this investigation is to determine the kinetics of reactions involving partially sulfided dolomite and oxygen, which is needed for the design of the reactor system for the stabilization of sulfide-containing solid wastes from gasification...

A. H. Hill J. R. Wangerow

1993-01-01

267

Automobile shredder residue gasification.  

PubMed

Automobile Shredder Residue (ASR) shows a broad chemical composition owing to the presence of different materials, and its high organic content makes it interesting as a source of energy. In this work, a bench scale two-stage reactor is used for gasifying ASR. The reactor shows an efficient ASR gasification, avoiding the formation of difficult to manage char and tar and allowing an easy recovery of energy. The results of the investigation were used to test a simple model based on mass and energy balances and chemical equilibrium, predicting syngas composition including the presence of problematic elements such as sulphur and chlorine. Gasification data calculated by the model agree in a satisfactory way with the experimental ones. Due to the large variation in ASR composition, the model predicts that ASR gasification is industrially feasible only if a blend of ASR and RDF is used as a reactor feed. PMID:14661893

De Filippis, Paolo; Pochetti, Fausto; Borgianni, Carlo; Paolucci, Martino

2003-10-01

268

The ENCOAL Mild Gasification Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

The DOE plans to enter into a Cooperative Agreement with ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Shell Mining Company, for the cost-shared design, construction and operation of a mild gasification facility based on Liquids-from-Coal (LFC) technology. The facility is planned to be located at the Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The mild gasification process to be demonstrated will produce two new, low-sulfur fuel forms (a solid and a liquid) from subbituminous coal. The new fuel forms would be suitable for combustion in commercial, industrial, and utility boilers. This environmental assessment has been prepared by the DOE to comply with the requirements of the NEPA. Pollutant emissions, land use, water, and waste management are briefly discussed. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

Not Available

1990-07-01

269

SUSTAINABLE ENERGY FROM WASTE BY GASIFICATION AND PLASMA CRACKING, FEATURING SAFE AND INERT RENDERING OF RESIDUES. RECENT EXPERIENCES FOR RECLAIMING ENERGY AND FERROCHROME FROM THE TANNERY INDUSTRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the toxicity of hexavalent chromium (CrVI) there is a growing environmental concern on modern tanning processes. Despite this, chrome tanned leather still accounts for more than 90% of the global leather production. So far no adequate solution to the waste problem has been established in the market. This paper deals with an eco-efficient process that features energy and

Jens Hetland; Steinar Lynum; Sven Santen

270

Discarded oranges and brewer's spent grains as promoting ingredients for microbial growth by submerged and solid state fermentation of agro-industrial waste mixtures.  

PubMed

The exploitation of various agro-industrial wastes for microbial cell mass production of Kluyveromyces marxianus, kefir, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae is reported in the present investigation. Specifically, the promotional effect of whole orange pulp on cell growth in mixtures consisting of cheese whey, molasses, and potato pulp in submerged fermentation processes was examined. A 2- to 3-fold increase of cell mass was observed in the presence of orange pulp. Likewise, the promotional effect of brewer's spent grains on cell growth in solid state fermentation of mixtures of whey, molasses, potato pulp, malt spent rootlets, and orange pulp was examined. The cell mass was increased by 3-fold for K. marxianus and 2-fold for S. cerevisiae in the presence of these substrates, proving their suitability for single-cell protein production without the need for extra nutrients. Cell growth kinetics were also studied by measurements of cell counts at various time intervals at different concentrations of added orange pulp. The protein content of the fermented substrates was increased substantially, indicating potential use of mixed agro-industrial wastes of negligible cost, as protein-enriched livestock feed, achieving at the same time creation of added value and waste minimization. PMID:23780341

Aggelopoulos, Theodoros; Bekatorou, Argyro; Pandey, Ashok; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

2013-08-01

271

Real-time Optimisation of a Microwave Plasma Gasification System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microwave plasma gasifier has been designed to produce syngas from waste. Gasification using microwave plasma has various controllable parameters to achieve optimal syngas production. These parameters include the microwave power applied, the reflected power from the microwave plasma jet, the EH tuner arm position, the gas flow and pressure, in addition to the temperature inside the gasifier. A variety

B. Kabalan; S. Wylie; A. Mason; R. Al-khaddar; A. Al-Shamma'a; C. Lupa; B. Herbert; E. Maddocks

2011-01-01

272

Research on Gasification of Wood in a Plasma Pyrolysis Unit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides a quick summary of the properties of wood waste and its value as an energy source. Various gasification techniques are discussed and compared before the actual experimental work is presented. The experiments are carried out in a plasma...

1984-01-01

273

Plasma gasification of sewage sludge: Process development and energy optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plasma gasification process has been demonstrated in many of the most recent studies as one of the most effective and environmentally friendly methods for solid waste treatment and energy utilization. This method is applied here to the treatment of sewage sludge. Results are presented for a case study concerning the Athens’ Central Wastewater Treatment Plant, at Psittalia Island. An

A. Mountouris; E. Voutsas; D. Tassios

2008-01-01

274

Construction and startup of a wood gasification pilot plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Georgia Tech embarked on the development of a pilot plant for wood gasification research in March 1979. The pilot plant gasifier was designed for a wide range of research. This includes modeling and testing of gasifier feed systems, ash extraction systems, air and steam injection systems, burners, gas cleanup equipment, waste disposal systems, and safety equipment. Potential application to be

A. D. Jape; T. F. McGowan

1982-01-01

275

Rate inhibition of steam gasification by adsorbed hydrogen. Technical progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The core matrix of gasification experiments in the project has been completed during the quarter of this grant period. Gasification experiments in steam/hydrogen/argon mixtures different composition, at different total pressures, and to different extents of carbon conversion have been conducted and the results analyzed. The results obtained are consistent and reliable, although somewhat unexpected in light of what was originally postulated.

Miller, D.J.

1995-12-01

276

Studies of biomass gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A downdraft gas producer was designed and fabricated to investigate the thermal behavior and performance of several types of biomass under gasification conditions. The reactor was a batch fed system with a stationary grate which operated at near atmospheric pressures. Air was used as the oxidizer and was introduced to the midsection of the gasifier at various mass flow rates

Tabatabaie-Raissi

1982-01-01

277

Gasification of black liquor  

DOEpatents

A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediatley above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone.

Kohl, Arthur L. (Woodland Hills, CA)

1987-07-28

278

Gasification of black liquor  

DOEpatents

A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediately above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone. 2 figs.

Kohl, A.L.

1987-07-28

279

Kinetics of coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reports on a kinetic study on the gasification of Brazilian mineral coal with steam using a thermobalance. The coal is a high ash content (>50 wt %) subbituminous, run of mine coal (Charqueadas). Isothermal runs were made at temperatures between 800 and 1000\\/degree\\/C and at atmospheric pressure, using -14 +20 mesh Tyler size particles. The coal was devolatilized

Martin Schmal; Jose Luiz Fontes Monteiro; Jorge Luiz Castellan

1982-01-01

280

Underground coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underground coal gasification (UCG) is a method whereby the mining and conversion of coal are accomplished in a single step. Many field tests of UCG have been operated worldwide since the 1930's with varying degrees of success; based on this experience (especially in the USSR and US), a field design which is applicable to a wide range of geological conditions

T. F. Edgar; D. W. Gregg

1978-01-01

281

Advanced hybrid gasification facility  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this procurement is to provide a test facility to support early commercialization of advanced fixed-bed coal gasification technology for electric power generation applications. The proprietary CRS Sirrine Engineers, Inc. PyGas{trademark} staged gasifier has been selected as the initial gasifier to be developed under this program. The gasifier is expected to avoid agglomeration when used on caking coals. It is also being designed to crack tar vapors and ammonia, and to provide an environment in which volatilized alkali may react with aluminosilicates in the coal ash thereby minimizing their concentration in the hot raw coal gas passing through the system to the gas turbine. This paper describes a novel, staged, airblown, fixed-bed gasifier designed to solve both through the incorporation of pyrolysis (carbonization) with gasification. It employs a pyrolyzer (carbonizer) to avoid sticky coal agglomeration which occurs in a fixed-bed process when coal is gradually heated through the 400{degrees}F to 900{degrees}F range. In a pyrolyzer, the coal is rapidly heated such that coal tar is immediately vaporized. Gaseous tars are then thermally cracked prior to the completion of the gasification process. During the subsequent endothermic gasification reactions, volatilized alkali can be chemically bound to aluminosilicates in (or added to) the ash. To reduce NOx from fuel home nitrogen, moisture is minimized to control ammonia generation, and HCN in the upper gasifier region is partially oxidized to NO which reacts with NH3/HCN to form N2.

Sadowski, R.S.; Skinner, W.H. [CRS Sirrine, Inc., Greenville, SC (United States); Johnson, S.A. [PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States); Dixit, V.B. [Riley Stoker Corp., Worcester, MA (United States). Riley Research Center

1993-08-01

282

Status of coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal gasification, while providing a route to coal combustion which facilitates the removal of ash and sulfur, has two major disadvantages: it consumes large quantities of water, especially significant in arid western states where some of the largest coal reserves are located, and it is less efficient than direct combustion. Some reactors provide limited optimization of either process efficiency or

D. A. Tillman

1976-01-01

283

The anaerobic co-digestion of fruit and vegetable waste and horse manure mixtures in a bench-scale, two-phase anaerobic digestion system.  

PubMed

In this study, the anaerobic digestion of mixtures of food waste (FW) and horse manure was investigated using a bench-scale two-phase reactor system. Both phases were maintained at 35 degrees C for the duration of the 30-day study period. The first phase reactors were prepared with biomass mixtures in deionized water such that each mixture had an initial total solids (TS) concentration of 6 wt%. The second phase reactors were inoculated with cow manure in water two weeks prior to the study period at 3 wt% TS. The biogas from all second phase reactors contained greater than 60 vol% methane in the biogas before they were used in the study, thus indicating the presence of active methanogens. Filtrate (5 mL) from the first phase was used as feed to the second phase reactor. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon, and volatile solids (VS) of the feed from Phase 1 increased with FW content in the biomass mixture, and so the organic loading rates (OLRs) to the Phase 2 reactors also increased. Accordingly, the volume ofbiogas and methane generated from Phase 2 also increased with FW content. The low OLR (<0.2 g VS/L/day), the use of a two-phase system, and the use of filtrate from Phase las feed to Phase 2 allowed for high utilization of the feed; the observed specific methane yields (mL/g COD) were greater than 80% of the theoretical yields for all mixtures. The methane yields were statistically similar to within a 95% confidence interval. PMID:24645468

Smith, David B; Almquist, Catherine B

2014-01-01

284

Steam Gasification of Carbon Solids Catalyzed by a Nickel-Potassium Mixed Oxide: Kinetic and Surface Characterization Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main goal of this thesis is to evaluate and understand the catalytic properties of a nickel-potassium mixture for steam gasification of carbon solids. This goal pursued by carrying out kinetic and surface characterization studies, using both graphite ...

J. Carrazza Duca

1987-01-01

285

The thermochemical analysis of the effectiveness of various gasification technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors studied the process of gasification of solid fuels and wastes by means of modified model accounting the absence of equilibrium in the Boudouard reaction. A comparison was made between auto- and allothermal gasification, and it was demonstrated that the former method is more advantageous with respect to (as an indicator) thermochemical efficiency. The feasibility of producing highly calorific synthesis gas using an oxygen blast is discussed. A thermodynamic model of the facility for producing such synthesis gas has been developed that involves the gas turbine used for driving an oxygen plant of the adsorption type.

Ivanov, P. P.; Kovbasyuk, V. I.; Medvedev, Yu. V.

2013-05-01

286

A summary report on combustion and gasification processes  

SciTech Connect

Six poster papers regarding combustion and gasification were reviewed. These six papers address various different technology subjects: (1) underground coal gasification modeling, (2) wood gasification kinetics, (3) heat transfer surface pretreatment by iron implantation, (4) coal water slurry stabilization technology, (5) coal log pipeline technology, and (6) nuclear reactor decontamination. Summaries and comments of the following papers are presented: Characterization of Flow and Chemical Processes in an Underground Gasifier at Great Depth; Model for Reaction Kinetics in Pyrolysis of Wood; Development of a Stainless Steel Heat Transfer Surface with Low Scaling Tendency; Storage and Transportation of Coal Water Mixtures; Coal Log Pipeline: Development Status of the First Commercial System; and Decontamination of Nuclear Systems at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station.

Rath, L.K.; Lee, G.T.

1996-08-01

287

Methane or methanol via catalytic gasification of biomass  

SciTech Connect

Methane and methanol synthesis gas can be produced by steam gasification of biomass in the presence of appropriate catalysts. A 5 cm diameter reactor has been used to determine the desired catalysts and operating temperature. A process development unit (PDU) has demonstrated steam gasification of biomass with catalysts at rates up to 35 kg per hour. Methane yields of 0.28 nm/sup 3/ per kg of dry wood were produced in the small laboratory reactor. Further methanation of the product gas mixture can increase methane yields to 0.33 nm/sup 3//kg. The catalyst system is nickel and silica-alumina. The preferred reactor operating temperature is 500 to 550/sup 0/C. Tests have been at atmospheric pressure. The PDU performance has confirmed results obtained in the laboratory. Methanol synthesis gas can be produced in a single stage reactor at 750 to 850/sup 0/C by steam gasification of wood with silica-alumina and nickel catalysts present. From this gas, up to 0.6 kg of methanol can be produced per kg of wood. Gasification of the wood to produce synthesis gas has been demonstrated in the laboratory scale reactor, but remains to be successfully done using the PDU. Catalyst deactivation rates and regeneration schemes must be determined in order to determine the economic feasibility of wood to methane or methanol processes. Some advantages of catalytic steam gasification of biomass over steam-oxygen gasification are: no oxygen is required for methane or methanol synthesis gas, therefore, no oxygen plant is needed; little or no tar is produced resulting in simpler gas cleaning equipment; no shift reactor is required for methanol synthesis; methanation requirements are low resulting in high conversion efficiency; and yields and efficiencies are greater than obtained by conventional gasification.

Mitchell, D.H.; Mudge, L.K.; Robertus, R.J.; Weber, S.L.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.

1980-03-01

288

Sorption of Pb(II) onto a mixture of algae waste biomass and anion exchanger resin in a packed-bed column.  

PubMed

Sorption of Pb(II) was studied by using a biosorbent mixture of algae waste biomass and Purolite A-100 resin in a packed-bed column. Mixing these two components was done to prevent the clogging of the column and to ensure adequate flow rates. Increasing of solution flow rate and initial Pb(II) concentration make that the breakthrough and saturation points to be attained earlier. The experimental breakthrough curves were modeled using Bohart-Adams, Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models, and the parameters for all these models were calculated. A regeneration efficiency of 98% was achieved using 0.1 mol L(-1) HCl and not significant changes in lead uptake capacity after three biosorption/desorption cycles were noted. The biosorbent mixture was able to remove Pb(II) from synthetic wastewater at pH 5.0 and flow rate of 3.5 mL min(-1), and the obtained effluent has better quality characteristics. The biosorbent mixture it is suitable for a continuous system for large-scale applications. PMID:23262014

Bulgariu, Dumitru; Bulgariu, Laura

2013-02-01

289

Solid Fuel Plasma Gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a numerical analysis and experimental investtigation of the gasification under steam and air plasma conditions\\u000a of two very different solid fuels, a low-rank bituminous coal of 40% ash content and a petrocoke of 3% ash content; with an\\u000a aim of producing synthesis gas. The numerical analysis was fulfilled using the software package TERRA for equilibrium computation.\\u000a Using

V. E. Messerle; A. B. Ustimenko

290

Conventional gasification technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Winkler, Lurgi, and Koppers-Totzek gasification processes are compared. The Winkler process uses a fluidized fuel bed; the Lurgi, a 'fixed' (slowly downwards-moving) fuel bed; the Koppers-Totzek, entrainment of the coal or other feedstock. The dependency of these processes on coal type and sizing, temperature, atmosphere, pressure, and water vapor is examined. The economic impact of various operating conditions and

D. C. Elgin

1976-01-01

291

Status of coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was made of economic and environmental trade-offs, in terms of land disturbance from mining, and water consumption, to be considered in choosing the Wellman-Galusha, Koppers-Totzek, or Lurgi coal gasification processes. Performance maximization, in terms of process efficiency or water consumption, was found to be application specific and site specific. Relatively small energy requirements appear to be best met

David A. Tillman

1976-01-01

292

Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalystes to Poisons form High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal\\/Biomass Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a recent shift in interest in converting not only natural gas and coal derived syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, but also converting biomass-derived syngas, as well as syngas derived from coal and biomass mixtures. As such, conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt may not be suitable without proper development. This is because, while ash, sulfur compounds,

Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Khalid Azzam; Janet ChakkamadathilMohandas; Wilson Shafer

2009-01-01

293

Burner for gasification of powdery fuels  

SciTech Connect

The burner is formed of a tubular housing including a central tubular passage and a boundary annular passage for feeding into the gasification reactor under high speed a carburetion medium such as oxygen or steam. At least three intermediate channels of coaxial annular sections are symmetrically arranged about the central channel and each communicates with a separate inlet conduit for feeding a mixture of powdered fuel with a carrier gas. The transition between the annular intermediate channel and the tubular inlet conduits is made such that the varying outline of the cross-section encloses the same area as the tubular inlet conduit or the annular section intermediate channel. The central tubular channel and the boundary annular channel for feeding the carburetion fluid is configurated so as to divert one stream of the carburetion fluid at an angle of about 45/sup 0/ toward the axially directed jet of the powdered fuel mixture.

Kretschmer, H.; Berger, F.; Fedotov, V.; Fleischer, K.; Gavrilin, V.; Gohler, P.; Gudymov, E.; Jegorov, A.; Schingnitz, M.; Semenov, V.

1984-06-26

294

Plasma Treatments and Biomass Gasification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exploitation of forest resources for energy production includes various methods of biomass processing. Gasification is one of the ways to recover energy from biomass. Syngas produced from biomass can be used to power internal combustion engines or, after purification, to supply fuel cells. Recent studies have shown the potential to improve conventional biomass processing by coupling a plasma reactor to a pyrolysis cyclone reactor. The role of the plasma is twofold: it acts as a purification stage by reducing production of tars and aerosols, and simultaneously produces a rich hydrogen syngas. In a first part of the paper we present results obtained from plasma treatment of pyrolysis oils. The outlet gas composition is given for various types of oils obtained at different experimental conditions with a pyrolysis reactor. Given the complexity of the mixtures from processing of biomass, we present a study with methanol considered as a model molecule. This experimental method allows a first modeling approach based on a combustion kinetic model suitable to validate the coupling of plasma with conventional biomass process. The second part of the paper is summarizing results obtained through a plasma-pyrolysis reactor arrangement. The goal is to show the feasibility of this plasma-pyrolysis coupling and emphasize more fundamental studies to understand the role of the plasma in the biomass treatment processes.

Luche, J.; Falcoz, Q.; Bastien, T.; Leninger, J. P.; Arabi, K.; Aubry, O.; Khacef, A.; Cormier, J. M.; Lédé, J.

2012-02-01

295

Melt crystallization for refinement of triolein and palmitic acid mixture as a model waste oil for biodiesel fuel production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Melt crystallization using an annular vessel with two circular cylinders was applied to produce high-quality vegetable oil from waste oil. The inner cylinder was cooled at a constant rate and rotated, and the outer cylinder was heated at a constant temperature. The melt was solidified on the inner cylinder surface. The binary system of triolein and palmitic acid was used as the model waste oil. We measured the distribution coefficient of triolein. Suitable operation conditions were proposed to attain a high yield and a high purity of triolein from waste oil. The distribution coefficient correlated well with the theoretical equation derived on the basis of the "local lever rule" at the interface of the crystal layer and melt [1].

Fukui, Keisuke; Maeda, Kouji; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi

2013-06-01

296

Early Entrance Co-Production Plant Decentralized Gasification Cogeneration Transportation Fuels and Steam From Available Feedstocks. Quarterly Technical Progress Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power and Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement with the USDOE, National Energy Technology Laboratory (N...

2002-01-01

297

Geochemistry of FBC waste-coal slurry solid mixtures. Final technical report, September 1, 1992August 31, 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three tasks conducted in this research project were related to understanding the geochemistry and mineralogy of the co-disposal of fluidized bed combustion (FBC) wastes with coal slurry solid (CSS) from a coal preparation plant. During coal cleaning, pyrite, other heavy minerals and rock fragments are separated from the coal and discharged in an aqueous slurry to an impoundment. After

G. B. Dreher; W. R. Roy; J. D. Steele; M. Heidari

1993-01-01

298

Geochemistry of FBC waste-coal slurry solid mixtures. Technical report, December 1, 1992February 28, 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three tasks are being conducted in this research project. All are related to understanding the chemistry and mineralogy of the co- disposal of fluidized bed combustion (FBC) wastes with coal slurry solid (CSS) from a coal preparation plant. During coal cleaning, pyrite and other heavy minerals and rock materials are rejected from the coal and discharged in an aqueous slurry

G. B. Dreher; W. R. Roy; J. D. Steele; M. Heidari; D. Banerjee

1993-01-01

299

Geochemistry of FBC waste-coal slurry solid mixtures. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1May 31, 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three tasks are being conducted in this research project, all related to understanding the chemistry and mineralogy of the co-disposal of fluidized bed combustion (FBC) wastes with coal slurry solid (CSS) from a coal preparation plant. During coal cleaning, pyrite, other heavy minerals, and rock materials are rejected from the coal and discharged in an aqueous slurry to a slurry

G. B. Dreher; W. R. Roy; J. D. Steele; M. Heidari

1993-01-01

300

Coal gasification and occupational health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification and prevention of health effects due to occupational exposures in coal gasification processes requires a basic knowledge of the technological process by which gasification proceeds. This paper presents an overview of the technology and a rational approach to health hazard identification based upon the concept of the unit operation specific micro environment. A final section is devoted to summarizing

RONALD J. YOUNG; WILLIAM J. McKAY; JAMES M. EVANS

1978-01-01

301

Up-cycling waste glass to minimal water adsorption/absorption lightweight aggregate by rapid low temperature sintering: optimization by dual process-mixture response surface methodology.  

PubMed

Mixed color waste glass extracted from municipal solid waste is either not recycled, in which case it is an environmental and financial liability, or it is used in relatively low value applications such as normal weight aggregate. Here, we report on converting it into a novel glass-ceramic lightweight aggregate (LWA), potentially suitable for high added value applications in structural concrete (upcycling). The artificial LWA particles were formed by rapidly sintering (<10 min) waste glass powder with clay mixes using sodium silicate as binder and borate salt as flux. Composition and processing were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) modeling, and specifically (i) a combined process-mixture dual RSM, and (ii) multiobjective optimization functions. The optimization considered raw materials and energy costs. Mineralogical and physical transformations occur during sintering and a cellular vesicular glass-ceramic composite microstructure is formed, with strong correlations existing between bloating/shrinkage during sintering, density and water adsorption/absorption. The diametrical expansion could be effectively modeled via the RSM and controlled to meet a wide range of specifications; here we optimized for LWA structural concrete. The optimally designed LWA is sintered in comparatively low temperatures (825-835 °C), thus potentially saving costs and lowering emissions; it had exceptionally low water adsorption/absorption (6.1-7.2% w/wd; optimization target: 1.5-7.5% w/wd); while remaining substantially lightweight (density: 1.24-1.28 g.cm(-3); target: 0.9-1.3 g.cm(-3)). This is a considerable advancement for designing effective environmentally friendly lightweight concrete constructions, and boosting resource efficiency of waste glass flows. PMID:24871934

Velis, Costas A; Franco-Salinas, Claudia; O'Sullivan, Catherine; Najorka, Jens; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Cheeseman, Christopher R

2014-07-01

302

Development of a high-temperature air-blown gasification system.  

PubMed

Current status of high-temperature air-blown gasification technology development is reviewed. This advanced gasification system utilizes preheated air to convert coal and waste-derived fuels into synthetic fuel gas and value-added byproducts. A series of demonstrated, independent technologies are combined to form the core of this gasification system. A high-temperature, rapid devolatilization process is used to enhance the volatile yields from the fuel and to improve the gasification efficiency. A high-temperature pebble bed filter is used to remove to the slag and particulates from the synthetic fuel gas. Finally, a novel regenerative heater is used to supply the high-temperature air for the gasifier. Component development tests have shown that higher gasification efficiencies can be obtained at more fuel-rich operating conditions when high-temperature air is used as the gasification agent. Test results also demonstrated the flex-fuel capabilities of the gasifier design. Potential uses of this technology range from large-scale integrated gasification power plants to small-scale waste-to-energy applications. PMID:11499577

Pian, C C; Yoshikawa, K

2001-09-01

303

Development of grout formulations for 106-AN waste: Mixture-experiment results and analysis. Volume 2, Data presentation  

SciTech Connect

Twenty potential ingredients were identified for use in developing a 106-AN grout formulation, and 18 were subsequently obtained and tested. Four ingredients: Type II-LA (moderate heat of hydration) Portland cement, Class F fly ash, attapulgite 150 drilling clay, and ground air-cooled blast-furnace slag (GABFS) -- were selected for developing the 106-AN grout formulations. A mixture experiment was designed and conducted around the following formulation: 2.5 lb of cement per gallon, 1.2 lb of fly ash per gallon, 0.8 lb of attapulgite per gallon, and 3.5 lb of GABFS per gallon. Reduced empirical models were generated from the results of the mixture experiment. These models were used to recommend several grout formulations for 106-AN. Westinghouse Hanford Company selected one of these formulations to be verified for use with 106-AN and a backup formulation in case problems arise with the first choice. This report presents the mixture-experimental results and leach data.

Spence, R.D.; McDaniel, E.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Anderson, C.M.; Lokken, R.O.; Piepel, G.F. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-09-01

304

Methane production from waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques for the production of methane from organic wastes are reviewed with emphasis on biological degradation and a technique (called 'geordnete Deponie') involving the treatment of waste deposits. Special emphasis is put on thermal methods of methane production from organic refuse, including a method of degassing (i.e., pyrolysis) and a method of gasification (i.e., oxidative gas generation).

R. Rasch

1977-01-01

305

Hydrogen generation by catalytic gasification of motor oils in an integrated fuel processor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalytic gasification of waste motor oil (MO) for the generation of high purity of hydrogen and then integrated to a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is economically and environmentally attractive. Thus, the objective of the present work was to investigate a MO catalytic gasification for generating high-purity hydrogen with 15wt.% NiO\\/Al2O3 catalysts. In a lab-scale fixed-bed downdraft experimental approach,

Kuen-Song Lin; Sujan Chowdhury; Chia-Chieh Shen; Chuin-Tih Yeh

2008-01-01

306

Co-gasification of blended coal with feedlot and chicken litter biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed to avoid environmental degradation. Improper disposal leads to contamination of water supplies and poses serious health risks to humans. In this paper, fixed-bed gasification has been described as a technology for utilizing animal waste as a source of renewable energy, which can reduce its disposal

Soyuz Priyadarsan; Kalyan Annamalai; John M. Sweeten; Mark T. Holtzapple; Saqib Mukhtar

2005-01-01

307

Catalysis in biomass gasification  

SciTech Connect

The objective of these studies is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of producing specific gas products by catalytic gasification of biomass. Catalyst performance is a key factor in the feasibility of catalytic gasification processes. The results of studies designed to gain a fundamental understanding of catalytic mechanisms and causes of deactivation, and discussion of the state-of-the-art of related catalytic processes are presented. Experiments with primary and secondary catalysts were conducted in a 5-cm-diameter, continuous-wood-feed, fixed-catalyst-bed reactor. The primary catalysts used in the experiments were alkali carbonates mixed with the biomass feed; the secondary catalysts included nickel or other transition metals on supports such as alumina, silica, or silica-alumina. The primary catalysts were found to influence wood pyrolysis as well as the char/steam reaction. Secondary catalysts were used in a fixed-bed configuration to direct gas phase reactions. Results of the performance of these catalysts are presented. Secondary catalysts were found to be highly effective for conversion of biomass to specific gas products: synthesis gases and methane-rich gas. With an active catalyst, equilibrium gas composition are obtained, and all liquid pyrolysis products are converted to gases. The major cause of catalyst deactivation was carbon deposition, or coking. Loss of surface area by sintering was also inportant. Catalyst deactivation by sulfur poisoning was observed when bagasse was used as the feedstock for catalytic gasification. Mechanisms of catalyst activity and deactivation are discussed. Model compounds (methane, ethylene, and phenol) were used to determine coking behavior of catalysts. Carbon deposition is more prevalent with ethylene and phenol than with methane. Catalyst formulations that are resistant to carbon deposition are presented. 60 references, 10 figures, 21 tables.

Baker, E.G.; Mudge, L.K.

1984-06-01

308

Waste  

SciTech Connect

A process for converting wastes in molten salts into usable fuels is described. The molten salt acts as a reaction medium and potential acidic pollutants are retained in the melt. The waste is converted to a fuel gas by reacting it with insufficient air for complete conversion to CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O. The product gas is cleared of particles using a baghouse or venturi scrubber and it is then burned in a boiler to produce steam. The results for waste streams containing a high-sulfur oil refinery waste, rubber, wood, leather scraps, and waste x-ray film are presented in this article.

Gay, R.L.; Barclay, K.M.; Grantham, L.F.; Yosim, S.J.

1981-09-01

309

Gasification and Surface Modification of Vapor-Grown Carbon Fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Vapor-grown carbon fibers (VGCF) were produced from a methane-hydrogen mixture on a reconstituted graphite support using the\\u000a [Fe3(CO)12] complex as catalyst precursor. The fibers thus produced were submitted to different oxidative treatments: nitric acid, oxygen\\u000a plasma and partial gasification with air or carbon dioxide. The original and the oxidised fibers were characterised by X-ray\\u000a diffraction, SEM, AFM, nitrogen adsorption, XPS

J. L. Figueiredo; P H. Serp

310

Toxicological investigations in the semiconductor industry: I. Studies on the acute oral toxicity of a complex mixture of waste products from the aluminium plasma etching process  

SciTech Connect

In dry etching processes--one of the sources of potential exposure to toxic wastes in the semiconductor industry--complex mixtures of inorganic and organic compounds arise from reactions between feed stock gases (BCl3/Cl2), top layers (aluminium photoresist), and the carrier gas (N2). Two different fractions of the complex mixture--one an ethanolic solution (ES) and the other an insoluble liquid residue (LR)--were examined for acute oral toxicity in rats. Analytical data showed that the ethanol soluble fraction contained mainly inorganic compounds, whereas the residue contained various halogenated hydrocarbons. Neither death nor behavioral changes occurred after oral administration and observation up to 23 days. ES caused a lower mean arterial blood pressure in both sexes, increased P-R-intervals in male rats, and caused some mild biochemical and hematological alterations and changes in relative organ weights compared to the control groups. Exposure to LR influenced food and water intake, and caused a significant decrease in body weights, signs of polyurie, as well as changes in various relative organ weights and biochemical and hematological parameters. The blood pressure of the male animals fell and the heart rates of both sexes decreased.

Bauer, S.; Wolff, I.; Werner, N.; Hoffmann, P.; Herzschuh, R.; Oemus, K.; Rath, F.W.; Voigt, R. (Institute of Industrial Toxicology, Martin Luther University, Halle (Germany))

1992-05-01

311

In Plant Measurement and Analysis of Mixtures of Uranium and Plutonium TRU-Waste Using a {sup 252}Cf Shuffler Instrument  

SciTech Connect

The active-passive {sup 252}Cf shuffler instrument, installed and certified several years ago in Los Alamos National Laboratory's plutonium facility, has now been calibrated for different matrices to measure Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)-destined transuranic (TRU)-waste. Little or no data currently exist for these types of measurements in plant environments where sudden large changes in the neutron background radiation can significantly distort the results. Measurements and analyses of twenty-two 55-gallon drums, consisting of mixtures of varying quantities of uranium and plutonium in mostly noncombustible matrices, have been recently completed at the plutonium facility. The calibration and measurement techniques, including the method used to separate out the plutonium component, will be presented and discussed. Calculations used to adjust for differences in uranium enrichment from that of the calibration standards will be shown. Methods used to determine various sources of both random and systematic error will be indicated. Particular attention will be directed to those problems identified as arising from the plant environment. The results of studies to quantify the aforementioned distortion effects in the data will be presented. Various solution scenarios will be outlined, along with those adopted here.

Hurd, J.R.

1998-11-02

312

The O{sub 2}-enriched air gasification of coal, plastics and wood in a fluidized bed reactor  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of the O{sub 2} in the gasification stream of a BFB gasifier has been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Main advantage of the O{sub 2}-enriched air is the increasing of the bed temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No remarkable effects on tar reduction. Decreasing of recognized PAHs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gasification reactions completed inside the dense bed and splashing zone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polycondensation reactions occur mainly in the freeboard region. - Abstract: The effect of oxygen-enriched air during fluidized bed co-gasification of a mixture of coal, plastics and wood has been investigated. The main components of the obtained syngas were measured by means of on-line analyzers and a gas chromatograph while those of the condensate phase were off-line analysed by means of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The characterization of condensate phase as well as that of the water used as scrubbing medium completed the performed diagnostics. The experimental results were further elaborated in order to provide material and substances flow analyses inside the plant boundaries. These analyses allowed to obtain the main substance distribution between solid, gaseous and condensate phases and to estimate the conversion efficiency of carbon and hydrogen but also to easily visualise the waste streams produced by the process. The process performance was then evaluated on the basis of parameters related to the conversion efficiency of fuels into valuable products (i.e. by considering tar and particulate as process losses) as well as those related to the energy recovery.

Mastellone, Maria Laura, E-mail: mlaura.mastellone@unina2.it [Department of Environmental Sciences-Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi, 43 81100 Caserta (Italy); Zaccariello, Lucio; Santoro, Donato; Arena, Umberto [Department of Environmental Sciences-Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi, 43 81100 Caserta (Italy)

2012-04-15

313

78 FR 35766 - North Carolina: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...214--Hazardous Waste and Used Oil; 71 FR...Materials Processed in a Gasification .0106(a). System...15A NCAC 13A Hazardous Waste Combustors (Phase I...State RCRA hazardous waste program without altering...Significantly Affect Energy Supply,...

2013-06-14

314

77 FR 12228 - Idaho: Proposed Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program; Revision  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...authorization for its hazardous waste management program effective...delegable Federal hazardous waste regulations codified as of...Secondary Materials Processed in a Gasification System to Produce Synthesis...Final Standards for Hazardous Waste Combustors (Phase I...

2012-02-29

315

76 FR 18927 - Oklahoma: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...govern Federal Hazardous Waste revisions promulgated...Section 2- Processed in a Gasification 7-101 et seq.; as...Oklahoma Hazardous Waste Management Act, as amended...State RCRA hazardous waste program without altering...Significantly Affect Energy Supply,...

2011-04-06

316

77 FR 60919 - Tennessee: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Tennessee's hazardous waste program revisions satisfy...Materials Processed in a Gasification 01/02/08 .02(1...1200-01- Hazardous Waste Combustors (Phase I...State RCRA hazardous waste program without altering...Significantly Affect Energy Supply,...

2012-10-05

317

Plasma processing of carbon-containing technical aggregations and wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plasma gasification of technical aggregations is experimentally studied using the utilization of solid domestic wastes as an example. A shaft electric furnace is described, and the experimental and calculated data are analyzed and compared. The high-temperature gasification of carbon-containing wastes is shown to be a promising process.

V. S. Cherednichenko; A. S. An'shakov; V. A. Faleev; A. A. Danilenko

2008-01-01

318

Plasma processing of carbon-containing technical aggregations and wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plasma gasification of technical aggregations is experimentally studied using the utilization of solid domestic wastes\\u000a as an example. A shaft electric furnace is described, and the experimental and calculated data are analyzed and compared.\\u000a The high-temperature gasification of carbon-containing wastes is shown to be a promising process.

V. S. Cherednichenko; A. S. An’shakov; V. A. Faleev; A. A. Danilenko

2008-01-01

319

In Situ Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasification  

SciTech Connect

Black liquor gasification offers a number of attractive incentives to replace Tomlinson boilers but it also leads to an increase in the causticizing load. Reasons for this have been described in previous reports (FY04 ERC, et.al.). The chemistries have also been covered but will be reviewed here briefly. Experimental results of the causticizing reactions with black liquor are presented here. Results of the modeling work were presented in detail in the Phase 1 report. They are included in Table 2 for comparison but will not be discussed in detail. The causticizing agents were added to black liquor in the ratios shown in Table 1, mixed, and then spray-dried. The mixture ratios (doping levels) reflect amount calculated from the stoichiometry above to achieve specified conversions shown in the table. The solids were sieved to 63-90 microns for use in the entrained flow reactors. The firing conditions are shown in Table 2. Pictures and descriptions of the reactors can be found in the Phase 1 annual report. Following gasification, the solids (char) was collected and analyzed by coulometric titration (for carbonate and total carbon), and by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP) for a wide array of metals.

Scott Alan Sinquefield

2005-10-01

320

A life cycle evaluation of wood pellet gasification for district heating in British Columbia.  

PubMed

The replacement of natural gas combustion for district heating by wood waste and wood pellets gasification systems with or without emission control has been investigated by a streamlined LCA. While stack emissions from controlled gasification systems are lower than the applicable regulations, compared to the current base case, 12% and 133% increases are expected in the overall human health impacts for wood pellets and wood waste, respectively. With controlled gasification, external costs and GHG emission can be reduced by 35% and 82% on average, respectively. Between wood pellets and wood waste, wood pellets appear to be the better choice as it requires less primary energy and has a much lower impact on the local air quality. PMID:21377867

Pa, Ann; Bi, Xiaotao T; Sokhansanj, Shahab

2011-05-01

321

Angrenskaya Underground Coal Gasification Station.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report continues our survey of the Soviet effort in underground coal gasification (UCG) and summarizes production data and process improvements developed at the Angrenskaya Station. Of the six UCG stations operated in the Soviet Union, only the Angre...

D. Olness

1982-01-01

322

Outlook for Underground Coal Gasification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Past experiments have shown underground coal gasification (UCG) to be technically feasible but not economically competitive. During these tests, stabilization of gas production rates and of gas heating value were not achieved for sustained periods. The Bu...

L. A. Schrider C. F. Brandenburg D. D. Fischer R. M. Boyd G. G. Campbell

1975-01-01

323

Coal gasification vessel  

DOEpatents

A vessel system (10) comprises an outer shell (14) of carbon fibers held in a binder, a coolant circulation mechanism (16) and control mechanism (42) and an inner shell (46) comprised of a refractory material and is of light weight and capable of withstanding the extreme temperature and pressure environment of, for example, a coal gasification process. The control mechanism (42) can be computer controlled and can be used to monitor and modulate the coolant which is provided through the circulation mechanism (16) for cooling and protecting the carbon fiber and outer shell (14). The control mechanism (42) is also used to locate any isolated hot spots which may occur through the local disintegration of the inner refractory shell (46).

Loo, Billy W. (Oakland, CA)

1982-01-01

324

Mild gasification of coal  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this initial year's mission-oriented multi-year program is to develop a process chemistry data base for the mild gasification of coal with emphasis on eastern bituminous coal. One important objective of this program was to obtain the trends in product formation from different coals as a function of several process variables which included temperature, pressure, coal particle residence time, coal flow rate, type of additives such as lime, limestone, silica flour and ash in a short period of time. This was achieved by a careful development of a test matrix using a fractional factorial statistical design. The equipment used was the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) combination stirred moving-bed, entrained-tubular reactor which is capable of processing 2 to 3 pounds of coal per hour. A Wellmore Kentucky No. 8 bituminous coal, a Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coal and a Mississippi lignite with particles having a size of 150 {mu}m or less were selected for this study. The mild gasification experiments were conducted at temperatures from 550{degree} to 650{degree}C at nitrogen sweep gas pressures of 15 to 50 psi and residence times of 0.1 to 2 min. The coal flow rate was 0. 4 to 1.0 lb/hr and the concentration of the lime additives was 0 to 10% by weight of the dry coal feed. All variables were tested at two different levels, low and high, corresponding to the above ranges of the variables. A rapid calculation of the main effects and interactions was made using Yate's algorithm and the significance of the effects was determined from the normal probability plots. 10 refs., 26 figs., 11 tabs.

Sundaram, M.S.; Fallon, P.T.; Steinberg, M.

1989-01-01

325

Conversion of municipal solid waste to hydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

LLNL and Texaco are cooperatively developing a physical and chemical treatment method for the conversion of municipal solid waste (MSW) to hydrogen via the steps of hydrothermal pretreatment, gasification and purification. LLNL's focus has been on hydrothermal pretreatment of MSW in order to prepare a slurry of suitable viscosity and heating value to allow efficient and economical gasification and hydrogen

J. H. Richardson; R. S. Rogers; C. B. Thorsness

1995-01-01

326

Hydrogen Production from Biomass via Supercritical Water Gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison with other biomass thermochemical gasification, such as air gasification or steam gasification, the supercritical water gasification can directly deal with the wet biomass without drying, and has high gasification efficiency in lower temperatures. The cost of hydrogen production from supercritical water gasification of wet biomass was several times higher than the current price of hydrogen from steam methane reforming.

A. Demirbas

2010-01-01

327

Experimental study on MSW gasification and melting technology.  

PubMed

In order to develop municipal solid waste (MSW) gasification and melting technology, two preliminary experiments and a principle integrated experiment were fulfilled respectively. The gasification characteristics of MSW were studied at 500-750 degrees C when equivalence ratio (ER) was 0.2-0.5 using a fluidized-bed gasifier. When temperature was 550-700 degrees C and ER was 0.2-0.4, low heat value (LHV) of syngas reaches 4000-12000 kJ/Nm3. The melting characteristics of fly ash were investigated at 1100-1460 degrees C using a fixed-bed furnace. It was proved that over 99.9% of dioxins could be decomposed and most heavy-metals could be solidified when temperature was 1100-1300 degrees C. The principle integrated experiment was carried out in a fluidized-bed gasification and swirl-melting system. MSW was gasified efficiently at 550-650 degrees C, swirl-melting furnace maintains at 1200-1300 degrees C stably and over 95% of fly ash could be caught by the swirl-melting furnace. The results provided much practical experience and basic data to develop MSW gasification and melting technology. PMID:18232238

Xiao, Gang; Jin, Bao-sheng; Zhong, Zhao-ping; Chi, Yong; Ni, Ming-jiang; Cen, Ke-fa; Xiao, Rui; Huang, Ya-ji; Huang, He

2007-01-01

328

Evaluation of treated gasification wastewater as cooling tower makeup  

SciTech Connect

The principal goal of gasification research at the University of North Dakota Energy Research Center (UNDERC) is to develop process and environmental data on the treatability and reuse of aqueous effluents from the fixed-bed gasification of lignite. It is the objective of the UNDERC wastewater research program to define the extent of treatment required to produce a gas liquor for use as cooling tower makeup that will have no adverse effects on operating equipment or on the environment. The UNDERC pilot wastewater treatment scheme was designed to simulate the wastewater reuse process being used at the Great Plains Gasification Associates (GPGA) lignite gasification facility near Beulah, North Dakota. At GPGA, aqueous gasifier waste streams are treated via the Phenosolvan and Phosam-W processes to remove the bulk of the wastewater organics as well as ammonia and acid gases. This minimally treated wastewater, referred to as stripped gas liquor (SGL), is fed to the process cooling towers. At UNDERC, SGL was produced from a pilot slagging fixed-bed gasifier (SFBG) followed by extraction and steam-stripping treatment. UNDERC wastewater was used initially to determine the effects of cooling tower wastewater reuse before GPGA wastewater became available. An additional cooling tower reuse test was performed with water from GPGA. This work addresses the comparative effects of wastewater from the UNDERC slagging gasifier and the GPGA dry-ash gasifier on cooling system operation. 14 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Galegher, S.J.; Mann, M.D.; Johnson, M.D.

1985-04-01

329

Numerical simulation of entrained flow coal gasifiers. Part I: modeling of coal gasification in an entrained flow gasifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive three-dimensional simulation model was developed for entrained flow coal gasifiers. In the model, the numerical methods and the submodels conventionally used for the pulverized coal combustion modeling were used. An extended coal gas mixture fraction model with the Multi Solids Progress Variables (MSPV) method was applied to simulate the gasification reaction and reactant mixing process. Four mixture fractions

Caixia Chen; Masayuki Horio; Toshinori Kojima

2000-01-01

330

Investigation of a sulfur reduction technique for mild gasification char  

SciTech Connect

The object of this program is to investigate the desulfurization of mild gasification char using hydrogen/methane mixtures in a laboratory-scale experimental study. In the first year of the two- year program, char is being treated with mixtures of H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} at temperatures of 1100{degrees}C to 1550{degrees}F and pressures of 50 to 100 psig. The effects of temperature, pressure, residence time, gas velocity, and gas composition on sulfur removal and carbon gasification are being determined. The batch experiments are being performed in a nominal 2-inch-ID stainless-steel, batch, fluidized-bed reactor. The char to be desulfurized was produced by the IGT mild gasification process research unit (PRU) in a recently completed DOE/METC-sponsored technology development program. The parent coal was Illinois No. 6 from a preparation plant, and the char from the selected test contains 4.58 wt% sulfur. In the first quarter, we have obtained and prepared a char for the desulfurization tests. Ultimate and proximate analyses were performed on this char, and its pore size distribution and surface area were determined. Also this quarter, the fluidized-bed reactor system was constructed and equipped with high pressure mass flow controllers and a high pressure sintered metal filter to remove fines from the effluent gas stream.

Knight, R.A.

1991-01-01

331

Improved yield parameters in catalytic steam gasification of forestry residue; optimizing biomass feed rate and catalyst type  

Microsoft Academic Search

The catalytic gasification (900 °C) of forestry industry residue (Eucalyptussaligna) was laboratory-studied. Biomass feed rate and type and amount of catalyst were assayed for their effect on the gasified product composition and the overall energy yield of the gasification reaction. The use of a calcined dolomite catalyst resulted in a combustible gas mixture of adequate calorific power (10.65 MJ m?3) for use as

Andrea Corujo; Luis Yermán; Beatríz Arizaga; Mariana Brusoni; Jorge Castiglioni

2010-01-01

332

Conversion of municipal solid waste to hydrogen.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

LLNL and Texaco are cooperatively developing a physical and chemical treatment method for the conversion of municipal solid waste (MSW) to hydrogen via the steps of hydrothermal pretreatment, gasification and purification. LLNL's focus has been on hydroth...

J. H. Richardson R. S. Rogers C. B. Thorsness

1995-01-01

333

Next generation of waste-to-energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews an emerging waste-to-energy technology that is close to commercial reality. Other developmental WTE technologies that rely on thermal treatment, gasification and pyrolysis, also seem poised for growth in the coming decade, especially in Europe.

Klosky

1997-01-01

334

Beluga Coal Gasification - ISER  

SciTech Connect

ISER was requested to conduct an economic analysis of a possible 'Cook Inlet Syngas Pipeline'. The economic analysis was incorporated as section 7.4 of the larger report titled: 'Beluga Coal Gasification Feasibility Study, DOE/NETL-2006/1248, Phase 2 Final Report, October 2006, for Subtask 41817.333.01.01'. The pipeline would carry CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} from a synthetic gas plant on the western side of Cook Inlet to Agrium's facility. The economic analysis determined that the net present value of the total capital and operating lifecycle costs for the pipeline ranges from $318 to $588 million. The greatest contributor to this spread is the cost of electricity, which ranges from $0.05 to $0.10/kWh in this analysis. The financial analysis shows that the delivery cost of gas may range from $0.33 to $0.55/Mcf in the first year depending primarily on the price for electricity.

Steve Colt

2008-12-31

335

Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification.  

PubMed

Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification are evaluated. The results showed that through underground coal gasification, gangue discharge is eliminated, sulfur emission is reduced, and the amount of ash, mercury, and tar discharge are decreased. Moreover, effect of underground gasification on underground water is analyzed and CO2 disposal method is put forward. PMID:12046301

Liu, Shu-qin; Liu, Jun-hua; Yu, Li

2002-04-01

336

Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of an ongoing effort of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to investigate the feasibility of gasification on a broader level, Nexant, Inc. was contracted to perform a comprehensive study to provide a set of gasification alternatives for consideration by the DOE. Nexant completed the first two tasks (Tasks 1 and 2) of the ''Gasification Plant Cost and

Samuel Tam; Alan Nizamoff; Sheldon Kramer; Scott Olson; Francis Lau; Mike Roberts; David Stopek; Robert Zabransky; Jeffrey Hoffmann; Erik Shuster; Nelson Zhan

2005-01-01

337

Coal gasification for advanced power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a review of the development and deployment of coal based gasification technologies for power generation. The global status of gasification is described covering the various process and technology options. The use of gasification for power generation is then highlighted including the advantages and disadvantages of this means for coal utilisation. The R, D & D needs and

Andrew J. Minchener

2005-01-01

338

Private sector involvement in underground coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is considerable activity in the field of underground coal gasification: several projects are underway in addition to those sponsored by DOE. Basic Resources, Inc., a subsidiary of Texas Utilities Co., has licensed the Soviet technology and is developing underground gasification of lignites near Fairfield, Texas. The Atlantic Richfield Company has executed a successful field gasification test in a 100

Stephens

1979-01-01

339

Interaction of subsurface waters with the combustion site during underground coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

and important problem determining the expediency of using UCG when mining coal deposits. The main sources of subsurface water pollution during UCG are the combustion site in the coal bed and gasification products, representing a mixture of steam and gas products of complete and incomplete combustion of coal and its thermal decomposition, which can enter substtrface waters and be dissolved

E. V. Dvornikova; E. V. Kreinin

1993-01-01

340

Fundamental studies of catalytic gasification. Quarterly report, October 1, 1991December 31, 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past two years, it has been found that the binary system of good gasification catalysts such as mixtures of potassium and nickel oxide or still better calcium and potassium oxide can be further improved by adding third components to this system. It has also been shown that petroleum cokes can be gasified as easily as coals. Addition of

H. Heinemann; G. A. Somorjai

1991-01-01

341

Plasma gasification of organic containing substances as a promising way of development of alternative renewable power engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper deals with perspectives of large-scale implementation of the plasma gasification process of solid organic-containing substances as a source of renewable energy. First of all, such substances as wood waste, agriculture waste, solid household waste are considered. Thanks to the process of the plasma high-temperature gasification the energy of their combustion can be completely converted into the energy of the synthesis gas combustion, which use as a fuel for the combined cycle allows electricity generation with efficiency of ~60 %. Thus, if the psychogenesis production wastes are considered, this technology enables avoiding additional emission of carbon dioxide into biosphere as for production of biomass from biosphere it is extracted the same amount of carbon dioxide as is emitted at its combustion. The report represents the realized and developing designs of plasma gasification, their advantages and deficiencies.

Rutberg, Ph G.; Bratsev, A. N.; Kuznetsov, V. A.; Kumkova, I. I.; Popov, V. E.; Surov, A. V.

2012-12-01

342

In situ formation of coal gasification catalysts from low cost alkali metal salts  

DOEpatents

A carbonaceous material, such as crushed coal, is admixed or impregnated with an inexpensive alkali metal compound, such as sodium chloride, and then pretreated with a stream containing steam at a temperature of 350.degree. to 650.degree. C. to enhance the catalytic activity of the mixture in a subsequent gasification of the mixture. The treatment may result in the transformation of the alkali metal compound into another, more catalytically active, form.

Wood, Bernard J. (Santa Clara, CA); Brittain, Robert D. (Cupertino, CA); Sancier, Kenneth M. (Menlo Park, CA)

1985-01-01

343

Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags. Quarterly report, September 15--November 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

Coal gasification technologies are finding increasing commercial applications for power generation or production of chemical feedstocks. The integrated-gasification-combined-cycle (IGCC) coal conversion process has been demonstrated to be a clean, efficient, and environmentally acceptable method of generating power. However, the gasification process produces relatively large quantities of a solid waste termed slag. Regulatory trends with respect to solid waste disposal, landfill development costs, and public concern make utilization of slag a high-priority issue. Therefore, it is imperative that slag utilization methods be developed, tested, and commercialized in order to offset disposal costs. This project aims to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of the slag utilization technologies developed by Praxis to produce lightweight aggregates (LWA) and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag in a large-scale pilot operation, followed by total utilization of these aggregates in a number of applications.

NONE

1997-07-01

344

NETL, USDA design coal-stabilized biomass gasification unit  

SciTech Connect

Coal, poultry litter, contaminated corn, rice hulls, moldly hay, manure sludge - these are representative materials that could be tested as fuel feedstocks in a hybrid gasification/combustion concept studied in a recent US Department of Energy (DOE) design project. DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) collaborated to develop a design concept of a power system that incorporates Hybrid Biomass Gasification. This system would explore the use of a wide range of biomass and agricultural waste products as gasifier feedstocks. The plant, if built, would supply one-third of electrical and steam heating needs at the USDA's Beltsville (Maryland) Agricultural Research Center. 1 fig., 1 photo.

NONE

2008-09-30

345

Integrated gasification combined cycle -- A review of IGCC technology  

SciTech Connect

Over the past three decades, significant efforts have been made toward the development of cleaner and more efficient technology for power generation. Coal gasification technology received a big thrust with the concept of combined cycle power generation. The integration of coal gasification with combined cycle for power generation (IGCC) had the inherent characteristic of gas cleanup and waste minimization, which made this system environmentally preferable. Commercial-scale demonstration of a cool water plant and other studies have shown that the greenhouse gas and particulates emission from an IGCC plant is drastically lower than the recommended federal New Source Performance Standard levels. IGCC also offers a phased construction and repowering option, which allows multiple-fuel flexibility and the necessary economic viability. IGCC technology advances continue to improve efficiency and further reduce the emissions, making it the technology of the 21st century.

Joshi, M.M.; Lee, S. [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States)

1996-07-01

346

Fuels from biomass and wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production, use, and effects of fuels from biomass and waste energy sources are discussed. Biomass procurement from silviculture, including hybrid poplar and sycamore farms, in addition to the growth of mass algal culture and Jerusalem artichokes for fuels are considered. The conversion of biomass and solid waste materials through biological and thermal gasification, hydrolysis and extraction, and fermentation to

D. L. Klass; G. H. Emert

1981-01-01

347

Subcontracted R and D final report: analysis of samples obtained from GKT gasification test of Kentucky coal. Nonproprietary version  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory test program was performed to obtain detailed compositional data on the Gesellshaft fuer Kohle-Technologie (GKT) gasifier feed and effluent streams. GKT performed pilot gasification tests with Kentucky No. 9 coal and collected various samples which were analyzed by GKT and the Radian Corporation, Austin, Texas. The coal chosen had good liquefaction characteristics and a high gasification reactivity. No organic priority pollutants or PAH compounds were detected in the wash water, and solid waste leachates were within RCRA metals limits.

Raman, S.V.

1983-09-01

348

A model approach to highly dispersing catalytic materials in coal for gasification  

SciTech Connect

This project seeks to develop a technique, based on coal surface properties, for highly dispersing catalysts in coal for gasification and to investigate the potential of using potassium carbonate and calcium acetate mixtures as catalysts for coal gasification. The lower cost and higher catalytic activity of the latter compound will produce economic benefits by reducing the amount of K[sub 2]CO[sub 3] required for high coal char reactivities. As was shown in previous reports, coal loading with potassium or calcium at different pHs produced CO[sub 2] gasification activities which increased in the order pH 6 > pH 10 >>pH 1. A similar trend was obtained when calcium and potassium were simultaneously loaded and char reaction times were less than about 75 min. In the last quarter, the potential application of ammonia as a reactive medium for coal gasification has been investigated. This gas has not been previously applied to coal gasification. However, related work suggests that the potential chemical feedstock base can be broadened by using ammonia to generate hydrogen cyanide and cyanogen from coal. The current report shows that the reactivity of a demineralized lignite in ammonia is significantly higher in the presence of calcium or potassium catalyst than that for the char without added catalyst and suggests that ammonia is a potentially reactive gas for catalyzed coal gasification.

Abotsi, G.M.K.; Bota, K.B.

1992-01-01

349

Characterization and optimization of sorbents utilized for emission control during coal gasification. 1997 Fourth quarter research report, October 1, 1997--December 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect

Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle and pressurized fluidized bed combustion power system requires both hot gas desulfurization and particulate filtration to improve system thermal efficiency and overall performance. Few metal oxides were evaluated to be the sorbent candidate for hot gas desulfurization process. The use of waste iron oxide as a disposable metal oxide sorbent will alleviate the constraints imposed on iron oxides including the degradation of sulfur capacity and its physical attrition required for a regenerable sorbent. The very low cost of waste iron oxides and the elimination of the investment associated with sorbent regeneration make it attractive to replace currently developed sorbent candidates. However, the use of waste iron oxides indicates a significant increase of dust loading for particulate filtration. The slower the reaction rate the iron oxide and coal ash mixture is, the longer residence time and higher iron oxide to coal ratio are required. One of the key issue of the use of waste iron oxides as a disposable sorbent material relies on the capability of particulate filtration efficiency. The current back pulse cleaning of the dust cake had been evaluated; and the preliminary test results indicated that the simultaneous operation of hot gas desulfurization and particulate filtration is feasible. A parametric testing will be performed on hot gas desulfurization and particulate independently first. The independent test results will help optimize the test design and evaluation of the integration of hot gas desulfurization testing and particulate filtration testing to be completed in the first two quarters 1998.

Huque, Z.; Mei, D.; Zhou, J.

1997-12-31

350

TOPICAL REVIEW: Thermal plasma waste treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma waste treatment has over the past decade become a more prominent technology because of the increasing problems with waste disposal and because of the realization of opportunities to generate valuable co-products. Plasma vitrification of hazardous slags has been a commercial technology for several years, and volume reduction of hazardous wastes using plasma processes is increasingly being used. Plasma gasification

Joachim Heberlein; Anthony B. Murphy

2008-01-01

351

Environmental aspects of energy related solid waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of disposal of solid waste from energy industries is considered. Information on the composition of solid waste from energy industries, options for its disposal, and possible environmental impacts is presented. Coal combustion, gasification, liquefaction, and oil shale are considered. Particular emphasis is given to the problem of increasing energy solid wastes in urban areas. Substantive problems include: water

M. A. Crowther; S. C. Morris

1981-01-01

352

Coal gasification 2006: roadmap to commercialization  

SciTech Connect

Surging oil and gas prices, combined with supply security and environmental concerns, are prompting power generators and industrial firms to further develop coal gasification technologies. Coal gasification, the process of breaking down coal into its constituent chemical components prior to combustion, will permit the US to more effectively utilize its enormous, low cost coal reserves. The process facilitates lower environmental impact power generation and is becoming an increasingly attractive alternative to traditional generation techniques. The study is designed to inform the reader as to this rapidly evolving technology, its market penetration prospects and likely development. Contents include: Clear explanations of different coal gasification technologies; Emissions and efficiency comparisons with other fuels and technologies; Examples of US and global gasification projects - successes and failures; Commercial development and forecast data; Gasification projects by syngas output; Recommendations for greater market penetration and commercialization; Current and projected gasification technology market shares; and Recent developments including proposals for underground gasification process. 1 app.

NONE

2006-05-15

353

Coal Gasification for Power Generation, 3. edition  

SciTech Connect

The report provides a concise look at the challenges faced by coal-fired generation, the ability of coal gasification to address these challenges, and the current state of IGCC power generation. Topics covered include: an overview of Coal Generation including its history, the current market environment, and the status of coal gasification; a description of gasification technology including processes and systems; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving increased interest in coal gasification; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the implementation of coal gasification projects; a discussion of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology; an evaluation of IGCC versus other generation technologies; a discussion of IGCC project development options; a discussion of the key government initiatives supporting IGCC development; profiles of the key gasification technology companies participating in the IGCC market; and, a detailed description of existing and planned coal IGCC projects.

NONE

2007-11-15

354

Mixture Experiments  

SciTech Connect

A mixture experiment involves combining two or more components in various proportions or amounts and then measuring one or more responses for the resulting end products. Other factors that affect the response(s), such as process variables and/or the total amount of the mixture, may also be studied in the experiment. A mixture experiment design specifies the combinations of mixture components and other experimental factors (if any) to be studied and the response variable(s) to be measured. Mixture experiment data analyses are then used to achieve the desired goals, which may include (i) understanding the effects of components and other factors on the response(s), (ii) identifying components and other factors with significant and nonsignificant effects on the response(s), (iii) developing models for predicting the response(s) as functions of the mixture components and any other factors, and (iv) developing end-products with desired values and uncertainties of the response(s). Given a mixture experiment problem, a practitioner must consider the possible approaches for designing the experiment and analyzing the data, and then select the approach best suited to the problem. Eight possible approaches include 1) component proportions, 2) mathematically independent variables, 3) slack variable, 4) mixture amount, 5) component amounts, 6) mixture process variable, 7) mixture of mixtures, and 8) multi-factor mixture. The article provides an overview of the mixture experiment designs, models, and data analyses for these approaches.

Piepel, Gregory F.

2007-12-01

355

The O?-enriched air gasification of coal, plastics and wood in a fluidized bed reactor.  

PubMed

The effect of oxygen-enriched air during fluidized bed co-gasification of a mixture of coal, plastics and wood has been investigated. The main components of the obtained syngas were measured by means of on-line analyzers and a gas chromatograph while those of the condensate phase were off-line analysed by means of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The characterization of condensate phase as well as that of the water used as scrubbing medium completed the performed diagnostics. The experimental results were further elaborated in order to provide material and substances flow analyses inside the plant boundaries. These analyses allowed to obtain the main substance distribution between solid, gaseous and condensate phases and to estimate the conversion efficiency of carbon and hydrogen but also to easily visualise the waste streams produced by the process. The process performance was then evaluated on the basis of parameters related to the conversion efficiency of fuels into valuable products (i.e. by considering tar and particulate as process losses) as well as those related to the energy recovery. PMID:21993077

Mastellone, Maria Laura; Zaccariello, Lucio; Santoro, Donato; Arena, Umberto

2012-04-01

356

Early Entrance Co-Production Plant Decentralized Gasification Cogeneration Transportation Fuels and Steam From Available Feedstocks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Waste Processors Management, Inc.(WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE),...

2002-01-01

357

Review paper An economic analysis of biomass gasification and power generation in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

With vast territory and abundant biomass resources China appears to have suitable conditions to develop biomass utilization technologies. As an important decentralized power technology, biomass gasification and power generation (BGPG) has a potential market in making use of biomass wastes. In spite of the relatively high cost for controlling secondary pollution by wastewater, BGPG is economically feasible and can give

C. Z. Wu; H. Huang; S. P. Zheng; X. L. Yin

358

An economic analysis of biomass gasification and power generation in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

With vast territory and abundant biomass resources China appears to have suitable conditions to develop biomass utilization technologies. As an important decentralized power technology, biomass gasification and power generation (BGPG) has a potential market in making use of biomass wastes. In spite of the relatively high cost for controlling secondary pollution by wastewater, BGPG is economically feasible and can give

C. Z Wu; H Huang; S. P Zheng; X. L Yin

2002-01-01

359

The technical and economic feasibility of biomass gasification for power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the costs and technologies involved in an integrated system for the production of electricity from biomass in general and wood in particular. It first examines the economics of gasification, showing that the potential for this form of renewable energy lies in either processing low-cost wastes or relying on some sort of fiscal incentive, even at relatively large

A. V. Bridgwater

1995-01-01

360

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT: SOURCE TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT--CHAPMAN LOW-BTU GASIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a source test and evaluation of a commercial Chapman low-Btu gasification facility. Objectives were to: characterize the multimedia waste streams and potential fugitive emission and effluent streams from the facility, evaluate the applicability of Leve...

361

The role of a coal gasification fly ash as clay additive in building ceramic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clean coal integrated gasification in combined cycle (IGCC) technology of electrical power generation is different than conventional process in combustible treatment which generates inorganic wastes in the form of glassy slag and fly ash with singular properties. We have studied the fly ash coming from ELCOGAS IGCC power plant as additive to clays for building ceramic fabrication.The addition of

Mónica Aineto; Anselmo Acosta; Isabel Iglesias

2006-01-01

362

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT: SOURCE TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT - WELLMAN-GALUSHA (GLEN GERY) LOW-BTU GASIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a Source Test and Evaluation Program at a commercial coal gasification plant using a Wellman-Galusha gasifier to produce low-Btu fuel gas from anthracite coal. Major objective of the tests was to perform an environmental assessment of the plant's waste...

363

Energy life cycle assessment of rice straw bio-energy derived from potential gasification technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain and be capable of being produced in large quantities without reducing food supplies. Amounts of agricultural waste are produced and require treatment, with rice straw contributing the greatest source of such potential bio-fuel in Taiwan. Through life-cycle accounting, several energy indicators and four potential gasification technologies (PGT)

Je-Lueng Shie; Ching-Yuan Chang; Ci-Syuan Chen; Dai-Gee Shaw; Yi-Hung Chen; Wen-Hui Kuan; Hsiao-Kan Ma

2011-01-01

364

Source test and evaluation program at the Glen-Gery coal gasification facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a Source Test and Evaluation Program conducted at a commercial coal gasification facility. The facility uses a Wellman-Galusha gasifier to produce low-Btu fuel gas from anthracite coal. The major objective of the test program was to perform an environmental assessment on the facility's waste streams and fugitive emissions. Results from the chemical analyses of

G. C. Page; W. J. Rhodes

1980-01-01

365

Gasification of low-grade fuels in a spouted bed for power generation  

SciTech Connect

Experimental data on the autothermal gasification of wastes from the flotation of Kuzbass coal of grade Zh and low-ash coal from the Kansk-Achinsk Basin in a spouted bed of an inert material at atmospheric pressure are presented. Capabilities for the development and use of this process for power generation based on closed-cycle gas turbine plants are analyzed.

A.A. Belyaev [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2008-12-15

366

Oxygen\\/steam gasification of wood in a fixed-bed gasifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yield and operational data were obtained for the production of methanol synthesis gas by fixed-bed gasification of wood with oxygen\\/steam blasts. Three different species of wood and a densified wood waste product were gasified in an updraft gasifier with a nominal capacity of about 1 ton of dry wood per day. Gas and liquid product yield, gas composition, oxygen requirement,

Ed G. Baker; Lyle K. Mudge; Don H. Mitchell

1984-01-01

367

Plasma Treatments and Biomass Gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploitation of forest resources for energy production includes various methods of biomass processing. Gasification is one of the ways to recover energy from biomass. Syngas produced from biomass can be used to power internal combustion engines or, after purification, to supply fuel cells. Recent studies have shown the potential to improve conventional biomass processing by coupling a plasma reactor to

J Luche; Q Falcoz; T Bastien; J P Leninger; K Arabi; O Aubry; A Khacef; J M Cormier; J Lédé

2012-01-01

368

Angrenskaya underground coal gasification station  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report continues our survey of the Soviet effort in underground coal gasification (UCG) and summarizes production data and process improvements developed at the Angrenskaya Station. Of the six UCG stations operated in the Soviet Union, only the Angrenskaya Station was established from the outset as a commercial venture rather than as a research facility. Development began in 1952. Industrial

Olness

1982-01-01

369

Hydrogen production from coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fixed bed, fluidized bed and entrained phase techniques for hydrogen production from coal gasification are considered. Process heat may be supplied by the addition of oxygen, solid, liquid or gaseous heat carriers or indirectly through heat-transferring walls. In particular, attention is given to the selection of the Lurgi pressure process, the Winkler process or the Koppers-Totzek process for treating various

H. Teggers; H. Huettner; L. Schrader

1977-01-01

370

BIMOMASS GASIFICATION PILOT PLANT STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a gasification pilot program using two biomass feedstocks: bagasse pellets and wood chips. he object of the program was to determine the properties of biomass product gas and its suitability as a fuel for gas-turbine-based power generation cycles. he f...

371

[Toxicity studies of mild gasification products]. [Quarterly report, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Mild gasification of coal is a technology being developed by the United States Department of Energy and private industry with the hope that a cleaner method of coal use can help meet future energy needs. As the technology develops and its commercial use becomes a more viable possibility, efforts are being made to study the safety or possible toxicity of the mild gasification products. DOE and the National Institute for occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) are cooperating through an interagency agreement to examine some of these products for their genotoxic potential. NIOSH has studied the mutagenicity of several mild gasification product samples using the Ames Salmonella/microsomal assay. As reported earlier PSIS{number_sign}830331 failed to demonstrate genotoxic activity in the Ames assay under all conditions tested. Since the mild gasification products are complex mixtures, interactions between various components are likely to occur. Such interactions between various components of complex mixtures may increase or decrease genotoxic activity in short-term assays like the Ames test. Although all synergistic interactions may not be detailed, the separate analysis of those components in several classes provides a more accurate view of the genotoxicity of each component and better allows for chemical characterization of the possible mutagens in the mixture. NIOSH has performed mutagenicity studies on the subfractions of PSIS{number_sign}830331. The results of those studies are detailed in this report.

Not Available

1992-12-31

372

76 FR 37021 - Louisiana: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Section Materials Processed in a Gasification 2008. 2001 et seq., with...Part V. Subpart 1 Hazardous Waste and Hazardous Materials Sections...109, see definition for Gasification, and 105.D.1.l.i...LRS) 30: Section Hazardous Waste Combustors (Phase I 8,...

2011-06-24

373

Mechanical-biological waste treatment with thermal processing of partial fractions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Technologies for mechanical-biological treatment of waste in the Land of Hessen were compared including thermal processes like combustion and gasification. The new and more rigid limiting values specified in the Technical Guide for Municipal Waste Treatme...

1998-01-01

374

Investigation of a technique for sulfur reduction of mild gasification char. [Quarterly] report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The object of this program is to investigate the desulfurization of mild gasification char using H{sub 2}CH{sub 4} mixtures in a laboratory-scale experimental study. Mild gasification is a coal conversion technique which produces solid, liquid, and gaseous co-products. Char is the major co-product, about 60% of the dry coal yield. Form coke for steelmaking and foundries presents the best potential high-value markets for chars from eastern bituminous coals. Conventional metallurgical cokes generally contain about 1 wt% or less sulfur. Mild gasification char from high-sulfur Illinois coals must be upgraded to meet these criteria. One method to accomplish this is desulfurization with reducing gases derived from the mild gasification co-product gases. Because form coke has a market value up to $200/ton, it can accommodate desulfurization costs and still be economically attractive. The desulfurization can be performed either on the granular char or on formed-briquettes.

Knight, R.A. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

1992-08-01

375

Pyrolysis and gasification-melting of automobile shredder residue.  

PubMed

Automobile shredder residue (ASR) from end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in Korea has commonly been disposed of in landfills. Due to the growing number of scrapped cars and the decreasing availability of landfill space, effective technology for reducing ASR is needed. However ASR is a complex mixture, and finding an appropriate treatment is not easy on account of the harmful compounds in ASR. Therefore, research continues to seek an effective treatment technology. However most studies have thus far been performed in the laboratory, whereas few commercial and pilot studies have been performed. This paper studies the pyrolysis and gasification-melting of ASR. The pyrolyis characteristics have been analyzed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), a Lindberg furnace, and a fixed-bed pyrolyzer to study the fundamental characteristics of ASR thermal conversion. As a pilot study, shaft-type gasification-melting was performed. High-temperature gasification-melting was performed in a 5000 kg/day pilot system. The gas yield and syngas (H2 and CO) concentration increase when the reaction temperature increases. Gas with a high calorific value of more than 16,800 kJ/m3 was produced in the pyrolyzer. From the gasification-melting process, syngas of CO (30-40%) and H2(10-15%) was produced, with 5% CH4 produced as well. Slag generation was 17% of the initial ASR, with 5.8% metal content and 4% fly ash. The concentration of CO decreases, whereas the H2, CO2, and CH4 concentrations increase with an increase in the equivalence ratio (ER). The emission levels of dioxin and air pollution compounds except nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) were shown to satisfy Korean regulations. PMID:24282966

Roh, Seon Ah; Kim, Woo Hyun; Yun, Jin Han; Min, Tae Jin; Kwak, Yeon Ho; Seo, Yong Chil

2013-10-01

376

Analysis of energetic and exergetic efficiency, and environmental benefits of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle technology.  

PubMed

The problem of the high carbon dioxide emissions linked to power generation makes necessary active research on the use of biofuels in gas turbine systems as a promising alternative to fossil fuels. Gasification of biomass waste is particularly of interest in obtaining a fuel to be run in gas turbines, as it is an efficient biomass-to-biofuel conversion process, and an integration into a combined cycle power plant leads to a high performance with regard to energetic efficiency. The goal of this study was to carry out an energetic, exergetic and environmental analysis of the behaviour of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant fuelled with different kinds of biomass waste by means of simulations. A preliminary economic study is also included. Although a technological development in gasification technology is necessary, the results of simulations indicate a high technical and environmental interest in the use of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BioIGCC) systems for large-scale power generation from biomass waste. PMID:23444152

Mínguez, María; Jiménez, Angel; Rodríguez, Javier; González, Celina; López, Ignacio; Nieto, Rafael

2013-04-01

377

Woody biomass and RPF gasification using reforming catalyst and calcium oxide.  

PubMed

This study focused on steam gasification and reforming of waste biomass using a reforming catalyst. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the durability of a commercial Ni reforming catalyst and the effect of CaO on the reforming behavior, and to clarify detailed factors of catalytic performance, as well as the effect of operating parameters on the characteristics of produced gas composition. Moreover, catalyst regeneration was carried out and the behavior of catalytic activity based on gas composition was investigated. Using a fluidized bed gasifier and a fixed bed reformer, gasification and reforming of waste biomass were carried out. Commercial Ni-based catalyst and calcined limestone (CaO) were applied to the reforming reaction. Temperature of the gasifier and reformer was almost 1023K. Ratio of steam to carbon in the feedstock [molmol(-1)] and equivalence ratio (i.e., ratio of actual to theoretical amount of oxygen) [-] were set at about 2 and 0.3, respectively. The feed rate of the feedstock into the bench-scale gasifier was almost 15kgh(-1). The results of waste biomass gasification confirmed the improvement in H(2) composition by the CO(2) absorption reaction using the reforming catalyst and CaO. In addition, CaO proved to be especially effective in decreasing the tar concentration in the case of woody biomass gasification. Catalytic activity was maintained by means of catalyst regeneration processing by hydrogen reduction after air oxidation when woody biomass was used as feedstock. PMID:21459406

Kobayashi, Jun; Kawamoto, Katsuya; Fukushima, Ryutaro; Tanaka, Shingo

2011-05-01

378

Fluidized-bed gasification of dairy manure by Box-Behnken design.  

PubMed

Application of excessive animal manure to the land may cause some environmental problems such as eutrophication of surface waters, degradation of ground water quality, and threats to human health. This paper reports an experimental study on the technology of biomass gasification to treat animal waste by analysing the effects of key operating parameters on gasification. In this research, dairy manure from the University of Nebraska dairy farm was first collected and dried, and then gasified in a fluidized-bed, laboratory-scale gasifier to generate syngas. The effects of three parameters, namely temperature, steam to biomass ratio (SBR) and the equivalence ratio (ER), on the gasification were described by a Box-Behnken design (BBD). Results showed that increasing the temperature favoured the formation of all three combustible gases, but the composition of each gas behaved differently according to the changing parameters. The lower heating value of the syngas varied from 2.0 to 4.7 MJ m(-3), indicating gasification could be used as a waste management option to produce bioenergy, and potentially reduce problems associated with the disposal of animal waste. PMID:22071174

Wu, Hanjing; Hanna, Milford A; Jones, David D

2012-05-01

379

Gasification of refuse derived fuel in the Battelle high throughput gasification system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of an experimental program to demonstrate the suitability of the Battelle High Throughput Gasification Process to non-wood biomass fuels. An extensive data base on wood gasification was generated during a multi-year experimental program. This data base and subsequent design and economic analysis activities led to the discussion to study the gasification character of other fuels.

M. A. Paisley; K. S. Creamer; T. L. Tweksbury; D. R. Taylor

1989-01-01

380

Plasma Gasification of Coal in Different Oxidants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidant selection is the highest priority for advanced coal gasification-process development. This paper presents comparative analysis of the Powder River Basin bituminous-coal gasification processes for entrained-flow plasma gasifier. Several oxidants, which might be employed for perspective commercial applications, have been chosen, including air, steam\\/carbon-dioxide blend, carbon dioxide, steam, steam\\/air, steam\\/oxygen, and oxygen. Synthesis gas composition, carbon gasification degree, specific power

Igor B. Matveev; Vladimir E. Messerle; Alexander B. Ustimenko

2008-01-01

381

Gasification world database 2007. Current industry status  

SciTech Connect

Information on trends and drivers affecting the growth of the gasification industry is provided based on information in the USDOE NETL world gasification database (available on the www.netl.doe.gov website). Sectors cover syngas production in 2007, growth planned through 2010, recent industry changes, and beyond 2010 - strong growth anticipated in the United States. A list of gasification-based power plant projects, coal-to-liquid projects and coal-to-SNG projects under consideration in the USA is given.

NONE

2007-10-15

382

Coal gasification - present state and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary methods for the gasification of solid fuel have a low efficiency. An exhaustive knowledge of both the mechanism and the kinetics of the gasification reaction is essential if fuel gases are to be produced at an acceptable cost. The main problem at the moment is the design of gasification plant capable of producing 500-600 thousand Nm\\/SUP\\/3\\/h and upwards, compared

Fedoseev

1982-01-01

383

Plasma gasification of coal in different oxidants  

SciTech Connect

Oxidant selection is the highest priority for advanced coal gasification-process development. This paper presents comparative analysis of the Powder River Basin bituminous-coal gasification processes for entrained-flow plasma gasifier. Several oxidants, which might be employed for perspective commercial applications, have been chosen, including air, steam/carbon-dioxide blend, carbon dioxide, steam, steam/air, steam/oxygen, and oxygen. Synthesis gas composition, carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and power efficiency for these processes were determined. The influence of the selected oxidant composition on the gasification-process main characteristics have been investigated.

Matveev, I.B.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Applied Plasma Technology, Mclean, VA (USA)

2008-12-15

384

Underground coal gasification using oxygen and steam  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, through model experiment of the underground coal gasification, the effects of pure oxygen gasification, oxygen-steam gasification, and moving-point gasification methods on the underground gasification process and gas quality were studied. Experiments showed that H{sub 2} and CO volume fraction in product gas during the pure oxygen gasification was 23.63-30.24% and 35.22-46.32%, respectively, with the gas heating value exceeding 11.00 MJ/m{sup 3}; under the oxygen-steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio stood at 2: 1, gas compositions remained virtually stable and CO + H{sub 2} was basically between 61.66 and 71.29%. Moving-point gasification could effectively improve the changes in the cavity in the coal seams or the effects of roof inbreak on gas quality; the ratio of gas flowing quantity to oxygen supplying quantity was between 3.1:1 and 3.5:1 and took on the linear changes; on the basis of the test data, the reasons for gas quality changes under different gasification conditions were analyzed.

Yang, L.H.; Zhang, X.; Liu, S. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

2009-07-01

385

Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective is to provide a test facility to support early commercialization of advanced fixed-bed coal gasification technology electric power generation applications. The proprietary CRS Sirrine Engineers, Inc. PyGas[trademark] staged gasifier has been selected as the initial gasifier to be developed under this program. The gasifier is expected to avoid agglomeration when used on caking coals. It is also being

R. S. Sadowski; K. S. Brooks; W. H. Skinner; M. J. Brown

1992-01-01

386

Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective is to provide a test facility to support early commercialization of advanced fixed-bed coal gasification technology electric power generation applications. The proprietary CRS Sirrine Engineers, Inc. PyGas{trademark} staged gasifier has been selected as the initial gasifier to be developed under this program. The gasifier is expected to avoid agglomeration when used on caking coals. It is also being

R. S. Sadowski; K. S. Brooks; W. H. Skinner; M. J. Brown

1992-01-01

387

Biooxidation of coal gasification wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory studies were carried out on the feasibility of using a fixed-film fluidised-bed bioreactor to treat coal gasification wastewaters. Dilute synthetic wastewaters were treated successfully by this process for over a year, and dilute actual wastewaters for 9 months. The bioreactors were stable, and no serious operating problems occurred. Effluent phenol concentration of <0.001 kg\\/m³ was achieved with a synthetic

T. L. Donaldson; G. W. Strandberg; J. D. Hewitt; G. S. Shields

1984-01-01

388

Trace metal transformations in gasification  

SciTech Connect

The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is carrying out an investigation that will provide methods to predict the fate of selected trace elements in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems to aid in the development of methods to control the emission of trace elements determined to be air toxics. The goal of this project is to identify the effects of critical chemical and physical transformations associated with trace element behavior in IGCC and IGFC systems. The trace elements included in this project are arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and lead. The research seeks to identify and fill, experimentally and/or theoretically, data gaps that currently exist on the fate and composition of trace elements. The specific objectives are to (1) review the existing literature to identify the type and quantity of trace elements from coal gasification systems, (2) perform laboratory-scale experimentation and computer modeling to enable prediction of trace element emissions, and (3) identify methods to control trace element emissions.

Benson, S.; Erickson, T.A.; Zygarlicke, C.J. [and others

1995-12-01

389

Trace metal transformations in gasification  

SciTech Connect

The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) is carrying out an investigation that will provide methods to predict the fate of selected trace elements in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems to aid in the development of methods to control the emission of trace elements determined to be air toxics. The goal of this project is to identify the effects of critical chemical and physical transformations associated with trace element behavior in IGCC and IGFC systems. The trace elements included in this project are arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and lead. The research seeks to identify and fill, experimentally and/or theoretically, data gaps that currently exist on the fate and composition of trace elements. The specific objectives are to (1) review the existing literature to identify the type and quantity of trace elements from coal gasification systems; (2) perform laboratory-scale experimentation and computer modeling to enable prediction of trace element emissions; and (3) identify methods to control trace element emissions. Results are presented and discussed on the partitioning of trace metals and the model design for predicting trace metals behavior.

Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; O`Keefe, C.A.; Katrinak, K.; Allan, S.E.; Hassett, D.J.; Hauserman, W.B.; Zygarlicke, C.J.

1995-11-01

390

Trace metal transformation in gasification  

SciTech Connect

The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is carrying out an investigation that will provide methods to predict the fate of selected trace elements in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems to aid in the development of methods to control the emission of trace elements determined to be air toxics. The goal of this project is to identify the effects of critical chemical and physical transformations associated with trace element behavior in IGCC and IGFC systems. The trace elements included in this project are arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and lead. The research seeks to identify and fill, experimentally and/or theoretically, data gaps that currently exist on the fate and composition of trace elements. The specific objectives are to 1) review the existing literature to identify the type and quantity of trace elements from coal gasification systems, 2) perform laboratory-scale experimentation and computer modeling to enable prediction of trace element emissions, and 3) identify methods to control trace element emissions.

Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; Zygarlicke, C.J.; O`Keefe, C.A.; Katrinak, K.A.; Allen, S.E.; Hassett, D.J.; Hauserman, W.B. [North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Holcombe, N.T. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)

1996-12-31

391

An overview of peat gasification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal and biological peat gasification processes are reviewed, with research showing that peat is high in both oxygen and hydrogen, and also nitrogen, which can be used to form ammonia as a byproduct. The hydrogen-carbon ratio of peat has been shown to exceed that of subbituminous coal, indicating less of a need to supply more hydrogen in the formation of gaseous fuels. The gasification process involves crushing the peat into particles smaller than 2 mm, which cascade through drying air into a gasifier, where gases from the hydrogasifier induce hydropyrolysis. The char then flows into a reactor with steam and oxygen to make synthesis gas. Minnesota peat has shown the highest hydrocarbon yields in the U.S., and economic comparisons show peak gasification has economic parity with other means of producing SNG. Experiments have also shown the feasibility of wet peat conversion using a peat-water slurry in an anaerobic digestor to produce methane. Building of pilot plants is suggested as necessary to verify existing processes.

Punwani, D. V.

392

Conceptual design study of a coal gasification combined-cycle powerplant for industrial cogeneration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A conceptual design study was conducted to assess technical feasibility, environmental characteristics, and economics of coal gasification. The feasibility of a coal gasification combined cycle cogeneration powerplant was examined in response to energy needs and to national policy aimed at decreasing dependence on oil and natural gas. The powerplant provides the steam heating and baseload electrical requirements while serving as a prototype for industrial cogeneration and a modular building block for utility applications. The following topics are discussed: (1) screening of candidate gasification, sulfur removal and power conversion components; (2) definition of a reference system; (3) quantification of plant emissions and waste streams; (4) estimates of capital and operating costs; and (5) a procurement and construction schedule. It is concluded that the proposed powerplant is technically feasible and environmentally superior.

Bloomfield, H. S.; Nelson, S. G.; Straight, H. F.; Subramaniam, T. K.; Winklepleck, R. G.

1981-01-01

393

Characterization of syngas produced from MSW gasification at commercial-scale ENERGOS Plants.  

PubMed

Characterization of the syngas produced in the gasification process has been performed at commercial-scale Energy-from-Waste plants under various conditions of lambda value and syngas temperature. The lambda value from the gasification process is here defined as the ratio of the gasification air to the total stoichiometric air for complete combustion of the fuel input. Evaluation of the syngas calorific value has been performed by three different methods, i.e., estimation of the syngas calorific value from continuous in-line process measurements by mass and energy conservation equations, measurement of the syngas composition based on gas chromatography and calculation of the Gross Calorific Value from the measured composition, and direct continuous measurement of the calorific value using based on gas calorimeter. PMID:22704001

del Alamo, G; Hart, A; Grimshaw, A; Lundstrøm, P

2012-10-01

394

Changes in char structure during the gasification of a Victorian brown coal in steam and oxygen at 800{degree}C  

SciTech Connect

Char structure is an important factor influencing its reactivity during gasification. This study aims to investigate the changes in char structure during the gasification of brown coal. A Victorian brown coal was gasified in a fluidized-bed/fixed-bed reactor at 800{degree}C in atmospheres containing 15% H{sub 2}O, 2000 ppm O{sub 2}, or 15% H{sub 2}O and 2000 ppm O{sub 2}, respectively. Although the char gasification in 2000 ppm O{sub 2} was mainly rate-limited by the external diffusion of O{sub 2}, the char-H{sub 2}O reaction was mainly rate-limited by the chemical reactions. The structural features of char at different levels of char gasification conversion were examined with FT-Raman spectroscopy. Our results show that the chars from the gasification in the mixture of 2000 ppm O{sub 2} and 15% H{sub 2}O had almost the same features as the chars from the gasification in 15% H{sub 2}O alone when the same levels of char conversion were achieved. Both the thermal decomposition of char and the char gasification reactions could result in changes in char structure during gasification. 29 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Xin Guo; Hui Ling Tay; Shu Zhang; Chun-Zhu Li [Monash University, Vic. (Australia). Department of Chemical Engineering

2008-11-15

395

Chemical and biological properties of coal conversion solid wastes: Technical annual progress report for year ending January 31, 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review is presented on sources of solid wastes generated from fixed bed gasification processes, and suggestions are made for acceptable disposal alternatives. Samples of fixed bed coal gasification solid wastes from the Grand Forks Energy Technology Center's slagging gasifier, and the Morgantown Energy Technology Center's low Btu stirred fixed bed gasifier were sieved into discrete particle size ranges, and

R. D. Neufeld; S. Wallach; H. Erdogan

1981-01-01

396

Conversion of Cellulosic and Waste Polymer Material to Gasoline.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present status and future plans for a project to convert cellulosic (biomass) and waste synthetic polymer materials to quality liquid fuels is presented. A thermal gasification approach is utilized followed by catalytic liquid fuels synthesis steps. P...

J. L. Kuester

1979-01-01

397

Disposal of solid wastes with simultaneous energy recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for resource recovery from solid wastes is discussed. The incentives for a comprehensive system, a gasification based disposal system, and biological recovery methods are reviewed. Biogas process development and the Lanfilgas process are described. (MHR)

1980-01-01

398

Groundwater Pollution from Underground Coal Gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ coal gasification poses a potential environmental risk to groundwater pollution although it depends mainly on local hydrogeological conditions. In our investigation, the possible processes of groundwater pollution originating from underground coal gasification (UCG) were analyzed. Typical pollutants were identified and pollution control measures are proposed. Groundwater pollution is caused by the diffusion and penetration of contaminants generated by

Shu-qin LIU; Jing-gang LI; Mei MEI; Dong-lin DONG

2007-01-01

399

Digested sewage sludge gasification in supercritical water.  

PubMed

Digested sewage sludge gasification in supercritical water was studied. Influences of main reaction parameters, including temperature (623-698 K), pressure (25-35 Mpa), residence time (10-15 min) and dry matter content (5-25 wt%), were investigated to optimize the gasification process. The main gas products were methane, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and traces of ethene, etc. Results showed that 10 wt% dry matter content digested sewage sludge at a temperature of 698 K and residence time of 50 min, with a pressure of 25 MPa, were the most favorable conditions for the sewage sludge gasification and carbon gasification efficiencies. In addition, potassium carbonate (K2CO3) was also employed as the catalyst to make a comparison between gasification with and without catalyst. When 2.6 g K2CO3 was added, a gasification efficiency of 25.26% and a carbon gasification efficiency of 20.02% were achieved, which were almost four times as much as the efficiencies without catalyst. K2CO3 has been proved to be effective in sewage sludge gasification. PMID:23315366

Zhai, Yunbo; Wang, Chang; Chen, Hongmei; Li, Caiting; Zeng, Guangming; Pang, Daoxiong; Lu, Pei

2013-04-01

400

Mild gasification mechanisms and char conversion  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of these programs is to (1) obtain basic process chemistry data for the mild gasification of various coal types in a stirred moving bed reactor as a function of process variables and (2) construct a countercurrent moving bed reactor for obtaining data on the hydrogasification of char resulting from mild gasification. Results are described. 2 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.; Sundaram, M.S.

1989-06-01

401

Improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification and improved processes for catalytic coal gasification for the production of methane. The catalyst is composed of at least two alkali metal salts and a particulate carbonaceous substrate or carrier is used. 10 figures, 2 tables.

McKee, D.W.; Spiro, C.L.; Kosky, P.G.

1984-05-25

402

The Garrett Energy Research biomass gasification process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiple hearth furnace is used for the gasification of biomass materials. Drying, pyrolysis, steam\\/char gasification, and combustion steps are carried out, each on its own hearth. Partially dry biomass feed is contacted on the top hearth of the furnace with hot flue gas from the combustion stage. The steam contained in the flue gas leaving the top hearth is

R. D. Mikesell; D. C. Hoang; D. E. Garrett

1978-01-01

403

Iron sulfide deposition during coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous analysis of ash generated during coal gasification using a high calcium coal (SUFCo) suggested that iron sulfide was the dominant sulfide species in the system. During a recent analysis of ash material removed from a gasification pilot unit using Pittsburgh No. 8, a high iron coal, sub-?m to 5 ?m euhedral iron sulfide crystals were identified on the outer

D. Duane Brooker; Myongsook S. Oh

1995-01-01

404

Trace element partitioning during coal gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fate of trace element pollutants in integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) systems is closely tied to their volatilization in the gasifier and subsequent condensation or reaction with fine fly ash particles. The results of an experimental bench-scale programme to measure the partitioning of selected trace elements during atmospheric pressure entrained flow gasification of Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal are presented.

Joseph J. Helble; Wahab Mojtahedi; Jussi Lyyränen; Jorma Jokiniemi; Esko Kauppinen

1996-01-01

405

Treatment of Radioactive Reactive Mixed Waste  

SciTech Connect

PacificEcoSolutions, Inc. (PEcoS) has installed a plasma gasification system that was recently modified and used to destroy a trimethyl-aluminum mixed waste stream from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL.) The unique challenge in handling reactive wastes like trimethyl-aluminum is their propensity to flame instantly on contact with air and to react violently with water. To safely address this issue, PacificEcoSolutions has developed a new feed system to ensure the safe containment of these radioactive reactive wastes during transfer to the gasification unit. The plasma gasification system safely processed the radioactively contaminated trimethyl-metal compounds into metal oxides. The waste stream came from LANL research operations, and had been in storage for seven years, pending treatment options. (authors)

Colby, S.; Turner, Z.; Utley, D. [Pacific EcoSolutions, Inc., 2025 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Duy, C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory - LA-UR-05-8410, Post Office Box 1663 MS J595, Los Alamos, New Mexico 97545 (United States)

2006-07-01

406

Gasification technologies 2005. Conference papers and presentations  

SciTech Connect

A total of 43 papers and two keynote addresses were presented at the conference in eight sessions entitled Four perspectives on gasification industry trends and new developments; Federal gasification incentives: opportunities and challenges; Carbon sequestration ready: What does it mean and who can do it?; Experience with gasifying low rank coals (panel discussion); What are current gasification-based offerings in the energy marketplace?; Coal to liquids and chemicals: prospects and challenges; Gasification market drivers panel; and Gasification technologies advancements continue. The CD-ROM contains 43 presentations plus on keynote address, all in slide/overview form as pdfs. In addition, the text of four presentations is included. These have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database.

NONE

2005-07-01

407

Gasification in combined/cogeneration cycles  

SciTech Connect

Explains how gasification permits use of less costly coal or residual petroleum products as fuel for highly efficient combined/cogeneration cycles having low capital costs. The generation of power is maximized if as much of the energy as possible is directed to flow through the gas turbine combustor. Gasification requires conversion of some of the heat values of the primary fuel to sensible heat to generate the high temperature required. Gasification products must be cooled to permit gas-cleaning operations. The most efficient use of the sensible heat generated by the gasification process and the process steam requirements of the gasification and gas treatment processes must be considered in the design of the steam and power generation cycle. Concludes that the effect of cogeneration upon capital investment is variable and depends on whether condenser temperature approaches are increased or decreased.

Roszkowski, T.R.; Grisso, J.R.; Klumpe, H.W.; Snyder, N.W.

1983-01-01

408

A final report on the Great Plains Gasification Project's environmental, health, and safety information data system  

SciTech Connect

This report describes Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNLs) role in providing information to Department of Energy (DOE) on environmental data generated at the Great Plains Coal Gasification Project (GPCGP) in Beulah, North Dakota. An information system, the Fossil Energy (FE) Environmental, Health, and Safety Information System (EHSIS) was developed at ORNL to assist in tracking, analyzing, and making readily available significant environmental information derived from Great Plains. The Great Plains module with its numerous files (e.g., Gasification Bibliography, Gasification Tables, and Great Plains Gasification Project -- Permits, Standards, or Exceedences/Incidents) is a major technical area located within the information system. Over 1388 Great Plains documents have been reviewed, abstracted, and made available on-line in the information system. Also in the information system are 911 tables of selected environmental data including monitoring data from the following six subject areas: (1) air quality; (2) water quality; (3) solid wastes; (4) hazardous wastes; (5) industrial hygiene; and (6) surface mining. 14 refs., 4 figs.

Noghrei-Nikbakht, P.A.; Roseberry, L.M.

1989-12-01

409

Separating Mixtures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson the students will learn how to classify the materials as mixtures, elements and compounds and identify the properties of each group. Also the concept of separation of mixtures will be introduced to the students. Since barring a few exceptions, almost every element or compound is found naturally in an impure state such as a mixture of two or more substances. Many times the need to separate it into its individual components arises and chemical engineers use separation techniques to do this. Separation applications in the field of chemical engineering are very important. A good example is that of crude oil. Crude oil is a mixture of various hydrocarbons and is valuable in this natural form. Demand is greater, however, for the purified various hydrocarbons such as natural gases, gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, lubricating oils, asphalt, etc.

National Science Foundation GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

410

Thermodynamic comparison of the FICFB and Viking gasification concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two biomass gasification concepts, i.e. indirectly heated, fast internally circulating fluidised bed (FICFB) gasification with steam as gasifying agent and two-stage, directly heated, fixed bed Viking gasification are compared with respect to their performance as gas generators. Based on adjusted equilibrium equations, the gas composition and the energy requirements for gasification are accurately modelled. Overall energy balances are assessed by

Martin Gassner; François Maréchal

2009-01-01

411

Reactivity of coal gasification with steam and CO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description of the main parameters affecting char gasification, as well as an evaluation of the kinetic models used for describing the char gasification reaction, are presented. By reviewing literature on char gasification reactivity it is shown that of all the parameters involved in char gasification, the thermal history of the char, the pore structure and the coal chemical composition

Alejandro Molina; Fanor Mondragón

1998-01-01

412

Gasification of Indigenous Fuels and the Use of Gas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a summary of the project concerning the gasification in indigenous and is divided into the following sub-projects: gasification in a fixed bed, gasification in a fluidized bed, other gasification methods, a study of different potential syste...

1984-01-01

413

Inhalation cancer risk associated with exposure to complex polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures in an electronic waste and urban area in South China.  

PubMed

Atmospheric particulate matter samples were collected from May 2010 to April 2011 in a rural e-waste area and in Guangzhou, South China, to estimate the lifetime inhalation cancer risk from exposure to parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), high molecular weight PAHs (MW 302 PAHs), and halogenated PAHs (HPAHs). Seasonal variations in the PAH concentrations and profiles within and between the e-waste and urban areas indicated different PAH sources in the two areas. Benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[ah]anthracene, and dibenzo[al]pyrene made the most significant contribution to the inhalation cancer risk. MW 302 PAHs accounted for 18.0% of the total cancer risk in the e-waste area and 13.6% in the urban area, while HPAHs made a minor contribution (<0.1%) in both the areas. The number of lifetime excess lung cancers due to exposure to parent PAHs, MW 302 PAHs, and HPAHs ranged from 15.1 to 1198 per million people in the e-waste area and from 9.3 to 737 per million people in Guangzhou. PAH exposure accounted for 0.02 to 1.94% of the total lung cancer cases in Guangzhou. On average, the inhalation cancer risk in the e-waste area was 1.6 times higher than in the urban area. The e-waste dismantling activities in South China led to higher inhalation cancer risk due to PAH exposure than the urban area. PMID:22913732

Wang, Jing; Chen, Shejun; Tian, Mi; Zheng, Xiaobo; Gonzales, Leah; Ohura, Takeshi; Mai, Bixian; Simonich, Staci L Massey

2012-09-01

414

Inhalation Cancer Risk Associated with Exposure to Complex Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Mixtures in an Electronic Waste and Urban Area in South China  

PubMed Central

Atmospheric particulate matter samples were collected from May 2010 to April 2011 in a rural e-waste area and in Guangzhou, South China, to estimate the lifetime inhalation cancer risk from exposure to parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), high molecular weight PAHs (MW 302 PAHs), and halogenated PAHs (HPAHs). Seasonal variations in the PAH concentrations and profile within and between the e-waste and urban areas indicated different PAH sources in the two areas. Benzo[b]fluoranthene, BaP, dibenz[ah]anthracene, and dibenzo[al]pyrene made the most significant contribution to the inhalation cancer risk. MW 302 PAHs accounting for 18.0% of the total cancer risk in the e-waste area and 13.6% in the urban area, while HPAHs made a minor contribution (< 0.1%) in both the areas. The number of lifetime excess lung cancers due to exposure to parent PAHs, MW 302 PAHs, and HPAHs ranged from 15.1 to 1198 per million people in the e-waste area and from 9.3 to 737 per million people in Guangzhou. PAH exposure accounted for 0.02 to 1.94% of the total lung cancer cases in Guangzhou. On average, the inhalation cancer risk in the e-waste area was 1.6 times higher than in the urban area. The e-waste dismantling activities in South China led to higher inhalation cancer risk due to PAH exposure than the urban area.

Wang, Jing; Chen, Shejun; Tian, Mi; Zheng, Xiaobo; Gonzales, Leah; Ohura, Takeshi; Mai, Bixian; Simonich, Staci L. Massey

2012-01-01

415

ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project  

SciTech Connect

ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Shell Mining Company, is constructing a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by Shell and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin Coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). The products, as alternative fuels sources, are expected to significantly reduce current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation, thereby reducing pollutants causing acid rain.

Not Available

1992-02-01

416

COAL CHAR GASIFICATION KINETICS IN A JET-FLUIDIZED BED (COMBUSTION, REACTION, RATE PHENOMENA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of gasification of -10 + 65 mesh coke and coal char with O(,2) and O(,2)-CO(,2) mixtures was studied in a continuous, bench scale, jet-fluidized reactor over a wide range of temperatures (900(DEGREES)C to > 1400(DEGREES)C) and bed depths under atmospheric pressure. The measured specific reaction rates of carbon ranged from 0.01 to 0.1 gram carbon reacting per gram

MING-YUAN KAO

1984-01-01

417

Exploration of the possibilities for production of Fischer Tropsch liquids and power via biomass gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the technical feasibility and economics of biomass integrated gasification–Fischer Tropsch (BIG-FT) processes in general, identifies most promising system configurations and identifies key R&D issues essential for the commercialisation of BIG-FT technology. The FT synthesis produces hydrocarbons of different length from a gas mixture of H2 and CO. The large hydrocarbons can be hydrocracked to form mainly diesel

Michiel J. A. Tijmensen; Andre Faaij; Carlo N. Hamelinck; Martijn R. M. van Hardeveld

2002-01-01

418

A study of oxygen effects on nonflaming transient gasification of PMMA and PE during thermal irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of gas phase oxygen on the rate of gasification and surface temperature of PMMA and low density PE samples (4 X 4 cm) were investigated under transient, nonflam­ ing heating by thermal radiation. Five different ambient gas mixtures, 100% nitrogen, 5% 02\\/95% N2, 10% 0';90% N2, 20% 0';80% N2, and 40% O2\\/60% N2, were used. The ver­ tically

TAKASHI KASHIWAGI; THOMAS J. OHLEMILLER

1982-01-01

419

Model of Additive Effects of Mixtures of Narcotic Chemicals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Biological effects data with single chemicals are far more abundant than with mixtures. Yet, environmental exposures to chemical mixtures, for example near hazardous waste sites or nonpoint sources, are very common and using test data from single chemical...

M. A. Shirazi G. Linder

1991-01-01

420

Apparatus for solar coal gasification  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials is described. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats through a window onto the surface of a moving bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called synthesis gas, which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam in one embodiment at the rear surface of a secondary mirror used to redirect the focused sunlight. Another novel feature of the invention is the location and arrangement of the array of mirrors on an inclined surface (e.g., a hillside) to provide for direct optical communication of said mirrors and the carbonaceous feed without a secondary redirecting mirror.

Gregg, D.W.

1980-08-04

421

Fundamental studies of catalytic gasification  

SciTech Connect

Studies of the catalytic steam gasification of carbon solids continued. A considerable number of important findings have been made. Recently limited experimentation has been carried out on the production of C{sub 2} hydrocarbons from methane in the presence of Ca/K/Ni oxide catalysts and of oxygen, carbon and water. The main finding thus far has been that C{sub 2} yields of 10--13% can be obtained at about 600{degrees}C or 150{degrees} lower temperature than described in the literature for similar yields. Yields of 7--10% C{sub 2} hydrocarbons at 99+% selectivity have been obtained. The presence of water and small amounts of oxygen is essential. Yields of this magnitude may be attractive since there is no loss of methane to valueless by-products, no purification of the recycle steam is required and no oxygen is used to burn methane. Further improvement in yields by catalyst and operating conditions modification will be investigated. It is also intended to clarify the chemistry which inhibits burning of methane to carbon oxides. Work is discussed on gasification of petroleum cokes and oxidative methane coupling. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Heinemann, H.; Somorjai, G.A.

1991-03-01

422

Methods for sulfate removal in liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass  

DOEpatents

Processing of wet biomass feedstock by liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a pre-treatment temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent removal of soluble sulfate contaminants, or combinations thereof. Processing further includes reacting the soluble sulfate contaminants with cations present in the feedstock material to yield a sulfate-containing precipitate and separating the inorganic precipitates and/or the sulfate-containing precipitates out of the wet feedstock. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfate contaminants that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogenous catalyst for gasification.

Elliott, Douglas C; Oyler, James

2013-12-17

423

Fluidized bed catalytic coal gasification process  

DOEpatents

Coal or similar carbonaceous solids impregnated with gasification catalyst constituents (16) are oxidized by contact with a gas containing between 2 volume percent and 21 volume percent oxygen at a temperature between 50.degree. C. and 250.degree. C. in an oxidation zone (24) and the resultant oxidized, catalyst impregnated solids are then gasified in a fluidized bed gasification zone (44) at an elevated pressure. The oxidation of the catalyst impregnated solids under these conditions insures that the bed density in the fluidized bed gasification zone will be relatively high even though the solids are gasified at elevated pressure and temperature.

Euker, Jr., Charles A. (15163 Dianna La., Houston, TX 77062); Wesselhoft, Robert D. (120 Caldwell, Baytown, TX 77520); Dunkleman, John J. (3704 Autumn La., Baytown, TX 77520); Aquino, Dolores C. (15142 McConn, Webster, TX 77598); Gouker, Toby R. (5413 Rocksprings Dr., LaPorte, TX 77571)

1984-01-01

424

Coal conversion solid waste disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major solid waste produced at coal conversion facilities will be gasification slag or ash. To evaluate the impact of this waste on the environment, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted extensive characterization and leaching studies on ash\\/slags that had been generated in bench-scale operations, pilot plants, and\\/or process development units for the Cogas, British Gas\\/Lurgi, Grace\\/Texaco, U-Gas, Foster Wheeler\\/Stoic,

C. W. Francis; W. J. Jr. Boegly; R. R. Turner; E. C. Davis

1981-01-01

425

Solid-waste codisposal study. Final report, June 1986December 1987  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gasification and associated combustion of lignite coal, as occurs at Beulah, North Dakota, results in solid and liquid wastes, some of which may be considered hazardous. Disposal of these wastes is of ongoing concern. Determining the potential to reduce the hazardous nature of certain waste liquids by blending them with other non-hazardous cementitious wastes is the objective of the report.

O. E. Manz; G. H. Groenewold

1988-01-01

426

ENERGY CONTENT ESTIMATION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE BY MULTIPLE REGRESSION ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Municipal solid waste (MSW) is produced and accumulated due to human activities. The waste will bring about severe ecological contamination unless an appropriate solid waste management system is applied. In this context, it is reasonable to recover energy from municipal solid waste through a variety of processes such as combustion, pyrolysis and gasification. In the design of these processes, it

Ebru AKKAYA; Ahmet DEMIR

427

Modeling of the Coal Gasification Processes in a Hybrid Plasma Torch  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major advantages of plasma treatment systems are cost effectiveness and technical efficiency. A new efficient electrodeless 1-MW hybrid plasma torch for waste disposal and coal gasification is proposed. This product merges several solutions such as the known inductive-type plasma torch, innovative reverse-vortex (RV) reactor and the recently developed nonequilibrium plasma pilot and plasma chemical reactor. With the use of

Igor B. Matveev; Serhiy I. Serbin

2007-01-01

428

Distinctive features of biomass gasification using AC plasma generators working on air  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calculated-theoretical and experimental data on plasmochemical gasification of charcoal and wood waste are presented in the paper. The operating experimental installation comprising a reactor, plasma generators, afterburner, gas treatment system and a diagnostic complex is described. Fields of temperatures in a reactor and structure of the produced gaseous product are given. Time-of flight mass-spectrometer and Fourier spectrometer have been used

V. A. Kuznetsov; A. N. Bratsev; V. B. Kovshechnikov; I. I. Kumkova; V. E. Popov; S. V. Shtengel; A. A. Ufimtsev

2007-01-01

429

Pyrolysis and gasification of coal at high temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Coals of different ranks will be pyrolyzed in a microscope hot-stage reactor using inert and reacting atmospheres. The macropore structure of the produced chars will be characterized using video microscopy and digital image processing techniques to obtain pore size distributions. Comparative studies will quantify the effect of pyrolysis conditions (heating rates, final heat treatment temperatures, particle size and inert or reacting atmosphere) on the pore structure of the devolatilized chars. The devolatilized chars will be gasified in the regime of strong intraparticle diffusional limitations using O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O/N{sub 2}2 mixtures. Constant temperature and programmed-temperature experiments in a TGA will be used for these studies. Additional gasification experiments performed in the hot-stage reactor will be videotaped and selected images will be analyzed to obtain quantitative data on particle shrinkage and fragmentation. Discrete mathematical models will be developed and validated using the experimental gasification data.

Zygourakis, K.

1988-01-01

430

Japan's Sunshine Project: Summary of Coal Gasification and Liquefaction. Volume 6.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Technology for high-calorific gasification of coal; Technology for plasma gasification of coal; Technology for low-calorific gasification of coal and power generation; Technology for liquefaction of coal; Development of coal gasification and liq...

1982-01-01

431

Modeling Integrated Biomass Gasification Business Concepts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Biomass gasification is an approach to producing energy and/or biofuels that could be integrated into existing forest product production facilities, particularly at pulp mills. Existing process heat and power loads tend to favor integration at existing pu...

E. M. Bilek M. A. Dietenberger P. J. Ince

2011-01-01

432

Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This independent review is the conclusion arrived at from data collection, document reviews, interviews and deliberation from December 2010 through April 2011 and the technical potential of Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification. The...

2011-01-01

433

Underground Coal Gasification Program Plan, FY 1989.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief program plan for In-situ coal gasification is described. The following areas are discussed: Background and program goal; Technology description; Technology status and research needs; Program strategy; Program management; and International activiti...

1989-01-01

434

Fundamental Investigations of Underground Coal Gasification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coal deposits in the Appalachian and Midwest Coal Regions consist primarily of thin relatively deep seams of swelling bituminous coal, but little scientific effort in the United States has been directed toward underground coal gasification in these import...

R. D. Dunn

1983-01-01

435

Basic Principles of Underground Coal Gasification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief overview of the basic principles of underground coal gasification is presented, with special emphasis given to the Soviet technology. However when applicable, information is drawn from other sources as well. This overview is divided into three sec...

D. W. Gregg D. U. Olness

1976-01-01

436

LLNL Capabilities in Underground Coal Gasification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Underground coal gasification (UCG) has received renewed interest as a potential technology for producing hydrogen at a competitive price particularly in Europe and China. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) played a leading role in this fie...

E. Burton R. Upadhye S. J. Friedmann

2006-01-01

437

Catalysts for carbon and coal gasification  

DOEpatents

Catalyst for the production of methane from carbon and/or coal by means of catalytic gasification. The catalyst compostion containing at least two alkali metal salts. A particulate carbonaceous substrate or carrier is used.

McKee, Douglas W. (Burnt Hills, NY); Spiro, Clifford L. (Scotia, NY); Kosky, Philip G. (Schenectady, NY)

1985-01-01

438

Coal gasification for electric power generation.  

PubMed

The electric utility industry is being severely affected by rapidly escalating gas and oil prices, restrictive environmental and licensing regulations, and an extremely tight money market. Integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants have the potential to be economically competitive with present commercial coal-fired power plants while satisfying stringent emission control requirements. The current status of gasification technology is discussed and the critical importance of the 100-megawatt Cool Water IGCC demonstration program is emphasized. PMID:17788466

Spencer, D F; Gluckman, M J; Alpert, S B

1982-03-26

439

Coal gasification and the Phenosolvan process  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a number of commercial coal gasification projects under design in the USA. By 1976-77, two such projects may be coming onstream in New Mexico, each producing 250 million standard cubic feet per day of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG). The gasification of coal produces large amounts of by-product phenol. The New Mexico projects will each involve about 25,000 tons

Beychok

1974-01-01

440

Pyrolysis and gasification of coal at high temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Coals of different ranks will be pyrolyzed in a microscope hot-stage reactor using inert and reacting atmospheres. The macropore structure oft he produced chars will be characterized using video microscopy and digital image processing techniques to obtain pore size distributions. Comparative studies will quantify the effect of pyrolysis conditions (heating rates, final heat treatment temperatures, particle size and inert or reacting atmosphere) on the pore structure of the devolatilized chars. The devolatilized chars will be gasified in the regime of strong intraparticle diffusional limitations using O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} mixtures. Constant temperature and programmed-temperature experiments in a TGA will be used for these studies. Additional gasification experiments performed in the hot-stage reactor will be videotaped and selected images will be analyzed to obtain quantitative data on particle shrinkage and fragmentation.

Zygourakis, K.

1989-01-01

441

Assessment of advanced coal-gasification processes. [AVCO high throughput gasification in process; Bell High Mass Flux process; CSR process; and Exxon Gasification process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process, Bell Single - Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process, Cities Service\\/Rockwell (CS\\/R) Hydrogasification Process, and the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the

J. McCarthy; J. Ferrall; T. Charng; J. Houseman

1981-01-01

442

Development of Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Partial Gasification Module (PGM)  

SciTech Connect

Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building bock that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This report describes the work performed during the July 1-September 30, 2002 time period.

A. Robertson

2002-09-30

443

Development of Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Partial Gasification Module (PGM)  

SciTech Connect

Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building bock that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This report describes the work performed during the October 1 - December 31, 2003 time period.

A. Robertson

2003-12-31

444

Demonstration plant for pressurized gasification of biomass feedstocks  

SciTech Connect

A project to design, construct, and operate a pressurized biomass gasification plant in Hawaii will begin in 1991. Negotiations are underway with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) which is co-funding the project with the state of Hawaii and industry. The gasifier is a scale-up of the pressurized fluidized-bed RENUGAS process developed by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT). The project team consists of Pacific International Center for High Technology Research (PICHTR), Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) of the University of Hawaii, Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Company (HC S), The Ralph M. Parsons Company, and IGT. The gasifier will be designed for 70 tons per day of sugarcane fiber (bagasse) and will be located at the Paia factory of HC S on the island of Maui. In addition to bagasse, other feedstocks such as wood, biomass wastes, and refuse-derived-fuel may be evaluated. The demonstration plant will ultimately supply part of the process energy needs for the sugar factory. The operation and testing phase will provide process information for both air- and oxygen-blown gasification, and at both low and high pressures. The process will be evaluated for both fuel gas and synthesis gas production, and for electrical power production with advanced power generation schemes. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Trenka, A.R. (Pacific International Center for High Technology Research, Honolulu, HI (United States)); Kinoshita, C.M.; Takahashi, P.K.; Phillips, V.D. (Hawaii Natural Energy Inst., Honolulu, HI (United States)); Caldwell, C. (Parsons (Ralph M.) Co., Pasadena, CA (United States)); Kwok, R. (Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Co., HI (United States)); Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P. (Institute of Gas Technology

1991-01-01

445

High-temperature gasification of carbon-containing raw materials with the use of electric-arc energy and calorific capacity of the gas fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disposal of carbon-containing wastes in a plasma furnace is studied. The influence of the plasma generator power on gasifier\\u000a efficiency is found for different waste humidities; dependences of specific energy consumption on the waste humidity and air\\u000a flow rate are obtained. Experimental results are in good agreement with calculations. Sawdust gasification is performed in\\u000a an electric-arc furnace with an additional

A. V. Pinaev; V. A. Faleev; A. E. Urbakh

2011-01-01

446

Investigation of plasma-aided bituminous coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents thermodynamic and kinetic modeling of plasma-aided bituminous coal gasification. Distributions of concentrations, temperatures, and velocities of the gasification products along the gasifier are calculated. Carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and heat engineering characteristics of synthesis gas at the outlet of the gasifier are determined at plasma air/steam and oxygen/steam gasification of Powder River Basin bituminous coal. Numerical simulation showed that the plasma oxygen/steam gasification of coal is a more preferable process in comparison with the plasma air/steam coal gasification. On the numerical experiments, a plasma vortex fuel reformer is designed.

Matveev, I.B.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Applied Plasma Technology, Mclean, VA (United States)

2009-04-15

447

Catalytic combustor for integrated gasification combined cycle power plant  

DOEpatents

A gasification power plant 10 includes a compressor 32 producing a compressed air flow 36, an air separation unit 22 producing a nitrogen flow 44, a gasifier 14 producing a primary fuel flow 28 and a secondary fuel source 60 providing a secondary fuel flow 62 The plant also includes a catalytic combustor 12 combining the nitrogen flow and a combustor portion 38 of the compressed air flow to form a diluted air flow 39 and combining at least one of the primary fuel flow and secondary fuel flow and a mixer portion 78 of the diluted air flow to produce a combustible mixture 80. A catalytic element 64 of the combustor 12 separately receives the combustible mixture and a backside cooling portion 84 of the diluted air flow and allows the mixture and the heated flow to produce a hot combustion gas 46 provided to a turbine 48. When fueled with the secondary fuel flow, nitrogen is not combined with the combustor portion.

Bachovchin, Dennis M. (Mauldin, SC); Lippert, Thomas E. (Murrysville, PA)

2008-12-16

448

Development of Foster Wheeler's Vision 21 Partial Gasification Module  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has awarded Foster Wheeler Development Corporation a contract to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% while producing near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The unique aspect of the process is that it utilizes a pressurized circulating fluidized bed partial gasifier and does not attempt to consume the coal in a single step. To convert all the coal to syngas in a single step requires extremely high temperatures ({approx} 2500 to 2800F) that melt and vaporize the coal and essentially drive all coal ash contaminants into the syngas. Since these contaminants can be corrosive to power generating equipment, the syngas must be cooled to near room temperature to enable a series of chemical processes to clean the syngas. Foster Wheeler's process operates at much lower temperatures that control/minimize the release of contaminants; this eliminates/minimizes the need for the expensive, complicated syngas heat exchangers and chemical cleanup systems typical of high temperature gasification. By performing the gasification in a circulating bed, a significant amount of syngas can still be produced despite the reduced temperature and the circulating bed allows easy scale up to large size plants. Rather than air, it can also operate with oxygen to facilitate sequestration of stack gas carbon dioxide gases for a 100% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building block that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This paper describes the test program and pilot plant that will be used to develop the PGM.

Robertson, A.

2001-11-06

449

Gasification of refuse derived fuel in a fixed bed reactor for syngas production  

SciTech Connect

Steam gasification of two different refuse derived fuels (RDFs), differing slightly in composition as well as thermal stability, was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor at atmospheric pressure. The proximate and ultimate analyses reveal that carbon and hydrogen are the major components in RDFs. The thermal analysis indicates the presence of cellulose and plastic based materials in RDFs. H{sub 2} and CO are found to be the major products, along with CO{sub 2} and hydrocarbons resulting from gasification of RDFs. The effect of gasification temperature on H{sub 2} and CO selectivities was studied, and the optimum temperature for better H{sub 2} and CO selectivity was determined to be 725 deg. C. The calorific value of product gas produced at lower gasification temperature is significantly higher than that of gas produced at higher process temperature. Also, the composition of RDF plays an important role in distribution of products gas. The RDF with more C and H content is found to produce more amounts of CO and H{sub 2} under similar experimental conditions. The steam/waste ratio showed a notable effect on the selectivity of syngas as well as calorific value of the resulting product gas. The flow rate of carrier gas did not show any significant effect on products yield or their distribution.

Dalai, Ajay K. [Catalysis and Chemical Reaction Engineering Laboratories, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5A9 (Canada)], E-mail: ajay.dalai@usask.ca; Batta, Nishant [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5A9 (Canada); Eswaramoorthi, I. [Catalysis and Chemical Reaction Engineering Laboratories, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5A9 (Canada); Schoenau, Greg J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5A9 (Canada)

2009-01-15

450

Gasification of refuse derived fuel in a fixed bed reactor for syngas production.  

PubMed

Steam gasification of two different refuse derived fuels (RDFs), differing slightly in composition as well as thermal stability, was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor at atmospheric pressure. The proximate and ultimate analyses reveal that carbon and hydrogen are the major components in RDFs. The thermal analysis indicates the presence of cellulose and plastic based materials in RDFs. H2 and CO are found to be the major products, along with CO2 and hydrocarbons resulting from gasification of RDFs. The effect of gasification temperature on H2 and CO selectivities was studied, and the optimum temperature for better H2 and CO selectivity was determined to be 725 degrees C. The calorific value of product gas produced at lower gasification temperature is significantly higher than that of gas produced at higher process temperature. Also, the composition of RDF plays an important role in distribution of products gas. The RDF with more C and H content is found to produce more amounts of CO and H2 under similar experimental conditions. The steam/waste ratio showed a notable effect on the selectivity of syngas as well as calorific value of the resulting product gas. The flow rate of carrier gas did not show any significant effect on products yield or their distribution. PMID:18434127

Dalai, Ajay K; Batta, Nishant; Eswaramoorthi, I; Schoenau, Greg J

2009-01-01

451

NA/CA catalyzation of Illinois coals for gasification. Technical report, December 1, 1992--February 28, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Three of the most pressing technical problems in gasification of Illinois coals are high reaction temperatures, agglomerating tendency of the coals, and sulfur content of the product gas. This program explores the use of gasification catalysts which reduce gasification temperature, agglomeration tendency, and sulfur emissions. The catalysts are sodium/calcium mixtures and are active at loadings less than 1 weight percent, although higher loading may be required. During the second quarter, we have continued work, ``Catalyzed Coal Preparation and Characterization.`` We have also initiated work on, ``Bench Scale Gasification Tests.`` Work included expansion of the test series for wet impregnated IBC-105 coal. It was determined that catalyst addition at pH 4.5 or lower resulted in almost complete elimination of caking tendency as determined by measurement of the free swelling index (FSI). Characterization of this suite of samples by FTIR, CO{sub 2} Chemisorption (to measure catalyst dispersion), and TGA gasification rate was also performed. Results show correlations between impregnation pH and catalyst dispersion (low pH = high dispersion) and between dispersion and reaction rate. FTIR results suggest the formation of highly dispersed catalyst by interaction with the coal hydroxyl groups.

Jha, M.C.; McCormick, R.L. [AMAX Research and Development Center, Golden, CO (United States); Banerjee, D.D. [Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carterville, IL (United States)

1993-05-01

452

Assessment of black liquor gasification in supercritical water.  

PubMed

Supercritical water gasification of black liquor (waste pulping chemicals) has been examined. The aim was to evaluate the feasibility of using this technique to convert such bio-based waste to value added fuel products, as well as recovery of pulping materials. Supercritical gasification may improve overall process efficiency by eliminating the energy intensive evaporation step necessary in conventional process and product gas obtained at high pressure may be ready for utilization without any compression requirement. Appropriate operating parameters, including pressure, temperature, feed concentration, and reaction time, which would yield the highest conversion and energy efficiency were determined. Reaction was performed in a quartz capillary heated in a fluidized bed reactor. Results indicated that pressure between 220 and 400 atm has insignificant influence on the gas products and extent of carbon conversion. Increasing temperature and residence time between 375-650 degrees C and 5-120 s resulted in greater gas production, overall carbon conversion, and energy efficiency. Maximum conversion to H(2), CO, CH(4), and C(2)H(X) was achieved at the highest temperature and longest residence time tested showing an overall carbon conversion of 84.8%, gas energy content of 9.4 MJ/m(3) and energy conversion ratio of 1.2. Though higher carbon conversion and energy conversion ratio were obtained with more dilute liquor, energy content was lower than for those with higher solid contents. Due to anticipated complex design and high initial investment cost of this operation, further studies on overall feasibility should be carried out in order to identify the optimum operating window for this novel process. PMID:18762414

Sricharoenchaikul, V

2009-01-01

453

WABASH RIVER COAL GASIFICATION REPOWERING PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

The close of 1999 marked the completion of the Demonstration Period of the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project. This Final Report summarizes the engineering and construction phases and details the learning experiences from the first four years of commercial operation that made up the Demonstration Period under Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-92MC29310. This 262 MWe project is a joint venture of Global Energy Inc. (Global acquired Destec Energy's gasification assets from Dynegy in 1999) and PSI Energy, a part of Cinergy Corp. The Joint Venture was formed to participate in the Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program and to demonstrate coal gasification repowering of an existing generating unit impacted by the Clean Air Act Amendments. The participants jointly developed, separately designed, constructed, own, and are now operating an integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plant, using Global Energy's E-Gas{trademark} technology (E-Gas{trademark} is the name given to the former Destec technology developed by Dow, Destec, and Dynegy). The E-Gas{trademark} process is integrated with a new General Electric 7FA combustion turbine generator and a heat recovery steam generator in the repowering of a 1950's-vintage Westinghouse steam turbine generator using some pre-existing coal handling facilities, interconnections, and other auxiliaries. The gasification facility utilizes local high sulfur coals (up to 5.9% sulfur) and produces synthetic gas (syngas), sulfur and slag by-products. The Project has the distinction of being the largest single train coal gasification combined-cycle plant in the Western Hemisphere and is the cleanest coal-fired plant of any type in the world. The Project was the first of the CCT integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) projects to achieve commercial operation.

Unknown

2000-09-01

454

Catalytic Gasification of Bagasse for the Production of Methanol.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of catalytic gasification of bagasse to produce methanol. In previous studies, a catalytic steam gasification process was developed which converted wood to methanol synthesis ...

E. G. Baker M. D. Brown R. J. Robertus

1985-01-01

455

ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARD RANKINGS OF POLLUTANTS GENERATED IN COAL GASIFICATION PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation and ranking of environmental hazards associated with coal gasification. Applied chemical analytical data were provided by (1) research with an experimental gasifier, and (2) sampling of four commercial gasification processes. Gas, liquid,...

456

Coal Gasification. Quarterly Report, April--June 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although the basic coal-gasification chemical reactions are the same for all high Btu gasification processes each of the processes under development has unique characteristics. There are, for example, important differences in reactor configurations and me...

1979-01-01

457

Effect of mineral species on oil shale char combustion and steam gasification  

SciTech Connect

Six oil shale samples with different mineral compositions were retorted identically and the resulting char was subjected to combustion kinetic studies using TGA techniques to determine what effect the various minerals which are present in the shale might have on the reaction rate. Three of the shales were also subjected to a steam gasification kinetic study and one shale ash was used to evaluate the water-gas shift reaction. The effects of mineral species on both char combustion and steam gasification rates were evaluated by selectively altering the mineral content. Combustion was bound to be first order with respect to both oxygen partial pressure and char remaining. A dynamic simulation of a TGA was developed to aid in extracting intrinsic chemical reaction rate data when gas-solid mass transfer was non-negligible. On the one Devonian shale, Michigan Antrim, the char combustion rate was successfully separated from the pyrite oxidation rate. Intrinsic combustion rate constants were found to vary from one shale to another by a factor of eight. Catalytic activity was attributed to alkali and alkaline earth oxides formed by mineral carbonate decomposition of nahcolite and calcite which resulted in an order of magnitude increase in the combustion rates. The steam gasification rates varied by a factor of five and followed the same Langmuir-Hinshelwood model typically used in the coal gasification literature. Product gases from steam gasification were analyzed and gave evidence of a rapid water-gas shift reaction which resulted in a hydrogen-rich mixture. Evidence of catalytic activity by calcium, potassium, magnesium and iron oxides was also found. The water-gas shift reaction over oil shale ash was found to follow Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics and was catalyzed by iron oxides.

Cavalieri, R.P.

1985-01-01

458

Steady-state model for estimating gas production from underground coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

A pseudo-one-dimensional channel model has been developed to estimate gas production from underground coal gasification. The model incorporates a zero-dimensional steady-state cavity growth submodel and models mass transfer from the bulk gas to the coal wall using a correlation for natural convection. Simulations with the model reveal that the gas calorific value is sensitive to coal reactivity and the exposed reactive surface area per unit volume in the channel. A comparison of model results with several small-scale field trials conducted at Centralia in the U.S.A. show that the model can make good predictions of the gas production and composition under a range of different operating conditions, including operation with air and steam/oxygen mixtures. Further work is required to determine whether the model formulation is also suitable for simulating large-scale underground coal gasification field trials.

Greg Perkins; Veena Sahajwalla [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Materials Science and Engineering

2008-11-15

459

Steam reforming of gasification gas tar over dolomite with benzene as a model compound  

SciTech Connect

Tar decomposition over a dolomite catalyst in gasification conditions was modeled using benzene as a tar model compound. The reactions of the gas main components were included in the models studied. Kinetic studies were carried out at 750--925 C and under ambient pressure in a plug flow reactor using a mixture of simulated gasification gas. Operation conditions without external or internal mass-transfer limitations were applied. Mechanistic models of the Langmuir-Hinshelwood type describing benzene decomposition were developed and tested. Experimental results could be best described by a kinetic rate equation based on the assumption that single-site adsorption of benzene was the rate-determining step and that adsorption of hydrogen inhibited benzene decomposition.

Simell, P.A.; Hirvensalo, E.K.; Smolander, V.T. [VTT Energy (Finland)] [VTT Energy (Finland); Krause, A.O.I. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Technology] [Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Technology

1999-04-01

460

Investigation of Plasma-Aided Bituminous Coal Gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents thermodynamic and kinetic modeling of plasma-aided bituminous coal gasification. Distributions of concentrations, temperatures, and velocities of the gasification products along the gasifier are calculated. Carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and heat engineering characteristics of synthesis gas at the outlet of the gasifier are determined at plasma air\\/steam and oxygen\\/steam gasification of Powder River Basin bituminous coal.

Igor B. Matveev; Vladimir E. Messerle; Alexander B. Ustimenko

2009-01-01

461

Lurgi's MPG gasification plus Rectisol{reg_sign} gas purification - advanced process combination for reliable syngas production  

SciTech Connect

Lurgi's Multi Purpose Gasification Process (MPG) is the reliable partial oxidation process to convert hydrocarbon liquids, slurries and natural gas into valuable syngas. The MPG burner has once again proven its capabilities in an ammonia plant based on asphalt gasification. Lurgi is operating the HP-POX demonstration plant together with the University of Freiberg, Germany. Gasification tests at pressures of up to 100 bar have shown that syngas for high pressure synthesis such as methanol and ammonia can be produced more economically. The Rectisol{reg_sign} gas purification process yields ultra clean synthesis gas which is required to avoid problems in the downstream synthesis. Pure carbon dioxide is produced as a separate stream and is readily available for sequestration, enhanced oil recovery or other uses. The reliability of the Rectisol{reg_sign} process and the confidence of plant operators in this process are acknowledged by the fact that more than 75% of the syngas produced world wide by coal, oil and waste gasification is purified in Rectisol{reg_sign} units. Virtually all coal gasification plants currently under construction rely on Rectisol{reg_sign}. The new, large GTL plants and hydrogen production facilities require effective CO{sub 2} removal. New developments make Rectisol{reg_sign} attractive for this task. 10 figs., 3 tabs., 2 photos.

NONE

2005-07-01

462

Dual Fluidized Bed Biomass Gasification  

SciTech Connect

The dual fluidized bed reactor is a recirculating system in which one half of the unit operates as a steam pyrolysis device for biomass. The pyrolysis occurs by introducing biomass and steam to a hot fluidized bed of inert material such as coarse sand. Syngas is produced during the pyrolysis and exits the top of the reactor with the steam. A crossover arm, fed by gravity, moves sand and char from the pyrolyzer to the second fluidized bed. This sand bed uses blown air to combust the char. The exit stream from this side of the reactor is carbon dioxide, water and ash. There is a second gravity fed crossover arm to return sand to the pyrolysis side. The recirculating action of the sand and the char is the key to the operation of the dual fluidized bed reactor. The objective of the project was to design and construct a dual fluidized bed prototype reactor from literature information and in discussion with established experts in the field. That would be appropriate in scale and operation to measure the relative performance of the gasification of biomass and low ranked coals to produce a high quality synthesis gas with no dilution from nitrogen or combustion products.

None

2005-09-30

463

Coal gasification using solar energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An economic evaluation of conventional and solar thermal coal gasification processes is presented, together with laboratory bench scale tests of a solar carbonization unit. The solar design consists of a heliostat field, a central tower receiver, a gasifier, and a recirculation loop. The synthetic gas is produced in the gasifier, with part of the gas upgraded to CH4 and another redirected through the receiver with steam to form CO and H2. Carbonaceous fuels are burned whenever sunlight is not available. Comparisons are made for costs of Lurgi, Bi-gas, Hygas, CO2 Acceptor, and Peat Gas processes and hybrid units for each. Solar thermal systems are projected to become economical with 350 MWt output and production of 1,420,000 cu m of gas per day. The laboratory bench scale unit was tested with Montana rosebud coal to derive a heat balance assessment and analyse the product gas. Successful heat transfer through a carrier gas was demonstrated, with most of the energy being stored in the product gas.

Mathur, V. K.; Breault, R. W.; Lakshmanan, S.

464

Apparatus for fixed bed coal gasification  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for fixed-bed coal gasification is described in which coal such as caking coal is continuously pyrolyzed with clump formation inhibited, by combining the coal with a combustible gas and an oxidant, and then continually feeding the pyrolyzed coal under pressure and elevated temperature into the gasification region of a pressure vessel. The materials in the pressure vessel are allowed to react with the gasifying agents in order to allow the carbon contents of the pyrolyzed coal to be completely oxidized. The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

Sadowski, Richard S. (Greenville, SC)

1992-01-01

465

Biomass gasification: yesterday, today, and tomorrow  

SciTech Connect

The solid fuels, biomass and coal, can be converted by gasification into clean gaseous fuels that are easier to distribute and required for many technical processes. The simplest method of conversion is air gasification, producing a low-energy gas well suited for direct-heat or engine applications but unsuitable for pipeline use. Oxygen gasification produces a medium-energy gas composed primarily of CO and H/sub 2/, which can be used industrial pipelines for operation of turbines for power and heat cogeneration or for chemical synthesis of methanol or ammonia. Steam or hydrogen gasification are also possible but external heat and energy sources are required. Slow pyrolysis produces a medium-energy gas, charcoal, and oil. Gases resulting from fast pyrolysis contain a high concentration of olefins (primarily ethylene), which are quite useful for synthesis of fuels or chemicals. This paper presents some of the most pertinent material from the three-volume SERI report, A Survey of Biomass Gasification.</