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1

Specialized Disposal Sites for Different Reprocessing Plant Wastes  

SciTech Connect

Once-through fuel cycles have one waste form: spent nuclear fuel (SNF). In contrast, the reprocessed SNF yields multiple wastes with different chemical, physical, and radionuclide characteristics. The different characteristics of each waste imply that there are potential cost and performance benefits to developing different disposal sites that match the disposal requirements of different waste. Disposal sites as defined herein may be located in different geologies or in a single repository containing multiple sections, each with different characteristics. The paper describes disposal options for specific wastes and the potential for a waste management system that better couples various reprocessing plant wastes with disposal facilities. (authors)

Forsberg, Charles W. [Nuclear Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831 (United States); Driscoll, Michael J. [Department of Nuclear Science and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA, 02139 (United States)

2007-07-01

2

Mesoscale to plant-scale models of nuclear waste reprocessing.  

SciTech Connect

Imported oil exacerabates our trade deficit and funds anti-American regimes. Nuclear Energy (NE) is a demonstrated technology with high efficiency. NE's two biggest political detriments are possible accidents and nuclear waste disposal. For NE policy, proliferation is the biggest obstacle. Nuclear waste can be reduced through reprocessing, where fuel rods are separated into various streams, some of which can be reused in reactors. Current process developed in the 1950s is dirty and expensive, U/Pu separation is the most critical. Fuel rods are sheared and dissolved in acid to extract fissile material in a centrifugal contactor. Plants have many contacts in series with other separations. We have taken a science and simulation-based approach to develop a modern reprocessing plant. Models of reprocessing plants are needed to support nuclear materials accountancy, nonproliferation, plant design, and plant scale-up.

Noble, David Frederick; O'Hern, Timothy John; Moffat, Harry K.; Nemer, Martin B.; Domino, Stefan Paul; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Brotherton, Christopher M.; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Pawlowski, Roger Patrick

2010-09-01

3

Reduction of Sodium Nitrate Liquid Waste in Nuclear Reprocessing Plants  

SciTech Connect

Sodium nitrate solution has been generated from nuclear reprocessing plant as a result of neutralization of nitric acid. The sodium nitrate has been immobilized by bitumen, cement or other material in the site and waste packages have been produced. In order to reduce an environmental impact of the waste packages from the reprocessing plant, it is preferable to decompose nitrate ion to harmless gases such as nitrogen. A combination of formic acid and catalyst has been proposed for this purpose. But, the method is inadequate for a full decomposition of the nitrate ion. In addition, a mixture of NO and NO{sub 2} is produced during the reaction. Formaldehyde and hydrazine were selected as reductants and a combined use of Pd-Cu catalyst was tried to decompose the nitrate ion. As a result, the nitrate ion can almost entirely be decomposed without any generation of NO and NO{sub 2}. The test was conducted by 1 L flask. In case of formaldehyde, nitrate ion concentration can be reduced from 0.017 mol/l to 3.9x10{sup -4} mol/l. In case of hydrazine, nitrate concentration can be decreased from 2.8 mol/l to 9.5 x 10{sup -3} mol/l and ammonium ion is detected. The ammonium ion concentration in the final solution is 0.12 mol/l when 2.8 mol/l nitrate is reduced by hydrazine. Chemical reactions for formaldehyde on the Pd-Cu catalyst are estimated as combination of: NO{sub 3-} + HCHO = NO{sub 2-} + HCOOH; 2NO{sub 2-} + 3HCOOH = N{sub 2} + 3CO{sub 2} + 2H{sub 2}O + 2OH-; 4NO{sub 2-} + 3HCHO = 2N{sub 2} + 3CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O + 4OH-. the other hand, for hydrazine with the Pd-Cu catalyst: 3N{sub 2}H{sub 4} = 2NH{sub 3} + 2N{sub 2} + 3H{sub 2}; NO{sub 3-} + H{sub 2} = NO{sub 2-} + H{sub 2}O; NO{sub 2-} + NH{sub 3} = N{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O + OH-. The fundamental research shows that the combination usage of the Pd-Cu catalyst and formaldehyde or hydrazine is applicable for the reduction of nitrate liquid waste in the nuclear reprocessing plant. (authors)

Numata, M.; Mihara, S.; Kojima, S.; Ito, H. [JGC Corporation, Technologies Research Center, 2205, Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Higashiibarakigun, Ibaraki Pref., 311-1313 (Japan); Kato, T. [JGC Corporation, Yokohama World Operation Center, 2-3-1, Minato Mirai, Nishi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa Pref., 220-6001 (Japan)

2006-07-01

4

Treatment and conditioning of wastes from US nuclear fuels reprocessing plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US has operated nuclear fuels reprocessing plants at Hanford, Idaho Falls, and Savannah River in its definse programs and at West Valley in its commercial program. Other commercial plants have been proposed and some constructed but not operated. The liquid high-level wastes at Hanford and Savannah River have, for nearly 40 years, been conditioned for storage by adding NaOH,

J. L. Crandall; G. Oertel; J. McElroy

1983-01-01

5

10 CFR Appendix F to Part 50 - Policy Relating to the Siting of Fuel Reprocessing Plants and Related Waste Management Facilities  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Relating to the Siting of Fuel Reprocessing Plants and Related Waste Management Facilities F Appendix F to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...Relating to the Siting of Fuel Reprocessing Plants and Related Waste Management...

2010-01-01

6

10 CFR Appendix F to Part 50 - Policy Relating to the Siting of Fuel Reprocessing Plants and Related Waste Management Facilities  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Relating to the Siting of Fuel Reprocessing Plants and Related Waste Management Facilities F Appendix F to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...Relating to the Siting of Fuel Reprocessing Plants and Related Waste Management...

2013-01-01

7

10 CFR Appendix F to Part 50 - Policy Relating to the Siting of Fuel Reprocessing Plants and Related Waste Management Facilities  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Relating to the Siting of Fuel Reprocessing Plants and Related Waste Management Facilities F Appendix F to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...Relating to the Siting of Fuel Reprocessing Plants and Related Waste Management...

2012-01-01

8

10 CFR Appendix F to Part 50 - Policy Relating to the Siting of Fuel Reprocessing Plants and Related Waste Management Facilities  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Relating to the Siting of Fuel Reprocessing Plants and Related Waste Management Facilities F Appendix F to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...Relating to the Siting of Fuel Reprocessing Plants and Related Waste Management...

2011-01-01

9

10 CFR Appendix F to Part 50 - Policy Relating to the Siting of Fuel Reprocessing Plants and Related Waste Management Facilities  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Relating to the Siting of Fuel Reprocessing Plants and Related Waste Management Facilities F Appendix F to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...Relating to the Siting of Fuel Reprocessing Plants and Related Waste Management...

2014-01-01

10

Application of curium measurements for safeguarding at reprocessing plants. Study 1: High-level liquid waste and Study 2: Spent fuel assemblies and leached hulls  

SciTech Connect

In large-scale reprocessing plants for spent fuel assemblies, the quantity of plutonium in the waste streams each year is large enough to be important for nuclear safeguards. The wastes are drums of leached hulls and cylinders of vitrified high-level liquid waste. The plutonium amounts in these wastes cannot be measured directly by a nondestructive assay (NDA) technique because the gamma rays emitted by plutonium are obscured by gamma rays from fission products, and the neutrons from spontaneous fissions are obscured by those from curium. The most practical NDA signal from the waste is the neutron emission from curium. A diversion of waste for its plutonium would also take a detectable amount of curium, so if the amount of curium in a waste stream is reduced, it can be inferred that there is also a reduced amount of plutonium. This report studies the feasibility of tracking the curium through a reprocessing plant with neutron measurements at key locations: spent fuel assemblies prior to shearing, the accountability tank after dissolution, drums of leached hulls after dissolution, and canisters of vitrified high-level waste after separation. Existing pertinent measurement techniques are reviewed, improvements are suggested, and new measurements are proposed. The authors integrate these curium measurements into a safeguards system.

Rinard, P.M.; Menlove, H.O.

1996-03-01

11

Geohydrologic conditions at the nuclear-fuels reprocessing plant and waste-management facilities at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center, Cattaraugus County, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant, a high-level radioactive liquid-waste tank complex, and related waste facilities occupy 100 hectares (ha) within the Western New York Nuclear Service Center near West Valley, N.Y. The facilities are underlain by glacial and postglacial deposits that fill an ancestrial bedrock valley. The main plant facilities are on an elevated plateau referred to as the north plateau. Groundwater on the north plateau moves laterally within a surficial sand and gravel from the main plant building to areas northeast, east, and southeast of the facilities. The sand and gravel ranges from 1 to 10 m thick and has a hydraulic conductivity ranging from 0.1 to 7.9 m/day. Two separate burial grounds, a 4-ha area for low-level radioactive waste disposal and a 2.9-ha area for disposal of higher-level waste are excavated into a clay-rich till that ranges from 22 to 28 m thick. Migration of an organic solvent from the area of higher level waste at shallow depth in the till suggests that a shallow, fractured, oxidized, and weathered till is a significant pathway for lateral movement of groundwater. Below this zone, groundwater moves vertically downward through the till to recharge a lacustrine silt and fine sand. Within the saturated parts of the lacustrine unit, groundwater moves laterally to the northeast toward Buttermilk Creek. Hydraulic conductivity of the till, based on field and laboratory analyses , ranges from 0.000018 to 0.000086 m/day. (USGS)

Bergeron, M.P.; Kappel, W.M.; Yager, R.M.

1987-01-01

12

Economic analysis of waste management alternatives for reprocessing wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the results of a cost analysis of a broad range of alternatives for management of reprocessing wastes that would require geologic repository disposal. The intent was to identify cost-effective alternatives and the costs of potential repository performance requirements. Four integrated treatment facility alternatives for transuranic (TRU) wastes are described and compared. These include no treatment, compaction, incineration,

R. W. McKee; L. L. Clark; P. M. Daling; J. F. Nesbitt; J. L. Swanson

1984-01-01

13

Transuranic waste from reprocessing of nuclear fuel  

SciTech Connect

The annual volume of transuranic waste generated during the processing of spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors has been estimated using the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant as a model. Both completed facilities and the design of future additional facilities were evaluated to determine the volume of untreated solid waste. Interim on-site storage facilities for solid wastes are described and the fractions of wastes available for volume reduction are estimated.

Carr, W.H.; Sumner, W.B.; Thomas, L.L.

1983-01-01

14

Plasma Mass Filters For Nuclear Waste Reprocessing  

SciTech Connect

Practical disposal of nuclear waste requires high-throughput separation techniques. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which contains the most active and mobile radioisotopes and produces most of the heat. We suggest that the fission products could be separated as a group from nuclear waste using plasma mass filters. Plasmabased processes are well suited to separating nuclear waste, because mass rather than chemical properties are used for separation. A single plasma stage can replace several stages of chemical separation, producing separate streams of bulk elements, fission products, and actinoids. The plasma mass filters may have lower cost and produce less auxiliary waste than chemical processing plants. Three rotating plasma configurations are considered that act as mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, the Ohkawa filter, and the asymmetric centrifugal trap.

Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

2011-05-26

15

Process for recovery of palladium from nuclear fuel reprocessing wastes  

DOEpatents

Palladium is selectively removed from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing waste by adding sugar to a strong nitric acid solution of the waste to partially denitrate the solution and cause formation of an insoluble palladium compound. The process includes the steps of: (a) adjusting the nitric acid content of the starting solution to about 10 M, (b) adding 50% sucrose solution in an amount sufficient to effect the precipitation of the palladium compound, (c) heating the solution at reflux temperature until precipitation is complete, and (d) centrifuging the solution to separate the precipitated palladium compound from the supernatant liquid.

Campbell, David O. (Oak Ridge, TN); Buxton, Samuel R. (Wartburg, TN)

1981-01-01

16

Process for recovery of palladium from nuclear fuel reprocessing wastes  

DOEpatents

Palladium is selectively removed from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing waste by adding sugar to a strong nitric acid solution of the waste to partially denitrate the solution and cause formation of an insoluble palladium compound. The process includes the steps of: (a) adjusting the nitric acid content of the starting solution to about 10 M; (b) adding 50% sucrose solution in an amount sufficient to effect the precipitation of the palladium compound; (c) heating the solution at reflux temperature until precipitation is complete; and (d) centrifuging the solution to separate the precipitated palladium compound from the supernatant liquid.

Campbell, D.O.; Buxton, S.R.

1980-06-16

17

Vitrification of IFR and MSBR halide salt reprocessing wastes  

SciTech Connect

Both of the genuinely sustainable (breeder) nuclear fuel cycles (IFR - Integral Fast Reactor - and MSBR - Molten Salt Breeder Reactor -) studied by the USA's national laboratories would generate high level reprocessing waste (HLRW) streams consisting of a relatively small amount ( about 4 mole %) of fission product halide (chloride or fluoride) salts in a matrix comprised primarily (about 95 mole %) of non radioactive alkali metal halide salts. Because leach resistant glasses cannot accommodate much of any of the halides, most of the treatment scenarios previously envisioned for such HLRW have assumed a monolithic waste form comprised of a synthetic analog of an insoluble crystalline halide mineral. In practice, this translates to making a 'substituted' sodalite ('Ceramic Waste Form') of the IFR's chloride salt-based wastes and fluoroapatite of the MSBR's fluoride salt-based wastes. This paper discusses my experimental studies of an alternative waste management scenario for both fuel cycles that would separate/recycle the waste's halide and immobilize everything else in iron phosphate (Fe-P) glass. It will describe both how the work was done and what its results indicate about how a treatment process for both of those wastes should be implemented (fluoride and chloride behave differently). In either case, this scenario's primary advantages include much higher waste loadings, much lower overall cost, and the generation of a product (glass) that is more consistent with current waste management practices. (author)

Siemer, D.D. [Idaho National Laboratory, 12N 3167E, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)

2013-07-01

18

10 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants B Appendix...COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Pt. 50, App...Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants...

2013-01-01

19

10 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants B Appendix...COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Pt. 50, App...Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants...

2014-01-01

20

10 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants B Appendix...COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Pt. 50, App...Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants...

2010-01-01

21

10 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants B Appendix...COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Pt. 50, App...Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants...

2011-01-01

22

Equipment specifications for an electrochemical fuel reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

Electrochemical reprocessing is a technique used to chemically separate and dissolve the components of spent nuclear fuel, in order to produce new metal fuel. There are several different variations to electrochemical reprocessing. These variations are accounted for by both the production of different types of spent nuclear fuel, as well as different states and organizations doing research in the field. For this electrochemical reprocessing plant, the spent fuel will be in the metallurgical form, a product of fast breeder reactors, which are used in many nuclear power plants. The equipment line for this process is divided into two main categories, the fuel refining equipment and the fuel fabrication equipment. The fuel refining equipment is responsible for separating out the plutonium and uranium together, while getting rid of the minor transuranic elements and fission products. The fuel fabrication equipment will then convert this plutonium and uranium mixture into readily usable metal fuel.

Hemphill, Kevin P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

23

Status of radioiodine control for nuclear fuel reprocessing plants  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the status of radioiodine control in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant with respect to capture, fixation, and disposal. Where possible, we refer the reader to a number of survey documents which have been published in the last four years. We provide updates where necessary. Also discussed are factors which must be considered in developing criteria for iodine control. For capture from gas streams, silver mordenite and a silver nitrate impregnated silica (AC-6120) are considered state-of-the-art and are recommended. Three aqueous scrubbing processes have been demonstrated: Caustic scrubbing is simple but probably will not give an adequate iodine retention by itself. Mercurex (mercuric nitrate-nitric acid scrubbing) has a number of disadvantages including the use of toxic mercury. Iodox (hyperazeotropic nitric acid scrubbing) is effective but employs a very corrosive and hazardous material. Other technologies have been tested but require extensive development. The waste forms recommended for long-term storage or disposal are silver iodide, the iodates of barium, strontium, or calcium, and silver loaded sorbents, all fixed in cement. Copper iodide in bitumen (asphalt) is a possibility but requires testing. The selection of a specific form will be influenced by the capture process used.

Burger, L.L.; Scheele, R.D.

1983-07-01

24

International safeguards at the Dounreay fast reactor reprocessing plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

International safeguards have been applied to the fast reactor reprocessing plant at Dounreay since October 1981. From October 1981 until October 1982, this was done by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Euratom under the terms of a tripartite treaty between the parties and a voluntary offer made by the United Kingdom, a weapons state, to the IAEA. Since

1987-01-01

25

Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Sodium Bearing Waste - Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Determination  

SciTech Connect

U.S. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management, Section I.1.C, requires that all radioactive waste subject to Department of Energy Order 435.1 be managed as high-level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, or low-level radioactive waste. Determining the radiological classification of the sodium-bearing waste currently in the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tank Farm Facility inventory is important to its proper treatment and disposition. This report presents the technical basis for making the determination that the sodium-bearing waste is waste incidental to spent fuel reprocessing and should be managed as mixed transuranic waste. This report focuses on the radiological characteristics of the sodiumbearing waste. The report does not address characterization of the nonradiological, hazardous constituents of the waste in accordance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act requirements.

Jacobson, Victor Levon

2002-08-01

26

Personnel exposure estimates associated with nuclear fuel reprocessing waste  

SciTech Connect

The operation design of the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP) calls for shipment of its wastes to either a low-level waste disposal site or to a Federal repository. This study analyzes the probable radiation dose accrued to the personnel involved in handling waste packages from all identified waste streams of the BNFP from generation to reception at destination and including transportation. The shielding characteristics of the transport packages were derived by assuming packaging in existing or prototyped casks. Possible combinations of waste forms and packages for which the projected dose exceeded DOT or NRC regulations for transport of radioactive materials were rejected. Legal weight truck and legal weight rail transport modes were assumed. Potential ways for reducing overall personnel exposure are considered, concentrating on the particular streams with the largest dose contributions. The personnel exposure estimates were determined using a computer program specifically designed for this purpose. This program is described in Appendix A. 9 references, 3 figures, 19 tables.

Boone, F.W.; Rogers, B.W.

1983-08-01

27

Potential safety-related incidents with possible applicability to a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

The occurrence of certain potential events in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants could lead to significant consequences involving risk to operating personnel or to the general public. This document is a compilation of such potential initiating events in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Possible general incidents and incidents specific to key operations in fuel reprocessing are considered, including possible causes, consequences, and safety features designed to prevent, detect, or mitigate such incidents.

Perkins, W.C.; Durant, W.S.; Dexter, A.H.

1980-12-01

28

Applications of curium measurements for safeguarding at large-scale reprocessing plants  

SciTech Connect

Safeguarding the plutonium passing through a large-scale reprocessing plant (such as one with 800 t of uranium per year) involves nondestructive assay measurements for plutonium at key points. The gamma-ray and neutron signals from the plutonium are generally hidden by the much larger backgrounds from fission products and actinides, so indirect measurements are routinely used. The intense neutron emission rate from spent fuel is from curium. In a spent fuel assembly at the head-end of a plant, the curium neutrons are used to deduce the amount of plutonium present. Coincidence and multiplicity counting are alternative ways to measure neutrons from spent fuel; they have advantages over total neutron counting in certain conditions and offer new opportunities for examining assemblies. New uses for measurements of curium`s neutrons are proposed to safeguard waste streams. From a year`s work at a large-scale plant, 4 to 7 kg of plutonium can remain in leached hulls and 4 to 22 kg of plutonium can remain in the vitrified high-level liquid waste. While the plutonium in these wastes has the safeguards advantage of being dilute, it is important to verify (a) that the many kilograms involved are in fact present and (b) that the declared masses are not higher than the actual amounts so that more concentrated plutonium cannot pass through the plant by masquerading as waste. Curium measurements on spent fuel assemblies, the accountability tank, and leached hulls would form a safeguards system around all the inputs and outputs of a plant`s head-end where the plutonium is always intimately mixed with the curium. A neutron measurement of the vitrified waste would help identify the presence of a diversion path upstream because essentially all of the curium measured in the spent fuel assemblies should also be found in the vitrified waste (on a batch basis). 7 refs., 4 figs.

Rinard, P.M.; Menlove, H.O.

1997-08-01

29

Estimating reprocessing plant in-process inventories by simulation  

SciTech Connect

The Safeguards Systems Group`s generic simulation program FacSim was used to model the operation of the proposed Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant during an operating cycle consisting of a start-up phase, a period of steady-state operation, and a flush-out phase. The simulation results give a detailed account of nuclear material inventories in various process vessels as a function of time. As expected, it is found that the pulsed columns and the concentrator determine the rate at which the system responds to feed variations and transients; but the in-process inventory is dominated by the contents of the concentrator and tanks, and particularly by the contents of the tanks downstream from the concentrator. The results of the simulation were used for statistical studies of diversion detection, as described elsewhere in the Proceedings.

Coulter, C.A.; Burr, T.L.; Hakkila, E.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Ai, H.; Kadokura, I.; Fujimaki, K. [Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

1995-09-01

30

MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES RELEASED FROM NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING PLANTS.  

SciTech Connect

Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, and the fission products Tc, I, Cs, Sr, released from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides and the fission products under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

FRANCIS,A.J.

2006-10-18

31

Fully integrated safeguards and security for reprocessing plant monitoring.  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear fuel reprocessing plants contain a wealth of plant monitoring data including material measurements, process monitoring, administrative procedures, and physical protection elements. Future facilities are moving in the direction of highly-integrated plant monitoring systems that make efficient use of the plant data to improve monitoring and reduce costs. The Separations and Safeguards Performance Model (SSPM) is an analysis tool that is used for modeling advanced monitoring systems and to determine system response under diversion scenarios. This report both describes the architecture for such a future monitoring system and present results under various diversion scenarios. Improvements made in the past year include the development of statistical tests for detecting material loss, the integration of material balance alarms to improve physical protection, and the integration of administrative procedures. The SSPM has been used to demonstrate how advanced instrumentation (as developed in the Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies campaign) can benefit the overall safeguards system as well as how all instrumentation is tied into the physical protection system. This concept has the potential to greatly improve the probability of detection for both abrupt and protracted diversion of nuclear material.

Duran, Felicia Angelica; Ward, Rebecca; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Middleton, Bobby D.

2011-10-01

32

Materials used in low-level liquid waste reprocessing/treatment studies at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The importance of effective waste management in the nuclear fuel cycle cannot be overestimated. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), development work in waste reprocessing and treatment includes the testing and use of various additives for the purpose of facilitating adherence to both process and regulatory performance criteria. Three waste reprocessing/treatment technologies and the associated materials are discussed in this paper: (1) suspension and transfer of sludge from waste storage tanks; (2) treatment to render a waste in compliance with regulatory requirements; and (3) fluoride-rich waste reprocessing. 7 refs., 3 figs.

McDaniel, E.W.; Weeren, H.O.; Delzer, D.B.; Sams, T.L.; Tallent, O.K.

1987-01-01

33

Can the administration sell reprocessing  

SciTech Connect

The Reagan administration policy on nuclear energy is viewed as it relates to fuel reprocessing and to the administration's desire to bring the Barnwell, SC plant on-stream. The proliferation issue as it relates to reprocessing is countered with the claim that activation of Barnwell for reprocessing would significantly reduce current problems with high-level radioactive wastes, since such wastes are converted by reprocessing into a form more readily disposable. Many of the current economic, political, and technological uncertainties surrounding reprocessing, particularly as they would relate to the Barnwell facility, are explored. Incentives which are necessary to interest private industry in fuel reprocessing either now or in the future are explored. Various points raised in a report originating at Argonne National Laboratory concerning the technological aspects of Barnwell are aired with opposing remarks by Shelby Brown, DOE Assistant Secretary for nuclear energy. (BLM)

Walsh, J.

1982-10-01

34

Authentication of reprocessing plant safeguards data through correlation analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report investigates the feasibility and benefits of two new approaches to the analysis of safeguards data from reprocessing plants. Both approaches involve some level of plant modeling. All models involve some form of mass balance, either applied in the usual way that leads to material balances for individual process vessels at discrete times or applied by accounting for pipe flow rates that leads to material balances for individual process vessels at continuous times. In the first case, material balances are computed after each tank-to-tank transfer. In the second case, material balances can be computed at any desired time. The two approaches can be described as follows. The first approach considers the application of a new multivariate sequential test. The test statistic is a scalar, but the monitored residual is a vector. The second approach considers the application of recent nonlinear time series methods for the purpose of empirically building a model for the expected magnitude of a material balance or other scalar variable. Although the report restricts attention to monitoring scalar time series, the methodology can be extended to vector time series.

Burr, T.L.; Wangen, L.E.; Mullen, M.F.

1995-04-01

35

10 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Appendix B to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC...Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing...systems, and components of the reactor. Nuclear power plants and fuel...

2012-01-01

36

Study on release and transport of aerial radioactive materials in reprocessing plants  

SciTech Connect

The release and transport characteristics of radioactive materials at a boiling accident of the high active liquid waste (HALW) in a reprocessing plant have been studied for improving experimental data of source terms of the boiling accident. In the study, a heating test and a thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) test were conducted. In the heating test using a simulated HALW, it was found that ruthenium was mainly released into the air in the form of gas and that non-volatile elements were released into the air in the form of mist. In the TG-DTA test, the rate constants and reaction heat of thermal decomposition of ruthenium nitrosyl nitrate were obtained from TG and DTA curves. (authors)

Amano, Y.; Tashiro, S.; Uchiyama, G.; Abe, H.; Yamane, Y.; Yoshida, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirane, Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan); Kodama, T. [Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd., 4-108 Okitsuke, Obuchi, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori, 039-3212 (Japan)

2013-07-01

37

NUCLEAR MATERIALS CONTROL SYSTEM (NMCS). PHASE II. LIQUID LEVEL INSTRUMENTS FOR A NUCLEAR FUELS REPROCESSING PLANT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid level instrumentation for a nuclear fuels reprocessing plant was ; evaluated for possible application in a Nuclear Materials Control System (NMCS). ; Two basic types of instruments were considered: Pneumatic \\

Rosal

1959-01-01

38

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed to immobilize pretreated Hanford high-level waste and transuranic waste in borosilicate glass contained in stainless steel canisters. Testing is being conducted in the HWVP Technology Development Project to ensure that adapted technologies are applicable to the candidate Hanford wastes and to generate information for waste form qualification. Empirical modeling is being conducted to define a glass composition range consistent with process and waste form qualification requirements. Laboratory studies are conducted to determine process stream properties, characterize the redox chemistry of the melter feed as a basis for controlling melt foaming and evaluate zeolite sorption materials for process waste treatment. Pilot-scale tests have been performed with simulated melter feed to access filtration for solids removal from process wastes, evaluate vitrification process performance and assess offgas equipment performance. Process equipment construction materials are being selected based on literature review, corrosion testing, and performance in pilot-scale testing. 3 figs., 6 tabs.

Larson, D.E.; Allen, C.R. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Kruger, O.L.; Weber, E.T. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States))

1991-10-01

39

Correlation of radioactive waste treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: reprocessing light-water reactor fuel. [Radiation dose commitment to human populations from radioactive effluents released to environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cost\\/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials from a model nuclear fuel reprocessing plant which processes light-water reactor (LWR) fuels, and to determine the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the released materials on the environment. The study is designed to assist in defining

B. C. Finney; R. E. Blanco; R. C. Dahlman; G. S. Hill; F. G. Kitts; R. E. Moore; J. P. Witherspoon

2011-01-01

40

Sensitization and Intergranular Corrosion Behavior of High Nitrogen Type 304LN Stainless Steels for Reprocessing and Waste Management Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High nitrogen 304LN stainless steels (SS) intended for chloride and nitric acid environments in spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and waste management applications were evaluated for their sensitization and intergranular corrosion (IGC) resistance. For this purpose, high nitrogen (0.132 pct, 0.193 pct and 0.406 pct) containing, impurity-controlled, vanadium-added 304LN SS alloys were developed. For comparison, 304L SS, which is currently used in reprocessing plants, was also studied. These stainless steels were subjected to heat treatment at 948 K (675 °C) for various durations ranging from 1 to 1000 hours and tested for susceptibility to IGC as per ASTM A262 Practice A and E tests. The degree of sensitization was estimated with the double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation technique. The increase in nitrogen content resulted in higher hardness and finer grain size. Based on the detailed microstructural and corrosion studies, it was determined that an addition of 0.132 pct and 0.193 pct nitrogen showed better IGC resistance and an additional increase in nitrogen resulted in deterioration resulting from chromium nitride precipitation, which was confirmed by electrochemical phase separation and X-ray diffraction studies. The onset of desensitization was faster for the alloy with 0.132 pct nitrogen as well as 0.406 pct nitrogen because of the lower nitrogen content in the former case and the finer grain size in the latter case. The higher hardness and superior IGC resistance of 0.132 pct and 0.193 pct nitrogen containing Type 304LN SS suggests the suitability of this alloy for nitric acid- and chloride-containing environments of reprocessing and waste management plants.

Parvathavarthini, N.; Kamachi Mudali, U.; Nenova, Lilyana; Andreev, Chavdar; Raj, Baldev

2012-06-01

41

A novel waste form for disposal of spent-nuclear-fuel reprocessing waste: A vitrifiable cement  

SciTech Connect

A cement capable of being hot isostatically pressed into a glass ceramic has been proposed as the waste form for spent-nuclear-fuel reprocessing wastes at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). This intermediate cement, with a composition based on that of common glasses, has been designed and tested. The cement formulations included mixed INEEL wastes, blast furnace slag, reactive silica, and INEEL soil or vermiculite, which were activated with potassium or sodium hydroxide. Following autoclave processing, the cements were characterized. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed three notable crystalline phases: quartz, calcite, and fluorite. Results of compressive strength testing ranged from 1452 and 4163 psi, exceeding the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-suggested standard of >500 psi. From American National Standards Institute/American Nuclear Society 16.1-1986 leach testing, effective diffusivities for Cs were determined to be on the order of 10{sup {minus}11} to 10{sup {minus}10} cm{sup 2}/s and for Sr were 10{sup {minus}12} cm{sup 2}/s, which are four orders of magnitude less than diffusivities in some other radwaste materials. Average leach indices (LI) were 9.6 and 11.9 for Cs and Sr, respectively, meeting the NRC Standard of LI > 6. The 28-day Materials Characterization Center-1 leach testing resulted in normalized elemental mass losses between 0.63 and 28 g/(m{sup 2}{center_dot}day) for Cs and between 0.34 and 0.70 g/(m{sup 2}{center_dot}day) industry-accepted standard while Cs losses indicate a process sensitive parameter.

Gougar, M.L.D.; Scheetz, B.E. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Intercollege Materials Research Lab.; Siemer, D.D. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.

1999-01-01

42

Conservatism in effective dose calculations for accident events involving fuel reprocessing waste tanks.  

PubMed

Conservatism in the calculation of the effective dose following an airborne release from an accident involving a fuel reprocessing waste tank is examined. Within the regulatory constraints at the Hanford Site, deterministic effective dose calculations are conservative by at least an order of magnitude. Deterministic calculations should be used with caution in reaching decisions associated with required safety systems and mitigation philosophy related to the accidental release of airborne radioactive material to the environment. PMID:21617391

Bevelacqua, J J

2011-07-01

43

Potential safety-related incidents with possible applicability to a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

The Safety Technology Group is developing methodology that can be used to assess the risk of operating a plant to reprocess spent nuclear fuel. As an early step in the methodology, a preliminary hazards analysis identifies safety-related incidents. In the absence of appropriate safety features, these incidents could lead to significant consequences and risk to onsite personnel or to the public. This report is a compilation of potential safety-related incidents that have been identified in studies at SRL and in safety analyses of various commercially designed reprocessing plants. It is an expanded revision of the version originally published as DP-1558, Published December 1980.

Durant, W.S.; Perkins, W.C.; Lee, R.; Stoddard, D.H.

1982-05-20

44

Reprocessing of nuclear fuels at the Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect

For more than 30 years, the Savannah River Plant (SRP) has been a major supplier of nuclear materials such as plutonium-239 and tritium-3 for nuclear and thermonuclear weapons, plutonium-238 for space exploration, and isotopes of americium, curium, and californium for use in the nuclear research community. SRP is a complete nuclear park, providing most of the processes in the nuclear fuel cycle. Key processes involve fabrication and cladding of the nuclear fuel, target, and control assemblies; rework of heavy water for use as reactor moderator; reactor loading, operation, and unloading; chemical recovery of the reactor transmutation products and spent fuels; and management of the gaseous, liquid, and solid nuclear and chemical wastes; plus a host of support operations. The site's history and the key processes from fabrication of reactor fuels and targets to finishing of virgin plutonium for use in the nuclear weapons complex are reviewed. Emphasis has been given to the chemistry of the recovery and purification of weapons grade plutonium from irradiated reactor targets.

Gray, L.W.

1986-10-04

45

Materials management in an internationally safeguarded fuels reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

The following appendices are included: aqueous reprocessing and conversion technology, reference facilities, process design and operating features relevant to materials accounting, operator's safeguards system structure, design principles of dynamic materials accounting systems, modeling and simulation approach, optimization of measurement control, aspects of international verification problem, security and reliability of materials measurement and accounting system, estimation of in-process inventory in solvent-extraction contactors, conventional measurement techniques, near-real-time measurement techniques, isotopic correlation techniques, instrumentation available to IAEA inspectors, and integration of materials accounting and containment and surveillance. (DLC)

Hakkila, E.A.; Baker, A.L.; Cobb, D.D.

1980-04-01

46

Development of a Phosphate Ceramic as a Host for Halide-contaminated Plutonium Pyrochemical Reprocessing Wastes  

SciTech Connect

The presence of halide anions in four types of wastes arising from the pyrochemical reprocessing of plutonium required an immobilization process to be developed in which not only the actinide cations but also the halide anions were immobilized in a durable waste form. At AWE, we have developed such a process using Ca3(PO4)2 as the host material. Successful trials of the process with actinide- and Cl-bearing Type I waste were carried out at PNNL where the immobilization of the waste in a form resistant to aqueous leaching was confirmed. Normalized mass losses determined at 40°C and 28 days were 12 x 10-6 g?m-2 and 2.7 x 10-3 g?m-2 for Pu and Cl, respectively. Accelerated radiation-induced damage effects are being determined with specimens containing 238Pu. No changes in the crystalline lattice have been detected with XRD after the 239Pu equivalent of 400 years ageing. Confirmation of the process for Type II waste (a oxyhydroxide-based waste) is currently underway at PNNL. Differences in the ionic state of Pu in the four types of waste have required different surrogates to be used. Samarium chloride was used successfully as a surrogate for both Pu(III) and Am(III) chlorides. Initial investigations into the use of HfO2 as the surrogate for Pu(IV) oxide in Type II waste indicated no significant differences.

Metcalfe, Brian; Fong, Shirley K.; Gerrard, Lee A.; Donald, Ian W.; Strachan, Denis M.; Scheele, Randall D.

2007-03-31

47

Design and testing of remote handling systems for reprocessing plant maintenance and for nuclear reactor dismantling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1986 two important milestones will be reached in the field of remote handling technology in Germany: 1. The prototype of the manipulator carrier system with power manipulator (MTS) for the reprocessing plant in Wackersdorf will be completed and cold test operation will be started. 2. The dismantling manipulator with all special tools for the demolition of the Niederaichbach nuclear

J. Baier; K. Blaseck; F. Krieger; R. Kuhn; P. Leister

1986-01-01

48

Waste Treatment Plant - 12508  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) will immobilize millions of gallons of Hanford's tank waste into solid glass using a proven technology called vitrification. The vitrification process will turn the waste into a stable glass form that is safe for long-term storage. Our discussion of the WTP will include a description of the ongoing design and construction of this large, complex, first-of-a-kind project. The concept for the operation of the WTP is to separate high-level and low-activity waste fractions, and immobilize those fractions in glass using vitrification. The WTP includes four major nuclear facilities and various support facilities. Waste from the Tank Farms is first pumped to the Pretreatment Facility at the WTP through an underground pipe-in-pipe system. When construction is complete, the Pretreatment Facility will be 12 stories high, 540 feet long and 215 feet wide, making it the largest of the four major nuclear facilities that compose the WTP. The total size of this facility will be more than 490,000 square feet. More than 8.2 million craft hours are required to construct this facility. Currently, the Pretreatment Facility is 51 percent complete. At the Pretreatment Facility the waste is pumped to the interior waste feed receipt vessels. Each of these four vessels is 55-feet tall and has a 375,000 gallon capacity, which makes them the largest vessels inside the Pretreatment Facility. These vessels contain a series of internal pulse-jet mixers to keep incoming waste properly mixed. The vessels are inside the black-cell areas, completely enclosed behind thick steel-laced, high strength concrete walls. The black cells are designed to be maintenance free with no moving parts. Once hot operations commence the black-cell area will be inaccessible. Surrounded by black cells, is the 'hot cell canyon'. The hot cell contains all the moving and replaceable components to remove solids and extract liquids. In this area, there is ultrafiltration equipment, cesium-ion exchange columns, evaporator boilers and recirculation pumps, and various mechanical process pumps for transferring process fluids. During the first phase of pretreatment, the waste will be concentrated using an evaporation process. Solids will be filtered out, and the remaining soluble, highly radioactive isotopes will be removed using an ion-exchange process. The high-level solids will be sent to the High-Level Waste (HLW) Vitrification Facility, and the low activity liquids will be sent to the Low-Activity Waste (LAW) Vitrification Facility for further processing. The high-level waste will be transferred via underground pipes to the HLW Facility from the Pretreatment Facility. The waste first arrives at the wet cell, which rests inside a black-cell area. The pretreated waste is transferred through shielded pipes into a series of melter preparation and feed vessels before reaching the melters. Liquids from various facility processes also return to the wet cell for interim storage before recycling back to the Pretreatment Facility. (authors)

Harp, Benton; Olds, Erik [US DOE (United States)

2012-07-01

49

Designing and Operating for Safeguards: Lessons Learned From the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP)  

SciTech Connect

This paper will address the lessons learned during the implementation of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) which are relevant to the issue of ‘safeguards by design’. However, those lessons are a result of a cumulative history of international safeguards experiences starting with the West Valley reprocessing plant in 1969, continuing with the Barnwell plant, and then with the implementation of international safeguards at WAK in Germany and TRP in Japan. The design and implementation of safeguards at RRP in Japan is the latest and most challenging that the IAEA has faced. This paper will discuss the work leading up to the development of a safeguards approach, the design and operating features that were introduced to improve or aid in implementing the safeguards approach, and the resulting recommendations for future facilities. It will provide an overview of how ‘safeguardability’ was introduced into RRP.

Johnson, Shirley J.; Ehinger, Michael

2010-08-07

50

Development of a Phosphate Ceramic as a Host for Halide-Contaminated Plutonium Pyrochemical Reprocessing Wastes  

SciTech Connect

The presence of halide anions in four types of wastes arising from the pyrochemical reprocessing of plutonium required an immobilization process to be developed in which not only the actinide cations but also the halide anions were immobilized in a durable, leach resistant form. AWE has developed such a process using Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} as the host material. Successful trials of the process using actinide-doped Type I waste (essentially a chloride-based waste) were carried out at PNNL where the immobilization of the waste in a form resistant to aqueous leaching was confirmed. Normalized mass losses determined using a modified MCC-1 test at 40 deg. C/28 days were 12 x 10{sup -6} g.m{sup -2} and 2.7 x 10{sup -3} g.m{sup -2} for Pu and Cl, respectively. Accelerated radiation-induced damage effects are being determined with specimens containing {sup 238}Pu. No changes in the crystalline lattice have been detected with XRD after the {sup 239}Pu equivalent of 400 years ageing. Confirmation of the process for Type II waste (an oxyhydroxide-based waste) is currently underway at PNNL. Differences in the ionic state of plutonium in the four types of waste have required different surrogates to be used. Samarium chloride was used successfully as a surrogate for both Pu(III) and Am(III) chlorides. Early investigations into the use of HfO{sub 2} as the surrogate for Pu(IV) oxide in Type II waste showed some apparent differences in the phase assemblages of the surrogate and actinide-based products. However XRD examination of the products at higher resolution has demonstrated there is no significant difference and that for this work HfO{sub 2} is a suitable surrogate for PuO{sub 2}. (authors)

Metcalfe, Brian; Fong, Shirley; Gerrard, Lee; Donald, Ian [MSRD, AWE plc, AWE Aldermaston, Reading, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Strachan, Denis; Scheele, Randall [PNNL, Richland, WA, 99352 (United States)

2007-07-01

51

The use of artificial intelligence for safeguarding fuel reprocessing plants  

SciTech Connect

Recorded process data from the ''Minirun'' campaigns conducted at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP) in Barnwell, South Carolina during 1980 to 1981 have been utilized to study the suitability of computer-based Artificial Intelligence (AI) methods for process monitoring for safeguards purposes. The techniques of knowledge engineering were used to formulate the decision-making software which operates on the process data customarily used for process operations. The OPS5 AI language was used to construct an Expert System for this purpose. Such systems are able to form reasoned conclusions from incomplete, inaccurate or otherwise ''fuzzy'' data, and to explain the reasoning that led to them. The programs were tested using minirun data taken during simulated diversions ranging in size from 1 to 20 L of solution that had been monitored previously using conventional procedural techniques. 13 refs., 3 figs.

Wachter, J.W.; Forgy, C.L.

1987-01-01

52

The use of artificial intelligence for safeguard fuel reprocessing plants  

SciTech Connect

Recorded process data from minirun campaigns conducted at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant have been utilized to study the suitability of computer-based artificial intelligence (AI) methods for process monitoring for safeguards purposes. The techniques of knowledge engineering were used to formulate the decision-making software. The computer software accepted as input process data customarily used for process operations that had previously been recorded on magnetic tape during the 1980 miniruns. The OPS5 AI language was used to construct an expert system for simulated monitoring of the process. Such expert systems facilitate the employment of the heuristic reasoning used by human observers to form reasoned conclusions from incomplete, inaccurate, or otherwise fuzzy data.

Wachter, J.W.; Forgy, C.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1987-01-01

53

PRELIMINARY STUDY OF CERAMICS FOR IMMOBILIZATION OF ADVANCED FUEL CYCLE REPROCESSING WASTES  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed a series of ceramic waste forms for the immobilization of Cesium/Lanthanide (CS/LN) and Cesium/Lanthanide/Transition Metal (CS/LN/TM) waste streams anticipated to result from nuclear fuel reprocessing. Simple raw materials, including Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO, and TiO{sub 2} were combined with simulated waste components to produce multiphase ceramics containing hollandite-type phases, perovskites (particularly BaTiO{sub 3}), pyrochlores, zirconolite, and other minor metal titanate phases. Identification of excess Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} via X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) in the first series of compositions led to a Phase II study, with significantly reduced Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations and increased waste loadings. Three fabrication methodologies were used, including melting and crystallizing, pressing and sintering, and Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS), with the intent of studying phase evolution under various sintering conditions. XRD and SEM/EDS results showed that the partitioning of the waste elements in the sintered materials was very similar, despite varying stoichiometry of the phases formed. The Phase II compositions generally contained a reduced amount of unreacted Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as identified by XRD, and had phase assemblages that were closer to the initial targets. Chemical composition measurements showed no significant issues with meeting the target compositions. However, volatilization of Cs and Mo was identified, particularly during melting, since sintering of the pressed pellets and SPS were performed at lower temperatures. Partitioning of some of the waste components was difficult to determine via XRD. SEM/EDS mapping showed that those elements, which were generally present in small concentrations, were well distributed throughout the waste forms. Initial studies of radiation damage tolerance using ion beam irradiation at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) showed little if any modification of the material after irradiation. Additional study in this area is needed. Chemical durability was briefly studied using the Product Consistency Test (PCT). Most of the elements measured were retained by the ceramic waste forms, indicating good chemical durability. Cs, Mo, and Rb were released at somewhat higher rates as compared to the matrix components, although benchmark compositions and additional characterization are needed in order to qualify the PCT results.

Fox, K.; Billings, A.; Brinkman, K.; Marra, J.

2010-09-22

54

Fuel reprocessing. A General Electric view  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of reprocessing plant should satisfy key requirements of ; safety, minimum environmental impact, and operability, as the indispensable ; matiers. The MFRP (Midwest Fuel Recovery Plant) uses a single cycle of solvent ; extraction to separate more than 99.9% of fission product radioactivity in an ; aqueous waste stream of moderate volume. Pu and Np are recovered by

Levy

1973-01-01

55

Reprocessing plant input accountability measurements - a new and simplified spiking technique  

SciTech Connect

Isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) is the most widely applied analytical technique for input accountability measurements in reprocessing plants. The procedure usually involves lengthy sample preparation-subsampling an aliquot of the concentrated sample, accurately diluting with nitric acid, and spiking of diluted aliquots with tracer materials, such as {sup 233}U and {sup 242}Pu or {sup 244}Pu. The many steps involved are not only time-consuming but can also be sources of significant errors. De Biever et al. have reported results for a procedure that uses well-defined solid spikes of {sup 235}U/{sup 239}Pu or {sup 235}U/{sup 242}Pu. Metallic spikes were prepared from certified metallic source materials by a high-frequency levitation technique. The technique appeals to safeguards authorities and plant operators because of the relative simplicity of sample preparation. Its routine use was never promoted, however, because of unresolved questions concerning the spikes' homogeneity, cost, and long-term supply. A large size dry (LSD) spike has been proposed as an alternative to the metal spike and subjected to an experiment at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant. Participating in the experiment were the plant operator, the national safeguards authority, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

Kuno, Y.; Takeda, S.; Sato, S.; Akiyama, T.; Tsutaki, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Kuhn, E.; Deron, S.; Sirisena, K.

1989-11-01

56

Methodology of Qualification of CCIM Vitrification Process Applied to the High- Level Liquid Waste from Reprocessed Oxide Fuels - 12438  

SciTech Connect

The vitrification of high-level liquid waste from reprocessed oxide fuels (UOX fuels) by Cold Crucible Induction Melter is planed by AREVA in 2013 in a production line of the R7 facility at La Hague plant. Therefore, the switch of the vitrification technology from the Joule Heated Metal Melter required a complete process qualification study. It involves three specialties, namely the matrix formulation, the glass long-term behavior and the vitrification process development on full-scale pilot. A new glass frit has been elaborated in order to adapt the redox properties and the thermal conductivity of the glass suitable for being vitrified with the Cold Crucible Induction Melter. The role of cobalt oxide on the long term behavior of the glass has been described in the range of the tested concentrations. Concerning the process qualification, the nominal tests, the sensitivity tests and the study of the transient modes allowed to define the nominal operating conditions. Degraded operating conditions tests allowed to identify means of detecting incidents leading to these conditions and allowed to define the procedures to preserve the process equipments protection and the material quality. Finally, the endurance test validated the nominal operating conditions over an extended time period. This global study allowed to draft the package qualification file. The qualification file of the UOX package is currently under approval by the French Nuclear Safety Authority. (authors)

Lemonnier, S.; Labe, V.; Ledoux, A.; Nonnet, H.; Godon, N. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA) DEN/DTCD/LCV, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Naline, S. [AREVA NC, Tour AREVA, 1 place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris La Defense (France)

2012-07-01

57

Use of process monitoring for verifying facility design of large-scale reprocessing plants  

SciTech Connect

During the decade of the 1990s, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) faces the challenge of implementing safeguards in large, new reprocessing facilities. The Agency will be involved in the design, construction, checkout and initial operation of these new facilities to ensure effective safeguards are implemented. One aspect of the Agency involvement is in the area of design verification. The United States Support Program has initiated a task to develop methods for applying process data collection and validation during the cold commissioning phase of plant construction. This paper summarizes the results of this task. 14 refs., 1 tab.

Hakkila, E.A.; Zack, N.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Ehinger, M.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Franssen, F. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria))

1991-01-01

58

Diethylene-triamine-penta-acetate administration protocol for radiological emergency medicine in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants.  

PubMed

Inhalation therapy of diethylene-triamine-penta-acetate (DTPA) should be initiated immediately to workers who have significant incorporation of plutonium, americium or curium in the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. A newly designed electric mesh nebulizer is a small battery-operated passive vibrating mesh device, in which vibrations in an ultrasonic horn are used to force drug solution through a mesh of micron-sized holes. This nebulizer enables DTPA administration at an early stage in the event of a radiation emergency from contamination from the above radioactive metals. PMID:18274997

Jin, Yutaka

2008-01-01

59

Historic American Engineering Record, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex  

SciTech Connect

Just as automobiles need fuel to operate, so do nuclear reactors. When fossil fuels such as gasoline are burned to power an automobile, they are consumed immediately and nearly completely in the process. When the fuel is gone, energy production stops. Nuclear reactors are incapable of achieving this near complete burn-up because as the fuel (uranium) that powers them is burned through the process of nuclear fission, a variety of other elements are also created and become intimately associated with the uranium. Because they absorb neutrons, which energize the fission process, these accumulating fission products eventually poison the fuel by stopping the production of energy from it. The fission products may also damage the structural integrity of the fuel elements. Even though the uranium fuel is still present, sometimes in significant quantities, it is unburnable and will not power a reactor unless it is separated from the neutron-absorbing fission products by a method called fuel reprocessing. Construction of the Fuel Reprocessing Complex at the Chem Plant started in 1950 with the Bechtel Corporation serving as construction contractor and American Cyanamid Company as operating contractor. Although the Foster Wheeler Corporation assumed responsibility for the detailed working design of the overall plant, scientists at Oak Ridge designed all of the equipment that would be employed in the uranium separations process. After three years of construction activity and extensive testing, the plant was ready to handle its first load of irradiated fuel.

Susan Stacy; Julie Braun

2006-12-01

60

Conceptual designs of NDA instruments for the NRTA system at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant  

SciTech Connect

The authors are studying conceptual designs of selected nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments for the near-real-time accounting system at the rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) of Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL). The JNFL RRP is a large-scale commercial reprocessing facility for spent fuel from boiling-water and pressurized-water reactors. The facility comprises two major components: the main process area to separate and produce purified plutonium nitrate and uranyl nitrate from irradiated reactor spent fuels, and the co-denitration process area to combine and convert the plutonium nitrate and uranyl nitrate into mixed oxide (MOX). The selected NDA instruments for conceptual design studies are the MOX-product canister counter, holdup measurement systems for calcination and reduction furnaces and for blenders in the co-denitration process, the isotope dilution gamma-ray spectrometer for the spent fuel dissolver solution, and unattended verification systems. For more effective and practical safeguards and material control and accounting at RRP, the authors are also studying the conceptual design for the UO{sub 3} large-barrel counter. This paper discusses the state-of-the-art NDA conceptual design and research and development activities for the above instruments.

Li, T.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Menlove, H.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Safeguards Science and Technology Group] [and others

1996-09-01

61

Idaho Chemical Processing Plant spent fuel and waste management technology development program plan: 1994 Update  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage since 1951 and reprocessing since 1953. Until April 1992, the major activity of the ICPP was the reprocessing of SNF to recover fissile uranium and the management of the resulting high-level wastes (HLW). In 1992, DOE chose to discontinue reprocessing SNF for uranium recovery and shifted its focus toward the continued safe management and disposition of SNF and radioactive wastes accumulated through reprocessing activities. Currently, 1.8 million gallons of radioactive liquid wastes (1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid wastes and 0.3 million gallons of high-level liquid waste), 3,800 cubic meters of calcine waste, and 289 metric tons heavy metal of SNF are in inventory at the ICPP. Disposal of SNF and high-level waste (HLW) is planned for a repository. Preparation of SNF, HLW, and other radioactive wastes for disposal may include mechanical, physical, and/or chemical processes. This plan outlines the program strategy of the ICPP spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program (SF&WMTDP) to develop and demonstrate the technology required to ensure that SNF and radioactive waste will be properly stored and prepared for final disposal in accordance with regulatory drivers. This Plan presents a brief summary of each of the major elements of the SF&WMTDP; identifies key program assumptions and their bases; and outlines the key activities and decisions that must be completed to identify, develop, demonstrate, and implement a process(es) that will properly prepare the SNF and radioactive wastes stored at the ICPP for safe and efficient interim storage and final disposal.

Not Available

1994-09-01

62

Iodine Pathways and Off-Gas Stream Characteristics for Aqueous Reprocessing Plants – A Literature Survey and Assessment  

SciTech Connect

Used nuclear fuel is currently being reprocessed in only a few countries, notably France, England, Japan, and Russia. The need to control emissions of the gaseous radionuclides to the air during nuclear fuel reprocessing has already been reported for the entire plant. But since the gaseous radionuclides can partition to various different reprocessing off-gas streams, for example, from the head end, dissolver, vessel, cell, and melter, an understanding of each of these streams is critical. These off-gas streams have different flow rates and compositions and could have different gaseous radionuclide control requirements, depending on how the gaseous radionuclides partition. This report reviews the available literature to summarize specific engineering data on the flow rates, forms of the volatile radionuclides in off-gas streams, distributions of these radionuclides in these streams, and temperatures of these streams. This document contains an extensive bibliography of the information contained in the open literature.

R. T. Jubin; D. M. Strachan; N. R. Soelberg

2013-09-01

63

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container  

E-print Network

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan Prepared of Energy (DOE) and Nuclear Waste Partnership LLC (NWP), collectively referred to as the Permittees. The Order, at paragraph 22, requires the Permittees to submit a WIPP Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container

Napp, Nils

64

Optimal measurement uncertainties for materials accounting in a fast breeder reactor spent-fuel reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

Optimization techniques are used to calculate measurement uncertainties for materials accountability instruments in a fast breeder reactor spent-fuel reprocessing plant. Optimal measurement uncertainties are calculated so that performance goals for detecting materials loss are achieved while minimizing the total instrument development cost. Improved materials accounting in the chemical separations process (111 kg Pu/day) to meet 8-kg plutonium abrupt (1 day) and 40-kg plutonium protracted (6 months) loss-detection goals requires: process tank volume and concentration measurements having precisions less than or equal to 1%; accountability and plutonium sample tank volume measurements having precisions less than or equal to 0.3%, short-term correlated errors less than or equal to 0.04%, and long-term correlated errors less than or equal to 0.04%; and accountability and plutonium sample tank concentration measurements having precisions less than or equal to 0.4%, short-term correlated errors less than or equal to 0.1%, and long-term correlated errors less than or equal to 0.05%.

Dayem, H.A.; Kern, E.A.; Markin, J.T.

1982-01-01

65

Case-control study of leukaemia among young people near La Hague nuclear reprocessing plant: the environmental hypothesis revisited.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between childhood leukaemia and established risk factors or other factors related to La Hague nuclear waste reprocessing plant. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Area within a 35 km radius of La Hague, Normandy, France. SUBJECTS: Twenty seven cases of leukaemia diagnosed during the period 1978-93 in people aged under 25 years and 192 controls matched for sex, age, place of birth, and residence at time of diagnosis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Antenatal and postnatal exposure to x rays and viral infections, occupational exposure of parents (particularly ionising radiation), living conditions, lifestyle of parents and children. RESULTS: Increased trends were found for use of local beaches by mothers and children (P < or = 0.01); relative risks 2.87 (95% confidence intervals 1.05 to 8.72) and 4.49 (1.52 to 15.23) when categories were aggregated in two levels (more or less than once a month). Consumption of local fish and shellfish also showed an increased trend (P 0.01); relative risk 2.66 (0.91 to 9.51) when categories were grouped in two levels (more or less than once a week). A relative risk of 1.18 a year (1.03 to 1.42) was observed for length of residence in a granite-built house or in a granitic area. No association was shown with occupational radiation exposure in parents. CONCLUSIONS: There is some convincing evidence in childhood leukaemia of a causal role for environmental radiation exposure from recreational activities on beaches. New methods for identifying the environmental pathways, focusing on marine ecosystems, are warranted. PMID:9006467

Pobel, D.; Viel, J. F.

1997-01-01

66

Computer simulated plant design for waste minimization/pollution prevention  

SciTech Connect

The book discusses several paths to pollution prevention and waste minimization by using computer simulation programs. It explains new computer technologies used in the field of pollution prevention and waste management; provides information pertaining to overcoming technical, economic, and environmental barriers to waste reduction; gives case-studies from industries; and covers computer aided flow sheet design and analysis for nuclear fuel reprocessing.

Bumble, S.

2000-07-01

67

Characterization of past and present solid waste streams from the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant  

SciTech Connect

During the next two decades the transuranic wastes, now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site, are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Over 7% of the transuranic waste to be retrieved for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant has been generated at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. The purpose of this report is to characterize the radioactive solid wastes generated by PUREX using process knowledge, existing records, and oral history interviews. The PUREX Plant is currently operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy and is now in standby status while being prepared for permanent shutdown. The PUREX Plant is a collection of facilities that has been used primarily to separate plutonium for nuclear weapons from spent fuel that had been irradiated in the Hanford Site`s defense reactors. Originally designed to reprocess aluminum-clad uranium fuel, the plant was modified to reprocess zirconium alloy clad fuel elements from the Hanford Site`s N Reactor. PUREX has provided plutonium for research reactor development, safety programs, and defense. In addition, the PUREX was used to recover slightly enriched uranium for recycling into fuel for use in reactors that generate electricity and plutonium. Section 2.0 provides further details of the PUREX`s physical plant and its operations. The PUREX Plant functions that generate solid waste are as follows: processing operations, laboratory analyses and supporting activities. The types and estimated quantities of waste resulting from these activities are discussed in detail.

Pottmeyer, J.A.; Weyns, M.I.; Lorenzo, D.S.; Vejvoda, E.J. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., NM (US); Duncan, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (US)

1993-04-01

68

77 FR 38789 - Notice of Availability of Draft Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Evaluation for the Concentrator...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...and thus are not high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and may be managed and...to DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. DOE is consulting...facility, either the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at DOE's...

2012-06-29

69

76 FR 13605 - Notice of Availability of Draft Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Evaluation for the Vitrification...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...and thus is not high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and may be managed and...to DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management. DOE is consulting...facility, either the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at DOE's...

2011-03-14

70

Field test of New TASTEX system for plutonium product verification at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the field test results of the New TASTEX system. This system consisting of the high resolution gamma spectrometer and the k-edge densitometer can measure both isotopic abundances and concentration of plutonium simultaneously. Entire system is controlled by the multichannel analyzer and a multi-user computer. The system was designed and built under the Japan Support Program for Agency Safeguards (JASPAS). The software of this system developed at LANL and LLNL has been installed in the system assembled at the Tokai reprocessing plant (TRP) in July 1985. In the course of campaigns from 1985 until 1988, field tests have been carried out on plutonium product solutions of TRP. The results of plutonium concentration and isotopic abundances obtained by the k-edge densitometer and the high resolution gamma spectrometer (HRGS) have been compared with those by controlled potential coulometer and mass spectrometer respectively. Precision of plutonium determination with k-edge densitometer is estimated approximately 0.7% and 1.0% for the freshly processed plutonium and the aged plutonium respectively. The scatters in the relative differences between HRGS and the destructive analysis (DA) detected on the results of freshly processed plutonium sample were 1.6%, 0.4%, 0.5%, 1.1%, 8.0% for Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and Pu-242 respectively, whereas those on the results of aged sample were 1.4%, 0.5%, 1.1%, 1.1% for Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, and Pu-241 respectively. 9 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

Kuno, Y.; Shigeoka, K.; Nishida, K.; Ikeda, H.; Hayashi, N.; Wachi, I.; Hsue, S.T.; Sprinkle, J.K.; Gunnink, R.; Ruhter, W.D.

1988-01-01

71

INSPECTIONS OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT.  

EPA Science Inventory

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a disposal system for radioactive wastes. Developed by the Department of Energy (DOE), the WIPP is located near Carlsbad in southeastern New Mexico. The DOE is burying radioactive waste 2150 feet underground in an ancient layer of salt ...

72

Purification of Waste Waters from the Sulfuric-Acid Scheme for Reprocessing Uranium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technological scheme is developed for purifying waste waters from the sulfuric-acid scheme of uranium refining, including galvanochemical treatment, separation of uranium-containing residue, blowing off ammonia, separation of nonradioactive calcium sulfate, and additional extraction of fluorine and sulfate ions. This scheme will make it possible to remove contaminants from the waste waters of the special piping system of the Angarskii

Yu. V. Ostrovskii; G. M. Zabortsev; S. P. Yakobchuk; R. L. Rabinovich; A. A. Lavelin

2005-01-01

73

Component failure-rate data with potential applicability to a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 1223 pieces of component failure-rate data, under 136 subject categories, have been compiled from published literature and computer searches of a number of data bases. Component selections were based on potential applicability to facilities for reprocessing spent nuclear fuels. The data will be useful in quantifying fault trees for probabilistic safety analyses and risk assessments.

Dexter, A.H.; Perkins, W.C.

1982-07-01

74

Waste Estimates for a Future Recycling Plant in the US Based Upon AREVA Operating Experience - 13206  

SciTech Connect

Estimates of process and secondary wastes produced by a recycling plant built in the U.S., which is composed of a used nuclear fuel (UNF) reprocessing facility and a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility, are performed as part of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored study [1]. In this study, a set of common inputs, assumptions, and constraints were identified to allow for comparison of these wastes between different industrial teams. AREVA produced a model of a reprocessing facility, an associated fuel fabrication facility, and waste treatment facilities to develop the results for this study. These facilities were divided into a number of discrete functional areas for which inlet and outlet flow streams were clearly identified to allow for an accurate determination of the radionuclide balance throughout the facility and the waste streams. AREVA relied primarily on its decades of experience and feedback from its La Hague (reprocessing) and MELOX (MOX fuel fabrication) commercial operating facilities in France to support this assessment. However, to perform these estimates for a U.S. facility with different regulatory requirements and to take advantage of some technological advancements, such as in the potential treatment of off-gases, some deviations from this experience were necessary. A summary of AREVA's approach and results for the recycling of 800 metric tonnes of initial heavy metal (MTIHM) of LWR UNF per year into MOX fuel under the assumptions and constraints identified for this DOE study are presented. (authors)

Foare, Genevieve; Meze, Florian [AREVA E and P, SGN - 1, rue des Herons, 78182 Montigny-le-Bretonneux (France)] [AREVA E and P, SGN - 1, rue des Herons, 78182 Montigny-le-Bretonneux (France); Bader, Sven; McGee, Don; Murray, Paul [AREVA Federal Services LLC, 7207 IBM Drive, Mail Code CLT- 1D, Charlotte NC 28262 (United States)] [AREVA Federal Services LLC, 7207 IBM Drive, Mail Code CLT- 1D, Charlotte NC 28262 (United States); Prud'homme, Pascal [AREVA NC SA - 1, place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris La Defense CEDEX (France)] [AREVA NC SA - 1, place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris La Defense CEDEX (France)

2013-07-01

75

Division of Waste Management, Production, and Reprocessing programs progress report for January--December 1976  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of the acid digestion process for treating combustible nuclear wastes has progressed to design and construction of the Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU). Tests were continued in the nonradioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (ADTU) in an effort to improve the performance of the system. Nitric acid consumption has been decreased from 8.8 to 4.5 kg HNOâ\\/kg digested waste

1977-01-01

76

Waste handling and packaging plant project description  

SciTech Connect

ORNL currently has about 300 m{sup 3} of remote handled transuranic (RHTRU) solid waste retrievably stored in trenches and a bunker. This material will be processed through the Waste Handling and Packaging Plant (WHDP) for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Details of siting, construction, and conceptual flow of RHTRU waste through the plant are provided. ORNL also has liquid waste and sludge stored in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST). The sludge also contains TRU waste, and the WHPP will process an expected volume of 500,000 gallons of a suernatant/sludge slurry for shipment to the WIPP. Specific systems which require more development include the cask transfer system, the linear accelerator-based nondestructive assay and nondestructive evaluation equipment. (MHB)

Turner, D.W.; Moore, J.W.; Conatser, D.A.

1991-01-01

77

Waste management operations, Bendix Kansas City Plant  

SciTech Connect

The plant manufactures non-nuclear components for nuclear weapons and, as such, is essentially a series of job shops. A multitude of generating departments generate waste streams that include plating waste, solvents, lubricating fluids, heat transfer fluids, waste cleaning materials, potting compounds, and lead/acid batteries, among others. In 1980, with the upcoming RwateRA regulations, Bendix created a separate department to consolidate all waste and scrap operations. The Waste Mangement Department incorporated the handling of all material leaving the plant except product. This included hazardous waste, plant refuse, returnable containers, excess equipment, recyclable scrap, recoverable precious metals, and many other items. The department was charged with all activities related to RCRA. In order to accomplish this, a new job classification, Material Handler, was created with the flexibility to cross traditional lines between other labor calssifications. Other plans are given.

Gentry, K.

1986-11-01

78

DEVELOPMENT OF CRYSTALLINE CERAMICS FOR IMMOBILIZATION OF ADVANCED FUEL CYCLE REPROCESSING WASTES  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is developing crystalline ceramic waste forms to incorporate CS/LN/TM high Mo waste streams consisting of perovskite, hollandite, pyrochlore, zirconolite, and powellite phase assemblages. Simple raw materials, including Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO, and TiO{sub 2} were combined with simulated waste components to produce multiphase crystalline ceramics. Fiscal Year 2011 (FY11) activities included (i) expanding the compositional range by varying waste loading and fabrication of compositions rich in TiO{sub 2}, (ii) exploring the processing parameters of ceramics produced by the melt and crystallize process, (iii) synthesis and characterization of select individual phases of powellite and hollandite that are the target hosts for radionuclides of Mo, Cs, and Rb, and (iv) evaluating the durability and radiation stability of single and multi-phase ceramic waste forms. Two fabrication methods, including melting and crystallizing, and pressing and sintering, were used with the intent of studying phase evolution under various sintering conditions. An analysis of the XRD and SEM/EDS results indicates that the targeted crystalline phases of the FY11 compositions consisting of pyrochlore, perovskite, hollandite, zirconolite, and powellite were formed by both press and sinter and melt and crystallize processing methods. An evaluation of crystalline phase formation versus melt processing conditions revealed that hollandite, perovskite, zirconolite, and residual TiO{sub 2} phases formed regardless of cooling rate, demonstrating the robust nature of this process for crystalline phase development. The multiphase ceramic composition CSLNTM-06 demonstrated good resistance to proton beam irradiation. Electron irradiation studies on the single phase CaMoO{sub 4} (a component of the multiphase waste form) suggested that this material exhibits stability to 1000 years at anticipated self-irradiation doses (2 x 10{sup 10}-2 x 10{sup 11} Gy), but that its stability may be rate dependent, therefore limiting the activity of the waste for which it can be employed. Overall, these preliminary results indicate good radiation damage tolerance for the crystalline ceramic materials. The PCT results showed that, for all of the waste forms tested, the normalized release values for most of the elements measured, including all of the lanthanides and noble metals, were either very small or below the instrument detection limits. Elevated normalized release values were measured only for Cs, Mo, and Rb. It is difficult to draw further conclusions from these data until a benchmark material is developed for the PCT with this type of waste form. Calcined, simulated CS/LN/TM High Mo waste without additives had relatively low normalized release values for Cs, Mo, and Rb. A review of the chemical composition data for this sample showed that these elements were well retained after the calcination. Therefore, it will be useful to further characterize the calcined material to determine what form these elements are in after calcining. This, along with single phase studies on Cs containing crystal structures such as hollandite, should provide insight into the most ideal phases to incorporate these elements to produce a durable waste form.

Fox, K.; Brinkman, K.

2011-09-22

79

Reprocessing and reuse of waste tire rubber to solve air-quality related problems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

There is a potential for using waste tire rubber to make activated-carbon adsorbents for air-quality control applications. Such an approach provides a recycling path for waste tires and the production of new adsorbents from a low-cost waste material. Tire-derived activated carbons (TDACs) were prepared from waste tires. The resulting products are generally mesoporous, with N2-BET specific surface areas ranging from 239 to 1031 m2/g. TDACs were tested for their ability to store natural gas and remove organic compounds and mercury species from gas streams. TDACs are able to achieve 36% of the recommended adsorbed natural gas (methane) storage capacity for natural-gas-fueled vehicles. Equilibrium adsorption capacities for CH4 achieved by TDACs are comparable to Calgon BPL, a commercially available activated-carbon adsorbent. The acetone adsorption capacity for a TDAC is 67% of the adsorption capacity achieved by BPL at 1 vol % acetone. Adsorption capacities of mercury in simulated flue-gas streams are, in general, larger than adsorption capacities achieved by coal-derived activated carbons (CDACs) and BPL. Although TDACs may not perform as well as commercial adsorbents in some air pollution control applications, the potential lower cost of TDACS should be considered when evaluating economics.

Lehmann, C.M.B.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M.J.; Sun, J.

1998-01-01

80

Waste Management Trends in Texas Industrial Plants  

E-print Network

The Industrial Assessment Center at Texas A&M University has performed several waste and energy minimization surveys in small- and medium- sized industrial manufacturing plants in Texas. During these surveys, Industrial Assessment Center personnel...

Smith, C. S.; Heffington, W. M.

81

Plutonium finishing plant dangerous waste training plan  

SciTech Connect

This training plan describes general requirements, worker categories, and provides course descriptions for operation of the Plutonium Finish Plant (PFP) waste generation facilities, permitted treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) units, and the 90-Day Accumulation Areas.

ENTROP, G.E.

1999-05-24

82

NUCLEAR POWER PLANT WASTE HEAT HORTICULTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of the feasibility of using low grade (70 degrees F) waste heat from the condenser cooling water of the Vermont Yaknee nuclear plant for commercial food enhancement. The study addressed the possible impact of laws on the use of waste heat from ...

83

Report on the NGS3 Working Group on Safeguards by Design For Aqueous Reprocessing Plants  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Working Group on SBD for Aqueous Reprocessing Facilities was to provide recommendations, for facility operators and designers, which would aid in the coordination and integration of nuclear material accountancy and the safeguards requirements of all concerned parties - operators, state/regional authorities, and the IAEA. The recommendations, which are to be provided to the IAEA, are intended to assist in optimizing facility design and operating parameters to ensure the safeguardability of the facility while minimizing impact on the operations. The one day Working Group session addressed a wide range of design and operating topics.

Johnson, Shirley J.; Ehinger, Michael; Schanfein, Mark

2011-02-01

84

Determination of the Structure of Vitrified Hydroceramic/CBC Waste Form Glasses Manufactured from DOE Reprocessing Waste  

SciTech Connect

The selection of a glass-making option for the solidification of nuclear waste has dominated DOE waste form programs since the early 1980's. Both West Valley and Savannah River are routinely manufacturing glass logs from the high level waste inventory in tank sludges. However, for some wastes, direct conversion to glass is clearly not the optimum strategy for immobilization. INEEL, for example, has approximately 4400 m{sup 3} of calcined high level waste with an activity that produces approximately 45 watts/m{sup 3}, a rather low concentration of radioactive constituents. For these wastes, there is value in seeking alternatives to glass. An alternative approach has been developed and the efficacy of the process demonstrated that offers a significant savings in both human health and safety exposures and also a lower cost relative to the vitrification option. The alternative approach utilizes the intrinsic chemical reactivity of the highly alkaline waste with the addition of aluminosilicate admixtures in the appropriate proportions to form zeolites. The process is one in which a chemically bonded ceramic is produced. The driving force for reaction is derived from the chemical system itself at very modest temperatures and yet forms predominantly crystalline phases. Because the chemically bonded ceramic requires an aqueous medium to serve as a vehicle for the chemical reaction, the proposed zeolite-containing waste form can more adequately be described as a hydroceramic. The hydrated crystalline materials are then subject to hot isostatic pressing (HIP) which partially melts the material to form a glass ceramic. The scientific advantages of the hydroceramic/CBC approach are: (1) Low temperature processing; (2) High waste loading and thus only modest volumetric bulking from the addition of admixtures; (3) Ability to immobilize sodium; (4) Ability to handle low levels of nitrate (2-3% NO{sub 3}{sup -}); (5) The flexibility of a vitrifiable waste; and (6) A process that is based on an industry with decades of practical experience. The research undertaken in the present investigation builds on a previous study under the NEER program. The earlier studies identified an optimal formulation for the immobilization of the calcine that is both compositionally adequate to retain radionuclides as well as hazardous constituents and which has a reaction rate that will allow the technical employment of the process. The study established in a general way the glass-forming region in the system M{sub 2}O-MO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} (M{sub 2}0 = alkali metal oxides; MO = alkaline earth metal oxide) which provides the base for these hydroceramic/CBC materials (Fig. 1). The objectives of the present program are to track the structural changes that take place during formulation, chemical reaction, and HIPing. Compositions must be varied through the glass-forming region, structures of the crystals and glass matrix of the glass-ceramic determined, and the structural characteristics in turn related to stability and leachability of the final products.

Scheetz, B.E.; White, W. B.; Chesleigh, M.; Portanova, A.; Olanrewaju, J.

2005-05-31

85

Glass ceramic obtained by tailings and tin mine waste reprocessing from Llallagua, Bolivia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Bolivia Sn mining activity produces large tailings of SiO2-rich residues. These tailings contain potentially toxic elements that can be removed into the surface water and produce a high environmental pollution. This study determines the thermal behaviour and the viability of the manufacture of glass-ceramics from glass. The glass has been obtained from raw materials representative of the Sn mining activities from Llallagua (Bolivia). Temperatures of maximum nucleation rate (Tn) and crystallization (Tcr) were calculated from the differential thermal analyses. The final mineral phases were determined by X-ray diffraction and textures were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Crystalline phases are nefeline occurring with wollastonite or plagioclase. Tn for nepheline is between 680 ºC and 700 ºC, for wollastonite, 730 ºC and for plagioclase, 740 ºC. Tcr for nefeline is between 837 and 965 ºC; for wollastonite, 807 ºC and for plagioclase, 977 ºC. In order to establish the mechanical characteristics and efficiency of the vitrification process in the fixation of potentially toxic elements the resistance to leaching and micro-hardness were determined. The obtained contents of the elements leached from the glass ceramic are well below the limits established by the European legislation. So, these analyses confirm that potentially toxic elements remain fixed in the structure of mineral phases formed in the glass-ceramic process. Regarding the values of micro-hardness results show that they are above those of a commercial glass. The manufacture of glass-ceramics from mining waste reduces the volume of tailings produced for the mining industry and, in turn enhances the waste, transforming it into a product with industrial application. Acknowledgements: This work was partly financed by the project AECID: A3/042750/11, and the SGR 2009SGR-00444.

Arancibia, Jony Roger Hans; Villarino, Cecilia; Alfonso, Pura; Garcia-Valles, Maite; Martinez, Salvador; Parcerisa, David

2014-05-01

86

INDEPENDENT POWER PLANT USING WOOD WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

A 1 MWe power plant using waste wood is to be installed at a U.S. Marine Corps base, which will supply all the wood for the plant from a landfill site. The core energy conversion technology is a down-draft gasifier supplying approximately 150 Btu/scf gas to both spark ignition an...

87

Evaluation of methods for decladding LWR fuel for a pyroprocessing-based reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

The first step in reprocessing disassembled light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel is to separate the zirconium-based cladding from the UO{sub 2} fuel. A survey of decladding technologies has been performed to identify candidate decladding processes suitable for LWR fuel and compatible with downstream pyropr for separation of actinides and fission products. Technologies for the primary separation of Zircaloy cladding from oxide fuel and for secondary separations (in most cases, a further decontamination of the cladding) were reviewed. Because cutting of the fuel cladding is a necessary step in all flowsheet options, metal cutting technologies were also briefly evaluated. The assessment of decladding processes resulted in the identification of the three or four potentially attractive options that may warrant additional near-term evaluation. These options are summarized, and major strengths and issues of each option are discussed.

Bond, W.D.; Mailen, J.C.; Michaels, G.E.

1992-10-01

88

Evaluation of methods for decladding LWR fuel for a pyroprocessing-based reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

The first step in reprocessing disassembled light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel is to separate the zirconium-based cladding from the UO[sub 2] fuel. A survey of decladding technologies has been performed to identify candidate decladding processes suitable for LWR fuel and compatible with downstream pyropr for separation of actinides and fission products. Technologies for the primary separation of Zircaloy cladding from oxide fuel and for secondary separations (in most cases, a further decontamination of the cladding) were reviewed. Because cutting of the fuel cladding is a necessary step in all flowsheet options, metal cutting technologies were also briefly evaluated. The assessment of decladding processes resulted in the identification of the three or four potentially attractive options that may warrant additional near-term evaluation. These options are summarized, and major strengths and issues of each option are discussed.

Bond, W.D.; Mailen, J.C.; Michaels, G.E.

1992-10-01

89

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant applied technology plan  

SciTech Connect

This Applied Technology Plan describes the process development, verification testing, equipment adaptation, and waste form qualification technical issues and plans for resolution to support the design, permitting, and operation of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant. The scope of this Plan includes work to be performed by the research and development contractor, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, other organizations within Westinghouse Hanford Company, universities and companies with glass technology expertise, and other US Department of Energy sites. All work described in this Plan is funded by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project and the relationship of this Plan to other waste management documents and issues is provided for background information. Work to performed under this Plan is divided into major areas that establish a reference process, develop an acceptable glass composition envelope, and demonstrate feed processing and glass production for the range of Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant feeds. Included in this work is the evaluation and verification testing of equipment and technology obtained from the Defense Waste Processing Facility, the West Valley Demonstration Project, foreign countries, and the Hanford Site. Development and verification of product and process models and other data needed for waste form qualification documentation are also included in this Plan. 21 refs., 4 figs., 33 tabs.

Kruger, O.L.

1990-09-01

90

Managing nuclear waste from power plants  

SciTech Connect

National strategies to manage nuclear waste from commercial nuclear power plants are analyzed and compared. The current strategy is to try to operate a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to dispose storage at a centralized facility or next to nuclear power plants. If either of these is pursued now, the analysis assumes that a repository will be built in 2100 for waste not subsequently put to use. The analysis treats various uncertainties: whether a repository at Yucca Mountain would be licensed, possible theft and misuse of the waste, innovations in repository design and waste management, the potential availability of a cancer cure by 2100, and possible future uses of nuclear waste. The objectives used to compare alternatives include concerns for health and safety, environmental and socioeconomic impacts, and direct economic costs, as well as equity concerns (geographical, intergenerational, and procedural), indirect economic costs, as well as equity concerns (geographical, intergenerational, and procedural), indirect economic costs to electricity ratepayers, federal government responsibility to manage nuclear waste, and implications of theft and misuse of nuclear waste. The analysis shows that currently building an underground repository at Yucca Mountain is inferior to other available strategies by the equivalent of $10,000 million to $50,000 million. This strongly suggests that this policy should be reconsidered. A more detailed analysis using the framework presented would help to define a new national policy to manage nuclear waste. 36 refs., 3 figs., 17 tabs.

Keeney, R.L.; Winterfeldt, D. von [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1994-02-01

91

Spent fuel transport and reprocessing  

SciTech Connect

The reprocessing experience in India started with the commissioning in 1964 at Trombay a plant designed to handle metallic uranium fuels from research reactors. This was entirely executed by indigenous effort. Since then the reprocessing programme has evolved in stages matching with the growth of nuclear programme. The reprocessing plant at Tarapur, under operation at present, is the next one to be built capable of reprocessing uranium oxide fuels from the power reactors at Rajasthan (PHWR) and Tarapur (BWR). The third plant now under construction will reprocess the spent fuels from the power reactors (PHWR) and the Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) located at Kalpakkam. By this planned progressive approach considerable experience has been acquired which will be useful in the design and construction of even larger plants to meet the projected demands. Setting up of a larger plant is being planned. To meet the increasing demands for movement of spent fuel arisings from reactors to reprocessing plants, transportation casks, each weighing up to 70 tonnes, have been designed and manufactured within the country. These casks each conform to test standards stipulated in the IAEA transport regulations. This paper discusses the experience in aspects dealing with spent fuel transport and reprocessing.

Prasad, A.N.; Rao, M.K.; Seetharamiah, P.

1985-01-01

92

Waste Water Plant Operators Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual for sewage treatment plant operators was prepared by a committee of operators, educators, and engineers for use as a reference text and handbook and to serve as a training manual for short course and certification programs. Sewage treatment plant operators have a responsibility in water quality control; they are the principal actors in…

Washington State Coordinating Council for Occupational Education, Olympia.

93

Impacts of extended advanced spent-fuel storage on reprocessing. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluated the effect of various spent fuel storage methods on the operations of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. A survey was made of the various techniques being considered to expand at-reactor storage capacity and their effect on fuel integrity. Variations of these techniques employ dry storage, fuel assembly canistering, and rod consolidation. The fuel receipt operations and chemical plant procedures developed for the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant were used as a basis for comparison. The study examined areas of possible incompatibility between reprocessing operations and the proposed storage methods. The results show that storage of fuel for nominally 10 years or more prior to reprocessing is generally advantageous from the standpoint of plant maintenance, waste disposal, and reprocessing plant operation. Extended storage is not expected to increase the incidence of failed fuel. However, reprocessing plants do have equipment limits which must be considered by the designers of fuel storage processes. In particular, the implementation of certain fuel canistering concepts could effectively preclude fuel receipt at the reprocessing plant. Technical guidelines are included, which serve as guidance to engineers who are involved in evaluating new spent fuel storage concepts.

Anderson, R.T.

1984-08-01

94

Waste disposal options report. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the potential options for the processing and disposal of mixed waste generated by reprocessing spent nuclear fuel at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. It compares the proposed waste-immobilization processes, quantifies and characterizes the resulting waste forms, identifies potential disposal sites and their primary acceptance criteria, and addresses disposal issues for hazardous waste.

Russell, N.E.; McDonald, T.G.; Banaee, J.; Barnes, C.M.; Fish, L.W.; Losinski, S.J.; Peterson, H.K.; Sterbentz, J.W.; Wenzel, D.R.

1998-02-01

95

Camargo Waste to Energy Power Plant Hamed Zamenian1  

E-print Network

Camargo Waste to Energy Power Plant Hamed Zamenian1 , Eminou Nasser 1 , Matt Ray2 , Tom Iseley3 1 and Technology, IUPUI The Camargo Waste to Energy Power plant project is being proposed to dispose of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) produced in Mexico. Currently, most urban Municipal Solid Wastes in Mexico

Zhou, Yaoqi

96

Nuclear power plant liquid waste solidification system. [Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fundamental points to be considered in a waste treatment system for a country like Japan, where the final disposal method has not been decided and the wastes have to be stored in the power plants, are volume reduction of the wastes, safe storage of the wastes in the plant, and flexibility regarding the final disposal. A system has been

N. Kikuchi; K. Chino; K. Kudo; S. Horiuchi; T. Saito; M. Hayashi

1981-01-01

97

The 2010 ERC Directory of Waste-to-Energy Plants  

E-print Network

the U.S. Mayors Climate Pro- tection Agreement, which identifies waste-to-energy as a clean, alternative1 The 2010 ERC Directory of Waste-to-Energy Plants By Ted Michaels The 2010 ERC Directory of Waste-to-Energy Plants provides current information about the waste-to-energy sector in the United States. Since

Columbia University

98

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Safety Analysis Report  

SciTech Connect

The following provides a summary of the specific issues addressed in this FY-95 Annual Update as they relate to the CH TRU safety bases: Executive Summary; Site Characteristics; Principal Design and Safety Criteria; Facility Design and Operation; Hazards and Accident Analysis; Derivation of Technical Safety Requirements; Radiological and Hazardous Material Protection; Institutional Programs; Quality Assurance; and Decontamination and Decommissioning. The System Design Descriptions`` (SDDS) for the WIPP were reviewed and incorporated into Chapter 3, Principal Design and Safety Criteria and Chapter 4, Facility Design and Operation. This provides the most currently available final engineering design information on waste emplacement operations throughout the disposal phase up to the point of permanent closure. Also, the criteria which define the TRU waste to be accepted for disposal at the WIPP facility were summarized in Chapter 3 based on the WAC for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.`` This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents the safety analyses that develop and evaluate the adequacy of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contact-Handled Transuranic Wastes (WIPP CH TRU) safety bases necessary to ensure the safety of workers, the public and the environment from the hazards posed by WIPP waste handling and emplacement operations during the disposal phase and hazards associated with the decommissioning and decontamination phase. The analyses of the hazards associated with the long-term (10,000 year) disposal of TRU and TRU mixed waste, and demonstration of compliance with the requirements of 40 CFR 191, Subpart B and 40 CFR 268.6 will be addressed in detail in the WIPP Final Certification Application scheduled for submittal in October 1996 (40 CFR 191) and the No-Migration Variance Petition (40 CFR 268.6) scheduled for submittal in June 1996. Section 5.4, Long-Term Waste Isolation Assessment summarizes the current status of the assessment.

NONE

1995-11-01

99

Aqueous Waste Treatment Plant at Aldermaston  

SciTech Connect

For over half a century the Pangbourne Pipeline formed part of AWE's liquid waste management system. Since 1952 the 11.5 mile pipeline carried pre-treated wastewater from the Aldermaston site for safe dispersal in the River Thames. Such discharges were in strict compliance with the exacting conditions demanded by all regulatory authorities, latterly, those of the Environment Agency. In March 2005 AWE plc closed the Pangbourne Pipeline and ceased discharges of treated active aqueous waste to the River Thames via this route. The ability to effectively eliminate active liquid discharges to the environment is thanks to an extensive programme of waste minimization on the Aldermaston site, together with the construction of a new Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). Waste minimization measures have reduced the effluent arisings by over 70% in less than four years. The new WTP has been built using best available technology (evaporation followed by reverse osmosis) to remove trace levels of radioactivity from wastewater to exceptionally stringent standards. Active operation has confirmed early pilot scale trials, with the plant meeting throughput and decontamination performance targets, and final discharges being at or below limits of detection. The performance of the plant allows the treated waste to be discharged safely as normal industrial effluent from the AWE site. Although the project has had a challenging schedule, the project was completed on programme, to budget and with an exemplary safety record (over 280,000 hours in construction with no lost time events) largely due to a pro-active partnering approach between AWE plc and RWE NUKEM and its sub-contractors. (authors)

Keene, D. [RWE NUKEM, Ltd, 424 Harwell, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX 110GJ (United Kingdom); Fowler, J.; Frier, S. [AWE plc, Aldermaston, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

2006-07-01

100

In-plant management of hazardous waste  

SciTech Connect

One of the earliest sustainable technologies for the management of hazardous industrial wastes, and one of the most successful, is {open_quotes}In-Plant Control{close_quotes} Waste elimination, reuse and/or minimization can encourage improved utilization of resources, decreased environmental degradation and increased profits at individual industrial product ion sites, or within an industry. For new facilities and industries, putting such programs in place is relatively easy. Experience has shown, however, that this may be more difficult to initiate in existing facilities, especially in older and heavier industries. This task can be made easier by promoting a mutually respectful partnership between production and environmental interests within the facility or industry. This permits {open_quotes}common sense{close_quotes} thinking and a cooperative, proactive strategy for securing an appropriate balance between economic growth, environmental protection and social responsibility. Case studies are presented wherein a phased, incremental in-plant system for waste management was developed and employed to good effect, using a model that entailed {open_quotes}Consciousness, Commitment, Training, Recognition, Re-engineering and Continuous Improvement{close_quotes} to promote waste minimization or elimination.

Hall, M.W.; Howell, W.L. Jr. [FAMU/FSU College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL (United States); [Engelhard Corporation, Savannah, GA (United States)

1995-12-31

101

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant capacity increase options  

SciTech Connect

Studies are being conducted by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project on ways to increase the waste processing capacity within the current Vitrification Building structural design. The Phase 1 study on remote systems concepts identification and extent of capacity increase was completed. The study concluded that the HWVP capacity could be increased to four times the current capacity with minor design adjustments to the fixed facility design, and the required design changes would not impact the current footprint of the vitrification building. A further increase in production capacity may be achievable but would require some technology development, verification testing, and a more systematic and extensive engineering evaluation. The primary changes included a single advance melter with a higher capacity, new evaporative feed tank, offgas quench collection tank, ejector venturi scrubbers, and additional inner canister closure station,a smear test station, a new close- coupled analytical facility, waste hold capacity of 400,000 gallon, the ability to concentrate out-of-plant HWVP feed to 90 g/L waste oxide concentration, and limited changes to the current base slab construction package.

Larson, D.E.

1996-04-01

102

Waste isolation pilot plant disposal room model  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes development of the conceptual and mathematical models for the part of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository performance assessment that is concerned with what happens to the waste over long times after the repository is decommissioned. These models, collectively referred to as the {open_quotes}Disposal Room Model,{close_quotes} describe the repository closure process during which deformation of the surrounding salt consolidates the waste. First, the relationship of repository closure to demonstration of compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard (40 CFR 191 Appendix C) and how sensitive performance results are to it are examined. Next, a detailed description is provided of the elements of the disposal region, and properties selected for the salt, waste, and other potential disposal features such as backfill. Included in the discussion is an explanation of how the various models were developed over time. Other aspects of closure analysis, such as the waste flow model and method of analysis, are also described. Finally, the closure predictions used in the final performance assessment analysis for the WIPP Compliance Certification Application are summarized.

Butcher, B.M.

1997-08-01

103

Modelling of the nitric acid reduction process: Application to materials behavior in reprocessing plants  

SciTech Connect

In France, the recycling process of nuclear waste fuels involves the use of hot concentrated nitric acid. The understanding and the prediction of the structural materials (mainly austenitic stainless steels) behaviour requires the determination of the nitric acid reduction process. Nitric acid is indirectly reduced by an autocatalytic mechanism depending on the cathodic overpotential and the acid concentration. This mechanism has been widely studied. All the authors agree on its autocatalytic nature, characterized by the predominant role of the reduction products. It is also generally admitted that nitric acid or the nitrate ion are not the electro-active species. However, uncertainties remain concerning the nature of the electro-active species, the place where the catalytic species regenerates and the thermodynamic and kinetic behaviour of the reaction intermediates. The aim of this study is to clarify some of these uncertainties by performing an electrochemical investigation of the 4 mol.L -1 nitric acid reduction process at 40 deg. C occurring on an inert electrode (platinum or gold). An inert electrode was chosen as a working electrode in a first step in order to avoid its oxidation and focus the research on the reduction mechanism. This experimental work enabled to suggest a coherent sequence of electrochemical and chemical reactions. Then, a kinetic modelling of this sequence was carried out for a gold rotating disk system. In this objective, a thermodynamic study at 25 deg. C led to the evaluation of the composition of liquid and gaseous phases for nitric acid solutions from 0.5 to 22 mol.L -1. The kinetics of the reduction process of nitric acid 4 mol.L -1 was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chrono-amperometry on an inert electrode at 40 deg. C. A coupling of chrono-amperometry and FTIR in gaseous phase led to the identification of the gaseous reduction products as a function of the cathodic overpotential. These different results showed that for potentials between 0.6 V/NHE and 1.15 V/NHE, the reduction process is autocatalytic. The regeneration of the electro-active species may take place at the surface of the electrode for lower over-potentials, and otherwise in solution. When the potential is lower than 0.6 V/ENH, the fast reduction of nitrogen oxide may lead to the rupture of the autocatalytic cycle. (authors)

Sicsic, D.; Balbaud-Celerier, F. [CEA, DEN SCCME, Laboratoire d'Etude de la Corrosion Non Aqueuse, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Tribollet, B. [Laboratoire Interfaces et Systemes Electrochimiques, UPR15 du CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

2012-07-01

104

Laboratory Testing of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Surrogate Waste Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a U.S. Department of Energy geological repository for the permanent disposal of defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste. The waste is emplaced in rooms excavated in the bedded Salado salt formation at a depth of 655 m below the ground surface. After emplacement of the waste, the repository will be sealed and decommissioned. WIPP Performance Assessment modeling of the underground material response requires a full and accurate understanding of coupled mechanical, hydrological, and geochemical processes and how they evolve with time. This study was part of a broader test program focused on room closure, specifically the compaction behavior of waste and the constitutive relations to model this behavior. The goal of this study was to develop an improved waste constitutive model. The model parameters are developed based on a well designed set of test data. The constitutive model will then be used to realistically model evolution of the underground and to better understand the impacts on repository performance. The present study results are focused on laboratory testing of surrogate waste materials. The surrogate wastes correspond to a conservative estimate of the degraded containers and TRU waste materials after the 10,000 year regulatory period. Testing consists of hydrostatic, uniaxial, and triaxial tests performed on surrogate waste recipes that were previously developed by Hansen et al. (1997). These recipes can be divided into materials that simulate 50% and 100% degraded waste by weight. The percent degradation indicates the anticipated amount of iron corrosion, as well as the decomposition of cellulosics, plastics, and rubbers. Axial, lateral, and volumetric strain and axial and lateral stress measurements were made. Two unique testing techniques were developed during the course of the experimental program. The first involves the use of dilatometry to measure sample volumetric strain under a hydrostatic condition. Bulk moduli of the samples measured using this technique were consistent with those measured using more conventional methods. The second technique involved performing triaxial tests under lateral strain control. By limiting the lateral strain to zero by controlling the applied confining pressure while loading the specimen axially in compression, one can maintain a right-circular cylindrical geometry even under large deformations. This technique is preferred over standard triaxial testing methods which result in inhomogeneous deformation or "barreling". Manifestations of the inhomogeneous deformation included non-uniform stress states, as well as unrealistic Poisson's ratios (> 0.5) or those that vary significantly along the length of the specimen. Zero lateral strain controlled tests yield a more uniform stress state, and admissible and uniform values of Poisson's ratio. Hansen, F.D., Knowles, M.K., et al. 1997. Description and Evaluation of a Mechanistically Based Conceptual Model for Spall. SAND97-1369. Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Broome, S.; Bronowski, D.; Pfeifle, T.; Herrick, C. G.

2011-12-01

105

Tritium concentrations in the atmospheric environment at Rokkasho, Japan before the final testing of the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant.  

PubMed

This study aimed at obtaining background tritium concentrations in precipitation and air at Rokkasho where the first commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Japan has been under construction. Tritium concentration in monthly precipitation during fiscal years 2001-2005 had a seasonal variation pattern which was high in spring and low in summer. The tritium concentration was higher than that observed at Chiba City as a whole. The seasonal peak concentration at Rokkasho was generally higher than that at Chiba City, while the baseline concentrations of both were similar. The reason for the difference may be the effect of air mass from the Asian continent which is considered to have high tritium concentration. Atmospheric tritium was operationally separated into HTO, HT and hydrocarbon (CH(3)T) fractions, and the samples collected every 3 d-14 d during fiscal year 2005 were analyzed for these fractions. The HTO concentration as radioactivity in water correlated well with that in the precipitation samples. The HT concentration was the highest among the chemical forms analyzed, followed by the HTO and CH(3)T concentrations. The HT and CH(3)T concentrations did not have clear seasonal variation patterns. The HT concentration followed the decline previously reported by Mason and Östlund with an apparent half-life of 4.8 y. The apparent and environmental half-lives of CH(3)T were estimated as 9.2 y and 36.5 y, respectively, by combining the present data with literature data. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change used the atmospheric lifetime of 12 y for CH(4) to estimate global warming in its 2007 report. The longer environmental half-life of CH(3)T suggested its supply from other sources than past nuclear weapon testing in the atmosphere. PMID:21703737

Akata, Naofumi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Shima, Nagayoshi; Iyogi, Takashi; Momoshima, Noriyuki; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

2011-09-01

106

A glass-encapsulated calcium phosphate wasteform for the immobilization of actinide-, fluoride-, and chloride-containing radioactive wastes from the pyrochemical reprocessing of plutonium metal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chloride-containing radioactive wastes are generated during the pyrochemical reprocessing of Pu metal. Immobilization of these wastes in borosilicate glass or Synroc-type ceramics is not feasible due to the very low solubility of chlorides in these hosts. Alternative candidates have therefore been sought including phosphate-based glasses, crystalline ceramics and hybrid glass/ceramic systems. These studies have shown that high losses of chloride or evolution of chlorine gas from the melt make vitrification an unacceptable solution unless suitable off-gas treatment facilities capable of dealing with these corrosive by-products are available. On the other hand, both sodium aluminosilicate and calcium phosphate ceramics are capable of retaining chloride in stable mineral phases, which include sodalite, Na 8(AlSiO 4) 6Cl 2, chlorapatite, Ca 5(PO 4) 3Cl, and spodiosite, Ca 2(PO 4)Cl. The immobilization process developed in this study involves a solid state process in which waste and precursor powders are mixed and reacted in air at temperatures in the range 700-800 °C. The ceramic products are non-hygroscopic free-flowing powders that only require encapsulation in a relatively low melting temperature phosphate-based glass to produce a monolithic wasteform suitable for storage and ultimate disposal.

Donald, I. W.; Metcalfe, B. L.; Fong, S. K.; Gerrard, L. A.; Strachan, D. M.; Scheele, R. D.

2007-03-01

107

Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing  

SciTech Connect

Reprocessing is essential to closing nuclear fuel cycle. Natural uranium contains only 0.7 percent 235U, the fissile (see glossary for technical terms) isotope that produces most of the fission energy in a nuclear power plant. Prior to being used in commercial nuclear fuel, uranium is typically enriched to 3–5% in 235U. If the enrichment process discards depleted uranium at 0.2 percent 235U, it takes more than seven tonnes of uranium feed to produce one tonne of 4%-enriched uranium. Nuclear fuel discharged at the end of its economic lifetime contains less one percent 235U, but still more than the natural ore. Less than one percent of the uranium that enters the fuel cycle is actually used in a single pass through the reactor. The other naturally occurring isotope, 238U, directly contributes in a minor way to power generation. However, its main role is to transmute into plutoniumby neutron capture and subsequent radioactive decay of unstable uraniumand neptuniumisotopes. 239Pu and 241Pu are fissile isotopes that produce more than 40% of the fission energy in commercially deployed reactors. It is recovery of the plutonium (and to a lesser extent the uranium) for use in recycled nuclear fuel that has been the primary focus of commercial reprocessing. Uraniumtargets irradiated in special purpose reactors are also reprocessed to obtain the fission product 99Mo, the parent isotope of technetium, which is widely used inmedical procedures. Among the fission products, recovery of such expensive metals as platinum and rhodium is technically achievable, but not economically viable in current market and regulatory conditions. During the past 60 years, many different techniques for reprocessing used nuclear fuel have been proposed and tested in the laboratory. However, commercial reprocessing has been implemented along a single line of aqueous solvent extraction technology called plutonium uranium reduction extraction process (PUREX). Similarly, hundreds of types of reactor fuels have been irradiated for different purposes, but the vast majority of commercial fuel is uranium oxide clad in zirconium alloy tubing. As a result, commercial reprocessing plants have relatively narrow technical requirements for used nuclear that is accepted for processing.

Harold F. McFarlane; Terry Todd

2013-11-01

108

Advanced instrumentation for reprocessing.  

SciTech Connect

Recent interest in reprocessing nuclear fuel in the U.S. has led to advanced separations processes that employ continuous processing and multiple extraction steps. These advanced plants will need to be designed with state-of-the-art instrumentation for materials accountancy and control. This research examines the current and upcoming instrumentation for nuclear materials accountancy for those most suited to the reprocessing environment. Though this topic has received attention time and again in the past, new technologies and changing world conditions require a renewed look and this subject. The needs for the advanced UREX+ separations concept are first identified, and then a literature review of current and upcoming measuring techniques is presented. The report concludes with a preliminary list of recommended instruments and measurement locations.

Cipiti, Benjamin B.

2005-10-01

109

Making Plant-Support Structures From Waste Plant Fiber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Environmentally benign, biodegradable structures for supporting growing plants can be made in a process based on recycling of such waste plant fiber materials as wheat straw or of such derivative materials as paper and cardboard. Examples of structures that can be made in this way include plant plugs, pots, planter-lining mats, plant fences, and root and shoot barriers. No chemical binders are used in the process. First, the plant material is chopped into smaller particles. The particles are leached with water or steam to remove material that can inhibit plant growth, yielding a fibrous slurry. If the desired structures are plugs or sheets, then the slurry is formed into the desired shapes in a pulp molding subprocess. If the desired structures are root and shoot barriers, pots, or fences, then the slurry is compression-molded to the desired shapes in a heated press. The processed materials in these structures have properties similar to those of commercial pressboard, but unlike pressboard, these materials contain no additives. These structures have been found to withstand one growth cycle, even when wet

Morrow, Robert C.; < oscjmocl. < attjew K/; {ertzbprm. A,amda; Ej (e. Cjad); Hunt, John

2006-01-01

110

The differential die away time method: An attractive method for the assay of. cap alpha. -waste from LWR fuel reprocessing  

SciTech Connect

The differential die away time method has become an attractive method for ..cap alpha..-waste assay in the 100 n Ci/g region. However the accuracy of this method is influenced by several parameters. To quantify these effects calibration measurements were performed in 200 1 waste drums. This paper describes the setup, the calibration program and the results in terms of accuracy and sensitivity. Moreover results of optimization studies are discussed. The applicability to intermediate and high level ..cap alpha..-waste is discussed and a comparison to passive neutron counting is given.

Milicic, B.; Wurz, H.; Zoltowski, T.

1986-01-01

111

Criticality analysis of TRU waste storage arrays at the waste isolation pilot plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility built to demonstrate the safe storage of defense-generated transuranic (TRU) waste in an underground salt mine. The waste will consist mainly of surface-contaminated clothing, wipes, wrappings, tools, as well as sludges and other waste forms. The radioactive material in the waste is predominately ²³⁹Pu; however, other fissile materials may be contained

W. A. Boyd; M. W. Fecteau

1989-01-01

112

Processing of transuranic waste at the Savannah River Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transuranic wastes at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) have been retrievably stored on concrete pads since early 1972. This waste is stored primarily in 55-gallon drums and large carbon steel boxes. Higher activity drums are placed in concrete culverts. In support of a National Program to consolidate and permanently dispose of this waste, a major project is planned at SRP

B. A. Daugherty; L. M. Gruber; S. J. Mentrup

1986-01-01

113

Hydrothermal Oxidation Hazardous Waste Pilot Plant Test Bed  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is fabricating a Hydrothermal Oxidation (HTO) Hazardous Waste Pilot Plant Test Bed to evaluate and test various HTO reactor concepts for initial processing of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed wastes. If the HTO process is successful it will significantly reduce the volume of DOE mixed wastes by destroying the organic constituents.

Welland, H.; Reed, W.; Valentich, D.; Charlton, T.

1995-03-01

114

Effect of Flue Gas Desulfurization Waste on Corn Plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is a by-product of conversion of sulfur dioxide into solid waste from coal combustion power generation plant. This by-product is rich in calcium, magnesium, and contains various other essential plant nutrients. The beneficial use of application of this waste as...

115

Reproductive Life Events in the Population Living in the Vicinity of a Nuclear Waste Reprocessing Plant  

E-print Network

, spontaneous / birth weight / fecundity / radiation, ionizing / time to pregnancy Word count: Abstract: 23920 in both areas (95% CI of difference, -85 to 53 g). Conclusion: We highlighted no increased risk of adverse nuclear fuel.[4] It releases radioactive compounds[5][6] and various chemicals (including dioxins

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

116

Energy recovery from industrial waste of a confectionery plant by means of BIGFC plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search of environment friendly solutions for waste management, along with increasing costs and recent regulations on waste disposal, leads toward the recovery of energy and requires research activities related to plant definition and thermo-economic comparison. On the other hand, energy recovery from waste has never been an easy task. The high pollutant level in waste combustion gases requires low

P. Lunghi; R. Burzacca

2004-01-01

117

Reprocessing RERTR silicide fuels  

SciTech Connect

The Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor Program is one element of the United States Government's nonproliferation effort. High-density, low-enrichment, aluminum-clad uranium silicide fuels may be substituted for the highly enriched aluminum-clad alloy fuels now in use. Savannah River Laboratory has performed studies which demonstrate reprocessability of spent RERTR silicide fuels at Savannah River Plant. Results of dissolution and feed preparation tests and solvent extraction processing demonstrations with both unirradiated and irradiated uranium silicide fuels are presented.

Rodrigues, G.C.; Gouge, A.P.

1983-05-01

118

Reprocessing RERTR fuels  

SciTech Connect

The Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor Program is one element of the United States Government's nonproliferation effort. High density, low enrichment aluminum-clad dispersed uranium compound fuels may be substituted for the highly enriched aluminum-clad aluminum-uranium alloy fuels now in use. Savannah River Laboratory has performed studies which demonstrate reprocessability of spent RERTR fuels at Savannah River Plant. Results of dissolution and feed preparation tests with both unirradiated and irradiated (up to approximately 90% burnup) fuels are presented. 13 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

Rodrigues, G.C.

1983-01-01

119

Brief assessment of some technical and radiological hazard factors affecting clad waste management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the management of the adverse byproducts of nuclear energy, the general problem is centered in the post-reactor discharge phases. Various waste streams are generated in the reprocessing and fuel manufacturing plants which add both volume and physicochemical diversity to the nuclear fuel waste management problem. Of these streams, the high level waste (HLW) and the clad waste streams carry

Zima

1976-01-01

120

In-plant measurements of gamma-ray transmissions for precise Kedge and passive assay of plutonium concentration and isotopic abundance in product solutions at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field test has been carried out for more than 2 years for determination of plutonium concentration by K-edge absorption densitometry and for determination of plutonium isotopic abundance by transmission-corrected passive gamma-ray spectrometry. This system was designed and built at Los Alamos National Laboratory and installed at the Tokai reprocessing plant of the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation

Y. Asakura; I. Kondo; J. Masui; K. Shoji; P. A. Russo; S. T. Hsue; J. K. Jr. Sprinkle; S. S. Johnson

1982-01-01

121

Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter (chloride, fluoride, sulfur), will have high ammonia, and will contain carryover particulates of glass-former chemicals. These species have potential to cause corrosion of tanks and equipment, precipitation of solids, release of ammonia gas vapors, and scale in the tank farm evaporator. Routing this stream to the tank farms does not permanently divert it from recycling into the WTP, only temporarily stores it prior to reprocessing. Testing is normally performed to demonstrate acceptable conditions and limits for these compounds in wastes sent to the tank farms. The primary parameter of this phase of the test program was measuring the formation of solids during evaporation in order to assess the compatibility of the stream with the evaporator and transfer and storage equipment. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW facility melter offgas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet, and, thus, the composition will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. This report discusses results of evaporation testing of the simulant. Two conditions were tested, one with the simulant at near neutral pH, and a second at alkaline pH. The neutral pH test is comparable to the conditions in the Hanford Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) evaporator, although that evaporator operates at near atmospheric pressure and tests were done under vacuum. For the alkaline test, the target pH was based on the tank farm corrosion control program requirements, and the test protocol and equipment was comparable to that used for routine evaluation of feed compatibility studies for the 242-A evaporator. One of the

Adamson, Duane J.; Nash, Charles A.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Wilmarth, William R.

2014-01-27

122

Analysis of radioactive waste and glass for a defense waste solidification plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical methods have been developed and evaluated for supporting a high-level radioactive waste solidification plant. Radioactive defense waste from the Savannah River Plant will be combined with glass-making chemicals and melted at 1150°C to form borosilicate glass. This glass will be placed in safe permanent disposal. Remote methods for dissolving and analyzing melter feed and glass containing actual radioactive waste

C. J. Coleman; E. W. Baumann; N. E. Bibler; R. A. Dewberry; E. F. Sturcken

1987-01-01

123

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project Plan. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

A major mission of the US DOE is the permanent disposal of Hanford defense wastes by safe, environmentally acceptable, and cost effective methods which meet applicable regulations. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project was initiated to immobilize the Hanford high-level waste (HLW) and provide interim storage. The HWVP will vitrify the pre-treated HLW into borosilicate glass, cast the glass into stainless steel canisters, and store the canisters on site until they are shipped to a federal geologic repository. The HWVP project objective is to design, construct, and operate a facility for immobilizing defense high-level waste for storage. Technical objectives include using the Defense Waste Processing Facility designed plants systems or elements, where practical, and the exchange and review of information on plants in foreign countries. More definitive objectives for quality, reliability, environmental, and safety are provided in the HWVP Project Management Plan.

Brown, R.W.

1993-06-01

124

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Salt Decontamination Testing  

SciTech Connect

On February 14, 2014, americium and plutonium contamination was released in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) salt caverns. At the request of WIPP’s operations contractor, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) personnel developed several methods of decontaminating WIPP salt, using surrogate contaminants and also americium (241Am). The effectiveness of the methods is evaluated qualitatively, and to the extent possible, quantitatively. One of the requirements of this effort was delivering initial results and recommendations within a few weeks. That requirement, in combination with the limited scope of the project, made in-depth analysis impractical in some instances. Of the methods tested (dry brushing, vacuum cleaning, water washing, strippable coatings, and mechanical grinding), the most practical seems to be water washing. Effectiveness is very high, and it is very easy and rapid to deploy. The amount of wastewater produced (2 L/m2) would be substantial and may not be easy to manage, but the method is the clear winner from a usability perspective. Removable surface contamination levels (smear results) from the strippable coating and water washing coupons found no residual removable contamination. Thus, whatever is left is likely adhered to (or trapped within) the salt. The other option that shows promise is the use of a fixative barrier. Bartlett Nuclear, Inc.’s Polymeric Barrier System (PBS) proved the most durable of the coatings tested. The coatings were not tested for contaminant entrapment, only for coating integrity and durability.

Rick Demmer; Stephen Reese

2014-09-01

125

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan  

SciTech Connect

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to conduct environmental monitoring. Environmental monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is conducted in order to: (a) Verify and support compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, permits, and orders; (b) Establish baselines and characterize trends in the physical, chemical, and biological condition of effluent and environmental media; (c) Identify potential environmental problems and evaluate the need for remedial actions or measures to mitigate the problems; (d) Detect, characterize, and report unplanned releases; (e) Evaluate the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control, and pollution abatement programs; and (f) Determine compliance with commitments made in environmental impact statements, environmental assessments, safety analysis reports, or other official DOE documents. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) explains the rationale and design criteria for the environmental monitoring program, extent and frequency of monitoring and measurements, procedures for laboratory analyses, quality assurance (QA) requirements, program implementation procedures, and direction for the preparation and disposition of reports. Changes to the environmental monitoring program may be necessary to allow the use of advanced technology and new data collection techniques. This EMP will document changes in the environmental monitoring program. Guidance for preparation of EMPs is contained in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance.

Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

2008-03-12

126

Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Dangerous Waste Training Plan  

SciTech Connect

This training plan describes general requirements, worker categories, and provides course descriptions for operation of the plutonium finishing plant (PFP) waste generation facilities, permitted treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) units, and the 90-Day Accumulation Areas.

ENTROP, G.E.

1999-12-03

127

WASTE MANAGEMENT CONTROL HANDBOOK FOR DAIRY FOOD PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Waste control is resource management control in dairy food plant operations. Appreciable reductions can be achieved in product, water, energy, labor, packaging losses and sewer surcharges. A good program in waste control can increase the profit margin by more than 10%, as well as...

128

Pelletization process of postproduction plant waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of investigations on the influence of material, process, and construction parameters on the densification process and density of pellets received from different mixtures of tobacco and fine-grained waste of lemon balm are presented. The conducted research makes it possible to conclude that postproduction waste eg tobacco and lemon balm wastes can be successfully pelletized and used as an ecological, solid fuels.

Obidzi?ski, S.

2012-07-01

129

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan  

SciTech Connect

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to conduct environmental monitoring. Environmental monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is conducted in order to: (a) Verify and support compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, permits, and orders; (b) Establish baselines and characterize trends in the physical, chemical, and biological condition of effluent and environmental media; (c) Identify potential environmental problems and evaluate the need for remedial actions or measures to mitigate the problem; (d) Detect, characterize, and report unplanned releases; (e) Evaluate the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control, and pollution abatement programs; and (f) Determine compliance with commitments made in environmental impact statements, environmental assessments, safety analysis reports, or other official DOE documents. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) has been written to contain the rationale and design criteria for the monitoring program, extent and frequency of monitoring and measurements, procedures for laboratory analyses, quality assurance (QA) requirements, program implementation procedures, and direction for the preparation and disposition of reports. Changes to the environmental monitoring program may be necessary to allow the use of advanced technology and new data collection techniques. This EMP will document any proposed changes in the environmental monitoring program. Guidance for preparation of Environmental Monitoring Plans is contained in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance. The plan will be effective when it is approved by the appropriate Head of Field Organization or their designee. The plan discusses major environmental monitoring and hydrology activities at the WIPP and describes the programs established to ensure that WIPP operations do not have detrimental effects on the environment. This EMP is to be reviewed annually and updated every three years unless otherwise requested by the DOE or contractor.

Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

2004-02-19

130

Shipping Remote Handled Transuranic Waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - An Operational Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

On January 18, 2007, the first ever shipment of Remote Handled Transuranic (RH TRU) waste left the gate at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), headed toward the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal, thus concluding one of the most stressful, yet rewarding, periods the authors have ever experienced. The race began in earnest on October 16, 2006, with signature

S. Anderson; J. Bradford; T. Clements; D. Crisp; M. Sherick; E. DAmico; W. Lattin; K. Watson

2008-01-01

131

Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Waste Feed Qualification Program Development Approach - 13114  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is a nuclear waste treatment facility being designed and constructed for the U.S. Department of Energy by Bechtel National, Inc. and subcontractor URS Corporation (under contract DE-AC27-01RV14136 [1]) to process and vitrify radioactive waste that is currently stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. A wide range of planning is in progress to prepare for safe start-up, commissioning, and operation. The waste feed qualification program is being developed to protect the WTP design, safety basis, and technical basis by assuring acceptance requirements can be met before the transfer of waste. The WTP Project has partnered with Savannah River National Laboratory to develop the waste feed qualification program. The results of waste feed qualification activities will be implemented using a batch processing methodology, and will establish an acceptable range of operator controllable parameters needed to treat the staged waste. Waste feed qualification program development is being implemented in three separate phases. Phase 1 required identification of analytical methods and gaps. This activity has been completed, and provides the foundation for a technically defensible approach for waste feed qualification. Phase 2 of the program development is in progress. The activities in this phase include the closure of analytical methodology gaps identified during Phase 1, design and fabrication of laboratory-scale test apparatus, and determination of the waste feed qualification sample volume. Phase 3 will demonstrate waste feed qualification testing in support of Cold Commissioning. (authors)

Markillie, Jeffrey R.; Arakali, Aruna V.; Benson, Peter A.; Halverson, Thomas G. [Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Project, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)] [Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Project, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Adamson, Duane J.; Herman, Connie C.; Peeler, David K. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01

132

Radiological Monitoring of Waste Treatment Plant  

SciTech Connect

Scheduled waste in West Malaysia is handled by Concession Company and is stored and then is incinerated. It is known that incineration process may result in naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) to be concentrated. In this study we have measured three samples consist of by-product from the operation process such as slag, filter cake and fly ash. Other various environmental media such as air, surface water, groundwater and soil within and around the plant have also been analysed for their radioactivity levels. The concentration of Ra-226, Ac-228 and K-40 in slag are 0.062 Bq/g, 0.016 Bq/g and 0.19 Bq/g respectively. The total activity (Ra{sub eq}) in slag is 99.5 Bq/kg. The concentration in fly ash is 0.032 Bq/g, 0.16 Bq/g and 0.34 Bq/g for Ra-226, Ac-228 and K-40 respectively resulting in Raeq of 287.0 Bq/kg. For filter cake, the concentration is 0.13 Bq/g, 0.031 Bq/g and 0.33 Bq/g for Ra-226, Ac-228 and K-40 respectively resulting in Raeq of 199.7 Bq/kg. The external radiation level ranges from 0.08 {mu}Sv/h (Administrative building) to 0.35 {mu}Sv/h (TENORM storage area). The concentration level of radon and thoron progeny varies from 0.0001 to 0.0016 WL and 0.0006 WL to 0.002 WL respectively. For soil samples, the activity ranges from 0.11 Bq/g to 0.29 Bq/g, 0.06 Bq/g to 0.18 Bq/g and 0.065 Bq/g to 0.38 Bq/g for Ra-226, Ac-228 and K-40 respectively. While activity in water, except for a trace of K-40, it is non-detectable.

Amin, Y. M. [Physics Dept, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Nik, H. W. [Asialab (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd, 14 Jalan Industri USJ 1, 47600 Subang Jaya (Malaysia)

2011-03-30

133

Radiological Monitoring of Waste Treatment Plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scheduled waste in West Malaysia is handled by Concession Company and is stored and then is incinerated. It is known that incineration process may result in naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) to be concentrated. In this study we have measured three samples consist of by-product from the operation process such as slag, filter cake and fly ash. Other various environmental media such as air, surface water, groundwater and soil within and around the plant have also been analysed for their radioactivity levels. The concentration of Ra-226, Ac-228 and K-40 in slag are 0.062 Bq/g, 0.016 Bq/g and 0.19 Bq/g respectively. The total activity (Raeq) in slag is 99.5 Bq/kg. The concentration in fly ash is 0.032 Bq/g, 0.16 Bq/g and 0.34 Bq/g for Ra-226, Ac-228 and K-40 respectively resulting in Raeq of 287.0 Bq/kg. For filter cake, the concentration is 0.13 Bq/g, 0.031 Bq/g and 0.33 Bq/g for Ra-226, Ac-228 and K-40 respectively resulting in Raeq of 199.7 Bq/kg. The external radiation level ranges from 0.08 ?Sv/h (Administrative building) to 0.35 ?Sv/h (TENORM storage area). The concentration level of radon and thoron progeny varies from 0.0001 to 0.0016 WL and 0.0006 WL to 0.002 WL respectively. For soil samples, the activity ranges from 0.11 Bq/g to 0.29 Bq/g, 0.06 Bq/g to 0.18 Bq/g and 0.065 Bq/g to 0.38 Bq/g for Ra-226, Ac-228 and K-40 respectively. While activity in water, except for a trace of K-40, it is non-detectable.

Amin, Y. M.; Nik, H. W.

2011-03-01

134

Mobile power plants : waste body heat recovery  

E-print Network

Novel methods to convert waste metabolic heat into useful and useable amounts of electricity were studied. Thermoelectric, magneto hydrodynamic, and piezo-electric energy conversions at the desired scope were evaluated to ...

Gibbons, Jonathan S. (Jonathan Scott), 1979-

2004-01-01

135

Nuclear shipping and waste disposal cost estimates  

SciTech Connect

Cost estimates for the shipping of spent fuel from the reactor, shipping of waste from the reprocessing plant, and disposal of reprocessing plant wastes have been made for five reactor types. The reactors considered are the light-water reactor (LWR), the mixed-oxide-fueled light-water reactor (MOX), the Canadian deuterium-uranium reactor (CANDU), the fast breeder reactor (FBR), and the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). In addition to the cost estimates, this report provides details on the bases and assumptions used to develop the cost estimates.

Hudson, C.R. II

1977-11-01

136

Water recovery using waste heat from coal fired power plants.  

SciTech Connect

The potential to treat non-traditional water sources using power plant waste heat in conjunction with membrane distillation is assessed. Researchers and power plant designers continue to search for ways to use that waste heat from Rankine cycle power plants to recover water thereby reducing water net water consumption. Unfortunately, waste heat from a power plant is of poor quality. Membrane distillation (MD) systems may be a technology that can use the low temperature waste heat (<100 F) to treat water. By their nature, they operate at low temperature and usually low pressure. This study investigates the use of MD to recover water from typical power plants. It looks at recovery from three heat producing locations (boiler blow down, steam diverted from bleed streams, and the cooling water system) within a power plant, providing process sketches, heat and material balances and equipment sizing for recovery schemes using MD for each of these locations. It also provides insight into life cycle cost tradeoffs between power production and incremental capital costs.

Webb, Stephen W.; Morrow, Charles W.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Dwyer, Brian P.

2011-01-01

137

Characterization recommendations for waste sites at the Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect

One hundred and sixty six disposal facilities that received or may have received waste materials resulting from operations at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) have been identified. These waste range from innocuous solid and liquid materials (e.g., wood piles) to process effluents that contain hazardous and/or radioactive constituents. The waste sites have been grouped into 45 categories according the the type of waste materials they received. Waste sites are located with SRP coordinates, a local Department of Energy (DOE) grid system whose grid north is 36 degrees 22 minutes west of true north. DOE policy is to close all waste sites at SRP in a manner consistent with protecting human health and environment and complying with applicable environmental regulations (DOE 1984). A uniform, explicit characterization program for SRP waste sites will provide a sound technical basis for developing closure plans. Several elements are summarized in the following individual sections including (1) a review of the history, geohydrology, and available characterization data for each waste site and (2) recommendations for additional characterization necessary to prepare a reasonable closure plan. Many waste sites have been fully characterized, while others have not been investigated at all. The approach used in this report is to evaluate available groundwater quality and site history data. For example, groundwater data are compared to review criteria to help determine what additional information is required. The review criteria are based on regulatory and DOE guidelines for acceptable concentrations of constituents in groundwater and soil.

Carlton, W.H.; Gordon, D.E.; Johnson, W.F.; Kaback, D.S.; Looney, B.B.; Nichols, R.L.; Shedrow, C.B.

1987-11-01

138

Waste-heat-driven refrigeration plants for freezer trawlers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis is made of the possibility of utilizing waste heat from a proposed gas-turbine fishing-vessel propulsion engine to power a refrigeration plant. On the basis of superior volume, maintenance and reliability, and cost and availability, the ammonia-water absorption system is chosen over the other waste-heat-driven option considered. It is found to be comparable in volume and in maintenance and

Kellen

1986-01-01

139

Solidification of Savannah River plant high level waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Authorization for construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is expected in FY-83. The optimum time for stage 2 authorization is about three years later. Detailed design and construction will require approximately five years for stage 1, with stage 2 construction completed about two to three years later. Production of canisters of waste glass would begin in 1988, and the existing backlog of high level waste sludge stored at SRP would be worked off by about the year 2000. Stage 2 operation could begin in 1990. The technology and engineering are ready for construction and eventual operation of the DWPF for immobilizing high level radioactive waste at Savannah River Plant (SRP). Proceeding with this project will provide the public, and the leadership of this country, with a crucial demonstration that a major quanitity of existing high level nuclear wastes can be safely and permanently immobilized.

Maher, R.; Shafranek, L. F.; Kelley, J. A.; Zeyfang, R. W.

1981-11-01

140

Hong Kong plans new generation chemical waste plant for 1993  

SciTech Connect

The first comprehensive chemical waste treatment facility in a Pacific Rim country is scheduled for completion in Hong Kong in early 1993. Designed to treat industrial chemical wastes generated in Hong Kong and vicinity, the plant will have an output consisting of environmentally safe materials, energy, and some recovered products. The new waste treatment facility will be located on Tsing-yi Island, which is connected to the New Territories by road, near Ha Kwai Chung. The island is close to the main harbor and western shipping channel, providing immediate access to the Pearl River and Guangzhou (Canton).

Haggin, J. (C and EN, Chicago, IL (US))

1991-02-01

141

Strategy of active waste management in the Russian Federation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with the main aspects of the strategy for managing currently existing and future nuclear waste in the Russian Federation. There are specific approaches to managing active nuclear waste that was and is being produced from radioactive ore mining and processing and fuel rod fabrication, nuclear power plant operation, spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and defence programme implementation, operation

A. S. Polyakov; L. A. Mamaev; O. L. Masanov; K. P. Zakharova

1997-01-01

142

Texas refiner starts up new waste water treatment plant  

SciTech Connect

Chevron Corp. has started up a new waste water treatment plant at its Port Arthur, Tex., refinery. The new facility has an hydraulic capacity of 10,000 gpm and will treat process waste water, cooling tower blowdown, and contaminated storm water. The plant includes: A process unit for removing free and emulsified oil; and equalization facility; a biological system for organics biodegradation; and a volatile organic compounds (VOC) control system. The paper describes predesign studies, the preliminary design and VOC control, the final design, cost savings, process control, and construction.

Al-Tell, N. (Bechtel Corp., Houston, TX (United States)); Lueders, R. (Chevron Corp., Port Arthur, TX (United States))

1994-03-21

143

An overview of the waste handling and packaging plant, a major processing facility for remote-handled transuranic waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Waste Handling and Packaging Plant (WHPP) is a FY 1991 line item project proposed for construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The purpose of the facility is to receive, package, certify and ship remote-handled (RH) and special case (SC) transuranic (TRU) waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The scope of the

D. W. Turner; R. C. Stewart; S. P. du Mont

1988-01-01

144

WIPP conceptual design report. Addendum J. Support equipment in the high level waste facility of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Aerojet Manufacturing Company (AMCO) received a contract in November 1976 to provide consulting services in assisting Holmes and Narver, Incorporated with the conceptual designs, cost estimates, and schedules of equipment used to handle waste casks, to decontaminate waste canisters and to overpack damaged or highly contaminated waste canisters for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Also, the layout of

M. J. Rieb; R. S. Foley

1977-01-01

145

75 FR 81250 - Pulse Jet Mixing at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Energy Pulse Jet Mixing at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant...17, 2010. Introduction Legacy wastes from decades of nuclear weapons...predecessor agencies include high- level radioactive waste stored in 177 underground...

2010-12-27

146

Mitigation of plant penetration into radioactive waste utilizing herbicides  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the use of herbicides as an effective method of precluding plant root penetration into buried radioactive wastes. The discussed surface applications are selective herbicides to control broadleaf vegetation in grasses; nonselective herbicides, which control all vegetation; and slow-release forms of these herbicides to prolong effectiveness.

Cox, G.R.

1982-01-01

147

Removal of dissolved and suspended radionuclides from Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant liquid wastes  

SciTech Connect

It was determined during Preliminary Design of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant that certain intermediate process liquid waste streams should be decontaminated in a way that would permit the purge of dissolved chemical species from the process recycle shop. This capability is needed to ensure proper control of product glass chemical composition and to avoid excessive corrosion of process equipment. This paper discusses the process design of a system that will remove both radioactive particulates and certain dissolved fission products from process liquid waste streams. Supporting data obtained from literature sources as well as from laboratory- and pilot-scale tests are presented. 3 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Sharp, S.D. (Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (USA)); Nankani, F.D. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA)); Bray, L.A.; Eakin, D.E.; Larson, D.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

1990-12-01

148

Environmental Solutions, A Summary of Contributions for CY04: Battelle Contributions to the Waste Treatment Plant  

SciTech Connect

In support of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP), Battelle conducted tests on mixing specific wastes within the plant, removing troublesome materials from the waste before treatment, and determining if the final waste forms met the established criteria. In addition, several Battelle experts filled full-time positions in WTP's Research and Testing and Process and Operations departments.

Beeman, Gordon H.

2005-03-08

149

Fuel Cell Power PlantsFuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels  

E-print Network

generation of combined heat andcombined heat and power ­Clean Power with natural gas f lfuel ­RenewableFuel Cell Power PlantsFuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels DOE-DOD Workshop Washington installations in North America, Europe, and Asia · Industrial, commercial, utility productsproducts · 300 KW

150

Waste Treatment Technology Process Development Plan For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Recycle  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Process Development Plan is to summarize the objectives and plans for the technology development activities for an alternative path for disposition of the recycle stream that will be generated in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility (LAW Recycle). This plan covers the first phase of the development activities. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to recycle it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be concentrated by evaporation and returned to the LAW vitrification facility. Because this stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are also problematic for the glass waste form, they accumulate in the Recycle stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and reducing the halides in the Recycle is a key component of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, this stream does not have a proven disposition path, and resolving this gap becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and to develop a process that will remove radionuclides from this stream and allow its diversion to another disposition path, greatly decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The origin of this LAW Recycle stream will be from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover or precipitates of scrubbed components (e.g. carbonates). The soluble components are mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet, and will not be available until the WTP begins operation, causing uncertainty in its composition, particularly the radionuclide content. This plan will provide an estimate of the likely composition and the basis for it, assess likely treatment technologies, identify potential disposition paths, establish target treatment limits, and recommend the testing needed to show feasibility. Two primary disposition options are proposed for investigation, one is concentration for storage in the tank farms, and the other is treatment prior to disposition in the Effluent Treatment Facility. One of the radionuclides that is volatile and expected to be in high concentration in this LAW Recycle stream is Technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc), a long-lived radionuclide with a half-life of 210,000 years. Technetium will not be removed from the aqueous waste in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), and will primarily end up immobilized in the LAW glass, which will be disposed in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Because {sup 99}Tc has a very long half-life and is highly mobile, it is the largest dose contributor to the Performance Assessment (PA) of the IDF. Other radionuclides that are also expected to be in appreciable concentration in the LAW Recycle are {sup 129}I, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 241}Am. The concentrations of these radionuclides in this stream will be much lower than in the LAW, but they will still be higher than limits for some of the other disposition pathways currently available. Although the baseline process will recycle this stream to the Pretreatment Facility, if the LAW facility begins operation first, this stream will not have a disposition path internal to WTP. One potential solution is to return the stream to the tank farms where it can be evaporated in the 242-A evaporator, or perhaps deploy an auxiliary evaporator to concentrate it prior to return to the tank farms. In either case, testing is needed to evaluat

McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.

2013-08-29

151

Final environmental impact statement. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this document as environmental input to future decisions regarding the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which would include the disposal of transuranic waste, as currently authorized. The alternatives covered in this document are the following: (1) Continue storing transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) as it is now or with improved confinement. (2) Proceed with WIPP at the Los Medanos site in southeastern New Mexico, as currently authorized. (3) Dispose of TRU waste in the first available repository for high-level waste. The Los Medanos site would be investigated for its potential suitability as a candidate site. This is administration policy and is the alternative preferred by the DOE. (4) Delay the WIPP to allow other candidate sites to be evaluated for TRU-waste disposal. This environmental impact statement is arranged in the following manner: Chapter 1 is an overall summary of the analysis contained in the document. Chapters 2 and 4 set forth the objectives of the national waste-management program and analyze the full spectrum of reasonable alternatives for meeting these objectives, including the WIPP. Chapter 5 presents the interim waste-acceptance criteria and waste-form alternatives for the WIPP. Chapters 6 through 13 provide a detailed description and environmental analysis of the WIPP repository and its site. Chapter 14 describes the permits and approvals necessary for the WIPP and the interactions that have taken place with Federal, State, and local authorities, and with the general public in connection with the repository. Chapter 15 analyzes the many comments received on the DEIS and tells what has been done in this FEIS in response. The appendices contain data and discussions in support of the material in the text.

Not Available

1980-10-01

152

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report  

SciTech Connect

This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed and authorized for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 2002, to March 31, 2004. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) (Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico.

Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services (WRES)

2004-10-25

153

Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing  

SciTech Connect

This is an a submission for the Encyclopedia of Sustainable Technology on the subject of Reprocessing Spent Nuclear Fuel. No formal abstract was required for the article. The full article will be attached.

Michael F. Simpson; Jack D. Law

2010-02-01

154

Full Focus Needed on Finishing Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant - 12196  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy's (US DOE's) Hanford Nuclear Site has 177 underground waste storage tanks located 19 to 24 km (12 to 15 miles) from the Columbia River in south-central Washington State. Hanford's tanks now hold about 212,000 cu m (56 million gallons) of highly radioactive and chemically hazardous waste. Sixty-seven tanks have leaked an estimated 3,785 cu m (1 million gallons) of this waste into the surrounding soil. Further releases to soil, groundwater, and the Columbia River are the inevitable result of the tanks continuing to age. The risk from this waste is recognized as a threat to the Northwest by both State and Federal governments. US DOE and Bechtel National, Inc., are building the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to treat and vitrify (immobilize in glass) the waste from Hanford's tanks. As is usual for any groundbreaking project, problems have arisen that must be resolved as they occur if treatment is to take place as specified in the court-enforceable Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) and the Consent Decree, entered into by US DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). At times, US DOE's approach to solving these critical issues seems to have caused undue wastes of time, energy, and, ultimately, public funds. Upon reviewing the history of Hanford's tank waste treatment project, Ecology hopes that constructive criticism of past failures and praise of successes will inspire US DOE to consider changing practices, be more transparent with regulatory agencies and the public, and take a 'lean production' approach to successfully completing this project. All three Tri-Party Agreement agencies share the goal of completing WTP on time, ensuring it is operational and in compliance with safety standards. To do this, Ecology believes US DOE should: - Maintain focus on the primary goal of completing the five major facilities of WTP. - Construct a supplemental low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification facility for the two-thirds balance of LAW that will not be treated by the vitrification facility under construction. - Prepare infrastructure for waste feed from the tanks and facilities to handle the WTP waste streams. To support this project track, Ecology expedites dangerous waste permitting by using a design-build approach to integrate WTP into the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act permit for Hanford. (authors)

Dahl, Suzanne; Biyani, Rabindra; Holmes, Erika [Washington State Department of Ecology, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

2012-07-01

155

Transporting transuranic waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Risk and cost perspectives  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is an authorized US Department of Energy (DOE) research and development facility constructed near the city of Carlsbad in southeastern New Mexico. The facility is intended to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste resulting from US defense activities. Under the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act of 1992 (LWA), federal lands surrounding the WIPP facility were withdrawn from all public use and the title of those lands was transferred to the Secretary of Energy. The DOE's TRU waste is stored, and in some cases is still being generated, at 10 large-quantity and 13 small-quantity sites across the US. After applicable certification requirements have been met, the TRU waste at these sites will be sent to the WIPP to initiate the disposal phase of the facility, which according to current planning is projected to last for approximately 35 years.

Biwer, B. M.; Gilette, J. L.; Poch, L. A.; Suermann, J. F.

1999-02-16

156

Remote maintenance in the TOR fast reactor fuel reprocessing facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TOR facility which is undergoing commissioning tests has a capacity of 5 tonne HM\\/yr which is enough for reprocessing all the Phenix fuel, with an excess capacity which is to be used for other fast reactors' fuels. TOR will also be used to test new equipment developed for the large breeder fuel reprocessing plant presently in the design stage.

R. P. Eymery; M. Constant; G. Malterre

1986-01-01

157

Bentonite as a waste isolation pilot plant shaft sealing material  

SciTech Connect

Current designs of the shaft sealing system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) propose using bentonite as a primary sealing component. The shaft sealing designs anticipate that compacted bentonite sealing components can perform through the 10,000-year regulatory period and beyond. To evaluate the acceptability of bentonite as a sealing material for the WIPP, this report identifies references that deal with the properties and characteristics of bentonite that may affect its behavior in the WIPP environment. This report reviews published studies that discuss using bentonite as sealing material for nuclear waste disposal, environmental restoration, toxic and chemical waste disposal, landfill liners, and applications in the petroleum industry. This report identifies the physical and chemical properties, stability and seal construction technologies of bentonite seals in shafts, especially in a saline brine environment. This report focuses on permeability, swelling pressure, strength, stiffness, longevity, and densification properties of bentonites.

Daemen, J.; Ran, Chongwei [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

1996-12-01

158

Solid waste recycling activities at the Kansas City Plant  

SciTech Connect

The DCP has as Proactive Solid Waste Recycling Program. Historical activities have consisted of extensive Precious and Scarp Metal Recovery through dedicated efforts of the Excess and Reclamation department. This is the only organization at the KCP that pays for itself'' through utilization of manpower to recover reclaimable material from the teardown of scrap parts, equipment, and machinery. The KCP also initiated an expansion of this program through increased efforts to recovery recyclable materials from normal plant trash. Efforts to date have resulted in the establishment of waste paper and cafeteria grease recycling programs. Another initiative nearing fruition is to recycle waste styrofoam. Activities are also underway to establish future programs to recycle spent carbon, other plastic resins, glass and cardboard.

Brown, D.L.; Huyett, J.D.; Westlake, N.M.

1992-02-01

159

Solid waste recycling activities at the Kansas City Plant  

SciTech Connect

The DCP has as Proactive Solid Waste Recycling Program. Historical activities have consisted of extensive Precious and Scarp Metal Recovery through dedicated efforts of the Excess and Reclamation department. This is the only organization at the KCP that ``pays for itself`` through utilization of manpower to recover reclaimable material from the teardown of scrap parts, equipment, and machinery. The KCP also initiated an expansion of this program through increased efforts to recovery recyclable materials from normal plant trash. Efforts to date have resulted in the establishment of waste paper and cafeteria grease recycling programs. Another initiative nearing fruition is to recycle waste styrofoam. Activities are also underway to establish future programs to recycle spent carbon, other plastic resins, glass and cardboard.

Brown, D.L.; Huyett, J.D.; Westlake, N.M.

1992-02-01

160

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report  

SciTech Connect

This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 1998, to March 31, 2000. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA)(Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, and amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Area Office's (hereinafter the ''CAO'') compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico. An issue was identified in the 1998 BECR relating to a potential cross-connection between the fire-water systems and the site domestic water system. While the CAO and its managing and operating contractor (hereinafter the ''MOC'') believe the site was always in compliance with cross-connection control requirements, hardware and procedural upgrades w ere implemented in March 1999 to strengthen its compliance posture. Further discussion of this issue is presented in section 30.2.2 herein. During this reporting period WIPP received two letters and a compliance order alleging violation of certain requirements outlined in section 9(a)(1) of the LWA. With the exception of one item, pending a final decision by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), all alleged violations have been resolved without the assessment of fines or penalties. Non-mixed TRU waste shipments began on March 26, 1999. Shipments continued through November 26, 1999, the effective date of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF). No shipments regulated under the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit were received at WIPP during this BECR reporting period.

Westinghouse TRU Solutions

2000-12-01

161

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan  

SciTech Connect

DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program Requirements (DOE, 1990a), requires each DOE facility to prepare an EMP. This document is prepared for WIPP in accordance with the guidance contained in DOE Order 5400.1; DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment (DOE, 1990b); Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T; DOE, 1991); and the Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 834, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment (Draft). Many sections of DOE Order 5400.1 have been replaced by DOE Order 231.1 (DOE, 1995), which is the driver for the Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) and the guidance source for preparing many environmental program documents. The WIPP project is operated by Westinghouse Electric Company, Waste Isolation Division (WID), for the DOE. This plan defines the extent and scope of the WIPP's effluent and environmental monitoring programs during the facility's operational life and also discusses the WIPP's quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) program as it relates to environmental monitoring. In addition, this plan provides a comprehensive description of environmental activities at WIPP including: A summary of environmental programs, including the status of environmental monitoring activities A description of the WIPP project and its mission A description of the local environment, including demographics An overview of the methodology used to assess radiological consequences to the public, including brief discussions of potential exposure pathways, routine and accidental releases, and their consequences Responses to the requirements described in the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE, 1991). This document references DOE orders and other federal and state regulations affecting environmental monitoring programs at the site. WIPP procedures, which implement the requirements of this program plan, are also referenced. The DOE regulates its own activities for radiation protection of the public under the authority of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (42 U.S.C. 2011). The effluent and environmental monitoring activities prescribed by DOE Order 5400.5 and the DOE/EH-0173T guidance manual are designed to ensure that DOE facilities implement standards and regulations to protect members of the public and the environment against undue risk from radiation. Effluent and environmental monitoring also provide 1999 Environmental Monitoring Plan DOE/WIPP 99-2194 the data necessary to demonstrate compliance with applicable environmental protection regulations. Other federal agencies, such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), are empowered through specific legislation to regulate certain aspects of DOE activities potentially affecting public health and safety or the environment. Presidential Executive Order 12088, Federal Compliance with Pollution Control Standards (43 FR 47707), requires the heads of executive agencies to ensure that all federal facilities and activities comply with applicable pollution control standards and to take all necessary actions for the prevention, control, and abatement of environmental pollution. Beyond statutory requirements, the DOE has established a general environmental protection policy. The Environmental Policy Statement (issued by then Secretary Herrington on January 8, 1986, and extended on January 7, 1987) describes the DOE's commitment to national environmental protection goals in that it conducts operations ''in an environmentally safe and sound manner . . . in compliance with the letter and spirit of applicable environmental statutes, regulations, and standards'' (DOE, 1986). This Environmental Policy Statement also states the DOE's commitment to ''good environmental management in all of its programs and at all of its facilities in order to correct existing environmental problems, to minimize risks to the environment or public health, and to anticipate and address pote

Westinghouse Electric Company Waste Isolation Division

1999-09-29

162

Unresolved issues for the disposal of remote-handled transuranic waste in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is to dispose of 176,000 cubic meters of transuranic (TRU) waste generated by the defense activities of the US Government. The envisioned inventory contains approximately 6 million cubic feet of contact-handled transuranic (CH TRU) waste and 250,000 cubic feet of remote handled transuranic (RH TRU) waste. CH TRU emits less than

M. K. Silva; R. H. Neill

1994-01-01

163

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) We are applying our unique capabilities in actinide and repository  

E-print Network

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) We are applying our unique capabilities in actinide and repository science to help develop and manage salt repositories. 8 08 FACT SHEET Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for geologic formations stable enough to contain radioactive waste for thousands of years. They discovered

164

Safety Evaluation Report of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contact Handled (CH) Waste Documented Safety Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This Safety Evaluation Report (SER) documents the Department of Energy’s (DOE's) review of Revision 9 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contact Handled (CH) Waste Documented Safety Analysis, DOE/WIPP-95-2065 (WIPP CH DSA), and provides the DOE Approval Authority with the basis for approving the document. It concludes that the safety basis documented in the WIPP CH DSA is comprehensive, correct, and commensurate with hazards associated with CH waste disposal operations. The WIPP CH DSA and associated technical safety requirements (TSRs) were developed in accordance with 10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Management, and DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

Washington TRU Solutions LLC

2005-09-01

165

Reprocessing of research reactor fuel the Dounreay option  

SciTech Connect

Reprocessing is a proven process for the treatment of spent U/Al Research Reactor fuel. At Dounreay 12679 elements have been reprocessed during the past 30 years. For reactors converting to LEU fuel the uranium recovered in reprocessing can be blended down to less than 20% U{sub 235}, enrichment and be fabricated into new elements. For reactors already converted to LEU it is technically possible to reprocess spent silicide fuel to reduce the U{sub 235} burden and present to a repository only stable conditioned waste. The main waste stream from reprocessing which contains the Fission products is collected in underground storage tanks where it is kept for a period of at least five years before being converted to a stable solid form for return to the country of origin for subsequent storage/disposal. Discharges to the environment from reprocessing are low and are limited to the radioactive gases contained in the spent fuel and a low level liquid waste steam. Both of these discharges are independently monitored, and controlled within strict discharge limits set by the UK Government`s Scottish Office. Transportation of spent fuel to Dounreay has been undertaken using many routes from mainland Europe and has utilised over the past few years both chartered and scheduled vessel services. Several different transport containers have been handled and are currently licensed in the UK. This paper provides a short history of MTR reprocessing at Dounreay, and provides information to show reprocessing can satisfy the needs of MTR operators, showing that reprocessing is a valuable asset in non-proliferation terms, offers a complete solution and is environmentally acceptable.

Cartwright, P.

1997-08-01

166

Compliance status report for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the disposition of transuranic (TRU) waste generated through national defense-related activities. Approximately 53,700 m{sup 2} of these wastes have been generated and are currently stored at government defense installations across the country. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located in southeastern New Mexico, has been sited and constructed to meet the criteria established by the scientific and regulatory community for the safe, long-term disposal of TRU and TRU-mixed wastes. This Compliance Status Report (CSR) provides an assessment of the progress of the WIPP Program toward compliance with long-term disposal regulations, set forth in Title 40 CFR 191 (EPA, 1993a), Subparts B and C, and Title 40 CFR {section}268.6 (EPA, 1993b), in order to focus on-going and future experimental and engineering activities. The CSR attempts to identify issues associated with the performance of the WIPP as a long-term repository and to focus on the resolution of these issues. This report will serve as a tool to focus project resources on the areas necessary to ensure complete, accurate, and timely submittal of the compliance application. This document is not intended to constitute a statement of compliance or a demonstration of compliance.

Not Available

1994-03-31

167

A historical review of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant backfill development  

SciTech Connect

Backfills have been part of Sandia National Laboratories' [Sandia's] Waste Isolation Pilot Plant [WIPP] designs for over twenty years. Historically, backfill research at Sandia has depended heavily on the changing mission of the WIPP facility. Early testing considered heat producing, high level, wastes. Bentonite/sand/salt mixtures were evaluated and studies focused on developing materials that would retard brine ingress, sorb radionuclides, and withstand elevated temperatures. The present-day backfill consists of pure MgO [magnesium oxide] in a pelletized form and is directed at treating the relatively low contamination level, non-heat producing, wastes actually being disposed of in the WIPP. Its introduction was motivated by the need to scavenging CO{sub 2} [carbon dioxide] from decaying organic components in the waste. However, other benefits, such as a substantial desiccating capacity, are also being evaluated. The MgO backfill also fulfills a statutory requirement for assurance measures beyond those needed to demonstrate compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] regulatory release limits. However, even without a backfill, the WIPP repository design still operates within EPA regulatory release limits.

KRUMHANSL,JAMES L.; MOLECKE,MARTIN A.; PAPENGUTH,HANS W.; BRUSH,LAURENCE H.

2000-06-05

168

ICPP Waste Management Technology Development Program  

SciTech Connect

As a result of the decision to curtail reprocessing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), a Spent fuel and Waste Management Technology Development plan has been implemented to identify acceptable options for disposing of the (1) sodium-bearing liquid radioactive waste, (2) radioactive calcine, and (3) irradiated spent fuel stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The plan was developed jointly by DOE and WINCO.

Hogg, G.W.; Olson, A.L.; Knecht, D.A. [Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co., Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bonkoski, M.J. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1993-01-01

169

INTELLIGENT DECISION SUPPORT FOR WASTE MINIMIZATION IN ELECTROPLATING PLANTS. (R824732)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Wastewater, spent solvent, spent process solutions, and sludge are the major waste streams generated in large volumes daily in electroplating plants. These waste streams can be significantly minimized through process modification and operational improvement. I...

170

Results from simulated contact-handled transuranic waste experiments at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

We conducted in situ experiments with nonradioactive, contact-handled transuranic (CH TRU) waste drums at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility for about four years. We performed these tests in two rooms in rock salt, at WIPP, with drums surrounded by crushed salt or 70 wt % salt/30 wt % bentonite clay backfills, or partially submerged in a NaCl brine pool. Air and brine temperatures were maintained at {approximately}40C. These full-scale (210-L drum) experiments provided in situ data on: backfill material moisture-sorption and physical properties in the presence of brine; waste container corrosion adequacy; and, migration of chemical tracers (nonradioactive actinide and fission product simulants) in the near-field vicinity, all as a function of time. Individual drums, backfill, and brine samples were removed periodically for laboratory evaluations. Waste container testing in the presence of brine and brine-moistened backfill materials served as a severe overtest of long-term conditions that could be anticipated in an actual salt waste repository. We also obtained relevant operational-test emplacement and retrieval experience. All test results are intended to support both the acceptance of actual TRU wastes at the WIPP and performance assessment data needs. We provide an overview and technical data summary focusing on the WIPP CH TRU envirorunental overtests involving 174 waste drums in the presence of backfill materials and the brine pool, with posttest laboratory materials analyses of backfill sorbed-moisture content, CH TRU drum corrosion, tracer migration, and associated test observations.

Molecke, M.A.; Sorensen, N.R.; Krumhansl, J.L.

1993-12-31

171

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant simulated RH TRU waste experiments: Data and interpretation pilot  

SciTech Connect

The simulated, i.e., nonradioactive remote-handled transuranic waste (RH TRU) experiments being conducted underground in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were emplaced in mid-1986 and have been in heated test operation since 9/23/86. These experiments involve the in situ, waste package performance testing of eight full-size, reference RH TRU containers emplaced in horizontal, unlined test holes in the rock salt ribs (walls) of WIPP Room T. All of the test containers have internal electrical heaters; four of the test emplacements were filled with bentonite and silica sand backfill materials. We designed test conditions to be ``near-reference`` with respect to anticipated thermal outputs of RH TRU canisters and their geometrical spacing or layout in WIPP repository rooms, with RH TRU waste reference conditions current as of the start date of this test program. We also conducted some thermal overtest evaluations. This paper provides a: detailed test overview; comprehensive data update for the first 5 years of test operations; summary of experiment observations; initial data interpretations; and, several status; experimental objectives -- how these tests support WIPP TRU waste acceptance, performance assessment studies, underground operations, and the overall WIPP mission; and, in situ performance evaluations of RH TRU waste package materials plus design details and options. We provide instrument data and results for in situ waste container and borehole temperatures, pressures exerted on test containers through the backfill materials, and vertical and horizontal borehole-closure measurements and rates. The effects of heat on borehole closure, fracturing, and near-field materials (metals, backfills, rock salt, and intruding brine) interactions were closely monitored and are summarized, as are assorted test observations. Predictive 3-dimensional thermal and structural modeling studies of borehole and room closures and temperature fields were also performed.

Molecke, M.A.; Argueello, G.J.; Beraun, R.

1993-04-01

172

Hazardous solid waste from domestic wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed Central

The treatment of liquid wastes in municipal sewage treatment plants creates significant quantities of solid residue for disposal. The potential hazard from these wastes requires that their characteristics be determined accurately to develop environmentally sound management criteria. It is readily recognized that the sludge characteristics vary with the type and degree of industrial activity within a wastewater collection system and that these characteristics play a significant role in determining whether the material has potential for beneficial reuse or if it must be directed to final disposal. This paper offers an overview of past and present practices of sewage sludge disposal, an indication of quantities produced, and experience with beneficial reuse. An estimated range of costs involved, expected environmental effects and potential for continued use is offered for each disposal or reuse system discussed. PMID:738239

Harrington, W M

1978-01-01

173

Reprocessing of Reusable Medical Devices  

MedlinePLUS

... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Medical Devices Print this page Share this page E-mail ... Reusable Medical Devices or Reprocessing Reprocessing of Reusable Medical Devices Reusable medical devices are devices that health care ...

174

Detection of pathogenic clostridia in biogas plant wastes.  

PubMed

As the number of biogas plants has grown rapidly in the last decade, the amount of potentially contaminated wastes with pathogenic Clostridium spp. has increased as well. This study reports the results from examining 203 biogas plant wastes (BGWs). The following Clostridium spp. with different frequencies could be isolated via a new enrichment medium (Krüne medium) and detected by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS): Clostridium perfringens (58 %) then Clostridium bifermentans (27 %), Clostridium tertium (23 %) and Clostridium butyricum (19 %), Clostridium cadaveris (15 %), Clostridium parapurificum (6 %), Clostridium glycolicum (5 %), Clostridium baratii (4 %), Clostridium sporogenes (2?%), Clostridium sordellii (1 %) and Clostridium subterminale (0.5 %). The mean most probable number (MPN) count of sulfite reducing bacteria was between 10(3) and 10(4)/mL, and the higher the MPN, the more pathogenic Clostridium spp. were present. Also, real-time PCR was used to be compared with culture method for C. perfringens, C. bifermentans, C. butyricum, C. sporogenes/Clostridium botulinum and C. sordellii. Although real-time PCR was more sensitive than the culture method, both systems improve the recovery rate but in different ways and are useful to determine pathogenic clostridia in biogas plants. In conclusion, BGWs could present a biohazard risk of clostridia for humans and animals. PMID:24984829

Neuhaus, Jürgen; Shehata, Awad A; Krüger, Monika

2015-01-01

175

Reprocessing weld and method  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for improving the fatigue resistance of a small primary structural weld at a joint between structural members of a weldment, the weld having been made with the welding energy input of E[sub 1], the process comprising: applying a reprocessing weld on at least a portion of either one or both toes of the primary structural weld, thereby covering said toe portion, the reprocessing weld containing a filler metal and having a cross-sectional area which is less than the corresponding cross-sectional area of the primary structural weld, the reprocessing weld extending onto the face of the primary structural weld at one side of the toe portion covered and onto the structural member at the other side of the toe portion covered, and the total welding energy input, E[sub 2], used in said reprocessing the primary structural weld being less than the welding energy input E[sub 1] of the primary structural weld.

Killian, M.L.; Lewis, H.E.

1993-08-03

176

Experience in the reprocessing of mixed-oxide fuels at PNC (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) in Japan has experience in reprocessing mixed-oxide (MOX) fuels for the advanced thermal reactor (ATR) Fugen at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP) and for fast breeder reactors (FBRs) at the Chemical Processing Facility (CPF). The TRP was originally designed and constructed as the first reprocessing plant for light water reactor fuels

Hisato Komatsu; Moichi Onishi; Sadao Araya; Misao Fukushima

1989-01-01

177

Sampling and Analysis Plan - Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project  

SciTech Connect

This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality assurance plan for the project to guide the procedure development and data collection activities needed to support borehole drilling, geophysical measurements, and sampling. This SAP identifies the American Society of Testing Materials standards, Hanford Site procedures, and other guidance to be followed for data collection activities.

Reidel, Steve P.

2006-05-26

178

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2012  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Annual Site Environmental Report for 2012 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to: Characterize site environmental management performance; Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year; Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; Highlight significant environmental accomplishments, including progress toward the DOE Environmental Sustainability Goals made through implementation of the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS).

None

2013-09-01

179

Unresolved issues for the disposal of remote-handled transuranic waste in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is to dispose of 176,000 cubic meters of transuranic (TRU) waste generated by the defense activities of the US Government. The envisioned inventory contains approximately 6 million cubic feet of contact-handled transuranic (CH TRU) waste and 250,000 cubic feet of remote handled transuranic (RH TRU) waste. CH TRU emits less than 0.2 rem/hr at the container surface. Of the 250,000 cubic feet of RH TRU waste, 5% by volume can emit up to 1,000 rem/hr at the container surface. The remainder of RH TRU waste must emit less than 100 rem/hr. These are major unresolved problems with the intended disposal of RH TRU waste in the WIPP. (1) The WIPP design requires the canisters of RH TRU waste to be emplaced in the walls (ribs) of each repository room. Each room will then be filled with drums of CH TRU waste. However, the RH TRU waste will not be available for shipment and disposal until after several rooms have already been filled with drums of CH TRU waste. RH TRU disposal capacity will be loss for each room that is first filled with CH TRU waste. (2) Complete RH TRU waste characterization data will not be available for performance assessment because the facilities needed for waste handling, waste treatment, waste packaging, and waste characterization do not yet exist. (3) The DOE does not have a transportation cask for RH TRU waste certified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). These issues are discussed along with possible solutions and consequences from these solutions. 46 refs.

Silva, M.K.; Neill, R.H.

1994-09-01

180

Consideration of nuclear criticality when disposing of transuranic waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

Based on general arguments presented in this report, nuclear criticality was eliminated from performance assessment calculations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a repository for waste contaminated with transuranic (TRU) radioisotopes, located in southeastern New Mexico. At the WIPP, the probability of criticality within the repository is low because mechanisms to concentrate the fissile radioisotopes dispersed throughout the waste are absent. In addition, following an inadvertent human intrusion into the repository (an event that must be considered because of safety regulations), the probability of nuclear criticality away from the repository is low because (1) the amount of fissile mass transported over 10,000 yr is predicted to be small, (2) often there are insufficient spaces in the advective pore space (e.g., macroscopic fractures) to provide sufficient thickness for precipitation of fissile material, and (3) there is no credible mechanism to counteract the natural tendency of the material to disperse during transport and instead concentrate fissile material in a small enough volume for it to form a critical concentration. Furthermore, before a criticality would have the potential to affect human health after closure of the repository--assuming that a criticality could occur--it would have to either (1) degrade the ability of the disposal system to contain nuclear waste or (2) produce significantly more radioisotopes than originally present. Neither of these situations can occur at the WIPP; thus, the consequences of a criticality are also low.

RECHARD,ROBERT P.; SANCHEZ,LAWRENCE C.; STOCKMAN,CHRISTINE T.; TRELLUE,HOLLY R.

2000-04-01

181

Experimental program plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy has prepared this Experimental Program Plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (EPP) to provide a summary of the DOE experimental efforts needed for the performance assessment process for the WIPP, and of the linkages of this process to the appropriate regulations. The Plan encompasses a program of analyses of the performance of the planned repository based on scientific studies, including tests with transuranic waste at laboratory sites, directed at evaluating compliance with the principal regulations governing the WIPP. The Plan begins with background information on the WIPP project, the requirements of the LWA (Land Withdrawal Act), and its objective and scope. It then presents an overview of the regulatory requirements and the compliance approach. Next are comprehensive discussions of plans for compliance with disposal regulations, followed by the SWDA (Solid Waste Disposal Act) and descriptions of activity programs designed to provide information needed for determining compliance. Descriptions and justifications of all currently planned studies designed to support regulatory compliance activities are also included.

Not Available

1994-01-01

182

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report  

SciTech Connect

This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents compliance with environmental regulations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed and authorized for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste. This BECR covers the reporting period from April 1, 2004, to March 31, 2006. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) (Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) compliance with regulations and permits issued pursuant to the following: (1) Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 191, Subpart A, "Environmental Standards for Management and Storage"; (2) Clean Air Act (CAA) (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §7401, et seq.); (3) Solid Waste Disposal Act (SWDA) (42 U.S.C. §§6901-6992, et seq.); (4) Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) (42 U.S.C. §§300f, et seq.); (5) Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) (15 U.S.C. §§2601, et seq.); (6) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (42 U.S.C. §§9601, et seq.); and all other federal and state of New Mexico laws pertaining to public health and safety or the environment.

Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

2006-10-12

183

ALPHA WASTE MINIMIZATION IN TERMS OF VOLUME AND RADIOACTIVITY AT COGEMA'S MELOX AND LA HAGUE PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the management of alpha waste that cannot be stored in surface repositories under current French regulations. The aim of the paper is to provide an overview of COGEMA's Integrated Waste Management Strategy. The topics discussed include primary waste minimization, from facility design to operating feedback; primary waste management by the plant operator, including waste characterization; waste treatment options that led to building waste treatment industrial facilities for plutonium decontamination, compaction and cement solidification; and optimization of industrial tools, which is strongly influenced by safety and financial considerations.

ARSLAN, M.; DUMONT, J.C.; LONDRES, V.; PONCELET, F.J.

2003-02-27

184

Hanford Waste Simulants Created to Support the Research and Development on the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant  

SciTech Connect

The development of nonradioactive waste simulants to support the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant bench and pilot-scale testing is crucial to the design of the facility. The report documents the simulants development to support the SRTC programs and the strategies used to produce the simulants.

Eibling, R.E.

2001-07-26

185

Spent nuclear fuel reprocessing modeling  

SciTech Connect

The long-term wide development of nuclear power requires new approaches towards the realization of nuclear fuel cycle, namely, closed nuclear fuel cycle (CNFC) with respect to fission materials. Plant nuclear fuel cycle (PNFC), which is in fact the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel unloaded from the reactor and the production of new nuclear fuel (NF) at the same place together with reactor plant, can be one variant of CNFC. Developing and projecting of PNFC is a complicated high-technology innovative process that requires modern information support. One of the components of this information support is developed by the authors. This component is the programme conducting calculations for various variants of process flow sheets for reprocessing SNF and production of NF. Central in this programme is the blocks library, where the blocks contain mathematical description of separate processes and operations. The calculating programme itself has such a structure that one can configure the complex of blocks and correlations between blocks, appropriate for any given flow sheet. For the ready sequence of operations balance calculations are made of all flows, i.e. expenses, element and substance makeup, heat emission and radiation rate are determined. The programme is open and the block library can be updated. This means that more complicated and detailed models of technological processes will be added to the library basing on the results of testing processes using real equipment, in test operating mode. The development of the model for the realization of technical-economic analysis of various variants of technologic PNFC schemes and the organization of 'operator's advisor' is expected. (authors)

Tretyakova, S.; Shmidt, O.; Podymova, T.; Shadrin, A.; Tkachenko, V. [Bochvar Institute, 5 Rogova str., Moscow 123098 (Russian Federation); Makeyeva, I.; Tkachenko, V.; Verbitskaya, O.; Schultz, O.; Peshkichev, I. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center - VNIITF E.I. Zababakhin, p.o.box 245, Snezhinsk, 456770 (Russian Federation)

2013-07-01

186

Disposition and Reuse of Waste in a High-Capacity Power Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a research of the integrated disposition and reuse of solid waste and contaminated water in Fengcheng thermal power station Jiangxi province China. These waste(coal combustion fly ash, bottom slag, flue gas desulfurization sludges and the contaminated water) may cause serious environmental problems. In this paper, the chemical and physical properties of the waste from the power plant

Rui Xu; Changzhu Yang; Fengsheng Hou; Shengrui Qiu

2008-01-01

187

Prediction of room closure and stability of panel 1 in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is intended to be an underground repository for the permanent disposal of transuranic radioactive waste generated by defense activities. Both surface and underground facilities, including one waste panel, were excavated during the period from 1982 to 1988. The decision to use the repository for disposal has not vet been made.The objective of this paper

Hamid Maleki; Lokesh Chaturvedi

1997-01-01

188

Vermicomposting of distillation waste of citronella plant ( Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt.) employing Eudrilus eugeniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory experiment on vermicomposting of distillation waste of java citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt.) was carried out employing Eudrilus eugeniae, in two seasonal trials, covering summer and winter periods. Two vermicomposting treatments were conducted in earthen pots, one with citronella plant waste only (CW) and the other, a mixture of citronella waste and cowdung in the proportion 5:1 (CW+CD). Vermicomposting of

H. Deka; S. Deka; C. K. Baruah; J. Das; S. Hoque; N. S. Sarma

2011-01-01

189

Radioactive Bench-scale Steam Reformer Demonstration of a Monolithic Steam Reformed Mineralized Waste Form for Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste - 12306  

SciTech Connect

Hanford currently has 212,000 m{sup 3} (56 million gallons) of highly radioactive mixed waste stored in the Hanford tank farm. This waste will be processed to produce both high-level and low-level activity fractions, both of which are to be vitrified. Supplemental treatment options have been under evaluation for treating portions of the low-activity waste, as well as the liquid secondary waste from the low-activity waste vitrification process. One technology under consideration has been the THOR{sup R} fluidized bed steam reforming process offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC (TTT). As a follow-on effort to TTT's 2008 pilot plant FBSR non-radioactive demonstration for treating low-activity waste and waste treatment plant secondary waste, TTT, in conjunction with Savannah River National Laboratory, has completed a bench scale evaluation of this same technology on a chemically adjusted radioactive surrogate of Hanford's waste treatment plant secondary waste stream. This test generated a granular product that was subsequently formed into monoliths, using a geo-polymer as the binding agent, that were subjected to compressibility testing, the Product Consistency Test and other leachability tests, and chemical composition analyses. This testing has demonstrated that the mineralized waste form, produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay using the TTT process, is as durable as low-activity waste glass. Testing has shown the resulting monolith waste form is durable, leach resistant, and chemically stable, and has the added benefit of capturing and retaining the majority of Tc-99, I-129, and other target species at high levels. (authors)

Evans, Brent; Olson, Arlin; Mason, J. Bradley; Ryan, Kevin [THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC - 106 Newberry St. SW, Aiken, SC 29801 (United States); Jantzen, Carol; Crawford, Charles [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNL), LLC, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2012-07-01

190

Reprocessing in Luminous Disks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We develop and investigate a procedure that accounts for disk reprocessing of photons that originate in the disk itself. Surface temperatures and simple, black body spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of protostellar disks are calculated. In disks that flare with radius, reprocessing of stellar photons results in temperature profiles considerably shallower than r(sup -3/4). Including the disk as a radiation source (as in the case of actively secreting disks) along with the stellar source further flattens the temperature profile. Disks that flare strongly near the star and then smoothly curve over and become shadowed at some distance ("decreasing curvature" disks) exhibit nearly power-law temperature profiles which result in power-law infrared SEDs with slopes in agreement with typical observations of young stellar objects. Disk models in which the photospheric thickness is controlled by the local opacity and in which the temperature decreases with radius naturally show this shape. Uniformly flaring models do not match observations as well; progressively stronger reprocessing at larger radii leads to SEDs that flatten toward the infrared or even have a second peak at the wavelength corresponding (through the Wien law) to the temperature of the outer edge of the disk. In FU Orionis outbursting systems, the dominant source of energy is the disk itself. The details of the reprocessing depend sensitively on the assumed disk shape and emitted temperature profile. The thermal instability outburst models of Bell Lin reproduce trends in the observed SEDs of Fuors with T varies as r(sup -3/4) in the inner disk (r approx. less than 0.25au corresponding to lambda approx. less than 10 microns) and T varies as r(sup -1/2) in the outer disk. Surface irradiation during outburst and quiescence is compared in the region of planet formation (1 - 10 au). The contrast between the two phases is diminished by the importance of the reprocessing of photons from the relatively high mass flux outer disk (dot-M = 10(exp -5) solar mass/yr) which is present during both outburst and quiescence.

Bell, K. Robbins; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

191

Surface water pollution by herbicides from effluents of waste water treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbicide loads of urban and rural waste water treatment plant effluents were calculated over a one-year period by measuring the herbicide concentrations in 14-day mixed samples. More than three quarters of the total herbicide load of the effluent of the rural waste water treatment plant consists of isoproturon. Particularly large amounts of this substance contribute to the total herbicide load

Walter Schüssler

1998-01-01

192

B Plant complex hazardous, mixed and low level waste certification plan  

SciTech Connect

This plan describes the administrative steps and handling methodology for certification of hazardous waste, mixed waste, and low level waste generated at B Plant Complex. The plan also provides the applicable elements of waste reduction and pollution prevention, including up front minimization and end product reduction of volume and/or toxicity. The plan is written to satisfy requirements for Hanford Site waste generators to have a waste certification program in place at their facility. This plan, as described, applies only to waste which is generated at, or is the responsibility of, B Plant Complex. The scope of this plan is derived from the requirements found in WHC-EP-0063, Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria.

Beam, T.G.

1994-11-01

193

Construction and operation of an industrial solid waste landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Waste Management, proposes to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide PORTS with additional landfill capacity for non-hazardous and asbestos wastes. The proposed action is needed to support continued operation of PORTS, which generates non-hazardous wastes on a daily basis and asbestos wastes intermittently. Three alternatives are evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA): the proposed action (construction and operation of the X-737 landfill), no-action, and offsite shipment of industrial solid wastes for disposal.

NONE

1995-10-01

194

Waste reduction assistance program (WRAP) on-site consultation audit report: Seafood processing plant  

SciTech Connect

The waste audit study was conducted at a seafood processing plant in Alaska. The report discusses process descriptions, waste types and quantities, current waste and materials management practices, and waste reduction alternatives. The company's current practices include use of fish waste, burning of used oil and solvents, and water conservation. Additional opportunities include microfiltration of solvents and oils, recycling of used batteries, inventory control and formation of a waste reduction team. Appendices include a summary of state regulations, a fact sheet on used oil, and a list of vendors and services.

Not Available

1989-07-29

195

Plant availability of an iron waste product utilized as an agricultural fertilizer on calcareous soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Fe?dust waste which accumulates as a by?product from the steel industry poses a disposal problem. Since the waste material contains approximately 43% Fe, 5% Zn, and 2% Mn, it shows potential for recycling as an agricultural plant nutrient. The Fe waste was evaluated in laboratory experiments to explore solubility, availability and soil reaction relationships.Two forms of Fe waste (dust

W. B. Anderson; Preeda Parkpian

1984-01-01

196

Recycling plant, human and animal wastes to plant nutrients in a closed ecological system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The essential minerals for plant growth are nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium (macronutrients), calcium, magnesium, sulfur (secondary nutrients), iron, manganese, boron, copper, zinc, chlorine, sodium, and molybdenum (micronutrients). The first step in recycling wastes will undoubtedly be oxidation of carbon and hydrogen to CO2 and H2O. Transformation of minerals to plant nutrients depends upon the mode of oxidation to define the state of the nutrients. For the purpose of illustrating the type of processing required, ash and off-gas compositions of an incineration process were assumed and subsequent processing requirements were identified. Several processing schemes are described for separating out sodium chloride from the ash, leading to reformulation of a nutrient solution which should be acceptable to plants.

Meissner, H. P.; Modell, M.

1979-01-01

197

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to prepare a Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan. This document fulfills the requirement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This document was prepared by the Hydrology Section of the Westinghouse TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) Environmental Compliance Department, and it is the responsibility of this group to review the plan annually and update it every three years. This document is not, nor is it intended to be, an implementing document that sets forth specific details on carrying out field projects or operational policy. Rather, it is intended to give the reader insight to the groundwater protection philosophy at WIPP.

Washington TRU Solutions

2002-09-24

198

Waste receiving and processing plant control system; system design description  

SciTech Connect

The Plant Control System (PCS) is a heterogeneous computer system composed of numerous sub-systems. The PCS represents every major computer system that is used to support operation of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility. This document, the System Design Description (PCS SDD), includes several chapters and appendices. Each chapter is devoted to a separate PCS sub-system. Typically, each chapter includes an overview description of the system, a list of associated documents related to operation of that system, and a detailed description of relevant system features. Each appendice provides configuration information for selected PCS sub-systems. The appendices are designed as separate sections to assist in maintaining this document due to frequent changes in system configurations. This document is intended to serve as the primary reference for configuration of PCS computer systems. The use of this document is further described in the WRAP System Configuration Management Plan, WMH-350, Section 4.1.

LANE, M.P.

1999-02-24

199

Groundwater monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the Groundwater Monitoring Program (GPM) being conducted at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The Regulatory and Environmental Programs (REP) section of the Environment, Safety and Health department (ES H) is responsible for conducting environmental monitoring at the WIPP. Groundwater monitoring is one of the ongoing environmental activities currently taking place. The REP section includes water quality sampling and water level monitoring. The WIPP Project is a research and develop facility designed to demonstrate the safe disposal of defense-generated waste in a geologic repository. Water quality sampling for physical, chemical, and radiological parameters has been an ongoing activity at the WIPP site for the past six years, and will continue through the life of the project. The water quality of a well is sampled while the well is continuously pumped. Serial samples of the pumped water are collected and tested for pH, Eh, temperature, specific gravity, specific conductivity, alkalinity, chlorides, divalent cations, ferrous iron, and total iron. Stabilization of serial sampling parameters determined if a representative sample is being obtained, Representative samples are sent to contract laboratories and analyzed for general chemistry, major cations and anions, and radionuclides. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Kehrman, R.; Broberg, K.; Tatro, G.; Richardson, R.; Dasczcyszak, W.

1990-01-01

200

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2010  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Annual Site Environmental Report for 2010 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to: (1) Characterize site environmental management performance. (2) Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year. (3) Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements. (4) Highlight significant environmental accomplishments, including progress toward the DOE Environmental Sustainability Goals made through implementation of the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS). The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and the management and operating contractor (MOC), Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS), maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the WIPP. DOE Order 231.1A; DOE Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and workers, and preservation of the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, which requires that DOE facilities submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Chief Health, Safety, and Security Officer. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Number NM4890139088-TSDF (Permit) further requires that the ASER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).

None

2011-09-01

201

Mechanisms governing the direct removal of wastes from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository caused by exploratory drilling  

SciTech Connect

Two processes are identified that can influence the quantity of wastes brought to the ground surface when a waste disposal room of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is inadvertently penetrated by an exploratory borehole. The first mechanism is due to the erosion of the borehole wall adjacent to the waste caused by the flowing drilling fluid (mud); a quantitative computational model based upon the flow characteristics of the drilling fluid (laminar or turbulent) and other drilling parameters is developed and example results shown. The second mechanism concerns the motion of the waste and borehole spall caused by the flow of waste-generated gas to the borehole. Some of the available literature concerning this process is discussed, and a number of elastic and elastic-plastic finite-difference and finite-element calculations are described that confirm the potential importance of this process in directly removing wastes from the repository to the ground surface. Based upon the amount of analysis performed to date, it is concluded that it is not unreasonable to expect that volumes of waste several times greater than that resulting from direct cutting of a gauge borehole could eventually reach the ground surface. No definitive quantitative model for waste removal as a result of the second mechanism is presented; it is concluded that decomposed waste constitutive data must be developed and additional experiments performed to assess further the full significance of this latter mechanism.

Berglund, J.W. [New Mexico Engineering Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1992-12-01

202

Potential radiological impact of tornadoes on the safety of Nuclear Fuel Services' West Valley Fuel Reprocessing Plant. 2. Reentrainment and discharge of radioactive materials  

SciTech Connect

This report describes results of a parametric study of quantities of radioactive materials that might be discharged by a tornado-generated depressurization on contaminated process cells within the presently inoperative Nuclear Fuel Services' (NFS) fuel reprocessing facility near West Valley, New York. The study involved the following tasks: determining approximate quantities of radioactive materials in the cells and characterizing particle-size distribution; estimating the degree of mass reentrainment from particle-size distribution and from air speed data presented in Part 1; and estimating the quantities of radioactive material (source term) released from the cells to the atmosphere. The study has shown that improperly sealed manipulator ports in the Process Mechanical Cell (PMC) present the most likely pathway for release of substantial quantities of radioactive material in the atmosphere under tornado accident conditions at the facility.

Davis, W. Jr.

1981-07-01

203

Key regulatory drivers affecting shipments of mixed transuranic waste from Los Alamos National Laboratory to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

A number of key regulatory drivers affect the nature, scope, and timing of Los Alamos National Laboratory`s (LANL`s) plans for mixed transuranic (MTRU) waste shipments to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which are planned to commence as soon as possible following WIPP`s currently anticipated November, 1997 opening date. This paper provides an overview of some of the key drivers at LANL, particularly emphasizing those associated with the hazardous waste component of LANL`s MTRU waste (MTRU, like any mixed waste, contains both a radioactive and a hazardous waste component). The key drivers discussed here derive from the federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and its amendments, including the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAU), and from the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act (NMHWA). These statutory provisions are enforced through three major mechanisms: facility RCRA permits; the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Management Regulations, set forth in the New Mexico Administrative Code, Title 20, Chapter 4, Part 1: and compliance orders issued to enforce these requirements. General requirements in all three categories will apply to MTRU waste management and characterization activities at both WIPP and LANL. In addition, LANL is subject to facility-specific requirements in its RCRA hazardous waste facility permit, permit conditions as currently proposed in RCRA Part B permit applications presently being reviewed by the New Mexico Environment Department (NNED), and facility-specific compliance orders related to MTRU waste management. Likewise, permitting and compliance-related requirements specific to WIPP indirectly affect LANL`s characterization, packaging, record-keeping, and transportation requirements for MTRU waste. LANL must comply with this evolving set of regulatory requirements to begin shipments of MTRU waste to WIPP in a timely fashion.

Schumann, P.B.; Bacigalupa, G.A.; Kosiewicz, S.T.; Sinkule, B.J. [and others

1997-02-01

204

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Transuranic Waste Baseline inventory report. Volume 1. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This document provides baseline inventories of transuranic wastes for the WIPP facility. Information on waste forms, forecasting of future inventories, and waste stream originators is also provided. A diskette is provided which contains the inventory database.

NONE

1995-02-01

205

Data validation and security for reprocessing.  

SciTech Connect

Next generation nuclear fuel cycle facilities will face strict requirements on security and safeguards of nuclear material. These requirements can result in expensive facilities. The purpose of this project was to investigate how to incorporate safeguards and security into one plant monitoring system early in the design process to take better advantage of all plant process data, to improve confidence in the operation of the plant, and to optimize costs. An existing reprocessing plant materials accountancy model was examined for use in evaluating integration of safeguards (both domestic and international) and security. International safeguards require independent, secure, and authenticated measurements for materials accountability--it may be best to design stand-alone systems in addition to domestic safeguards instrumentation to minimize impact on operations. In some cases, joint-use equipment may be appropriate. Existing domestic materials accountancy instrumentation can be used in conjunction with other monitoring equipment for plant security as well as through the use of material assurance indicators, a new metric for material control that is under development. Future efforts will take the results of this work to demonstrate integration on the reprocessing plant model.

Tolk, Keith Michael; Merkle, Peter Benedict; DurÔan, Felicia Angelica; Cipiti, Benjamin B.

2008-10-01

206

Interface control document between PUREX/UO{sub 3} Plant Transition and Solid Waste Disposal Division  

SciTech Connect

This interface control document (ICD) between PUREX/UO{sub 3} Plant Transition (PPT) and Solid Waste Disposal Division (SWD) establishes at a top level the functional responsibilities of each division where interfaces exist between the two divisions. Since the PUREX Transition and Solid Waste Disposal divisions operate autonomously, it is important that each division has a clear understanding of the other division`s expectations regarding these interfaces. This ICD primarily deals with solid wastes generated by the PPT. In addition to delineating functional responsibilities, the ICD includes a baseline description of those wastes that will require management as part of the interface between the divisions. The baseline description of wastes includes waste volumes and timing for use in planning the proper waste management capabilities: the primary purpose of this ICD is to ensure defensibility of expected waste stream volumes and Characteristics for future waste management facilities. Waste descriptions must be as complete as-possible to ensure adequate treatment, storage, and disposal capability will exist. The ICD also facilitates integration of existing or planned waste management capabilities of the PUREX. Transition and Solid Waste Disposal divisions. The ICD does not impact or affect the existing processes or procedures for shipping, packaging, or approval for shipping wastes by generators to the Solid Waste Division.

Duncan, D.R.

1994-06-30

207

AIR DISPERSION MODELING AT THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT  

SciTech Connect

One concern at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the amount of alpha-emitting radionuclides or hazardous chemicals that can become airborne at the facility and reach the Exclusive Use Area boundary as the result of a release from the Waste Handling Building (WHB) or from the underground during waste emplacement operations. The WIPP Safety Analysis Report (SAR), WIPP RCRA Permit, and WIPP Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessments include air dispersion calculations to address this issue. Meteorological conditions at the WIPP facility will dictate direction, speed, and dilution of a contaminant plume of respirable material due to chronic releases or during an accident. Due to the paucity of meteorological information at the WIPP site prior to September 1996, the Department of Energy (DOE) reports had to rely largely on unqualified climatic data from the site and neighboring Carlsbad, which is situated approximately 40 km (26 miles) to the west of the site. This report examines the validity of the DOE air dispersion calculations using new meteorological data measured and collected at the WIPP site since September 1996. The air dispersion calculations in this report include both chronic and acute releases. Chronic release calculations were conducted with the EPA-approved code, CAP88PC and the calculations showed that in order for a violation of 40 CFR61 (NESHAPS) to occur, approximately 15 mCi/yr of 239Pu would have to be released from the exhaust stack or from the WHB. This is an extremely high value. Hence, it is unlikely that NESHAPS would be violated. A site-specific air dispersion coefficient was evaluated for comparison with that used in acute dose calculations. The calculations presented in Section 3.2 and 3.3 show that one could expect a slightly less dispersive plume (larger air dispersion coefficient) given greater confidence in the meteorological data, i.e. 95% worst case meteorological conditions. Calculations show that dispersion will decrease slightly if a more stable wind class is assumed, where very little vertical mixing occurs. It is recommended that previous reports which used fixed values for calculating the air dispersion coefficient be updated to reflect the new meteorological data, such as the WIPP Safety Analysis Report and the WIPP Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment. It is also recommended that uncertainty be incorporated into the calculations so that a more meaningful assessment of risk during accidents can be achieved.

Rucker, D.F.

2000-08-01

208

PEAT-ASSISTED PHYTOREMEDIATION OF WASTE FOUNDRY SANDS: PLANT GROWTH, METAL ACCUMULATION AND FERTILITY ASPECTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the potential of peat additions to improve plant growth and fertility and to reduce plant metal uptake in waste foundry sands (WFS) landfills. The WFS contains 78211 mg kg and 371 mg kg concentrations of Cr and Ni, respectively, and varied metal concentrations. The experiment investigated the growth of Brassica juncea plants on fertilized WFS mixed with peat

Fábio N. Moreno; Joel B. Sígolo; Antonio V. Figueira

2012-01-01

209

Waste immobilization process development at the Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect

Processes to immobilize various wasteforms, including waste salt solution, transuranic waste, and low-level incinerator ash, are being developed. Wasteform characteristics, process and equipment details, and results from field/pilot tests and mathematical modeling studies are discussed.

Charlesworth, D L

1986-01-01

210

Status and commercial potential of the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant  

SciTech Connect

In October 1981, President Reagan lifted the indefinite deferral on commercial reprocessing of nuclear spent fuel in the United States that the previous administration had established in 1977. This raised speculation that the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant - a privately owned, partially constructed reprocessing plant - could become operational. This report examines the status and the commercial potential of the plant. Three overall observations can be drawn from the information presented in the report. The potential for commercial reprocessing to develop in the United States is driven by economics in the private marketplace which is closely tied to the future role that nuclear power will have as a domestic energy source. Before private industry seriously considers starting another commercial reprocessing venture, nuclear industry representatives believe three issues associated with commercial reprocessing - the use of plutonium as a fuel source, an acceptable solidified high-level radioactive waste form, and guarantees against changes in federal policies - must be addressed. Technical assessments of the plant and GAO discussions with knowledgeable persons within and outside the government disclose no apparent fundamental problems that currently would prohibit the plant from operating when completed. A number of technical concerns and licensing issues need to be resolved, however, before the plant could operate as a commercial venture. In addition, the economic prospect for the plant as a commercial venture is not promising.

Bowsher, C.A.

1984-03-28

211

Discussion of ``Performance testing of the solid waste sorting plants``  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the performance of a municipal solid waste presorting facility in Taiwan. This sorting process, consisting of several essential unit operations, such as bag ripping, magnetic separation, shredding, air classification, and screening was designed to isolate the non-combustible and food waste from the waste stream, and generate the qualified refuse-derived fuel.

NONE

1996-12-31

212

Plant Availability of Metals in Waste Foundry Sands  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Foundries in the United States generate several million tons of waste sand each year. These sands are no longer suitable for metalcasting processes, and about 90% are discarded in landfills. However, the majority of these waste foundry sands (WFSs) qualify as non-hazardous industrial waste and the...

213

Computer simulated plant design for waste minimization\\/pollution prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The book discusses several paths to pollution prevention and waste minimization by using computer simulation programs. It explains new computer technologies used in the field of pollution prevention and waste management; provides information pertaining to overcoming technical, economic, and environmental barriers to waste reduction; gives case-studies from industries; and covers computer aided flow sheet design and analysis for nuclear fuel

Bumble

2000-01-01

214

Characterization of past and present solid waste streams from the plutonium finishing plant  

SciTech Connect

During the next two decades the transuranic (TRU) wastes now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Over 50% of the TRU waste to be retrieved for shipment to the WIPP has been generated at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP), also known as the Plutonium Processing and Storage Facility and Z Plant. The purpose of this report is to characterize the radioactive solid wastes generated by the PFP since its construction in 1947 using process knowledge, existing records, and history-obtained from interviews. The PFP is currently operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the US Department of Energy (DOE).

Duncan, D.R.; Mayancsik, B.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)] [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Pottmeyer, J.A.; Vejvoda, E.J.; Reddick, J.A.; Sheldon, K.M.; Weyns, M.I. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Kennewick, WA (United States)] [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Kennewick, WA (United States)

1993-02-01

215

Detection, Composition and Treatment of Volatile Organic Compounds from Waste Treatment Plants  

PubMed Central

Environmental policies at the European and global level support the diversion of wastes from landfills for their treatment in different facilities. Organic waste is mainly treated or valorized through composting, anaerobic digestion or a combination of both treatments. Thus, there are an increasing number of waste treatment plants using this type of biological treatment. During waste handling and biological decomposition steps a number of gaseous compounds are generated or removed from the organic matrix and emitted. Different families of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) can be found in these emissions. Many of these compounds are also sources of odor nuisance. In fact, odors are the main source of complaints and social impacts of any waste treatment plant. This work presents a summary of the main types of VOC emitted in organic waste treatment facilities and the methods used to detect and quantify these compounds, together with the treatment methods applied to gaseous emissions commonly used in composting and anaerobic digestion facilities. PMID:22163835

Font, Xavier; Artola, Adriana; Sánchez, Antoni

2011-01-01

216

Characterisation and Evaluation of Wastes for Treatment in the Batch Pyrolysis Plant in Studsvik, Sweden - 13586  

SciTech Connect

The new batch pyrolysis plant in Studsvik is built primarily for treatment of uranium containing dry active waste, 'DAW'. Several other waste types have been identified that are considered or assumed suitable for treatment in the pyrolysis plant because of the possibility to carefully control the atmosphere and temperature of the thermal treatment. These waste types must be characterised and an evaluation must be made with a BAT perspective. Studsvik have performed or plan to perform lab scale pyrolysis tests on a number of different waste types. These include: - Pyrophoric materials (uranium shavings), - Uranium chemicals that must be oxidised prior to being deposited in repository, - Sludges and oil soaks (this category includes NORM-materials), - Ion exchange resins (both 'free' and solidified/stabilised), - Bitumen solidified waste. Methodology and assessment criteria for various waste types, together with results obtained for the lab scale tests that have been performed, are described. (authors)

Lindberg, Maria; Oesterberg, Carl; Vernersson, Thomas [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Studsvik Nuclear AB, 611 82 Nykoeping (Sweden)] [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Studsvik Nuclear AB, 611 82 Nykoeping (Sweden)

2013-07-01

217

Pilot plant for biomethanation of dairy-industry wastes  

SciTech Connect

This project was undertaken to demonstrate the application of two-phase anaerobic digestion (TPAD) for simultaneous stabilization and biomethanation of high-COD cheese-waste-dairy-manure mixtures by a pilot-plant operation in Wellsville, Utah. The TPAD system exhibited a total COD (TCOD) reduction of up to 97% with feed COD concentration of 60,000 to 45,000 mg/l. The TCOD reduction decreased as the variability as well as the strength of the feed increased. A quick surge of the feed TCOD concentration to 125,000 mg/l effected a large drop in TCOD reduction, but the integrity of the methane digester, which produced 78 {approximately}87 mol% methane-content gas, was measured and TPAD system performance could be restored to normal levels by diluting the feed to obtain TCOD concentrations below 70,000 mg/l. The TPAD system exhibited a methane yield of 0.27 m{sup 3}/kg TCOD charged (0.36 m{sup 3}/kg TCOD removed).

Ghosh, S.; Fukushi, K.; Liu, T. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)] [and others

1994-12-31

218

Sampling and Analysis Plan Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project.  

SciTech Connect

This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the Saddle Mountains Basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality assurance plan for the project to guide the procedure development and data collection activities needed to support borehole drilling, geophysical measurements, and sampling. This SAP identifies the American Society of Testing Materials standards, Hanford Site procedures, and other guidance to be followed for data collection activities. Revision 3 incorporates all interim change notices (ICN) that were issued to Revision 2 prior to completion of sampling and analysis activities for the WTP Seismic Boreholes Project. This revision also incorporates changes to the exact number of samples submitted for dynamic testing as directed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Revision 3 represents the final version of the SAP.

Brouns, Thomas M.

2007-07-15

219

Potential radiological impact of tornadoes on the safety of Nuclear Fuel Services' West Valley Fuel Reprocessing Plant. Volume I. Tornado effects on head-end cell airflow  

SciTech Connect

This report describes results of a parametric study of the impacts of a tornado-generated depressurization on airflow in the contaminated process cells within the presently inoperative Nuclear Fuel Services fuel reprocessing facility near West Valley, NY. The study involved the following tasks: (1) mathematical modeling of installed ventilation and abnormal exhaust pathways from the cells and prediction of tornado-induced airflows in these pathways; (2) mathematical modeling of individual cell flow characteristics and prediction of in-cell velocities induced by flows from step 1; and (3) evaluation of the results of steps 1 and 2 to determine whether any of the pathways investigated have the potential for releasing quantities of radioactively contaminated air from the main process cells. The study has concluded that in the event of a tornado strike, certain pathways from the cells have the potential to release radioactive materials of the atmosphere. Determination of the quantities of radioactive material released from the cells through pathways identified in step 3 is presented in Part II of this report.

Holloway, L.J.; Andrae, R.W.

1981-09-01

220

Thermodynamic Modeling of the AWE Radioactive Aqueous Waste Treatment Plant Evaporator  

SciTech Connect

Operation of the proposed AWE Aldermaston1 Radioactive Aqueous Waste Treatment Plant evaporation system was modeled using the Environmental Simulation Program (ESP) licensed by OLI Systems, Inc. The projected RAWTP waste influents as well as two simulants (High Foam and Low Foam) were modeled to predict the composition of the feed, concentrate and condensate for projected waste influents. This report details the results of the modeled predictions.

Barnes, C.D.

2003-10-20

221

Site-Specific Seismic Site Response Model for the Waste Treatment Plant, Hanford, Washington  

SciTech Connect

This interim report documents the collection of site-specific geologic and geophysical data characterizing the Waste Treatment Plant site and the modeling of the site-specific structure response to earthquake ground motions.

Rohay, Alan C.; Reidel, Steve P.

2005-02-24

222

The DCS of Waste Heat Power Generation of Cement Plant Based on Fuzzy Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heat source of waste heat power generation of cement plant is the waste heat gas of cement rotary kiln. Influenced by the impact of cement production, the control system is complex, so the existing control scheme cannot make the satisfactory effect. Based on a thorough analysis of the existing control scheme and the reference to manual operation experience of

Shaoyun Wang; Qingjin Meng; Jingjian Wu

2009-01-01

223

Long-term climate variability at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, southeastern New Mexico, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Department of Energy is developing the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico for the disposal of transuranic wastes generated by defense programs. Because changes in climate during the next 10,000 years (10 ka) may affect performance of the repository, an understanding of long-term climate variability is essential for evaluating regulatory compliance. Fluctuations in global

2010-01-01

224

Long-term climate variability at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, southeastern New Mexico, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Department of Energy is developing the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico for the disposal of transuranic wastes generated by defense programs. Because changes in climate during the next 10,000 years (10 ka) may affect performance of the repository, an understanding of long-term climate variability is essential for evaluating regulatory compliance. Fluctuations in global

Peter N. Swift

1993-01-01

225

Depleted uranium manufacturing waste minimization at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Y-12 Plant, managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems for the Department of Energy has a comprehensive waste minimization program associated with the depleted uranium manufacturing. The program addresses all phases of the depleted uranium manufacturing from the initial casting to the finished product. The program addresses both by-product and waste in the manufacturing operations. Investigations are ongoing for process

J. E. Thompson; J. W. Koger

1992-01-01

226

Archaeological reconnaissance of a proposed site for the Waste Isolation Plant (WIPP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An archaeological reconnaissance was carried out on Sections 20, 21, 28, and 29 of T 22 S, R 31 E, Eddy County, NM, the core area of a site proposed for disposal of radioactive waste in bedded salt (the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). This site is located in the Los Medanos area east of Carlsbad, NM. Results of the survey

Nielsen

1976-01-01

227

Incorporating long-term climate change in performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is developing the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico for the disposal of transuranic wastes generated by defense programs. Applicable regulations (40 CFR 191) require the DOE to evaluate disposal-system performance for 10,000 yr. Climatic changes may affect performance by altering groundwater flow. Paleoclimatic data from southeastern New Mexico and

P. N. Swift; B. L. Baker; K. Economy; J. W. Garner; J. C. Helton; D. K. Rudeen

1994-01-01

228

Incorporating long-term climate change in performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is developing the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico for the disposal of transuranic wastes generated by defense programs. Applicable regulations (40 CFR 191) require the DOE to evaluate disposal-system performance for 10,000 yr. Climatic changes may affect performance by altering groundwater flow. Paleoclimatic data from southeastern New Mexico and

P. N. Swift; B. L. Baker; K. Economy; J. W. Garner; J. C. Helton; D. K. Rudeen

1993-01-01

229

ELIMINATION OF POLLUTANTS BY UTILIZATION OF EGG BREAKING PLANT SHELL-WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

Egg breaking plants yield an estimated 50,000 tons of waste annually. These wastes are commonly disposed of on land. This method of disposal is becoming more difficult due to the potential for pollution of local water resources. A triple pass rotary drum dehydrator was installed ...

230

An overview of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory waste-handling and packaging plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Waste-Handling and Packaging Plant (WHPP) has been proposed as a fiscal year (FY) 1993 capital line-item project to be built at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The mission of this project is to retrieve, receive, repackage, certify, and ship remotely handled (RH) and special case transuranic (TRU) waste. Approximately 90% of the inventory of RH TRU stored at

D. W. Turner; R. S. Stewart; J. W. Moore

1989-01-01

231

Equipment evaluation for low density polyethylene encapsulated nitrate salt waste at the Rocky Flats Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) are subject to regulation by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Polymer solidification is being developed as a final treatment technology for several of these mixed wastes, including nitrate salts. Encapsulation nitrate salts with low density polyethylene (LDPE) has been the preliminary focus of the RFP polymer solidification effort. Literature reviews,

W. I. Yamada; A. M. Faucette; R. C. Jantzen; B. W. Logsdon; J. H. Oldham; D. M. Saiki; R. J. Yudnich

1993-01-01

232

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 194 - Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...to Part 194—Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance...this part, the Agency finds that the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (“WIPP”) will comply with the radioactive waste disposal regulations at part...

2012-07-01

233

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 194 - Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to Part 194—Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance...this part, the Agency finds that the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (“WIPP”) will comply with the radioactive waste disposal regulations at part...

2013-07-01

234

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 194 - Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to Part 194—Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance...this part, the Agency finds that the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (“WIPP”) will comply with the radioactive waste disposal regulations at part...

2010-07-01

235

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 194 - Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...to Part 194—Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance...this part, the Agency finds that the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (“WIPP”) will comply with the radioactive waste disposal regulations at part...

2011-07-01

236

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 194 - Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...to Part 194—Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance...this part, the Agency finds that the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (“WIPP”) will comply with the radioactive waste disposal regulations at part...

2014-07-01

237

Radionuclide inventory for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

This report updates the information previously submitted in the draft report DOE/WIPP 88-005, Radionuclide Source Term for the WIPP, dated 1987 (reference 1). The information in this report provides the projected radionuclide inventory at the WIPP based on the projected waste receipts through the year 2013. The information is based on the 1991 TRU Program Data submittals for the Integrated Data Base (DOE/RW-0006, Rev. 7) from each of the DOE sites generating or storing TRU waste for shipment to the WIPP. The data is based on existing characterization data on the waste in interim storage, waste estimates based on projected programs during the 1991 through 2013 time period, projected treatment processes required to meet WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), and a projection of the waste that will be declared low level waste when it is assayed as part of the certification program for waste shipments to WIPP. This data will serve as a standard reference for WIPP programs requiring radionuclide data, including safety programs, performance assessment, and regulatory compliance. These projections will continue to be periodically updated as the waste data estimates are refined by the generator sites as they participate in the annual update of the Integrated Data Base (IDB).

Not Available

1991-12-31

238

Nuclear waste form risk assessment for US defense waste at Savannah River Plant. Annual report fiscal year 1980  

SciTech Connect

Waste form dissolution studies and preliminary performance analyses were carried out to contribute a part of the data needed for the selection of a waste form for the disposal of Savannah River Plant defense waste in a deep geologic repository. The first portion of this work provides descriptions of the chemical interactions between the waste form and the geologic environment. We reviewed critically the dissolution/leaching data for borosilicate glass and SYNROC. Both chemical kinetic and thermodynamic models were developed to describe the dissolution process of these candidate waste forms so as to establish a fundamental basis for interpretation of experimental data and to provide directions for future experiments. The complementary second portion of this work is an assessment of the impacts of alternate waste forms upon the consequences of disposal in various proposed geological media. Employing systems analysis methodology, we began to evaluate the performance of a generic waste form for the case of a high risk scenario for a bedded salt repository. Results of sensitivity analysis, uncertainty analyses, and sensitivity to uncertainty analysis are presented.

Cheung, H.; Jackson, D.D.; Revelli, M.A.

1981-07-01

239

Process description and plant design for preparing ceramic high-level waste forms  

SciTech Connect

The ceramics process flow diagram has been simplified and upgraded to utilize only two major processing steps - fluid-bed calcination and hot isostatic press consolidating. Full-scale fluid-bed calcination has been used at INEL to calcine high-level waste for 18 y; and a second-generation calciner, a fully remotely operated and maintained calciner that meets ALARA guidelines, started calcining high-level waste in 1982. Full-scale hot isostatic consolidation has been used by DOE and commercial enterprises to consolidate radioactive components and to encapsulate spent fuel elements for several years. With further development aimed at process integration and parametric optimization, the operating knowledge of full-scale demonstration of the key process steps should be rapidly adaptable to scale-up of the ceramic process to full plant size. Process flowsheets used to prepare ceramic and glass waste forms from defense and commercial high-level liquid waste are described. Preliminary layouts of process flow diagrams in a high-level processing canyon were prepared and used to estimate the preliminary cost of the plant to fabricate both waste forms. The estimated costs for using both options were compared for total waste management costs of SRP high-level liquid waste. Using our design, for both the ceramic and glass plant, capital and operating costs are essentially the same for both defense and commercial wastes, but total waste management costs are calculated to be significantly less for defense wastes using the ceramic option. It is concluded from this and other studies that the ceramic form may offer important advantages over glass in leach resistance, waste loading, density, and process flexibility. Preliminary economic calculations indicate that ceramics must be considered a leading candidate for the form to immobilize high-level wastes.

Grantham, L.F.; McKisson, R.L.; Guon, J.; Flintoff, J.F.; McKenzie, D.E.

1983-02-25

240

Development of Ceramic Waste Forms for High-Level Nuclear Waste Over the Last 30 Years  

SciTech Connect

Many types of ceramics have been put forward for immobilisation of high-level waste (HLW) from reprocessing of nuclear power plant fuel or weapons production. After describing some historical aspects of waste form research, the essential features of the chemical design and processing of these different ceramic types will be discussed briefly. Given acceptable laboratory and long-term predicted performance based on appropriately rigorous chemical design, the important processing parameters are mostly waste loading, waste throughput, footprint, offgas control/minimization, and the need for secondary waste treatment. It is concluded that the 'problem of high-level nuclear waste' is largely solved from a technical point of view, within the current regulatory framework, and that the main remaining question is which technical disposition method is optimum for a given waste. (author)

Vance, Eric [Institute of Materials and Engineering Science, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, New Illawarra Road, Menai, NSW, 2234 (Australia)

2007-07-01

241

Interaction analysis method for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant  

SciTech Connect

In order to anticipate potential problems as early as possible during the design effort, a method for interaction analysis was developed to meet the specific hazards of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). The requirement for interaction analysis is given in DOE Order 6430.1B and DOE-STD-1021-92. The purpose of the interaction analysis is to ensure that non-safety class items will not fail in a manner that will adversely affect the ability of any safety class item to perform its safety function. In the HWVP there are few structures, equipment, or controls that are safety class. In addition to damage due to failure of non-safety class items as a result of natural phenomena, threats to HWVP safety class items include the following: room flooding from firewater, leakage of chemically reactive liquids, high-pressure gas impingement from leaking piping, rocket-type impact from broken pressurized gas cylinders, loss of control of mobile equipment, cryogenic liquid spill, fire, and smoke. The time needed to perform the interaction analysis is minimized by consolidating safety class items into segregated areas. Each area containing safety class items is evaluated, and any potential threat to the safety functions is noted. After relocation of safety class items is considered, items that pose a threat are generally upgraded to eliminate the threat to the safety class items. Upgrading is the preferred option when relocation is not possible. An example will illustrate the method and application in the phased design, procurement, and construction environment of the HWVP.

Grant, P.R.; Deshotels, R.L. [Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States); Van Katwijk, C. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-08-01

242

Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes  

SciTech Connect

In 2006, DOE-ORP initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct Vs measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) confirmation of the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the corehole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt was also penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of movement and less than 15 feet of repeated section. Most of the movement on the fault appears to have occurred before the youngest lava flow, the 10.5 million year old Elephant Mountain Member was emplaced above the Pomona Member.

Barnett, D. BRENT; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Fecht, Karl R.; Lanigan, David C.; Reidel, Steve; Rust, Colleen F.

2007-02-28

243

Critique of Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant off-gas sampling requirements  

SciTech Connect

Off-gas sampling and monitoring activities needed to support operations safety, process control, waste form qualification, and environmental protection requirements of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) have been evaluated. The locations of necessary sampling sites have been identified on the basis of plant requirements, and the applicability of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) reference sampling equipment to these HWVP requirements has been assessed for all sampling sites. Equipment deficiencies, if present, have been described and the bases for modifications and/or alternative approaches have been developed.

Goles, R.W.

1996-03-01

244

Plasma coal reprocessing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of many years of investigations of plasma-chemical technologies for pyrolysis, hydrogenation, thermochemical preparation for combustion, gasification, and complex reprocessing of solid fuels and hydrocarbon gas cracking are represented. Application of these technologies for obtaining the desired products (hydrogen, industrial carbon, synthesis gas, valuable components of the mineral mass of coal) corresponds to modern ecological and economical requirements to the power engineering, metallurgy, and chemical industry. Plasma fuel utilization technologies are characterized by the short-term residence of reagents within a reactor and the high degree of the conversion of source substances into the desired products without catalyst application. The thermochemical preparation of the fuel to combustion is realized in a plasma-fuel system presenting a reaction chamber with a plasmatron; and the remaining plasma fuel utilization technologies, in a combined plasma-chemical reactor with a nominal power of 100 kW, whose zone of the heat release from an electric arc is joined with the chemical reaction zone.

Messerle, V. E.; Ustimenko, A. B.

2013-12-01

245

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs.

Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E.; Abrigo, G.P. [and others] [and others

1996-03-01

246

Geopolymerisation of silt generated from construction and demolition waste washing plants.  

PubMed

Recycling plants that size, sort and wash construction and demolition waste can produce high quality aggregate. However, they also produce up to 80ton per hour of filter cake waste containing fine (<63mum) silt particles that is classified as inert waste and normally landfilled. This research investigated the potential to form geopolymers containing silt, which would allow this problematic waste to be beneficially reused as aggregate. This would significantly improve the economic viability of recycling plants that wash wastes. Silt filter cakes have been collected from a number of aggregate washing plants operating in the UK. These were found to contain similar aluminosilicate crystalline phases. Geopolymer samples were produced using silt and silt mixed with either metakaolin or pulverised fuel ash (PFA). Silt geopolymers cured at room temperature had average 7-day compressive strengths of 18.7MPa, while partial substitution of silt by metakaolin or PFA increased average compressive strengths to 30.5 and 21.9MPa, respectively. Curing specimens for 24h at 105 degrees C resulted in a compressive strength of 39.7MPa and microstructural analysis confirmed the formation of dense materials. These strengths are in excess of those required for materials to be used as aggregate, particularly in unbound applications. The implications of this research for the management of waste silt at construction and demolition waste washing plants are discussed. PMID:18579370

Lampris, C; Lupo, R; Cheeseman, C R

2009-01-01

247

Modeling Hydrogen Generation Rates in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant  

SciTech Connect

This presentation describes a project in which Hanford Site and Environmental Management Science Program investigators addressed issues concerning hydrogen generation rates in the Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant. The hydrogen generation rates of radioactive wastes must be estimated to provide for safe operations. While an existing model satisfactorily predicts rates for quiescent wastes in Hanford underground storage tanks, pretreatment operations will alter the conditions and chemical composition of these wastes. Review of the treatment process flowsheet identified specific issues requiring study to ascertain whether the model would provide conservative values for waste streams in the plant. These include effects of adding hydroxide ion, alpha radiolysis, saturation with air (oxygen) from pulse-jet mixing, treatment with potassium permanganate, organic compounds from degraded ion exchange resins and addition of glass-former chemicals. The effects were systematically investigated through literature review, technical analyses and experimental work.

Camaioni, Donald M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Hallen, Richard T.; Sherwood, David J.; Stock, Leon M.

2004-03-29

248

ADSORPTION OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES BY SAVANNAH RIVER PLANT SOIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of radioisotopes on soil was investigated in the ; laboratory to determine the behavior of lowlevel radioactive waste solutions ; discharged to the ground. Strontium, cesium, and plutonium distributions between ; soil and waste solution were studied. The effects of cation concentration and ; acidity were determined. The results of the distribution experiments, and ; material balance considerations,

W. E. PROUT

1958-01-01

249

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Title I operator dose calculations. Final report, LATA report No. 90  

SciTech Connect

The radiation exposure dose was estimated for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) operating personnel who do the unloading and transporting of the transuranic contact-handled waste. Estimates of the radiation source terms for typical TRU contact-handled waste were based on known composition and properties of the waste. The operations sequence for waste movement and storage in the repository was based upon the WIPP Title I data package. Previous calculations had been based on Conceptual Design Report data. A time and motion sequence was developed for personnel performing the waste handling operations both above and below ground. Radiation exposure calculations were then performed in several fixed geometries and folded with the time and motion studies for individual workers in order to determine worker exposure on an annual basis.

Hughes, P.S.; Rigdon, L.D.

1980-02-01

250

Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes  

SciTech Connect

In 2006, the U.S. Department of Energy initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct shear wave velocity (Vs) measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) geologic studies to confirm the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the core hole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member, and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt also was penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed, and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of movement and less than 15 ft of repeated section. Most of the movement on the fault appears to have occurred before the youngest lava flow, the 10.5-million-year-old Elephant Mountain Member, was emplaced above the Pomona Member.

Barnett, D. Brent; Fecht, Karl R.; Reidel, Stephen P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Rust, Colleen F.

2007-05-11

251

A Dynamic Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Performance Assessment Tool - 12490  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Performance Assessment (PA) methodology comprises a toolbox used to demonstrate regulatory compliance of the repository after facility closure. The PA framework rests upon an extensive suite of computational codes. In some cases, significant alteration of code inputs is a tedious and difficult task. Due to the nature of the application for which they are used, PA codes used in support of WIPP regulatory compliance demonstration must satisfy stringent quality assurance requirements. Consequently, many of the coding practices used during original code development are still implemented today. A more efficient workflow configuration has the potential to alleviate difficulties associated with extensive code input modifications. Here, this potential is assessed via an implementation of a more flexible scientific workflow system for a subset of the codes used in WIPP PA. The scientific workflow approach taken here for a dynamic PA system enables users from disparate backgrounds to dramatically shorten the time between hypothesis and analysis by decreasing the amount of a priori knowledge, from a range of disciplines, needed to execute the code. Having smaller iteration times allows for more ideas to be tested and explored, which leads to safer and more optimized systems. Note that these high-level, dynamic tools are intended only for initial scoping studies on the personal computer of a researcher. Full, regulatory compliance calculations may occur only within a qualified computing environment. However, the WIPP PA tools here may guide future research and indicate regions of the analysis space that are worth further study. This next generation of PA software provides the ability to perform scoping investigations of repository performance quickly and easily, and has an accessible and useful interface to a variety of users, such as fuel cycle systems designers, domain experts such as repository modelers, and policy makers. The purview of this project allows for many opportunities for future work. Foremost among these is the desire to implement the full BRAGFLO suite within the workflow. This will entail porting or wrapping Genmesh, Matset, LHS, and ICSet within Python. Moreover, unifying the two GUIs into a single driver application would be a natural next step. Once the BRAGFLO suite is completed, other portions of WIPP PA could be implemented with corresponding and inter-operable work-flows. Likely first candidates for this are those codes that are similarly computationally intensive, such as the one used to generate complementary cumulative distribution functions used to demonstrate regulatory compliance (code CCDFGF). (authors)

Scopatz, Anthony M.; March, Jonathan; Weckesser, Warren; Jones, Eric [Enthought Inc, Austin, Texas, 78701 (United States); Lee, Moo; Camphouse, Chris [Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM, 88220 (United States)

2012-07-01

252

International investigation of electronic waste recycling plant design  

E-print Network

This thesis investigates the industry of electronic waste recycling industry in three countries: Germany, the United States, and Chile. Despite differences in the legal structure surrounding the industry, there are many ...

Theurer, Jean E

2010-01-01

253

Effect of a water-based drilling waste on receiving soil properties and plants growth.  

PubMed

This investigation was undertaken to determine the relative effects of recommended land spraying while drilling (LWD) loading rate application for a source of water-based drilling waste material on selected soil properties and phytotoxicity. Drilling waste material was obtained from a well where a nitrate gypsum water based product was used to formulate the drilling fluid. The fluid and associated drill cuttings were used as the drilling waste source to conduct the experiment. The study was carried out in triplicate and involved five plant species, four drilling waste loading rates and a representative agricultural soil type in Alberta. Plant growth was monitored for a period of ten days. Drilling waste applied at 10 times above the recommended loading rate improved the growth and germination rate of all plants excluding radish. Loading rates in excess of 40 and 50 times had a deleterious effect on radish, corn and oat but not on alfalfa and barley. Germination rate decreased as waste loading rate increased. Effects on soil physical and chemical properties were more pronounced at the 40 and 50 times exceeding recommended loading rate. Significant changes in soil parameters occurred at the higher rates in terms of increase in soil porosity, pH, EC, hydraulic conductivity, SAR and textural classification. This study indicates that the applications of this type of water based drill cutting if executed at an optimal loading rate, may improve soil quality and results in better plant growth. PMID:24117079

Saint-Fort, Roger; Ashtani, Sahar

2014-01-01

254

Pinellas Plant contingency plan for the hazardous waste management facility  

SciTech Connect

Subpart D of Part 264 (264.50 through .56) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations require that each facility maintain a contingency plan detailing procedures to {open_quotes}minimize hazards to human health or the environment from fires, explosions, or any unplanned sudden or non-sudden release of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents to air, soil, or surface water.{close_quotes}

NONE

1988-04-01

255

BARIUM AND RADIUM IN WATER TREATMENT PLANT WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Water treatment plants at nine locations (10 plants) in Illinois and Iowa were studied to determine the characteristics and disposal practices for the sludge, brine, and backwash water containing radium (Ra) and/or barium (Ba). The treatment processes in these ten plants include ...

256

State of the art review of radioactive waste volume reduction techniques for commercial nuclear power plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The state of the art of volume reduction techniques is reviewed for low level liquid and solid radioactive wastes produced as a result of: (1) operation of commercial nuclear power plants, (2) storage of spent fuel in away-from-reactor facilities, and (3) decontamination/decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants. The types of wastes and their chemical, physical, and radiological characteristics are identified. Methods used by industry for processing radioactive wastes are reviewed and compared to the new techniques for processing and reducing the volume of radioactive wastes. A detailed system description and report on operating experiences follow for each of the new volume reduction techniques. In addition, descriptions of volume reduction methods presently under development are provided.

1980-04-01

257

Influence of heat recuperation in ORC power plant on efficiency of waste heat utilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work is devoted to the problem of utilization of the waste heat contained in the exhaust gases having the temperature of 350 °C. Conversion of the waste heat into electricity using a power plant working with organic fluid cycles is considered. Three Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) power plant solutions are analysed and compared: a solution with the basic, single thermodynamic conversion cycle, one with internal heat recuperation and one with external heat recuperation. It results from the analysis that it is the proper choice of the working fluid evaporation temperature that fundamentally affects the maximum of the ORC plant output power. Application of the internal heat recuperation in the plant basic cycle results in the output power increase of approx. 5%. Addition of the external heat recuperation to the plant basic cycle, in the form of a secondary supercritical ORC power cycle can rise the output power by approx. 2%.

Borsukiewicz-Gozdur, Aleksandra

2010-10-01

258

Energy Recovery from Municipal Solid WasteEnergy Recovery from Municipal Solid Waste WASTE TO ENERGY PLANT AT VIJAYAWADAWASTE TO ENERGY PLANT AT VIJAYAWADA  

E-print Network

Energy Recovery from Municipal Solid WasteEnergy Recovery from Municipal Solid Waste WASTE Fluff / PelletsCharacteristics Of Fuel Fluff / Pellets Physical Properties of Fuel Fluff / Pellets · Product : Fuel Fluff Fuel Pellets ·Shape : Irregular Cylindrical ·Size : 25 x 25mm to dia 8mm to 25mm 150

Columbia University

259

Long-term climate variability at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, southeastern New Mexico, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Department of Energy is developing the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico for\\u000a the disposal of transuranic wastes generated by defense programs. Because changes in climate during the next 10,000 years\\u000a (10 ka) may affect performance of the repository, an understanding of long-term climate variability is essential for evaluating\\u000a regulatory compliance.\\u000a \\u000a Fluctuations in global

Peter N. Swift

1993-01-01

260

Recycle stream impacts on feed treatment flowsheets and glass formulation for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed to vitrify high-level radioactive wastes stored at the Hanford Site. A vitrification flowsheet was developed to ensure low-level effluent streams will be sufficiently low in transuranic and beta\\/gamma activity to allow disposal as a solidified grout in near-surface burial vaults. To achieve this goal, the process was designed to separate high-activity

R. A. Watrous; O. L. Kruger; P. Hrma; J. M. Jr. Perez

1991-01-01

261

Organic Wastes for Improving Soil Physical Properties and Enhancing Plant Growth in Container Substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing rates (5, 10, 25 and 40% v\\/v) of 6 sources of organic wastes were substituted for peat to assess changes in the physical properties of peat-perlite substrates and investigate the relationship between plant response and these properties. Wastes were either fresh or composted bio-filter sludge (FBF and CBF), sewage sludge (FSS and CSS), and de-inked paper sludge (FDP and

Nsalambi V. Nkongolo; Jean Caron; Fabienne Gauthier; Mitate Yamada

2001-01-01

262

The potential for adding plastic waste fuel at a coal gasification power plant.  

PubMed

Plastics wastes from a municipal solid waste plant have a high energy content which make it an interesting option for co-processing with coal. The potential for adding plastic waste to a coal fired Texaco IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) power station is examined. The resulting efficiency increases due to the improved gasification qualities of plastic over coal. For the overall economics to be the same as the coal only case, the maximum amount that the power station can afford to spend on preparing the plastic waste for use is similar to the assumed coal cost, plus the avoided landfill cost, minus the transport cost. The location of the power station plays a key role, since this has an effect on the transport costs as well as on the landfill charges. The sensitivity of the economics of co-processing plastic waste with coal for a variety of power station operational parameters is presented. PMID:12201682

Campbell, P E; Evans, R H; McMullan, J T; Williams, B C

2001-12-01

263

Basic Data Report -- Defense Waste Processing Facility Sludge Plant, Savannah River Plant 200-S Area  

SciTech Connect

This Basic Data Report for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)--Sludge Plant was prepared to supplement the Technical Data Summary. Jointly, the two reports were intended to form the basis for the design and construction of the DWPF. To the extent that conflicting information may appear, the Basic Data Report takes precedence over the Technical Data Summary. It describes project objectives and design requirements. Pertinent data on the geology, hydrology, and climate of the site are included. Functions and requirements of the major structures are described to provide guidance in the design of the facilities. Revision 9 of the Basic Data Report was prepared to eliminate inconsistencies between the Technical Data Summary, Basic Data Report and Scopes of Work which were used to prepare the September, 1982 updated CAB. Concurrently, pertinent data (material balance, curie balance, etc.) have also been placed in the Basic Data Report. It is intended that these balances be used as a basis for the continuing design of the DWPF even though minor revisions may be made in these balances in future revisions to the Technical Data Summary.

Amerine, D.B.

1982-09-01

264

Position paper on gas generation in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

Gas generation by transuranic (TRU) waste is a significant issue because gas will, if produced in significant quantities, affect the performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) with respect to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations for the long-term isolation of radioactive and chemically hazardous waste. If significant gas production occurs, it will also affect, and will be affected by, other processes and parameters in WIPP disposal rooms. The processes that will produce gas in WIPP disposal rooms are corrosion, microbial activity and radiolysis. This position paper describes these processes and the models, assumptions and data used to predict gas generation in WIPP disposal rooms.

Brush, L.H.

1994-11-15

265

Steps of Reprocessing and Equipments  

PubMed Central

With the increasing interest in endoscopy and the rising number of endoscopic examinations in hospitals, the importance of endoscopic reprocessing is also increasing. Cure facilities that are understaffed and ill-equipped are trying to cope with the problems of insufficient cleaning and high infection risks. To prevent endoscopy-associated infection, the endoscope cleaning, and disinfection guidelines prepared by the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy must be followed. In this review, the steps of endoscopic reprocessing and the equipments required in each step are discussed. PMID:23767039

Lee, Yong Kook

2013-01-01

266

An overview of metals recovery from thermal power plant solid wastes.  

PubMed

Thermal power plants (TPPs) that burn fossil fuels emit several pollutants linked to the environmental problems of acid rain, urban ozone, and the possibility of global climate change. As coal is burned in a power plant, its noncombustible mineral content is partitioned into bottom ash, which remains in the furnace, and fly ash, which rises with flue gases. Two other by-products of coal combustion air-pollution control technologies are flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastes and fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) wastes. This paper analyzed and summarized the generation, characteristics and application of TPP solid wastes and discussed the potential effects of such solid wastes on the environment. On this basis, a review of a number of methods for recovery of metals from TPP solid wastes was made. They usually contain a quantity of valuable metals and they are actually a secondary resource of metals. By applying mineral processing technologies and hydrometallurgical and biohydrometallurgical processes, it is possible to recover metals such as Al, Ga, Ge, Ca, Cd, Fe, Hg, Mg, Na, Ni, Pb, Ra, Th, V, Zn, etc., from TPP solid wastes. Recovery of metals from such wastes and its utilization are important not only for saving metal resources, but also for protecting the environment. PMID:20702078

Meawad, Amr S; Bojinova, Darinka Y; Pelovski, Yoncho G

2010-12-01

267

Meteorology and demography models for risk assessments of accidental atmospheric releases of nuclear waste. Phase 2 methodology  

SciTech Connect

Models are derived for determining the risk of release to the atmosphere of radioactive materials during nuclear waste handling. Such releases might occur in three phases of the nuclear waste handling cycle: (1) at fuel reprocessing plants during handling and interim storage, (2) during transportation to a permanent storage area, or (3) at the permanent disposal area (federal waste repository). Gaussian diffusion equations for both plume- and puff-type releases are used with demographic models to assess relative integrated population doses. Given a unit release and assuming an equal accident probability, we conclude that the largest risk would be from a transportation accident in a metropolitan area. The effect of a release during transportation in a rural area or at a fuel reprocessing plant would be one to two orders of magnitude less, while at a federal waste repository the population dose would be three or more orders of magnitude less than for the metropolitan transportation accident.

Peterson, K.R.; Harvey, T.F.

1980-09-01

268

WATER QUALITY RENOVATION OF ANIMAL WASTE LAGOONS UTILIZING AQUATIC PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Duckweeds Spirodela oligorhiza, S. polyrhiza, and Lemna gibba (clone G3) grown on dairy waste lagoons gave an estimated maximum annual yield of 22,023 kg dry wt./ha. S. oligorhiza and L. gibba had higher growth rates in the spring, fall, and winter, with L. gibba growing througho...

269

BAR-CODE BASED WEIGHT MEASUREMENT STATION FOR PHYSICAL INVENTORY TAKING OF PLUTONIUM OXIDE CONTAINERS AT THE MINING AND CHEMICAL COMBINE RADIOCHEMICAL REPROCESSING PLANT NEAR KRASNOYARSK, SIBERIA.  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the technical tasks being implemented to computerize the physical inventory taking (PIT) at the Mining and Chemical Combine (Gorno-Khimichesky Kombinat, GKhK) radiochemical plant under the US/Russian cooperative nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) program. Under the MPC and A program, Lab-to-Lab task agreements with GKhK were negotiated that involved computerized equipment for item verification and confirmatory measurement of the Pu containers. Tasks under Phase I cover the work for demonstrating the plan and procedures for carrying out the comparison of the Pu container identification on the container with the computerized inventory records. In addition to the records validation, the verification procedures include the application of bar codes and bar coded TIDs to the Pu containers. Phase II involves the verification of the Pu content. A plan and procedures are being written for carrying out confirmatory measurements on the Pu containers.

SUDA,S.

1999-09-20

270

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 1, Revision 3  

SciTech Connect

This volume includes the following chapters: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant RCRA A permit application; facility description; waste analysis plan; groundwater monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; RCRA contingency plan; personnel training; corrective action for solid waste management units; and other Federal laws.

Not Available

1993-03-01

271

RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - 25 YEARS SINCE THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion

E. Farfan; T. Jannik

2011-01-01

272

Coupling plant growth and waste recycling systems in a controlled life support system (CELSS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of bioregenerative systems as part of the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) program depends, in large part, on the ability to recycle inorganic nutrients, contained in waste material, into plant growth systems. One significant waste (resource) stream is inedible plant material. This research compared wheat growth in hydroponic solutions based on inorganic salts (modified Hoagland's) with solutions based on the soluble fraction of inedible wheat biomass (leachate). Recycled nutrients in leachate solutions provided the majority of mineral nutrients for plant growth, although additions of inorganic nutrients to leachate solutions were necessary. Results indicate that plant growth and waste recyling systems can be effectively coupled within CELSS based on equivalent wheat yield in leachate and Hoagland solutions, and the rapid mineralization of waste organic material in the hydroponic systems. Selective enrichment for microbial communities able to mineralize organic material within the leachate was necessary to prevent accumulation of dissolved organic matter in leachate-based solutions. Extensive analysis of microbial abundance, growth, and activity in the hydroponic systems indicated that addition of soluble organic material from plants does not cause excessive microbial growth or 'biofouling', and helped define the microbially-mediated flux of carbon in hydroponic solutions.

Garland, Jay L.

1992-01-01

273

76 FR 45268 - Reprocessing of Reusable Medical Devices  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...reprocessing of reusable medical devices, reprocessing methodologies...The workshop focused on medical devices that are intended for reuse after reprocessing, rather...reprocessing of single-use-only medical devices. FDA has a Web cast of...

2011-07-28

274

High Level Waste Remote Handling Equipment in the Melter Cave Support Handling System at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant  

SciTech Connect

Cold war plutonium production led to extensive amounts of radioactive waste stored in tanks at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site. Bechtel National, Inc. is building the largest nuclear Waste Treatment Plant in the world located at the Department of Energy's Hanford site to immobilize the millions of gallons of radioactive waste. The site comprises five main facilities; Pretreatment, High Level Waste vitrification, Low Active Waste vitrification, an Analytical Lab and the Balance of Facilities. The pretreatment facilities will separate the high and low level waste. The high level waste will then proceed to the HLW facility for vitrification. Vitrification is a process of utilizing a melter to mix molten glass with radioactive waste to form a stable product for storage. The melter cave is designated as the High Level Waste Melter Cave Support Handling System (HSH). There are several key processes that occur in the HSH cell that are necessary for vitrification and include: feed preparation, mixing, pouring, cooling and all maintenance and repair of the process equipment. Due to the cell's high level radiation, remote handling equipment provided by PaR Systems, Inc. is required to install and remove all equipment in the HSH cell. The remote handling crane is composed of a bridge and trolley. The trolley supports a telescoping tube set that rigidly deploys a TR 4350 manipulator arm with seven degrees of freedom. A rotating, extending, and retracting slewing hoist is mounted to the bottom of the trolley and is centered about the telescoping tube set. Both the manipulator and slewer are unique to this cell. The slewer can reach into corners and the manipulator's cross pivoting wrist provides better operational dexterity and camera viewing angles at the end of the arm. Since the crane functions will be operated remotely, the entire cell and crane have been modeled with 3-D software. Model simulations have been used to confirm operational and maintenance functional and timing studies throughout the design process. Since no humans can go in or out of the cell, there are several recovery options that have been designed into the system including jack-down wheels for the bridge and trolley, recovery drums for the manipulator hoist, and a wire rope cable cutter for the slewer jib hoist. If the entire crane fails in cell, the large diameter cable reel that provides power, signal, and control to the crane can be used to retrieve the crane from the cell into the crane maintenance area. (authors)

Bardal, M.A. [PaR Systems, Inc., Shoreview, MN (United States); Darwen, N.J. [Bechtel National, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

2008-07-01

275

The Williams Lake Generating Station: A case study of a large scale wood waste power generating plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the project inception, development, and performance of the largest biomass power generating plant in North America - in Williams Lake, British Columbia. The facility consumes over 600,000 tones of wood waste annually to generate electricity for sale to BC Hydro. Diversion of wood waste from beehive burners to the plant has significantly reduced particulate emissions in the

McBurney

1995-01-01

276

Management of radioactive waste from nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

Even thought risk assessment is an essential consideration in all projects involving radioactive or hazardous waste, its public role is often unclear, and it is not fully utilized in the decision-making process for public acceptance of such facilities. Risk assessment should be an integral part of such projects and should play an important role from beginning to end, i.e., from planning stages to the closing of a disposal facility. A conceptual model that incorporates all potential pathways of exposure and is based on site-specific conditions is key to a successful risk assessment. A baseline comparison with existing standards determines, along with other factors, whether the disposal site is safe. Risk assessment also plays a role in setting priorities between sites during cleanup actions and in setting cleanup standards for certain contaminants at a site. The applicable technologies and waste disposal designs can be screened through risk assessment.

Not Available

1993-09-01

277

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Waste Gas Treatment Plants for the Glass Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost-effectiveness of different plant solutions for glass furnace waste gas cleaning is compared in the present paper. Plant arrangements based on electrostatic precipi-tator or fabric filter dust collectors and wet, semi-dry, or dry processes for acid gas removal have been considered. A critical survey of each solution's advantages and disadvantages has been presented, taking into account both effectiveness and costs

Antonio C. Caputo; Pacifico M. Pelagagge

1999-01-01

278

Envirocon to build plant for bioconversion of forestry wastes to animal feeds  

SciTech Connect

Envirocon Ltd. of Vancouver will build a pilot plant in British Columbia to produce protein supplement for animal feeds, making use of a biotechnological process patented by the University of Waterloo. When commerical viability has been proven, Envirocon will make use of the process in plants which it plans to design, manufacture, and install on a turnkey basis to convert waste from the pulp and paper industry to protein feed supplement.

Not Available

1982-04-01

279

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant design validation: Final report, Appendices  

SciTech Connect

This volume is comprised of the following appendices: DOE stipulated agreement with State of New Mexico (partial); geologic correlations; mathematical simulation of underground in situ behavior; C and SH shaft geologic logs and maps; waste shaft geologic logs and maps; exhaust shaft geologic log; test rooms geologic maps and sections; drift cross sections; facility level geologic core hole logs; geomechanical instrumentation data plots; and analytical data plots.

Not Available

1986-10-01

280

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - An International Center of Excellence for ''Training in and Demonstration of Waste Disposal Technologies''  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site, which is managed and operated by the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (USDOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and located in the State of New Mexico, presently hosts an underground research laboratory (URL) and the world's first certified and operating deep geological repository for safe disposition of long-lived radioactive materials (LLRMs). Both the URL and the repository are situated approximately 650 meters (m) below the ground surface in a 250-million-year-old, 600-m-thick, undisturbed, bedded salt formation, and they have been in operation since 1982 and 1999, respectively. Founded on long-standing CBFO collaborations with international and national radioactive waste management organizations, since 2001, WIPP serves as the Center of Excellence in Rock Salt for the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA's) International Network of Centers on ''Training in and Demonstration of Waste Disposal Technologies in Underground Research Facilities'' (the IAEA Network). The primary objective for the IAEA Network is to foster collaborative projects among IAEA Member States that: supplement national efforts and promote public confidence in waste disposal schemes; contribute to the resolution of key technical issues; and encourage the transfer and preservation of knowledge and technologies.

Matthews, Mark L.; Eriksson, Leif G.

2003-02-25

281

Study on Shielding Requirements for Radioactive Waste Transportation in a Mo-99 Production Plant - 13382  

SciTech Connect

Brazil is currently planning to produce {sup 99}Mo from fission of low enriched uranium (LEU) targets. The planned end of irradiation activity of {sup 99}Mo is about 185 TBq (5 kCi) per week to meet the present domestic demand of {sup 99m}Tc generators. The radioactive wastes from the production plant will be transferred to a waste treatment facility at the same site. The total activity of the actinides, fission and activation products present in the wastes can be predicted based on the yields of fission and activation data for the irradiation conditions, such as composition and mass of uranium targets, irradiation time, neutron flux, production schedule, etc., which were in principle already established by the project management. The transportation of the wastes from the production plant to the treatment facility will be done by means of special shielded packages. An assessment of the shielding required for the packages has been done and the results are presented here, aiming at contributing to the design of the waste management facility for the {sup 99}Mo production plant. (authors)

Melo Rego, Maria Eugenia de; Kazumi Sakata, Solange; Vicente, Roberto; Hiromoto, Goro [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP (Brazil)] [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP (Brazil)

2013-07-01

282

Management activities for retrieved and newly generated transuranic waste, Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to assess the potential environmental impacts of the retrieval and processing of retrieved and newly generated transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste at the Savannah River Plant (SRP), including the transportation of the processes TRU waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. A new TRU Waste Facility (TWF) will be constructed at SRP to retrieve and process the SRP TRU waste in interim storage to meet WIPP criteria. This EA has been prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended, and the requirements of the Council of Environmental Quality Regulations for implementing NEPA (40 CFR Parts 1500--1508). The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires the assessment of environmental consequences of all major federal actions that may affect the quality of the human environment. This document describes the environmental impact of constructing and operating the TWF facility for processing and shipment of the TRU waste to WIPP and considers alternatives to the proposed action. 40 refs., 12 figs., 12 tabs.

Not Available

1988-08-01

283

Unit operations used to treat process and/or waste streams at nuclear power plants. [R  

SciTech Connect

Estimates are given of the annual amounts of each generic type of LLW (i.e., Government and commerical (fuel cycle and non-fuel cycle)) that is generated at LWR plants. Many different chemical engineering unit operations used to treat process and/or waste streams at LWR plants include adsorption, evaporation, calcination, centrifugation, compaction, crystallization, drying, filtration, incineration, reverse osmosis, and solidification of waste residues. The treatment of these various streams and the secondary wet solid wastes thus generated is described. The various treatment options for concentrates or solid wet wastes, and for dry wastes are discussed. Among the dry waste treatment methods are compaction, baling, and incineration, as well as chopping, cutting and shredding. Organic materials (liquids (e.g., oils or solvents) and/or solids), could be incinerated in most cases. The filter sludges, spent resins, and concentrated liquids (e.g., evaporator concentrates) are usually solidified in cement, or urea-formaldehyde or unsaturated polyester resins prior to burial. Incinerator ashes can also be incorporated in these binding agents. Asphalt has not yet been used. This paper presents a brief survey of operational experience at LWRs with various unit operations, including a short discussion of problems and some observations on recent trends.

Godbee, H.W.; Kibbey, A.H.

1980-01-01

284

Khazar Iodine Production Plant Site Remediation in Turkmenistan. NORM Contaminated Waste Repository Establishment - 12398  

SciTech Connect

Radiation safety provisions for NORM contaminated areas are in use in a number of the former Soviet republics. Some of these areas were formed by absorbed radionuclides at the iodine and bromine extraction sites. As a rule, there are not any plant radiation monitoring systems nor appropriate services to ensure personnel, population and environmental radiation safety. The most hazardous sites are those which are situated in the Caspian Sea coastal zone. The bulk of the accumulated waste is represented by a loose mixture of sand and charcoal, which was basically used as the iodine extraction sorbent. The amounts of these wastes were estimated to be approximately 20,000 metric tons. The waste contamination is mainly composed of Ra-226 (U-238 decay series) and Ra-224, Ra-228 (Th-232 decay series). In 2009, the 'ECOMET-S', a Closed Joint-Stock Company from St. Petersburg, Russian Federation, was authorized by the Turkmenistan government to launch the rehabilitation project. The project includes D and D activities, contaminated areas remediation, collected wastes safe transportation to the repository and its disposal following repository closure. The work at the Khazar chemical plant started in September, 2010. Comprehensive radiological surveys to estimate the waste quantities were carried out in advance. In course of the rehabilitation work at the site of the Khazar chemical plant additional waste quantities (5,000 MT, 10,000 m{sup 3}) were discovered after the sludge was dumped and drained. Disposal volumes for this waste was not provided initially. The additional volume of the construction wastes was required in order to accommodate all the waste to be disposed. For the larger disposal volume the project design enterprise VNIPIET, offered to erect a second wall outside the existing one and this solution was adopted. As of May, 2011, 40,575 m{sup 3} of contaminated waste were collected and disposed safely. This volume represents 96.6% of the initial repository volume. Now work is underway to erect the second repository wall, which will allow housing of the additional 16,800 m{sup 3} The Khazar chemical plant territory restoration work is underway as well. (authors)

Gelbutovskiy, Alexander B.; Cheremisin, Peter I.; Troshev, Alexander V.; Egorov, Alexander J.; Boriskin, Mikhail M.; Bogod, Mikhail A. [JSC 'ECOMET-S', Sosnoviy Bor, Leningrad region, 188540 (Russian Federation)

2012-07-01

285

Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) closure, Savannah River Plant: Clay cap test section construction report  

SciTech Connect

This report contains appendices 3 through 6 for the Clay Cap Test Section Construction Report for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) closure at the Savannah River Plant. The Clay Cap Test Program was conducted to evaluate the source, lab. permeability, in-situ permeability, and compaction characteristics, representative of kaolin clays from the Aiken, South Carolina vicinity. (KJD)

Not Available

1988-02-26

286

Borehole Summary Report for Core Hole C4998 – Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project  

SciTech Connect

Seismic borehole C4998 was cored through the upper portion of the Columbia River Basalt Group and Ellensburg Formation to provide detailed lithologic information and intact rock samples that represent the geology at the Waste Treatment Plant. This report describes the drilling of borehole C4998 and documents the geologic data collected during the drilling of the cored portion of the borehole.

Barnett, D. BRENT; Garcia, Benjamin J.

2006-12-15

287

Hydraulic testing of Salado Formation evaporites at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site: Second interpretive report  

SciTech Connect

Pressure-pulse, constant-pressure flow, and pressure-buildup tests have been performed in bedded evaporites of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to evaluate the hydraulic properties controlling brine flow through the Salado. Transmissivities have been interpreted from six sequences of tests conducted on five stratigraphic intervals within 15 m of the WIPP underground excavations.

Beauheim, R.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, R.M.; Dale, T.F.; Fort, M.D.; Stensrud, W.A. [INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

1993-12-01

288

WASTE HYDROGEN PIPELINES MONITORING IN MODERN POWER PLANT Pawel Gsior, Jerzy Kaleta  

E-print Network

WASTE HYDROGEN PIPELINES MONITORING IN MODERN POWER PLANT Pawel Gsior, Jerzy Kaleta Institute hydrogen as a by-product. Part of this is reused in the other production process, however significant of the project was development of the technology for safe exploitation of by-product hydrogen in chosen chemical

Boyer, Edmond

289

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2005 - June 2006, Volume 2, Supporting Data  

SciTech Connect

This report is a compilation of geotechnical data presented as plots for each active instrument installed in the underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) through June 30, 2006. A summary of the geotechnical analyses that were performed using the enclosed data is provided in Volume 1 of the Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR).

Washington TRU Solutions LLC

2007-03-25

290

The influence of humic acids derived from earthworm-processed organic wastes on plant growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some effects of humic acids, formed during the breakdown of organic wastes by earthworms (vermicomposting), on plant growth were evaluated. In the first experiment, humic acids were extracted from pig manure vermicompost using the classic alkali\\/acid fractionation procedure and mixed with a soilless container medium (Metro-Mix 360), to provide a range of 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 500, 1000,

R. M. Atiyeh; S. Lee; C. A. Edwards; N. Q. Arancon; J. D. Metzger

2002-01-01

291

A&M. Liquid waste treatment plant, TAN616. Plan, elevations, sections, and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

A&M. Liquid waste treatment plant, TAN-616. Plan, elevations, sections, and details. Evaporator pit. Pump room. Room names and numbers. Ralph M. Parsons 902-3-ANP-616-A 297. Date: December 1952. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index no. 034-0616-00-693-106889 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

292

RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL PROJECTS. IDAHO CHEMICAL PROCESSING PLANT TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT FOR JULY-SEPTEMBER 1959  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progress of extensive laboratory and pilot plant investigations on ; the fluidized bed process for the con version of radioactive liquid wastes to ; solids is reported. These studies are directed toward obtaining information on ; the dynamics of fluidized bed operation, the removal of volatile fission products ; and solids particles from gases, the development of equipment and

C. M. Slansky; F. M. Warzel; J. I. ed. Stevens

1960-01-01

293

Cold End Inserts for Process Gas Waste Heat Boilers Air Products, operates hydrogen production plants, which utilize large waste heat boilers (WHB)  

E-print Network

production plants, which utilize large waste heat boilers (WHB) to cool process syngas. The gas entersCold End Inserts for Process Gas Waste Heat Boilers Overview Air Products, operates hydrogen walls. Air Products tasked our team to design an insert to place in the tubes of the WHB to increase

Demirel, Melik C.

294

Vermicomposting of distillation waste of citronella plant (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt.) employing Eudrilus eugeniae.  

PubMed

Laboratory experiment on vermicomposting of distillation waste of java citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt.) was carried out employing Eudrilus eugeniae, in two seasonal trials, covering summer and winter periods. Two vermicomposting treatments were conducted in earthen pots, one with citronella plant waste only (CW) and the other, a mixture of citronella waste and cowdung in the proportion 5:1 (CW+CD). Vermicomposting of citronella waste resulted reduction in C/N ratio (83.5-87.7%), enhancement of ash content and a number of macro and micronutrients. The FT-IR spectroscopy of the vermicompost revealed the reduction in aliphatic and aromatic compound as well as increase in amide group after the 105 days stabilization process. The vermicompost output was significantly enhanced in CW+CD treatment than CW treatment. Even, nutrient content of the vermicompost was also higher in CW+CD treatment than CW alone indicating the positive role of cowdung in improvement of quantity and quality. PMID:21550233

Deka, H; Deka, S; Baruah, C K; Das, J; Hoque, S; Sarma, N S

2011-07-01

295

Emissions model of waste treatment operations at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant  

SciTech Connect

An integrated model of the waste treatment systems at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) was developed using a commercially-available process simulation software (ASPEN Plus) to calculate atmospheric emissions of hazardous chemicals for use in an application for an environmental permit to operate (PTO). The processes covered by the model are the Process Equipment Waste evaporator, High Level Liquid Waste evaporator, New Waste Calcining Facility and Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal facility. The processes are described along with the model and its assumptions. The model calculates emissions of NO{sub x}, CO, volatile acids, hazardous metals, and organic chemicals. Some calculated relative emissions are summarized and insights on building simulations are discussed.

Schindler, R.E.

1995-03-01

296

Application of a Plasma Mass Separator to Advanced LWR Spent Fuel Reprocessing  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is investigating spent fuel reprocessing for the purposes of increasing the effective capacity of a deep geological repository, reducing the radiotoxicity of waste placed in the repository and conserving nuclear fuel resources. DOE is considering hydro-chemical processing of the spent fuel after cutting the fuel cladding and fuel dissolution in nitric acid. The front end process, known as UREX, is largely based on the PUREX process and extracts U, Tc as well as fission product gases. A number of additional processing steps have become known as UREX+. One of the steps includes a further chemical treatment of remove Cs and Sr to reduce repository heat load. Other steps include successive extraction of the actinides from residual fission products, including the lanthanides. The additional UREX+ processing renders the actinides suitable for burning as reactor fuel in an advanced reactor to convert actinides to shorter-lived fission products and to produce power. New methods for separating groups of elements by their atomic mass have been developed and can be exploited to enhance spent fuel reprocessing. These physical processes dry the waste streams so that they can be vaporized and singly ionized in plasma that is contained in longitudinal magnetic and perpendicular electric fields. Proper configuration of the fields causes the plasma to rapidly rotate and expel heavier mass ions at the center of the machine. Lower mass ions form closed orbits within the cylindrical plasma column and are transported to either end of the machine. This plasma mass separator was originally developed to reduce the mass of material that must be immobilized in borosilicate glass from DOE defense waste at former weapons production facilities. The plasma mass separator appears to be well-suited for processing the UREX raffinate and solids streams by exploiting the large atomic mass gap that exists between lanthanides (< {approx}180 amu) and actinides (> {approx}220 amu). In one processing step the raffinate and solids would be separated into a group of residual fission products including the lanthanides and another group containing predominately Pu and mixed higher actinides. The plasma mass separator could process the UREX raffinate and solids directly for spent fuel that has cooled for 50 years or more, but there may be some advantage to removing Cs and Sr by hydro-chemical means for relatively short ({approx}10 years) cooled fuel. This paper will explore the potential cost and environmental impact advantages of combining a hydro-chemical front end with a plasma mass separator back end in an advanced spent fuel reprocessing plant. (authors)

Freeman, Richard; Miller, Robert; Papay, Larry; Wagoner, John [Archimedes Technology Group, 5660 Eastgate Drive, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Ahlfeld, Charles; Czerwinski, Ken [Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Box 454003, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154-4003 (United States)

2006-07-01

297

Wool-waste as organic nutrient source for container-grown plants.  

PubMed

A container experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that uncomposted wool wastes could be used as nutrient source and growth medium constituent for container-grown plants. The treatments were: (1) rate of wool-waste application (0 or unamended control, 20, 40, 80, and 120 g of wool per 8-in. pot), (2) growth medium constituents [(2.1) wool plus perlite, (2.2) wool plus peat, and (2.3) wool plus peat plus perlite], and (3) plant species (basil and Swiss chard). A single addition of 20, 40, 80, or 120 g of wool-waste to Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L.) and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) in pots with growth medium provided four harvests of Swiss chard and five harvests of basil. Total basil yield from the five harvests was 1.6-5 times greater than the total yield from the unamended control, while total Swiss chard yield from the four harvests was 2-5 times greater relative to the respective unamended control. The addition of wool-waste to the growth medium increased Swiss chard and basil tissue N, and NO(3)-N and NH(4)-N in growth medium relative to the unamended control. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis of wool fibers sampled at the end of the experiments indicated various levels of decomposition, with some fibers retaining their original surface structure. Furthermore, most of the wool fibers' surfaces contained significant concentrations of S and much less N, P, or K. SEM/EDX revealed that some plant roots grow directly on wool-waste fibers suggesting either (1) root directional growth towards sites with greater nutrient concentration and/or (2) a possible role for roots or root exudates in wool decomposition. Results from this study suggest that uncomposted wool wastes can be used as soil amendment, growth medium constituent, and nutrient source for container-grown plants. PMID:19345569

Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Stratton, Glenn W; Pincock, James; Butler, Stephanie; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina A; Nedkov, Nedko K; Gerard, Patrick D

2009-07-01

298

A Short History of Waste Management at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

"The world’s first full-scale nuclear reactors and chemical reprocessing plants built at the Hanford Site in the desert of eastern Washington State produced two-thirds of the plutonium generated in the United States for nuclear weapons. Operating these facilities also created large volumes of radioactive and chemical waste, some of which was released into the environment exposing people who lived downwind and downstream. Hanford now contains the largest accumulation of nuclear waste in the Western Hemisphere. Hanford’s last reactor shut down in 1987 followed by closure of the last reprocessing plant in 1990. Today, Hanford’s only mission is cleanup. Most onsite radioactive waste and nuclear material lingers inside underground tanks or storage facilities. About half of the chemical waste remains in tanks while the rest persists in the soil, groundwater, and burial grounds. Six million dollars each day, or nearly two billion dollars each year, are spent on waste management and cleanup activities. There is significant uncertainty in how long cleanup will take, how much it will cost, and what risks will remain for future generations. This paper summarizes portions of the waste management history of the Hanford Site published in the book “Hanford: A Conversation about Nuclear Waste and Cleanup.”(1) "

Gephart, Roy E.

2010-03-31

299

Urban waste as a potential source for brick plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A joint government/industry/university project was formulated to address the technical feasibility of utilizing municipal solid waste (MSW) as a commercial fuel for the brick industry. Specifically, refuse derived fuel (RDF) from MSW was investigated for three potential applications in the brick industry: (1) rotary brick kilns; (2) tunnel brick kilns; and (3) moisture dryers. The successful development of such a procedure would be a dramatic achievement with widespread applicability, transferability, and commercial merit for energy displacement. The sampling, collection, and analysis of MSW, the analysis of RDF, and the potential utilization of RDF as an alternate source of fuel for the brick industry are described.

Daugherty, K. E.; Eberendu, A.; Griffin, J.; Gegbe, H.; Ike, C.; Aboo, A.

1982-02-01

300

Integrated Plant for the Municipal Solid Waste of Madrid  

E-print Network

to the landfill site. The remaining compost is clean and of good quality and is marketed in the agriculture sector in the final stages of construction 2. Introduction The integrated MSW plant is located at Valdemingomez% of the original MSW is landfilled for final disposal. #12;3. Technical Description Recycling, Classification

Columbia University

301

Reprocessing the bronchoscope: the challenges.  

PubMed

Spread of infection through the flexible bronchoscope is underrecognized and underreported. Prevention of bronchoscopy-induced infection requires increased vigilance by the physician, assiduous implementation of reprocessing protocols, and closer collaboration between bronchoscopy personnel, infection control practitioners, and instrument manufacturers. Patient safety depends on adequate disinfection of bronchoscopes and accessories used, as well as proper training of bronchoscopists, nurses, and ancillary staff. It is important to recognize that microbial transmission may occur via any part of instruments or anything in contact with the instruments including cleaning solutions, automated washers, and rinsing water. Numerous surveys have suggested poor adherence to published preventive guidelines. To address the challenges of reprocessing bronchoscopes, all users must comply with guidelines for cleaning and disinfection and each procedure should be performed with a clean, disinfected bronchoscope. PMID:16088488

Mughal, Majid M; Minai, Omar A; Culver, Daniel A; Mehta, Atul C

2004-08-01

302

Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a research and development facility for the demonstration of the permanent isolation of transuranic radioactive wastes in a geologic formation. The facility was constructed in southeastern New Mexico in a manner intended to meet criteria established by the scientific and regulatory community for the safe, long-term disposal of transuranic wastes. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing an application to demonstrate compliance with the requirements outlined in Title 40, Part 191 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) for the permanent disposal of transuranic wastes. As mandated by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Land Withdrawal Act of 1992, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must evaluate this compliance application and provide a determination regarding compliance with the requirements within one year of receiving a complete application. Because the WIPP is a very complex program, the DOE has planned to submit the application as a draft in two parts. This strategy will allow for the DOE and the EPA to begin technical discussions on critical WIPP issues before the one-year compliance determination period begins. This report is the first of these two draft submittals.

NONE

1995-03-31

303

Environmental impact statement for initiation of transuranic waste disposal at the waste isolation pilot plant  

SciTech Connect

WIPP`s long-standing mission is to demonstrate the safe disposal of TRU waste from US defense activities. In 1980, to comply with NEPA, US DOE completed its first environmental impact statement (EIS) which compared impacts of alternatives for TRU waste disposal. Based on this 1980 analysis, DOE decided to construct WIPP in 1981. In a 1990 decision based on examination of alternatives in a 1990 Supplemental EIS, DOE decided to continue WIPP development by proceeding with a testing program to examine WIPP`s suitability as a TRU waste repository. Now, as DOE`s Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) attempts to complete its regulatory obligations to begin WIPP disposal operations, CAO is developing WIPP`s second supplemental EIS (SEIS-II). To complete the SEIS-II, CAO will have to meet a number of challenges. This paper explores both the past and present EISs prepared to evaluate the suitability of WIPP. The challenges in completing an objective comparison of alternatives, while also finalizing other critical-path compliance documents, controlling costs, and keeping stakeholders involved during the decision-making process are addressed.

Johnson, H.E. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Carlsbad, NM (United States) Carlsbad Area Office; Whatley, M.E. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.

1996-08-01

304

Bacterial amelioration of bauxite residue waste of industrial alumina plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

  The high alkali content of bauxite residue deposits from alumina production plants in industrial nations poses a challenge\\u000a to reestablish flora and fauna at the deposit sites. The present study demonstrated that low levels of injured bacterial cells\\u000a in the bauxite residue actively grew using various added nutrients and\\/or hay. The organisms grew from less than 10 to more\\u000a than

M K Hamdy; F S Williams

2001-01-01

305

Socioeconomic study for the proposed waste isolation pilot plant  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the historical and existing socioeconomic conditions in the vicinity of the proposed plant, projected changes in those conditions with and without the plant, and an outline of the various techniques used to make these projections. The analysis predicts impacts on the general economy in the area near the plant and on employment, personal income, population, social structure, the private economic sector, housing, land use, community services and facilities, and local government finances. Among the most important results are the following predictions: The economy of the area will derive $165 million directly and indirectly during the first 7.5 years of the project. After that, it will derive about $21 million directly and indirectly during each year of full operation. About 2100 jobs will be created directly and indirectly at the peak of the construction and about 950 jobs during the full operation. A net in-migration will occur: about 2250 people at the peak of the construction and about 1000 people during operation. A housing shortage may begin in Carlsbad in 1981 or 1982 and last for about 2 years.

Not Available

1980-10-01

306

Modification and expansion of X-7725A Waste Accountability Facility for storage of polychlorinated biphenyl wastes at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) must manage wastes containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in accordance with Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requirements and as prescribed in a Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement (FFCA) between DOE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). PCB-containing wastes are currently stored in the PORTS process buildings where they are generated. DOE proposes to modify and expand the Waste Accountability facility (X-7725A) at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio, to provide a central storage location for these wastes. The proposed action is needed to eliminate the fire and safety hazards presented by the wastes. In this EA, DOE considers four alternatives: (1) no action, which requires storing wastes in limited storage areas in existing facilities; (2) modifying and expanding the X-7725A waste accountability facility; (3) constructing a new PCB waste storage building; and (4) shipping PCB wastes to the K-25 TSCA incinerator. If no action is taken, PCB-contaminated would continue to be stored in Bldgs X-326, X-330, and X-333. As TSCA cleanup activities continue, the quantity of stored waste would increase, which would subsequently cause congestion in the three process buildings and increase fire and safety hazards. The preferred alternative is to modify and expand Bldg. X-7725A to store wastes generated by TSCA compliance activities. Construction, which could begin as early as April 1996, would last approximately five to seven months, with a total peak work force of 70.

NONE

1995-11-01

307

The Effect of Reprocessing on the Tensile Properties of Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, waste cotton fabric reinforced polymer matrix composite material has been manufactured by a custom made recycling extruder. Composites with different reinforcement ratios as 12,5%wt ( 12,5%wtRPE ) and 25%wt ( 25%wtRPE ) were tested for their mechanical properties such as tensile strength and young's modulus. The material was then granulated down to the size enough to be used in the extrusion process in order to observe the effects of reprocessing. Reprocessing leads to improve Tensile Strength of composite materials and slows down the reduction of tensile strength of polyethylene. It was observed that composite materials were highly affected by the fiber orientation and acts as anisotropic material under the load.

Bodur, Mehmet Safa; Bakkal, Mustafa; Berkalp, Omer Berk; Sadikoglu, Telem Gok

2011-01-01

308

PLANNING AND ASSESSMENT MEASURES TO UPDATING RESOURCES RECYCLING EQUIPMENTS IN COLLABORATION WITH SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS AND WASTE INCINERATION PLANTS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to assess two biomass utilization policies: the integration of food waste treatment in a sewerage treatment plant with an anaerobic digestion tank, and the pruned branch usage as heat source for drying sludge. We focused on two points in our analysis that the impact of the increase of dewatered sludge on sludge treatment processes after digestion and the improvement of the efficiency of waste power generation plants. A developed model was applied to the case study in Kobe city and evaluated the impact until 2030 by four indicators: energy consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, phosphorus-recovery, and cost. The results showed that case 3-C, which introducing the combined sludge and food waste digestion system, pyrolysis gasification with gas engine and wood-chip boiler, could supply additional 452 TJ/y of energy, recovery 93 t-P/y of phosphorus, and reduce 38 kt-CO2eq./y of GHG while shrinking the cost by 88 million yen/y compared to business as usual types-update case.

Nakakubo, Toyohiko; Tokai, Akihiro; Ohno, Koichi

309

Metal accumulation strategies in plants spontaneously inhabiting Zn-Pb waste deposits.  

PubMed

Metal (Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Cr) accumulation in shoots of 38 plant species spontaneously colonizing three Zn-Pb waste deposits in southern Poland was studied in order to find out if the age of the waste (30-130 years) or its type (slag or flotation residues) influence metal content in plants and to identify species potentially suitable for biomonitoring and phytoremediation. The total metal concentrations in the waste upper layers ranged from 7300 to 171,790 mg kg(-1) for Zn, from 1390 to 22,265 mg kg(-1) for Pb, and from 66 to 1,464 mg kg(-1) for Cd, whereas CaCl2-extracted fractions accounted for 0.034-0.11 %, 0.005-0.03 %, and 0.28-0.62 % of total Zn, Pb and Cd concentrations, respectively. The concentrations of Cu, Ni, and Cr in substrates and in plants were low and ranged within the background values. Metal accumulation in plant shoots was poorly correlated with both total and CaCl2-extracted forms of metals in the substrate and was highly variable among species and also specimens of the same species. The highest mean concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd were found in Anthyllis vulneraria L. (901.5 mg kg(-1)), Echium vulgare L. (116.92 mg kg(-1)), and Hieracium piloselloides Vill. (26.86 mg kg(-1)), respectively. Besides Reseda lutea L., no species appeared to be a good indicator of polymetallic environment pollution based on chemical analysis of shoots; however, metal accumulation in the whole plant communities of a particular contaminated area might be an accurate tool for assessment of metal transfer to vegetation irrespective of the type or age of the waste. All the species studied developed a metal exclusion strategy, thus exhibiting potential for phytostabilization of metalliferous wastelands. PMID:24793328

Wójcik, Ma?gorzata; Sugier, Piotr; Siebielec, Grzegorz

2014-07-15

310

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 2, Chapter C, Appendix C1--Chapter C, Appendix C3 (beginning), Revision 3  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains appendices for the following: Rocky Flats Plant and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory waste process information; TRUPACT-II content codes (TRUCON); TRUPACT-II chemical list; chemical compatibility analysis for Rocky Flats Plant waste forms; chemical compatibility analysis for waste forms across all sites; TRU mixed waste characterization database; hazardous constituents of Rocky Flats Transuranic waste; summary of waste components in TRU waste sampling program at INEL; TRU waste sampling program; and waste analysis data.

Not Available

1993-03-01

311

Environmental management assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), Carlsbad, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the results of the Environmental Management Assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This Assessment was conducted by EH-24 from July 19 through July 30, 1993 to advise the Secretary of Energy of the adequacy of management systems established at WIPP to ensure the protection of the environment and compliance with Federal, state, and DOE environmental requirements. The mission of WIPP is to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. During this assessment, activities and records were reviewed and interviews were conducted with personnel from the management and operating contractors. This assessment revealed that WIPP`s environmental safety and health programs are satisfactory, and that all levels of the Waste Isolation Division (WID) management and staff consistently exhibit a high level of commitment to achieve environmental excellence.

Not Available

1993-07-01

312

Synthesis of biomass and utilization of plants wastes in a physical model of biological life-support system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper considers problems of biosynthesis of higher plants' biomass and "biological incineration" of plant wastes in a working physical model of biological LSS. The plant wastes are "biologically incinerated" in a special heterotrophic block involving Californian worms, mushrooms and straw. The block processes plant wastes (straw, haulms) to produce soil-like substrate (SLS) on which plants (wheat, radish) are grown. Gas exchange in such a system consists of respiratory gas exchange of SLS and photosynthesis and respiration of plants. Specifics of gas exchange dynamics of high plants — SLS complex has been considered. Relationship between such a gas exchange and PAR irradiance and age of plants has been established. Nitrogen and iron were found to the first to limit plants' growth on SLS when process conditions are deranged. The SLS microflora has been found to have different kinds of ammonifying and denitrifying bacteria which is indicative of intensive transformation of nitrogen-containing compounds. The number of physiological groups of microorganisms in SLS was, on the whole, steady. As a result, organic substances — products of exchange of plants and microorganisms were not accumulated in the medium, but mineralized and assimilated by the biocenosis. Experiments showed that the developed model of a man-made ecosystem realized complete utilization of plant wastes and involved them into the intrasystem turnover.

Tikhomirov, A. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Lisovsky, G. M.; Kudenko, Yu. A.; Kovalev, V. S.; Gribovskaya, I. V.; Tirranen, L. S.; Zolotukhin, I. G.; Gros, J. B.; Lasseur, Ch.

2003-08-01

313

Determination of soft X-ray emitting isotopes in radioactive liquid wastes of nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 59Ni and 55Fe radioisotopes were measured in radioactive wastes of some European nuclear power plants. A sample preparation method was developed that starts with the digestion in an oxygen atmosphere at an overpressure in a closed Berthelot calorimeter bomb. The detection limits for 59Ni and 55Fe were measured and calculated in the presence of high background activities from 60Co,

I. Gresits; S. Tölgyesi

2003-01-01

314

The phytotoxicity potential of olive processing waste on selected weeds and crop plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of sun-dried OPW (olive processing waste) on weeds and crop plants, was investigated at the Adnan Menderes University\\u000a Research and Application Farm between 2006 and 2007. Sun-dried OPW was placed in pots in doses of 9, 18, 27, 36, 45 and 54\\u000a grams per pot, which is equivalent to doses of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 kg m?2;

Özhan Boz; Derya Ö?üt; M. Nedim Do?an

2010-01-01

315

Hanford waste vitrification plant hydrogen generation study: Preliminary evaluation of alternatives to formic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxalic, glyoxylic, glycolic, malonic, pyruvic, lactic, levulinic, and citric acids as well as glycine have been evaluated as possible substitutes for formic acid in the preparation of feed for the Hanford waste vitrification plant using a non-radioactive feed stimulant UGA-12M1 containing substantial amounts of aluminum and iron oxides as well as nitrate and nitrite at 90C in the presence of

R. B. King; N. K. Bhattacharyya; V. Kumar

1996-01-01

316

The relationship of odor concentration and the critical components emitted from food waste composting plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current official policy regarding food waste management tends towards recycling for composting usage; however, malodors emitted from food waste composting plants raises other important environmental issues. The objectives of this study are to investigate the critical odorants of the emission from food waste composting plants and their human olfactory effect in general concentration ranges presented by olfactometric results. The determination of the critical odorants was made by the analysis of multiple compounds in odor samples collected inside and outside the plants using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas detector tubes. The results indicated that six critical odorants were found in the fields including ethylbenzene, dimethylsulfide, trimethylamine, p-cymene, ammonia and acetic acid. Even ethylbenzene, dimethylsulfide, trimethylamine and p-cymene required similar and extremely low olfactory threshold (0.002 ppm), their olfactometric effect patterns were significantly different; the linear correlation could be found for these compounds in high concentration ranging from 0.25 to 100 ppm ( P < 0.01); however, at low concentration ranging from 0.002 to 1 ppm, only trimethylamine presented a significant linear correlation ( P < 0.01), ethylbenzene and dimethylsulfide both presented logarithmic correlation ( P < 0.05), and p-cymene was without any correlation ( P > 0.05). At the same concentration of 5 ppm, the olfactometric results for trimethylamine, dimethylsulfide, p-cymene and ethylbenzene were 21 000, 1000, 300 and 74 Odor Concentration (OC), respectively (the ratio was 284:14:4:1). Trimethylamine contributed the most to this odor problem. Acetic acid showed a significant linear correlation in concentrations 0.1-50 ppm ( P < 0.01), but ammonia had no correlation in concentrations 5-100 ppm ( P > 0.05). This study not only indicated the specific olfactory effect patterns for the critical odorants emitted from food waste composting plants, but provided the practical information for the odor control engineering to judge the elimination priority.

Tsai, Chung-Jung; Chen, Mei-Lien; Ye, An-Di; Chou, Ming-Shean; Shen, Shu-Hung; Mao, I.-Fang

317

Environmental aspects of gasification of Korean municipal solid waste in a pilot plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Municipal solid waste was gasified in a 3ton\\/day capacity pilot plant based on thermoselect process with oxygen at a temperature of around 1200°C. CO and H2 content of synthesis gas were about 27–40 and 36–40%, respectively with high heating value 8.0–10.2MJ\\/Nm3. Chlorinated compounds like furan, dioxin, and other organics in gaseous and liquid phase were effectively destroyed due to high

Tae-Heon Kwak; Sanjeev Maken; Seungmoon Lee; Jin-Won Park; Byoung-ryul Min; Young Done Yoo

2006-01-01

318

Rooting depths of plants on low-level waste disposal sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1981-1982 an extensive bibliographic study was done to reference rooting depths of native plants in the United States. The data base presently contains 1034 different rooting citations with approximately 12,000 data elements. For this report, data were analyzed for rooting depths related to species found on low-level waste (LLW) sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Average rooting depth and

T. S. Foxx; G. D. Tierney; J. M. Williams

1984-01-01

319

Metal Tolerant Mycorrhizal Plants: A Review from the Perspective on Industrial Waste in Temperate Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The chapter summarizes research carried out on the role of mycorrhizal fungi in phytoremediation of heavy-metal-rich wastes\\u000a in temperate regions. Symbiotic fungi are an important component of soil microbiota, especially under harsh conditions. Properly\\u000a developed mutual symbiosis enhances the survival of plants in polluted areas by improving nutrient acquisition and water relations.\\u000a In addition, mycorrhizal fungi were found to play

Katarzyna Turnau; Przemys?aw Ryszka; Grzegorz Wojtczak

320

Borehole Gravity Meter Surveys at the Waste Treatment Plant, Hanford, Washington.  

SciTech Connect

Microg-LaCoste (MGL) was contracted by Pacfic Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) to record borehole gravity density data in 3 wells at the HanfordWaste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The survey was designed to provide highly accurate density information for use in seismic modeling. The borehole gravity meter (BHGM) tool has a very large depth of investigation (hundreds of feet) compared to other density tools so it is not influenced by casing or near welbore effects, such as washouts.

MacQueen, Jeffrey D.; Mann, Ethan

2007-04-06

321

Effects of wire rope in a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste shaft accident  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the empirical test program conducted on a 1/22-scale model of the WIPP facility. The model was designed to study the actions and effects of the wire rope used in the Koepe or friction-type hoist planned for use in the WIPP waste shaft during various accident scenarios. It is assumed that the hoist cable breaks and the cab (or shaft conveyance) falls to the bottom of the shaft during such an accident. The report gives the results of the study and makes recommendations for a continuing program of testing and redesign of the shaft to mitigate the effects of such an accident. The wire rope is shown to act as a good shock-absorbing material.

Ellett, D.M.

1982-12-01

322

Recent Update of Gastrointestinal Endoscope Reprocessing  

PubMed Central

As infection-related issues have become one of the most important concerns in endoscopy centers, proper reprocessing of endoscopes has attracted great interest. Compliance with established guidelines for reprocessing is critical to prevent pathogen transmission. However, hospital compliance with guidelines has not been satisfactory. To increase compliance, efforts have focused on developing new and more innovative disinfectants and an automated endoscope reprocessor. Reprocessing must be performed by appropriately trained personnel and regular monitoring of reprocessing is essential for quality assurance to improve compliance. PMID:23767038

Hong, Kyong Hee

2013-01-01

323

Refinery Waste Heat Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plant (WHAARP) Recovers LPG's and Gasoline, Saves Energy, and Reduces Air Pollution  

E-print Network

A first-of-its-kind Waste Heat Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plant (WHAARP™) was installed by Planetec Utility Services Co., Inc. in partnership with Energy Concepts Co. at Ultramar Diamond Shamrock's 30,000 barrel per day refinery in Denver...

Brant, B.; Brueske, S.; Erickson, D.; Papar, R.

324

Metal uptake by native plants and revegetation potential of mining sulfide-rich waste-dumps.  

PubMed

Waste dumps resulting from metal exploitation create serious environmental damage, providing soil and water degradation over long distances. Phytostabilization can be used to remediate these mining sites. The present study aims to evaluate the behavior of selected plant species (Erica arborea, Ulex europaeus, Agrostis delicatula, and Cytisus multiflorus) that grow spontaneously in three sulfide-rich waste-dumps (Lapa Grande, Cerdeirinha, and Penedono, Portugal). These sites represent different geological, climatic and floristic settings. The results indicate distinctive levels and types of metal contamination: Penedono presents highest sulfate and metal contents, especially As, with low levels of Fe. In contrast, at Lapa Grande and Cerdeirinha Fe, Mn, and Zn are the dominant metals. In accordance, each waste dump develops a typical plant community, providing a specific vegetation inventory. At Penedono, Agrostis delicatula accumulates As, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Zn, showing higher bioaccumulation factors (BF) for Mn (32.1) and As (24.4). At Cerdeirinha, Ulex europaeus has the highest BF for Pb (984), while at Lapa Grande, Erica arborea presents high BF for Mn (9.8) and Pb (8.1). Regarding TF, low values were obtained for most of the metals, especially As (TF < 1). Therefore, the results obtained from representative plant species suggest appropriate behavior for phytostabilization measures. PMID:24933904

Gomes, Patrícia; Valente, Teresa; Pamplona, Jorge; Braga, Maria Amália Sequeira; Pissarra, José; Gil, José António Grande; de la Torre, Maria Luisa

2014-01-01

325

Polonium-210 in the environment around a radioactive waste disposal area and phosphate ore processing plant.  

PubMed

Polonium-210 concentrations were determined for soil, vegetation and small mammal tissues collected at a solid radioactive waste disposal area, near a phosphate ore processing plant and at two rural areas in southeastern Idaho. Polonium concentrations in media sampled near the radioactive waste disposal facility were equal to or less than values from rural area samples, indicating that disposal of solid radioactive waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Site has not resulted in increased environmental levels of polonium. Concentrations of 210Po in soils, deer mice hide and carcass samples collected near the phosphate processing plant were statistically (P less than or equal to 0.05) greater than the other sampling locations; however, the mean 210Po concentration in soils and small mammal tissues from sampling areas near the phosphate plant were only four and three times greater, respectively, than control values. No statistical (P greater than 0.05) difference was observed for 210Po concentrations in vegetation among any of the sampling locations. PMID:6706588

Arthur, W J; Markham, O D

1984-04-01

326

Ceramic process and plant design for high-level nuclear waste immobilization  

SciTech Connect

In the last 3 years, significant advances in ceramic technology for high-level nuclear waste solidification have been made. Product quality in terms of leach-resistance, compositional uniformity, structural integrity, and thermal stability promises to be superior to borosilicate glass. This paper addresses the process effectiveness and preliminary designs for glass and ceramic immobilization plants. The reference two-step ceramic process utilizes fluid-bed calcination (FBC) and hot isostatic press (HIP) consolidation. Full-scale demonstration of these well-developed processing steps has been established at DOE and/or commercial facilities for processing radioactive materials. Based on Savannah River-type waste, our model predicts that the capital and operating cost for the solidification of high-level nuclear waste is about the same for the ceramic and glass options. However, when repository costs are included, the ceramic option potentially offers significantly better economics due to its high waste loading and volume reduction. Volume reduction impacts several figures of merit in addition to cost such as system logistics, storage, transportation, and risk. The study concludes that the ceramic product/process has many potential advantages, and rapid deployment of the technology could be realized due to full-scale demonstrations of FBC and HIP technology in radioactive environments. Based on our finding and those of others, the ceramic innovation not only offers a viable backup to the glass reference process but promises to be a viable future option for new high-level nuclear waste management opportunities.

Grantham, L.F.; McKisson, R.L.; De Wames, R.E.; Guon, J.; Flintoff, J.F.; McKenzie, D.E.

1983-01-01

327

Whole cell immobilised biosensors for toxicity assessment of a wastewater treatment plant treating phenolics-containing waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater treatment plants dealing with industrial wastes are often susceptible to overload of toxic influent that can partially or completely destroy treatment for extended periods. An obvious candidate for monitoring toxicity in such wastewater systems is bioluminescent bacteria. However, the natural bioluminescent bacteria can be particularly sensitive to some industrial wastes and therefore their response to normal operational conditions does

Jim C Philp; Séverine Balmand; Eva Hajto; Mark J Bailey; Siouxsie Wiles; Andrew S Whiteley; Andrew K Lilley; Janos Hajto; Sandra A Dunbar

2003-01-01

328

ASSESSMENT OF BACTERIA AND VIRUS EMISSIONS AT A REFUSE DERIVED FUEL PLANT AND OTHER WASTE HANDLING FACILITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is an executive summary of results of a program to compare relative levels of selected airborne bacteria and viruses within and around various waste handling facilities. Facilities included were an incinerator, a waste transfer station, a wastewater treatment plant, a ...

329

Site characterization report for the proposed transuranic waste handling and packaging plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is intended to assist the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Transuranic Waste Program in preparing environmental documentation to comply with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. The report presents a characterization of the environmental baseline conditions at a proposed site for a transuranic Waste Handling and Packaging Plant (WHPP) on the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation.

A. W. Campbell; G. F. Cada; R. H. Ketelle; R. L. Kroodsman; R. R. Lee; L. R. Pounds

1989-01-01

330

FULL-SCALE FIELD EVALUATION OF WASTE DISPOSAL FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC GENERATING PLANTS. VOLUME 5. APPENDIX F  

EPA Science Inventory

The six-volume report summarizes results of a 3-year study of current coal ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) waste disposal practices at coal-fired electric generating plants. The study involved characterization of wastes, environmental data gathering, evaluation of environm...

331

Concept for dismantling the Hllw treatment facility on the Former Wak Reprocessing Site  

SciTech Connect

The German pilot reprocessing plant WAK was operated until 1990 and processed about 200 tons of nuclear fuels from test and power reactors. In late 1991, the Federal Republic of Germany, the State of Baden-Wuerttemberg, and the utilities decided to shut down the WAK and to dismantle it completely to the green field. In the years 2000/2001, remote-controlled dismantling of the process cells in the reprocessing building was completed. Part of the building has already been subjected to release measurement and released from the obligations under the German Atomic Energy Act. However, a major prerequisite for the complete dismantling of the WAK is the management of the 60 m{sup 3} high-level liquid waste (HLLW) with an activity of 8.0 E 17 Bq resulting from reprocessing. For this purpose, the Karlsruhe vitrification plant (VEK) was constructed and is now under commissioning /1/. Hot operation is foreseen for the years 2007/2008. Following vitrification operation, dismantling of the four HLLW tanks in the storage building will be a particularly challenging task in terms of radiology. The HLLW tanks are located in thick-walled concrete cells that require remote- controlled horizontal access. For this purpose, a new access building, the southern extension, was built. It serves to bring in and operate the remote handling tools and allows for the contamination-safe removal and measurement of the MAW drums. In contrast to the crane in the process building, the manipulator carrier system used here is an 8 Mg excavator. All tools, including the wall cutter, chisel, cutting disk, scissors, and the electric master-slave manipulator (EMSM), can be docked to this excavator. The VEK installations shall be dismantled parallel to the HLLW storage tanks. Due to the dose rates expected after operation, two dismantling areas have to be distinguished in the VEK: The core area with the HLLW transfer cell, melter cell, and exhaust gas cell requires remote dismantling. All remaining cells and rooms may presumably be dismantled manually. (authors)

Birringer, K.J.; Fleisch, J.; Graffunder, I.; Pfeifer, W. [Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe, Ruckbau- und Entsorgungs- GmbH, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

2007-07-01

332

Remote ignitability analysis of high-level radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), was used to reprocess nuclear fuel from government owned reactors to recover the unused uranium-235. These processes generated highly radioactive liquid wastes which are stored in large underground tanks prior to being calcined into a granular solid. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and state/federal clean air statutes require waste characterization of these high level radioactive wastes for regulatory permitting and waste treatment purposes. The determination of the characteristic of ignitability is part of the required analyses prior to calcination and waste treatment. To perform this analysis in a radiologically safe manner, a remoted instrument was needed. The remote ignitability Method and Instrument will meet the 60 deg. C. requirement as prescribed for the ignitability in method 1020 of SW-846. The method for remote use will be equivalent to method 1020 of SW-846.

Lundholm, C.W.; Morgan, J.M.; Shurtliff, R.M.; Trejo, L.E.

1992-09-01

333

Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants.  

PubMed

Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation - before and after optimisation - as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential. PMID:23810322

De Greef, J; Villani, K; Goethals, J; Van Belle, H; Van Caneghem, J; Vandecasteele, C

2013-11-01

334

Waste Treatment Plant Support Program: Summaries of Reports Produced During Fiscal Years 1999-2010  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) being built on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site will be the largest chemical processing plant in the United States. Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) is the designer and constructor for the WTP. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has provided significant research and testing support to the WTP. This report provides a summary of reports developed initially under PNNL’s “1831” use agreement and later PNNL’s “1830” prime contract with DOE in support of the WTP. In March 2001, PNNL under its “1831” use agreement entered into a contract with BNI to support their research and testing activities. However, PNNL support to the WTP predates BNI involvement. Prior to March 2001, PNNL supported British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. in its role as overall designer and constructor. In February 2007, execution of PNNL’s support to the WTP was moved under its “1830” prime contract with DOE. Documents numbered “PNWD-XXXX” were issued under PNNL’s “1831” use agreement. Documents numbered “PNNL-XXXX” were issued under PNNL’s “1830” prime contract with DOE. The documents are sorted by fiscal year and categorized as follows: ? Characterization ? HLW (High Level Waste) ? Material Characterization ? Pretreatment ? Simulant Development ? Vitrification ? Waste Form Qualification. This report is intended to provide a compendium of reports issued by PNWD/PNNL in support of the Waste Treatment Plant. Copies of all reports can be obtained by clicking on http://www.pnl.gov/rpp-wtp/ and downloading the .pdf file(s) to your computer.

Beeman, Gordon H.

2010-08-12

335

Radioactive Iodine and Krypton Control for Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facilities  

SciTech Connect

The removal of volatile radionuclides generated during used nuclear fuel reprocessing in the US is almost certain to be necessary for the licensing of a reprocessing facility in the US. Various control technologies have been developed, tested, or used over the past 50 years for control of volatile radionuclide emissions from used fuel reprocessing plants. The US DOE has sponsored, since 2009, an Off-gas Sigma Team to perform research and development focused on the most pressing volatile radionuclide control and immobilization problems. In this paper, we focus on the control requirements and methodologies for 85Kr and 129I. Numerous candidate technologies have been studied and developed at laboratory and pilot-plant scales in an effort to meet the need for high iodine control efficiency and to advance alternatives to cryogenic separations for krypton control. Several of these show promising results. Iodine decontamination factors as high as 105, iodine loading capacities, and other adsorption parameters including adsorption rates have been demonstrated under some conditions for both silver zeolite (AgZ) and Ag-functionalized aerogel. Sorbents, including an engineered form of AgZ and selected metal organic framework materials (MOFs), have been successfully demonstrated to capture Kr and Xe without the need for separations at cryogenic temperatures.

N. R. Soelberg; J. D. Law; T. G. Garn; M. Greenhalgh; R. T. Jubin; P. Thallapally; D. M. Strachan

2013-08-01

336

Potential dispositioning flowsheets for ICPP SNF and wastes  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INEL), has reprocessed irradiated nuclear fuels for the US Department of Energy (DOE) since 1953. This activity resulted mainly in the recovery of uranium and the management of the resulting wastes. The acidic radioactive high-level liquid waste was routinely stored in stainless steel tanks and then calcined to form a dry granular solid. The calcine is stored in stainless steel bins that are housed in underground concrete vaults. In April 1992, the DOE discontinued the practice of reprocessing irradiated nuclear fuels. This decision has left a legacy of 1.8 million gallons of radioactive liquid wastes (1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid wastes and 0.3 million gallons of high-level liquid waste), 3800 cubic meters of calcine waste, and 289 metric tons of heavy metal within unprocessed spent nuclear fuel (SNF) left in inventory at the ICPP. The nation`s radioactive waste policy has been established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), which requires the final disposal of SNF and radioactive waste in accordance with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) standards. In accordance with these regulations and other legal agreements between the State of Idaho and the DOE, the DOE must, among other requirements, (1) complete a final Environmental Impact Statement by April 30, 1995, (2) evaluate and test sodium-bearing waste pre-treatment technologies, (3) select the sodium-bearing and calcine waste pre-treatment technology, if necessary, by June 1, 1995, and (4) select a technology for converting calcined waste into an appropriate disposal form by June 1, 1995.

Olson, A.L. [ed.; Anderson, P.A.; Bendixsen, C.L. [and others

1995-11-01

337

Survey of Endoscope Reprocessing in Korea  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims There is a growing emphasis on quality management in endoscope reprocessing. Previous surveys conducted in 2002 and 2004 were not practitioner-oriented. Therefore, this survey is significant for being the first to target actual participants in endoscope reprocessing in Korea. Methods This survey comprised 33 self-filled questions, and was personally delivered to nurses and nursing auxiliaries in the endoscopy departments of eight hospitals belonging to the society. The anonymous responses were collected after 1 week either by post or in person by committee members. Results The survey included 100 participants. In the questionnaire addressing compliance rates with the reprocessing guideline, the majority (98.9%) had a high compliance rate compared to 27% of respondents in 2002 and 50% in 2004. The lowest rate of compliance with a reprocessing procedure was reported for transporting the contaminated endoscope in a sealed container. Automated endoscope reprocessors were available in all hospitals. Regarding reprocessing time, more than half of the subjects replied that reprocessing took more than 15 minutes (63.2%). Conclusions The quality management of endoscope reprocessing has improved as since the previous survey. A national survey expanded to include primary clinics is required to determine the true current status of endoscope reprocessing. PMID:25674525

Park, Jeong Bae; Yang, Jae Nam; Koo, Ja Seol; Jang, Jae Young; Park, Sang Hoon; Hong, Su Jin; Kim, Sang-Woo; Chun, Hoon Jai

2015-01-01

338

Biological processes for the treatment of waste water from coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

In The Netherlands, all coal-fired power stations are equipped with a wet lime(stone)-gypsum flue gas desulfurization (FGD) installation, in order to meet the SO{sub 2} emission requirements. During wet desulfurization a waste water stream is produced containing among others suspended solids, heavy metals, nitrate and in some cases ammonia. Besides, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the waste water is increased if the FGD process is optimized by application of organic buffers. The traditional waste water treatment plant (WWTP) does not remove nitrate, ammonia and COD, and only poorly removes the anions of oxygenated metals such as selenium. In a previous research it was demonstrated that nitrate and ammonia can be removed biologically, even at the relatively extreme conditions of FGD waste water, which is characterized by a high chloride concentration (5 and 40 g/l) and relatively high temperatures (typically 35--50 C). However, the removal is no longer solely focused on nitrogen components, but also on COD removal and for the anions of some oxygenated metals target values are expected in the near future. In this paper attention is focused on two biological processes. One process is the combined removal of nitrate and COD in a fluid-bed reactor which can be applied upstream of the traditional WWTP. The application of this process was successfully demonstrated at a bench-scale fluid bed reactor. The optimal process conditions were determined in activated-sludge reactors on a laboratory scale. The second biological process is the combined removal of COD and metals from FGD waste water. An upflow sludge blanket reactor was successfully tested on laboratory scale at a wide range of process conditions with actual waste water. The possible advantages and disadvantages of the biological removal processes are discussed and compared with the well known chemical precipitation process.

Vredenbregt, L.H.J.; Potma, A.A.; Enoch, G.D.

1998-07-01

339

Swedish nuclear waste efforts  

SciTech Connect

After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

Rydberg, J.

1981-09-01

340

Vitrification of HLW Produced by Uranium\\/Molybdenum Fuel Reprocessing in COGEMA's Cold Crucible Melter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of the vitrification process currently used in the La Hague commercial reprocessing plants has been continuously improved during more than ten years of operation. In parallel COGEMA (industrial Operator), the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and SGN (respectively COGEMA's R&D provider and Engineering) have developed the cold crucible melter vitrification technology to obtain greater operating flexibility, increased plant

R. Do Quang; V. Petitjean; F. Hollebecque; O. Pinet; T. Flament; A. Prodhomme

2003-01-01

341

LABORATORY OPTIMIZATION TESTS OF TECHNETIUM DECONTAMINATION OF HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT LOW ACTIVITY WASTE OFF-GAS CONDENSATE SIMULANT  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also compatible with longterm tank storage and immobilization methods. For this new application, testing is needed to demonstrate acceptable treatment sorbents and precipitating agents and measure decontamination factors for additional radionuclides in this unique waste stream. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet and will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. One of the radionuclides that is volatile and expected to be in greatest abundance in this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream is Technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc). Technetium will not be removed from the aqueous waste in the Hanford WTP, and will primarily end up immobilized in the LAW glass by repeated recycle of the off-gas condensate into the LAW melter. Other radionuclides that are low but are also expected to be in measurable concentration in the LAW Off-Gas Condensate are {sup 129}I, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 241}Pu, and {sup 241}Am. These are present due to their partial volatility and some entrainment in the off-gas system. This report discusses results of optimized {sup 99}Tc decontamination testing of the simulant. Testing examined use of inorganic reducing agents for {sup 99}Tc. Testing focused on minimizing the quantity of sorbents/reactants added, and minimizing mixing time to reach the decontamination targets in this simulant formulation. Stannous chloride and ferrous sulfate were tested as reducing agents to determine the minimum needed to convert soluble pertechnetate to the insoluble technetium dioxide. The reducing agents were tried with and without sorbents.

Taylor-Pashow, K.; Nash, C.; McCabe, D.

2014-09-29

342

Assessment of municipal solid waste compost quality using standardized methods before preparation of plant growth media.  

PubMed

The quality of compost and its suitability for agricultural application depend upon physical and chemical parameters such as water-holding capacity, porosity, pH, electrical conductivity, C/N ratio, available nutrients and the absence of toxic substances. In the present study a complete characterization of an industrial municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) based on standardized European methods (CEN) for soil improvers and growing media was obtained, and compared with the quality of other Spanish composted biowaste and conventional substrates such as peat and pine bark. The MSWC was obtained from the main composting plant in Galicia (Spain), which processes organic waste that has been separated at origin and collected from more than 100 000 inhabitants. The MSWC presented a lower C/N ratio (15) than peat (84) and composted pine bark (CPB) (211), but had a similar ratio to other marketed MSWC. The nutrients and heavy metals were extracted using different recommended solvents (water, CaCl2 + diethylen triamin pentaacetic acid, and aqua regia). The nutrient concentrations of composted urban waste or manure were much higher than those of peat, CPB or pine bark. On the basis of the results of the plant tolerance test, the MSWC could be employed directly as a soil improver, but would need to be diluted with other low-salt components such as peat or CPB before being used as a growing media. PMID:17439045

Silva, María Teresa Barral; Menduíña, Ana Moldes; Seijo, Yolanda Cendón; Viqueira, Francisco Díaz-Fierros

2007-04-01

343

Plutonium Finishing Plant Treatment and Storage Unit Dangerous Waste Training Plan  

SciTech Connect

The training program for personnel performing waste management duties pertaining to the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Treatment and Storage Unit is governed by the general requirements established in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Dangerous Waste Training Plan (PFP DWTP). The PFP Treatment and Storage Unit DWTP presented below incorporates all of the components of the PFP DWTP by reference. The discussion presented in this document identifies aspects of the training program specific to the PFP Treatment and Storage Unit. The training program includes specifications for personnel instruction through both classroom and on-the-job training. Training is developed specific to waste management duties. Hanford Facility personnel directly involved with the PFP Treatment and Storage Unit will receive training to container management practices, spill response, and emergency response. These will include, for example, training in the cementation process and training pertaining to applicable elements of WAC 173-303-330(1)(d). Applicable elements from WAC 173-303-330(1)(d) for the PFP Treatment and Storage Unit include: procedures for inspecting, repairing, and replacing facility emergency and monitoring equipment; communications and alarm systems; response to fires or explosions; and shutdown of operations.

ENTROP, G.E.

2000-06-27

344

Long term plant biomonitoring in the vicinity of waste incinerators in The Netherlands.  

PubMed

Since the mid-nineties new waste incineration plants have come into operation in the Netherlands. Burning of waste can result in the emission of potentially toxic compounds. Although the incineration plants must comply with strict conditions concerning emission control, public concern on the possible impact on human health and the environment still exists. Multiple year (2004-2013) biomonitoring programs were set up around three waste incinerators for early detection of possible effects of stack emissions on the quality of crops and agricultural products. The results showed that the emissions did not affect the quality of crops and cow milk. Concentrations of heavy metals, PAHs and dioxins/PCBs were generally similar to background levels and did not exceed standards for maximum allowable concentrations in foodstuffs (e.g. vegetables and cow milk). Some exceedances of the fluoride standard for cattle feed were found almost every year in the maximum deposition areas of two incinerators. Biomonitoring with leafy vegetables can be used to monitor the real impact of these emissions on agricultural crops and to communicate with all stakeholders. PMID:25465951

van Dijk, Chris; van Doorn, Wim; van Alfen, Bert

2015-03-01

345

Influence of fermented tannery solid waste on morphological, biochemical, yield and nutritional responses of tomato plants.  

PubMed

The non-tanned proteinaceous tannery solid waste animal fleshing (ANFL), containing high nutritive value, was hydrolyzed using bacteria Selenomonas ruminantium HM000123 through submerged (SmF) and solid-state (SSF) fermentation processes. In addition, the effects of ANFL fermentative hydrolysate on growth, yield and biochemical properties of tomato plants were investigated. The treatments included T1 (SmF-ANFL), T2 (SSF-ANFL), T3 (recommended dose of NPK fertilizers) and a control without any amendment. Hydrolysates of both SmF-ANFL and SSF-ANFL treatments increased the biomass and yield as evidenced by plant height, stem girth, number of leaves and fruit yield when compared with both NPK and control plants. In this 90-day study, significant (p???0.05) changes were observed in SSF-ANFL treated plants compared to the other treatments. Protein profile analyzed through SDS-PAGE indicates the expression of a high molecular weight protein (205 kDa) and other proteins in the leaves of the SSF-ANFL treated plants. Overall results revealed that SSF-ANFL can be successfully utilized as a fertilizer particularly for cultivating tomato plants. PMID:25296938

Ravindran, B; Wong, J W C; Selvam, A; Murugesan, K; Mohanapriya, D; Sekaran, G

2014-10-10

346

The Geologic and Hydrogeologic Setting of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a mined repository constructed by the US Department of Energy for the permanent disposal of transuranic wastes generated since 1970 by activities related to national defense. The WIPP is located 42 km east of Carlsbad, New Mexico, in bedded salt (primarily halite) of the Late Permian (approximately 255 million years old) Salado Formation 655 m below the land surface. Characterization of the site began in the mid-1970s. Construction of the underground disposal facilities began in the early 1980s, and the facility received final certification from the US Environmental Protection Agency in May 1998. Disposal operations are planned to begin following receipt of a final permit from the State of New Mexico and resolution of legal issues. Like other proposed geologic repositories for radioactive waste, the WIPP relies on a combination of engineered and natural barriers to isolate the waste from the biosphere. Engineered barriers at the WIPP, including the seals that will be emplaced in the access shafts when the facility is decommissioned, are discussed in the context of facility design elsewhere in this volume. Physical properties of the natural barriers that contribute to the isolation of radionuclides are discussed here in the context of the physiographic, geologic, and hydrogeologic setting of the site.

Swift, P.N.; Corbet, T.F.

1999-03-04

347

Materials selection for process equipment in the Hanford waste vitrification plant  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed to vitrify defense liquid high-level wastes and transuranic wastes stored at Hanford. The HWVP Functional Design Criteria (FDC) requires that materials used for fabrication of remote process equipment and piping in the facility be compatible with the expected waste stream compositions and process conditions. To satisfy FDC requirements, corrosion-resistant materials have been evaluated under simulated HWVP-specific conditions and recommendations have been made for HWVP applications. The materials recommendations provide to the project architect/engineer the best available corrosion rate information for the materials under the expected HWVP process conditions. Existing data and sound engineering judgement must be used and a solid technical basis must be developed to define an approach to selecting suitable construction materials for the HWVP. This report contains the strategy, approach, criteria, and technical basis developed for selecting materials of construction. Based on materials testing specific to HWVP and on related outside testing, this report recommends for constructing specific process equipment and identifies future testing needs to complete verification of the performance of the selected materials. 30 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs.

Elmore, M R; Jensen, G A

1991-07-01

348

Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 11 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)  

SciTech Connect

Seismic reflection data from petroleum industry sources showed anomalous reflectors in the Castile Formation over a small area about 3 miles north of the center of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. Additional corroborative seismic reflection data were collected as part of WIPP investigations, and WIPP 11 was drilled to investigate the anomaly. WIPP 11 was drilled near the northwest corner of Section 9, T.22.S., R.31E. it penetrated, in descending order, sand dune deposits and the Gatuna Formation (29'), Santa Rosa Sandstone (132'), Dewey Lake Red Beds (502'), Rustler Formation (288'), Salado Formation (1379'), and most of the Castile Formation (1240'). Beds within the lower part of the Salado, and the upper anhydrite of the Castile, are thinner than normal; these beds are displaced upward structurally by the upper Castile halite which is highly thickened (about 968'). The lowest halite is thin (51') and the basal anhydrite was not completely penetrated. Subsequent seismic and borehole data has shown WIPP 11 to be in a structural complex now identified as the disturbed zone. The WIPP is a demonstration facility for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste from defense programs. The WIPP will also provide a research facility to investigate the interactions between bedded salt and high level waste, though there are no plans at this time to dispose of high level waste or spent fuel at WIPP.

Not Available

1982-02-01

349

Quality assurance program description: Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant, Part 1. Revision 3  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the Department of Energy`s Richland Field Office (DOE-RL) quality assurance (QA) program for the processing of high-level waste as well as the Vitrification Project Quality Assurance Program for the design and construction of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). It also identifies and describes the planned activities that constitute the required quality assurance program for the HWVP. This program applies to the broad scope of quality-affecting activities associated with the overall HWVP Facility. Quality-affecting activities include designing, purchasing, fabricating, handling, shipping, storing, cleaning, erecting, installing, inspecting, testing, maintaining, repairing, and modifying. Also included are the development, qualification, and production of waste forms which may be safely used to dispose of high-level radioactive waste resulting from national defense activities. The HWVP QA program is made up of many constituent programs that are being implemented by the participating organizations. This Quality Assurance program description is intended to outline and define the scope and application of the major programs that make up the HWVP QA program. It provides a means by which the overall program can be managed and directed to achieve its objectives. Subsequent parts of this description will identify the program`s objectives, its scope, application, and structure.

Not Available

1992-12-31

350

Status of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant compliance with 40 CFR 191B, December 1992  

SciTech Connect

Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with long-term regulations of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for final compliance evaluations. This paper describes the 1992 preliminary comparison with Subpart B of the Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191), which regulates long-term releases of radioactive waste. Results of the 1992 PA are preliminary, and cannot be used to determine compliance or noncompliance with EPA regulations because portions of the modeling system and data base are incomplete. Results are consistent, however, with those of previous iterations of PA, and the SNL WIPP PA Department has high confidence that compliance with 40 CFR 191B can be demonstrated. Comparison of predicted radiation doses from the disposal system also gives high confidence that the disposal system is safe for long-term isolation.

Marietta, M.G.; Anderson, D.R.

1993-10-01

351

Performance assessment in support of the 1996 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.  

PubMed

The conceptual and computational structure of a performance assessment (PA) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is described. Important parts of this structure are (1) maintenance of a separation between stochastic (i.e., aleatory) and subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty, with stochastic uncertainty arising from the many possible disruptions that could occur over the 10,000-year regulatory period that applies to the WIPP, and subjective uncertainty arising from the imprecision with which many of the quantities required in the analysis are known, (2) use of Latin hypercube sampling to incorporate the effects of subjective uncertainty, (3) use of Monte Carlo (i.e., random) sampling to incorporate the effects of stochastic uncertainty, and (4) efficient use of the necessarily limited number of mechanistic calculations that can be performed to support the analysis. The WIPP is under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the geologic (i.e., deep underground) disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste, with the indicated PA supporting a Compliance Certification Application (CCA) by the DOE to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October 1996 for the necessary certifications for the WIPP to begin operation. The EPA certified the WIPP for the disposal of TRU waste in May 1998, with the result that the WIPP will be the first operational facility in the United States for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste. PMID:10765441

Helton, J C; Anderson, D R; Jow, H N; Marietta, M G; Basabilvazo, G

1999-10-01

352

Recent Improvements In Interface Management For Hanfords Waste Treatment And Immobilization Plant - 13263  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for management and completion of the River Protection Project (RPP) mission, which comprises both the Hanford Site tank farms operations and the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The RPP mission is to store, retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste; store and dispose of treated wastes; and close the tank farm waste management areas and treatment facilities by 2047. The WTP is currently being designed and constructed by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) for DOE-ORP. BNI relies on a number oftechnical services from other Hanford contractors for WTP's construction and commissioning. These same services will be required of the future WTP operations contractor. The WTP interface management process has recently been improved through changes in organization and technical issue management documented in an Interface Management Plan. Ten of the thirteen active WTP Interface Control Documents (ICDs) have been revised in 2012 using the improved process with the remaining three in progress. The value of the process improvements is reflected by the ability to issue these documents on schedule.

Arm, Stuart T. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Pell, Michael J. [Bechtel National, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Van Meighem, Jeffery S. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Duncan, Garth M. [Bechtel National, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Harrington, Christopher C. [Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, Washington (United States)

2012-11-20

353

9 CFR 114.18 - Reprocessing of biological products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Reprocessing of biological products. 114.18...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS...PRODUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.18 Reprocessing of biological products. The...

2010-01-01

354

REPROCESSING OF POWER REACTOR FUELS. The Enrico Fermi Fast Breeder Reactor Fuel Progress Report No. 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary of work on the problems of reprocessing Enrico Fermi Fast ;\\u000a Breeder Reactor between July 1958 and January 1959 is given. Dissolution ;\\u000a experience with the Zr-clad U-Mo fuel pins is related. Corrosion of the ;\\u000a stainless steel waste evaporator was studied. Nuclear hazards, flow sheet design ;\\u000a and chemistry, and waste handling studies are also reported. (For

Pierce

1959-01-01

355

Uptake and translocation of heavy metals by medicinal plants growing around a waste dump site in Pretoria, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigated the uptake and translocation pattern of trace metals from two different plant species from a waste dump site in Pretoria, South Africa. Datura stramonium is used as an anti-asthmatic treatment and Amaranthus spinosus may either be used as a medicinal herb or consumed as a vegetable. The trace metal contents from different parts of these plants (leaf,

J. O. Olowoyo; O. O. Okedeyi; N. M. Mkolo; G. N. Lion; S. T. R. Mdakane

356

Influence of fuel cost on the operation of a gas turbine-waste heat boiler cogeneration plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of fuel cost on the operation is investigated for a gas turbine-waste heat boiler cogeneration plant by an optimal operational planning method. A planning method is first presented by which the operational policy of each piece of constituent equipment is determined so as to minimize the operational cost. Then, a case study is performed for a cogeneration plant

K. Ito; R. Yokoyama; S. Akagi; Y. Matsumoto

1990-01-01

357

Effect of burning supplementary waste fuels on the pollutant emissions by cement plants: a statistical analysis of process data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows how some statistical tools can be applied in the process analysis of real plant data, e.g. in the clinker production process by using alternative fuels (shredded tyres and waste oils) as alternative fuels in clinker kilns of two different cement plants. Statistical Student's t-tests, stepwise linear regression models and factor analysis were employed in the data analysis

M. Prisciandaro; G. Mazziotti; F. Veglió

2003-01-01

358

The Challenges of Creating a Real-Time Data Management System for TRU-Mixed Waste at the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Plant  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the challenges associated with creating a data management system for waste tracking at the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Plant (AMWTP) at the Idaho National Engineering Lab (INEEL). The waste tracking system combines data from plant automation systems and decision points. The primary purpose of the system is to provide information to enable the plant operators and engineers to assess the risks associated with each container and determine the best method of treating it. It is also used to track the transuranic (TRU) waste containers as they move throughout the various processes at the plant. And finally, the goal of the system is to support paperless shipments of the waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This paper describes the approach, methodologies, the underlying design of the database, and the challenges of creating the Data Management System (DMS) prior to completion of design and construction of a major plant. The system was built utilizing an Oracle database platform, and Oracle Forms 6i in client-server mode. The underlying data architecture is container-centric, with separate tables and objects for each type of analysis used to characterize the waste, including real-time radiography (RTR), non-destructive assay (NDA), head-space gas sampling and analysis (HSGS), visual examination (VE) and coring. The use of separate tables facilitated the construction of automatic interfaces with the analysis instruments that enabled direct data capture. Movements are tracked using a location system describing each waste container's current location and a history table tracking the container's movement history. The movement system is designed to interface both with radio-frequency bar-code devices and the plant's integrated control system (ICS). Collections of containers or information, such as batches, were created across the various types of analyses, which enabled a single, cohesive approach to be developed for verification and validation activities. The DMS includes general system functions, including task lists, electronic signature, non-conformance reports and message systems, that cut vertically across the remaining subsystems. Oracle's security features were utilized to ensure that only authorized users were allowed to log in, and to restrict access to system functionality according to user role.

Paff, S. W; Doody, S.

2003-02-25

359

Waste-heat disposal from US geothermal power plants: An update  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some of the more interesting and significant methods that are currently being studied in the US for reducing waste heat dissipation system costs and water consumption are: (1) allowing plant power output to vary with ambient conditions; (2) use of ammonia to transport waste heat from the turbine condenser to air-cooled coils; (3) development of a plastic-membrane type wet/dry tower; (4) marketing of steam turbines that can tolerate a wider range of back pressure; (5) use of circulating water storage to delay heat dissipation until more favorable conditions exist; (6) development of tubes with enhanced heat transfer surfaces to reduce condenser capital costs; and (7) use of evaporative condensers to reduce costs in binary cycles. Many of these projects involve large scale tests that are now fully installed and producing some preliminary data.

Robertson, R. C.

1982-05-01

360

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site environmental report for calendar year 1990  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Operational Environmental Monitoring Plan (OEMP) monitors a comprehensive set of parameters in order to detect any potential environmental impacts and establish baselines for future quantitative environmental impact evaluations. Surface water and groundwater, soil, and biotics are measured for background radiation. Nonradiological environmental monitoring activities include meteorological, air quality, soil properties, and the status of the local biological community. Ecological studies focus on the immediate area surrounding the site with emphasis on the salt storage pile, whereas baseline radiological surveillance covers a broader geographic area including nearby ranches, villages, and cities. Since the WIPP is still in a preoperational state, no waste has been received; therefore, certain elements required by Order DOE 5400.1 are not presented in this report. 15 figs. 19 tabs.

Not Available

1990-01-01

361

A formal expert judgment procedure for performance assessments of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is an experimental facility located in southeastern New Mexico. It has been designed to determine the feasibility of the geologic disposal of defense-generated transuranic waste in a deep bedded-salt formation. The WIPP was also designed for disposal and will operate in that capacity if approved. The WIPP Performance Assessment Department at Sandia National Laboratories has been conducting analyses to assess the long-term performance of the WIPP. These analyses sometimes require the use of expert judgment. This Department has convened several expert-judgment panels and from that experience has developed an internal quality-assurance procedure to guide the formal elicitation of expert judgment. This protocol is based on the principles found in the decision-analysis literature.

Trauth, K.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guzowski, R.V. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States). Business Administration & Economics Div.

1994-09-01

362

Historical Background on the Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

In 1979, six years after selecting the Delaware Basin as a potential disposal area, Congress authorized the U.S. Department of Energy to build the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico, as a Research and development facility for the safe management storage, and disposal of waste contaminated with transuranic radioisotopes. In 1998, 19 years after authorization and after site selection, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified that the WIPP disposal system complied with its regulations. The EPA's decision was primarily based on the results from a performance. assessment conducted in 1996, which is summarized in this special issue of Reliability Engineering and System Safety. This performance assessment was the culmination of four preliminary performance assessments conducted between 1989 and 1992. This paper provides a historical setting and context for how the performance of the deep geologic repository at the WIPP was analyzed. Also included is background on political forces acting on the project.

RECHARD,ROBERT P.

1999-10-21

363

Hydraulic Testing of Salado Formation Evaporites at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site: Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents interpretations of hydraulic tests conducted in bedded evaporates of the Salado Formation from May 1992 through May 1995 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP is a US Department of Energy research and development facility designed to demonstrate safe disposal of transuranic wastes from the nation's defense programs. The WIPP disposal horizon is located in the lower portion of the Permian Salado Formation. The hydraulic tests discussed in this report were performed in the WIPP underground facility by INTERA inc. (now Duke Engineering and Services, Inc.), Austin, Texas, following the Field Operations Plan and Addendum prepared by Saulnier (1988, 1991 ) under the technical direction of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Beauheim, Richard L.; Domski, Paul S.; Roberts, Randall M.

1999-07-01

364

Microbial Gas Generation Under Expected Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Repository Conditions: Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Gas generation from the microbial degradation of the organic constituents of transuranic (TRU) waste under conditions expected in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was investigated. The biodegradation of mixed cellulosic materials and electron-beam irradiated plastic and rubber materials (polyethylene, polyvinylchloride, hypalon, leaded hypalon, and neoprene) was examined. We evaluated the effects of environmental variables such as initial atmosphere (air or nitrogen), water content (humid ({approx}70% relative humidity, RH) and brine inundated), and nutrient amendments (nitogen phosphate, yeast extract, and excess nitrate) on microbial gas generation. Total gas production was determined by pressure measurement and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) were analyzed by gas chromatography; cellulose degradation products in solution were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Microbial populations in the samples were determined by direct microscopy and molecular analysis. The results of this work are summarized.

Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.

2011-07-01

365

Vetiver grass, Vetiveria zizanioides: a choice plant for phytoremediation of heavy metals and organic wastes.  

PubMed

Glasshouse and field studies showed that Vetiver grass can produce high biomass (>100t/ tha(-1) year(-1)) and highly tolerate extreme climatic variation such as prolonged drought, flood, submergence and temperatures (-15 degrees - 55 degrees C), soils high in acidity and alkalinity (pH 3.3-9.5), high levels of Al (85% saturation percentage), Mn (578 mg kg(-1)), soil salinity (ECse 47.5 dS m(-1)), sodicity (ESP 48%), anda wide range of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn). Vetiver can accumulate heavy metals, particularly lead (shoot 0.4% and root 1%) and zinc (shoot and root 1%). The majority of heavy metals are accumulated in roots thus suitable for phytostabilization, and for phytoextraction with addition of chelating agents. Vetiver can also absorb and promote biodegradation of organic wastes (2,4,6-trinitroluene, phenol, ethidium bromide, benzo[a]pyrene, atrazine). Although Vetiver is not as effective as some other species in heavy metal accumulation, very few plants in the literature have a wide range of tolerance to extremely adverse conditions of climate and growing medium (soil, sand, and railings) combined into one plant as vetiver. All these special characteristics make vetiver a choice plant for phytoremediation of heavy metals and organic wastes. PMID:19810597

Danh, Luu Thai; Truong, Paul; Mammucari, Raffaella; Tran, Tam; Foster, Neil

2009-01-01

366

Plant cover and water balance in gravel admixtures at an arid waste-burial site  

SciTech Connect

Isolation of radioactive waste buried in unsaturated zones will require long-term control of recharge and erosion. Soil covers control recharge at and sites by storing rainwater close enough to the surface to be removed by evapotranspiration. Surface layers of rock or gravel control erosion at sites with sparse vegetation, but can also alter plant habitat and cause recharge through interred waste. As an alternative, gravel mixed into the uppermost soil law may control erosion ever the king-term better than surface gravel layers. Gravel admixtures may also not influence plant establishment or sod water balance in waste-site covers. The interactive effects of gravel admixture concentration, vegetation, and precipitation on soil water content and plant cover were measured at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. Results support use of a combination of vegetation and gravel admixtures for erosion control. Vegetation seasonally depleted root zone water storage to about 6.5 volume % regardless of precipitation amount or the presence of gravel admixture amendments. In contrast, yearly increases in soil water storage as deep as 225 cm in plots without vegetation may be a leading indicator of recharge. The composition and abundance of vegetation changed over time and with precipitation amount, but was not influenced by gravel amendments. Seeded wheatgrasses [Agropyron sibericum Wilde and Agropyron dasystachyum (Hook.) Scribn.] established only when irrigated with twice average precipitation, but persisted after the irrigation ceased. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) and Russian thistle (Salsola kali L.) colonized areas receiving both irrigation and ambient precipitation. Stands with wheatgrasses extracted water more rapidly and depleted soil water to lower levels than cheatgrass-dominated stands. Increases in gravel cover and near-surface gravel concentrations after 5 yr were evidence of the formation of a protective gravel veneer. 44 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Waugh, W.J. [Department of Energy Grand Junction Projects Office, CO (United States); Thiede, M.E.; Bates, D.J. [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

1994-07-01

367

Description of a pilot plant to produce a pelleted form from simulated ICPP high-level calcined wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pilot plant uses techniques learned in the laboratory to combine calcine with solid and liquid binders to form hard, leach-resistant pellets. The pilot plant is designed to process up to 25 kg\\/h of calcine and will provide information necessary to verify the operational feasibility of pelletizing calcined waste. Also, information for the design of a possible full-scale pelletizing plant

S. J. Priebe; J. H. Valentine

1980-01-01

368

Perspective of the Science Advisor to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

In 1975 Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) was asked by the predecessor to the Department of Energy to assume responsibility for the scientific programs necessary to assure the safe and satisfactory development of a geologic repository in the salt beds of southeast New Mexico. Sandia has continued in the role of Science Advisor to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to the present time. This paper will share the perspectives developed over the past 25 years as the project was brought to fruition with successful certification by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on May 13, 1998 and commencement of operations on April 26, 1999.

WEART,WENDELL D.

1999-09-03

369

Condensed listing of surface boreholes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Project through 31 December 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report contains a condensed listing of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project surface boreholes drilled for the purpose of site selection and characterization through 31 December 1995. The US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored the drilling activities, which were conducted primarily by Sandia National Laboratories. The listing provides physical attributes such as location (township, range, section, and state-plane coordinates), elevation, and total borehole depth, as well as the purpose for the borehole, drilling dates, and information about extracted cores. The report also presents the hole status (plugged, testing, monitoring, etc.) and includes salient findings and references. Maps with borehole locations and times-of-drilling charts are included.

Hill, L.R.; Aguilar, R.; Mercer, J.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Newman, G. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-01-01

370

Borehole Summary Report for Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Borehole C4996  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the field-generated borehole log, lithologic summary, and the record of samples collected during the recent drilling and sampling of the basalt interval of borehole C4996 at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) on the Hanford Site. Borehole C4996 was one of four exploratory borings, one core hole and three boreholes, drilled to investigate and acquire detailed stratigraphic and down-hole seismic data. This data will be used to define potential seismic impacts and refine design specifications for the Hanford Site WTP.

Adams , S. C.; Ahlquist, Stephen T.; Fetters, Jeffree R.; Garcia, Ben; Rust, Colleen F.

2007-01-28

371

Biogeochemical Investigations to Evaluate the Performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a U.S. Department of Energy facility located in southeastern New Mexico, approximately 655 m (2150 ft.) below ground surface in a bedded salt, Permian evaporite formation. This mined geologic repository has been receiving transuranic (TRU) waste from defense-related and environmental-management activities since March 1999. TRU waste contains alpha-emitting transuranic nuclides with half-lives greater than twenty years at concentrations greater than 100 nCi/gram. These actinide-contaminated wastes were generated from nuclear-weapons production and related processing activities. They include various organics, adsorbed liquids, sludges, cellulosics, plastics, rubber, and a variety of metals and cemented materials. An extensive set of investigations were performed to establish the basis for TRU waste disposal at WIPP and to support initial certification from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A significant element of the conceptual geochemical model for WIPP is the microbiologically-driven reactions leading to biodegradation of organic constituents in TRU wastes, as well as interactions with actinides present in the waste. This presentation will discuss the biogeochemical investigations that were performed to evaluate microbiological activity at WIPP, including studies of gas generation due to biodegradation of cellulose, plastic, and rubber materials and actinide-microbe interactions leading to changes in actinide chemical speciation. Highlights of this work are discussed here. Cellulose biodegradation in salt-brine systems results in the generation of carbon dioxide and hydrogen, and aqueous fermentation products (low molecular weight organic acids). Hypersaline brine can limit the range of microbial metabolic pathways, due to the energetic stresses of maintaining osmotic balance compatible with metabolic processes. Methanogenesis yields the lowest free energy per mole of carbon and as such is often not detected in microorganisms that thrive in salt-brine environments (halophilic bacteria). However, laboratory tests performed over a period of 10 years demonstrated the production of methane gas from cellulose metabolism. Studies of actinide-microbe interactions revealed the bioaccumulation of uranium in phosphate-rich intracellular granules. These studies advanced the understanding of the metabolism of bacteria in salt-brine systems and the influence of halophilic microbiological activity on WIPP geochemistry.

Gillow, J. B.

2009-12-01

372

High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part I: Experimental tests in full scale plants.  

PubMed

In recent years, several waste-to-energy plants in Italy have experienced an increase of the concentration of acid gases (HCl, SO2 and HF) in the raw gas. This is likely an indirect effect of the progressive decrease of the amount of treated municipal waste, which is partially replaced by commercial waste. The latter is characterised by a higher variability of its chemical composition because of the different origins, with possible increase of the load of halogen elements such as chlorine (Cl) and fluorine (F), as well as of sulphur (S). A new dolomitic sorbent was then tested in four waste-to-energy plants during standard operation as a pre-cleaning stage, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber. For a sorbent injection of about 6kg per tonne of waste, the decrease of acid gases concentration downstream the boiler was in the range of 7-37% (mean 23%) for HCl, 34-95% (mean 71%) for SO2 and 39-80% (mean 63%) for HF. This pre-abatement of acid gases allowed to decrease the feeding rate of the traditional low temperature sorbent (sodium bicarbonate in all four plants) by about 30%. Furthermore, it was observed by the plant operators that the sorbent helps to keep the boiler surfaces cleaner, with a possible reduction of the fouling phenomena and a consequent increase of the specific energy production. A preliminary quantitative estimate was carried out in one of the four plants. PMID:25465511

Biganzoli, Laura; Racanella, Gaia; Rigamonti, Lucia; Marras, Roberto; Grosso, Mario

2015-02-01

373

Waste Toolkit A-Z Garden waste  

E-print Network

Waste Toolkit A-Z Garden waste Also see `Plant Swap' in the Waste Toolkit A-Z How can I recycle garden waste from my department? Typically, the University Parks Department collects and recycles the departments' green garden waste. The Parks Department takes the garden waste (grass, leaves and other plant

Melham, Tom

374

Recycling of solid waste rich in organic nitrogen from leather industry: mineral nutrition of rice plants.  

PubMed

The leather industry produces a large quantity of solid waste (wet blue leather), which contains a high amount of chromium. After its removal from wet blue leather, a solid collagenic material is recovered, containing high nitrogen levels, which can be used as a nitrogen source in agriculture. In order to take more advantage of the collagen, it was enriched with mineral P and K in order to produce NPK formulations. The objective was also to evaluate the efficiency of such formulations as a nutrient supply for rice plants in an Oxisoil, under greenhouse conditions. The application of PK enriched-collagen formulations resulted in N contents in the vegetative parts and grains of rice plants which were equivalent or superior to those obtained with urea and commercial NPK formulations. PMID:21167640

Nogueira, Francisco G E; Castro, Isabela A; Bastos, Ana R R; Souza, Guilherme A; de Carvalho, Janice G; Oliveira, Luiz C A

2011-02-28

375

Design of cost-effective waste-reduction systems for synthetic fuel plants  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the applicability of the Reactive mass-exchange (REAMEN) synthesis methodology in designing cost-effective desulfurization systems for synthetic-fuel plants. The REAMEN design technique provides a systematic framework to simultaneously screen several potentially applicable technologies and separating agents and identify the most cost-effective solution for a given waste-minimization task. It is based on developing mass-exchange pinch diagrams for the process. These diagrams can be employed to identify the type and flow rate of optimal mass-separating agents. A case study using the REAMEN framework for the desulfurization of gaseous H{sub 2}S emissions for a coal-liquefaction plant is presented in this paper. The optimal desulfurization network features one mass-exchange operation (absorption) utilizing both a physical solvent (water) and a reactive solvent (diethanolamine).

Warren, A.; El-Halwagi, M.M. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Srinivas, B.K. [General Electric Corporate Research and Development Center, Schenectady, NY (United States)

1995-10-01

376

RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - 25 YEARS SINCE THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures of fuel containing materials can be fairly useful for the entire world's nuclear community and can help make nuclear energy safer.

Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

2011-10-01

377

Potential for long-term isolation by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal system  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) must comply with EPA regulation 40 CFR Part 191, Subpart B, which sets environmental standards for radioactive waste disposal. The regulation, Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (hereafter referred to as the Standard), was vacated in 1987 by a Federal Court of Appeals and is underground revision. By agreement with the Sate of New Mexico, the WIPP project is evaluating compliance with the Standard as promulgated, in 1985 until a new regulation is available. This report summarizes the early-1990 status of Sandia National Laboratories' (SNL) understanding of the Project's ability to achieve compliance. The report reviews the qualitative and quantitative requirements for compliance, and identifies unknowns complicating performance assessment. It discusses in relatively nontechnical terms the approaches to resolving those unknowns, and concludes that SNL has reasonable confidence that compliance is achievable with the Standard as first promulgated. 46 refs., 7 figs.

Bertram-Howery, S.G. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Swift, P.N. (Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1990-06-01

378

Environmental Assessment for Hazardous Waste Staging Facility, Pantex Plant, Amarillo, Texas  

SciTech Connect

This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared pursuant to the implementing regulations to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which require federal agencies to assess the environmental impacts of a proposed action to determine whether that action requires the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) or if a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) can be issued. The Pantex Plant does not possess permanent containerized waste staging facilities with integral secondary containment or freeze protection. Additional deficiencies associated with some existing staging facilities include: no protection from precipitation running across the staging pads; lack of protection against weathering; and facility foundations not capable of containing leaks, spills or accumulated precipitation. These shortcomings have raised concerns with respect to requirements under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Deficiencies for these waste staging areas were also cited by a government audit team (Tiger Team) as Action Items. The provision for the staging of hazardous, mixed, and low level waste is part of the no-action altemative in the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the integrated ER/WM program. Construction of this proposed project will not prejudice whether or not this integration will occur, or how.

Not Available

1993-06-01

379

First-order study of property/composition relationships for Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant glasses  

SciTech Connect

A first-order composition variability study (CVS-I) was conducted for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) program to preliminarily characterize the effects on key glass properties of variations i selected glass (waste and frit) components. The components selected were Si0[sub 2],B[sub 2]O[sub 3],A1[sub 2]O[sub 3], Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3], ZrO[sub 2], Na[sub 2]O,Li[sub 2]O,CaO,MgO, and Others (all remaining waste components). A glass composition region was selected for study based on the expected range of glass compositions and the results of a previous series of scoping and solubility studies. Then, a 23-glass statistically-designed mixture experiment was conducted and data obtained for viscosity, electrical conductivity, glass transition temperature, thermal expansion, crystallinity, and durability [Materials Characterization Center (MCC-1) 28-day leach test and the 7-day Product Consistency Test (PCT)]. These data were modeled using first-order functions of composition, and the models were used to investigate the effects of the components on glass and melt properties. The CVS-I data and models will also be used to support the second-order composition variability study (CVS-II).

Piepel, G.F.; Hrma, P.R.; Bates, S.O.; Schweiger, M.J.; Smith, D.E.

1993-01-01

380

First-order study of property/composition relationships for Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant glasses  

SciTech Connect

A first-order composition variability study (CVS-I) was conducted for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) program to preliminarily characterize the effects on key glass properties of variations i selected glass (waste and frit) components. The components selected were Si0{sub 2},B{sub 2}O{sub 3},A1{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O,Li{sub 2}O,CaO,MgO, and Others (all remaining waste components). A glass composition region was selected for study based on the expected range of glass compositions and the results of a previous series of scoping and solubility studies. Then, a 23-glass statistically-designed mixture experiment was conducted and data obtained for viscosity, electrical conductivity, glass transition temperature, thermal expansion, crystallinity, and durability [Materials Characterization Center (MCC-1) 28-day leach test and the 7-day Product Consistency Test (PCT)]. These data were modeled using first-order functions of composition, and the models were used to investigate the effects of the components on glass and melt properties. The CVS-I data and models will also be used to support the second-order composition variability study (CVS-II).

Piepel, G.F.; Hrma, P.R.; Bates, S.O.; Schweiger, M.J.; Smith, D.E.

1993-01-01

381

Preliminary identification of scenarios for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, southeastern New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is being evaluated as a location for the disposal of defense-generated transuranic waste. One of the criteria to be used to determine the suitability of the disposal system is compliance with the Containment Requirements established by the Us Environmental Protection Agency. One step in determining compliance is to identify the combinations of events and processes (scenarios) defining possible future states of the disposal system that may affect the escape of radionuclides from the repository and transport to the accessible environment. A list of previously identified events and processes was adapted to a scenario-selection procedure that develops a comprehensive set of mutually exclusive scenarios through the use of a logic diagram. Four events resulted in the development of 16 scenarios. Preliminary analyses indicate that four scenarios result in no releases. Six scenarios consist of combinations of drilling into a waste-filled room, drilling into a room and an underlying brine reservoir, and emplacement of withdrawal wells downgradient from the repository. Six additional scenarios consist of these same six combinations with the addition of potash mining and the associated surface subsidence. The 12 retained scenarios will be screened based on consequence and/or probability of occurrence. During the course of performance assessment, additional data and information will be used to revise and update these preliminary scenarios where appropriate. 15 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Guzowski, R.V. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1991-07-01

382

Conceptual structure of performance assessments conducted for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico is being developed by the US Department of Energy as a disposal facility for transuranic waste. In support of this project, Sandia National Laboratories is conducting an ongoing performance assessment (PA) for the WIPP. The ordered triple representation for risk proposed by Kaplan and Garrick is used to provide a clear conceptual structure for this PA. This presentation describes how the preceding representation provides a basis in the WIPP PA for (1) the definition of scenarios and the calculation of scenario probabilities and consequences, (2) the separation of subjective and stochastic uncertainties, (3) the construction of the complementary cumulative distribution functions required in comparisons with the US Environmental Protection Agency`s standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (i.e., 40 CFR Part 191, Subpart B), and (4) the performance of uncertainty and sensitivity studies. Results obtained in a preliminary PA for the WIPP completed in December of 1991 are used for illustration.

Helton, J.C. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Marietta, M.G.; Rechard, R.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-04-01

383

Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 2, Technical basis  

SciTech Connect

Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with applicable long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for a final compliance evaluation. This volume, Volume 2, contains the technical basis for the 1992 PA. Specifically, it describes the conceptual basis for consequence modeling and the PA methodology, including the selection of scenarios for analysis, the determination of scenario probabilities, and the estimation of scenario consequences using a Monte Carlo technique and a linked system of computational models. Additional information about the 1992 PA is provided in other volumes. Volume I contains an overview of WIPP PA and results of a preliminary comparison with the long-term requirements of the EPA`s Environmental Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). Volume 3 contains the reference data base and values for input parameters used in consequence and probability modeling. Volume 4 contains uncertainty and sensitivity analyses related to the preliminary comparison with 40 CFR 191B. Volume 5 contains uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of gas and brine migration for undisturbed performance. Finally, guidance derived from the entire 1992 PA is presented in Volume 6.

Not Available

1992-12-01

384

Diversion scenarios in an aqueous reprocessing facility  

E-print Network

The International Atomic Energy Agency requires nuclear facilities around the world to abide by heavily enforced safeguards to prevent proliferation. Nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities are designed to be proliferation-resistant ...

Calderón, Lindsay Lorraine

2009-01-01

385

One System Integrated Project Team Progress in Coordinating Hanford Tank Farms and the Waste Treatment Plant  

SciTech Connect

The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed at the Hanford Site in late 2011 as a way to improve coordination and itegration between the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) on interfaces between the two projects, and to eliminate duplication and exploit opportunities for synergy. The IPT is composed of jointly staffed groups that work on technical issues of mutal interest, front-end design and project definition, nuclear safety, plant engineering system integration, commissioning, planning and scheduling, and environmental, safety, health and quality (ESH&Q) areas. In the past year important progress has been made in a number of areas as the organization has matured and additional opportunities have been identified. Areas covered in this paper include: Support for development of the Office of Envirnmental Management (EM) framework document to progress the Office of River Protection's (ORP) River Protection Project (RPP) mission; Stewardship of the RPP flowsheet; Collaboration with Savannah River Site (SRS), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Operations programs integration; and, Further development of the waste acceptance criteria.

Skwarek, Raymond J. [Washington River Protection Systems, Richland, WA (United States); Harp, Ben J. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Duncan, Garth M. [Bechtel National, Inc. (United States)

2013-12-18

386

Fungal and microbial volatile organic compounds exposure assessment in a waste sorting plant.  

PubMed

In the management of solid waste, pollutants over a wide range are released with different routes of exposure for workers. The potential for synergism among the pollutants raises concerns about potential adverse health effects, and there are still many uncertainties involved in exposure assessment. In this study, conventional (culture-based) and molecular real-time polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) methodologies were used to assess fungal air contamination in a waste-sorting plant which focused on the presence of three potential pathogenic/toxigenic fungal species: Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, and Stachybotrys chartarum. In addition, microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOC) were measured by photoionization detection. For all analysis, samplings were performed at five different workstations inside the facilities and also outdoors as a reference. Penicillium sp. were the most common species found at all plant locations. Pathogenic/toxigenic species (A. fumigatus and S. chartarum) were detected at two different workstations by RTPCR but not by culture-based techniques. MVOC concentration indoors ranged between 0 and 8.9 ppm (average 5.3 ± 3.16 ppm). Our results illustrated the advantage of combining both conventional and molecular methodologies in fungal exposure assessment. Together with MVOC analyses in indoor air, data obtained allow for a more precise evaluation of potential health risks associated with bioaerosol exposure. Consequently, with this knowledge, strategies may be developed for effective protection of the workers. PMID:23095159

Malta-Vacas, J; Viegas, S; Sabino, R; Viegas, C

2012-01-01

387

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 6, Revision 3  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains Appendix D2, engineering design basis reports. Contents include: Design considerations for the waste hoist of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); A site-specific study of wind and tornado probabilities at the WIPP Site in southeast New Mexico; Seismic evaluation report of underground facilities; and calculations for analysis of wind loads and tornado loads for WHB, seismic calculations, calculations for VOC-10 monitoring system, and for shaft at station A.

Not Available

1993-03-01

388

Radioactivity of coals and ash and slag wastes at coal-fired thermal power plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an analysis of published data on the content of radioactive nuclides in coals originating from various coal deposits, and in ash and slag wastes produced at coal-fired thermal power plants, as well as in fly ash emitted from thermal power plants into the atmosphere. Problems related to the use of coals with an elevated content of natural radionuclides (NRNs) and methods of their solution implemented at the Urtuyskoe coalfield are dealt with. Data on the analysis of Transbaikal coals for the NRN content, as well as weighted mean content of uranium and thorium in coals from the Siberian Region, are given. In order to reduce irradiation of plant personnel and the population of the areas where coal producers and coal-fired thermal power plants are located, it is necessary to organize very careful control of the NRN content in both coals and products of their combustion that are released into the environment. To solve the problem related to the control of radioactivity, the centralized approach and creation of a proper normative base are needed. Experience gained in developing the Urtuyskoe coalfield shows that it is possible to create an efficient system of coal quality control with respect to the radiation hygiene factor and provide protection of the environment and health of the population.

Krylov, D. A.; Sidorova, G. P.

2013-04-01

389

Plant growth response in experimental soilless mixes prepared from coal combustion products and organic waste materials  

SciTech Connect

Large quantities of organic materials such as animal manures, yard trimmings, and biosolids are produced each year. Beneficial use options for them are often limited, and composting has been proposed as a way to better manage these organic materials. Similarly, burning of coal created 125 million tons of coal combustion products (CCP) in the United States in 2006. An estimated 53 million tons of CCP were reused, whereas the remainder was deposited in landfills. By combining CCP and composted organic materials (COM), we were able to create soilless plant growth mixes with physicochemical conditions that can support excellent plant growth. An additional benefit is the conservation of natural raw materials, such as peat, which is generally used for making soilless mixes. Experimental mixes were formulated by combining CCP and COM at ratios ranging from 2:8 to 8:2 (vol/vol), respectively. Water content at saturation for the created mixes was 63% to 72%, whereas for the commercial control, it was 77%. pH values for the best performing mixes ranged between 5.9 and 6.8. Electrical conductivity and concentrations of required plant nutrient were also within plant growth recommendations for container media. Significantly (P < 0.0001) higher plant biomass growth (7%-130%) was observed in the experimental mixes compared with a commercial mix. No additional fertilizers were provided during the experiment, and reduced fertilization costs can thus accrue as an added benefit to the grower. In summary, combining CCP and COM, derived from source materials often viewed as wastes, can create highly productive plant growth mixes.

Bardhan, S.; Watson, M.; Dick, W.A. [Ohio State University, Wooster, OH (United States)

2008-07-15

390

Formulation of SYNROC-D additives for Savannah River Plant high-level radioactive waste. [ADSYN code  

SciTech Connect

SYNROC-D is a multiphase ceramic waste form consisting of nepheline, zirconolite, perovskite, and spinel. It has been formulated for the immobilization of high-level radioactive wastes now stored at Savannah River Plant (SRP) near Aiken, South Carolina. This report utilizes existing experimental data to develop a method for calculating additives to these waste products. This method calculates additions based on variations of mineral compositions as a function of sludge composition and radionuclide partitioning among the SYNROC phases. Based on these calculations, a FORTRAN program called ADSYN has been developed to determine the proper reagent proportions to be added to the SRP sludges.

Ryerson, F.J.; Burr, K.; Rozsa, R.

1981-12-01

391

Canister arrangement for storing radioactive waste  

DOEpatents

The subject invention relates to a canister arrangement for jointly storing high level radioactive chemical waste and metallic waste resulting from the reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuel elements. A cylindrical steel canister is provided with an elongated centrally disposed billet of the metallic waste and the chemical waste in vitreous form is disposed in the annulus surrounding the billet.

Lorenzo, D.K.; Van Cleve, J.E. Jr.

1980-04-23

392

Canister arrangement for storing radioactive waste  

DOEpatents

The subject invention relates to a canister arrangement for jointly storing high level radioactive chemical waste and metallic waste resulting from the reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuel elements. A cylindrical steel canister is provided with an elongated centrally disposed billet of the metallic waste and the chemical waste in vitreous form is disposed in the annulus surrounding the billet.

Lorenzo, Donald K. (Knoxville, TN); Van Cleve, Jr., John E. (Kingston, TN)

1982-01-01

393

Laboratory Scoping Tests Of Decontamination Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also compatible with longterm tank storage and immobilization methods. For this new application, testing is needed to demonstrate acceptable treatment sorbents and precipitating agents and measure decontamination factors for additional radionuclides in this unique waste stream. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet and will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. One of the radionuclides that is volatile and expected to be in high concentration in this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream is Technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc). Technetium will not be removed from the aqueous waste in the Hanford WTP, and will primarily end up immobilized in the LAW glass by repeated recycle of the off-gas condensate into the LAW melter. Other radionuclides that are also expected to be in appreciable concentration in the LAW Off-Gas Condensate are {sup 129}I, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 241}Am. This report discusses results of preliminary radionuclide decontamination testing of the simulant. Testing examined use of Monosodium Titanate (MST) to remove {sup 90}Sr and actinides, inorganic reducing agents for {sup 99}Tc, and zeolites for {sup 137}Cs. Test results indicate that excellent removal of {sup 99}Tc was achieved using Sn(II)Cl{sub 2} as a reductant, coupled with sorption onto hydroxyapatite, even in the presence of air and at room temperature. This process was very effective at neutral pH, with a Decontamination Factor (DF) >577 in two hours. It was less effective at alkaline pH. Conversely, removal of the cesium was more effective at alka

Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.; Nash, Charles A.; Crawford, Charles L.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.

2014-01-21

394

Hanford Waste Physical and Rheological Properties: Data and Gaps  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site in Washington State manages 177 underground storage tanks containing approximately 250,000 m3 of waste generated during past defense reprocessing and waste management operations. These tanks contain a mixture of sludge, saltcake and supernatant liquids. The insoluble sludge fraction of the waste consists of metal oxides and hydroxides and contains the bulk of many radionuclides such as the transuranic components and 90Sr. The saltcake, generated by extensive evaporation of aqueous solutions, consists primarily of dried sodium salts. The supernates consist of concentrated (5-15 M) aqueous solutions of sodium and potassium salts. The 177 storage tanks include 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) and 28 double -hell tanks (DSTs). Ultimately the wastes need to be retrieved from the tanks for treatment and disposal. The SSTs contain minimal amounts of liquid wastes, and the Tank Operations Contractor is continuing a program of moving solid wastes from SSTs to interim storage in the DSTs. The Hanford DST system provides the staging location for waste feed delivery to the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection’s (ORP) Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP is being designed and constructed to pretreat and then vitrify a large portion of the wastes in Hanford’s 177 underground waste storage tanks.

Wells, Beric E.; Kurath, Dean E.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Onishi, Yasuo; Huckaby, James L.; Cooley, Scott K.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Buck, Edgar C.; Tingey, Joel M.; Daniel, Richard C.; Anderson, K. K.

2011-08-01

395

RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE USSR: A REVIEW OF UNCLASSIFIED SOURCES, 1963-1990  

SciTech Connect

The Soviet Union operates a vast and growing radioactive waste management system. Detailed information on this system is rare and a general overall picture only emerges after a review of a great deal of literature. Poor waste management practices and slow implementation of environmental restoration activities have caused a great deal of national concern. The release of information on the cause and extent of an accident involving high-level waste at the Kyshtym production reactor site in 1957, as well as other contamination at the site, serve to highlight past Soviet waste management practices. As a result, the area of waste management is now receiving greater emphasis, and more public disclosures. Little is known about Soviet waste management practices related to uranium mining, conversion, and fuel fabrication processes. However, releases of radioactive material to the environment from uranium mining and milling operations, such as from mill tailings piles, are causing public concern. Official Soviet policy calls for a closed fuel cycle, with reprocessing of power reactor fuel that has been cooled for five years. For power reactors, only VVER-440 reactor fuel has been reprocessed in any significant amount, and a decision on the disposition of RBMK reactor fuel has been postponed indefinitely. Soviet reprocessing efforts are falling behind schedule; thus longer storage times for spent fuel will be required, primarily at multiple reactor stations. Information on reprocessing in the Soviet Union has been severely limited until 1989, when two reprocessing sites were acknowledged by the Soviets. A 400-metric ton (MT) per year reprocessing facility, located at Kyshtym, has been operational since 1949 for reprocessing production reactor fuel. This facility is reported to have been reprocessing VVER-440 and naval reactor fuel since 1978, with about 2000 MT of VVER-440 fuel being reprocessed by July 1989. A second facility, located near Krasnoyarsk and having a 1500 MT per year capacity as the first of several modules, was about 30% completed by July 1989. The completion of this plant was subsequently "indefinitely postponed." The initial reprocessing scheme at the Kyshtym site used sodium uranyl acetate precipitation from fuel dissolved in nitric acid solutions. The basic method~ ology now appears to be based on the conventional PUREX process. Dry reprocessing on a pilot or laboratory scale has been under way in Dimitrovgrad since 1984, and a larger unit is now being built, according to the French CEA. Perhaps significantly, much research is being done on partitioning high-level waste into element fractions. The Soviets appear to have the technology to remove radioactive noble gases released during reprocessing operations; however, there are no indications of its implementation. Millions of curies of liquid low- and intermediate-level wastes have been disposed of by well injection into underground areas where they were supposedly contained by watertight rock strata. Some gaseous wastes were also disposed of by well injection. This practice is not referred to in recent literature and thus may not be widely used today. Rather, it appears that these waste streams are now first treated to reduce volume, and then solidified using bitumen or concrete. These solidified liquid wastes from Soviet nuclear power reactor operations, along with solid wastes, are disposed of in shallow-land burial sites located at most large power reactor stations. In addition, 35 shallow-land burial sites have been alluded to by the Soviets for disposal of industrial, medical, and research low-level wastes as well as ionization sources. Research on tritium-bearing and other gaseous wastes is mentioned, as well as a waste minimization program aimed at reducing the volume of waste streams by 30%. The Soviets have announced that their high-level waste management plan is to 1) store liquid wastes for 3-5 years; 2) incorporate the waste into glass (at a final glass volume of 100-150 liters/MT of fuel reprocessed); 3) set it aside in air-cooled storage

Bradley, D. J.; Schneider, K. J.

1990-03-01

396

Dioxin abatement strategies and mass balance at a municipal waste management plant.  

PubMed

Since the thermal management of municipal solid waste (MSW) is considered to be one of the major sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), the purpose of this study was to show the results of a dioxin abatement program performed in the municipal waste incineration (MWI) plant of Tarragona (NE Spain). Previously, stack gas emission levels of PCDDs/PCDFs around 3.26 ng I-TEQ/Nm3 were determined when the gas-cleaning system consisted only of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Decreased levels, below 0.1 ng I-TEQ/ Nm3, were observed when a new air pollution control system was installed. This new system was improved by the injection of activated carbon, which helped to lower the levels of PCDDs/PCDFs to around 0.01 ng I-TEQ/Nm3. Considering the absence of a particular impact on herbages, soils, and ambient air around the plant, as reported in previous works, and the hypothesis that a modern installation could become a sink for dioxins instead of a source, a dioxin mass balance was evaluated. The study compared in a large-scale MWI plant the levels of PCDDs/PCDFs of all input and output contributors (MSW, ambient air, stack gas emission, fly ash, and slag) forming part of the inventory collected in various monitoring campaigns. The findings revealed a remarkable homogeneity in output values (between 1.19 and 2.62 ng I-TEQ/yr) in contrast to the large variability observed in input values. In the first sampling campaign, the dioxin content in MSW was around 64.15 ng I-TEQ/kg, and a negative balance of 7.68 g I-TEQ/yr was calculated. However, in the latest campaign, levels were about 2.36 ng I-TEQ/kg MSW, resulting in a positive balance of 2.28 g I-TEQ/yr. PMID:11811497

Abad, E; Adrados, M A; Caixach, J; Rivera, Josep

2002-01-01

397

Occupational hygiene in terms of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and bioaerosols at two solid waste management plants in Finland  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? Odorous VOCs: acetic acid, 2,3-butanedione, ethyl acetate, alpha-pinene and limonene. ? VOC concentrations did not exceed occupational exposure limit concentrations. ? 2,3-Butanedione as the health effecting compound is discussed. ? Endotoxin concentrations may cause health problems in waste treatment. - Abstract: Factors affecting occupational hygiene were measured at the solid waste transferring plant at Hyvinkää and at the optic separation plant in Hämeenlinna. Measurements consisted of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and bioaerosols including microbes, dust and endotoxins. The most abundant compounds in both of the plants were aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, esters of carboxylic acids, ketones and terpenes. In terms of odour generation, the most important emissions were acetic acid, 2,3-butanedione, ethyl acetate, alpha-pinene and limonene due to their low threshold odour concentrations. At the optic waste separation plant, limonene occurred at the highest concentration of all single compounds of identified VOCs. The concentration of any single volatile organic compound did not exceed the occupational exposure limit (OEL) concentration. However, 2,3-butanedione as a health risk compound is discussed based on recent scientific findings linking it to lung disease. Microbe and dust concentrations were low at the waste transferring plant. Only endotoxin concentrations may cause health problems; the average concentration inside the plant was 425 EU/m{sup 3} which clearly exceeded the threshold value of 90 EU/m{sup 3}. In the wheel loader cabin the endotoxin concentrations were below 1 EU/m{sup 3}. High microbial and endotoxin concentrations were measured in the processing hall at the optic waste separation plant. The average concentration of endotoxins was found to be 10,980 EU/m{sup 3}, a concentration which may cause health risks. Concentrations of viable fungi were quite high in few measurements in the control room. The most problematic factor was endotoxins whose average measured concentrations was 4853 EU/m{sup 3}.

Lehtinen, Jenni, E-mail: jenni.k.lehtinen@jyu.fi [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Tolvanen, Outi; Nivukoski, Ulla; Veijanen, Anja; Hänninen, Kari [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyväskylä (Finland)

2013-04-15

398

Bioaerosols from a food waste composting plant affect human airway epithelial cell remodeling genes.  

PubMed

The composting procedure in food waste plants generates airborne bioaerosols that have the potential to damage human airway epithelial cells. Persistent inflammation and repair responses induce airway remodeling and damage to the respiratory system. This study elucidated the expression changes of airway remodeling genes in human lung mucoepidermoid NCI-H292 cells exposed to bioaerosols from a composting plant. Different types of microorganisms were detectable in the composting plant, using the agar culture method. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the level of Aspergillus fumigatus and the profile of remodeling genes. The real-time PCR results indicated that the amount of A. fumigatus in the composting hall was less than 10(2) conidia. The endotoxins in the field bioaerosols were determined using a limulus amebocyte lysate test. The endotoxin levels depended on the type of particulate matter (PM), with coarse particles (2.5-10 ?m) having higher endotoxin levels than did fine particles (0.5-2.5 ?m). After exposure to the conditioned medium of field bioaerosol samples, NCI-H292 cells showed increased pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-6 release and activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (p21 WAF1/CIP1) gene expression, but not of matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-9. Airborne endotoxin levels were higher inside the composting hall than they were in other areas, and they were associated with PM. This suggested that airborne bioaerosols in the composting plant contained endotoxins and microorganisms besides A. fumigatus that cause the inflammatory cytokine secretion and augment the expression of remodeling genes in NCI-H292 cells. It is thus necessary to monitor potentially hazardous materials from bioaerosols in food composting plants, which could affect the health of workers. PMID:24368426

Chang, Min-Wei; Lee, Chung-Ru; Hung, Hsueh-Fen; Teng, Kuo-Sheng; Huang, Hsin; Chuang, Chun-Yu

2014-01-01

399

Bioremediation of pesticide wastes in soil using two plant species, Kochia Scoparia and Brassica Napus  

SciTech Connect

Radiotracer studies were conducted to determine the fate of atrazine and metolachlor, applied as a mixture, in soils taken from pesticide-contaminated sites. Samples taken from nonvegetated areas and from the rhizosphere of Kochia scoparia were treated with {sup 14}C-atrazine and unlabeled metolachlor (50 {mu}g/g each) and incubated for 30, 60 or 135 d. A mass balance of the {sup 14}C applied revealed significant differences between the two soil types in soil bound residues, {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, and the extractable organic fraction (p<0.05). After 135-d incubation, 28% of the applied {sup 14}C was mineralized in Kochia rhizosphere soil, compared to 4% in soil taken from a nonvegetated area. A greater amount of {sup 14}C was extractable from the nonvegetated soil compared to the rhizosphere soil (64% and 22%, respectively). The half-life of atrazine based on extractable {sup 14}C-atrazine was 193 d in nonvegetated soil and 50 d in Kochia rhizosphere soil. Additional subsamples of nonvegetated soils treated with a mixture of {sup 14}C-atrazine and metolachlor were allowed to age for 135 d, and then were either planted with Brassica napus, Kochia scoparia, or left unvegetated. Incubations were carried out in enclosed chambers under controlled conditions. After 30 additional days, a subset of samples was extracted and analyzed using thin-layer chromatography, soil and plant combustion, and liquid scintillation spectroscopy. The percent of applied {sup 14}C-atrazine remaining as atrazine in soil which was nonvegetated, or planted with Brassica napus or Kochia scoparia was 9.3, 6.5, and 4.2%, respectively. Combustion of plants revealed that 11% of the applied radioactivity was taken up in Kochia scoparia, while less than 1% was taken up in Brassica napus plants. The potential for vegetation to aid in bioremediating pesticide wastes in soil is promising.

Kruger, E.L.; Anderson, T.A.; Coats, J.R. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

1995-12-31

400

Disposal of defense spent fuel and HLW from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant  

SciTech Connect

Acid high-level radioactive waste (HLW) resulting from fuel reprocessing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been solidified to a calcine since 1963 and stored in stainless steel bins enclosed by concrete vaults. Several different types of unprocessed irradiated DOE-owned fuels are also in storage ate the ICPP. In April, 1992, DOE announced that spent fuel would no longer be reprocessed to recover enriched uranium and called for a shutdown of the reprocessing facilities at the ICPP. A new Spent Fuel and HLW Technology Development program was subsequently initiated to develop technologies for immobilizing ICPP spent fuels and HLW for disposal, in accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. The Program elements include Systems Analysis, Graphite Fuel Disposal, Other Spent Fuel Disposal, Sodium-Bearing Liquid Waste Processing, Calcine Immobilization, and Metal Recycle/Waste Minimization. This paper presents an overview of the ICPP radioactive wastes and current spent fuels, with an emphasis on the description of HLW and spent fuels requiring repository disposal.

Ermold, L.F.; Loo, H.H.; Klingler, R.D.; Herzog, J.D.; Knecht, D.A.

1992-12-01

401

Corrosion studies in fuel element reprocessing environments containing nitric acid  

SciTech Connect

Nitric acid is universally used in aqueous fuel element reprocessing plants; however, in the processing scheme being developed by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program, some of the equipment will be exposed to nitric acid under conditions not previously encountered in fuel element reprocessing plants. A previous report presented corrosion data obtained in hyperazeotropic nitric acid and in concentrated magnesium nitrate solutions used in its preparation. The results presented in this report are concerned with the following: (1) corrosion of titanium in nitric acid; (2) corrosion of nickel-base alloys in a nitric acid-hydrofluoric acid solution; (3) the formation of Cr(VI), which enhances corrosion, in nitric acid solutions; and (4) corrosion of mechanical pipe connectors in nitric acid. The results show that the corrosion rate of titanium increased with the refreshment rate of boiling nitric acid, but the effect diminished rapidly as the temperature decreased. The addition of iodic acid inhibited attack. Also, up to 200 ppM of fluoride in 70% HNO/sub 3/ had no major effect on the corrosion of either titanium or tantalum. In boiling 8 M HNO/sub 3/-0.05 M HF, Inconel 671 was more resistant than Inconel 690, but both alloys experienced end-grain attack. In the case of Inconel 671, heat treatment was very important; annealed and quenched material was much more resistant than furnace-cooled material.The rate of oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) increased significantly as the nitric acid concentration increased, and certain forms of ruthenium in the solution seemed to accelerate the rate of formation. Mechanical connectors of T-304L stainless steel experienced end-grain attack on the exposed pipe ends, and seal rings of both stainless steel and a titanium alloy (6% Al-4% V) underwent heavy attack in boiling 8 M HNO/sub 3/.

Beavers, J A; White, R R; Berry, W E; Griess, J C

1982-04-01

402

78 FR 34380 - Biennial Determination of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With Applicable Federal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the management and storage of radioactive waste (40 CFR Part 191, Subpart A...of compliance with the Solid Waste Disposal Act to the State of...disposal regulations for transuranic radioactive waste at 40 CFR part 191....

2013-06-07

403

76 FR 31611 - Biennial Determination of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance with Applicable Federal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the management and storage of radioactive waste (40 CFR part 191, subpart A...of compliance with the Solid Waste Disposal Act to the State of...disposal regulations for transuranic radioactive waste at 40 CFR Part 191....

2011-06-01

404

75 FR 70584 - Criteria for the Certification and Recertification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...or affect EPA's radioactive waste disposal regulations or the WIPP Compliance...WIPP comply? A. Radioactive Waste Disposal Regulations & Compliance Criteria...applicable regulations for radioactive waste disposal.) The WIPP LWA delegated...

2010-11-18

405

Foreign programs for the storage of spent nuclear power plant fuels, high-level waste canisters and transuranic wastes  

SciTech Connect

The various national programs for developing and applying technology for the interim storage of spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, and TRU wastes are summarized. Primary emphasis of the report is on dry storage techniques for uranium dioxide fuels, but data are also provided concerning pool storage.

Harmon, K.M.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.

1984-04-01

406

Radiological hazards of TENORM in precipitated calcium carbonate generated as waste at nitrophosphate fertilizer plant in Pakistan.  

PubMed

The NORM (naturally occurring radioactive material) in phosphate rock is transferred as TENORM (technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material) to phosphatic fertilizers and to the waste generated by the chemical processes. The waste generated at the NP (nitrophosphate) fertilizer plant at Multan in Pakistan is PCC (precipitated calcium carbonate). Thirty samples of the PCC were collected from the heaps of the waste near the fertilizer plant. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in the waste samples were measured by using the technique of gamma ray spectrometry consisting of coaxial type HPGe (high purity germanium) detector coupled with a PC (personal computer) based MCA (multichannel analyzer) through a spectroscopy amplifier. Activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the waste samples were determined to be 273 ± 23 (173-398), 32 ± 4 (26-39) and 56 ± 5 (46-66) Bq kg(-1) respectively. The activity concentration of (226)Ra in the PCC waste was found to be higher than that in naturally occurring calcium carbonate (limestone and marble) and in worldwide soil. Radiological hazard was estimated from indoor and outdoor exposure to gamma rays from the PCC. Indoor annual effective dose was higher than 1 mSv. Potential radiological pollution in the environment from TENORM in the PCC has also been addressed. PMID:21612862

Javied, Sabiha; Akhtar, Nasim; Tufail, M

2011-08-15

407

Improvements in dioxin abatement strategies at a municipal waste management plant in Barcelona.  

PubMed

This study presents the results of a dioxin abatement programme undertaken in the municipal waste incineration plant of Montcada i Reixac (Barcelona, Spain) after the replacement of an obsolete air cleaning device by a new flue gas treatment system. A number of sampling campaigns were conducted with the aim of characterising stack gas emission levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and to evaluate initial specifications of dioxin stack gas emission values below 0.1 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3). Preliminary results revealed levels between 44 and 111 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3) when the gas-cleaning system consisted only of an old electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Decreased levels around 15 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3) were observed when the semi-dry scrubber began to operate and the ESP was switched off. Again, remarkable dioxin removal was observed after the installation of the fabric filter and levels around 0.3-0.4 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3) were soon achieved. Nevertheless, the limit of 0.1 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3) was reached by additional injection of activated carbon which helped to lower PCDD/PCDF levels to around 0.036 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3). The results also demonstrated a significant change in the dioxin distribution present in combustion-derived materials (stack gas emission, bottom ash and solid waste from gas treatment). The major dioxin fraction was found in gaseous matrices before the flue gas control system was upgraded. After this step, the major dioxin fraction content was observed in solid waste from gas treatment. PMID:12547331

Abad, Esteban; Caixach, Josep; Rivera, Josep

2003-03-01

408

Audit of selected aspects of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant cost structure, Carlsbad, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located near Carlsbad, New Mexico, is a research and development facility intended to demonstrate that transuranic waste from the Government`s defense activities can be safely disposed of in a deep geologic formation. The Fiscal Year 1994 budget for WIPP is about $185 million and includes funding for the operation of WIPP and for experiments being done by other DOE facilities. DOE`s current plan is for WIPP to begin receiving transuranic waste in June 1998. This audit was requested by the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management because two recent reports, one issues by the Office of Inspector General (OIG), were critical of the staffing and cost-effectiveness of WIPP, and because of recent mission changes at WIPP. The audit team consisted of representatives from the DOE, auditors from the OIG, and technical specialists hired by the OIG to assist in the audit. The purpose of the audit was to determine whether WIPP was appropriately staffed to meet programmatic requirements in the most cost-effective manner. The Secretary of Energy expected DOE facilities to benchmark their performance against other facilities to strive for best in class status, and the Westinghouse management and operating contract for WIPP required the facility to be operated in a cost-effective manner. However, the authors determined that Westinghouse did not use benchmarks and that WIPP could be managed more cost-effectively, with fewer personnel, while maintaining its current level of excellence. They concluded that the WIPP staffing level could be significantly reduced with a decrease in costs at WIPP of about $11.4 million per year.

Not Available

1994-08-22

409

Integrated Pilot Plant for a Large Cold Crucible Induction Melter  

SciTech Connect

COGEMA has been vitrifying high-level liquid waste produced during nuclear fuel reprocessing on an industrial scale for over 20 years, with two main objectives: containment of the long lived fission products and reduction of the final volume of waste. Research performed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) in the 1950s led to the selection of borosilicate glass as the most suitable containment matrix for waste from spent nuclear fuel and to the development of the induction melter technology. This was followed by the commissioning of the Marcoule Vitrification Facility (AVM) in 1978. The process was implemented at a larger scale in the late 1980s in the R7 and T7 facilities of the La Hague reprocessing plant. COGEMA facilities have produced more than 11,000 high level glass canisters, representing more than 4,500 metric tons of glass and 4.5 billion curies. To further improve the performance of the vitrification lines in the R7 and T7 facilities, the CEA and COGEMA have been developing the Cold Crucible Melter (CCM) technology since the 1980s. This technology benefits from the 20 years of COGEMA HLW vitrification experience and ensures a virtually unlimited equipment service life and extensive flexibility in dealing with different types of waste. The high specific power directly transferred by induction to the melt allows high operating temperatures without any impact on the process equipment. In addition, the mechanical stirring of the melter significantly reduces operating constraints. COGEMA is already providing the CCM technology to international customers for nuclear and non-nuclear applications and plans to implement it in the La Hague vitrification plant for the vitrification of highly concentrated and corrosive solutions produced by uranium/molybdenum fuel reprocessing. The paper presents the CCM project that led to the building and start-up of this evolutionary and flexible pilot plant. It also describes the plant's technical characteristics and reports commissioning results.

Do Quang, R.; Jensen, A.; Prod'homme, A.; Fatoux, R.; Lacombe, J.

2002-02-26

410

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal phase supplemental environmental impact statement. Implementation plan  

SciTech Connect

The Implementation Plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal Phase Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS-II) has two primary purposes: (1) To report on the results of the scoping process (2) To provide guidance for preparing SEIS-II SEIS-II will be the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) review for WIPP`s disposal phase. Chapter 1 of this plan provides background on WIPP and this NEPA review. Chapter 2 describes the purpose and need for action by the Department of Energy (hereafter DOE or the Department), as well as a description of the Proposed Action and alternatives being considered. Chapter 3 describes the work plan, including the schedule, responsibilities, and planned consultations with other agencies and organizations. Chapter 4 describes the scoping process, presents major issues identified during the scoping process, and briefly indicates how issues will be addressed in SEIS-II.

NONE

1996-05-01

411

Characterization of subjective uncertainty in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The 1996 performance assessment (PA) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) maintains a separation between stochastic (i.e., aleatory) and subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty, with stochastic uncertainty arising from the possible disruptions that could occur at the WIPP over the 10,000 yr regulatory period specified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR 191,40 CFR 194) and subjective uncertainty arising from an inability to uniquely characterize many of the inputs required in the 1996 WIPP PA. The characterization of subjective uncertainty is discussed, including assignment of distributions, uncertain variables selected for inclusion in analysis, correlation control, sample size, statistical confidence on mean complementary cumulative distribution functions, generation of Latin hypercube samples, sensitivity analysis techniques, and scenarios involving stochastic and subjective uncertainty.

HELTON,JON CRAIG; MARTELL,MARY-ALENA; TIERNEY,MARTIN S.

2000-05-18

412

Bioleaching of zinc and iron from steel plant waste using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.  

PubMed

The bacterial leaching of zinc and iron from solid wastes at the Isdemir iron and steel plant has been investigated using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans as the bacterial agent. The effects of a range of operational parameters, including particle size, solids concentration and pH, on the efficiency of the bioleaching process were investigated. In each test, several variables were determined to assess the efficiency of leaching, including slurry pH and redox potential, temperature, bacteria population and concentrations of zinc and iron in solution. Experimental results demonstrated that pulp solids concentration, slurry pH and solids particle size were all important parameters in the bacterial leaching process. Maximum extraction was achieved at pH values around 1.3 and a solids concentration of 1% w/v, with 35% of the Zn content and 37% of the Fe being dissolved. PMID:18581266

Bayat, Oktay; Sever, Efsun; Bayat, Belgin; Arslan, Volkan; Poole, Colin

2009-01-01

413

Scenario development for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Building confidence in the assessment  

SciTech Connect

Scenario developments is part of the iterative performance assessment (PA) process for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Scenario development for the WIPP has been the subject of intense external review, and is certain to be the subject of continued scrutiny as the project proceeds toward regulatory compliance. The principal means of increasing confidence is this aspect of the PA will be through the use of a systematic and thorough procedure toward developing the scenarios and conceptual models on which the assessment is to be based. Early and ongoing interaction with project reviewers can assist with confidence building. Quality of argument and clarity of presentation in PA will be of key concern. Appropriate tools are required for documenting and tracking assumptions, through a single assessment phase, and between iterative assessment phases. Risks associated with future human actions are of particular concern to the WIPP project, and international consensus on the principles for incorporation of future human actions in assessments would be valuable.

Galson, D.A. [Galson Sciences Limited, (United Kingdom); Swift, P.N. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-03-01

414

Polyhydroxyalkanoate production as a side stream process on a municipal waste water treatment plant.  

PubMed

This work describes the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) as a side stream process on a municipal waste water treatment plant (WWTP) at different operation conditions. Therefore various tests were conducted regarding a high PHA production and stable PHA composition. Influence of substrate concentration, temperature, pH and cycle time of an installed feast/famine-regime were investigated. The results demonstrated a strong influence of the operating conditions on the PHA production. Lower substrate concentration, 20°C, neutral pH-value and a 24h cycle time are preferable for high PHA production up to 28.4% of cell dry weight (CDW). PHA composition was influenced by cycle time only and a stable PHA composition was reached. PMID:24995880

Pittmann, T; Steinmetz, H

2014-09-01

415

The development of a zeolite system for upgrade of the Process Waste Treatment Plant  

SciTech Connect

Studies have been undertaken to design an efficient zeolite ion exchange system for use at the ORNL Process Waste Treatment Plant to remove cesium and strontium to meet discharge limits. This report focuses on two areas: (1) design of column hardware and pretreatment steps needed to eliminate column plugging and channeling and (2) development of equilibrium models for the wastewater system. Results indicate that zeolite columns do not plug as quickly when the wastewater equalization is performed in the new Bethel Valley Storage Tanks instead of the former equalization basin where suspended solids concentration is high. A down-flow column with spent zeolite was used successfully as a prefilter to prevent plugging of the zeolite columns being used to remove strontium and cesium. Equilibrium studies indicate that a Langmuir isotherm models binary zeolite equilibrium data while the modified Dubinin-Polyani model predicts multicomponent data.

Robinson, S.M.; Kent, T.E.; Arnold, W.D.; Parrott, J.R. Jr.

1993-10-01

416

Scenario development for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Building confidence in the assessment  

SciTech Connect

Scenario development is part of the iterative performance assessment (PA) process for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Scenario development for the WIPP has been the subject of intense external review and is certain to be the subject of continued scrutiny as the project proceeds toward regulatory compliance. The principal means of increasing confidence in this aspect of the PA will be through the use of the systematic and thorough procedure toward developing the scenarios and conceptual models on which the assessment is to be based. Early and ongoing interaction with project reviewers can assist with confidence building. Quality of argument and clarity of presentation in PA will be of key concern. Appropriate tools are required for documenting and tracking assumptions, through a single assessment phase, and between iterative assessment phases. Risks associated with future human actions are of particular concern to the WIPP project, and international consensus on the principles for incorporation of future human actions in assessments would be valuable.

Galson, D.A.; Swift, P.N.

1994-07-01

417

A review of potential alternatives for air cleaning at the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted this review in support of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) being designed by Fluor Daniel Inc. for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The literature on air cleaning systems is reviewed to identify potential air cleaning alternatives that might be included in the design of HWVP. An overview of advantages/disadvantages of the various air cleaning technologies follows. Information and references are presented for the following potential air cleaning alternatives: deep-bed glass-fiber filters (DBGF), high-efficiency particulate air filters (HEPA), remote modular filter systems, high-efficiency mist eliminators (HEME), electrostatic precipitators, and the sand filter. Selected information is summarized for systems in the United States, Belgium, Japan, and West Germany. This review addresses high-capacity air cleaning systems currently used in the nuclear industry and emphasizes recent developments. 10 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Sehmel, G.A.

1990-07-01

418

Borehole Summary Report for Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Borehole C4993  

SciTech Connect

A core hole (C4998) and three boreholes (C4993, C4996, and C4997) were drilled to acquire stratigraphic and downhole seismic data to model potential seismic impacts and to refine design specifications and seismic criteria for the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) under construction on the Hanford Site. Borehole C4993 was completed through the Saddle Mountains Basalt, the upper portion of the Wanapum Basalt, and associated sedimentary interbeds, to provide a continuous record of the rock penetrated by all four holes and to provide access to the subsurface for geophysical measure¬ment. Presented and compiled in this report are field-generated records for the deep mud rotary borehole C4993 at the WTP site. Material for C4993 includes borehole logs, lithologic summary, and record of rock chip samples collected during drilling through the months of August through early October. The borehole summary report also includes documentation of the mud rotary drilling, borehole logging, and sample collection.

Rust, Colleen F.; Barnett, D. BRENT; Bowles, Nathan A.; Horner, Jake A.

2007-02-28

419

Entry Boreholes Summary Report for the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the 2006 fiscal year field activities associated with the installation of four cable-tool-drilled boreholes located within the boundary of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP), DOE Hanford site, Washington. The cable-tool-drilled boreholes extend from surface to ~20 ft below the top of basalt and were utilized as cased entry holes for three deep boreholes (approximately 1400 ft) that were drilled to support the acquisition of sub-surface geophysical data, and one deep corehole (1400 ft) that was drilled to acquire continuous core samples from underlying basalt and sedimentary interbeds. The geophysical data acquired from these boreholes will be integrated into a seismic response model that will provide the basis for defining the seismic design criteria for the WTP facilities.

Horner, Jake A.

2007-02-28

420

Thermochemical pretreatments of organic fraction of municipal solid waste from a mechanical-biological treatment plant.  

PubMed

The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) usually contains high lignocellulosic and fatty fractions. These fractions are well-known to be a hard biodegradable substrate for biological treatments and its presence involves limitations on the performance of anaerobic processes. To avoid this, thermochemical pretreatments have been applied on the OFMSW coming from a full-scale mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plant, in order to pre-hydrolyze the waste and improve the organic matter solubilisation. To study the solubilisation yield, the increments of soluble organic matter have been measured in terms of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) and acidogenic substrate as carbon (ASC). The process variables analyzed were temperature, pressure and NaOH dosage. The levels of work for each variable were three: 160-180-200 °C, 3.5-5.0-6.5 bar and 2-3-4 g NaOH/L. In addition, the pretreatment time was also modified among 15 and 120 min. The best conditions for organic matter solubilisation were 160 °C, 3 g NaOH/L, 6.5 bar and 30 min, with yields in terms of DOC, sCOD, TVFA and ASC of 176%, 123%, 119% and 178% respectively. Thus, predictably the application of this pretreatment in these optimum conditions could improve the H2 production during the subsequent Dark Fermentation process. PMID:25671816

Alvarez-Gallego, Carlos José; Fdez-Güelfo, Luis Alberto; Romero Aguilar, María de Los Angeles; Romero García, Luis Isidoro

2015-01-01

421

Reconnaissance hydrogeologic investigation of the defense waste processing facility and vicinity, Savannah River Plant, South Carolina  

SciTech Connect

The hydrogeologic framework of the area around the Savannah River Plant, South Carolina consists of 2 to 3 separate water bearing units. In the northern half of the study area, the Barnwell and underlying McBean aquifers are considered one aquifer owing to the absence of the tan clay-confining unit between them. In the southern half of the study area they are separated by the tan clay into two aquifers. Underlying these aquifers, and separated from them by the green clay-confining unit, is the Congaree aquifer. Hydraulic conductivities of the aquifers range from 0.00000001 to 0.0001 ft/sec. Directions of groundwater flow in the Barnwell and McBean aquifers are to the north, with a component of flow directed downward across the green clay and into the Congaree aquifer. The direction of flow in the Congaree aquifer is to the northwest. Water in these aquifers evolves from an acidic (pH < 6.5) mixed-cation type in the Barnwell aquifer to an alkaline (pH > 8) calcium bicarbonate water in the Congaree aquifer. Laboratory experiments indicate that reactions between sediments of the Barnwell aquifer and a salt-solution waste to be stored at the study area would significantly reduce the permeability of the sediment, thereby limiting the movement of the waste in groundwater at the site.

Dennehy, K.F.; Prowell, D.C.; McMahon, P.B.

1989-01-01

422

In Situ Solidification and Encapsulation of Commercial Nuclear Power Plant, DOE and DOD Wastes  

SciTech Connect

This paper looks at applications of Advanced Polymer Solidification (APS TM) for stabilization of ion exchange media, as well as application of the related Vinyl Ester Resin In Situ (VERI{sup TM}) process for encapsulation of filters, irradiated hardware and other large-scale objects. The documented uses include projects at US commercial nuclear sites and DOE/DOD facilities, and extensive work in the UK for impregnation of filters for waste form stabilization. We detail ongoing enhancements to the process, including modification of liner internals for better containment of fines during solidification, and improved fill head configuration to reduce the tendency of sluiced resin beads to adhere to the underside of the fill head. We also report on experience with stabilization of (n,p) Energy, Inc.'s PRC-01 and Purolite's 501P resins. Updates are provided on the tensile creep analysis testing being conducted to permit application of the APS{sup TM} system for encapsulation, and on the continued full-scale application of the technology at Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP). Finally, we offer a brief analysis of the potential impact that loss of access to the Barnwell, SC facility will have on future treatment and on-site storage of Class B and C wastes. (authors)

Miller, C. [Pacific Gas and Electric, Diablo Canyon Power Plant, PO Box 56, Avila Beach, CA 93424 (United States); Werner, P.; Jensen, C. [Diversified Technologies Services, Inc., 2680 Westcott Boulevard, Knoxville, TN 37931-3111 (United States)

2006-07-01

423

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant annual site environmental report for calendar year 1992  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Operational Environmental Monitoring Plan (OEMP) defined a comprehensive set of parameters which are monitored to detect potential environmental impacts and establish baselines for future environmental evaluations. Surface water and groundwater, air, soil, and biotics are monitored for radioactivity levels. Nonradiological environmental monitoring activities include air, water quality, soil properties, meteorological measurements and determination of the status of the local biological community. Ecological studies focus on the immediate area surrounding the WIPP site with emphasis on the salt storage pile. The baseline radiological surveillance covers a broader geographic area including nearby ranches, villages, and cities. Since the WIPP is still in its preoperational phase (i.e., no waste has been received) certain operational requirements of DOE Orders 5400.1, 5400.5, and the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T) are not relevant. Therefore, this report does not discuss items such as radionuclide emissions and effluents and subsequent doses to the public.

Not Available

1993-12-31

424

Incorporating long-term climate change in performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is developing the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico for the disposal of transuranic wastes generated by defense programs. Applicable regulations (40 CFR 191) require the DOE to evaluate disposal-system performance for 10,000 yr. Climatic changes may affect performance by altering groundwater flow. Paleoclimatic data from southeastern New Mexico and the surrounding area indicate that the wettest and coolest Quaternary climate at the site can be represented by that at the last glacial maximum, when mean annual precipitation was approximately twice that of the present. The hottest and driest climates have been similar to that of the present. The regularity of global glacial cycles during the late Pleistocene confirms that the climate of the last glacial maximum is suitable for use as a cooler and wetter bound for variability during the next 10,000 yr. Climate variability is incorporated into groundwater-flow modeling for WIPP PA by causing hydraulic head in a portion of the model-domain boundary to rise to the ground surface with hypothetical increases in precipitation during the next 10,000 yr. Variability in modeled disposal-system performance introduced by allowing head values to vary over this range is insignificant compared to variability resulting from other causes, including incomplete understanding of transport processes. Preliminary performance assessments suggest that climate variability will not affect regulatory compliance.

Swift, P.N. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Baker, B.L. [Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Economy, K. [Ecodynamics Research Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Garner, J.W. [Applied Physics, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Helton, J.C. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Rudeen, D.K. [New Mexico Engineering Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-09-18

425

Characterization of stochastic uncertainty in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The 1996 performance assessment (PA) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) maintains a separation between stochastic (i.e., aleatory) and subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty, with stochastic uncertainty arising from the possible disruptions that could occur at the WIPP over the 10,000 yr regulatory period specified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR 191, 40 CFR 194) and subjective uncertainty arising from an inability to uniquely characterize many of the inputs required in the 1996 WIPP PA. The characterization of stochastic uncertainty is discussed including drilling intrusion time, drilling location penetration of excavated/nonexcavated areas of the repository, penetration of pressurized brine beneath the repository, borehole plugging patterns, activity level of waste, and occurrence of potash mining. Additional topics discussed include sampling procedures, generation of individual 10,000 yr futures for the WIPP, construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs), mechanistic calculations carried out to support CCDF construction the Kaplan/Garrick ordered triple representation for risk and determination of scenarios and scenario probabilities.

HELTON,JON CRAIG; DAVIS,FREDDIE J.; JOHNSON,J.D.

2000-05-19

426

Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of rendering plant and slaughterhouse wastes.  

PubMed

Co-digestion of rendering and slaughterhouse wastes was studied in laboratory scale semi-continuously fed continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) at 35 and 55 °C. All in all, 10 different rendering plant and slaughterhouse waste fractions were characterised showing high contents of lipids and proteins, and methane potentials of 262-572 dm(3)CH(4)/kg volatile solids(VS)(added). In mesophilic CSTR methane yields of ca 720 dm(3) CH(4)/kg VS(fed) were obtained with organic loading rates (OLR) of 1.0 and 1.5 kg VS/m(3) d, and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 d. For thermophilic process, the lowest studied OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m(3) d, turned to be unstable after operation of 1.5 HRT, due to accumulating ammonia, volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and probably also long chain fatty acids (LCFAs). In conclusion, mesophilic process was found to be more feasible for co-digestion than thermophilic process, methane yields being higher and process more stable in mesophilic conditions. PMID:22074907

Bayr, Suvi; Rantanen, Marianne; Kaparaju, Prasad; Rintala, Jukka

2012-01-01

427

The underground main fan study at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) performed a feasibility analysis for the purpose of either modifying, supplementing, or replacing its two main mine fans. The WIPP, located near Carlsbad, New Mexico, is a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility designed to demonstrate the permanent, safe disposal of US defense-generated transuranic waste in a deep bedded salt deposit. Since the centrifugal fans were installed in 1988, multiple operational and performance concerns have been identified. A comprehensive engineering study was conducted in 1995 to: (1) qualify and quantify operational concerns; (2) evaluate possible alternatives; and (3) recommend an optimum solution. Multiple system modification and/or replacement scenarios were evaluated with associated cost estimates developed. The study considered replacement with either centrifugal or axial fans. Multiple fan duties are required at the WIPP. Therefore, Variable Frequency Drives and Inlet Vane Controls (IVC) were investigated for centrifugal fans. In-flight adjustable blades were investigated for axial fans. The study indicated that replacing the existing system with two double-width, double-inlet centrifugal fans equipped with IVCs was the best choice. This alternative provided the most desirable combination of: (1) ensuring the required operational readiness, and (2) improving system performance. The WIPP is currently planning to replace the first fan in 1997.

McDaniel, K.H.; Chmura, K.M. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.; Wallace, K.G. [Mine Ventilation Services, Inc., Fresno, CA (United States)

1996-12-31

428

Computational implementation of a systems prioritization methodology for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: A preliminary example  

SciTech Connect

A systems prioritization methodology (SPM) is under development to provide guidance to the US DOE on experimental programs and design modifications to be supported in the development of a successful licensing application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for the geologic disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. The purpose of the SPM is to determine the probabilities that the implementation of different combinations of experimental programs and design modifications, referred to as activity sets, will lead to compliance. Appropriate tradeoffs between compliance probability, implementation cost and implementation time can then be made in the selection of the activity set to be supported in the development of a licensing application. Descriptions are given for the conceptual structure of the SPM and the manner in which this structure determines the computational implementation of an example SPM application. Due to the sophisticated structure of the SPM and the computational demands of many of its components, the overall computational structure must be organized carefully to provide the compliance probabilities for the large number of activity sets under consideration at an acceptable computational cost. Conceptually, the determination of each compliance probability is equivalent to a large numerical integration problem. 96 refs., 31 figs., 36 tabs.

Helton, J.C. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Anderson, D.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). WIPP Performance Assessments Departments; Baker, B.L. [Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

1996-04-01

429

Historical Background on Assessment the Performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

In 1979, six years after selecting the Delaware Basin as a potential disposal area, Congress authorized the US Department of Energy to build the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico, as a research and development facility for the safe management, storage, and disposal of waste contaminated with transuranic radioisotopes. In 1998, 19 years after authorization and 25 years after site selection, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified that the WIPP disposal system complied with its regulations. The EPA's decision was primarily based on the results from a performance assessment conducted in 1996. This performance assessment was the culmination of four preliminary performance assessments conducted between 1989 and 1992. This report provides a historical setting and context for how the performance of the deep geologic repository at the WIPP was analyzed. Also included is background on political forces acting on the project. For example, the federal requirement to provide environmental impact statements and negotiated agreements with the State of New Mexico influenced the type of scientific areas that were investigated and the engineering analysis prior to 1989 for the WIPP.

Rechard, R.P.

1999-06-01