Sample records for waste reprocessing plant

  1. Actinide partitioning processes for fuel reprocessing and refabrication plant wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. C. Finney; D. W. Tedder

    1980-01-01

    Chemical processing methods have been developed on a laboratory scale to partition the actinides from the liquid and solid fuel reprocessing plant (FRP) and refabrication plant (FFP) wastes. It was envisioned that these processes would be incorporated into separate waste treatment facilities (WTFs) that are adjacent to, but not integrated with, the fuel reprocessing and refabrication plants. Engineering equipment and

  2. Specialized Disposal Sites for Different Reprocessing Plant Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, Charles W. [Nuclear Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831 (United States); Driscoll, Michael J. [Department of Nuclear Science and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA, 02139 (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Once-through fuel cycles have one waste form: spent nuclear fuel (SNF). In contrast, the reprocessed SNF yields multiple wastes with different chemical, physical, and radionuclide characteristics. The different characteristics of each waste imply that there are potential cost and performance benefits to developing different disposal sites that match the disposal requirements of different waste. Disposal sites as defined herein may be located in different geologies or in a single repository containing multiple sections, each with different characteristics. The paper describes disposal options for specific wastes and the potential for a waste management system that better couples various reprocessing plant wastes with disposal facilities. (authors)

  3. Mesoscale to plant-scale models of nuclear waste reprocessing.

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, David Frederick; O'Hern, Timothy John; Moffat, Harry K.; Nemer, Martin B.; Domino, Stefan Paul; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Brotherton, Christopher M.; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Pawlowski, Roger Patrick

    2010-09-01

    Imported oil exacerabates our trade deficit and funds anti-American regimes. Nuclear Energy (NE) is a demonstrated technology with high efficiency. NE's two biggest political detriments are possible accidents and nuclear waste disposal. For NE policy, proliferation is the biggest obstacle. Nuclear waste can be reduced through reprocessing, where fuel rods are separated into various streams, some of which can be reused in reactors. Current process developed in the 1950s is dirty and expensive, U/Pu separation is the most critical. Fuel rods are sheared and dissolved in acid to extract fissile material in a centrifugal contactor. Plants have many contacts in series with other separations. We have taken a science and simulation-based approach to develop a modern reprocessing plant. Models of reprocessing plants are needed to support nuclear materials accountancy, nonproliferation, plant design, and plant scale-up.

  4. Actinide partitioning processes for fuel reprocessing and refabrication plant wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Finney, B.C.; Tedder, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    Chemical processing methods have been developed on a laboratory scale to partition the actinides from the liquid and solid fuel reprocessing plant (FRP) and refabrication plant (FFP) wastes. It was envisioned that these processes would be incorporated into separate waste treatment facilities (WTFs) that are adjacent to, but not integrated with, the fuel reprocessing and refabrication plants. Engineering equipment and material balance flowsheets have been developed for WTFs in support of a 2000-MTHM/year FRP and a 660-MTHM/year MOX-FFP. The processing subsystems incorporated in the FRP-WTF are: High-Level Solid Waste Treatment, High-Level Liquid Waste Treatment, Solid Alpha Waste Treatment, Cation Exchange Chromatography, Salt Waste Treatment, Actinide Recovery, Solvent Cleanup and recycle, Off-Gas Treatment, Actinide Product Concentration, and Acid and Water Recycle. The WTF supporting a fuel refabrication facility, although similar, does not contain subsystems (1) and (2). Based on the results of the laboratory and hot-cell experimental work, we believe that the processes and flowsheets offer the potential to reduce the total unrecovered actinides in FRP and FFP wastes to less than or equal to 0.25%. The actinide partitioning processes and the WTF concept represent advanced technology that would require substantial work before commercialization. It is estimated that an orderly development program would require 15 to 20 years to complete and would cost about 700 million 1979 dollars. It is estimated that the capital cost and annual operating cost, in mid-1979 dollars, for the FRP-WTF are $1035 million and $71.5 million/year, and for the FFP-WTF are $436 million and $25.6 million/year, respectively.

  5. Reproductive Life Events in the Population Living in the Vicinity of a Nuclear Waste Reprocessing Plant

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Reproductive Life Events in the Population Living in the Vicinity of a Nuclear Waste Reprocessing: There is concern about the health of populations living close to nuclear waste reprocessing plants. We conducted a comparative study on reproductive life events in the general population living near the nuclear waste

  6. Reduction of Sodium Nitrate Liquid Waste in Nuclear Reprocessing Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Numata, M.; Mihara, S.; Kojima, S.; Ito, H. [JGC Corporation, Technologies Research Center, 2205, Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Higashiibarakigun, Ibaraki Pref., 311-1313 (Japan); Kato, T. [JGC Corporation, Yokohama World Operation Center, 2-3-1, Minato Mirai, Nishi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa Pref., 220-6001 (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    Sodium nitrate solution has been generated from nuclear reprocessing plant as a result of neutralization of nitric acid. The sodium nitrate has been immobilized by bitumen, cement or other material in the site and waste packages have been produced. In order to reduce an environmental impact of the waste packages from the reprocessing plant, it is preferable to decompose nitrate ion to harmless gases such as nitrogen. A combination of formic acid and catalyst has been proposed for this purpose. But, the method is inadequate for a full decomposition of the nitrate ion. In addition, a mixture of NO and NO{sub 2} is produced during the reaction. Formaldehyde and hydrazine were selected as reductants and a combined use of Pd-Cu catalyst was tried to decompose the nitrate ion. As a result, the nitrate ion can almost entirely be decomposed without any generation of NO and NO{sub 2}. The test was conducted by 1 L flask. In case of formaldehyde, nitrate ion concentration can be reduced from 0.017 mol/l to 3.9x10{sup -4} mol/l. In case of hydrazine, nitrate concentration can be decreased from 2.8 mol/l to 9.5 x 10{sup -3} mol/l and ammonium ion is detected. The ammonium ion concentration in the final solution is 0.12 mol/l when 2.8 mol/l nitrate is reduced by hydrazine. Chemical reactions for formaldehyde on the Pd-Cu catalyst are estimated as combination of: NO{sub 3-} + HCHO = NO{sub 2-} + HCOOH; 2NO{sub 2-} + 3HCOOH = N{sub 2} + 3CO{sub 2} + 2H{sub 2}O + 2OH-; 4NO{sub 2-} + 3HCHO = 2N{sub 2} + 3CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O + 4OH-. the other hand, for hydrazine with the Pd-Cu catalyst: 3N{sub 2}H{sub 4} = 2NH{sub 3} + 2N{sub 2} + 3H{sub 2}; NO{sub 3-} + H{sub 2} = NO{sub 2-} + H{sub 2}O; NO{sub 2-} + NH{sub 3} = N{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O + OH-. The fundamental research shows that the combination usage of the Pd-Cu catalyst and formaldehyde or hydrazine is applicable for the reduction of nitrate liquid waste in the nuclear reprocessing plant. (authors)

  7. Preliminary analysis of treatment strategies for transuranic wastes from reprocessing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.A.; Schneider, K.J.; Swanson, J.L.; Yasutake, K.M.; Allen, R.P.

    1985-07-01

    This document provides a comparison of six treatment options for transuranic wastes (TRUW) resulting from the reprocessing of commercial spent fuel. Projected transuranic waste streams from the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP), the reference fuel reprocessing plant in this report, were grouped into the five categories of hulls and hardware, failed equipment, filters, fluorinator solids, and general process trash (GPT) and sample and analytical cell (SAC) wastes. Six potential treatment options were selected for the five categories of waste. These options represent six basic treatment objectives: (1) no treatment, (2) minimum treatment (compaction), (3) minimum number of processes and products (cementing or grouting), (4) maximum volume reduction without decontamination (melting, incinerating, hot pressing), (5) maximum volume reduction with decontamination (decontamination, treatment of residues), and (6) noncombustible waste forms (melting, incinerating, cementing). Schemes for treatment of each waste type were selected and developed for each treatment option and each type of waste. From these schemes, transuranic waste volumes were found to vary from 1 m/sup 3//MTU for no treatment to as low as 0.02 m/sup 3//MTU. Based on conceptual design requirements, life-cycle costs were estimated for treatment plus on-site storage, transportation, and disposal of both high-level and transuranic wastes (and incremental low-level wastes) from 70,000 MTU. The study concludes that extensive treatment is warranted from both cost and waste form characteristics considerations, and that the characteristics of most of the processing systems used are acceptable. The study recommends that additional combinations of treatment methods or strategies be evaluated and that in the interim, melting, incineration, and cementing be further developed for commercial TRUW. 45 refs., 9 figs., 32 tabs.

  8. MOX Reprocessing at Tokai Reprocessing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, Katsuya; Nagaoka, Shinichi; Yamanaka, Atsushi; Nakamura, Yoshinobu; Omori, Eiichi [Tokai Reprocessing Technology Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency 4-33 Muramatsu, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki, 319-1194 (Japan); SATO, Takehiko; MIURA, Nobuyuki [Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency 4-33 Muramatsu, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki, 319-1194 (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    In March 2007, the first reprocessing of the 'Type B' MOX spent fuels of the Prototype Advanced Thermal Reactor FUGEN was initiated at Tokai Reprocessing Plant as a plant-scale demonstration of MOX fuel reprocessing. The operation was advanced satisfactorily and it has been confirmed that the MOX fuels as well as UO{sub 2} fuels can be reprocessed safely. Some characteristics of MOX fuels on reprocessing, such as properties of undissolved residue affecting the clarification process, are becoming visible. Reprocessing of the 'Type B' MOX fuels will be continued for several more years from now on, further investigations on solubility of fuels, characteristics of undissolved residues, progress of solvent degradation and so on will be continued. (authors)

  9. 10 CFR Appendix F to Part 50 - Policy Relating to the Siting of Fuel Reprocessing Plants and Related Waste Management Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...objective for fuel reprocessing plants shall be to facilitate decontamination and removal of all significant radioactive wastes at the...permanently decommissioned. Criteria for the extent of decontamination to be required upon decommissioning and license...

  10. Plasma techniques for reprocessing nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Siciliano, E.R.; Lucoff, D.M.; Omberg, R.P.; Walter, A.E.

    1993-06-01

    A newly emerging plasma-based system, currently under development for material dissociation and mass separation applications in the area of high-level radioactive waste treatment, may have possible applications as a central processing unit for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. Because this system has no moving parts and obtains separations by electromagnetic techniques, it offers a distinct advantage over chemically based separation techniques, in that the total waste volume does not increase. The basic concepts underlying the operation of this plasma-based system are discussed, along with the demonstrated and expected capabilities of this system. Possible fuel reprocessing configurations using this plasma-based technology are also mentioned.

  11. Geohydrologic conditions at the nuclear-fuels reprocessing plant and waste-management facilities at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center, Cattaraugus County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergeron, M.P.; Kappel, W.M.; Yager, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    A nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant, a high-level radioactive liquid-waste tank complex, and related waste facilities occupy 100 hectares (ha) within the Western New York Nuclear Service Center near West Valley, N.Y. The facilities are underlain by glacial and postglacial deposits that fill an ancestrial bedrock valley. The main plant facilities are on an elevated plateau referred to as the north plateau. Groundwater on the north plateau moves laterally within a surficial sand and gravel from the main plant building to areas northeast, east, and southeast of the facilities. The sand and gravel ranges from 1 to 10 m thick and has a hydraulic conductivity ranging from 0.1 to 7.9 m/day. Two separate burial grounds, a 4-ha area for low-level radioactive waste disposal and a 2.9-ha area for disposal of higher-level waste are excavated into a clay-rich till that ranges from 22 to 28 m thick. Migration of an organic solvent from the area of higher level waste at shallow depth in the till suggests that a shallow, fractured, oxidized, and weathered till is a significant pathway for lateral movement of groundwater. Below this zone, groundwater moves vertically downward through the till to recharge a lacustrine silt and fine sand. Within the saturated parts of the lacustrine unit, groundwater moves laterally to the northeast toward Buttermilk Creek. Hydraulic conductivity of the till, based on field and laboratory analyses , ranges from 0.000018 to 0.000086 m/day. (USGS)

  12. Plasma Mass Filters For Nuclear Waste Reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2011-05-26

    Practical disposal of nuclear waste requires high-throughput separation techniques. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which contains the most active and mobile radioisotopes and produces most of the heat. We suggest that the fission products could be separated as a group from nuclear waste using plasma mass filters. Plasmabased processes are well suited to separating nuclear waste, because mass rather than chemical properties are used for separation. A single plasma stage can replace several stages of chemical separation, producing separate streams of bulk elements, fission products, and actinoids. The plasma mass filters may have lower cost and produce less auxiliary waste than chemical processing plants. Three rotating plasma configurations are considered that act as mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, the Ohkawa filter, and the asymmetric centrifugal trap.

  13. Plasma Mass Filters For Nuclear Waste Reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2011-05-25

    Practical disposal of nuclear waste requires high-throughput separation techniques. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which contains the most active and mobile radioisotopes and produces most of the heat. We suggest that the fission products could be separated as a group from nuclear waste using plasma mass filters. Plasmabased processes are well suited to separating nuclear waste, because mass rather than chemical properties are used for separation. A single plasma stage can replace several stages of chemical separation, producing separate streams of bulk elements, fission products, and actinoids. The plasma mass filters may have lower cost and produce less auxiliary waste than chemical processing plants. Three rotating plasma configurations are considered that act as mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, the Ohkawa filter, and the asymmetric centrifugal trap.

  14. Fuel reprocessing and waste management in the UK

    SciTech Connect

    Heafield, W. [British Nuclear Fuels plc., Warrington (United Kingdom); Griffin, N.L. [BNFL, Risley (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    The currently preferred route for the management of irradiated fuel in the UK is reprocessing. This paper, therefore, concentrates on outlining the policies, practices and achievement of British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) associated with the management of its irradiated fuel facilities at Sellafield. The paper covers reprocessing and how the safe management of each of the major waste categories is achieved. BNFL`s overall waste management policy is to develop, in close consultation with the regulatory authorities, a strategy to minimize effluent discharges and provide a safe, cost effective method of treating and preparing for disposal all wastes arising on the site.

  15. DIRECT DISMANTLING OF REPROCESSING PLANT CELLS THE EUREX PLANT EXPERIENCEe2d12c

    SciTech Connect

    Gili, M.; Troiani, F.; Risoluti, P.

    2003-02-27

    After finishing the reprocessing campaigns in 1970-1983, the EUREX pilot reprocessing plant of ENEA Saluggia Research Center started into a new phase, aiming to materials and irradiated fuel systemation and radioactive wastes conditioning. In 1997 the project ''CORA'' for a vitrification plant for the high and intermediate liquid radioactive wastes started. The ''CORA'' plant will be hosted in some dismantled cells of the EUREX plant, reusing many of the EUREX plant auxiliary systems, duly refurbished, saving money and construction time and avoiding a new nuclear building in the site. Two of the cells that will be reused were part of the EUREX chemical process (solvent recovery and 2nd extraction cycle) and the components were obviously internally contaminated. In 2000 the direct (hands-on) dismantling of one of them started and has been completed in summer 2002; the second one will be dismantled in the next year and then the ''CORA'' plant will be assembled inside the cells. Special care w as taken to avoid spread of contamination in the cells, where ''CORA'' installation activities will start in the next years, during the dismantling process The analysis of data and results collected during the dismantling of the first cell shows that direct dismantling can be achieved with careful choice of tools, procedures and techniques, to reduce volumes of wastes to be disposed and radiological burden.

  16. Process monitoring in international safeguards for reprocessing plants: A demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Ehinger, M.H.

    1989-01-01

    In the period 1985--1987, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory investigated the possible role of process monitoring for international safeguards applications in fuel reprocessing plants. This activity was conducted under Task C.59, ''Review of Process Monitoring Safeguards Technology for Reprocessing Facilities'' of the US program of Technical Assistance to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards program. The final phase was a demonstration of process monitoring applied in a prototypical reprocessing plant test facility at ORNL. This report documents the demonstration and test results. 35 figs.

  17. Design criteria for an HTGR reference fuel reprocessing plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Modrow; W. A. Freeby; L. C. Borduin; N. J. Kertamus; B. R. Wheeler

    1968-01-01

    Design criteria are given for a conceptual reprocessing plant capable of processing HTGR-type graphite-based fuel. The single-purpose plant is designed to reprocess 260 metric tons of fuel per year consisting of HTGR reference-type and Fort St. Vrain fuel plus a small amount of Peach Bottom fuel. The design incorporates a burn-leach type headend, separate modified Acid-thorex flowsheets for solvent extraction

  18. A FUEL REPROCESSING PLANT FOR FAST CERAMIC REACTORS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1962-01-01

    A study was made of the adaptation of the HAPO anion exchange process to ;\\u000a the reprocessing of Fast Ceramic Reactor (FCR) fuel using the Idaho Small Plant ;\\u000a Concept. It is shown that the anion exchange flowsheet meets the reprocessing ;\\u000a objectives of the FCR case and can be adequately accommodated in the Small Plant ;\\u000a Concept. Capacities of

  19. Process for recovery of palladium from nuclear fuel reprocessing wastes

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, D.O.; Buxton, S.R.

    1980-06-16

    Palladium is selectively removed from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing waste by adding sugar to a strong nitric acid solution of the waste to partially denitrate the solution and cause formation of an insoluble palladium compound. The process includes the steps of: (a) adjusting the nitric acid content of the starting solution to about 10 M; (b) adding 50% sucrose solution in an amount sufficient to effect the precipitation of the palladium compound; (c) heating the solution at reflux temperature until precipitation is complete; and (d) centrifuging the solution to separate the precipitated palladium compound from the supernatant liquid.

  20. Behaviour and lifetime of electrolyzers electrolysing enriched tritium containing waste water from reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Riedel, H.J.; Ullrich, W.

    1988-09-01

    In order to define a representative waste composition for the experimental tests, the different streams of tritiated waste water which are expected to arise from the operation of the Wackersdorf reprocessing plant were identified as well as their chemical and radiochemical composition. Results obtained by pretreatment applying distillation and the decontamination factors thus achieved will be presented, as well as data concerning the effects of the remaining contaminations in the distillate on the solid-polymer electrode and the generated hydrogen and oxygen flow of the electrolyser used operating in a neutral solution. Additional investigations were performed using a TELEDYNE electrolyzer which operates in an alkaline solution.

  1. Equipment specifications for an electrochemical fuel reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hemphill, Kevin P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Electrochemical reprocessing is a technique used to chemically separate and dissolve the components of spent nuclear fuel, in order to produce new metal fuel. There are several different variations to electrochemical reprocessing. These variations are accounted for by both the production of different types of spent nuclear fuel, as well as different states and organizations doing research in the field. For this electrochemical reprocessing plant, the spent fuel will be in the metallurgical form, a product of fast breeder reactors, which are used in many nuclear power plants. The equipment line for this process is divided into two main categories, the fuel refining equipment and the fuel fabrication equipment. The fuel refining equipment is responsible for separating out the plutonium and uranium together, while getting rid of the minor transuranic elements and fission products. The fuel fabrication equipment will then convert this plutonium and uranium mixture into readily usable metal fuel.

  2. Conceptual vitrification system for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Sevigny; D. N. Berger; D. H. Seimens; R. G. Baumgartel; K. R. Shah

    1987-01-01

    Radioactive defense waste in the form of solutions and sludges is stored in underground double-shelled tanks at Hanford. This waste was and still is generated during the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and subsequent waste treatment activities. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed to immobilize these wastes in a suitable glass matrix for geologic repository disposal. Immobilization

  3. International safeguards at the Dounreay fast reactor reprocessing plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1987-01-01

    International safeguards have been applied to the fast reactor reprocessing plant at Dounreay since October 1981. From October 1981 until October 1982, this was done by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Euratom under the terms of a tripartite treaty between the parties and a voluntary offer made by the United Kingdom, a weapons state, to the IAEA. Since

  4. Safeguards in the chemical separation area of a reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, R.D. (British Nuclear Fuels Ltd., Risley (United Kingdom))

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that in view of the importance of safeguards in large reprocessing plants, the government of Japan, in 1987, offered additional financial support to the International Atomic Energy Agency. This support was formalized by the inauguration, in October 1988, of a major international initiative, LASCAR (Large Scale Reprocessing). The objective of LASCAR is to assist the IAEA, through the provision of information and expert advice, in the development of effective and efficient safeguards for commercial scale reprocessing plants. The participants comprise the safeguards inspectorate, IAEA and Euratom, and five States (Germany, France, Japan, UK and USA) who operate, or intend to operate, large reprocessing plants, or who are actively engaged in developing safeguards techniques for such plants. LASCAR activities are managed at two levels. Once per year senior official s of the participating organizations meet in plenary session under the chairmanship of the host country, to agree on the general direction. The second level involves studies which are carried out by working groups meeting twice per year, each one under a permanent chairman. working Group 2B, under UK chairmanship, was given the task of studying safeguards in the chemical separation area, that is from the point in the process line immediately after input accountancy measurement up to accountancy measurement of the final products.

  5. Outline of human machine interface at Rokkasho reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Niioka, T.; Miyazaki, T.; Fujita, D.; Esashika, A.; Yoshida, Y.; Nakamura, W.; Tochigi, T. [Maintenance Dept., Instrumentation and Control Maintenance Section, Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited, 4-108, Aza Okitsuke, Kamikita-gun, Aomori, 039-3212 (Japan); Yoshimoto, A.; Yokoi, M. [Nuclear Energy Systems and Services Div., Toshiba Corporation, 1-1, Shibaura 1-Chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-8001 (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    The Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL) has been performing the active tests since the end of March, 2006, for its Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant using the spent fuels retrieved from the Light Water Reactors. At the early stage of the tests relatively low burn-up fuels have been used, and the burn-up will be increased at later stages until the start of commercial operation planned next year. The plant is operated from the main control room in the Control Building, where two types of operator consoles are located for plant monitoring and operation. The Operator Interface Station (OIS) driven by computer systems is chiefly used for instrumentation and control for production activities during normal operation. In addition to this, safety panels composed of hardware circuits are installed for nuclear safety functions such as criticality safety management, explosion protection, and confinement of radioactive materials. This paper outlines the Human Machine Interface features applied to the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant. (authors)

  6. ON-LINE MONITORING FOR CONTROL AND SAFEGUARDING OF RADIOCHEMICAL STREAMS AT SPENT FUEL REPROCESSING PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lines, Amanda M.; Billing, Justin M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Johnsen, Amanda M.; Peterson, James M.; Thomas, Elizabeth M.

    2009-11-10

    Advanced techniques that enhance safeguarding of spent fuel reprocessing plants are urgently needed. Our approach is based on the prerequisite that real-time monitoring of solvent extraction flowsheets at a spent fuel reprocessing plant provides the unique capability to quickly detect unwanted manipulations with fissile isotopes present in the radiochemical streams during reprocessing activities. The methods used to monitor these processes must be robust and capable of withstanding harsh radiation and chemical environments. A new on-line monitoring system satisfying these requirements and featuring Raman spectroscopy combined with a Coriolis and conductivity probes recently has been developed by our research team for tank waste retrieval. It provides immediate chemical data and flow parameters of high-level radioactive waste streams with high brine content generated during retrieval activities from nuclear waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The nature of the radiochemical streams at the spent fuel reprocessing plant calls for additional spectroscopic information that can be gained by using Vis-NIR capabilities augmenting Raman spectroscopy. A fiber optic Raman probe allows monitoring of high concentration species encountered in both aqueous and organic phases within the UREX suite of flowsheets, including metal oxide ions, such as uranyl, components of the organic solvent, inorganic oxo-anions, and water. Actinides and lanthanides are monitored remotely by Vis-NIR spectroscopy in aqueous and organic phases. In this report, we present our results on spectroscopic measurements of simulant flowsheet solutions and commercial fuels designed to demonstrate the applicability of Raman and Vis-NIR spectroscopic analysis for actual dissolver feed solutions.

  7. Materials development and corrosion problems in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baldev Raj; U. Kamachi Mudali

    2006-01-01

    A broad based materials development programme has been in progress worldwide towards the development of materials for applications in spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. International efforts have resulted in the development of advanced materials like nitric acid grade (NAG) special austenitic stainless steels, Ti–5% Ta, Ti–5% Ta–1.8% Nb, Cr–W–Si, Nb–W, zirconium based alloys etc. for highly corrosive nitric acid environments.

  8. Waste management system alternatives for treatment of wastes from spent fuel reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    McKee, R.W.; Swanson, J.L.; Daling, P.M.; Clark, L.L.; Craig, R.A.; Nesbitt, J.F.; McCarthy, D.; Franklin, A.L.; Hazelton, R.F.; Lundgren, R.A.

    1986-09-01

    This study was performed to help identify a preferred TRU waste treatment alternative for reprocessing wastes with respect to waste form performance in a geologic repository, near-term waste management system risks, and minimum waste management system costs. The results were intended for use in developing TRU waste acceptance requirements that may be needed to meet regulatory requirements for disposal of TRU wastes in a geologic repository. The waste management system components included in this analysis are waste treatment and packaging, transportation, and disposal. The major features of the TRU waste treatment alternatives examined here include: (1) packaging (as-produced) without treatment (PWOT); (2) compaction of hulls and other compactable wastes; (3) incineration of combustibles with cementation of the ash plus compaction of hulls and filters; (4) melting of hulls and failed equipment plus incineration of combustibles with vitrification of the ash along with the HLW; (5a) decontamination of hulls and failed equipment to produce LLW plus incineration and incorporation of ash and other inert wastes into HLW glass; and (5b) variation of this fifth treatment alternative in which the incineration ash is incorporated into a separate TRU waste glass. The six alternative processing system concepts provide progressively increasing levels of TRU waste consolidation and TRU waste form integrity. Vitrification of HLW and intermediate-level liquid wastes (ILLW) was assumed in all cases.

  9. Decontamination and decommissioning of a fuel reprocessing pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Heine, W.F.; Speer, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    SYNOPSIS The strontium Semiworks Pilot Fuel Reprocessing Plant at the Hanford Site in Washington State was decommissioned by a combination of dismantlement and entombment. The facility contained 9600 Ci of Sr-90 and 10 Ci of plutonium. Process cells were entombed in place. The above-grade portion of one cell with 1.5-m- (5-ft-) thick walls and ceilings was demolished by means of expanding grout. A contaminated stack was remotely sandblasted and felled by explosives. The entombed structures were covered with a 4.6-m- (15-ft-) thick engineered earthen barrier. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Near-real-time verification approaches for the process area of reprocessing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hakkila, E.A.; Barnes, J.W.; Picard, R.R.; Gutmacher, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    Adoption of near-real-time accountancy in large reprocessing plants will necessitate more timely verification. We discuss techniques and instruments that are suitable for on-site verification of input, output, waste streams, and in-process inventory estimation of tanks, solvent extraction contractors, and concentrators. Calculations show that estimates of solvent extraction contractor inventories may make an insignificant contribution to the total uncertainty of the material balance, relative to the contributions by transfer and process tank inventory measurements. 45 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. Potential safety-related incidents with possible applicability to a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, W.C.; Durant, W.S.; Dexter, A.H.

    1980-12-01

    The occurrence of certain potential events in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants could lead to significant consequences involving risk to operating personnel or to the general public. This document is a compilation of such potential initiating events in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Possible general incidents and incidents specific to key operations in fuel reprocessing are considered, including possible causes, consequences, and safety features designed to prevent, detect, or mitigate such incidents.

  12. On-Line Monitoring and Control of Radiochemical Streams at Spent Fuel Reprocessing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Bryan, Samuel A.

    2008-05-23

    Techniques are needed to provide on-line monitoring and control of the radiochemical processes that are being developed and demonstrated under the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) initiative. The instrumentation used to monitor these processes must be robust and must be able to withstand harsh radiation and chemical environments. A new on-line monitoring system satisfying these requirements featuring Raman spectroscopy combined with a Coriolis and conductivity probes, has been recently developed by our research team. It provides immediate chemical data and flow parameters of high-level radioactive waste streams with high brine/high alkalinity generated during retrieval from Hanford nuclear waste storage tanks. We are currently applying similar methodology for monitoring the radiochemical streams generated at the spent fuel reprocessing plant. The nature of these strems calls for additional spectroscopic information, which can be gained by the utilization of UV-vis-NIR capabilities.

  13. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES RELEASED FROM NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect

    FRANCIS,A.J.

    2006-10-18

    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, and the fission products Tc, I, Cs, Sr, released from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides and the fission products under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

  14. Fully integrated safeguards and security for reprocessing plant monitoring.

    SciTech Connect

    Duran, Felicia Angelica; Ward, Rebecca; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Middleton, Bobby D.

    2011-10-01

    Nuclear fuel reprocessing plants contain a wealth of plant monitoring data including material measurements, process monitoring, administrative procedures, and physical protection elements. Future facilities are moving in the direction of highly-integrated plant monitoring systems that make efficient use of the plant data to improve monitoring and reduce costs. The Separations and Safeguards Performance Model (SSPM) is an analysis tool that is used for modeling advanced monitoring systems and to determine system response under diversion scenarios. This report both describes the architecture for such a future monitoring system and present results under various diversion scenarios. Improvements made in the past year include the development of statistical tests for detecting material loss, the integration of material balance alarms to improve physical protection, and the integration of administrative procedures. The SSPM has been used to demonstrate how advanced instrumentation (as developed in the Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies campaign) can benefit the overall safeguards system as well as how all instrumentation is tied into the physical protection system. This concept has the potential to greatly improve the probability of detection for both abrupt and protracted diversion of nuclear material.

  15. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Appendix B to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC...Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing...systems, and components of the reactor. Nuclear power plants and fuel...

  16. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Appendix B to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC...Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing...systems, and components of the reactor. Nuclear power plants and fuel...

  17. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Appendix B to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC...Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing...systems, and components of the reactor. Nuclear power plants and fuel...

  18. Simulation and analysis of plutonium reprocessing plant data

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, T.; Coulter, A.; Wangen, L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Safeguards Systems Group

    1996-09-01

    It will be difficult for large-throughput reprocessing plants to meet International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) detection goals for protracted diversion of plutonium by materials accounting alone. Therefore, the IAEA is considering supplementing traditional material balance analysis with analysis of solution monitoring data (frequent snapshots of such solution parameters as level, density, and temperature for all major process vessels). Analysis of solution monitoring data will enhance safeguards by improving anomaly detection and resolution, maintaining continuity of knowledge, and validating and improving measurement error models. However, there are costs associated with accessing and analyzing the data. To minimize these costs, analysis methods should be as complete as possible simple to implement, and require little human effort. As a step toward that goal, the authors have implemented simple analysis methods for use in an off-line situation. These methods use solution level to recognize major tank activities, such as tank-to-tank transfers and sampling. In this paper, the authors describe their application to realistic simulated data (the methods were developed by using both real and simulated data), and they present some quantifiable benefits of solution monitoring.

  19. Correlation of radioactive waste treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: reprocessing light-water reactor fuel. [Radiation dose commitment to human populations from radioactive effluents released to environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. C. Finney; R. E. Blanco; R. C. Dahlman; G. S. Hill; F. G. Kitts; R. E. Moore; J. P. Witherspoon

    2011-01-01

    A cost\\/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials from a model nuclear fuel reprocessing plant which processes light-water reactor (LWR) fuels, and to determine the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the released materials on the environment. The study is designed to assist in defining

  20. (Design of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, Neuherberg, Munich, Hannover and Wackersdorf, FRG, July 5--19, 1989): Foreign trip report

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, D.E.

    1989-07-24

    The proposed fuel reprocessing site was characterized as to meteorological and hydrological characteristics and population geographical distribution. Data were gathered characterizing the fuel reprocessing plant licensing procedure currently used in the FRG. Comparisons were made of fuel reprocessing in the FRG, France, and Great Britain.

  1. Progress and experiences from the decommissioning of the Eurochemic reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gills, R.; Lewandowski, P.; Ooms, B.; Reusen, N.; Van Laer, W.; Walthery, R. [Belgoprocess n.v., Decommissioning and Decontamination Division, Dessel (Belgium)

    2007-07-01

    Belgoprocess started the industrial decommissioning of the main process building of the former EUROCHEMIC reprocessing plant in 1990, after completion of a pilot project in which two buildings were emptied and decontaminated to background levels. The remaining structures were demolished and the concrete debris was disposed of as industrial waste and green field conditions restored. The Eurochemic reprocessing plant operated from 1966 to 1974 to process fuel from power reactors and research reactors. The main building is a large concrete structure, comprising a surface area of 55,000 m{sup 2}, concrete volume 12,500 m{sup 3}, and 1,500 Mg of metal components. The building is divided into multiple cells. About 106 individual cell structures have to be dismantled, involving the removal and decontamination of equipment from each cell, the decontamination of the cell walls, ceilings and floors, the dismantling of the ventilation system. Most of the work involves hands-on operations under protective clothing tailored to each specific task. Tool automation and automatic positioning systems are successfully applied. In view of the final demolition of the main process building, the main process building is divided into three parts - each part is isolated from the others. In the middle of 2008, after the removal of the NDA-IPAN/GEA installation, the eastern part will be demolished. The paper presents a status overview of the decommissioning and decontamination activities at the main process building of the former Eurochemic reprocessing plant on the nuclear site of Dessel in Belgium. The specific BELGOPROCESS approach will be highlighted, in which the decommissioning activities are carried out on an industrial scale with special emphasis on cost minimisation, the use of technology on an industrial representative scale and the specific alpha contamination of equipment and building surfaces, requiring that the decommissioning work is done with adequate protective clothing. Also specific breathing and cooling air systems have been provided to allow the operators to carry out the decommissioning tasks in acceptable working conditions. (authors)

  2. Conceptual designs of NDA instruments for the NRTA system at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. K. Li; S. F. Klosterbuer; H. O. Menlove

    1996-01-01

    The authors are studying conceptual designs of selected nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments for the near-real-time accounting system at the rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) of Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL). The JNFL RRP is a large-scale commercial reprocessing facility for spent fuel from boiling-water and pressurized-water reactors. The facility comprises two major components: the main process area to separate and produce

  3. Conservatism in effective dose calculations for accident events involving fuel reprocessing waste tanks.

    PubMed

    Bevelacqua, J J

    2011-07-01

    Conservatism in the calculation of the effective dose following an airborne release from an accident involving a fuel reprocessing waste tank is examined. Within the regulatory constraints at the Hanford Site, deterministic effective dose calculations are conservative by at least an order of magnitude. Deterministic calculations should be used with caution in reaching decisions associated with required safety systems and mitigation philosophy related to the accidental release of airborne radioactive material to the environment. PMID:21617391

  4. Potential safety-related incidents with possible applicability to a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Durant, W.S.; Perkins, W.C.; Lee, R.; Stoddard, D.H.

    1982-05-20

    The Safety Technology Group is developing methodology that can be used to assess the risk of operating a plant to reprocess spent nuclear fuel. As an early step in the methodology, a preliminary hazards analysis identifies safety-related incidents. In the absence of appropriate safety features, these incidents could lead to significant consequences and risk to onsite personnel or to the public. This report is a compilation of potential safety-related incidents that have been identified in studies at SRL and in safety analyses of various commercially designed reprocessing plants. It is an expanded revision of the version originally published as DP-1558, Published December 1980.

  5. Reprocessing of nuclear fuels at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.W.

    1986-10-04

    For more than 30 years, the Savannah River Plant (SRP) has been a major supplier of nuclear materials such as plutonium-239 and tritium-3 for nuclear and thermonuclear weapons, plutonium-238 for space exploration, and isotopes of americium, curium, and californium for use in the nuclear research community. SRP is a complete nuclear park, providing most of the processes in the nuclear fuel cycle. Key processes involve fabrication and cladding of the nuclear fuel, target, and control assemblies; rework of heavy water for use as reactor moderator; reactor loading, operation, and unloading; chemical recovery of the reactor transmutation products and spent fuels; and management of the gaseous, liquid, and solid nuclear and chemical wastes; plus a host of support operations. The site's history and the key processes from fabrication of reactor fuels and targets to finishing of virgin plutonium for use in the nuclear weapons complex are reviewed. Emphasis has been given to the chemistry of the recovery and purification of weapons grade plutonium from irradiated reactor targets.

  6. Development of a Phosphate Ceramic as a Host for Halide-contaminated Plutonium Pyrochemical Reprocessing Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe, Brian; Fong, Shirley K.; Gerrard, Lee A.; Donald, Ian W.; Strachan, Denis M.; Scheele, Randall D.

    2007-03-31

    The presence of halide anions in four types of wastes arising from the pyrochemical reprocessing of plutonium required an immobilization process to be developed in which not only the actinide cations but also the halide anions were immobilized in a durable waste form. At AWE, we have developed such a process using Ca3(PO4)2 as the host material. Successful trials of the process with actinide- and Cl-bearing Type I waste were carried out at PNNL where the immobilization of the waste in a form resistant to aqueous leaching was confirmed. Normalized mass losses determined at 40°C and 28 days were 12 x 10-6 g?m-2 and 2.7 x 10-3 g?m-2 for Pu and Cl, respectively. Accelerated radiation-induced damage effects are being determined with specimens containing 238Pu. No changes in the crystalline lattice have been detected with XRD after the 239Pu equivalent of 400 years ageing. Confirmation of the process for Type II waste (a oxyhydroxide-based waste) is currently underway at PNNL. Differences in the ionic state of Pu in the four types of waste have required different surrogates to be used. Samarium chloride was used successfully as a surrogate for both Pu(III) and Am(III) chlorides. Initial investigations into the use of HfO2 as the surrogate for Pu(IV) oxide in Type II waste indicated no significant differences.

  7. Inorganic adsorber material for off-gas cleaning in fuel reprocessing plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Wilhelm; H. Schuettelkopf; M. W. First

    1973-01-01

    USA (28 Aug 1972). impregnated, amorphous silicic acid was developed for ; use in off-gas cleaning systems of fuel reprocessing plants. Extensive ; experimental work was performed to evaluate the removal efficiency of this ; material from off-gas containing NOâ for elemental iodine and methyl iodide. ; Experimental data are given on the influence exerted by relative humidity ; temperature,

  8. Spent fuel handling and storage facility for an LWR fuel reprocessing plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. H. Baker; F. D. King

    1979-01-01

    The facility will have the capability to handle spent fuel assemblies containing 10 MTHM\\/day, with 30% if the fuel received in legal weight truck (LWT) casks and the remaining fuel received in rail casks. The storage capacity will be about 30% of the annual throughput of the reprocessing plant. This size will provide space for a working inventory of about

  9. Development and demonstration of near-real-time accounting systems for reprocessing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, D.D.; Hakkila, E.A.; Dayem, H.A.; Shipley, J.P.; Baker, A.L.

    1981-01-01

    A program to develop and demonstrate near-real-time accounting systems for reprocessing plants has been active at Los Alamos since 1976. The technology has been developed through modeling and simulation of process operation and measurement systems and evaluation of these data using decision analysis techniques. Aspects of near-real-time systems have been demonstrated successfully at the AGNS reprocessng plant as part of a joint study of near-real-time accounting.

  10. The active commissioning process for a power reactor spent fuel reprocessing pilot plant in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TianXiang Zhang; Jian Wang; Tao Wu; GuangJun Chen; YongQing Di Wu; FaQuan Ru

    2011-01-01

    The process of a power reactor spent fuel reprocessing pilot plant (hereinafter referred to as the “pilot plant”) had been\\u000a completed through active commissioning. Operational and technological parameters, such as shearing, dissolution, feed clarification,\\u000a co-decontamination cycle, uranium and plutonium purification cycle, and the uranium and plutonium finishing facility, were\\u000a identified. In addition, technical devices including extraction and mechanical equipment, electrical

  11. Correlation of radioactive waste treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: reprocessing of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel containing U-233 and thorium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Jr. Davis; R. E. Blanco; B. C. Finney; G. S. Hill; R. E. Moore; J. P. Witherspoon

    2011-01-01

    A cost\\/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of various radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials from a model high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel reprocessing plant and to determine the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the released materials on the environment. The study is designed to assist the U. S. Nuclear

  12. Waste Treatment Plant - 12508

    SciTech Connect

    Harp, Benton; Olds, Erik [US DOE (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) will immobilize millions of gallons of Hanford's tank waste into solid glass using a proven technology called vitrification. The vitrification process will turn the waste into a stable glass form that is safe for long-term storage. Our discussion of the WTP will include a description of the ongoing design and construction of this large, complex, first-of-a-kind project. The concept for the operation of the WTP is to separate high-level and low-activity waste fractions, and immobilize those fractions in glass using vitrification. The WTP includes four major nuclear facilities and various support facilities. Waste from the Tank Farms is first pumped to the Pretreatment Facility at the WTP through an underground pipe-in-pipe system. When construction is complete, the Pretreatment Facility will be 12 stories high, 540 feet long and 215 feet wide, making it the largest of the four major nuclear facilities that compose the WTP. The total size of this facility will be more than 490,000 square feet. More than 8.2 million craft hours are required to construct this facility. Currently, the Pretreatment Facility is 51 percent complete. At the Pretreatment Facility the waste is pumped to the interior waste feed receipt vessels. Each of these four vessels is 55-feet tall and has a 375,000 gallon capacity, which makes them the largest vessels inside the Pretreatment Facility. These vessels contain a series of internal pulse-jet mixers to keep incoming waste properly mixed. The vessels are inside the black-cell areas, completely enclosed behind thick steel-laced, high strength concrete walls. The black cells are designed to be maintenance free with no moving parts. Once hot operations commence the black-cell area will be inaccessible. Surrounded by black cells, is the 'hot cell canyon'. The hot cell contains all the moving and replaceable components to remove solids and extract liquids. In this area, there is ultrafiltration equipment, cesium-ion exchange columns, evaporator boilers and recirculation pumps, and various mechanical process pumps for transferring process fluids. During the first phase of pretreatment, the waste will be concentrated using an evaporation process. Solids will be filtered out, and the remaining soluble, highly radioactive isotopes will be removed using an ion-exchange process. The high-level solids will be sent to the High-Level Waste (HLW) Vitrification Facility, and the low activity liquids will be sent to the Low-Activity Waste (LAW) Vitrification Facility for further processing. The high-level waste will be transferred via underground pipes to the HLW Facility from the Pretreatment Facility. The waste first arrives at the wet cell, which rests inside a black-cell area. The pretreated waste is transferred through shielded pipes into a series of melter preparation and feed vessels before reaching the melters. Liquids from various facility processes also return to the wet cell for interim storage before recycling back to the Pretreatment Facility. (authors)

  13. The transfer of reprocessing wastes from north-west Europe to the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kershaw, Peter; Baxter, Amanda

    The discharge of radioactive waste, from nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities, into the coastal waters of north-west Europe has resulted in a significant increase in the inventories of a number of artificial radionuclides in the North Atlantic. Radiocaesium, 90Sr and 99Tc, which behave conservatively in seawater, have been used widely as tracers of water movement through the North Sea, Norwegian Coastal Current, Barents Sea, Greenland Sea, Fram Strait, Eurasian Basin, East Greenland Current and Denmark Strait overflow. These studies are summarised in the present paper. It has been estimated that 22% of the 137Cs Sellafield discharge has passed into the Barents Sea, en route to the Nansen Basin, via the Bjomoya-Fugloya Section, with another 13% passing through the Fram Strait. This amounts to 14 PBq 137Cs. Quantifying the influx of other radionuclides has been more problematic. The inflowing Atlantic water now appears to be diluting waters in the Arctic Basin, which were contaminated in the late 1970s and early 1980s as a result of the substantial decrease in the discharge of reprocessing wastes. Sellafield (U.K.) has dominated the supply of 134Cs, 137Cs, 90Sr, 99Tc and Pu, whereas La Hague (France) has contributed a larger proportion of 129I and 125Sb.

  14. Development of a Phosphate Ceramic as a Host for Halide-Contaminated Plutonium Pyrochemical Reprocessing Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe, Brian; Fong, Shirley; Gerrard, Lee; Donald, Ian [MSRD, AWE plc, AWE Aldermaston, Reading, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Strachan, Denis; Scheele, Randall [PNNL, Richland, WA, 99352 (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The presence of halide anions in four types of wastes arising from the pyrochemical reprocessing of plutonium required an immobilization process to be developed in which not only the actinide cations but also the halide anions were immobilized in a durable, leach resistant form. AWE has developed such a process using Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} as the host material. Successful trials of the process using actinide-doped Type I waste (essentially a chloride-based waste) were carried out at PNNL where the immobilization of the waste in a form resistant to aqueous leaching was confirmed. Normalized mass losses determined using a modified MCC-1 test at 40 deg. C/28 days were 12 x 10{sup -6} g.m{sup -2} and 2.7 x 10{sup -3} g.m{sup -2} for Pu and Cl, respectively. Accelerated radiation-induced damage effects are being determined with specimens containing {sup 238}Pu. No changes in the crystalline lattice have been detected with XRD after the {sup 239}Pu equivalent of 400 years ageing. Confirmation of the process for Type II waste (an oxyhydroxide-based waste) is currently underway at PNNL. Differences in the ionic state of plutonium in the four types of waste have required different surrogates to be used. Samarium chloride was used successfully as a surrogate for both Pu(III) and Am(III) chlorides. Early investigations into the use of HfO{sub 2} as the surrogate for Pu(IV) oxide in Type II waste showed some apparent differences in the phase assemblages of the surrogate and actinide-based products. However XRD examination of the products at higher resolution has demonstrated there is no significant difference and that for this work HfO{sub 2} is a suitable surrogate for PuO{sub 2}. (authors)

  15. Process monitoring for reprocessing plant safeguards: a summary review

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, H.T.; Ehinger, M.H.; Wachter, J.W.; Hebble, T.L.

    1986-10-01

    Process monitoring is a term typically associated with a detailed look at plant operating data to determine plant status. Process monitoring has been generally associated with operational control of plant processes. Recently, process monitoring has been given new attention for a possible role in international safeguards. International Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) Task C.59 has the goal to identify specific roles for process monitoring in international safeguards. As the preliminary effort associated with this task, a review of previous efforts in process monitoring for safeguards was conducted. Previous efforts mentioned concepts and a few specific applications. None were comprehensive in addressing all aspects of a process monitoring application for safeguards. This report summarizes the basic elements that must be developed in a comprehensive process monitoring application for safeguards. It then summarizes the significant efforts that have been documented in the literature with respect to the basic elements that were addressed.

  16. The second US/FRG workshop on near-real-time accounting for reprocessing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hakkila, E.A.; Gutmacher, R.G.; Weh, R.

    1988-01-01

    The second technical workshop on near-real-time accounting in an industrial scale reprocessing plant was held from December 7--9, 1987 in Los Alamos. The workshop was organized within the context of the US/DOE--FRG/BMFT agreement in the field of international safeguards. The workshop was initiated by the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the DWK, which has responsibility for construction and operation of a planned industrial scale reprocessing plant in the FRG. The workshop objective was to review current state-of-the-art in the near-real-time accounting and to develop a common understanding among experts from the participating countries to identify problems requiring additional work.

  17. Status of nuclear fuel reprocessing, spent fuel storage, and high-level waste disposal. Overview and summary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. E. Varanini; R. L. Maullin

    1978-01-01

    With regard to the specific question embodied in California's nuclear statutes about the demonstrated and approved permanent terminal disposal of nuclear waste (assuming that the reprocessing question is now most for legislative purposes), the finding of the Energy Commission is that such a technology has not been demonstrated and that it is even questionable to assume that one will be

  18. Krypton-85 health risk assessment for a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Mellinger, P.J.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Tanner, J.E.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1984-08-01

    The risks involved in the routine release of /sup 85/Kr from nuclear fuel reprocessing operations to the environment were compared to those resulting from the capture and storage of /sup 85/Kr. Instead of releasing the /sup 85/Kr to the environment when fuel is reprocessed, it can be captured, immobilized and stored. Two alternative methods of capturing /sup 85/Kr (cryogenic distillation and fluorocarbon absorption) and one method of immobilizing the captured gas (ion implantation/sputtering) were theoretically incorporated into a representative fuel reprocessing plant, the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant, even though there are no known plans to start up this facility. Given the uncertainties in the models used to generate lifetime risk numbers (0.02 to 0.027 radiation induced fatal cancers expected in the occupational workforce and 0.017 fatal cancers in the general population), the differences in total risks for the three situations, (i.e., no-capture and two-capture alternatives) cannot be considered meaningful. It is possible that no risks would occur from any of the three situations. There is certainly no reason to conclude that risks from /sup 85/Kr routinely released to the environment are greater than those that would result from the other two situations considered. Present regulations mandate recovery and disposal of /sup 85/Kr from the off gases of a facility reprocessing spent fuel from commercial sources. Because of the lack of a clear-cut indication that recovery woud be beneficial, it does not seem prudent to burden the facilities with a requirement for /sup 85/Kr recovery, at least until operating experience demonstrates the incentive. The probable high aging of the early fuel to be processed and the higher dose resulting from the release of the unregulated /sup 3/H and /sup 14/C also encourage delaying implementation of the /sup 85/Kr recovery in the early plants.

  19. Use of the Waste-Incidental-to-Reprocessing Citation Process at the West Valley Demonstration Project - 12250

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Dan; Suttora, Linda [U.S. Department of Energy (United States); Goldston, Sonny [EnergySolutions - USA (United States); Petras, Robert [Savannah River Remediation (United States); Rowell, Laurene [URS Corporation (United States); McNeil, Jim [Consultant - USA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The West Valley Demonstration Project recently achieved a breakthrough in management of radioactive waste from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel by taking advantage of lessons learned at other Department of Energy (DOE) sites in implementation of the waste-incidental-to-reprocessing citation process of DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management. This breakthrough involved a revision to the site procedure on waste-incidental to reprocessing. This procedure revision served as the basis for a determination by the DOE West Valley field office using the citation process that three secondary waste streams consisting of equipment that had once been contaminated by association with HLW are not HLW following decontamination and may be disposed of as low-level waste (LLW) or transuranic waste. These waste streams, which comprised much of the approximately 380 cubic meters of West Valley waste contaminated by association with HLW, included several vessels and certain tank farm equipment. By making use of lessons learned in use of the citation process by other DOE sites and information developed to support use of the citation process at the Hanford site and the Savannah River Site, the team developed a technical basis for showing that use of the citation process of DOE Manual 435.1-1 for the three new waste stream was appropriate and technically justified. The Waste Management Working Group of the EFCOG assisted in transferring lessons learned by drawing on experience from around the DOE complex. This process shared knowledge about effective implementation of the citation process in a manner that proved to be beneficial to the West Valley Demonstration Project and resulted in a technical basis document that could be used to determine that the three new waste streams were not HLW. (authors)

  20. Evaluation and development plan of NRTA measurement methods for the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Li, T.K.; Hakkila, E.A.; Flosterbuer, S.F. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Near-real-time accounting (NRTA) has been proposed as a safeguards method at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP), a large-scale commercial boiling water and pressurized water reactors spent-fuel reprocessing facility. NRTA for RRP requires material balance closures every month. To develop a more effective and practical NRTA system for RRP, we have evaluated NRTA measurement techniques and systems that might be implemented in both the main process and the co-denitration process areas at RRP to analyze the concentrations of plutonium in solutions and mixed oxide powder. Based on the comparative evaluation, including performance, reliability, design criteria, operation methods, maintenance requirements, and estimated costs for each possible measurement method, recommendations for development were formulated. This paper discusses the evaluations and reports on the recommendation of the NRTA development plan for potential implementation at RRP.

  1. Large advanced waste treatment plants

    SciTech Connect

    Eckmann, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    The advanced waste treatment plant at Roanoke, Virginia is described with attention given to the facilities, the activated sludge process, the nitrification process, the flocculation-coagulation process, filtration, disinfection, sludge, plant effluent, energy requirements, and costs. The Roanoke plant costs about 50% more to construct than a typical activated sludge plant and uses about 60% more energy but discharges an effluent that looks like drinking water and meets the stringent permit standards established for the plant.

  2. Reprocessing plant input accountability measurements - a new and simplified spiking technique

    SciTech Connect

    Kuno, Y.; Takeda, S.; Sato, S.; Akiyama, T.; Tsutaki, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Kuhn, E.; Deron, S.; Sirisena, K.

    1989-11-01

    Isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) is the most widely applied analytical technique for input accountability measurements in reprocessing plants. The procedure usually involves lengthy sample preparation-subsampling an aliquot of the concentrated sample, accurately diluting with nitric acid, and spiking of diluted aliquots with tracer materials, such as {sup 233}U and {sup 242}Pu or {sup 244}Pu. The many steps involved are not only time-consuming but can also be sources of significant errors. De Biever et al. have reported results for a procedure that uses well-defined solid spikes of {sup 235}U/{sup 239}Pu or {sup 235}U/{sup 242}Pu. Metallic spikes were prepared from certified metallic source materials by a high-frequency levitation technique. The technique appeals to safeguards authorities and plant operators because of the relative simplicity of sample preparation. Its routine use was never promoted, however, because of unresolved questions concerning the spikes' homogeneity, cost, and long-term supply. A large size dry (LSD) spike has been proposed as an alternative to the metal spike and subjected to an experiment at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant. Participating in the experiment were the plant operator, the national safeguards authority, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

  3. Diethylene-triamine-penta-acetate administration protocol for radiological emergency medicine in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yutaka

    2008-01-01

    Inhalation therapy of diethylene-triamine-penta-acetate (DTPA) should be initiated immediately to workers who have significant incorporation of plutonium, americium or curium in the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. A newly designed electric mesh nebulizer is a small battery-operated passive vibrating mesh device, in which vibrations in an ultrasonic horn are used to force drug solution through a mesh of micron-sized holes. This nebulizer enables DTPA administration at an early stage in the event of a radiation emergency from contamination from the above radioactive metals. PMID:18274997

  4. Use of process monitoring for verifying facility design of large-scale reprocessing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hakkila, E.A.; Zack, N.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Ehinger, M.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Franssen, F. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria))

    1991-01-01

    During the decade of the 1990s, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) faces the challenge of implementing safeguards in large, new reprocessing facilities. The Agency will be involved in the design, construction, checkout and initial operation of these new facilities to ensure effective safeguards are implemented. One aspect of the Agency involvement is in the area of design verification. The United States Support Program has initiated a task to develop methods for applying process data collection and validation during the cold commissioning phase of plant construction. This paper summarizes the results of this task. 14 refs., 1 tab.

  5. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container

    E-print Network

    Napp, Nils

    Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan Prepared. The Order, at paragraph 22, requires the Permittees to submit a WIPP Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan (Plan) for identified nitrate salt bearing waste disposed in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

  6. Methodology for Determining the Radiological Status of a Process: Application to Decommissioning of a Fuel Reprocessing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Girones, Ph.; Ducros, C.; Legoaller, C.; Lamadie, F.; Fulconis, J.M.; Thiebaut, V.; Mahe, C. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique - CEA (France)

    2006-07-01

    Decommissioning a nuclear facility is subject to various constraints including regulatory safety requirements, but also the obligation to limit the waste volume and toxicity. To meet these requirements the activity level in each component must be known at each stage of decommissioning, from the preliminary studies to the final release of the premises. This document describes a set of methods used to determine the radiological state of a spent fuel reprocessing plant. This approach begins with a bibliographical survey covering the nature of the chemical processes, the operational phases, and the radiological assessments during the plant operating period. In this phase it is also very important to analyze incidents and waste management practices. All available media should be examined, including photos and videos which can provide valuable data and must not be disregarded. At the end of this phase, any items requiring verification or additional data are reviewed to define further investigations. Although it is not unusual at this point to carry out an additional bibliographical survey, the essential task is to carry out in situ measurements. The second phase thus consists in performing in situ measurement campaigns involving essentially components containing significant activity levels. The most routinely used methods combine the results of elementary measurements such as the dose rate or more sophisticated measurements such as gamma spectrometry using CdZnTe detectors and gamma imaging to estimate and localize the radioactivity. Each instrument provides part of the answer (location of a contamination hot spot, standard spectrum, activity). The results are combined and verified through the use of calculation codes: Mercure, Visiplan and Microshield. (authors)

  7. Surveillance system using the CCTV at the fuel transfer pond in the Tokai reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hayakawa, T.; Fukuhara, J.; Ochiai, K.; Ohnishi, T.; Ogata, Y.; Okamoto, H. (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. (JP))

    1991-01-01

    The Fuel Transfer Pond (FTP) in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP) is a strategic point for safeguards. Spent fuels, therefore, in the FTP have been surveyed by the surveillance system using the underwater CCTV. This system was developed through the improvement of devices composed of cameras and VCRs and the provision of tamper resistance function as one of the JASPAS (Japan Support Program for Agency Safeguards) program. The purpose of this program is to realize the continuous surveillance of the slanted tunnel through which the spent fuel on the conveyor is moved from the FTP to the Mechanical Processing Cell (MPC). This paper reports that, when this surveillance system is applied to an inspection device, the following requirements are needed: To have the ability of continuous and unattended surveillance of the spent fuel on the conveyor path from the FTP to the MPC; To have the tamper resistance function for continuous and unattended surveillance of the spent fuel.

  8. Use of automated controlled-potential coulometry system for plutonium product accountancy analysis at Tokai reprocessing plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Kuno; K. Abe; N. Hayashi; I. Wachi

    1988-01-01

    The controlled-potential coulometry has been adopted for plutonium product accountancy analysis at the Tokai reprocessing plant since 1985. The reliability of plutonium product analysis has been improved by introducing this method which is capable of better precision than the titration that was previously used. It has been found that the impurities such as neptunium, chromium and americium, which are thought

  9. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant spent fuel and waste management technology development program plan: 1994 Update

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Department of Energy has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage since 1951 and reprocessing since 1953. Until April 1992, the major activity of the ICPP was the reprocessing of SNF to recover fissile uranium and the management of the resulting high-level wastes (HLW). In 1992, DOE chose to discontinue reprocessing SNF for uranium recovery and shifted its focus toward the continued safe management and disposition of SNF and radioactive wastes accumulated through reprocessing activities. Currently, 1.8 million gallons of radioactive liquid wastes (1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid wastes and 0.3 million gallons of high-level liquid waste), 3,800 cubic meters of calcine waste, and 289 metric tons heavy metal of SNF are in inventory at the ICPP. Disposal of SNF and high-level waste (HLW) is planned for a repository. Preparation of SNF, HLW, and other radioactive wastes for disposal may include mechanical, physical, and/or chemical processes. This plan outlines the program strategy of the ICPP spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program (SF&WMTDP) to develop and demonstrate the technology required to ensure that SNF and radioactive waste will be properly stored and prepared for final disposal in accordance with regulatory drivers. This Plan presents a brief summary of each of the major elements of the SF&WMTDP; identifies key program assumptions and their bases; and outlines the key activities and decisions that must be completed to identify, develop, demonstrate, and implement a process(es) that will properly prepare the SNF and radioactive wastes stored at the ICPP for safe and efficient interim storage and final disposal.

  10. The WISE (Waste-free, Intrinsically Safe, and Efficient) Nuclear Plant Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Slessarev, Igor [Centre d'Etude de Cadarache, Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (France); Palmiotti, G. [Argonne National Laboratory, Technology Development Division (United States); Salvatores, M. [Centre d'Etude de Cadarache, Commissariat a l'Energy Atomique (France); Berthou, V. [Institute for Transuranium Elements (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    A new concept WISE (Waste-free, Intrinsically Safe, and Efficient) for a 'clean' nuclear plant is proposed. WISE does not perturb the radiological equilibrium minimizing TRU and LLFP wastes. WISE is based on mobile fuel systems and on a feed-and-bleed fuel cycle strategy. Irradiated fuel together with fission products always remains inside of WISE core. This implies no release of waste until fuel reserves are available. After the fuel reserves are exhausted, an on-line reprocessing technology can be applied in order to minimize waste. (authors)

  11. Iodine Pathways and Off-Gas Stream Characteristics for Aqueous Reprocessing Plants – A Literature Survey and Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    R. T. Jubin; D. M. Strachan; N. R. Soelberg

    2013-09-01

    Used nuclear fuel is currently being reprocessed in only a few countries, notably France, England, Japan, and Russia. The need to control emissions of the gaseous radionuclides to the air during nuclear fuel reprocessing has already been reported for the entire plant. But since the gaseous radionuclides can partition to various different reprocessing off-gas streams, for example, from the head end, dissolver, vessel, cell, and melter, an understanding of each of these streams is critical. These off-gas streams have different flow rates and compositions and could have different gaseous radionuclide control requirements, depending on how the gaseous radionuclides partition. This report reviews the available literature to summarize specific engineering data on the flow rates, forms of the volatile radionuclides in off-gas streams, distributions of these radionuclides in these streams, and temperatures of these streams. This document contains an extensive bibliography of the information contained in the open literature.

  12. Principles of Product Quality Control of German Radioactive Waste Forms from the Reprocessing of Spent Fuel: Vitrification, Compaction and Numerical Simulation - 12529

    SciTech Connect

    Tietze-Jaensch, Holger; Schneider, Stephan; Aksyutina, Yuliya; Bosbach, Dirk [Product Quality Control Office for Radioactive Waste (PKS) at the Institute of Energy- and Climate Research, Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety Research, IEK-6, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Gauthier, Rene; Eissler, Alexander [WAK Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe Rueckbau- und Entsorgungs- GmbH, Post Box 1263, 76339 Eggenstein- Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The German product quality control is inter alia responsible for control of two radioactive waste forms of heat generating waste: a) homogeneous vitrified HLW and b) heterogeneous compacted hulls, end-pieces and technological metallic waste. In either case, significantly different metrology is employed at the site of the conditioning plant for the obligatory nuclide inventory declaration. To facilitate an independent evaluation and checking of the accompanying documentation numerical simulations are carried out. The physical and chemical properties of radioactive waste residues are used to assess the data consistency and uncertainty margins, as well as to predict the long-term behavior of the radioactive waste. This is relevant for repository acceptance and safety considerations. Our new numerical approach follows a bottom-up simulation starting from the burn-up behavior of the fuel elements in the reactor core. The output of these burn-up calculations is then coupled with a program that simulates the material separation in the subsequent dissolution and extraction processes normalized to the mass balance. Follow-up simulations of the separated reprocessing lines of a) the vitrification of highly-active liquid and b) the compaction of residual intermediate-active metallic hulls remaining after fuel pellets dissolution, end-pieces and technological waste, allows calculating expectation values for the various repository relevant properties of either waste stream. The principles of the German product quality control of radioactive waste residues from the spent fuel reprocessing have been introduced and explained. Namely, heat generating homogeneous vitrified HLW and heterogeneous compacted metallic MLW have been discussed. The advantages of a complementary numerical property simulation have been made clear and examples of benefits are presented. We have compiled a new program suite to calculate the physical and radio-chemical properties of common nuclear waste residues. The immediate benefit is the independent assessment of radio-active inventory declarations and much facilitated product quality control of waste residues that need to be returned to Germany and submitted to a German HLW-repository requirements. Wherever possible, internationally accepted standard programs are used and embedded. The innovative coupling of burn-up calculations (SCALE) with neutron and gamma transport codes (MCPN-X) allows an application in the world of virtual waste properties. If-then-else scenarios of hypothetical waste material compositions and distributions provide valuable information of long term nuclide property propagation under repository conditions over a very long time span. Benchmarking the program with real residue data demonstrates the power and remarkable accuracy of this numerical approach, boosting the reliability of the confidence aforementioned numerous applications, namely the proof tool set for on-the-spot production quality checking and data evaluation and independent verification. Moreover, using the numerical bottom-up approach helps to avoid the accumulation of fake activities that may gradually build up in a repository from the so-called conservative or penalizing nuclide inventory declarations. The radioactive waste properties and the hydrolytic and chemical stability can be predicted. The interaction with invasive chemicals can be assessed and propagation scenarios can be developed from reliable and sound data and HLW properties. Hence, the appropriate design of a future HLW repository can be based upon predictable and quality assured waste characteristics. (authors)

  13. Adequacy of radioiodine control and monitoring at nuclear fuels reprocessing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, R.D.; Burger, L.L.; Soldat, J.K.

    1984-06-01

    The present backlog of irradiated reactor fuel leads to projections that no fuel out of the reactor less than 10 years need be reprocessed prior to the year 2000. The only radioiodine present in such aged fuel is /sup 129/I (half-life 1.6 x 10/sup 7/ y). The /sup 131/I initially present in the fuel decays to insignificance in the first few hundred days post-reactor. The /sup 129/I content of irradiated fuel is about 1 Ci per gigawatt-year of electricity generated (Ci/GW(e)-y). The US EPA has specified, in 40 CFR 190, a release limit for /sup 129/I of 5 mCi/GW(e)-y. Thus a retention factor (RF) of 200 for /sup 129/I at the fuel reprocessing plant (FRP) is required. Experience indicates that RF values obtained under actual FRP operating conditions can average as little as 10% of experimentally determined RF values. Therefore processes theoretically capable of achieving RF values of up to 10/sup 4/ have been investigated. The US EPA has also specified in 40 CFR 90 a thyroid dose limit of 75 mrem/y for a member of the general public. This dose limit could be readily met at a typical FRP site with an RF value of about 10 or less. Therefore, the limit of 5 mCi/GW(e)-y is more restrictive than the thyroid dose limit for /sup 129/I. The absence of /sup 131/I in effluents from processing of aged fuels makes analysis of /sup 129/I somewhat easier. However, in-line, real-time monitoring for /sup 129/I in FRP gas streams is currently not feasible. Moisture, chemicals, and other radioactive fission products interfere with in-plant measurements. Samples collected over several days must be taken to a laboratory for /sup 129/I analysis. Measurement techniques currently in use or under investigation include neutron activation analysis, scintillation counting, mass spectroscopy, and gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detection. 26 references, 3 figures, 7 tables.

  14. Hazardous waste management for power plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mays

    1986-01-01

    Hazardous waste management is the systematic control of collection, source separation, storage, transportation, processing, treatment, recovery, and disposal of hazardous wastes. Further, most practices in managing hazardous wastes are the same at coal and nuclear power plants as they are at oil\\/natural gas fired power plants operated, for example, by San Diego Gas and Electric Company. The reason is that

  15. Optimal measurement uncertainties for materials accounting in a fast breeder reactor spent-fuel reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Dayem, H.A.; Kern, E.A.; Markin, J.T.

    1982-01-01

    Optimization techniques are used to calculate measurement uncertainties for materials accountability instruments in a fast breeder reactor spent-fuel reprocessing plant. Optimal measurement uncertainties are calculated so that performance goals for detecting materials loss are achieved while minimizing the total instrument development cost. Improved materials accounting in the chemical separations process (111 kg Pu/day) to meet 8-kg plutonium abrupt (1 day) and 40-kg plutonium protracted (6 months) loss-detection goals requires: process tank volume and concentration measurements having precisions less than or equal to 1%; accountability and plutonium sample tank volume measurements having precisions less than or equal to 0.3%, short-term correlated errors less than or equal to 0.04%, and long-term correlated errors less than or equal to 0.04%; and accountability and plutonium sample tank concentration measurements having precisions less than or equal to 0.4%, short-term correlated errors less than or equal to 0.1%, and long-term correlated errors less than or equal to 0.05%.

  16. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project Waste Form Qualification Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Randklev, E.H.

    1993-06-01

    The US Department of Energy has created a waste acceptance process to help guide the overall program for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a federal repository. This Waste Form Qualification Program Plan describes the hierarchy of strategies used by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project to satisfy the waste form qualification obligations of that waste acceptance process. A description of the functional relationship of the participants contributing to completing this objective is provided. The major activities, products, providers, and associated scheduling for implementing the strategies also are presented.

  17. Field test of New TASTEX system for plutonium product verification at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kuno, Y.; Shigeoka, K.; Nishida, K.; Ikeda, H.; Hayashi, N.; Wachi, I.; Hsue, S.T.; Sprinkle, J.K.; Gunnink, R.; Ruhter, W.D.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes the field test results of the New TASTEX system. This system consisting of the high resolution gamma spectrometer and the k-edge densitometer can measure both isotopic abundances and concentration of plutonium simultaneously. Entire system is controlled by the multichannel analyzer and a multi-user computer. The system was designed and built under the Japan Support Program for Agency Safeguards (JASPAS). The software of this system developed at LANL and LLNL has been installed in the system assembled at the Tokai reprocessing plant (TRP) in July 1985. In the course of campaigns from 1985 until 1988, field tests have been carried out on plutonium product solutions of TRP. The results of plutonium concentration and isotopic abundances obtained by the k-edge densitometer and the high resolution gamma spectrometer (HRGS) have been compared with those by controlled potential coulometer and mass spectrometer respectively. Precision of plutonium determination with k-edge densitometer is estimated approximately 0.7% and 1.0% for the freshly processed plutonium and the aged plutonium respectively. The scatters in the relative differences between HRGS and the destructive analysis (DA) detected on the results of freshly processed plutonium sample were 1.6%, 0.4%, 0.5%, 1.1%, 8.0% for Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and Pu-242 respectively, whereas those on the results of aged sample were 1.4%, 0.5%, 1.1%, 1.1% for Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, and Pu-241 respectively. 9 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Waste Estimates for a Future Recycling Plant in the US Based Upon AREVA Operating Experience - 13206

    SciTech Connect

    Foare, Genevieve; Meze, Florian [AREVA E and P, SGN - 1, rue des Herons, 78182 Montigny-le-Bretonneux (France)] [AREVA E and P, SGN - 1, rue des Herons, 78182 Montigny-le-Bretonneux (France); Bader, Sven; McGee, Don; Murray, Paul [AREVA Federal Services LLC, 7207 IBM Drive, Mail Code CLT- 1D, Charlotte NC 28262 (United States)] [AREVA Federal Services LLC, 7207 IBM Drive, Mail Code CLT- 1D, Charlotte NC 28262 (United States); Prud'homme, Pascal [AREVA NC SA - 1, place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris La Defense CEDEX (France)] [AREVA NC SA - 1, place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris La Defense CEDEX (France)

    2013-07-01

    Estimates of process and secondary wastes produced by a recycling plant built in the U.S., which is composed of a used nuclear fuel (UNF) reprocessing facility and a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility, are performed as part of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored study [1]. In this study, a set of common inputs, assumptions, and constraints were identified to allow for comparison of these wastes between different industrial teams. AREVA produced a model of a reprocessing facility, an associated fuel fabrication facility, and waste treatment facilities to develop the results for this study. These facilities were divided into a number of discrete functional areas for which inlet and outlet flow streams were clearly identified to allow for an accurate determination of the radionuclide balance throughout the facility and the waste streams. AREVA relied primarily on its decades of experience and feedback from its La Hague (reprocessing) and MELOX (MOX fuel fabrication) commercial operating facilities in France to support this assessment. However, to perform these estimates for a U.S. facility with different regulatory requirements and to take advantage of some technological advancements, such as in the potential treatment of off-gases, some deviations from this experience were necessary. A summary of AREVA's approach and results for the recycling of 800 metric tonnes of initial heavy metal (MTIHM) of LWR UNF per year into MOX fuel under the assumptions and constraints identified for this DOE study are presented. (authors)

  19. Component failure-rate data with potential applicability to a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H. Dexter; W. C. Perkins

    1982-01-01

    Approximately 1223 pieces of component failure-rate data, under 136 subject categories, have been compiled from published literature and computer searches of a number of data bases. Component selections were based on potential applicability to facilities for reprocessing spent nuclear fuels. The data will be useful in quantifying fault trees for probabilistic safety analyses and risk assessments.

  20. Savannah River Laboratory data banks for risk assessment of fuel reprocessing plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1981-01-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory maintains a series of computerized data banks primarily as an aid in probabilistic risk assessment studies in the fuel reprocessing facilities. These include component failure rates, generic incidents, and reports of specific deviations from normal operating conditions. In addition to providing data for probability studies, these banks, have served as a valuable aid in trend analysis,

  1. Low level liquid waste treatment at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Schindler, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Unit operations used in treating low level liquid waste at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) are evaporation and acid fractionation. The ICPP, located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), has reprocessed government-owned, high-enriched, spent reactor fuels since 1951 to recover unused uranium. Low Level Liquid Waste (LLLW) has been treated successfully for many years by a LLLW evaporator which removes and concentrates the nonvolatile contaminants. An acid fractionator has now been installed to provide additional treatment of the condensate and discharge it as a vapor to the atmosphere. This paper covers the operation of the LLLW evaporator, and the design, construction, and testing of the acid fractionator.

  2. Plutonium finishing plant dangerous waste training plan

    SciTech Connect

    ENTROP, G.E.

    1999-05-24

    This training plan describes general requirements, worker categories, and provides course descriptions for operation of the Plutonium Finish Plant (PFP) waste generation facilities, permitted treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) units, and the 90-Day Accumulation Areas.

  3. NRC Perspectives on Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Consultations and Monitoring - 13398

    SciTech Connect

    McKenney, Christepher A.; Suber, Gregory F.; Felsher, Harry D.; Mohseni, Aby [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Mail Stop T8F5, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)] [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Mail Stop T8F5, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 (NDAA) requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to consult with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for certain non-high level waste (HLW) determinations. The NDAA also requires NRC to monitor DOE's disposal actions related to those determinations to assess compliance with NRC regulations in 10 CFR Part 61, Subpart C. The NDAA applies to DOE activities that will remain within the States of South Carolina and Idaho. DOE has chosen to, under DOE Order 435.1, engage in consultation with NRC for similar activities in the State of Washington and New York, however, the NRC has no monitoring responsibilities. In 2007, the NRC developed a draft Final Report for Interim Use entitled, NUREG-1854: NRC Staff Guidance for Activities Related to U.S. Department of Energy Waste Determinations. Since the law was enacted, the DOE and NRC have consulted on three waste determinations within the affected States: (1) the Saltstone Disposal Facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) within the State of South Carolina in 2005, (2) the INTEC Tank Farm at the Idaho National Laboratory within the State of Idaho in 2006, and (3) the F Tank Farm at SRS in 2011. After the end of consultation and issuance by DOE of the final waste determination, monitoring began at each of these sites, including the development of monitoring plans. In addition to the NDAA sites, DOE has requested NRC consultation support on both individual tanks and the entire C Tank Farm at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in the State of Washington. DOE also requested consultation of waste determinations performed on the melter and related feed tanks at the West Valley site in New York that would be disposed offsite. In the next few years, NRC and DOE will consult on the last of the NDAA waste determinations for a while, the H Tank Farm waste determination at SRS. DOE may identify other activities in the future but largely NRC's role will change from doing both consultation and monitoring to being focused on monitoring activities within NDAA. DOE has identified other activities at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation that would continue consultation activities but outside of the NDAA in the future. During the past seven years of consultations and monitoring a number of lessons learned about the process, communication issues, and technical guidance have been identified. With the change in focus from reviewing initial performance assessments and draft waste determinations to long-term monitoring (e.g., individual waste tank closure, at F Tank Farm or complete tank farm closure at INTEC expected in the near future), the NRC is going to revise and update its guidance over the next few years to reflect the lessons learned and the change in focus. In addition to the lessons learned, improvements in the guidance will have to account possible rule and guidance changes underway within Part 61. This paper will discuss the initial plans, approaches, and time lines to revise the guidance within NUREG-1854, including opportunities for public involvement. (authors)

  4. Conversion Reactions of Metal Chlorides into Oxides with Boric Acid Applicability to the Vitrification of Molten Salt Wastes Generated in Pyro-reprocessing Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuhisa IKEDA; Yoichi TAKASHIMA; Hiroaki KOBAYASHI; Hiroshi IGARASHI

    1995-01-01

    Conversion reactions of metal chlorides into oxides with boric acid (H3BO3) were studied to develop the method for vitrification of radioactive molten salt wastes generated in the pyro- reprocessing process. Mixtures of metal chlorides and H3BO3 with appropriate compositions in Pt crucible were heated at 1,000°C for 1h in an electric furnace, followed by rapid cooling to room temperature. The

  5. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT WASTE HEAT HORTICULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of the feasibility of using low grade (70 degrees F) waste heat from the condenser cooling water of the Vermont Yaknee nuclear plant for commercial food enhancement. The study addressed the possible impact of laws on the use of waste heat from ...

  6. Spent Fuel Reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Jubin, Robert Thomas [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Reprocessing of used nuclear fuel is undertaken for several reasons. These include (1) recovery of the valuable fissile constituents (primarily {sup 235}U and plutonium) for subsequent reuse in recycle fuel: (2) reduction in the volume of high-level waste (HLW) that must be placed in a geologic repository; and (3) recovery of special isotopes. There are two broad approches to reprocessng: aqueous and electrochemical. This portion of the course will only address the aqueous methods. Aqueous reprocessing involves the application of mechanical and chemical processing steps to separate, recover, purify, and convert the constituents in the used fuel for subsequent use or disposal. Other major support systems include chemical recycle and waste handling (solid, HLW, low-level liquid waste (LLLW), and gaseous waste).

  7. Report on the NGS3 Working Group on Safeguards by Design For Aqueous Reprocessing Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Shirley J.; Ehinger, Michael; Schanfein, Mark

    2011-02-01

    The objective of the Working Group on SBD for Aqueous Reprocessing Facilities was to provide recommendations, for facility operators and designers, which would aid in the coordination and integration of nuclear material accountancy and the safeguards requirements of all concerned parties - operators, state/regional authorities, and the IAEA. The recommendations, which are to be provided to the IAEA, are intended to assist in optimizing facility design and operating parameters to ensure the safeguardability of the facility while minimizing impact on the operations. The one day Working Group session addressed a wide range of design and operating topics.

  8. Glass ceramic obtained by tailings and tin mine waste reprocessing from Llallagua, Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arancibia, Jony Roger Hans; Villarino, Cecilia; Alfonso, Pura; Garcia-Valles, Maite; Martinez, Salvador; Parcerisa, David

    2014-05-01

    In Bolivia Sn mining activity produces large tailings of SiO2-rich residues. These tailings contain potentially toxic elements that can be removed into the surface water and produce a high environmental pollution. This study determines the thermal behaviour and the viability of the manufacture of glass-ceramics from glass. The glass has been obtained from raw materials representative of the Sn mining activities from Llallagua (Bolivia). Temperatures of maximum nucleation rate (Tn) and crystallization (Tcr) were calculated from the differential thermal analyses. The final mineral phases were determined by X-ray diffraction and textures were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Crystalline phases are nefeline occurring with wollastonite or plagioclase. Tn for nepheline is between 680 ºC and 700 ºC, for wollastonite, 730 ºC and for plagioclase, 740 ºC. Tcr for nefeline is between 837 and 965 ºC; for wollastonite, 807 ºC and for plagioclase, 977 ºC. In order to establish the mechanical characteristics and efficiency of the vitrification process in the fixation of potentially toxic elements the resistance to leaching and micro-hardness were determined. The obtained contents of the elements leached from the glass ceramic are well below the limits established by the European legislation. So, these analyses confirm that potentially toxic elements remain fixed in the structure of mineral phases formed in the glass-ceramic process. Regarding the values of micro-hardness results show that they are above those of a commercial glass. The manufacture of glass-ceramics from mining waste reduces the volume of tailings produced for the mining industry and, in turn enhances the waste, transforming it into a product with industrial application. Acknowledgements: This work was partly financed by the project AECID: A3/042750/11, and the SGR 2009SGR-00444.

  9. Operational experience at radioactive waste treatment plant, after 15 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanhueza-Mir; Azucena

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The experience of the radioactive waste treatment plant (PTDR) in Chile, which centralizes all activities related to pre-disposal activities in the radioactive waste management, in the country is presented. It is the solely waste treatment plant in the country, where radioactive waste are received from all nuclear and radioactive waste

  10. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant applied technology plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, O.L.

    1990-09-01

    This Applied Technology Plan describes the process development, verification testing, equipment adaptation, and waste form qualification technical issues and plans for resolution to support the design, permitting, and operation of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant. The scope of this Plan includes work to be performed by the research and development contractor, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, other organizations within Westinghouse Hanford Company, universities and companies with glass technology expertise, and other US Department of Energy sites. All work described in this Plan is funded by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project and the relationship of this Plan to other waste management documents and issues is provided for background information. Work to performed under this Plan is divided into major areas that establish a reference process, develop an acceptable glass composition envelope, and demonstrate feed processing and glass production for the range of Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant feeds. Included in this work is the evaluation and verification testing of equipment and technology obtained from the Defense Waste Processing Facility, the West Valley Demonstration Project, foreign countries, and the Hanford Site. Development and verification of product and process models and other data needed for waste form qualification documentation are also included in this Plan. 21 refs., 4 figs., 33 tabs.

  11. Waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), DOE/WIPP-069, was initially developed by a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Steering Committee to provide performance requirements to ensure public health and safety as well as the safe handling of transuranic (TRU) waste at the WIPP. This revision updates the criteria and requirements of previous revisions and deletes those which were applicable only to the test phase. The criteria and requirements in this document must be met by participating DOE TRU Waste Generator/Storage Sites (Sites) prior to shipping contact-handled (CH) and remote-handled (RH) TRU waste forms to the WIPP. The WIPP Project will comply with applicable federal and state regulations and requirements, including those in Titles 10, 40, and 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). The WAC, DOE/WIPP-069, serves as the primary directive for assuring the safe handling, transportation, and disposal of TRU wastes in the WIPP and for the certification of these wastes. The WAC identifies strict requirements that must be met by participating Sites before these TRU wastes may be shipped for disposal in the WIPP facility. These criteria and requirements will be reviewed and revised as appropriate, based on new technical or regulatory requirements. The WAC is a controlled document. Revised/changed pages will be supplied to all holders of controlled copies.

  12. Evaluation of methods for decladding LWR fuel for a pyroprocessing-based reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, W.D.; Mailen, J.C.; Michaels, G.E.

    1992-10-01

    The first step in reprocessing disassembled light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel is to separate the zirconium-based cladding from the UO[sub 2] fuel. A survey of decladding technologies has been performed to identify candidate decladding processes suitable for LWR fuel and compatible with downstream pyropr for separation of actinides and fission products. Technologies for the primary separation of Zircaloy cladding from oxide fuel and for secondary separations (in most cases, a further decontamination of the cladding) were reviewed. Because cutting of the fuel cladding is a necessary step in all flowsheet options, metal cutting technologies were also briefly evaluated. The assessment of decladding processes resulted in the identification of the three or four potentially attractive options that may warrant additional near-term evaluation. These options are summarized, and major strengths and issues of each option are discussed.

  13. Evaluation of methods for decladding LWR fuel for a pyroprocessing-based reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, W.D.; Mailen, J.C.; Michaels, G.E.

    1992-10-01

    The first step in reprocessing disassembled light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel is to separate the zirconium-based cladding from the UO{sub 2} fuel. A survey of decladding technologies has been performed to identify candidate decladding processes suitable for LWR fuel and compatible with downstream pyropr for separation of actinides and fission products. Technologies for the primary separation of Zircaloy cladding from oxide fuel and for secondary separations (in most cases, a further decontamination of the cladding) were reviewed. Because cutting of the fuel cladding is a necessary step in all flowsheet options, metal cutting technologies were also briefly evaluated. The assessment of decladding processes resulted in the identification of the three or four potentially attractive options that may warrant additional near-term evaluation. These options are summarized, and major strengths and issues of each option are discussed.

  14. Next-generation online MC and A technologies for reprocessing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.E.; Schwantes, J.M.; Ressler, J.J.; Douglas, M.; Anderson, K.A.; Fraga, C.G.; Durst, C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PO Box 999, Richland, WA, 99352 (United States); Orton, C.; Christensen, R. [Nuclear Engineering Program, Mechanical Engineering Department, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43210 (United States)

    2007-07-01

    As power-production nuclear fuel cycles propagate across the globe, a new generation of measurement technologies is needed to support safeguards monitoring of fuel reprocessing facilities. This paper describes the simulation and analysis of two potential technologies for meeting the challenges of 1) direct measurement of fissile isotopic content in irradiated fuel to detect partial defects, and 2) near-real-time monitoring of process chemistry to detect protracted diversion scenarios. Lead slowing-down spectroscopy is the core of the spent fuel assay technology and multi-isotope indicators via high-resolution gamma ray spectroscopy are the foundation of the process chemistry verification approach. The safeguards context and methods for each technology are described and the results of preliminary performance studies are presented. The quantitative results for both studies are promising but more comprehensive analysis and empirical validation is needed to adequately assess their potential value as next generation online materials control and accountability measures. (authors)

  15. Characterization of Savannah River Plant waste glass

    SciTech Connect

    Plodinec, M J

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the glass characterization programs at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) is to ensure that glass containing Savannah River Plant high-level waste can be permanently stored in a federal repository, in an environmentally acceptable manner. To accomplish this objective, SRL is carrying out several experimental programs, including: fundamental studies of the reactions between waste glass and water, particularly repository groundwater; experiments in which candidate repository environments are simulated as accurately as possible; burial tests of simulated waste glass in candidate repository geologies; large-scale tests of glass durability; and determination of the effects of process conditions on glass quality. In this paper, the strategy and current status of each of these programs is discussed. The results indicate that waste packages containing SRP waste glass will satisfy emerging regulatory criteria.

  16. Chemical engineering in fuel reprocessing - the French experience

    SciTech Connect

    Cheron, P.; Tarnero, M. (COGEMA, Villacoublay (France)); Viala, M.; Sombret, C. (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)); Bernard, C.; Miquel, P. (Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles, Yvelines (France))

    1992-01-01

    Fuel reprocessing implements, basically, a chemical process, with some mechanical steps for head-end operations. A modern reprocessing plant is characterized by the following: use of an efficient process to meet end product specifications, to achieve a high recovery yield of these products, to comply with radioactive release restrictions and to process all the waste for final disposal, stringent safety criteria to guarantee personnel and environmental protection under all circumstances, highest achievable reliability and maintenance capabilities to ensure production availability. To meet performance standards, a rather complex process, the so called PUREX process, is implemented, including multiple functions and requiring a large number of unique pieces of process equipment.

  17. Spent fuel transport and reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, A.N.; Rao, M.K.; Seetharamiah, P.

    1985-01-01

    The reprocessing experience in India started with the commissioning in 1964 at Trombay a plant designed to handle metallic uranium fuels from research reactors. This was entirely executed by indigenous effort. Since then the reprocessing programme has evolved in stages matching with the growth of nuclear programme. The reprocessing plant at Tarapur, under operation at present, is the next one to be built capable of reprocessing uranium oxide fuels from the power reactors at Rajasthan (PHWR) and Tarapur (BWR). The third plant now under construction will reprocess the spent fuels from the power reactors (PHWR) and the Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) located at Kalpakkam. By this planned progressive approach considerable experience has been acquired which will be useful in the design and construction of even larger plants to meet the projected demands. Setting up of a larger plant is being planned. To meet the increasing demands for movement of spent fuel arisings from reactors to reprocessing plants, transportation casks, each weighing up to 70 tonnes, have been designed and manufactured within the country. These casks each conform to test standards stipulated in the IAEA transport regulations. This paper discusses the experience in aspects dealing with spent fuel transport and reprocessing.

  18. The Role of Piece Monitors for the Assay of Plutonium Waste in Alpha Plant Decommissioning Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, M.; Mullarkey, P.; Orr, C.H.H.; Sharpe, J.; Carr, E. [BIL Solutions Ltd., Cumbria, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    Plutonium contaminated (TRU) wastes arising during decommissioning and waste retrievals operations at a UK reprocessing facility include small process items, strippable coatings, size-reduced pieces of glove box and metal pipes, etc. These waste materials are generally assayed in a 'Piece Monitor' employing neutron coincidence counting and gamma assay technologies. The major function of the TRU D{sup R} Piece Monitor is to provide an accurate assay of the TRU content of waste pieces/packages, primarily for nuclear safety purposes. The Piece Monitor follows each waste measurement by calculating the cumulative plutonium content of a waste drum as it is filled with this waste, allowing maximum filling of the drum whilst ensuring it remains within fissile content limits. TRU Piece Monitors are deployed at the interface between clean-air (C2) and the active decommissioning (C5) areas by attaching them to the wall of removable modular containment structures (MCSs). In the C5 area, the plant operator uses a variety of cold-cutting processes to size-reduce plant equipment and then places waste items in the monitor chamber for assay, prior to placing the waste in a 200 litre drum. The 're-entrant bulge' design of the assay chamber provides access from the active operations side, whilst the detection equipment remains in the C2 area. This ensures that the Piece Monitor equipment does not become contaminated and remains readily accessible for maintenance or repair. Piece monitors measure and report the plutonium content of each waste item immediately prior to placing in the waste drum, and provides a continuous 'tally' of the drum content. Warnings are shown when a drum is close to exceeding its allowable plutonium content and the waste drum can therefore be changed when either physically full or nearing its nuclear safety limits. (authors)

  19. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical manual

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.E. [ed.; Watrous, R.A.; Kruger, O.L. [and others

    1996-03-01

    A key element of the Hanford waste management strategy is the construction of a new facility, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), to vitrify existing and future liquid high-level waste produced by defense activities at the Hanford Site. The HWVP mission is to vitrify pretreated waste in borosilicate glass, cast the glass into stainless steel canisters, and store the canisters at the Hanford Site until they are shipped to a federal geological repository. The HWVP Technical Manual (Manual) documents the technical bases of the current HWVP process and provides a physical description of the related equipment and the plant. The immediate purpose of the document is to provide the technical bases for preparation of project baseline documents that will be used to direct the Title 1 and Title 2 design by the A/E, Fluor. The content of the Manual is organized in the following manner. Chapter 1.0 contains the background and context within which the HWVP was designed. Chapter 2.0 describes the site, plant, equipment and supporting services and provides the context for application of the process information in the Manual. Chapter 3.0 provides plant feed and product requirements, which are primary process bases for plant operation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes the technology for each plant process. Chapter 5.0 describes the engineering principles for designing major types of HWVP equipment. Chapter 6.0 describes the general safety aspects of the plant and process to assist in safe and prudent facility operation. Chapter 7.0 includes a description of the waste form qualification program and data. Chapter 8.0 indicates the current status of quality assurance requirements for the Manual. The Appendices provide data that are too extensive to be placed in the main text, such as extensive tables and sets of figures. The Manual is a revision of the 1987 version.

  20. The 2010 ERC Directory of Waste-to-Energy Plants

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    1 The 2010 ERC Directory of Waste-to-Energy Plants By Ted Michaels The 2010 ERC Directory of Waste this Directory was last published in 2007, waste-to-energy capacity has increased for the first time in many

  1. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Transuranic Waste Baseline inventory report. Volume 2. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    This document is the Baseline Inventory Report for the transuranic (alpha-bearing) wastes stored at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. Waste stream profiles including origin, applicable EPA codes, typical isotopic composition, typical waste densities, and typical rates of waste generation for each facility are presented for wastes stored at the WIPP.

  2. Camargo Waste to Energy Power Plant Hamed Zamenian1

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    Camargo Waste to Energy Power Plant Hamed Zamenian1 , Eminou Nasser 1 , Matt Ray2 , Tom Iseley3 1 and Technology, IUPUI The Camargo Waste to Energy Power plant project is being proposed to dispose of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) produced in Mexico. Currently, most urban Municipal Solid Wastes in Mexico

  3. Energetic use of the tomato plant waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José M. Encinar; Juan F. González; Gloria Martínez

    2008-01-01

    A study of the conventional pyrolysis of the tomato plant waste has been carried out. The objective of this work was to characterize the solid, liquid and gaseous phases obtained in the process for their possible utilization in energy generation. Also, a study of the influence of operation variables has been performed, determining the optimal conditions in which the process

  4. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Safety Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The following provides a summary of the specific issues addressed in this FY-95 Annual Update as they relate to the CH TRU safety bases: Executive Summary; Site Characteristics; Principal Design and Safety Criteria; Facility Design and Operation; Hazards and Accident Analysis; Derivation of Technical Safety Requirements; Radiological and Hazardous Material Protection; Institutional Programs; Quality Assurance; and Decontamination and Decommissioning. The System Design Descriptions`` (SDDS) for the WIPP were reviewed and incorporated into Chapter 3, Principal Design and Safety Criteria and Chapter 4, Facility Design and Operation. This provides the most currently available final engineering design information on waste emplacement operations throughout the disposal phase up to the point of permanent closure. Also, the criteria which define the TRU waste to be accepted for disposal at the WIPP facility were summarized in Chapter 3 based on the WAC for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.`` This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents the safety analyses that develop and evaluate the adequacy of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contact-Handled Transuranic Wastes (WIPP CH TRU) safety bases necessary to ensure the safety of workers, the public and the environment from the hazards posed by WIPP waste handling and emplacement operations during the disposal phase and hazards associated with the decommissioning and decontamination phase. The analyses of the hazards associated with the long-term (10,000 year) disposal of TRU and TRU mixed waste, and demonstration of compliance with the requirements of 40 CFR 191, Subpart B and 40 CFR 268.6 will be addressed in detail in the WIPP Final Certification Application scheduled for submittal in October 1996 (40 CFR 191) and the No-Migration Variance Petition (40 CFR 268.6) scheduled for submittal in June 1996. Section 5.4, Long-Term Waste Isolation Assessment summarizes the current status of the assessment.

  5. Improved Economic Performance Municipal Solid Waste Combustion Plants

    E-print Network

    Van den Hof, Paul

    Improved Economic Performance of Municipal Solid Waste Combustion Plants by Model Based Combustion Control #12;#12;Improved Economic Performance of Municipal Solid Waste Combustion Plants by Model Based-of-the-art and challenges in the operation of MSWC plants . . . 1 1.1.1 The aims of municipal solid waste combustion

  6. Risks of nuclear fuel reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Durant, W.S.

    1990-01-01

    The Savannah River Site's primary function is the production of weapons materials. It consists of four reactors, two fuel reprocessing facilities, a fuel fabrication facility, a nuclear fuel facility for the Navy and a heavy water recycle facility. Under construction is a facility to convert the site's liquid wastes into borosilicate glass. The topic of this paper is risks of nuclear fuel reprocessing. Also discussed are facility operations. 18 figs.

  7. Use of automated controlled-potential coulometry system for plutonium product accountancy analysis at Tokai reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kuno, Y.; Abe, K.; Hayashi, N.; Wachi, I. (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. (PNC), Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-11 (JP))

    1988-01-01

    The controlled-potential coulometry has been adopted for plutonium product accountancy analysis at the Tokai reprocessing plant since 1985. The reliability of plutonium product analysis has been improved by introducing this method which is capable of better precision than the titration that was previously used. It has been found that the impurities such as neptunium, chromium and americium, which are thought to interfere with AgO-Fe(II)-Cr(VI) titration method, do not affect the controlled-potential coulometry. Iron, which is regarded as an impurity interfering with the coulometry, is corrected with simple measurement procedure using spectrophotometer. The fully automated coulometry system has been developed based on the experience of using manually operated system. The system consists of two symmetric parts. Each has one measurement position and one electrode washing position and is designed to load up to six cells. The system is calibrated with iron standard sample, because no significant difference between calibrations using metallic standard of plutonium and that of iron has been found. Precision of the automated system is within 0.1%.

  8. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant capacity increase options

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.E.

    1996-04-01

    Studies are being conducted by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project on ways to increase the waste processing capacity within the current Vitrification Building structural design. The Phase 1 study on remote systems concepts identification and extent of capacity increase was completed. The study concluded that the HWVP capacity could be increased to four times the current capacity with minor design adjustments to the fixed facility design, and the required design changes would not impact the current footprint of the vitrification building. A further increase in production capacity may be achievable but would require some technology development, verification testing, and a more systematic and extensive engineering evaluation. The primary changes included a single advance melter with a higher capacity, new evaporative feed tank, offgas quench collection tank, ejector venturi scrubbers, and additional inner canister closure station,a smear test station, a new close- coupled analytical facility, waste hold capacity of 400,000 gallon, the ability to concentrate out-of-plant HWVP feed to 90 g/L waste oxide concentration, and limited changes to the current base slab construction package.

  9. 10 CFR Appendix I to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Reprocessing Plant Components Under NRC Export Licensing Authority

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Reprocessing irradiated nuclear fuel separates plutonium and uranium from intensely radioactive...followed by separation of the uranium, plutonium, and fission products by solvent extraction...denitration of uranium nitrate, conversion of plutonium nitrate to oxide metal, and...

  10. 10 CFR Appendix I to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Reprocessing Plant Components Under NRC Export Licensing Authority

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Reprocessing irradiated nuclear fuel separates plutonium and uranium from intensely radioactive...followed by separation of the uranium, plutonium, and fission products by solvent extraction...denitration of uranium nitrate, conversion of plutonium nitrate to oxide metal, and...

  11. 10 CFR Appendix I to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Reprocessing Plant Components Under NRC Export Licensing Authority

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Reprocessing irradiated nuclear fuel separates plutonium and uranium from intensely radioactive...followed by separation of the uranium, plutonium, and fission products by solvent extraction...denitration of uranium nitrate, conversion of plutonium nitrate to oxide metal, and...

  12. Waste isolation pilot plant disposal room model

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, B.M.

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes development of the conceptual and mathematical models for the part of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository performance assessment that is concerned with what happens to the waste over long times after the repository is decommissioned. These models, collectively referred to as the {open_quotes}Disposal Room Model,{close_quotes} describe the repository closure process during which deformation of the surrounding salt consolidates the waste. First, the relationship of repository closure to demonstration of compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard (40 CFR 191 Appendix C) and how sensitive performance results are to it are examined. Next, a detailed description is provided of the elements of the disposal region, and properties selected for the salt, waste, and other potential disposal features such as backfill. Included in the discussion is an explanation of how the various models were developed over time. Other aspects of closure analysis, such as the waste flow model and method of analysis, are also described. Finally, the closure predictions used in the final performance assessment analysis for the WIPP Compliance Certification Application are summarized.

  13. Iodine-129 in rabbit thyroids near a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Idaho.

    PubMed

    Fraley, L; Bowman, G C; Markham, O D

    1982-08-01

    Thyroids were collected from rabbits on and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Site in southeastern Idaho and analyzed for 129I and stable iodine, 127I. The 129I/127I atom ratios in rabbits collected on the INEL site were larger than ratios in rabbits from a control area. Maximum 129I/127I atom ratios (9.1 x 10(-4)) occurred near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Based on rabbit thyroid concentrations, the 129I appeared to be deposited primarily in the direction of the predominant winds from the ICPP, northeast and southwest. Dose rates from the 129I to thyroids of INEL rabbits varied from 0.1 to 260 muGy/y (0.01 to 26 mrad/y). Iodine-129 atmospheric releases from the ICPP appeared to have increased the 129I/127I atom ratios on and near the INEL site. PMID:7129881

  14. Nonlinear Model Predictive Control of Municipal Solid Waste Combustion Plants

    E-print Network

    Van den Hof, Paul

    Nonlinear Model Predictive Control of Municipal Solid Waste Combustion Plants M. Leskens , R.h.Bosgra@tudelft.nl, p.m.j.vandenhof@tudelft.nl Keywords : nonlinear model predictive control, municipal solid waste combus- tion Abstract : Combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW; = household waste) is used to reduce

  15. Laboratory Testing of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Surrogate Waste Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broome, S.; Bronowski, D.; Pfeifle, T.; Herrick, C. G.

    2011-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a U.S. Department of Energy geological repository for the permanent disposal of defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste. The waste is emplaced in rooms excavated in the bedded Salado salt formation at a depth of 655 m below the ground surface. After emplacement of the waste, the repository will be sealed and decommissioned. WIPP Performance Assessment modeling of the underground material response requires a full and accurate understanding of coupled mechanical, hydrological, and geochemical processes and how they evolve with time. This study was part of a broader test program focused on room closure, specifically the compaction behavior of waste and the constitutive relations to model this behavior. The goal of this study was to develop an improved waste constitutive model. The model parameters are developed based on a well designed set of test data. The constitutive model will then be used to realistically model evolution of the underground and to better understand the impacts on repository performance. The present study results are focused on laboratory testing of surrogate waste materials. The surrogate wastes correspond to a conservative estimate of the degraded containers and TRU waste materials after the 10,000 year regulatory period. Testing consists of hydrostatic, uniaxial, and triaxial tests performed on surrogate waste recipes that were previously developed by Hansen et al. (1997). These recipes can be divided into materials that simulate 50% and 100% degraded waste by weight. The percent degradation indicates the anticipated amount of iron corrosion, as well as the decomposition of cellulosics, plastics, and rubbers. Axial, lateral, and volumetric strain and axial and lateral stress measurements were made. Two unique testing techniques were developed during the course of the experimental program. The first involves the use of dilatometry to measure sample volumetric strain under a hydrostatic condition. Bulk moduli of the samples measured using this technique were consistent with those measured using more conventional methods. The second technique involved performing triaxial tests under lateral strain control. By limiting the lateral strain to zero by controlling the applied confining pressure while loading the specimen axially in compression, one can maintain a right-circular cylindrical geometry even under large deformations. This technique is preferred over standard triaxial testing methods which result in inhomogeneous deformation or "barreling". Manifestations of the inhomogeneous deformation included non-uniform stress states, as well as unrealistic Poisson's ratios (> 0.5) or those that vary significantly along the length of the specimen. Zero lateral strain controlled tests yield a more uniform stress state, and admissible and uniform values of Poisson's ratio. Hansen, F.D., Knowles, M.K., et al. 1997. Description and Evaluation of a Mechanistically Based Conceptual Model for Spall. SAND97-1369. Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  16. Modelling of the nitric acid reduction process: Application to materials behavior in reprocessing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sicsic, D.; Balbaud-Celerier, F. [CEA, DEN SCCME, Laboratoire d'Etude de la Corrosion Non Aqueuse, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Tribollet, B. [Laboratoire Interfaces et Systemes Electrochimiques, UPR15 du CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2012-07-01

    In France, the recycling process of nuclear waste fuels involves the use of hot concentrated nitric acid. The understanding and the prediction of the structural materials (mainly austenitic stainless steels) behaviour requires the determination of the nitric acid reduction process. Nitric acid is indirectly reduced by an autocatalytic mechanism depending on the cathodic overpotential and the acid concentration. This mechanism has been widely studied. All the authors agree on its autocatalytic nature, characterized by the predominant role of the reduction products. It is also generally admitted that nitric acid or the nitrate ion are not the electro-active species. However, uncertainties remain concerning the nature of the electro-active species, the place where the catalytic species regenerates and the thermodynamic and kinetic behaviour of the reaction intermediates. The aim of this study is to clarify some of these uncertainties by performing an electrochemical investigation of the 4 mol.L -1 nitric acid reduction process at 40 deg. C occurring on an inert electrode (platinum or gold). An inert electrode was chosen as a working electrode in a first step in order to avoid its oxidation and focus the research on the reduction mechanism. This experimental work enabled to suggest a coherent sequence of electrochemical and chemical reactions. Then, a kinetic modelling of this sequence was carried out for a gold rotating disk system. In this objective, a thermodynamic study at 25 deg. C led to the evaluation of the composition of liquid and gaseous phases for nitric acid solutions from 0.5 to 22 mol.L -1. The kinetics of the reduction process of nitric acid 4 mol.L -1 was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chrono-amperometry on an inert electrode at 40 deg. C. A coupling of chrono-amperometry and FTIR in gaseous phase led to the identification of the gaseous reduction products as a function of the cathodic overpotential. These different results showed that for potentials between 0.6 V/NHE and 1.15 V/NHE, the reduction process is autocatalytic. The regeneration of the electro-active species may take place at the surface of the electrode for lower over-potentials, and otherwise in solution. When the potential is lower than 0.6 V/ENH, the fast reduction of nitrogen oxide may lead to the rupture of the autocatalytic cycle. (authors)

  17. Glass Formulation Development for INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Vienna; M. J. Schweiger; D. E. Smith; H. D. Smith; J. V. Crum; D. K. Peeler; I. A. Reamer; C. A. Musick; R. D. Tillotson

    1999-01-01

    For about four decades, radioactive wastes have been collected and calcined from nuclear fuels reprocessing at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), formerly Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Over this time span, secondary radioactive wastes have also been collected and stored as liquid from decontamination, laboratory activities, and fuel-storage activities. These liquid wastes are collectively called sodium-bearing wastes

  18. Low Temperature Waste Energy Recovery at Chemical Plants and Refineries 

    E-print Network

    Ferland, K.; papar, R.; Quinn, J.; Kumar, S.

    2013-01-01

    Technologies to economically recover low-temperature waste energy in chemical plants and refineries are the holy grail of industrial energy efficiency. Low temperature waste energy streams were defined by the Texas Industries of the Future Chemical...

  19. Energy Recovery from Municipal Solid WasteEnergy Recovery from Municipal Solid Waste WASTE TO ENERGY PLANT AT VIJAYAWADAWASTE TO ENERGY PLANT AT VIJAYAWADA

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Energy Recovery from Municipal Solid WasteEnergy Recovery from Municipal Solid Waste WASTE WASTES #12;ENERGY FROM SOLID WASTESENERGY FROM SOLID WASTES VIJAYAWADA PLANTVIJAYAWADA PLANT #12;Pusher SIZE REDUCTION #12;RDF Material BalanceRDF Material Balance A typical estimate for REFUSE DERIVED FUEL

  20. Waste Treatment Plant Liquid Effluent Treatability Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    LUECK, K.J.

    2001-06-07

    Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) provided a forecast of the radioactive, dangerous liquid effluents expected to be generated by the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The forecast represents the liquid effluents generated from the processing of 25 distinct batches of tank waste through the WTP. The WTP liquid effluents will be stored, treated, and disposed of in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) evaluated the treatability of the WTP liquid effluents in the LERFIETF. The evaluation was conducted by comparing the forecast to the LERFIETF treatability envelope, which provides information on the items that determine if a liquid effluent is acceptable for receipt and treatment at the LERFIETF. The WTP liquid effluent forecast is outside the current LERFlETF treatability envelope. There are several concerns that must be addressed before the WTP liquid effluents can be accepted at the LERFIETF.

  1. TRU (transuranic) waste certification at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Legler, B M

    1988-01-01

    The Waste Certification Facility (WCF) at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) assesses transuranic (TRU) waste in 55-gal drums by x-ray and neutron interrogation prior to shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. The facility, equipment, and operation are described. Results of a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) show that the facility can be operated without undue risk to plant personnel, the public, and the environment. 4 figs.

  2. Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Harold F. McFarlane; Terry Todd

    2013-11-01

    Reprocessing is essential to closing nuclear fuel cycle. Natural uranium contains only 0.7 percent 235U, the fissile (see glossary for technical terms) isotope that produces most of the fission energy in a nuclear power plant. Prior to being used in commercial nuclear fuel, uranium is typically enriched to 3–5% in 235U. If the enrichment process discards depleted uranium at 0.2 percent 235U, it takes more than seven tonnes of uranium feed to produce one tonne of 4%-enriched uranium. Nuclear fuel discharged at the end of its economic lifetime contains less one percent 235U, but still more than the natural ore. Less than one percent of the uranium that enters the fuel cycle is actually used in a single pass through the reactor. The other naturally occurring isotope, 238U, directly contributes in a minor way to power generation. However, its main role is to transmute into plutoniumby neutron capture and subsequent radioactive decay of unstable uraniumand neptuniumisotopes. 239Pu and 241Pu are fissile isotopes that produce more than 40% of the fission energy in commercially deployed reactors. It is recovery of the plutonium (and to a lesser extent the uranium) for use in recycled nuclear fuel that has been the primary focus of commercial reprocessing. Uraniumtargets irradiated in special purpose reactors are also reprocessed to obtain the fission product 99Mo, the parent isotope of technetium, which is widely used inmedical procedures. Among the fission products, recovery of such expensive metals as platinum and rhodium is technically achievable, but not economically viable in current market and regulatory conditions. During the past 60 years, many different techniques for reprocessing used nuclear fuel have been proposed and tested in the laboratory. However, commercial reprocessing has been implemented along a single line of aqueous solvent extraction technology called plutonium uranium reduction extraction process (PUREX). Similarly, hundreds of types of reactor fuels have been irradiated for different purposes, but the vast majority of commercial fuel is uranium oxide clad in zirconium alloy tubing. As a result, commercial reprocessing plants have relatively narrow technical requirements for used nuclear that is accepted for processing.

  3. Advanced instrumentation for reprocessing.

    SciTech Connect

    Cipiti, Benjamin B.

    2005-10-01

    Recent interest in reprocessing nuclear fuel in the U.S. has led to advanced separations processes that employ continuous processing and multiple extraction steps. These advanced plants will need to be designed with state-of-the-art instrumentation for materials accountancy and control. This research examines the current and upcoming instrumentation for nuclear materials accountancy for those most suited to the reprocessing environment. Though this topic has received attention time and again in the past, new technologies and changing world conditions require a renewed look and this subject. The needs for the advanced UREX+ separations concept are first identified, and then a literature review of current and upcoming measuring techniques is presented. The report concludes with a preliminary list of recommended instruments and measurement locations.

  4. Acceptable knowledge document for INEEL stored transuranic waste -- Rocky Flats Plant waste. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-01-23

    This document and supporting documentation provide a consistent, defensible, and auditable record of acceptable knowledge for waste generated at the Rocky Flats Plant which is currently in the accessible storage inventory at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The inventory consists of transuranic (TRU) waste generated from 1972 through 1989. Regulations authorize waste generators and treatment, storage, and disposal facilities to use acceptable knowledge in appropriate circumstances to make hazardous waste determinations. Acceptable knowledge includes information relating to plant history, process operations, and waste management, in addition to waste-specific data generated prior to the effective date of the RCRA regulations. This document is organized to provide the reader a comprehensive presentation of the TRU waste inventory ranging from descriptions of the historical plant operations that generated and managed the waste to specific information about the composition of each waste group. Section 2 lists the requirements that dictate and direct TRU waste characterization and authorize the use of the acceptable knowledge approach. In addition to defining the TRU waste inventory, Section 3 summarizes the historical operations, waste management, characterization, and certification activities associated with the inventory. Sections 5.0 through 26.0 describe the waste groups in the inventory including waste generation, waste packaging, and waste characterization. This document includes an expanded discussion for each waste group of potential radionuclide contaminants, in addition to other physical properties and interferences that could potentially impact radioassay systems.

  5. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Land Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    To reflect the requirement of section 4 of the Wastes Isolation Pilot Plant Land Withdrawal Act (the Act) (Public Law 102-579), this land management plan has been written for the withdrawal area consistent with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976. The objective of this document, per the Act, is to describe the plan for the use of the withdrawn land until the end of the decommissioning phase. The plan identifies resource values within the withdrawal area and promotes the concept of multiple-use management. The plan also provides opportunity for participation in the land use planning process by the public and local, State, and Federal agencies. Chapter 1, Introduction, provides the reader with the purpose of this land management plan as well as an overview of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Chapter 2, Affected Environment, is a brief description of the existing resources within the withdrawal area. Chapter 3, Management Objectives and Planned Actions, describes the land management objectives and actions taken to accomplish these objectives.

  6. Waste Management Trends in Texas Industrial Plants 

    E-print Network

    Smith, C. S.; Heffington, W. M.

    1995-01-01

    discussed. New environmental Class /J -- any individual solid waste or laws and modifications to current waste management combination of industrial solid waste and disposal laws and reporting systems are which cannol be described as hazardous, changing... combines energy and waste wastes identified or listed as a assessments for selected manufacturers. Through hazardous waste by the administrator of the energy and waste management and minimization tile United States Environmental surveys performed...

  7. Rock mechanics activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Francke, C. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States); Saeb, S. [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The application of rock mechanics at nuclear waste repositories is a true multidisciplinary effort. A description and historical summary of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is presented. Rock mechanics programs at the WIPP are outlined, and the current rock mechanics modeling philosophy of the Westinghouse Waste Isolation Division is discussed.

  8. A New Plant for Management of Radioactive Waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Schumann; G. Pfefferkorn; M. Loose

    1990-01-01

    By 1991 a new plant for management of radioactive waste will be erected in the CINR. Thus increased atomic safety and radiation protection will be attained, the economy of waste management and the quality of the conditioned waste will simultaneously be improved. Facilities for volume reduction (evaporation, press compaction, solidification) and conditioning (solidification, packing) will be available for the treatment

  9. Polymer solidification of mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Faucette; B. W. Logsdon; J. J. Lucerna; R. J. Yudnich

    1994-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant is pursuing polymer solidification as a viable treatment option for several mixed waste streams that are subject to land disposal restrictions within the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act provisions. Tests completed to date using both surrogate and actual wastes indicate that polyethylene microencapsulation is a viable treatment option for several mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats

  10. New Design for an HLW Repository (for Spent Fuel and Waste from Reprocessing) in a Salt Formation in Germany - 12213

    SciTech Connect

    Bollingerfehr, Wilhelm; Filbert, Wolfgang; Lerch, Christian; Mueller-Hoeppe, Nina [DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH, Peine (Germany); Charlier, Frank [International nuclear safety engineering GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    In autumn 2010, after a 10-year moratorium, exploration was resumed in Gorleben, the potential site for a German HLW repository. At the same time, the Federal Government launched a two-year preliminary safety analysis to assess whether the salt dome at Gorleben is suitable to host all heat-generating radioactive waste generated by German NPPs based on the waste amounts expected at that time. The revised Atomic Energy Act of June 2011 now stipulates a gradual phase-out of nuclear energy production by 2022, which is 13 years earlier than expected in 2010. A repository design was developed which took into account an updated set of data on the amounts and types of expected heat-generating waste, the documented results of the exploration of the Gorleben salt dome, and the new 'Safety Requirements Governing the Final Disposal of Heat-Generating Radioactive Waste' of 30 September, 2010. The latter has a strong influence on the conceptual designs as it requires that retrievability of all waste containers is possible within the repository lifetime. One design considered that all waste containers will be disposed of in horizontal drifts of a geologic repository, while the other design considered that all waste containers will be disposed of in deep vertical boreholes. For both options (emplacement in drifts/emplacement in vertical boreholes), the respective design includes a selection of waste containers, the layout of drifts, respectively lined boreholes, a description of emplacement fields, and backfilling and sealing measures. The design results were described and displayed and the differences between the two main concepts were elaborated and discussed. For the first time in both repository designs the requirement was implemented to retrieve waste canisters during the operational phase. The measures to fulfill this requirement and eventually the consequences were highlighted. It was pointed out that there arises the need to keep transport- and storage casks in adequate numbers and interim storage facilities available until the repository is closed. (authors)

  11. Economic Comparison of Waste Water Cleaning for Central Waste Water Treatment Plant and Decentralised System with Smaller Waste Water Treatment Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. ZORKO; D. GORICANEC

    In presented paper two economic analysis of investments for integrated waste water collection and treatment in selected area are presented. The methods of Net present value (NPV) and Capitalised costs (CC) have been used to compare economic efficiency of construction central waste water treatment plant with collecting system and construction of decentralised waste water treatment plants with belonging collecting system

  12. UPGRADING OF WASTE-TO-ENERGY PLANT IN BRESCIA, ITALY

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    ;REHABILITATION OF WASTE INCINERATION PLANT IN BUDAPEST, HUNGARY Client: Municipality of Budapest Financed by the Municipality of Budapest in the upgrading and rehabilitation of the Buda- pest Waste-to-Energy Plant. Rambøll for re- covery and disposal of solid flue gas treatment and incineration residues. After signature

  13. Uptake by plants of radionuclides from FUSRAP waste materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1983-01-01

    Radionuclides from FUSRAP wastes potentially may be taken up by plants during remedial action activities and permanent near-surface burial of contaminated materials. In order to better understand the propensity of radionuclides to accumulate in plant tissue, soil and plant factors influencing the uptake and accumulation of radionuclides by plants are reviewed. In addition, data describing the uptake of the principal

  14. Reprocessing in breeder fuel cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, W.D.; Groenier, W.S.

    1982-01-01

    Over the past decade, the United States has developed plans and carried out programs directed toward the demonstration of breeder fuel reprocessing in connection with the first breeder demonstration reactor. A renewed commitment to moving forward with the construction of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) has been made, with startup anticipated near the end of this decade. While plans for the CRBR and its associated fuel cycle are still being firmed up, the basic research and development programs required to carry out the demonstrations have continued. This paper updates the status of the reprocessing plans and programs. Policies call for breeder recycle to begin in the early to mid-1990's. Contents of this paper are: (1) evolving plans for breeder reprocessing (demonstration reprocessing plant, reprocessing head-end colocated at an existing facility); (2) relationship to LWR reprocessing; (3) integrated equipment test (IET) facility and related hardware development activities (mechanical considerations in shearing and dissolving, remote operations and maintenance demonstration phase of IET, integrated process demonstration phase of IET, separate component development activities); and (4) supporting process R and D.

  15. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant hydrogen generation

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.B.; King, A.D. Jr.; Bhattacharyya, N.K. [and others

    1996-02-01

    The most promising method for the disposal of highly radioactive nuclear wastes is a vitrification process in which the wastes are incorporated into borosilicate glass logs, the logs are sealed into welded stainless steel canisters, and the canisters are buried in suitably protected burial sites for disposal. The purpose of the research supported by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) project of the Department of Energy through Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and summarized in this report was to gain a basic understanding of the hydrogen generation process and to predict the rate and amount of hydrogen generation during the treatment of HWVP feed simulants with formic acid. The objectives of the study were to determine the key feed components and process variables which enhance or inhibit the.production of hydrogen. Information on the kinetics and stoichiometry of relevant formic acid reactions were sought to provide a basis for viable mechanistic proposals. The chemical reactions were characterized through the production and consumption of the key gaseous products such as H{sub 2}. CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}0, NO, and NH{sub 3}. For this mason this research program relied heavily on analyses of the gases produced and consumed during reactions of the HWVP feed simulants with formic acid under various conditions. Such analyses, used gas chromatographic equipment and expertise at the University of Georgia for the separation and determination of H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and NO.

  16. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant alcove gas barrer

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, M.S. (Parsons, Brinckerhoff, Quade and Douglas, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)); Van Sambeek, L.L. (RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States))

    1992-11-01

    A full-scale composite, precast concrete and steel lining system was designed to seal and isolate test alcoves within the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The lining system and internal bulkheads are designed to control gas leakage along an alcove access drift and through damaged rock surrounding the drift. Flow along the access drift is prevented by redundant membranes included in the rigid structural lining . Flow through the rock will be minimized by providing a rigid lining that will induce healing of damaged salt rock and arrest ongoing damage in clay and anhydrite interbeds. Provisions for grouting disturbed zones of rock are also provided. Instrumentation is specified to measure the structural response of the lining.

  17. Reprocessing option for spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Woolf, D.N. (British Nuclear Fuels PLC, Risley (United Kingdom))

    1991-11-01

    The options available to utilities for disposal of fuel discharged from their nuclear reactors is not limited to bury or burn. Many utilities in Europe and Japan have already opted to reprocess their spent fuel in the United Kingdom and/or France. This enables the utility to recycle the recovered uranium and plutonium and allows the utilities' countries to formulate a waste disposal policy without the time constraints that would otherwise be placed on them. This paper gives an insight into how and why British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is continuing to provide services to reprocess and recycle spent nuclear fuel. The closed fuel cycle represents the complete irradiated fuel management option and, with its use of well-established technologies, reprocessing of spent fuel is the only option that is available to utilities now.

  18. Reprocessing RERTR silicide fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, G.C.; Gouge, A.P.

    1983-05-01

    The Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor Program is one element of the United States Government's nonproliferation effort. High-density, low-enrichment, aluminum-clad uranium silicide fuels may be substituted for the highly enriched aluminum-clad alloy fuels now in use. Savannah River Laboratory has performed studies which demonstrate reprocessability of spent RERTR silicide fuels at Savannah River Plant. Results of dissolution and feed preparation tests and solvent extraction processing demonstrations with both unirradiated and irradiated uranium silicide fuels are presented.

  19. Review of thorium fuel reprocessing experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Brooksbank; W. T. McDuffee; R. H. Rainey

    1978-01-01

    The review reveals that experience in the reprocessing of irradiated thorium materials is limited. Plants that have processed thorium-based fuels were not optimized for the operations. Previous demonstrations of several viable flowsheets provide a sound technological base for the development of optimum reprocessing methods and facilities. In addition to the resource benefit by using thorium, recent nonproliferation thrusts have rejuvenated

  20. Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, Duane J.; Nash, Charles A.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-27

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter (chloride, fluoride, sulfur), will have high ammonia, and will contain carryover particulates of glass-former chemicals. These species have potential to cause corrosion of tanks and equipment, precipitation of solids, release of ammonia gas vapors, and scale in the tank farm evaporator. Routing this stream to the tank farms does not permanently divert it from recycling into the WTP, only temporarily stores it prior to reprocessing. Testing is normally performed to demonstrate acceptable conditions and limits for these compounds in wastes sent to the tank farms. The primary parameter of this phase of the test program was measuring the formation of solids during evaporation in order to assess the compatibility of the stream with the evaporator and transfer and storage equipment. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW facility melter offgas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet, and, thus, the composition will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. This report discusses results of evaporation testing of the simulant. Two conditions were tested, one with the simulant at near neutral pH, and a second at alkaline pH. The neutral pH test is comparable to the conditions in the Hanford Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) evaporator, although that evaporator operates at near atmospheric pressure and tests were done under vacuum. For the alkaline test, the target pH was based on the tank farm corrosion control program requirements, and the test protocol and equipment was comparable to that used for routine evaluation of feed compatibility studies for the 242-A evaporator. One of the

  1. COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF A WASTE TO ENERGY PLANT FOR MONTEVIDEO; AND WASTE TO

    E-print Network

    -benefit analysis by the author of a waste to energy (WTE) plant in Montevideo, Uruguay; the second part Engineering Center of Columbia University investigated the waste management system of Montevideo, Uruguay of this study showed that building a WTE plant in Montevideo would help the city and Uruguay advance

  2. Polymer solidification of mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Faucette, A.M.; Logsdon, B.W.; Lucerna, J.J.; Yudnich, R.J.

    1994-02-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant is pursuing polymer solidification as a viable treatment option for several mixed waste streams that are subject to land disposal restrictions within the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act provisions. Tests completed to date using both surrogate and actual wastes indicate that polyethylene microencapsulation is a viable treatment option for several mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant, including nitrate salts, sludges, and secondary wastes such as ash. Treatability studies conducted on actual salt waste demonstrated that the process is capable of producing waste forms that comply with all applicable regulatory criteria, including the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. Tests have also been conducted to evaluate the feasibility of macroencapsulating certain debris wastes in polymers. Several methods and plastics have been tested for macroencapsulation, including post-consumer recycle and regrind polyethylene.

  3. Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the waste acceptance criteria applicable to the transportation, storage, and disposal of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). These criteria serve as the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) primary directive for ensuring that CH-TRU waste is managed and disposed of in a manner that protects human health

  4. TRU waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This document is intended to delineate the criteria by which unclassified waste will be accepted for emplacement at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico and describe the bases upon which these criteria were established. These criteria are not intended to be specifications but rather limits that will allow waste generating and shipping sites to develop their own procedures and specifications for preparation of TRU waste for shipment to the WIPP. These criteria will also allow waste generating sites to plan future facilities for waste preparation that will produce TRU waste forms compatible with WIPP waste emplacement and isolation requirements. These criteria only apply to contract-handled (CH) and remote-handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) waste forms and are not intended to apply to beta-gamma wastes, spent fuel, high-level waste (HLW), low-level waste (LLW), low specific activity (LSA) waste, or forms of radioactive waste for experimental purposes. Specifications for receipt of experimental waste forms will be prepared by the responsible projects in conjunction with the staff of the WIPP project at a later date. In addition, these criteria only apply to waste emplaced in bedded rock salt. Technical bases for these criteria may differ significantly from those for other host rocks. 25 refs. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Reuse of waste materials as growing media for ornamental plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lourdes Hernández-Apaolaza; Antonio M. Gascó; José M. Gascó; Francisca Guerrero

    2005-01-01

    The use of different waste materials: pine bark, coconut fibre and sewage sludge as substrates in the production of ornamental plants was studied, with an special interest on the suitability of coconut fibre as growing substrate for conifer plants. The plant species tested were Pinus pinea, Cupressus arizonica and C. sempervirens and the substrate mixtures were: (1) pine bark, (2)

  6. Impacts of (14)C discharges from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant on surrounding vegetation: Comparison between grass field measurements and TOCATTA-? and SSPAM(14)C model computations.

    PubMed

    Limer, Laura M C; Le Dizès-Maurel, Séverine; Klos, Ryk; Maro, Denis; Nordén, Maria

    2015-09-01

    This article compares and discusses the ability of two different models to reproduce the observed temporal variability in grass (14)C activity in the vicinity of AREVA-NC La Hague nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in France. These two models are the TOCATTA-? model, which is specifically designed for modelling transfer of (14)C (and tritium) in the terrestrial environment over short to medium timescales (days to years), and SSPAM(14)C, which has been developed to model the transfer of (14)C in the soil-plant-atmosphere with consideration over both short and long timescales (days to thousands of years). The main goal of this article is to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the models studied, and to investigate if modelling could be improved through consideration of a much higher level of detail of plant physiology and/or higher number of plant compartments. These models have been applied here to the La Hague field data as it represents a medium term data set with both short term variation and a sizeable time series of measurements against which to compare the models. The two models have different objectives in terms of the timescales they are intended to be applied over, and thus incorporate biological processes, such as photosynthesis and plant growth, at different levels of complexity. It was found that the inclusion of seasonal dynamics in the models improved predictions of the specific activity in grass for such a source term of atmospheric (14)C. PMID:26063400

  7. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2008-03-12

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to conduct environmental monitoring. Environmental monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is conducted in order to: (a) Verify and support compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, permits, and orders; (b) Establish baselines and characterize trends in the physical, chemical, and biological condition of effluent and environmental media; (c) Identify potential environmental problems and evaluate the need for remedial actions or measures to mitigate the problems; (d) Detect, characterize, and report unplanned releases; (e) Evaluate the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control, and pollution abatement programs; and (f) Determine compliance with commitments made in environmental impact statements, environmental assessments, safety analysis reports, or other official DOE documents. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) explains the rationale and design criteria for the environmental monitoring program, extent and frequency of monitoring and measurements, procedures for laboratory analyses, quality assurance (QA) requirements, program implementation procedures, and direction for the preparation and disposition of reports. Changes to the environmental monitoring program may be necessary to allow the use of advanced technology and new data collection techniques. This EMP will document changes in the environmental monitoring program. Guidance for preparation of EMPs is contained in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance.

  8. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Salt Decontamination Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Rick Demmer; Stephen Reese

    2014-09-01

    On February 14, 2014, americium and plutonium contamination was released in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) salt caverns. At the request of WIPP’s operations contractor, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) personnel developed several methods of decontaminating WIPP salt, using surrogate contaminants and also americium (241Am). The effectiveness of the methods is evaluated qualitatively, and to the extent possible, quantitatively. One of the requirements of this effort was delivering initial results and recommendations within a few weeks. That requirement, in combination with the limited scope of the project, made in-depth analysis impractical in some instances. Of the methods tested (dry brushing, vacuum cleaning, water washing, strippable coatings, and mechanical grinding), the most practical seems to be water washing. Effectiveness is very high, and it is very easy and rapid to deploy. The amount of wastewater produced (2 L/m2) would be substantial and may not be easy to manage, but the method is the clear winner from a usability perspective. Removable surface contamination levels (smear results) from the strippable coating and water washing coupons found no residual removable contamination. Thus, whatever is left is likely adhered to (or trapped within) the salt. The other option that shows promise is the use of a fixative barrier. Bartlett Nuclear, Inc.’s Polymeric Barrier System (PBS) proved the most durable of the coatings tested. The coatings were not tested for contaminant entrapment, only for coating integrity and durability.

  9. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant borehole data

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    Data pertaining to all the surface boreholes used at the WIPP site for site characterization hydrological testing and resource evaluation exist in numerous source documents. This project was initiated to develop a comprehensive data base that would include the data on all WIPP related surface boreholes from the Atomic Energy Commission, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Energy Research and Development Administration, Department of Energy, and Hydrologic Test Borehole Programs. The data compiled from each borehole includes: operator, permit number, location, total depth, type of well, driller, drilling record, casing record, plugging schedule, and stratigraphic summary. There are six groups of boreholes contained in this data base, they are as follows: Commercially Drilled Potash Boreholes, Energy Department Wells, Geologic Exploration Boreholes, Hydrologic Test Boreholes, Potash Boreholes, and Subsurface Exploration Boreholes. There were numerous references which contained borehole data. In some cases the data found in one document was inconsistent with data in another document. In order to ensure consistency and accuracy in the data base, the same references were used for as many of the boreholes as possible. For example, all elevations and locations were taken from Compilation and Comparison of Test-Hole Location Surveys in the Vicinity of the WIPP Site. SAND 88-1065, Table 3-5. There are some sections where a data field is left blank. In this case, the information was either not applicable or was unavailable.

  10. Glass furnace processing of Rocky Flats Plant wastes: An evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Klingler; P. L. Abellera

    1988-01-01

    This report evaluates the use of a joule-heated glass furnace to treat four Rocky Flats Plant waste streams. These streams are extremely large, are primarily water soluble inorganic salts, and can be contaminated with hazardous organic material, toxics, andor radioactivity. It runs closely simulating actual process type runs, the glass furnace effectively treated these wastes by degrading the salts to

  11. Radioactive and nonradioactive waste characterization at the Rocky Flats Plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Grover; J. K. Paynter; W. Eakins; M. S. Gold; S. A. Anderson; R. L. Griffis

    1992-01-01

    The Waste Stream and Residue Identification and Characterization (WSRIC) program, conducted during 1990 by EG&G Rocky Flats, Inc., at the Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), was designed to provide complete and accurate characterization of all process outputs, including wastes, products, and residues. The WSRIC program provides the fundamental information required by the RFP for effective management of

  12. Radioactive and nonradioactive waste characterization at the Rocky Flats Plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Grover; J. K. Paynter; W. Eakins; M. S. Gold; S. A. Anderson; R. L. Griffis

    1992-01-01

    The Waste Stream and Residue Identification and Characterization (WSRIC) program, conducted during 1990 by EG G Rocky Flats, Inc., at the Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), was designed to provide complete and accurate characterization of all process outputs, including wastes, products, and residues. The WSRIC program provides the fundamental information required by the RFP for effective management

  13. Immobilization of Rocky Flats Plant liquid organic wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wrobel

    1983-01-01

    This study concerns the solidification of low-level and transuranic (TRU) liquid organic wastes produced during normal operations at the Rocky Flats Plant. Its purpose was to determine an acceptable and cost effective method for immobilizing liquid organic wastes. Envirostone gypsum cement; Portland cement; Portland cement with Oil Dri absorbent; Envirostone with Portland cement; and Envirostone with Oil Dri absorbent were

  14. Criteria impacting shipments of Rocky Flats Plant radioactive mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Clawson, R.L.; Eide, J.H.

    1992-05-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company, Transportation and Packaging Division, under contract for the Los Alamos Technology Office-Rocky Flats Plant, has developed this synopsis report to be used as a reference in the development of the Rocky Flats Plant Comprehensive Treatment and Management Plan and the Rocky Flats Plant Residue Elimination Plan. This report represents the criteria for packaging, shipping, and transporting Rocky Flats Plant radioactive mixed wastes. It is a compilation of state and federal regulations, US Department of Energy orders, and acceptance criteria specific to US Department of Energy radioactive mixed waste treatment, storage and disposal facilities.

  15. Reuse of waste water from ready-mixed concrete plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stamatis Tsimas; Monika Zervaki

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is the examination of the properties of waste water obtained from a ready-mixed concrete plant and its utilization potential as mixing water for concrete production. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Samples of waste water from several points of a water recycling process from a ready-mixed concrete plant were examined for their chemical properties (Cl-, SO42-, alkalies,

  16. IR and Raman Spectroscopy of Sodium-Aluminophosphate Glasses for Immobilizing High-Level Wastes from Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanovsky, S. V.; Myasoedov, B. F.; Remizov, M. B.; Belanova, E. A.

    2014-09-01

    The structure of sodium-aluminophosphate glasses containing constituents of high-level wastes (cesium, magnesium, copper, and molybdenum oxides) from uranium-graphite reactors was studied by IR and Raman spectroscopy coupled with x-ray diffraction. The structural network was shown to be composed of short P-O chains with embedded AlO4 tetrahedra. Cross-linking by Mg2+ was possible in the Mg-bearing samples. The effect of the other oxides (Cs2O, MoO3, CuO) on the glass structure was negligible for the occurring amounts. The glasses devitrified partially upon quenching and more strongly upon annealing. This was reflected in splitting of the vibrational bands for bonds in the glass anionic structural motif.

  17. Bioaerosol Generation at Large-Scale Green Waste Composting Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miguel A. Sánchez-Monedero; Edward I. Stentiford; Sari T. Urpilainen

    2005-01-01

    Bioaerosol release from composting plants is a cause of concern because of the potential health impacts on site workers and local residents. A one-year monitoring was undertaken in a typical composting plant treating green wastes by windrowing in the open. Aspergillus fumigatus spores and mesophilic bacteria were used as monitoring parameters and were collected in a six-stage Andersen sampler impactor

  18. AQUATIC PLANTS FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF WASTE WATER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Assia A. El Falaky; S. A. Aboulroos; A. A. Saoud; M. A. Ali

    The ability of aquatic plants to accumulate heavy metals was examined in Bahr in El Bakar drain as one of the first sized drains in Egypt heavily polluted with heavy metals. Metal enrichment was found to be dependent on the plant species and metal type. The most efficient plant species in accumulating heavy metals were Eichhornia crassipes (floating plant), Ceratophyllum

  19. Radioactive Waste from Nuclear Power Plants Part II. Thermal Properties of Waste\\/Polymer Products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. K. Ghattas; N. E. Ikladious; H. A. Shatta

    1989-01-01

    Simulating solutions of medium active borate waste from nuclear power plants are dried and immobilized in epoxy resin, phenol formaldehyde, polyester and poly methyl methacrylate. Thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric measurements are given for pure unloaded thermoset and thermoplastic polymer samples and compared with the thermograms of the same polymers loaded with 50 wt-% of dried waste powder. The aim of

  20. Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Waste Feed Qualification Program Development Approach - 13114

    SciTech Connect

    Markillie, Jeffrey R.; Arakali, Aruna V.; Benson, Peter A.; Halverson, Thomas G. [Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Project, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)] [Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Project, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Adamson, Duane J.; Herman, Connie C.; Peeler, David K. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is a nuclear waste treatment facility being designed and constructed for the U.S. Department of Energy by Bechtel National, Inc. and subcontractor URS Corporation (under contract DE-AC27-01RV14136 [1]) to process and vitrify radioactive waste that is currently stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. A wide range of planning is in progress to prepare for safe start-up, commissioning, and operation. The waste feed qualification program is being developed to protect the WTP design, safety basis, and technical basis by assuring acceptance requirements can be met before the transfer of waste. The WTP Project has partnered with Savannah River National Laboratory to develop the waste feed qualification program. The results of waste feed qualification activities will be implemented using a batch processing methodology, and will establish an acceptable range of operator controllable parameters needed to treat the staged waste. Waste feed qualification program development is being implemented in three separate phases. Phase 1 required identification of analytical methods and gaps. This activity has been completed, and provides the foundation for a technically defensible approach for waste feed qualification. Phase 2 of the program development is in progress. The activities in this phase include the closure of analytical methodology gaps identified during Phase 1, design and fabrication of laboratory-scale test apparatus, and determination of the waste feed qualification sample volume. Phase 3 will demonstrate waste feed qualification testing in support of Cold Commissioning. (authors)

  1. Mobile power plants : waste body heat recovery

    E-print Network

    Gibbons, Jonathan S. (Jonathan Scott), 1979-

    2004-01-01

    Novel methods to convert waste metabolic heat into useful and useable amounts of electricity were studied. Thermoelectric, magneto hydrodynamic, and piezo-electric energy conversions at the desired scope were evaluated to ...

  2. CEWEP -Confederation of European Waste-to-Energy Plants Boulevard Clovis 12A

    E-print Network

    and industrial food waste and grown biomass (e.g. forestry). #12;CEWEP - Confederation of European WasteCEWEP - Confederation of European Waste-to- Energy Plants Boulevard Clovis 12A B-1000 Brussels Tel energy from waste Waste-to-Energy A cost effective and reliable sustainable energy source Waste

  3. Water recovery using waste heat from coal fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, Stephen W.; Morrow, Charles W.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Dwyer, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    The potential to treat non-traditional water sources using power plant waste heat in conjunction with membrane distillation is assessed. Researchers and power plant designers continue to search for ways to use that waste heat from Rankine cycle power plants to recover water thereby reducing water net water consumption. Unfortunately, waste heat from a power plant is of poor quality. Membrane distillation (MD) systems may be a technology that can use the low temperature waste heat (<100 F) to treat water. By their nature, they operate at low temperature and usually low pressure. This study investigates the use of MD to recover water from typical power plants. It looks at recovery from three heat producing locations (boiler blow down, steam diverted from bleed streams, and the cooling water system) within a power plant, providing process sketches, heat and material balances and equipment sizing for recovery schemes using MD for each of these locations. It also provides insight into life cycle cost tradeoffs between power production and incremental capital costs.

  4. B Plant low level waste system integrity assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, E.J.

    1995-09-01

    This document provides the report of the integrity assessment activities for the B Plant low level waste system. The assessment activities were in response to requirements of the Washington State Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Administrative Code (WAC), 173-303-640. This integrity assessment report supports compliance with Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order interim milestone target action M-32-07-T03.

  5. Supercompaction and Repackaging Facility for Rocky Flats Plant transuranic waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barthel

    1988-01-01

    The Supercompaction and Repackaging Facility (SaRF) for processing Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) generated transuranic (TRU) waste was conceptualized and has received funding of $1.9 million. The SaRF is scheduled for completion in September, 1989 and will eliminate a labor intensive manual repackaging effort. The semi-automated glovebox-contained SaRF is being designed to process 63,500 cubic feet of TRU waste annually for

  6. Radioactive and nonradioactive waste characterization at the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, R.W.; Paynter, J.K.; Eakins, W.; Gold, M.S.; Anderson, S.A.; Griffis, R.L.

    1992-02-01

    The Waste Stream and Residue Identification and Characterization (WSRIC) program, conducted during 1990 by EG&G Rocky Flats, Inc., at the Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), was designed to provide complete and accurate characterization of all process outputs, including wastes, products, and residues. The WSRIC program provides the fundamental information required by the RFP for effective management of its nonhazardous, hazardous, and mixed wastes, in addition to management of its residues. This paper reviews how the WSRIC program obtained data to characterize waste and residue streams. The WSRIC program consisted of two phases. The first phase provided field identification, evaluation, validation, and verification of current RFP processes, wastes or residue streams, and waste management units. Utilizing this process knowledge and associated assumptions, waste and residue streams were characterized to determine their regulatory status under 40 CFR 261 and the Colorado Code of Regulations (6 CCR 1007-3 Part 261). The second phase of WSRIC established and implemented a sampling/analysis program to verify and augment the results of the initial process characterization effort. The sampling/analysis program utilized waste stream information generated in the first phase and prioritized each waste stream for sampling and analysis.

  7. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    Pursuant to the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended (42 USC 6901, et seq.), and the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act (Section 74-4-1 et seq., NMSA 1978), Permit is issued to the owner and operator of the US DOE, WIPP site (hereafter called the Permittee(s)) to operate a hazardous waste storage facility consisting of a container storage unit (Waste Handling Building) and two Subpart X miscellaneous below-ground storage units (Bin Scale Test Rooms 1 and 3), all are located at the above location. The Permittee must comply with all terms and conditions of this Permit. This Permit consists of the conditions contained herein, including the attachments. Applicable regulations cited are the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Management Regulations, as amended 1992 (HWMR-7), the regulations that are in effect on the date of permit issuance. This Permit shall become effective upon issuance by the Secretary of the New Mexico Environment Department and shall be in effect for a period of ten (10) years from issuance. This Permit is also based on the assumption that all information contained in the Permit application and the administrative record is accurate and that the activity will be conducted as specified in the application and the administrative record. The Permit application consists of Revision 3, as well as associated attachments and clarifying information submitted on January 25, 1993, and May 17, 1993.

  8. Waste generation comparison: Coal-fired versus nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    LaGuardia, T.S.

    1998-12-31

    Low-level radioactive waste generation and disposal attract a great deal of attention whenever the nuclear industry is scrutinized by concerned parties, be it the media, the public, or political interests. It is therefore important to the nuclear industry that this issue be put into perspective relative to other current forms of energy production. Most of the country`s fossil-fueled power comes from coal-fired plants, with oil and gas as other fuel sources. Most of the generated waste also comes from coal plants. This paper, therefore, compares waste quantities generated by a typical (1150-MW(electric)) pressurized water reactor (PWR) to that of a comparably sized coal-fired power plant.

  9. Waste Generation Comparison: Coal-Fired Versus Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas S. LaGuardia

    1998-12-31

    Low-level radioactive waste generation and disposal attract a great deal of attention whenever the nuclear industry is scrutinized by concerned parties, be it the media, the public, or political interests. It is therefore important to the nuclear industry that this issue be put into perspective relative to other current forms of energy production. Most of our country's fossil-fueled power comes from coal-fired plants, with oil and gas as other fuel sources. Most of our generated waste also comes from coal plants. This paper, therefore, compares waste quantities generated by a typical 1150-MW(electric) pressurized water reactor (PWR) to that of a comparably sized coal-fired power plant.

  10. Final environmental impact statement. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    This volume contains the appendices for the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Alternative geologic environs are considered. Salt, crystalline rock, argillaceous rock, and tuff are discussed. Studies on alternate geologic regions for the siting of WIPP are reviewed. President Carter's message to Congress on the management of radioactive wastes and the findings and recommendations of the interagency review group on nuclear waste management are included. Selection criteria for the WIPP site including geologic, hydrologic, tectonic, physicochemical compatability, and socio-economic factors are presented. A description of the waste types and the waste processing procedures are given. Methods used to calculate radiation doses from radionuclide releases during operation are presented. A complete description of the Los Medanos site, including archaeological and historic aspects is included. Environmental monitoring programs and long-term safety analysis program are described. (DMC)

  11. Plant for transforming town solid waste into a fertilizer

    SciTech Connect

    Cerroni, M.

    1980-07-29

    A plant for transforming organic substances, contained in town solid waste, into a fertilizer or compost is described comprising in combination, a basin which is provided with a supporting plane along which said waste is disposed, a container about the basin retaining a confined atmosphere above ambient temperature accelerating fermentation of said waste, a reel driven along said plane with a continuous rotary motion about its own axis and a translation motion along the previously mentioned plane and having vanes which contact, crush, mince, crumble, and displace the waste along said plane in the single direction of travel of waste along said plane, charging means for entering onto said plane the material to be treated replacing material discharged after treatment, and discharging means for removing from the plane the treated material including means separating fermented compost from contaminating agents.

  12. Indoor air concentrations of mercury species in incineration plants for municipal solid waste (MSW) and hospital waste (HW)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yangsheng Liu; Ziyu Zhan; Fang Du; Sifang Kong; Yushan Liu

    2009-01-01

    Until now, there is limited information about mercury exposures inside solid waste incineration plants although incineration has been considered as one of major solid waste treatments. This study investigated indoor air concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and particulate mercury (Hgp) and indoor dust mercury concentrations in a municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plant and a

  13. Strategy of active waste management in the Russian Federation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Polyakov; L. A. Mamaev; O. L. Masanov; K. P. Zakharova

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with the main aspects of the strategy for managing currently existing and future nuclear waste in the Russian Federation. There are specific approaches to managing active nuclear waste that was and is being produced from radioactive ore mining and processing and fuel rod fabrication, nuclear power plant operation, spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and defence programme implementation, operation

  14. Remote ignitability analysis of high-level radioactive waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. Lundholm; J. M. Morgan; R. M. Shurtliff; L. E. Trejo

    1992-01-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), was used to reprocess nuclear fuel from government owned reactors to recover the unused uranium-235. These processes generated highly radioactive liquid wastes which are stored in large underground tanks prior to being calcined into a granular solid. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and state\\/federal clean air statutes require waste characterization of these

  15. WIPP conceptual design report. Addendum J. Support equipment in the high level waste facility of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Rieb; R. S. Foley

    1977-01-01

    The Aerojet Manufacturing Company (AMCO) received a contract in November 1976 to provide consulting services in assisting Holmes and Narver, Incorporated with the conceptual designs, cost estimates, and schedules of equipment used to handle waste casks, to decontaminate waste canisters and to overpack damaged or highly contaminated waste canisters for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Also, the layout of

  16. MOPITT V5 reprocessing

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-08-06

    ... V5 products. The original L1 filenames included the text string 'L1V3.36' whereas the reprocessed L1 files include 'L1V3.37'. The original L2 filenames included the text string 'L2V10.0' whereas the reprocessed L2 files include 'L2V10.1'.   ...

  17. Integrated optimization of a waste water treatment plant using statistical analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Halters; Edwin Zondervan; Andre de Haan

    2010-01-01

    In this research, a waste water treatment plant is systematically optimized. The waste water treatment plant is used to remove aluminium from waste water using precipitation, flocculation and flotation. In total 40 variables influence the combined unit. After systematic selection, the number of variables was reduced to six: the waste water flow, pH, agitation velocity, amount of poly-electrolyte, amount of

  18. Mitigation of plant penetration into radioactive waste utilizing herbicides

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, G.R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the use of herbicides as an effective method of precluding plant root penetration into buried radioactive wastes. The discussed surface applications are selective herbicides to control broadleaf vegetation in grasses; nonselective herbicides, which control all vegetation; and slow-release forms of these herbicides to prolong effectiveness.

  19. STRATEGIES FOR WATER AND WASTE REDUCTION IN DAIRY FOOD PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was undertaken to reduce water and waste discharges in a complex, multiproduct dairy food plant through management control and modifications of equipment and processes. The objectives were to develop approaches that would be broadly applicable throughout the dairy industr...

  20. Waste Energy Analysis Recovery for a Typical Food Processing Plant

    E-print Network

    Miller, P. H.; Mann, L., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    An energy analysis made for the Joan of Arc Food Processing Plant in St. Francisville, Louisiana indicated that a significant quantity of waste heat energy was being released to the atmosphere in the forms of low quality steam and hot flue gases...

  1. Waste Energy Analysis Recovery for a Typical Food Processing Plant 

    E-print Network

    Miller, P. H.; Mann, L., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    An energy analysis made for the Joan of Arc Food Processing Plant in St. Francisville, Louisiana indicated that a significant quantity of waste heat energy was being released to the atmosphere in the forms of low quality steam and hot flue gases...

  2. Application of fuzzy causal networks to waste water treatment plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. C. Huang; X. Z. Wang

    1999-01-01

    A graphical model, the extended fuzzy causal network is introduced and applied to a case study of waste water treatment plants. The structure of the network is developed using parameter sensitivity studies and the relationships between connected parameters are obtained using a learning approach adapted from fuzzy neural networks. The graphical model is shown to be able to translate the

  3. Fetal loss and work in a waste water treatment plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Morgan; L. Kheifets; D. L. Obrinsky; M. D. Whorton; D. E. Foliart

    1984-01-01

    We investigated pregnancy outcomes in 101 wives of workers employed in a waste water treatment plant (WWTP), and verified fetal losses by hospital records. Paternal work histories were compiled and each of the 210 pregnancies was assigned a paternal exposure category. The relative risk of fetal loss was increased when paternal exposure to the WWTP occurred around the time of

  4. Solidification\\/Stabilization of Power Plants Wastes Potential Water Pollutants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleksandra Kosti?-Pulek; Svetlana Popov

    The intensive firing of coal in power plants can harm the environment. The problems are caused by the emission of solid particles, sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, as well as by pollution of the surrounding waters and the degradation of the land due to the disposition of the solid wastes: fly ash, bottom ash

  5. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant project overview and status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Smets; L. D. Swenson

    1993-01-01

    The Hanford Waste vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being constructed at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Engineering and design are being accomplished by Fluor Daniel, Inc. in Irvine, California. Technical input is furnished by Westinghouse Hanford Company and construction management services by UE C-Catalytic Inc.

  6. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant project overview and status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Smets; L. D. Swenson

    1993-01-01

    The Hanford Waste vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being constructed at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Engineering and design are being accomplished by Fluor Daniel, Inc. in Irvine, California. Technical input is furnished by Westinghouse Hanford Company and construction management services by UE&C-Catalytic Inc.

  7. Removal of dissolved and suspended radionuclides from Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant liquid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, S.D. (Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (USA)); Nankani, F.D. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA)); Bray, L.A.; Eakin, D.E.; Larson, D.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1990-12-01

    It was determined during Preliminary Design of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant that certain intermediate process liquid waste streams should be decontaminated in a way that would permit the purge of dissolved chemical species from the process recycle shop. This capability is needed to ensure proper control of product glass chemical composition and to avoid excessive corrosion of process equipment. This paper discusses the process design of a system that will remove both radioactive particulates and certain dissolved fission products from process liquid waste streams. Supporting data obtained from literature sources as well as from laboratory- and pilot-scale tests are presented. 3 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  8. Waste migration studies at the Savannah River Plant burial ground

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J A; Oblath, S B; Hawkins, R H; Grant, M W; Hoeffner, S L; King, C M

    1985-01-01

    The low-level radioactive waste burial ground at the Savannah River Plant is a typical shallow-land-burial disposal site in a humid region. Studies of waste migration at this site provide generic data for designing other disposal facilities. A program of field, laboratory, and modeling studies for the SRP burial ground has been conducted for several years. Recent results of lysimeter tests, soil-water chemistry studies, and transport modeling are reported. The lysimeter experiments include ongoing tests with 40 lysimeters containing a variety of defense wastes, and recently concluded lysimeter tests with tritium and plutonium waste forms. The tritium lysimeter operated 12 years. In chemistry studies, measurements of soil-water distribution coefficients (K/sub d/) were concluded. Current emphasis is on identification of trace organic compounds in groundwater from the burial site. Development of the dose-to-man model was completed, and the computer code is available for routine use. 16 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) We are applying our unique capabilities in actinide and repository

    E-print Network

    Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) We are applying our unique capabilities in actinide and repository science to help develop and manage salt repositories. 8 08 FACT SHEET Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, was selected as the site for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). WIPP received Environmental Protection

  10. Final environmental impact statement. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this document as environmental input to future decisions regarding the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which would include the disposal of transuranic waste, as currently authorized. The alternatives covered in this document are the following: (1) Continue storing transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) as it is now or with improved confinement. (2) Proceed with WIPP at the Los Medanos site in southeastern New Mexico, as currently authorized. (3) Dispose of TRU waste in the first available repository for high-level waste. The Los Medanos site would be investigated for its potential suitability as a candidate site. This is administration policy and is the alternative preferred by the DOE. (4) Delay the WIPP to allow other candidate sites to be evaluated for TRU-waste disposal. This environmental impact statement is arranged in the following manner: Chapter 1 is an overall summary of the analysis contained in the document. Chapters 2 and 4 set forth the objectives of the national waste-management program and analyze the full spectrum of reasonable alternatives for meeting these objectives, including the WIPP. Chapter 5 presents the interim waste-acceptance criteria and waste-form alternatives for the WIPP. Chapters 6 through 13 provide a detailed description and environmental analysis of the WIPP repository and its site. Chapter 14 describes the permits and approvals necessary for the WIPP and the interactions that have taken place with Federal, State, and local authorities, and with the general public in connection with the repository. Chapter 15 analyzes the many comments received on the DEIS and tells what has been done in this FEIS in response. The appendices contain data and discussions in support of the material in the text.

  11. Waste Treatment Technology Process Development Plan For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Recycle

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.

    2013-08-29

    The purpose of this Process Development Plan is to summarize the objectives and plans for the technology development activities for an alternative path for disposition of the recycle stream that will be generated in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility (LAW Recycle). This plan covers the first phase of the development activities. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to recycle it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be concentrated by evaporation and returned to the LAW vitrification facility. Because this stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are also problematic for the glass waste form, they accumulate in the Recycle stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and reducing the halides in the Recycle is a key component of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, this stream does not have a proven disposition path, and resolving this gap becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and to develop a process that will remove radionuclides from this stream and allow its diversion to another disposition path, greatly decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The origin of this LAW Recycle stream will be from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover or precipitates of scrubbed components (e.g. carbonates). The soluble components are mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet, and will not be available until the WTP begins operation, causing uncertainty in its composition, particularly the radionuclide content. This plan will provide an estimate of the likely composition and the basis for it, assess likely treatment technologies, identify potential disposition paths, establish target treatment limits, and recommend the testing needed to show feasibility. Two primary disposition options are proposed for investigation, one is concentration for storage in the tank farms, and the other is treatment prior to disposition in the Effluent Treatment Facility. One of the radionuclides that is volatile and expected to be in high concentration in this LAW Recycle stream is Technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc), a long-lived radionuclide with a half-life of 210,000 years. Technetium will not be removed from the aqueous waste in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), and will primarily end up immobilized in the LAW glass, which will be disposed in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Because {sup 99}Tc has a very long half-life and is highly mobile, it is the largest dose contributor to the Performance Assessment (PA) of the IDF. Other radionuclides that are also expected to be in appreciable concentration in the LAW Recycle are {sup 129}I, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 241}Am. The concentrations of these radionuclides in this stream will be much lower than in the LAW, but they will still be higher than limits for some of the other disposition pathways currently available. Although the baseline process will recycle this stream to the Pretreatment Facility, if the LAW facility begins operation first, this stream will not have a disposition path internal to WTP. One potential solution is to return the stream to the tank farms where it can be evaporated in the 242-A evaporator, or perhaps deploy an auxiliary evaporator to concentrate it prior to return to the tank farms. In either case, testing is needed to evaluat

  12. Plant for the treatment of waste

    SciTech Connect

    Barkhuus, P.W.; Faldt, I.

    1980-09-23

    A plant is described that is comprised of a post combustion chamber connected to the combustion chamber of a household rubbish incineration furnace whose hot gases it uses in order, by means of suitable berners to heat sewage sludges and industrial liquids and a circuit for the treatment of the smoke and residues coming from the post combustion. This circuit, which is held under vacuum by a blower, comprises a dry cooling tower employing semi-liquid sludges as cooling agent, an absorption tower employing a solution adapted to ombine the predominantly acid gases of the smoke, and a separating tower in which the liquids in suspension are removed. A recycle circuit for the solution and liquid separated and means of recovering metallic particles and compounds complete this plant.

  13. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services (WRES)

    2004-10-25

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed and authorized for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 2002, to March 31, 2004. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) (Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico.

  14. Transporting transuranic waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Risk and cost perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Biwer, B. M.; Gilette, J. L.; Poch, L. A.; Suermann, J. F.

    1999-02-16

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is an authorized US Department of Energy (DOE) research and development facility constructed near the city of Carlsbad in southeastern New Mexico. The facility is intended to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste resulting from US defense activities. Under the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act of 1992 (LWA), federal lands surrounding the WIPP facility were withdrawn from all public use and the title of those lands was transferred to the Secretary of Energy. The DOE's TRU waste is stored, and in some cases is still being generated, at 10 large-quantity and 13 small-quantity sites across the US. After applicable certification requirements have been met, the TRU waste at these sites will be sent to the WIPP to initiate the disposal phase of the facility, which according to current planning is projected to last for approximately 35 years.

  15. Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Michael F. Simpson; Jack D. Law

    2010-02-01

    This is an a submission for the Encyclopedia of Sustainable Technology on the subject of Reprocessing Spent Nuclear Fuel. No formal abstract was required for the article. The full article will be attached.

  16. Bentonite as a waste isolation pilot plant shaft sealing material

    SciTech Connect

    Daemen, J.; Ran, Chongwei [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Current designs of the shaft sealing system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) propose using bentonite as a primary sealing component. The shaft sealing designs anticipate that compacted bentonite sealing components can perform through the 10,000-year regulatory period and beyond. To evaluate the acceptability of bentonite as a sealing material for the WIPP, this report identifies references that deal with the properties and characteristics of bentonite that may affect its behavior in the WIPP environment. This report reviews published studies that discuss using bentonite as sealing material for nuclear waste disposal, environmental restoration, toxic and chemical waste disposal, landfill liners, and applications in the petroleum industry. This report identifies the physical and chemical properties, stability and seal construction technologies of bentonite seals in shafts, especially in a saline brine environment. This report focuses on permeability, swelling pressure, strength, stiffness, longevity, and densification properties of bentonites.

  17. Solid waste recycling activities at the Kansas City Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.L.; Huyett, J.D.; Westlake, N.M.

    1992-02-01

    The DCP has as Proactive Solid Waste Recycling Program. Historical activities have consisted of extensive Precious and Scarp Metal Recovery through dedicated efforts of the Excess and Reclamation department. This is the only organization at the KCP that pays for itself'' through utilization of manpower to recover reclaimable material from the teardown of scrap parts, equipment, and machinery. The KCP also initiated an expansion of this program through increased efforts to recovery recyclable materials from normal plant trash. Efforts to date have resulted in the establishment of waste paper and cafeteria grease recycling programs. Another initiative nearing fruition is to recycle waste styrofoam. Activities are also underway to establish future programs to recycle spent carbon, other plastic resins, glass and cardboard.

  18. Solid waste recycling activities at the Kansas City Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.L.; Huyett, J.D.; Westlake, N.M.

    1992-02-01

    The DCP has as Proactive Solid Waste Recycling Program. Historical activities have consisted of extensive Precious and Scarp Metal Recovery through dedicated efforts of the Excess and Reclamation department. This is the only organization at the KCP that ``pays for itself`` through utilization of manpower to recover reclaimable material from the teardown of scrap parts, equipment, and machinery. The KCP also initiated an expansion of this program through increased efforts to recovery recyclable materials from normal plant trash. Efforts to date have resulted in the establishment of waste paper and cafeteria grease recycling programs. Another initiative nearing fruition is to recycle waste styrofoam. Activities are also underway to establish future programs to recycle spent carbon, other plastic resins, glass and cardboard.

  19. Preliminary seal design evaluation for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Stormont, J C

    1988-03-01

    This report presents a preliminary evaluation of design concepts for the eventual sealing of the shafts, drifts, and boreholes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Facility. The purpose of the seal systems is to limit the flow of water into, through, and out of the repository. The principal design strategy involves the consolidation of crushed or granular salt in response to the closure of the excavations in salt. Other candidate seal materials are bentonite, cementitious mixtures, and possibly asphalt. Results from in situ experiments and modeling studies, as well as laboratory materials testing and related industrial experience, are used to develop seal designs for shafts, waste storage panel entryways, non-waste containing drifts, and boreholes. Key elements of the ongoing experimental program are identified. 112 refs., 25 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Remote maintenance in the TOR fast reactor fuel reprocessing facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Eymery; M. Constant; G. Malterre

    1986-01-01

    The TOR facility which is undergoing commissioning tests has a capacity of 5 tonne HM\\/yr which is enough for reprocessing all the Phenix fuel, with an excess capacity which is to be used for other fast reactors' fuels. TOR will also be used to test new equipment developed for the large breeder fuel reprocessing plant presently in the design stage.

  1. [Hygienic monitoring in a municipal solid waste incineration plant].

    PubMed

    Boccia, Antonio; Del Cimmuto, Angela; Tufi, Daniela; De Giusti, Maria; Grisolia, Massimo

    2003-01-01

    Under President's Executive Order 915/1982, the Malagrotta waste disposal plant has been surrounded by a water-proof ring. This study reflects a eight-year research activity about "the Plant's steadiness and its impact on the land; hygienic monitoring of aquifers, air quality control and sound pollution; health and safety of workers; disinfection and land reclamation". For surface subsidence to be measured, 21 spots were monitored and 30 piezometers were set up in adjacent critical areas, both inside and outside the plant. Some of them were also used to pick up water and test it for chemical and microbiological purposes. Samples of leachates were analysed, air quality assessed and sound tests carried out. Overall outcomes show good performance in terms of interaction between plant, hydro-geological regimen and possible impact on the surrounding land. PMID:14716379

  2. Remote handling equipment at the hanford waste treatment plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bardal, M.A. [PaR Systems, Inc., Shoreview, MN, (United States); Roach, J.D. [Bechtel National, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Cold war plutonium production led to extensive amounts of radioactive waste stored in tanks at the Department of Energy's Hanford Waste Treatment Plant. The storage tanks could potentially leak into the ground water and into the Columbia River. The solution for this risk of the leaking waste is vitrification. Vitrification is a process of mixing molten glass with radioactive waste to form a stable condition for storage. The Department of Energy has contracted Bechtel National, Inc. to build facilities at the Hanford site to process the waste. The waste will be separated into high and low level waste. Four major systems will process the waste, two pretreatment and two high level. Due to the high radiation levels, high integrity custom cranes have been designed to remotely maintain the hot cells. Several critical design parameters were implemented into the remote machinery design, including radiation limitations, remote operations, Important to Safety features, overall equipment effectiveness, minimum wall approaches, seismic constraints, and recovery requirements. Several key pieces of equipment were designed to meet these design requirements - high integrity crane bridges, trolleys, main hoists, mast hoists, slewing hoists, a monorail hoist, and telescoping mast deployed tele-robotic manipulator arms. There were unique and challenging design features and equipment needed to provide the remotely operated high integrity crane/manipulator systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant. The cranes consist of a double girder bridge with various main hoist capacities ranging from one to thirty ton and are used for performing routine maintenance. A telescoping mast mounted tele-robotic manipulator arm with a one-ton hook is deployed from the trolley to perform miscellaneous operations in-cell. A dual two-ton slewing jib hoist is mounted to the bottom of the trolley and rotates 360 degrees around the mast allowing the closest hook wall approaches. Each of the two hoists on this slewer is mounted 180 degrees opposite each other. Another system utilizes a single one-ton slewing jib hoist that can extend and retract as well as rotate 270 degrees around the mast. Yet, another system utilizes an under-hung monorail trolley with one-ton hoist capacity mounted to the bottom of the bridge girder. The main, slewer and monorail hoists each have power-rotating hooks for installing and removing equipment in the hot cell. (authors)

  3. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Enviromental Report for 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Enviromnetal Services

    2009-09-21

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2008 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to characterize site environmental management performance; summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year; confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; highlight significant facility programs and efforts; and describe how compliance and environmental improvement is accomplished through the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS). The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and the management and operating contractor (MOC), Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS), maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). DOE Order 231.1A; DOE Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and workers, and preservation of the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, which requires that DOE facilities submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Chief Health, Safety, and Security Officer. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) Number NM4890139088-TSDF (treatment, storage, and disposal facility) further requires that the ASER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WIPP mission is to safely dispose of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste generated by the production of nuclear weapons and other activities related to the national defense of the United States. In 2008, 5,265 cubic meters (m3) of TRU waste were disposed of at the WIPP facility, including 5,216 m3 of contact-handled (CH) TRU waste and 49 m3 of remote-handled (RH) TRU waste. From the first receipt of waste in March 1999 through the end of 2008, 57,873 m3 of TRU waste had been disposed of at the WIPP facility.

  4. Managing desktop publishing technologies at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Forbes

    1989-01-01

    Despite the pronounced emphasis upon incorporating desktop publishing technologies into technical publications and communications environments, the Publications and Procedures (P&P) section at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) had not ventured into any form of desktop publishing by mid-1988. The author outlines the planning, decision, acquisition, implementation, training, and various problem-solving steps involved with shifting the P&P documentation environment from

  5. Waste Management Strategy for Dismantling Waste to Reduce Costs for Power Plant Decommissioning - 13543

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, Arne; Lidar, Per [Studsvik Nuclear AB, SE-611 82 Nykoeping (Sweden)] [Studsvik Nuclear AB, SE-611 82 Nykoeping (Sweden); Bergh, Niklas; Hedin, Gunnar [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Fredholmsgatan 2, SE-721 63, Vaesteraas (Sweden)] [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Fredholmsgatan 2, SE-721 63, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants generates large volumes of radioactive or potentially radioactive waste. The proper management of the dismantling waste plays an important role for the time needed for the dismantling phase and thus is critical to the decommissioning cost. An efficient and thorough process for inventorying, characterization and categorization of the waste provides a sound basis for the planning process. As part of comprehensive decommissioning studies for Nordic NPPs, Westinghouse has developed the decommissioning inventories that have been used for estimations of the duration of specific work packages and the corresponding costs. As part of creating the design basis for a national repository for decommissioning waste, the total production of different categories of waste packages has also been predicted. Studsvik has developed a risk based concept for categorization and handling of the generated waste using six different categories with a span from extremely small risk for radiological contamination to high level waste. The two companies have recently joined their skills in the area of decommissioning on selected market in a consortium named 'ndcon' to further strengthen the proposed process. Depending on the risk for radiological contamination or the radiological properties and other properties of importance for waste management, treatment routes are proposed with well-defined and proven methods for on-site or off-site treatment, activity determination and conditioning. The system is based on a graded approach philosophy aiming for high confidence and sustainability, aiming for re-use and recycling where found applicable. The objective is to establish a process where all dismantled material has a pre-determined treatment route. These routes should through measurements, categorization, treatment, conditioning, intermediate storage and final disposal be designed to provide a steady, un-disturbed flow of material to avoid interruptions. Bottle-necks in the process causes increased space requirements and will have negative impact on the project schedule, which increases not only the cost but also the dose exposure to personnel. For these reasons it is critical to create a process that transfers material into conditioned waste ready for disposal as quickly as possible. To a certain extent the decommissioning program should be led by the waste management process. With the objective to reduce time for handling of dismantled material at site and to efficiently and environmental-friendly use waste management methods (clearance for re-use followed by clearance for recycling), the costs for the plant decommissioning could be reduced as well as time needed for performing the decommissioning project. Also, risks for delays would be reduced with a well-defined handling scheme which limits surprises. Delays are a major cost driver for decommissioning projects. (authors)

  6. Reprocessed uranium exposure and lung cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Canu, Irina Guseva; Jacob, Sophie; Cardis, Elisabeth; Wild, Pascal; Caër-Lorho, Sylvaine; Auriol, Bernard; Laurier, Dominique; Tirmarche, Margot

    2010-09-01

    This study investigated the risk of lung cancer in regards to protracted occupational exposure to reprocessed uranium compounds. Two thousand seven hundred and nine male workers employed at the AREVA NC uranium processing plant between 1960 and 2005 in France were included in the cohort. Historical exposure to reprocessed uranium compounds classified by their solubility type was assessed on the basis of the plant's specific job-exposure matrix. Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for attained age, calendar period, and socioeconomic status were used to estimate relative risks in regards of each type of uranium compound. The relative risk of lung cancer tended to increase with decreasing solubility of reprocessed uranium compounds. The highest-though not statistically significant-relative risk was observed among workers exposed to slowly soluble reprocessed uranium dioxide. This study is the first suggesting an increasing risk of lung cancer associated with exposure to reprocessed uranium. Our results are consistent with data from experimental studies of biokinetics and the action mechanism of slowly soluble uranium compounds, but need to be confirmed in larger studies with more detailed dose-response analyses. PMID:20699691

  7. Sealing concepts for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, C.L.; Gulick, C.W.; Lambert, S.J.

    1982-09-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility is proposed for development in the southeast portion of the State of New Mexico. The proposed horizon is in bedded salt located approximately 2150 ft below the surface. The purpose of the WIPP is to provide an R&D facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from defense activities of the United States. As such, it will include a disposal demonstration for transuranic (TRU) wastes and an experimental area to address issues associated with disposal of defense high level wastes (DHLW) in bedded salt. All DHLW used in the experiments are planned for retrieval at the termination of testing; the TRU waste can be permanently disposed of at the site after the pilot phase is complete. This report addresses only the Plugging and Sealing program, which will result in an adequate and acceptable technology for final sealing and decommissioning of the facility at the WIPP site. The actual plugging operations are intended to be conducted on a commercial industrial basis through contracts issued by the DOE. This report is one in a series that is based on a technical program of modeling, laboratory materials testing and field demonstration which will provide a defensible basis for the actual plugging operations to be conducted by the DOE for final closure of the facility.

  8. The 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.R.; Jow, H.N.; Marietta, M.G.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Shephard, L.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Helton, J.C. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Basabilvazo, G. [Dept. of Energy, Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is under development by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the geologic disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste that has been generated at government defense installations in the United States. The WIPP is located in an area of low population density in southeastern New Mexico. Waste disposal will take place in excavated chambers in a bedded salt formation approximately 655 m below the land surface. This presentation describes a performance assessment (PA) carried out at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to support the Compliance Certification Application (CCA) made by the DOE to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October, 1996, for the certification of the WIPP for the disposal of TRU waste. Based on the CCA supported by the PA described in this presentation, the EPA has issued a preliminary decision to certify the WIPP for the disposal of TRU waste. At present (April 1998), it appears likely that the WIPP will be in operation by the end of 1998.

  9. Metal accumulation in poplar plant grown with industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Giachetti, Giorgio; Sebastiani, Luca

    2006-06-01

    In this study the effects of different levels of industrial wastes on growth traits and metal accumulation in aerial portions were determined for Populusxeuramericana clone I-214. The experiment started in April 2003. Scions of Populusxeuramericana clone I-214, were grown outdoor near Pisa (Italy), in lisimeters filled with soil naturally present in the land around the experimental site, were daily drip irrigated, hand weeded, monthly fertilized, pruned for a unique shoot and cultivated with four increasing treatments: soil non-amended, soil amended with 4.8 kgm(-2), with 9.6 kgm(-2) and with 19.2 kgm(-2) of fresh tannery waste. The climatic parameters were daily recorded throughout the whole experiment. Growth relieves were performed during the growing season. After six months since the plantation of the scions, aerial portions of every plant were harvested for biomass and metal content analyses. Data demonstrated that the waste exerted beneficial effects on poplars mainly through a general increase of growth traits and that the nutrients relocation is the mechanisms involved in modulating growth rate. The concentration and the amount of the mineral elements analysed (N, P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, S, B, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cr) changed determinately among treatments, organs and position. We concluded that phytoremediation strategies of tannery wastes might be possible and sustainable for polar plantations in soil amended with non-hazardous levels of industrial waste, which maintain total heavy metals concentration close to background values. PMID:16403550

  10. Assessing pollutions of soil and plant by municipal waste dump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Changli; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Feng'e.; Zhang, Sheng; Yin, Miying; Ye, Hao; Hou, Hongbing; Dong, Hua; Zhang, Ming; Jiang, Jianmei; Pei, Lixin

    2007-04-01

    Research is few in the literature regarding the investigation and assessment of pollutions of soil and plant by municipal waste dumps. Based upon previous work in seven waste dumping sites (nonsanitary landfills) in Beijing, Shanghai and Shijiazhuang, this study expounds the investigation and assessment method and report major pollutants. Using relative background values, this study assesses soil pollution degree in the seven dumping sites. Preliminary conclusions are: (1) pollution degrees are moderate or heavy; (2) pollution distance by domestic waste that is dumped on a plane ground is 85 m; (3) the horizontal transport distance of pollutants might be up to 120 m if waste leachates are directly connected with water in saturated soils; (4) vertical transport depth is about 3 m in unsaturated silty clayey soils. Furthermore, using relative background values and hygiene standards of food and vegetable this study assesses the pollutions of different parts of reed, sorghum, watermelon and sweet-melon. It is found: (1) in comparison with the relative background values in a large distance to the waste dumping sites, domestic wastes have polluted the roots and stems of reed and sorghum, whereas fine coal ash has polluted the leaves, rattans and fruits of watermelon and sweet-melon; (2) domestic wastes and fine coal ash have heavily polluted the edible parts of sorghum, water melon and sweet-melon. As, Hg, Pb and F have far exceeded standard values, e.g., Hg has exceeded the standard value by up to 650 1,700 times and Cd by 120 275 times, and the comprehensive pollution index is up to 192.9 369.7; (3) the polluted sorghum, watermelon and sweet-melon are inedible.

  11. Deep geologic disposal of mixed waste in bedded salt: The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Rempe, N.T.

    1993-12-01

    Mixed waste (i.e., waste that contains both chemically hazardous and radioactive components) poses a moral, political, and technical challenge to present and future generations. But an international consensus is emerging that harmful byproducts and residues can be permanently isolated from the biosphere in a safe and environmentally responsible manner by deep geologic disposal. To investigate and demonstrate such disposal for transuranic mixed waste, derived from defense-related activities, the US Department of Energy has prepared the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. This research and development facility was excavated approximately at the center of a 600 m thick sequence of salt (halite) beds, 655 m below the surface. Proof of the long-term tectonic and hydrological stability of the region is supplied by the fact that these salt beds have remained essentially undisturbed since they were deposited during the Late Permian age, approximately 225 million years ago. Plutonium-239, the main radioactive component of transuranic mixed waste, has a half-life of 24,500 years. Even ten half-lives of this isotope - amounting to about a quarter million years, the time during which its activity will decline to background level represent only 0.11 percent of the history of the repository medium. Therefore, deep geologic disposal of transuranic mixed waste in Permian bedded salt appears eminently feasible.

  12. The relationship of odor concentration and the critical components emitted from food waste composting plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chung-Jung Tsai; Mei-Lien Chen; An-Di Ye; Ming-Shean Chou; Shu-Hung Shen; I.-Fang Mao

    2008-01-01

    The current official policy regarding food waste management tends towards recycling for composting usage; however, malodors emitted from food waste composting plants raises other important environmental issues. The objectives of this study are to investigate the critical odorants of the emission from food waste composting plants and their human olfactory effect in general concentration ranges presented by olfactometric results. The

  13. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program description: Overview and applications. Revision 3, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This document (Parts 1 and 2) describes the requirements that must be implemented during the design and construction phases for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project Quality Assurance Program. This program is being implemented to ensure the acceptability of high-level radioactive canistered waste forms produced by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant for disposal in a licensed federal repository.

  14. National debate on the handling of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. R. Lash; J. E. Bryson; R. Cotton

    1974-01-01

    The following aspects of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants ; are discussed: generation of radioactive wastes and the health hazards posed by ; radioactivity; radioactive waste management programs, plans, and alternatives, U. ; S. experience with radioactive waste management, and citizen action. (LK)

  15. Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-12-29

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the waste acceptance criteria applicable to the transportation, storage, and disposal of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). These criteria serve as the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) primary directive for ensuring that CH-TRU waste is managed and disposed of in a manner that protects human health and safety and the environment.The authorization basis of WIPP for the disposal of CH-TRU waste includes the U.S.Department of Energy National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear EnergyAuthorization Act of 1980 (reference 1) and the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA;reference 2). Included in this document are the requirements and associated criteriaimposed by these acts and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA,reference 3), as amended, on the CH-TRU waste destined for disposal at WIPP.|The DOE TRU waste sites must certify CH-TRU waste payload containers to thecontact-handled waste acceptance criteria (CH-WAC) identified in this document. Asshown in figure 1.0, the flow-down of applicable requirements to the CH-WAC istraceable to several higher-tier documents, including the WIPP operational safetyrequirements derived from the WIPP CH Documented Safety Analysis (CH-DSA;reference 4), the transportation requirements for CH-TRU wastes derived from theTransuranic Package Transporter-Model II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT Certificates ofCompliance (references 5 and 5a), the WIPP LWA (reference 2), the WIPP HazardousWaste Facility Permit (reference 6), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) Compliance Certification Decision and approval for PCB disposal (references 7,34, 35, 36, and 37). The solid arrows shown in figure 1.0 represent the flow-down of allapplicable payload container-based requirements. The two dotted arrows shown infigure 1.0 represent the flow-down of summary level requirements only; i.e., the sitesmust reference the regulatory source documents from the U.S. Nuclear RegulatoryCommission (NRC) and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) for acomprehensive and detailed listing of the requirements.This CH-WAC does not address the subject of waste characterization relating to adetermination of whether the waste is hazardous; rather, the sites are referred to theWaste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit fordetails of the sampling and analysis protocols to be used in determining compliance withthe required physical and chemical properties of the waste. Requirements andassociated criteria pertaining to a determination of the radiological properties of thewaste, however, are addressed in appendix A of this document. The collectiveinformation obtained from waste characterization records and acceptable knowledge(AK) serves as the basis for sites to certify that their CH-TRU waste satisfies the WIPPwaste acceptance criteria listed herein.

  16. Laboratory characterization and vitrification of Hanford radioactive high-level waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Tingey; M. L. Elliott; D. E. Larson; E. V. Morrey

    1991-01-01

    Radioactive high-level wastes generated at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site are stored in underground carbon steel tanks. Two double-shell tanks contain neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel in the Plutonium and Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. The tanks were sampled for characterization and waste immobilization process\\/product development. The high-level waste generated in PUREX was

  17. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2001 Site Environmental Report

    SciTech Connect

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions, Inc.

    2002-09-20

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Westinghouse TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2001 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year (CY) 2001 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH- 0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above Orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an annual site environmental report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health; and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during CY 2001. WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 2001, no evidence was found of any adverse effects from WIPP on the surrounding environment.

  18. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant CY 2000 Site Environmental Report

    SciTech Connect

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions, LLC; Environmental Science and Research Foundation, Inc.

    2001-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office and Westinghouse TRU Solutions, LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2000 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year (CY) 2000 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protect ion Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an Annual Site Environmental Report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health. The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during CY 2000. The format of this report follows guidance offered in a June 1, 2001 memo from DOE's Office of Policy and Guidance with the subject ''Guidance for the preparation of Department of Energy (DOE) Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs) for Calendar Year 2000.'' WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 2000, no evidence was found of any adverse effects from WIPP on the surrounding environment.

  19. CORAL: a stepping stone for establishing the Indian fast reactor fuel reprocessing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Venkataraman, M.; Natarajan, R.; Raj, Baldev [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    2007-07-01

    The reprocessing of spent fuel from Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) has been successfully demonstrated in the pilot plant, CORAL (COmpact Reprocessing facility for Advanced fuels in Lead shielded cell). Since commissioning in 2003, spent mixed carbide fuel from FBTR of different burnups and varying cooling period, have been reprocessed in this facility. Reprocessing of the spent fuel with a maximum burnup of 100 GWd/t has been successfully carried out so far. The feed backs from these campaigns with progressively increasing specific activities, have been useful in establishing a viable process flowsheet for reprocessing the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) spent fuel. Also, the design of various equipments and processes for the future plants, which are either under design for construction, namely, the Demonstration Fast Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Plant (DFRP) and the Fast reactor fuel Reprocessing Plant (FRP) could be finalized. (authors)

  20. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant No-migration variance petition. Addendum: Volume 7, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    This report describes various aspects of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) including design data, waste characterization, dissolution features, ground water hydrology, natural resources, monitoring, general geology, and the gas generation/test program.

  1. High-level defense waste solidification at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoad, H.D.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive waste management at the Savannah River Plant is described. Their process for solidifying liquid wastes is discussed. Leaching studies of glass were performed and the results are discussed. (DC)

  2. [Mercury pollution investigation in predominant plants surrounding Shenzhen Qingshuihe municipal solid waste incineration plant].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hong-Wei; Zhong, Xiu-Ping; Liu, Yang-Sheng; Wang, Jun-Jian; Hong, Yuan; Zhao, Kang-Sai; Zeng, Hui

    2009-09-15

    In order to investigate the effects of mercury emission from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) on the surrounding plants and soils, the mercury concentrations were examined in the plant samples including leaves and stems and the soil samples around Shenzhen Qingshuihe MSWI Plant. Results show that, these plants are significantly polluted by mercury, the mercury concentrations of the plant leaves are 0.030 9-0.246 7 mg x kg(-1), with the mean value 0.094 8 mg x kg(-1), among the local prominent plants, the mercury concentrations in the leaves are in the order of: Acacia confuse > Litsea rotundifolia > Acacia mangium > Acacia auriculaeformis > Schima superb > Ilex asprella. The mercury concentrations of the plant stems are 0.007 4-0.119 6 mg x kg(-1), with the mean value 0.041 7 mg x kg(-1). For the same plant, the mercury concentration in its leaf correlates positively with that in its stem, but presents little correlation with that in the soil where it grows. Under the direction of the dominant wind, the concentration of smoke diffusion is often influenced by the distance from the stack and the difference of terrain. The mercury concentrations of the plant leaves and stems vary almost in accordance with spatial heterogeneity patterns of smoke diffusion. These results demonstrate that the interaction of the smoke and plant leaves play the leading role in the mercury exchange between plants and environment. PMID:19927841

  3. Compliance status report for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the disposition of transuranic (TRU) waste generated through national defense-related activities. Approximately 53,700 m{sup 2} of these wastes have been generated and are currently stored at government defense installations across the country. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located in southeastern New Mexico, has been sited and constructed to meet the criteria established by the scientific and regulatory community for the safe, long-term disposal of TRU and TRU-mixed wastes. This Compliance Status Report (CSR) provides an assessment of the progress of the WIPP Program toward compliance with long-term disposal regulations, set forth in Title 40 CFR 191 (EPA, 1993a), Subparts B and C, and Title 40 CFR {section}268.6 (EPA, 1993b), in order to focus on-going and future experimental and engineering activities. The CSR attempts to identify issues associated with the performance of the WIPP as a long-term repository and to focus on the resolution of these issues. This report will serve as a tool to focus project resources on the areas necessary to ensure complete, accurate, and timely submittal of the compliance application. This document is not intended to constitute a statement of compliance or a demonstration of compliance.

  4. Critical components of odors in evaluating the performance of food waste composting plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I-Fang Mao; Chung-Jung Tsai; Shu-Hung Shen; Tsair-Fuh Lin; Wang-Kun Chen; Mei-Lien Chen

    2006-01-01

    The current Taiwan government policy toward food waste management encourages composting for resource recovery. This study used olfactometry, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and gas detector tubes to evaluate the ambient air at three of the largest food waste composting plants in Taiwan. Ambient air inside the plants, at exhaust outlets and plant boundaries was examined to determine the comprehensive odor

  5. Toxicity reduction evaluation at the Patapsco Waste Water Treatment plant. Final report, April 1986September 1987

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Botts; J. W. Braswell; E. C. Sullivan; W. L. Goodfellow; B. D. Sklar

    1988-01-01

    The EPA and the City of Baltimore (City) entered into a cooperative agreement to perform a TRE research study at the City's Patapsco Waste Water Treatment Plant (Patapsco WWTP). The Patapsco WWTP TRE represents one of the first case histories of a toxics management program at a municipal waste-water treatment plant. The study characterized treatment plant influent and operations data

  6. ICPP Waste Management Technology Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hogg, G.W.; Olson, A.L.; Knecht, D.A. [Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co., Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bonkoski, M.J. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-01-01

    As a result of the decision to curtail reprocessing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), a Spent fuel and Waste Management Technology Development plan has been implemented to identify acceptable options for disposing of the (1) sodium-bearing liquid radioactive waste, (2) radioactive calcine, and (3) irradiated spent fuel stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The plan was developed jointly by DOE and WINCO.

  7. Results from simulated contact-handled transuranic waste experiments at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Molecke, M.A.; Sorensen, N.R.; Krumhansl, J.L.

    1993-12-31

    We conducted in situ experiments with nonradioactive, contact-handled transuranic (CH TRU) waste drums at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility for about four years. We performed these tests in two rooms in rock salt, at WIPP, with drums surrounded by crushed salt or 70 wt % salt/30 wt % bentonite clay backfills, or partially submerged in a NaCl brine pool. Air and brine temperatures were maintained at {approximately}40C. These full-scale (210-L drum) experiments provided in situ data on: backfill material moisture-sorption and physical properties in the presence of brine; waste container corrosion adequacy; and, migration of chemical tracers (nonradioactive actinide and fission product simulants) in the near-field vicinity, all as a function of time. Individual drums, backfill, and brine samples were removed periodically for laboratory evaluations. Waste container testing in the presence of brine and brine-moistened backfill materials served as a severe overtest of long-term conditions that could be anticipated in an actual salt waste repository. We also obtained relevant operational-test emplacement and retrieval experience. All test results are intended to support both the acceptance of actual TRU wastes at the WIPP and performance assessment data needs. We provide an overview and technical data summary focusing on the WIPP CH TRU envirorunental overtests involving 174 waste drums in the presence of backfill materials and the brine pool, with posttest laboratory materials analyses of backfill sorbed-moisture content, CH TRU drum corrosion, tracer migration, and associated test observations.

  8. Re-processing strategies for biologicals API manufacturing processes.

    PubMed

    Opitz, U

    2003-01-01

    During the past 10 years, the production of biotechnological products has reached large scale starting from fermentor volumes of several thousand litres. Due to this large scale production, the value of a single batch has significantly increased. Sometimes even in routine production, technical or human failures occur. Without a re-processing procedure in place, such a failed batch has to be discarded leading to a waste of raw materials, time, energy and to a waste of money. This can be avoided by a well-defined re-processing strategy. On the other hand re-processing always raises concerns regarding product quality and stability. Therefore, re-processing should be adequately validated to exclude a negative impact on the product. An example for such a validation study is discussed. PMID:14620858

  9. 9 CFR 114.18 - Reprocessing of biological products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PRODUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.18 Reprocessing of biological products. The...

  10. Technical aspects of fuel reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Groenier, W.S.

    1982-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a brief description of fuel reprocessing and some present developments which show the reliability of nuclear energy as a long-term supply. The following topics are discussed: technical reasons for reprocessing; economic reasons for reprocessing; past experience; justification for advanced reprocessing R and D; technical aspects of current reprocessing development. The present developments are mainly directed at the reprocessing of breeder reactor fuels but there are also many applications to light-water reactor fuel reprocessing. These new developments involve totally remote operation, and maintenance. To demonstrate this advanced reprocessing concept, pilot-scale demonstration facilities are planned with commercial application occurring sometime after the year 2000. (ATT)

  11. Analysis of factors influencing the reliability of retrievable storage canisters for containment of solid high-level radioactive waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Mecham; W. B. Seefeldt; M. J. Steindler

    1976-01-01

    The reliability of stainless steel type 304L canisters for the containment of solidified high-level radioactive wastes in the glass and calcine forms was studied. A reference system, drawn largely from information furnished by Battelle Northwest Laboratories and Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company is described. Operations include filling the canister with the appropriate waste form, interim storage at a reprocessing plant, shipment

  12. Engineered Barriers in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ghose, Shankar [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Ariel Rios Building, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20460 (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a deep geological repository being developed by the Department of Energy as a research and disposal facility in the bedded salt deposit of New Mexico. WIPP is essentially an underground salt mine at 2150 feet (655 meters) below the surface and operates on multiple barrier mechanism. Engineered barriers provide an additional protective measure to prevent the movement of fluid towards the accessible environment. Four types of engineered barriers are used in the WIPP disposal system. This paper presents an analysis of the effectiveness of the engineered barriers in various repository environments. (authors)

  13. Recovery of municipal waste incineration bottom ash and water treatment sludge to water permeable pavement materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng-Fang Lin; Chung-Hsin Wu; Hsiu-Mai Ho

    2006-01-01

    Water treatment plant sludge and municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash are non-hazardous residues, and they can be reprocessed to produce useful materials for city public works. In this study, an effort was endeavored to investigate the properties of water permeable bricks made of water treatment sludge and bottom ash without involving an artificial aggregate step. The water treatment plant

  14. Reprocessing of nonoptimally exposed holograms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S. Phipps; C. E. Robertson; F. M. Tamashiro

    1980-01-01

    Two reprocessing techniques have been investigated that are capable of correcting the effects of nonoptimum optical density of photographic amplitude holograms recorded on Agfa-Gevaert type 10E75 plates. In some cases a reprocessed hologram will exhibit a diffraction efficiency even higher than that obtainable from a hologram exposed and processed to the optimum density. The SNR of the reprocessed holograms is

  15. ALPHA WASTE MINIMIZATION IN TERMS OF VOLUME AND RADIOACTIVITY AT COGEMA'S MELOX AND LA HAGUE PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    ARSLAN, M.; DUMONT, J.C.; LONDRES, V.; PONCELET, F.J.

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes the management of alpha waste that cannot be stored in surface repositories under current French regulations. The aim of the paper is to provide an overview of COGEMA's Integrated Waste Management Strategy. The topics discussed include primary waste minimization, from facility design to operating feedback; primary waste management by the plant operator, including waste characterization; waste treatment options that led to building waste treatment industrial facilities for plutonium decontamination, compaction and cement solidification; and optimization of industrial tools, which is strongly influenced by safety and financial considerations.

  16. Consideration of nuclear criticality when disposing of transuranic waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    RECHARD,ROBERT P.; SANCHEZ,LAWRENCE C.; STOCKMAN,CHRISTINE T.; TRELLUE,HOLLY R.

    2000-04-01

    Based on general arguments presented in this report, nuclear criticality was eliminated from performance assessment calculations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a repository for waste contaminated with transuranic (TRU) radioisotopes, located in southeastern New Mexico. At the WIPP, the probability of criticality within the repository is low because mechanisms to concentrate the fissile radioisotopes dispersed throughout the waste are absent. In addition, following an inadvertent human intrusion into the repository (an event that must be considered because of safety regulations), the probability of nuclear criticality away from the repository is low because (1) the amount of fissile mass transported over 10,000 yr is predicted to be small, (2) often there are insufficient spaces in the advective pore space (e.g., macroscopic fractures) to provide sufficient thickness for precipitation of fissile material, and (3) there is no credible mechanism to counteract the natural tendency of the material to disperse during transport and instead concentrate fissile material in a small enough volume for it to form a critical concentration. Furthermore, before a criticality would have the potential to affect human health after closure of the repository--assuming that a criticality could occur--it would have to either (1) degrade the ability of the disposal system to contain nuclear waste or (2) produce significantly more radioisotopes than originally present. Neither of these situations can occur at the WIPP; thus, the consequences of a criticality are also low.

  17. Incineration versus gasification: A comparison in waste to energy plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ghezzi, U.; Pasini, S.; Ferri, L.D.A. [Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Dipt. di Energetica

    1995-12-31

    Waste thermodestruction has obvious advantages; nevertheless, it encounters problems not very easy to solve, such as those related to gas cleaning and to restricting standards for emission control. One important aspect is the possibility of heat recovery with production of valuable energy such as electric energy. A new technology, at least as far as its application to waste disposal (mainly municipal waste) is concerned, is represented by gasification. It becomes interesting to establish a comparison between this new technology and the traditional one. This comparison does not appear, however, to be very simple, since for gasification only few documented experiments can be found, and these are often difficult to relate to a common evaluation factor. The present paper describes the state of the art of the traditional technology in the thermodestruction field to define a comparison basis. Then, a general discussion is given for the gasification technology, emphasizing different possible solutions to allow for a quantitative evaluation. At last the various aspects of the problem (related to plant, environment, energy, economics, etc.) are specifically compared for the purpose of finding elements which allow for a quantitative evaluation or for emphasizing parameters useful for a final choice.

  18. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2003-09-17

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2002 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year 2002 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, and Guidance for the Preparation of DOE Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs) for Calendar Year 2002 (DOE Memorandum EH-41: Natoli:6-1336, April 4, 2003). These Orders and the guidance document require that DOE facilities submit an annual site environmental report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health; and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).

  19. Hanford Waste Simulants Created to Support the Research and Development on the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Eibling, R.E.

    2001-07-26

    The development of nonradioactive waste simulants to support the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant bench and pilot-scale testing is crucial to the design of the facility. The report documents the simulants development to support the SRTC programs and the strategies used to produce the simulants.

  20. Benchmarking of municipal waste water treatment plants (an Austrian project).

    PubMed

    Lindtner, S; Kroiss, H; Nowak, O

    2004-01-01

    An Austrian research project focused on the development of process indicators for treatment plants with different process and operation modes. The whole treatment scheme was subdivided into four processes, i.e. mechanical pretreatment (Process 1), mechanical-biological waste water treatment (Process 2), sludge thickening and stabilisation (Process 3) and further sludge treatment and disposal (Process 4). In order to get comparable process indicators it was necessary to subdivide the sample of 76 individual treatment plants all over Austria into five groups according to their mean organic load (COD) in the influent. The specific total yearly costs, the yearly operating costs and the yearly capital costs of the four processes have been related to the yearly average of the measured organic load expressed in COD (110 g COD/pe/d). The specific investment costs for the whole treatment plant and for Process 2 have been related to a calculated standard design capacity of the mechanical-biological part of the treatment plant expressed in COD. The capital costs of processes 1, 3 and 4 have been related to the design capacity of the treatment plant. For each group (related to the size of the plant) a benchmark band has been defined for the total yearly costs, the total yearly operational costs and the total yearly capital costs. For the operational costs of the Processes 1 to 4 one benchmark ([see symbol in text] per pe/year) has been defined for each group. In addition a theoretical cost reduction potential has been calculated. The cost efficiency in regard to water protection and some special sub-processes such as aeration and sludge dewatering has been analysed. PMID:15553485

  1. Summary of Waste Calcination at INTEC

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, Barry Henry; Newby, Bill Joe

    2000-10-01

    Fluidized-bed calcination at the Idaho Nuclear Technologies and Engineering Center (INTEC, formally called the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant) has been used to solidify acidic metal nitrate fuel reprocessing and incidental wastes wastes since 1961. A summary of waste calcination in full-scale and pilot plant calciners has been compiled for future reference. It contains feed compositions and operating conditions for all the processing campaigns for the original Waste Calcining Facility (WCF), the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) started up in 1982, and numerous small scale pilot plant tests for various feed types. This summary provides a historical record of calcination at INTEC, and will be useful for evaluating calcinability of future wastes.

  2. Waste to energy: The case of the Bolzano solid urban waste incineration plant

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolai, H.G.

    1998-07-01

    One of the most demanding problems of waste management was that of finding the means and the technology for converting, neutralizing and disposing of the refuse, without disturbing the delicate ecological equilibrium of the soil, water and air. Today, this problem is handled with the latest refuse incineration and Snamprogetti's combustion residue purification technologies, which in addition to substantial energy returns, also provide sufficient assurance of efficiency as well as health and environmental safety. In the present state of the art, these technologies make it possible to cut down on the use of dumps and landfills. In fact, such technologies permit to obtain an extremely small volume of inert residues, as well as very low dust and hydrochloric acid levels, and an infinitesimal concentration of micropollutants in the atmospheric emissions. Experience has shown that non-polluting incineration of unrecoverable wastes is feasible and the electricity obtained from the combustion heat is more than enough to run the plant and can be sold making the operation advantageous in economic terms. On the basis of this philosophy Snamprogetti designed and built an incineration at Bolzano on 1994, which was expanded in 1996 with a second line, for a total operating potential of 400 t/d of wastes. The plant included a heat recovery line with a steam boiler and a turbogenerator for the production of electricity. The steam turbine driving the generator could operate partly in the condensation mode, and partly in the bleeding mode to produce both electricity and steam. Implementation of the integrated program made provision for employment of the bled off steam to produce superheated water to feed the city's district heating network. A detailed assessment of the characteristics of the plant and its environmental efficiency is presented.

  3. WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT (WIPP): THE NATIONS' SOLUTION TO NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE AND DISPOSAL ISSUES

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Tammy Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-07-17

    In the southeastern portion of my home state of New Mexico lies the Chihuahauan desert, where a transuranic (TRU), underground disposal site known as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) occupies 16 square miles. Full operation status began in March 1999, the year I graduated from Los Alamos High School, in Los Alamos, NM, the birthplace of the atomic bomb and one of the nation’s main TRU waste generator sites. During the time of its development and until recently, I did not have a full grasp on the role Los Alamos was playing in regards to WIPP. WIPP is used to store and dispose of TRU waste that has been generated since the 1940s because of nuclear weapons research and testing operations that have occurred in Los Alamos, NM and at other sites throughout the United States (U.S.). TRU waste consists of items that are contaminated with artificial, man-made radioactive elements that have atomic numbers greater than uranium, or are trans-uranic, on the periodic table of elements and it has longevity characteristics that may be hazardous to human health and the environment. Therefore, WIPP has underground rooms that have been carved out of 2,000 square foot thick salt formations approximately 2,150 feet underground so that the TRU waste can be isolated and disposed of. WIPP has operated safely and successfully until this year, when two unrelated events occurred in February 2014. With these events, the safety precautions and measures that have been operating at WIPP for the last 15 years are being revised and improved to ensure that other such events do not occur again.

  4. Probability of a catastrophic hoist accident at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Banz; S. G. Buchberger; D. G. Rasmussen

    1985-01-01

    Radioactive waste will be transported from the surface to an underground facility at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The proposed waste transport system is a counterbalance multi-rope friction hoist that operates a single conveyance in a vertical engineered shaft. This report evaluates the annual probability of a catastrophic hoist accident at WIPP. A catastrophic accident

  5. The Rocky Flats Plant Waste Stream and Residue Identification and Characterization Program (WSRIC): Progress and achievements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. L. Ideker; G. M. Doyle

    1994-01-01

    The Waste Stream and Residue Identification and Characterization (WSRIC) Program, as described in the WSRIC Program Description delineates the process knowledge used to identify and characterize currently-generated waste from approximately 5404 waste streams originating from 576 processes in 288 buildings at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Annual updates to the WSRIC documents are required by the Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement between

  6. Disposition and Reuse of Waste in a High-Capacity Power Plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui Xu; Changzhu Yang; Fengsheng Hou; Shengrui Qiu

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a research of the integrated disposition and reuse of solid waste and contaminated water in Fengcheng thermal power station Jiangxi province China. These waste(coal combustion fly ash, bottom slag, flue gas desulfurization sludges and the contaminated water) may cause serious environmental problems. In this paper, the chemical and physical properties of the waste from the power plant

  7. RCRA Facility Investigation Plan, Waste Coolant Processing Facility (T-038), Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allison

    1987-01-01

    Within the confines of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant are both active and inactive hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. These solid waste management units (SWMUs) are subject to assessment by the US Environmental Protection Agency, as required by the 1984 Hazardous and solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This document is the

  8. Radioactive Bench-scale Steam Reformer Demonstration of a Monolithic Steam Reformed Mineralized Waste Form for Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste - 12306

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Brent; Olson, Arlin; Mason, J. Bradley; Ryan, Kevin [THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC - 106 Newberry St. SW, Aiken, SC 29801 (United States); Jantzen, Carol; Crawford, Charles [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNL), LLC, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Hanford currently has 212,000 m{sup 3} (56 million gallons) of highly radioactive mixed waste stored in the Hanford tank farm. This waste will be processed to produce both high-level and low-level activity fractions, both of which are to be vitrified. Supplemental treatment options have been under evaluation for treating portions of the low-activity waste, as well as the liquid secondary waste from the low-activity waste vitrification process. One technology under consideration has been the THOR{sup R} fluidized bed steam reforming process offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC (TTT). As a follow-on effort to TTT's 2008 pilot plant FBSR non-radioactive demonstration for treating low-activity waste and waste treatment plant secondary waste, TTT, in conjunction with Savannah River National Laboratory, has completed a bench scale evaluation of this same technology on a chemically adjusted radioactive surrogate of Hanford's waste treatment plant secondary waste stream. This test generated a granular product that was subsequently formed into monoliths, using a geo-polymer as the binding agent, that were subjected to compressibility testing, the Product Consistency Test and other leachability tests, and chemical composition analyses. This testing has demonstrated that the mineralized waste form, produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay using the TTT process, is as durable as low-activity waste glass. Testing has shown the resulting monolith waste form is durable, leach resistant, and chemically stable, and has the added benefit of capturing and retaining the majority of Tc-99, I-129, and other target species at high levels. (authors)

  9. Simulation in Aspen Plus of Power Plant's Circulating Water Waste Heat Recovery System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bi Qingsheng; Ma Yanliang; Bai Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Power Plant Circulating Water (PPCW) waste heat recycling is an important way of increasing a power plant's primary energy ratio. According to the PPCW waste heat regenerative thermal system, the authors propose two modes of heat pump heat regenerative of the system, ASPEN PLUS, one of the most famous softwares of chemical engineering,was used to stimulatethe process. The measures to

  10. The Diffusion of Biological Waste-Water Treatment Plants in the Dutch Food and Beverage Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    René Kemp

    1998-01-01

    This article develops an economic model of environmental technology adoption decisions. The model is applied econometrically to the diffusion of biological waste-water treatment plants in the Dutch food and beverage industry. It shows that it is possible to explain the overall diffusion pattern of biological waste-water treatment plants in terms of a rational choice model in which prospective adopters trade

  11. Steam Production from Waste Stack Gases in a Carbon Black Plant 

    E-print Network

    Istre, R. I.

    1981-01-01

    Waste stack gases from carbon black plant bag filters are used as fuel to produce superheated steam - G25 PSIG and 7500F. This steam is out into a steam header that serves Conoco plants in the Lake Charles, Louisiana area. Combustion of the waste...

  12. Reference commercial high-level waste glass and canister definition.

    SciTech Connect

    Slate, S.C.; Ross, W.A.; Partain, W.L.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents technical data and performance characteristics of a high-level waste glass and canister intended for use in the design of a complete waste encapsulation package suitable for disposal in a geologic repository. The borosilicate glass contained in the stainless steel canister represents the probable type of high-level waste product that will be produced in a commercial nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant. Development history is summarized for high-level liquid waste compositions, waste glass composition and characteristics, and canister design. The decay histories of the fission products and actinides (plus daughters) calculated by the ORIGEN-II code are presented.

  13. Construction and operation of an industrial solid waste landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Waste Management, proposes to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide PORTS with additional landfill capacity for non-hazardous and asbestos wastes. The proposed action is needed to support continued operation of PORTS, which generates non-hazardous wastes on a daily basis and asbestos wastes intermittently. Three alternatives are evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA): the proposed action (construction and operation of the X-737 landfill), no-action, and offsite shipment of industrial solid wastes for disposal.

  14. Recycling plant, human and animal wastes to plant nutrients in a closed ecological system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meissner, H. P.; Modell, M.

    1979-01-01

    The essential minerals for plant growth are nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium (macronutrients), calcium, magnesium, sulfur (secondary nutrients), iron, manganese, boron, copper, zinc, chlorine, sodium, and molybdenum (micronutrients). The first step in recycling wastes will undoubtedly be oxidation of carbon and hydrogen to CO2 and H2O. Transformation of minerals to plant nutrients depends upon the mode of oxidation to define the state of the nutrients. For the purpose of illustrating the type of processing required, ash and off-gas compositions of an incineration process were assumed and subsequent processing requirements were identified. Several processing schemes are described for separating out sodium chloride from the ash, leading to reformulation of a nutrient solution which should be acceptable to plants.

  15. Waste form product characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, L.L.; Shikashio, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy has operated nuclear facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to support national interests for several decades. Since 1953, it has supported the development of technologies for the storage and reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels (SNF) and the resultant wastes. However, the 1992 decision to discontinue reprocessing of SNF has left nearly 768 MT of SNF in storage at the INEL with unspecified plans for future dispositioning. Past reprocessing of these fuels for uranium and other resource recovery has resulted in the production of 3800 M{sup 3} calcine and a total inventory of 7600 M{sup 3} of radioactive liquids (1900 M{sup 3} destined for immediate calcination and the remaining sodium-bearing waste requiring further treatment before calcination). These issues, along with increased environmental compliance within DOE and its contractors, mandate operation of current and future facilities in an environmentally responsible manner. This will require satisfactory resolution of spent fuel and waste disposal issues resulting from the past activities. A national policy which identifies requirements for the disposal of SNF and high level wastes (HLW) has been established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) Sec.8,(b) para(3)) [1982]. The materials have to be conditioned or treated, then packaged for disposal while meeting US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. The spent fuel and HLW located at the INEL will have to be put into a form and package that meets these regulatory criteria. The emphasis of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) future operations has shifted toward investigating, testing, and selecting technologies to prepare current and future spent fuels and waste for final disposal. This preparation for disposal may include mechanical, physical and/or chemical processes, and may differ for each of the various fuels and wastes.

  16. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2002-09-24

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to prepare a Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan. This document fulfills the requirement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This document was prepared by the Hydrology Section of the Westinghouse TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) Environmental Compliance Department, and it is the responsibility of this group to review the plan annually and update it every three years. This document is not, nor is it intended to be, an implementing document that sets forth specific details on carrying out field projects or operational policy. Rather, it is intended to give the reader insight to the groundwater protection philosophy at WIPP.

  17. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant alcove gas barrer. Final design report

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, M.S. [Parsons, Brinckerhoff, Quade and Douglas, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Van Sambeek, L.L. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States)

    1992-11-01

    A full-scale composite, precast concrete and steel lining system was designed to seal and isolate test alcoves within the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The lining system and internal bulkheads are designed to control gas leakage along an alcove access drift and through damaged rock surrounding the drift. Flow along the access drift is prevented by redundant membranes included in the rigid structural lining . Flow through the rock will be minimized by providing a rigid lining that will induce healing of damaged salt rock and arrest ongoing damage in clay and anhydrite interbeds. Provisions for grouting disturbed zones of rock are also provided. Instrumentation is specified to measure the structural response of the lining.

  18. Waste receiving and processing plant control system; system design description

    SciTech Connect

    LANE, M.P.

    1999-02-24

    The Plant Control System (PCS) is a heterogeneous computer system composed of numerous sub-systems. The PCS represents every major computer system that is used to support operation of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility. This document, the System Design Description (PCS SDD), includes several chapters and appendices. Each chapter is devoted to a separate PCS sub-system. Typically, each chapter includes an overview description of the system, a list of associated documents related to operation of that system, and a detailed description of relevant system features. Each appendice provides configuration information for selected PCS sub-systems. The appendices are designed as separate sections to assist in maintaining this document due to frequent changes in system configurations. This document is intended to serve as the primary reference for configuration of PCS computer systems. The use of this document is further described in the WRAP System Configuration Management Plan, WMH-350, Section 4.1.

  19. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2010

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Annual Site Environmental Report for 2010 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to: (1) Characterize site environmental management performance. (2) Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year. (3) Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements. (4) Highlight significant environmental accomplishments, including progress toward the DOE Environmental Sustainability Goals made through implementation of the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS). The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and the management and operating contractor (MOC), Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS), maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the WIPP. DOE Order 231.1A; DOE Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and workers, and preservation of the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, which requires that DOE facilities submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Chief Health, Safety, and Security Officer. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Number NM4890139088-TSDF (Permit) further requires that the ASER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).

  20. WASTE TREATMENT PLANT (WTP) LIQUID EFFLUENT TREATABILITY EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    LUECK, K.J.

    2004-10-18

    A forecast of the radioactive, dangerous liquid effluents expected to be produced by the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) was provided by Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI 2004). The forecast represents the liquid effluents generated from the processing of Tank Farm waste through the end-of-mission for the WTP. The WTP forecast is provided in the Appendices. The WTP liquid effluents will be stored, treated, and disposed of in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Both facilities are located in the 200 East Area and are operated by Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) for the US. Department of Energy (DOE). The treatability of the WTP liquid effluents in the LERF/ETF was evaluated. The evaluation was conducted by comparing the forecast to the LERF/ETF treatability envelope (Aromi 1997), which provides information on the items which determine if a liquid effluent is acceptable for receipt and treatment at the LERF/ETF. The format of the evaluation corresponds directly to the outline of the treatability envelope document. Except where noted, the maximum annual average concentrations over the range of the 27 year forecast was evaluated against the treatability envelope. This is an acceptable approach because the volume capacity in the LERF Basin will equalize the minimum and maximum peaks. Background information on the LERF/ETF design basis is provided in the treatability envelope document.

  1. NRC Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Program: Overview of Consultation and Monitoring Activities at the Idaho National Laboratory and the Savannah River Site - What We Have Learned - 12470

    SciTech Connect

    Suber, Gregory [Nuclear Regulatory Commission (United States)

    2012-07-01

    In 2005 the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) began to implement a new set of responsibilities under the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) of Fiscal Year 2005. Section 3116 of the NDAA requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to consult with the NRC for certain non-high level waste determinations and also requires NRC to monitor DOE's disposal actions related to those determinations. In Fiscal Year 2005, the NRC staff began consulting with DOE and completed reviews of draft waste determinations for salt waste at the Savannah River Site. In 2006, a second review was completed on tank waste residuals including sodium-bearing waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tank Farm at the Idaho National Laboratory. Monitoring Plans were developed for these activities and the NRC is actively monitoring disposal actions at both sites. NRC is currently in consultation with DOE on the F-Area Tank Farm closure and anticipates entering consultation on the H-Area Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site. This paper presents, from the NRC perspective, an overview of how the consultation and monitoring process has evolved since its conception in 2005. It addresses changes in methods and procedures used to collect and develop information used by the NRC in developing the technical evaluation report and monitoring plan under consultation and the implementation the plan under monitoring. It will address lessons learned and best practices developed throughout the process. The NDAA has presented significant challenges for the NRC and DOE. Past and current successes demonstrate that the NDAA can achieve its intended goal of facilitating tank closure at DOE legacy defense waste sites. The NRC believes many of the challenges in performing the WD reviews have been identified and addressed. Lessons learned have been collected and documented throughout the review process. Future success will be contingent on each agencies commitment to consistently apply the lessons learned and continue to create an open and collaborative work environment to maintain the process of continuous improvement. (authors)

  2. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program description for high-level waste form development and qualification. Revision 3, Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project has been established to convert the high-level radioactive waste associated with nuclear defense production at the Hanford Site into a waste form suitable for disposal in a deep geologic repository. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant will mix processed radioactive waste with borosilicate material, then heat the mixture to its melting point (vitrification) to forin a glass-like substance that traps the radionuclides in the glass matrix upon cooling. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program has been established to support the mission of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant. This Quality Assurance Program Description has been written to document the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program.

  3. Transfer of elements relevant to radioactive waste from soil to five boreal plant species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Päivi Roivainen; Sari Makkonen; Toini Holopainen; Jukka Juutilainen

    2011-01-01

    In long-term safety assessment models for radioactive waste disposal, uptake of radionuclides by plants is an important process with possible adverse effects in ecosystems. Cobalt-60, 59,63Ni, 93Mo, and 210Pb are examples of long-living radionuclides present in nuclear waste. The soil-to-plant transfer of stable cobalt, nickel, molybdenum and lead and their distribution across plant parts were investigated in blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus),

  4. Prospects of Using Reprocessed Uranium in CANDU Reactors, in the U.S. GNEP Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald J. Ellis; Ronald James

    2007-01-01

    Current Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) plans envision reprocessing spent fuel (SF) with view to minimizing high-level waste (HLW) repository use and recovering actinides (U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm) for transmutation in reactors as fuel and targets. The reprocessed uranium (RU), however, is to be disposed of. This paper presents a limited-scope analysis of possible reuse of RU in

  5. Radioactive Semivolatiles in Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    R. T. Jubin; D. M. Strachan; G. Ilas; B. B. Spencer; N. R. Soelberg

    2014-09-01

    In nuclear fuel reprocessing, various radioactive elements enter the gas phase from the unit operations found in the reprocessing facility. In previous reports, the pathways and required removal were discussed for four radionuclides known to be volatile, 14C, 3H, 129I, and 85Kr. Other, less volatile isotopes can also report to the off-gas streams in a reprocessing facility. These were reported to be isotopes of Cs, Cd, Ru, Sb, Tc, and Te. In this report, an effort is made to determine which, if any, of 24 semivolatile radionuclides could be released from a reprocessing plant and, if so, what would be the likely quantities released. As part of this study of semivolatile elements, the amount of each generated during fission is included as part of the assessment for the need to control their emission. Also included in this study is the assessment of the cooling time (time out of reactor) before the fuel is processed. This aspect is important for the short-lived isotopes shown in the list, especially for cooling times approaching 10 y. The approach taken in this study was to determine if semivolatile radionuclides need to be included in a list of gas-phase radionuclides that might need to be removed to meet Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. A list of possible elements was developed through a literature search and through knowledge and literature on the chemical processes in typical aqueous processing of nuclear fuels. A long list of possible radionuclides present in irradiated fuel was generated and then trimmed by considering isotope half-life and calculating the dose from each to a maximum exposed individual with the US EPA airborne radiological dispersion and risk assessment code CAP88 (Rosnick 1992) to yield a short list of elements that actually need to be considered for control because they require high decontamination factors to meet a reasonable fraction of the regulated release. Each of these elements is then discussed with respect to what is known in the literature about their behavior in a reprocessing facility. The context for the evaluation in this document is a UO2-based fuel processed through an aqueous-based reprocessing system with a TBP-based solvent extraction chemistry. None of these elements form sufficiently volatile compounds in the context of the reprocessing facility to be of regulatory concern.

  6. PEAT-ASSISTED PHYTOREMEDIATION OF WASTE FOUNDRY SANDS: PLANT GROWTH, METAL ACCUMULATION AND FERTILITY ASPECTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fábio N. Moreno; Joel B. Sígolo; Antonio V. Figueira

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the potential of peat additions to improve plant growth and fertility and to reduce plant metal uptake in waste foundry sands (WFS) landfills. The WFS contains 78211 mg kg and 371 mg kg concentrations of Cr and Ni, respectively, and varied metal concentrations. The experiment investigated the growth of Brassica juncea plants on fertilized WFS mixed with peat

  7. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2005-07-01

    The DOE established the Groundwater Monitoring Program (GMP) (WP 02-1) to monitor groundwater resources at WIPP. In the past, the GMP was conducted to establish background data of existing conditions of groundwater quality and quantity in the WIPP vicinity, and to develop and maintain a water quality database as required by regulation. Today the GMP is conducted consistent with 204.1.500 NMAC (New MexicoAdministrative Code), "Adoption of 40 CFR [Code of Federal Regulations] Part 264,"specifically 40 CFR §264.90 through §264.101. These sections of 20.4.1 NMAC provide guidance for detection monitoring of groundwater that is, or could be, affected by waste management activities at WIPP. Detection monitoring at WIPP is designed to detect contaminants in the groundwater long before the general population is exposed. Early detection will allow cleanup efforts to be accomplished before any exposure to the general population can occur. Title 40 CFR Part 264, Subpart F, stipulates minimum requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §6901 et seq.) (RCRA) groundwater monitoring programs including the number and location of monitoring wells; sampling and reporting schedules; analytical methods and accuracy requirements; monitoring parameters; and statistical treatment of monitoring data. This document outlines how WIPP intends to protect and preserve groundwater within the WIPP Land Withdrawal Area (WLWA). Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. An overview of the entire environmental protection effort can be found in DOE/WIPP 99-2194, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan. The WIPP GMP is designed to statistically determine if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will then be determined and the appropriate corrective action(s) initiated.

  8. Data validation and security for reprocessing.

    SciTech Connect

    Tolk, Keith Michael; Merkle, Peter Benedict; DurÔan, Felicia Angelica; Cipiti, Benjamin B.

    2008-10-01

    Next generation nuclear fuel cycle facilities will face strict requirements on security and safeguards of nuclear material. These requirements can result in expensive facilities. The purpose of this project was to investigate how to incorporate safeguards and security into one plant monitoring system early in the design process to take better advantage of all plant process data, to improve confidence in the operation of the plant, and to optimize costs. An existing reprocessing plant materials accountancy model was examined for use in evaluating integration of safeguards (both domestic and international) and security. International safeguards require independent, secure, and authenticated measurements for materials accountability--it may be best to design stand-alone systems in addition to domestic safeguards instrumentation to minimize impact on operations. In some cases, joint-use equipment may be appropriate. Existing domestic materials accountancy instrumentation can be used in conjunction with other monitoring equipment for plant security as well as through the use of material assurance indicators, a new metric for material control that is under development. Future efforts will take the results of this work to demonstrate integration on the reprocessing plant model.

  9. Contribution of stack gases and solid process wastes to the organic pollutant output of thermal waste treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Hentschel, B; Riedel, H

    2001-01-01

    Within the scope of fundamental investigations as well as individual research projects (W. Knorr, B. Hentschel, C. Marb. S. Schädel, M. Swerev, O. Vierle, J.-P. Lay, 1999. Rückstände aus der Müllverbrennung-Chancen für eine stoffliche Verwertung von Aschen und Schlacken. Initiativen zum Umweltschutz, 13 ed., Deutsche Bundesstiftung Ulmwelt, Erich Schmidt, Berlin), the Bavarian State Office for Environmental Protection performs emission measurements at thermal waste treatment plants to optimize operation, to accompany and support development of new technologies, and to study the effect of this kind of waste treatment technology on the environment. Based on recent studies (October 1995-July 1999) at six municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) in Bavaria all emission streams (solid and gas) are characterized with respect to organic pollutant contents and compared to the emissions of waste pyrolysis. The significant ranges of pollutant concentration as well as the specific congener patterns observed are similar for all MSWI, regardless of differences in technical design and waste input, but differ markedly from those of the pyrolysis products. The overall approach, including the sampling of all output streams and the determination of mass streams and volume flow rates, allows the calculation of the total output of different organic pollutants for waste incineration plants aand to estimate the relative contribution of each of the emission streams to the total pollutant load. Removal efficiencies are also calculated for the air pollution control (APC) systems of the different MSWI plants. PMID:11372858

  10. AIR DISPERSION MODELING AT THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Rucker, D.F.

    2000-08-01

    One concern at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the amount of alpha-emitting radionuclides or hazardous chemicals that can become airborne at the facility and reach the Exclusive Use Area boundary as the result of a release from the Waste Handling Building (WHB) or from the underground during waste emplacement operations. The WIPP Safety Analysis Report (SAR), WIPP RCRA Permit, and WIPP Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessments include air dispersion calculations to address this issue. Meteorological conditions at the WIPP facility will dictate direction, speed, and dilution of a contaminant plume of respirable material due to chronic releases or during an accident. Due to the paucity of meteorological information at the WIPP site prior to September 1996, the Department of Energy (DOE) reports had to rely largely on unqualified climatic data from the site and neighboring Carlsbad, which is situated approximately 40 km (26 miles) to the west of the site. This report examines the validity of the DOE air dispersion calculations using new meteorological data measured and collected at the WIPP site since September 1996. The air dispersion calculations in this report include both chronic and acute releases. Chronic release calculations were conducted with the EPA-approved code, CAP88PC and the calculations showed that in order for a violation of 40 CFR61 (NESHAPS) to occur, approximately 15 mCi/yr of 239Pu would have to be released from the exhaust stack or from the WHB. This is an extremely high value. Hence, it is unlikely that NESHAPS would be violated. A site-specific air dispersion coefficient was evaluated for comparison with that used in acute dose calculations. The calculations presented in Section 3.2 and 3.3 show that one could expect a slightly less dispersive plume (larger air dispersion coefficient) given greater confidence in the meteorological data, i.e. 95% worst case meteorological conditions. Calculations show that dispersion will decrease slightly if a more stable wind class is assumed, where very little vertical mixing occurs. It is recommended that previous reports which used fixed values for calculating the air dispersion coefficient be updated to reflect the new meteorological data, such as the WIPP Safety Analysis Report and the WIPP Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment. It is also recommended that uncertainty be incorporated into the calculations so that a more meaningful assessment of risk during accidents can be achieved.

  11. Noble gas atmospheric monitoring at reprocessing facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Nakhleh, C.W.; Perry, R.T. Jr.; Poths, J.; Stanbro, W.D.; Wilson, W.B.; Fearey, B.L.

    1997-05-01

    The discovery in Iraq after the Gulf War of the existence of a large clandestine nuclear-weapon program has led to an across-the-board international effort, dubbed Programme 93+2, to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. One particularly significant potential change is the introduction of environmental monitoring (EM) techniques as an adjunct to traditional safeguards methods. Monitoring of stable noble gas (Kr, Xe) isotopic abundances at reprocessing plant stacks appears to be able to yield information on the burnup and type of the fuel being processed. To estimate the size of these signals, model calculations of the production of stable Kr, Xe nuclides in reactor fuel and the subsequent dilution of these nuclides in the plant stack are carried out for two case studies: reprocessing of PWR fuel with a burnup of 35 GWd/tU, and reprocessing of CAND fuel with a burnup of 1 GWd/tU. For each case, a maximum-likelihood analysis is used to determine the fuel burnup and type from the isotopic data.

  12. Plant Availability of Metals in Waste Foundry Sands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foundries in the United States generate several million tons of waste sand each year. These sands are no longer suitable for metalcasting processes, and about 90% are discarded in landfills. However, the majority of these waste foundry sands (WFSs) qualify as non-hazardous industrial waste and the...

  13. FEATURES OF WASTE WATER QUALITY IN ZONGGUAN WATER PLANT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hadi Naba Shakir

    This paper takes waste water from Zongguan waterworks as a research object. The waste water was monitored consecutively and found that: the SS of waste water was more than 90 times of which in original water, COD was more than 30 times, and Fe was 58 times. The SS and turbidness showed no linear relation except when they were lower.

  14. WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: A CLASS 8 TRUCK ASSEMBLY PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a systematic approach to identify and implement options to reduce or eliminate hazardous waste. he approach is presented in a report entitled, "Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual" (EPA/625/7-88/O03). his report describes the application of the wast...

  15. WASTE MINIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: A CLASS 8 TRUCK ASSEMBLY PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a systematic approach to identify and implement options to reduce or eliminate hazardous waste. he approach is presented in a report entitled, "Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual" (EPA/625/7-88/O03). his report describes the application of the wast...

  16. Characterisation and Evaluation of Wastes for Treatment in the Batch Pyrolysis Plant in Studsvik, Sweden - 13586

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, Maria; Oesterberg, Carl; Vernersson, Thomas [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Studsvik Nuclear AB, 611 82 Nykoeping (Sweden)] [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Studsvik Nuclear AB, 611 82 Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    The new batch pyrolysis plant in Studsvik is built primarily for treatment of uranium containing dry active waste, 'DAW'. Several other waste types have been identified that are considered or assumed suitable for treatment in the pyrolysis plant because of the possibility to carefully control the atmosphere and temperature of the thermal treatment. These waste types must be characterised and an evaluation must be made with a BAT perspective. Studsvik have performed or plan to perform lab scale pyrolysis tests on a number of different waste types. These include: - Pyrophoric materials (uranium shavings), - Uranium chemicals that must be oxidised prior to being deposited in repository, - Sludges and oil soaks (this category includes NORM-materials), - Ion exchange resins (both 'free' and solidified/stabilised), - Bitumen solidified waste. Methodology and assessment criteria for various waste types, together with results obtained for the lab scale tests that have been performed, are described. (authors)

  17. Laboratory and bin-scale tests of gas generation for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brush, L.H.; Molecke, M.A.; Lappin, A.R. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Westerman, R.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Tong, X.; Black, J.N.P.; Grbic-Galic, D. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering); Vreeland, R.E. (West Chester Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Biology); Reed, D.T. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United Stat

    1991-01-01

    The design-basis, defense-related, transuranic (TRU) waste to be emplaced in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) could, if sufficient H{sub 2}O and nutrients were present, produce as much as 1,500 moles of gas per drum of waste. Anoxic corrosion of Fe and Fe-base alloys and microbial degradation of cellulosics are the processes of greatest concern, but radiolysis of brine could also be important. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. The WISE (Waste-free, Intrinsically Safe, and Efficient) Nuclear Plant Concept

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Igor Slessarev; G. Palmiotti; M. Salvatores; V. Berthou

    2002-01-01

    A new concept WISE (Waste-free, Intrinsically Safe, and Efficient) for a 'clean' nuclear plant is proposed. WISE does not perturb the radiological equilibrium minimizing TRU and LLFP wastes. WISE is based on mobile fuel systems and on a feed-and-bleed fuel cycle strategy. Irradiated fuel together with fission products always remains inside of WISE core. This implies no release of waste

  19. Site-Specific Seismic Site Response Model for the Waste Treatment Plant, Hanford, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, Alan C.; Reidel, Steve P.

    2005-02-24

    This interim report documents the collection of site-specific geologic and geophysical data characterizing the Waste Treatment Plant site and the modeling of the site-specific structure response to earthquake ground motions.

  20. Reprocessing anaglyph images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietz, Henry G.

    2012-03-01

    In related work, we have shown that conventional digital cameras easily can be modified to directly capture anaglyphs. Anaglyph images commonly have been used to encode stereo image pairs for viewing, but anaglyphs also can be treated as an efficient encoding of two-view image data for reprocessing. Each of the two views encoded within an anaglyph has only partial color information, but our preliminary results demonstrate that the "lost" information can be approximately recovered with any of a variety of reasonably efficient algorithms. This not only allows credible full-color stereo pairs be computationally extracted, but also enables more sophisticated computational photography transformations such as creation of depthmaps and various types of point-spread-function (PSF) substitutions.

  1. Analysis of the factors that impact the reliability of high level waste canister materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. K. Boyd; A. M. Hall

    1977-01-01

    The analysis encompassed identification and analysis of potential threats to canister integrity arising in the course of waste solidification, interim storage at the fuels reprocessing plant, wet and dry shipment, and geologic storage. Fabrication techniques and quality assurance requirements necessary to insure optimum canister reliability were considered taking into account such factors as welding procedure, surface preparation, stress relief, remote

  2. Phase I: the pipeline-gas demonstration plant. Demonstration plant engineering and design. Volume 18. Plant Section 2700 - Waste Water Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1981-05-01

    Contract No. EF-77-C-01-2542 between Conoco Inc. and the US Department of Energy provides for the design, construction, and operation of a demonstration plant capable of processing bituminous caking coals into clean pipeline quality gas. The project is currently in the design phase (Phase I). This phase is scheduled to be completed in June 1981. One of the major efforts of Phase I is the process and project engineering design of the Demonstration Plant. The design has been completed and is being reported in 24 volumes. This is Volume 18 which reports the design of Plant Section 2700 - Waste Water Treatment. The objective of the Waste Water Treatment system is to collect and treat all plant liquid effluent streams. The system is designed to permit recycle and reuse of the treated waste water. Plant Section 2700 is composed of primary, secondary, and tertiary waste water treatment methods plus an evaporation system which eliminates liquid discharge from the plant. The Waste Water Treatment Section is designed to produce 130 pounds per hour of sludge that is buried in a landfill on the plant site. The evaporated water is condensed and provides a portion of the make-up water to Plant Section 2400 - Cooling Water.

  3. Control of the reduction\\/oxidation potential of Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant feeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. L. Kruger; M. E. Peterson

    1988-01-01

    A schematic diagram shows the various processing steps to be performed during feed preparation in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). The pretreated NCAW is transferred to the slurry receipt adjustment tank (SRAT) in the HWVP for concentration. Water removed during boildown is collected in the slurry mix evaporator condensate tank (SMECT). After waste treatment the water is returned to

  4. WASTE REDUCTION PRACTICES AT TWO CHROMATED COPPER ARSENATE WOOD-TREATING PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood-treating plants were assessed for their waste reduction practices. The objectives of this study were to estimate the amount of hazardous wastes that a well-designed and well-main- tained CCA treatment facility would generate and to iden- t...

  5. Removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater by chemically modified plant wastes as adsorbents: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. S. Wan Ngah; M. A. K. M. Hanafiah

    2008-01-01

    The application of low-cost adsorbents obtained from plant wastes as a replacement for costly conventional methods of removing heavy metal ions from wastewater has been reviewed. It is well known that cellulosic waste materials can be obtained and employed as cheap adsorbents and their performance to remove heavy metal ions can be affected upon chemical treatment. In general, chemically modified

  6. Long-term climate variability at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Southeastern New Mexico, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, P.N. (Tech Reps, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1992-11-01

    The United States Department of Energy is developing the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico for the disposal of transuranic wastes generated by defense programs. Because changes in climate during the next 10,000 years (10 ka) may affect performance of the repository, an understanding of long-term climate variability is essential for evaluating regulatory compliance.

  7. ELIMINATION OF POLLUTANTS BY UTILIZATION OF EGG BREAKING PLANT SHELL-WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Egg breaking plants yield an estimated 50,000 tons of waste annually. These wastes are commonly disposed of on land. This method of disposal is becoming more difficult due to the potential for pollution of local water resources. A triple pass rotary drum dehydrator was installed ...

  8. Infield monitoring of cleaning efficiency in waste water treatment plants using two phenol-sensitive biosensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catalin Nistor; Andreas Rose; Marinella Farré; Leonard Stoica; Ulla Wollenberger; Tautgirdas Ruzgas; Dorothea Pfeiffer; Damià Barceló; Lo Gorton; Jenny Emnéus

    2002-01-01

    Two amperometric biosensors based on the enzymes cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) and quinoprotein-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (GDH), have been applied for monitoring the phenolic content in water samples, collected at different stages of a waste water treatment process, thus representing different cleaning levels of two waste water treatment plants (WWTPs). The biosensor measurements were performed in-field, compared with the results obtained by

  9. Arsenic mobility in brownfield soils amended with green waste compost or biochar and planted with Miscanthus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Hartley; Nicholas M. Dickinson; Philip Riby; Nicholas W. Lepp

    2009-01-01

    Degraded land that is historically contaminated from different sources of industrial waste provides an opportunity for conversion to bioenergy fuel production and also to increase sequestration of carbon in soil through organic amendments. In pot experiments, As mobility was investigated in three different brownfield soils amended with green waste compost (GWC, 30% v\\/v) or biochar (BC, 20% v\\/v), planted with

  10. DRSPALL :spallings model for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2004 recertification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy P. Gilkey; Clifford W. Hansen; John F. Schatz; David Keith Rudeen; David L. Lord

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a model to estimate the spallings releases for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Performance Assessment (WIPP PA). A spallings release in the context of WIPP PA refers to a portion of the solid waste transported from the subsurface repository to the ground surface due to inadvertent oil or gas drilling into the WIPP repository at some time

  11. A study of commercial thermoelectric generation in a processing plant of combustible solid waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Tsuyoshi; S. Kagawa; M. Sakamoto; K. Matsuura

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the applicability of a commercially available thermoelectric generator for waste heat recovery in a processing plant of combustible solid waste. Oil heat transfer medium is utilized for heating the commercially available thermoelectric generator employed in this study so that the generator can be operated at a much lower pressure than that using water. Low pressure operation is

  12. Packaging concerns associated with transporting Rocky Flats Plant radioactive mixed wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Clawson; J. H. Eide

    1992-01-01

    This report contains the results of a preliminary study conducted at the request of the Los Alamos Technology Office for the Rocky Flats Plant. This report identifies potential impacts and areas of concern affecting the selection of available shipping containers and packaging authorized for transportation of radioactive mixed waste. The focus of this study is low-level mixed waste and low-level

  13. Equipment evaluation for low density polyethylene encapsulated nitrate salt waste at the Rocky Flats Plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. I. Yamada; A. M. Faucette; R. C. Jantzen; B. W. Logsdon; J. H. Oldham; D. M. Saiki; R. J. Yudnich

    1993-01-01

    Mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) are subject to regulation by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Polymer solidification is being developed as a final treatment technology for several of these mixed wastes, including nitrate salts. Encapsulation nitrate salts with low density polyethylene (LDPE) has been the preliminary focus of the RFP polymer solidification effort. Literature reviews,

  14. Development of waste minimization and decontamination technologies at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Ferguson; K. E. Archibald; R. L. Demmer

    1995-01-01

    Emphasis on the minimization of decontamination secondary waste has increased because of restrictions on the use of hazardous chemicals and Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) waste handling issues. The Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co. (LITCO) Decontamination Development Subunit has worked to evaluate and introduce new performed testing, evaluations, development and on-site demonstrations for a number of novel decontamination techniques that have

  15. Potential radiological impact of tornadoes on the safety of Nuclear Fuel Services' West Valley Fuel Reprocessing Plant. Volume I. Tornado effects on head-end cell airflow

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, L.J.; Andrae, R.W.

    1981-09-01

    This report describes results of a parametric study of the impacts of a tornado-generated depressurization on airflow in the contaminated process cells within the presently inoperative Nuclear Fuel Services fuel reprocessing facility near West Valley, NY. The study involved the following tasks: (1) mathematical modeling of installed ventilation and abnormal exhaust pathways from the cells and prediction of tornado-induced airflows in these pathways; (2) mathematical modeling of individual cell flow characteristics and prediction of in-cell velocities induced by flows from step 1; and (3) evaluation of the results of steps 1 and 2 to determine whether any of the pathways investigated have the potential for releasing quantities of radioactively contaminated air from the main process cells. The study has concluded that in the event of a tornado strike, certain pathways from the cells have the potential to release radioactive materials of the atmosphere. Determination of the quantities of radioactive material released from the cells through pathways identified in step 3 is presented in Part II of this report.

  16. Dynamic modelling of waste-water treatment plants based on Lemna gibba

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Vatta; R. Rota; N. Boniardi; G. Nano

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, a comprehensive process model able to simulate the behaviour of a waste-water treatment plant based on Lemna gibba has been developed. This model accounts for the main chemical and biochemical phenomena involved in a natural waste-water treatment system. Several comparisons with experimental data obtained both in mini-ponds and in realsize plants have confirmed the reliability of the

  17. Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 3: Appendix BIR Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-03-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic Waste Baseline Inventory Report (WTWBIR) establishes a methodology for grouping wastes of similar physical and chemical properties, from across the US Department of Energy (DOE) transuranic (TRU) waste system, into a series of ``waste profiles`` that can be used as the basis for waste form discussions with regulatory agencies. The majority of this document reports TRU waste inventories of DOE defense sites. An appendix is included which provides estimates of commercial TRU waste from the West Valley Demonstration Project. The WIPP baseline inventory is estimated using waste streams identified by the DOE TRU waste generator/storage sites, supplemented by information from the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR) and the 1994 Integrated Data Base (IDB). The sites provided and/or authorized all information in the Waste Stream Profiles except the EPA (hazardous waste) codes for the mixed inventories. These codes were taken from the MWIR (if a WTWBIR mixed waste stream was not in MWIR, the sites were consulted). The IDB was used to generate the WIPP radionuclide inventory. Each waste stream is defined in a waste stream profile and has been assigned a waste matrix code (WMC) by the DOE TRU waste generator/storage site. Waste stream profiles with WMCs that have similar physical and chemical properties can be combined into a waste matrix code group (WMCG), which is then documented in a site-specific waste profile for each TRU waste generator/storage site that contains waste streams in that particular WMCG.

  18. Spent Fuel Reprocessing: More Value for Money Spent in a Geological Repository?

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, P.; Vinoche, R.; Devezeaux, J-G.; Bailly, F.

    2003-02-25

    Today, each utility or country operating nuclear power plants can select between two long-term spent fuel management policies: either, spent fuel is considered as waste to dispose of through direct disposal or, spent fuel is considered a resource of valuable material through reprocessing-recycling. Reading and listening to what is said in the nuclear community, we understand that most people consider that the choice of policy is, actually, a choice among two technical paths to handle spent fuel: direct disposal versus reprocessing. This very simple situation has been recently challenged by analysis coming from countries where both policies are on survey. For example, ONDRAF of Belgium published an interesting study showing that, economically speaking for final disposal, it is worth treating spent fuel rather than dispose of it as a whole, even if there is no possibility to recycle the valuable part of it. So, the question is raised: is there such a one-to-one link between long term spent fuel management political option and industrial option? The purpose of the presentation is to discuss the potential advantages and drawbacks of spent fuel treatment as an implementation of the policy that considers spent fuel as waste to dispose of. Based on technical considerations and industrial experience, we will study qualitatively, and quantitatively when possible, the different answers proposed by treatment to the main concerns of spent-fuel-as-a-whole geological disposal.

  19. Process description and plant design for preparing ceramic high-level waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Grantham, L.F.; McKisson, R.L.; Guon, J.; Flintoff, J.F.; McKenzie, D.E.

    1983-02-25

    The ceramics process flow diagram has been simplified and upgraded to utilize only two major processing steps - fluid-bed calcination and hot isostatic press consolidating. Full-scale fluid-bed calcination has been used at INEL to calcine high-level waste for 18 y; and a second-generation calciner, a fully remotely operated and maintained calciner that meets ALARA guidelines, started calcining high-level waste in 1982. Full-scale hot isostatic consolidation has been used by DOE and commercial enterprises to consolidate radioactive components and to encapsulate spent fuel elements for several years. With further development aimed at process integration and parametric optimization, the operating knowledge of full-scale demonstration of the key process steps should be rapidly adaptable to scale-up of the ceramic process to full plant size. Process flowsheets used to prepare ceramic and glass waste forms from defense and commercial high-level liquid waste are described. Preliminary layouts of process flow diagrams in a high-level processing canyon were prepared and used to estimate the preliminary cost of the plant to fabricate both waste forms. The estimated costs for using both options were compared for total waste management costs of SRP high-level liquid waste. Using our design, for both the ceramic and glass plant, capital and operating costs are essentially the same for both defense and commercial wastes, but total waste management costs are calculated to be significantly less for defense wastes using the ceramic option. It is concluded from this and other studies that the ceramic form may offer important advantages over glass in leach resistance, waste loading, density, and process flexibility. Preliminary economic calculations indicate that ceramics must be considered a leading candidate for the form to immobilize high-level wastes.

  20. Nuclear waste form risk assessment for US defense waste at Savannah River Plant. Annual report fiscal year 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, H.; Jackson, D.D.; Revelli, M.A.

    1981-07-01

    Waste form dissolution studies and preliminary performance analyses were carried out to contribute a part of the data needed for the selection of a waste form for the disposal of Savannah River Plant defense waste in a deep geologic repository. The first portion of this work provides descriptions of the chemical interactions between the waste form and the geologic environment. We reviewed critically the dissolution/leaching data for borosilicate glass and SYNROC. Both chemical kinetic and thermodynamic models were developed to describe the dissolution process of these candidate waste forms so as to establish a fundamental basis for interpretation of experimental data and to provide directions for future experiments. The complementary second portion of this work is an assessment of the impacts of alternate waste forms upon the consequences of disposal in various proposed geological media. Employing systems analysis methodology, we began to evaluate the performance of a generic waste form for the case of a high risk scenario for a bedded salt repository. Results of sensitivity analysis, uncertainty analyses, and sensitivity to uncertainty analysis are presented.

  1. Development of Ceramic Waste Forms for High-Level Nuclear Waste Over the Last 30 Years

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, Eric [Institute of Materials and Engineering Science, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, New Illawarra Road, Menai, NSW, 2234 (Australia)

    2007-07-01

    Many types of ceramics have been put forward for immobilisation of high-level waste (HLW) from reprocessing of nuclear power plant fuel or weapons production. After describing some historical aspects of waste form research, the essential features of the chemical design and processing of these different ceramic types will be discussed briefly. Given acceptable laboratory and long-term predicted performance based on appropriately rigorous chemical design, the important processing parameters are mostly waste loading, waste throughput, footprint, offgas control/minimization, and the need for secondary waste treatment. It is concluded that the 'problem of high-level nuclear waste' is largely solved from a technical point of view, within the current regulatory framework, and that the main remaining question is which technical disposition method is optimum for a given waste. (author)

  2. Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D. BRENT; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Fecht, Karl R.; Lanigan, David C.; Reidel, Steve; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-02-28

    In 2006, DOE-ORP initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct Vs measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) confirmation of the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the corehole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt was also penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of movement and less than 15 feet of repeated section. Most of the movement on the fault appears to have occurred before the youngest lava flow, the 10.5 million year old Elephant Mountain Member was emplaced above the Pomona Member.

  3. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E.; Abrigo, G.P. [and others] [and others

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs.

  4. Comparison of energy and waste management costs and opportunities for reducing related costs in manufacturing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jendrucko, R.J.; Overly, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    Both energy use and waste generation directly impact profitability in the industrial setting. While it is clearly desirable to reduce both energy use and waste generation, the attention given to these areas varies widely depending principally on managements attention to these component costs of operation and previous efforts at reducing energy consumption and waste generation. From the early days of the {open_quotes}energy crisis{close_quotes} to the more recent case of growing concern with changing environmental regulations, plants have established incentives for the implementation of energy conservation and waste minimization measures based mainly on the payback period for specific recommendations considered and their ultimate effect on the company`s profitability. Although most companies give periodic attention to operational costs related to energy use and waste generation, data has not been assembled which demonstrates the cost relationship between energy consumption and waste management for different industries (with a variety of SIC codes). In addition, the relative potential savings related to the undertaking of new measures for energy conservation and waste minimization in the industrial sector has not been clarified. In order to gain some useful insight into the current status of financial incentives for energy conservation and waste minimization in industrial manufacturing plants, actual plant data is required.

  5. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2005 Site Environmental Report

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2006-10-13

    The purpose of this report is to provide information needed by the DOE to assess WIPP's environmental performance and to make WIPP environmental information available to stakeholders and members of the public. This report has been prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A and DOE guidance. This report documents WIPP's environmental monitoring programs and their results for 2004. The WIPP Project is authorized by the DOE National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Pub. L. 96-164). After more than 20 years of scientific study and public input, WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. Located in southeastern New Mexico, WIPP is the nation's first underground repository permitted to safely and permanently dispose of TRU radioactive and mixed waste (as defined in the WIPP LWA) generated through defense activities and programs. TRU waste is defined, in the WIPP LWA, as radioactive waste containing more than 100 nanocuries (3,700 becquerels [Bq]) of alpha-emitting TRU isotopes per gram of waste, with half-lives greater than 20 years except for high-level waste, waste that has been determined not to require the degree of isolation required by the disposal regulations, and waste the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has approved for disposal. Most TRU waste is contaminated industrial trash, such as rags and old tools; sludges from solidified liquids; glass; metal; and other materials from dismantled buildings. TRU waste is eligible for disposal at WIPP if it has been generated in whole or in part by one or more of the activities listed in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §10101, et seq.), including naval reactors development, weapons activities, verification and control technology, defense nuclear materials production, defense nuclear waste and materials by-products management,defense nuclear materials security and safeguards and security investigations, and defense research and development. The waste must also meet the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria. When TRU waste arrives at WIPP, it is transported into the Waste Handling Building. The waste containers are removed from the shipping containers, placed on the waste hoist, and lowered to the repository level of 655 m (2,150 ft; approximately 0.5 mi) below the surface. Next, the containers of waste are removed from the hoist and placed in excavated disposal rooms in the Salado Formation, a thick sequence of evaporite beds deposited approximately 250 million years ago (Figure 1.1). After each panel of seven rooms has been filled with waste, specially designed closures are emplaced. When all of WIPP's panels have been filled, at the conclusion of WIPP operations, seals will be placed in the shafts. One of the main attributes of salt, as a rock formation in which to isolate radioactive waste, is the ability of the salt to creep, that is, to deform continuously over time. Excavations into which the waste-filled drums are placed will close eventually, flowing around the drums and sealing them within the formation.

  6. Packaging concerns associated with transporting Rocky Flats Plant radioactive mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Clawson, R.L.; Eide, J.H.

    1992-05-01

    This report contains the results of a preliminary study conducted at the request of the Los Alamos Technology Office for the Rocky Flats Plant. This report identifies potential impacts and areas of concern affecting the selection of available shipping containers and packaging authorized for transportation of radioactive mixed waste. The focus of this study is low-level mixed waste and low-level transuranic mixed waste originating at the Rocky Flats Plant; these wastes are intended to be transported to one of three tentative treatment, storage, or disposal facilities. This report discusses the selection criteria for packages based on form and waste type, which reflect current requirements by the US Department of Transportation, US Department of Energy, and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  7. Idaho Waste Vitrification Facilities Project Vitrified Waste Interim Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnema, Bruce Edward

    2001-09-01

    This feasibility study report presents a draft design of the Vitrified Waste Interim Storage Facility (VWISF), which is one of three subprojects of the Idaho Waste Vitrification Facilities (IWVF) project. The primary goal of the IWVF project is to design and construct a treatment process system that will vitrify the sodium-bearing waste (SBW) to a final waste form. The project will consist of three subprojects that include the Waste Collection Tanks Facility, the Waste Vitrification Facility (WVF), and the VWISF. The Waste Collection Tanks Facility will provide for waste collection, feed mixing, and surge storage for SBW and newly generated liquid waste from ongoing operations at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. The WVF will contain the vitrification process that will mix the waste with glass-forming chemicals or frit and turn the waste into glass. The VWISF will provide a shielded storage facility for the glass until the waste can be disposed at either the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant as mixed transuranic waste or at the future national geological repository as high-level waste glass, pending the outcome of a Waste Incidental to Reprocessing determination, which is currently in progress. A secondary goal is to provide a facility that can be easily modified later to accommodate storage of the vitrified high-level waste calcine. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of the VWISF, which would be constructed in compliance with applicable federal, state, and local laws. This project supports the Department of Energy’s Environmental Management missions of safely storing and treating radioactive wastes as well as meeting Federal Facility Compliance commitments made to the State of Idaho.

  8. Cold End Inserts for Process Gas Waste Heat Boilers Air Products, operates hydrogen production plants, which utilize large waste heat boilers (WHB)

    E-print Network

    Demirel, Melik C.

    Cold End Inserts for Process Gas Waste Heat Boilers Overview Air Products, operates hydrogen production plants, which utilize large waste heat boilers (WHB) to cool process syngas. The gas enters satisfies all 3 design criteria. · Correlations relating our experimental results to a waste heat boiler

  9. State of the art review of radioactive waste volume reduction techniques for commercial nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    A review is made of the state of the art of volume reduction techniques for low level liquid and solid radioactive wastes produced as a result of: (1) operation of commercial nuclear power plants, (2) storage of spent fuel in away-from-reactor facilities, and (3) decontamination/decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants. The types of wastes and their chemical, physical, and radiological characteristics are identified. Methods used by industry for processing radioactive wastes are reviewed and compared to the new techniques for processing and reducing the volume of radioactive wastes. A detailed system description and report on operating experiences follow for each of the new volume reduction techniques. In addition, descriptions of volume reduction methods presently under development are provided. The Appendix records data collected during site surveys of vendor facilities and operating power plants. A Bibliography is provided for each of the various volume reduction techniques discussed in the report.

  10. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2003 Site Environmental Report

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2005-09-03

    The purpose of this report is to provide information needed by the DOE to assess WIPP's environmental performance and to convey that performance to stakeholders and members of the public. This report has been prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A and DOE guidance. This report documents WIPP's environmental monitoring programs and their results for 2003. The WIPP Project is authorized by the DOE National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Pub. L. 96-164). After more than 20 years of scientific study and public input, WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. Located in southeastern New Mexico, WIPP is the nation's first underground repository permitted to safely and permanently dispose of TRU radioactive and mixed waste (as defined in the WIPP LWA) generated through the research and production of nuclear weapons and other activities related to the national defense of the United States. TRU waste is defined in the WIPP LWA as radioactive waste containing more than 100 nanocuries (3,700 becquerels [Bq]) of alpha-emitting transuranic isotopes per gram of waste, with half-lives greater than 20 years. Exceptions are noted as high-level waste, waste that has been determined not to require the degree of isolation required by the disposal regulations, and waste the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has approved for disposal. Most TRU waste is contaminated industrial trash, such as rags and old tools, and sludges from solidified liquids; glass; metal; and other materials from dismantled buildings. A TRU waste is eligible for disposal at WIPP if it has been generated in whole or in partby one or more of the activities listed in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §10101, et seq.), including naval reactors development, weapons activities, verification and control technology, defense nuclear materials production, defense nuclear waste and materials by-products management, defense nuclear materials security and safeguards and security investigations, and defense research and development. The waste must also meet the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria. When TRU waste arrives at WIPP, it is transported into the Waste Handling Building. The waste containers are removed from the shipping containers, placed on the waste hoist, and lowered to the repository level of 655 m (2,150 ft; approximately 0.5 mi) below the surface. Next, the containers of waste are removed from the hoist and placed in excavated storage rooms in the Salado Formation, a thick sequence of evaporite beds deposited approximately 250 million years ago (Figure 1.1). After each panel has been filled with waste, specially designed closures are emplaced. When all of WIPP's panels have been filled, at the conclusion of WIPP operations, seals will be placed in the shafts. Salt under pressure is relatively plastic, and mine openings will be allowed to creep closed for final disposal, encapsulating and isolating the waste.

  11. Ground-water Flow Near Two Radioactive-waste-disposal Areas at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center, Cattaraugus County, New York; Results of Flow Simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcel P. Bergeron; Edward F. Bugliosi

    1988-01-01

    Two adjacent burial areas were excavated in a clay-rich till at a radioactive waste disposal site near West Valley in Cattaraugus County, N.Y.: (1) which contains mainly low-level radioactive wastes generated onsite by a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, has been in operation since 1966; and (2) which contains commercial low-level radioactive wastes, was operated during 1963-75. Groundwater below the upper

  12. Cellulose microfibres produced from banana plant wastes: Isolation and characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silviya Elanthikkal; Unnikrishnan Gopalakrishnapanicker; Soney Varghese; James T Guthrie

    2010-01-01

    Cellulose microfibres from banana fibre waste have been isolated and characterised. Bleached banana waste fibres were hydrolysed, under different conditions, to study the effects of temperature, reaction time, and acid concentration on the properties of the resultant cellulose microfibres. As the concentration of acid used in the hydrolysis was increased, more stable aqueous suspensions of the cellulose product were obtained

  13. Multi-criteria GIS-based siting of an incineration plant for municipal solid waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilberto Tavares; Zdena Zsigraiová; Viriato Semiao

    2011-01-01

    Siting a municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plant requires a comprehensive evaluation to identify the best available location(s) that can simultaneously meet the requirements of regulations and minimise economic, environmental, health, and social costs. A spatial multi-criteria evaluation methodology is presented to assess land suitability for a plant siting and applied to Santiago Island of Cape Verde. It combines the

  14. Process integration in bioprocess indystry: waste heat recovery in yeast and ethyl alcohol plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Raškovi?; A. Anastasovski; Lj. Markovska; V. Meško

    2010-01-01

    The process integration of the bioprocess plant for production of yeast and alcohol was studied. Preliminary energy audit of the plant identified the huge amount of thermal losses, caused by waste heat in exhausted process streams, and reviled the great potential for energy efficiency improvement by heat recovery system. Research roadmap, based on process integration approach, is divided on six

  15. Energy conservation and resource utilisation in waste-water treatment plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Tassou

    1988-01-01

    The operation of waste-water treatment plants is to a large extent energy-dependent. This paper examines the energy requirements of these plants and explores ways of conserving energy through electrical and thermal load management and resource recovery and utilisation. The gas produced during the process of anaerobic digestion can be used to drive packaged CHP systems for local heat and power

  16. Hepatitis A among workers from a waste water treatment plant during a small community outbreak

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G De Serres; D Laliberté

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This is a case report describing the occurrence of hepatitis A in three workers at a waste water treatment plant during a small community outbreak involving 16 cases. CASE REPORT: The first case was a 26 year old operator who had worked in the plant for two years, the second was a 23 year old employee hired to add

  17. Methane Production from Plant Wastes and Chicken Manure at Different Working Conditions of a One-stage Anaerobic Digester

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Yaldiz; S. Sozer; N. Caglayan; C. Ertekin; D. Kaya

    2011-01-01

    This article presents laboratory scale studies on the anaerobic digestion of plant wastes using a continuously flow type vertical cylindrical biogas plant. In the first experiment, plant wastes and chicken manure mixture at a dry matter content of 12%, retention time of 30 days, and fermentation temperature of 35°C were examined (Exp. 1). In the second experiment, fermentation material was

  18. Plasma coal reprocessing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messerle, V. E.; Ustimenko, A. B.

    2013-12-01

    Results of many years of investigations of plasma-chemical technologies for pyrolysis, hydrogenation, thermochemical preparation for combustion, gasification, and complex reprocessing of solid fuels and hydrocarbon gas cracking are represented. Application of these technologies for obtaining the desired products (hydrogen, industrial carbon, synthesis gas, valuable components of the mineral mass of coal) corresponds to modern ecological and economical requirements to the power engineering, metallurgy, and chemical industry. Plasma fuel utilization technologies are characterized by the short-term residence of reagents within a reactor and the high degree of the conversion of source substances into the desired products without catalyst application. The thermochemical preparation of the fuel to combustion is realized in a plasma-fuel system presenting a reaction chamber with a plasmatron; and the remaining plasma fuel utilization technologies, in a combined plasma-chemical reactor with a nominal power of 100 kW, whose zone of the heat release from an electric arc is joined with the chemical reaction zone.

  19. Tolerance of wheat and lettuce plants grown on human mineralized waste to high temperature stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushakova, Sofya A.; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Shikhov, Valentin N.; Gros, Jean-Bernard; Golovko, Tamara K.; Dal'ke, Igor V.; Zakhozhii, Ilya G.

    2013-06-01

    The main objective of a life support system for space missions is to supply a crew with food, water and oxygen, and to eliminate their wastes. The ultimate goal is to achieve the highest degree of closure of the system using controlled processes offering a high level of reliability and flexibility. Enhancement of closure of a biological life support system (BLSS) that includes plants relies on increased regeneration of plant waste, and utilization of solid and liquid human wastes. Clearly, the robustness of a BLSS subjected to stress will be substantially determined by the robustness of the plant components of the phototrophic unit. The aim of the present work was to estimate the heat resistance of two plants (wheat and lettuce) grown on human wastes. Human exometabolites mineralized by hydrogen peroxide in an electromagnetic field were used to make a nutrient solution for the plants. We looked for a possible increase in the heat tolerance of the wheat plants using changes in photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) intensity during heat stress. At age 15 days, plants were subjected to a rise in air temperature (from 23 ± 1 °C to 44 ± 1 °?) under different PAR intensities for 4 h. The status of the photosynthetic apparatus of the plants was assessed by external ??2 gas exchange and fluorescence measurements. The increased irradiance of the plants during the high temperature period demonstrated its protective action for both the photosynthetic apparatus of the leaves and subsequent plant growth and development. The productivity of the plants subjected to temperature changes at 250 W m-2 of PAR did not differ from that of controls, whereas the productivity of the plants subjected to the same heat stress but in darkness was halved.

  20. Effect of a water-based drilling waste on receiving soil properties and plants growth.

    PubMed

    Saint-Fort, Roger; Ashtani, Sahar

    2014-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine the relative effects of recommended land spraying while drilling (LWD) loading rate application for a source of water-based drilling waste material on selected soil properties and phytotoxicity. Drilling waste material was obtained from a well where a nitrate gypsum water based product was used to formulate the drilling fluid. The fluid and associated drill cuttings were used as the drilling waste source to conduct the experiment. The study was carried out in triplicate and involved five plant species, four drilling waste loading rates and a representative agricultural soil type in Alberta. Plant growth was monitored for a period of ten days. Drilling waste applied at 10 times above the recommended loading rate improved the growth and germination rate of all plants excluding radish. Loading rates in excess of 40 and 50 times had a deleterious effect on radish, corn and oat but not on alfalfa and barley. Germination rate decreased as waste loading rate increased. Effects on soil physical and chemical properties were more pronounced at the 40 and 50 times exceeding recommended loading rate. Significant changes in soil parameters occurred at the higher rates in terms of increase in soil porosity, pH, EC, hydraulic conductivity, SAR and textural classification. This study indicates that the applications of this type of water based drill cutting if executed at an optimal loading rate, may improve soil quality and results in better plant growth. PMID:24117079

  1. Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D. Brent; Fecht, Karl R.; Reidel, Stephen P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-05-11

    In 2006, the U.S. Department of Energy initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct shear wave velocity (Vs) measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) geologic studies to confirm the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the core hole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member, and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt also was penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed, and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of movement and less than 15 ft of repeated section. Most of the movement on the fault appears to have occurred before the youngest lava flow, the 10.5-million-year-old Elephant Mountain Member, was emplaced above the Pomona Member.

  2. Neurotoxic effects from residential exposure to chemicals from an oil reprocessing facility and superfund site.

    PubMed

    Kilburn, K H; Warshaw, R H

    1995-01-01

    Neurotoxicity has been described in workers exposed to solvents, PCBs, certain metals, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons but not often in residents near refineries or factories. We compared the neurobehavioral performance of residents near a plant that reprocessed used motor oil and chemical waste from 1966-1983 to referents from beyond the plant's modeled air dispersal and water drainage zones. Neurophysiological and psychological tests, a Profile of Mood States (POMS) and a symptom questionnaire were administered to 131 subjects exposed at the site who were matched for age, sex, and ethnicity 2:1 with 66 unexposed subjects from 35 km away. Test scores were adjusted for a 1.4-year difference in educational attainment by coefficients from regression equations but not for income as the latter coefficients were not significant. Exposed subjects were significantly impaired for body balance (sway speed) and simple and two choice visual reaction time as compared to referents. Blink reflex latency (R-1) and eye closure speed were normal in both groups. Cognitive function in the exposed was impaired as measured by Culture Fair and by block design from the WAIS. Placing pegs in a grooved board and making of trails (A and B) were also impaired. Group differences in recall and memory were not significant. The exposed group's symptom frequencies and POMS scores for depression, anger, confusion, tension, and fatigue were elevated indicating depression. Confounding from medical and neurological disorders or occupational exposures was minimal. Subjects exposed residentially for up to 17 years to chemicals dispersed from a waste oil reprocessing plant showed neurophysiological and neuropsychological impairment. PMID:7760780

  3. International investigation of electronic waste recycling plant design

    E-print Network

    Theurer, Jean E

    2010-01-01

    This thesis investigates the industry of electronic waste recycling industry in three countries: Germany, the United States, and Chile. Despite differences in the legal structure surrounding the industry, there are many ...

  4. Pinellas Plant contingency plan for the hazardous waste management facility

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1988-04-01

    Subpart D of Part 264 (264.50 through .56) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations require that each facility maintain a contingency plan detailing procedures to {open_quotes}minimize hazards to human health or the environment from fires, explosions, or any unplanned sudden or non-sudden release of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents to air, soil, or surface water.{close_quotes}

  5. Critical components of odors in evaluating the performance of food waste composting plants.

    PubMed

    Mao, I-Fang; Tsai, Chung-Jung; Shen, Shu-Hung; Lin, Tsair-Fuh; Chen, Wang-Kun; Chen, Mei-Lien

    2006-11-01

    The current Taiwan government policy toward food waste management encourages composting for resource recovery. This study used olfactometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas detector tubes to evaluate the ambient air at three of the largest food waste composting plants in Taiwan. Ambient air inside the plants, at exhaust outlets and plant boundaries was examined to determine the comprehensive odor performance, critical components, and odor elimination efficiencies of various odor control engineering. Analytical results identified 29 compounds, including ammonia, amines, acetic acid, and multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (hydrocarbons, ketones, esters, terpenes and S-compounds) in the odor from food waste composting plants. Concentrations of six components--ammonia, amines, dimethyl sulfide, acetic acid, ethyl benzene and p-Cymene--exceeded human olfactory thresholds. Ammonia, amines, dimethyl sulfide and acetic acid accounted for most odors compared to numerous VOCs. The results also show that the biotrickling filter was better at eliminating the concentrations of odor, NH(3), amines, S-compounds and VOCs than the chemical scrubber and biofilters. All levels measured by olfactometry at the boundaries of food waste composting plants (range, 74-115 Odor Concentration (OC)) exceeded Taiwan's EPA standard of 50 OC. This study indicated that the malodor problem continued to be a significant problem for food waste recovery. PMID:16863658

  6. Waste heat recovery in a coffee roasting plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele De Monte; Elio Padoano; Dario Pozzetto

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the possibility of introducing, in the event of substitution of an old plant, the recovery of heat produced during the roasting process of coffee.During the analysis, thermo and fluid dynamic operating parameters of the present plant were defined also with the support of an experimental measuring campaign. Energy recovery possibilities were, then, evaluated and a possible plant

  7. Criteria impacting shipments of Rocky Flats Plant radioactive mixed wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Clawson; J. H. Eide

    1992-01-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company, Transportation and Packaging Division, under contract for the Los Alamos Technology Office-Rocky Flats Plant, has developed this synopsis report to be used as a reference in the development of the Rocky Flats Plant Comprehensive Treatment and Management Plan and the Rocky Flats Plant Residue Elimination Plan. This report represents the criteria for packaging, shipping, and transporting Rocky

  8. Electrochemical method of reprocessing radioactive waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. V. Martynov; V. V. Smirnov; V. V. Tugolukov; M. P. Filippov; E. A. Belyakov

    1995-01-01

    UDC 621.039.7:628.165 When operating nuclear powered vehicles and industrial nuclear fuel cycle production units, it becomes necessary to deactivate the surfaces of the work areas, equipment, and mechanisms as a preventive operation prior to repair and dismantling, in order to create safe radiation conditions while the work is carried out. The work areas and the external surfaces of the operated

  9. State of the art review of radioactive waste volume reduction techniques for commercial nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-04-01

    The state of the art of volume reduction techniques is reviewed for low level liquid and solid radioactive wastes produced as a result of: (1) operation of commercial nuclear power plants, (2) storage of spent fuel in away-from-reactor facilities, and (3) decontamination/decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants. The types of wastes and their chemical, physical, and radiological characteristics are identified. Methods used by industry for processing radioactive wastes are reviewed and compared to the new techniques for processing and reducing the volume of radioactive wastes. A detailed system description and report on operating experiences follow for each of the new volume reduction techniques. In addition, descriptions of volume reduction methods presently under development are provided.

  10. Process waste treatment system upgrades: Clarifier startup at the nonradiological wastewater treatment plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lucero, A.J.; McTaggart, D.R.; Van Essen, D.C.; Kent, T.E.; West, G.D.; Taylor, P.A.

    1998-07-01

    The Waste Management Operations Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory recently modified the design of a reactor/clarifier at the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant, which is now referred to as the Process Waste Treatment Complex--Building 3608, to replace the sludge-blanket softener/clarifier at the Process Waste Treatment Plant, now referred to as the Process Waste Treatment Complex-Building 3544 (PWTC-3544). This work was conducted because periodic hydraulic overloads caused poor water-softening performance in the PWTC-3544 softener, which was detrimental to the performance and operating costs of downstream ion-exchange operations. Over a 2-month time frame, the modified reactor/clarifier was tested with nonradiological wastewater and then with radioactive wastewater to optimize softening performance. Based on performance to date, the new system has operated more effectively than the former one, with reduced employee radiological exposure, less downtime, lower costs, and improved effluent quality.

  11. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This is the 1989 Site Environmental Report (SER) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP is a government owned and contractor-operated facility. The WIPP project is operated by Westinghouse Electric Corporation for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The mission of the WIPP is to provide a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste generated by the defense activities of the US Government. This report provides a comprehensive description of environmental activities at the WIPP during calendar year 1989. The WIPP facility will not receive waste until all concerns affecting opening the WIPP are addressed to the satisfaction of the Secretary of Energy. Therefore, this report describes the status of the preoperational activities of the Radiological Environmental Surveillance (RES) program, which are outlined in the Radiological Baseline Program for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WTSD-TME-057). 72 refs., 13 figs., 20 tabs.

  12. Influence of heat recuperation in ORC power plant on efficiency of waste heat utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsukiewicz-Gozdur, Aleksandra

    2010-10-01

    The present work is devoted to the problem of utilization of the waste heat contained in the exhaust gases having the temperature of 350 °C. Conversion of the waste heat into electricity using a power plant working with organic fluid cycles is considered. Three Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) power plant solutions are analysed and compared: a solution with the basic, single thermodynamic conversion cycle, one with internal heat recuperation and one with external heat recuperation. It results from the analysis that it is the proper choice of the working fluid evaporation temperature that fundamentally affects the maximum of the ORC plant output power. Application of the internal heat recuperation in the plant basic cycle results in the output power increase of approx. 5%. Addition of the external heat recuperation to the plant basic cycle, in the form of a secondary supercritical ORC power cycle can rise the output power by approx. 2%.

  13. Estimation and characterization of decontamination and decommissioning solid waste expected from the Plutonium Finishing Plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Millar; J. A. Pottmeyer; T. J. Stratton

    1995-01-01

    Purpose of the study was to estimate the amounts of equipment and other materials that are candidates for removal and subsequent processing in a solid waste facility when the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant is decontaminated and decommissioned. (Building structure and soil are not covered.) Results indicate that â¼5,500 m³ of solid waste is expected to result from the decontamination and

  14. Solid waste disposal test program for a coal-fired power plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Behr; L. Holcombe; A. Mann; J. Worley

    1988-01-01

    The St. Johns River Power Park (SJRPP) is a coal-fired power plant located in Jacksonville, Florida. As part of their solid-waste management plan, SJRPP conducted studies to characterize their coal-combustion by-products, and designed a solid-waste test program to monitor the physical and chemical behavior of the by-products in the disposal environment. The objective of these studies and the test program

  15. Organic Wastes for Improving Soil Physical Properties and Enhancing Plant Growth in Container Substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nsalambi V. Nkongolo; Jean Caron; Fabienne Gauthier; Mitate Yamada

    2001-01-01

    Increasing rates (5, 10, 25 and 40% v\\/v) of 6 sources of organic wastes were substituted for peat to assess changes in the physical properties of peat-perlite substrates and investigate the relationship between plant response and these properties. Wastes were either fresh or composted bio-filter sludge (FBF and CBF), sewage sludge (FSS and CSS), and de-inked paper sludge (FDP and

  16. Leaching characteristics of paraffin waste forms generated from Korean nuclear power plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ju Youl Kim; Chang Lak Kim; Chang Hyun Chung

    2001-01-01

    Leaching tests of paraffin waste forms including boric acid, cobalt, strontium and cesium were performed to investigate the leaching characteristics of paraffin waste forms which had been generated in Korean nuclear power plants. The leaching tests were conducted according to ANSI\\/ANS-16.1 test procedure and the cumulative fractions leached (CFLs) of boric acid, cobalt, strontium and cesium were obtained. The compressive

  17. The Rocky Flats Plant Waste Stream and Residue Identification and Characterization Program (WSRIC): Progress and achievements

    SciTech Connect

    Ideker, V.L. [EG and G Rocky Flats, Inc., Golden, CO (United States). Rocky Flats Plant; Doyle, G.M. [USDOE Rocky Flats Office, Golden, CO (United States)

    1994-02-01

    The Waste Stream and Residue Identification and Characterization (WSRIC) Program, as described in the WSRIC Program Description delineates the process knowledge used to identify and characterize currently-generated waste from approximately 5404 waste streams originating from 576 processes in 288 buildings at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Annual updates to the WSRIC documents are required by the Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement between the US Department of Energy, the Colorado Department of Health and the Environmental Protection Agency. Accurate determination and characterization of waste is a crucial component in RFP`s waste management strategy to assure compliance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) storage and treatment requirements, as well as disposal acceptance criteria. The WSRIC Program was rebaselined in September 1992, and serves as the linchpin for documenting process knowledge in RFP`s RCRA operating record. Enhancements to the WSRIC include strengthening the waste characterization rationale, expanding WSRIC training for waste generators, and incorporating analytical information into the WSRIC building books. These enhancements will improve credibility with the regulators and increase waste generators` understanding of the basis for credible waste characterizations.

  18. One System Integrated Project Team: Retrieval and Delivery of Hanford Tank Wastes for Vitrification in the Waste Treatment Plant - 13234

    SciTech Connect

    Harp, Benton J. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Post Office Box 550, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)] [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Post Office Box 550, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Kacich, Richard M. [Bechtel National, Inc., 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)] [Bechtel National, Inc., 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Skwarek, Raymond J. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Post Office Box 850, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)] [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Post Office Box 850, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed in late 2011 as a way for improving the efficiency of delivery and treatment of highly radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) 586-square-mile Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The purpose of the One System IPT is to improve coordination and integration between the Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) contractor and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC). The vision statement is: One System is a WTP and TOC safety-conscious team that, through integrated management and implementation of risk-informed decision and mission-based solutions, will enable the earliest start of safe and efficient treatment of Hanford's tank waste, to protect the Columbia River, environment and public. The IPT is a formal collaboration between Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), which manages design and construction of the WTP for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (DOEORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), which manages the TOC for ORP. More than fifty-six (56) million gallons of highly radioactive liquid waste are stored in one hundred seventy-seven (177) aging, underground tanks. Most of Hanford's waste tanks - one hundred forty-nine (149) of them - are of an old single-shell tank (SST) design built between 1944 and 1964. More than sixty (60) of these tanks have leaked in the past, releasing an estimated one million gallons of waste into the soil and threatening the nearby Columbia River. There are another twenty-eight (28) new double-shelled tanks (DSTs), built from 1968 to 1986, that provide greater protection to the environment. In 1989, DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) signed a landmark agreement that required Hanford to comply with federal and state environmental standards. It also paved the way for agreements that set deadlines for retrieving the tank wastes and for building and operating the WTP. The tank wastes are the result of Hanford's nearly fifty (50) years of plutonium production. In the intervening years, waste characteristics have been increasingly better understood. However, waste characteristics that are uncertain and will remain as such represent a significant technical challenge in terms of retrieval, transport, and treatment, as well as for design and construction of WTP. What also is clear is that the longer the waste remains in the tanks, the greater the risk to the environment and the people of the Pacific Northwest. The goal of both projects - tank operations and waste treatment - is to diminish the risks posed by the waste in the tanks at the earliest possible date. About two hundred (200) WTP and TOC employees comprise the IPT. Individual work groups within One System include Technical, Project Integration and Controls, Front-End Design and Project Definition, Commissioning, Nuclear Safety and Engineering Systems Integration, and Environmental Safety and Health and Quality Assurance (ESH and QA). Additional functions and team members will be added as the WTP approaches the operational phase. The team has undertaken several initiatives since its formation to collaborate on issues: (1) alternate scenarios for delivery of wastes from the tank farms to WTP; (2) improvements in managing Interface Control Documents; (3) coordination on various technical issues, including the Defense Nuclear Facilities Nuclear Safety Board's Recommendation 2010-2; (4) deployment of the SmartPlant{sup R} Foundation-Configuration Management System; and (5) preparation of the joint contract deliverable of the Operational Readiness Support Plan. (authors)

  19. One System Integrated Project Team: Retrieval And Delivery Of The Hanford Tank Wastes For Vitrification In The Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Harp, Benton J. [Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, Washington (United States); Kacich, Richard M. [Bechtel National, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Skwarek, Raymond J. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-12-20

    The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed in late 2011 as a way for improving the efficiency of delivery and treatment of highly radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) 586-square-mile Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The purpose of the One System IPT is to improve coordination and integration between the Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) contractor and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC). The vision statement is: One System is a WTP and TOC safety conscious team that, through integrated management and implementation of risk-informed decision and mission-based solutions, will enable the earliest start of safe and efficient treatment of Hanford's tank waste, to protect the Columbia River, environment and public. The IPT is a formal collaboration between Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), which manages design and construction of the WTP for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (DOEORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), which manages the TOC for ORP. More than fifty-six (56) million gallons of highly radioactive liquid waste are stored in one hundred seventy-seven (177) aging, underground tanks. Most of Hanford's waste tanks - one hundred forty-nine (149) of them - are of an old single-shell tank (SST) design built between 1944 and 1964. More than sixty (60) of these tanks have leaked in the past, releasing an estimated one million gallons of waste into the soil and threatening the nearby Columbia River. There are another twenty-eight (28) new double-shelled tanks (DSTs), built from 1968 to 1986, that provide greater protection to the environment. In 1989, DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) signed a landmark agreement that required Hanford to comply with federal and state environmental standards. It also paved the way for agreements that set deadlines for retrieving the tank wastes and for building and operating the WTP. The tank wastes are the result of Hanford's nearly fifty (50) years of plutonium production. In the intervening years, waste characteristics have been increasingly better understood. However, waste characteristics that are uncertain and will remain as such represent a significant technical challenge in terms of retrieval, transport, and treatment, as well as for design and construction ofWTP. What also is clear is that the longer the waste remains in the tanks, the greater the risk to the environment and the people of the Pacific Northwest. The goal of both projects - tank operations and waste treatment - is to diminish the risks posed by the waste in the tanks at the earliest possible date. About two hundred (200) WTP and TOC employees comprise the IPT. Individual work groups within One System include Technical, Project Integration & Controls, Front-End Design & Project Definition, Commissioning, Nuclear Safety & Engineering Systems Integration, and Environmental Safety and Health and Quality Assurance (ESH&QA). Additional functions and team members will be added as the WTP approaches the operational phase. The team has undertaken several initiatives since its formation to collaborate on issues: (1) alternate scenarios for delivery of wastes from the tank farms to WTP; (2) improvements in managing Interface Control Documents; (3) coordination on various technical issues, including the Defense Nuclear Facilities Nuclear Safety Board's Recommendation 2010-2; (4) deployment of the SmartPlant? Foundation-configuration Management System; and (5) preparation of the joint contract deliverable of the Operational Readiness Support Plan.

  20. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2012-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage, but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the SRNL to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. BSR testing with WTP SW waste surrogates and associated analytical analyses and tests of granular products (GP) and monoliths began in the Fall of 2009, and then was continued from the Fall of 2010 through the Spring of 2011. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford's WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of {sup 125/129}I and {sup 99}Tc to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Prior to these radioactive feed tests, non-radioactive simulants were also processed. Ninety six grams of radioactive granular product were made for testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing.

  1. Position paper on gas generation in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brush, L.H.

    1994-11-15

    Gas generation by transuranic (TRU) waste is a significant issue because gas will, if produced in significant quantities, affect the performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) with respect to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations for the long-term isolation of radioactive and chemically hazardous waste. If significant gas production occurs, it will also affect, and will be affected by, other processes and parameters in WIPP disposal rooms. The processes that will produce gas in WIPP disposal rooms are corrosion, microbial activity and radiolysis. This position paper describes these processes and the models, assumptions and data used to predict gas generation in WIPP disposal rooms.

  2. An overview of metals recovery from thermal power plant solid wastes.

    PubMed

    Meawad, Amr S; Bojinova, Darinka Y; Pelovski, Yoncho G

    2010-12-01

    Thermal power plants (TPPs) that burn fossil fuels emit several pollutants linked to the environmental problems of acid rain, urban ozone, and the possibility of global climate change. As coal is burned in a power plant, its noncombustible mineral content is partitioned into bottom ash, which remains in the furnace, and fly ash, which rises with flue gases. Two other by-products of coal combustion air-pollution control technologies are flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastes and fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) wastes. This paper analyzed and summarized the generation, characteristics and application of TPP solid wastes and discussed the potential effects of such solid wastes on the environment. On this basis, a review of a number of methods for recovery of metals from TPP solid wastes was made. They usually contain a quantity of valuable metals and they are actually a secondary resource of metals. By applying mineral processing technologies and hydrometallurgical and biohydrometallurgical processes, it is possible to recover metals such as Al, Ga, Ge, Ca, Cd, Fe, Hg, Mg, Na, Ni, Pb, Ra, Th, V, Zn, etc., from TPP solid wastes. Recovery of metals from such wastes and its utilization are important not only for saving metal resources, but also for protecting the environment. PMID:20702078

  3. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant hydrogen generation study: Formation of ammonia from nitrate and nitrate in hydrogen generating systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. King; N. K. Bhattacharyya

    1996-01-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed for the Departrnent of Energy (DOE) to immobilize pretreated highly radioactive wastes in glass for permanent disposal in the HWVP, formic acid is added to the waste before vitrification to adjust glass redox and melter feed rheology. The operation of the glass melter and durability of the glass are affected by

  4. Assessment of the suitability of agricultural waste water for geothermal power plant cooling in the Imperial Valley. 1: Water quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. F. Morris; L. P. Rigdon

    1981-01-01

    Evaluation of the quality of agricultural waste water is the first step in assessing the suitability of agricultural waste water for geothermal power plant cooling. Samples of agricultural waste water from the New and Alamo rivers located in the Imperial Valley of California were analyzed. Determinations of standard water quality parameters, solids content, and inorganic compositions of the solids were

  5. RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - 25 YEARS SINCE THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Farfan; T. Jannik

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion

  6. Tannery Waste Treatment: Leaching, Filtration and Cake Dewatering Using a Membrane Filter Press (a Pilot Plant Study)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. F. M. Correia; J. M. R. de Carvalho

    2005-01-01

    In Alcanena (Portugal) the waste water treatment plant (WWTP) receives tannery waste, after a pretreatment for sulphides and the tanning exhaust baths have been sent to a recovery unit and the municipal waste water from Alcanena residential area. Physical, chemical, and biological treatment processes are involved, and the end products are sludge of ?71% moisture containing mainly organic matter, sulfides,

  7. RCRA Facility Investigation Plan, Waste Z-Oil Tank (S-121), Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allison

    1987-01-01

    Within the confines of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant are both active and inactive hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. These solid waste management units (SWMUs) are subject to assessment by the US Environmental Protection Agency, as required by the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI)

  8. Metal transfer in vermicomposting of sewage sludge and plant wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Frank; Carl Klauck; Kohzoh I. Stonefield

    1983-01-01

    Sewage sludge is an urban waste that has a potential nutrient value for recycling into food production. A set of guidelines has been developed that prescribes the quality of sludge suitable for utilization on foodlands. A number of sewage sludges do not meet the criteria and are therefore not acceptable for direct foodland application. One of the options available for

  9. Waste Heat Recovery in Cement Plants By Fluidized Beds 

    E-print Network

    Fraley, L. D.; Ksiao, H. K.; Thunem, C. B.

    1984-01-01

    . This is particularly true in the cement industry. Cement manufacture consists of mining and grinding rocks, melting them to form clinkers, then grinding those clinkers to a powder. Through recovery of waste heat and inclusion of technology such as flash calciners...

  10. Assessing Waste Water Treatment Plant Effluent for Thyroid Hormone Disruption

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much information has been coming to light on the estrogenic and androgenic activity of chemicals present in the waste water stream and in surface waters, but much less is known about the presence of chemicals with thyroid activity. To address this issue, we have utilized two assa...

  11. Ammonia removal and recovery from urea fertilizer plant waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijay K. Minocha; A. V. S Prabhakar Rao

    1988-01-01

    Air stripping is the most simple method of ammonia removal from fertilizer wastewaters. Herein, studies were carried out for the removal and recovery of ammonia. With experimental data, a nomogram was generated relating the three contrblable variables, namely waste?water flow rate, air flow rate and percentage ammonia removal. It was found that one litre of commercially available raw grade phosphoric

  12. Mechanical-biological treatment: performance and potentials. An LCA of 8 MBT plants including waste characterization.

    PubMed

    Montejo, Cristina; Tonini, Davide; Márquez, María del Carmen; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-10-15

    In the endeavour of avoiding presence of biodegradable waste in landfills and increasing recycling, mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plants have seen a significant increase in number and capacity in the last two decades. The aim of these plants is separating and stabilizing the quickly biodegradable fraction of the waste as well as recovering recyclables from mixed waste streams. In this study the environmental performance of eight MBT-based waste management scenarios in Spain was assessed by means of life cycle assessment. The focus was on the technical and environmental performance of the MBT plants. These widely differed in type of biological treatment and recovery efficiencies. The results indicated that the performance is strongly connected with energy and materials recovery efficiency. The recommendation for upgrading and/or commissioning of future plants is to optimize materials recovery through increased automation of the selection and to prioritize biogas-electricity production from the organic fraction over direct composting. The optimal strategy for refuse derived fuel (RDF) management depends upon the environmental compartment to be prioritized and the type of marginal electricity source in the system. It was estimated that, overall, up to ca. 180-190 kt CO2-eq. y(-1) may be saved by optimizing the MBT plants under assessment. PMID:23850761

  13. Coupling plant growth and waste recycling systems in a controlled life support system (CELSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garland, Jay L.

    1992-01-01

    The development of bioregenerative systems as part of the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) program depends, in large part, on the ability to recycle inorganic nutrients, contained in waste material, into plant growth systems. One significant waste (resource) stream is inedible plant material. This research compared wheat growth in hydroponic solutions based on inorganic salts (modified Hoagland's) with solutions based on the soluble fraction of inedible wheat biomass (leachate). Recycled nutrients in leachate solutions provided the majority of mineral nutrients for plant growth, although additions of inorganic nutrients to leachate solutions were necessary. Results indicate that plant growth and waste recyling systems can be effectively coupled within CELSS based on equivalent wheat yield in leachate and Hoagland solutions, and the rapid mineralization of waste organic material in the hydroponic systems. Selective enrichment for microbial communities able to mineralize organic material within the leachate was necessary to prevent accumulation of dissolved organic matter in leachate-based solutions. Extensive analysis of microbial abundance, growth, and activity in the hydroponic systems indicated that addition of soluble organic material from plants does not cause excessive microbial growth or 'biofouling', and helped define the microbially-mediated flux of carbon in hydroponic solutions.

  14. ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE POWER PLANT FOR WASTE HEAT RECOVERY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucien Y. Bronicki

    Power Plants based on the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) have been increasingly employed over the last 20 years to produce power from various heat sources when other alternatives were either technically not practical or not economical. These power plants in sizes from 300 kW to 130 MW have demonstrated the maturity of this technology. The cycle is well adapted to

  15. Steps of Reprocessing and Equipments

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong Kook

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing interest in endoscopy and the rising number of endoscopic examinations in hospitals, the importance of endoscopic reprocessing is also increasing. Cure facilities that are understaffed and ill-equipped are trying to cope with the problems of insufficient cleaning and high infection risks. To prevent endoscopy-associated infection, the endoscope cleaning, and disinfection guidelines prepared by the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy must be followed. In this review, the steps of endoscopic reprocessing and the equipments required in each step are discussed. PMID:23767039

  16. BAR-CODE BASED WEIGHT MEASUREMENT STATION FOR PHYSICAL INVENTORY TAKING OF PLUTONIUM OXIDE CONTAINERS AT THE MINING AND CHEMICAL COMBINE RADIOCHEMICAL REPROCESSING PLANT NEAR KRASNOYARSK, SIBERIA.

    SciTech Connect

    SUDA,S.

    1999-09-20

    This paper describes the technical tasks being implemented to computerize the physical inventory taking (PIT) at the Mining and Chemical Combine (Gorno-Khimichesky Kombinat, GKhK) radiochemical plant under the US/Russian cooperative nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) program. Under the MPC and A program, Lab-to-Lab task agreements with GKhK were negotiated that involved computerized equipment for item verification and confirmatory measurement of the Pu containers. Tasks under Phase I cover the work for demonstrating the plan and procedures for carrying out the comparison of the Pu container identification on the container with the computerized inventory records. In addition to the records validation, the verification procedures include the application of bar codes and bar coded TIDs to the Pu containers. Phase II involves the verification of the Pu content. A plan and procedures are being written for carrying out confirmatory measurements on the Pu containers.

  17. High Level Waste Remote Handling Equipment in the Melter Cave Support Handling System at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bardal, M.A. [PaR Systems, Inc., Shoreview, MN (United States); Darwen, N.J. [Bechtel National, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Cold war plutonium production led to extensive amounts of radioactive waste stored in tanks at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site. Bechtel National, Inc. is building the largest nuclear Waste Treatment Plant in the world located at the Department of Energy's Hanford site to immobilize the millions of gallons of radioactive waste. The site comprises five main facilities; Pretreatment, High Level Waste vitrification, Low Active Waste vitrification, an Analytical Lab and the Balance of Facilities. The pretreatment facilities will separate the high and low level waste. The high level waste will then proceed to the HLW facility for vitrification. Vitrification is a process of utilizing a melter to mix molten glass with radioactive waste to form a stable product for storage. The melter cave is designated as the High Level Waste Melter Cave Support Handling System (HSH). There are several key processes that occur in the HSH cell that are necessary for vitrification and include: feed preparation, mixing, pouring, cooling and all maintenance and repair of the process equipment. Due to the cell's high level radiation, remote handling equipment provided by PaR Systems, Inc. is required to install and remove all equipment in the HSH cell. The remote handling crane is composed of a bridge and trolley. The trolley supports a telescoping tube set that rigidly deploys a TR 4350 manipulator arm with seven degrees of freedom. A rotating, extending, and retracting slewing hoist is mounted to the bottom of the trolley and is centered about the telescoping tube set. Both the manipulator and slewer are unique to this cell. The slewer can reach into corners and the manipulator's cross pivoting wrist provides better operational dexterity and camera viewing angles at the end of the arm. Since the crane functions will be operated remotely, the entire cell and crane have been modeled with 3-D software. Model simulations have been used to confirm operational and maintenance functional and timing studies throughout the design process. Since no humans can go in or out of the cell, there are several recovery options that have been designed into the system including jack-down wheels for the bridge and trolley, recovery drums for the manipulator hoist, and a wire rope cable cutter for the slewer jib hoist. If the entire crane fails in cell, the large diameter cable reel that provides power, signal, and control to the crane can be used to retrieve the crane from the cell into the crane maintenance area. (authors)

  18. Evaluation of methanogenic activity of biogas plant slurry on ossein factory wastes.

    PubMed

    Chellapandi, P; Uma, L

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the ossein factory wastes, which include primary clarified bone waste (PCBW) and sinews for methane production, by monitoring methanogenic activity of predigested biogas plant slurry. A specific methanogenic activity of biogas plant slurry (anaerobic seed) was measured at 38 degrees C using different proportions of ossein factory wastes in an assay medium. The pH of slurry was intensively maintained until course of digestion. A moderate proportion of both substrates showed a maximum methane production at 20 days of incubation in batch mode. However, a maximum cumulative methane yield achieved by biogas plant slurry on PCBW was low as compared to sinews. The best organic matter degradation was achieved even at a high proportion of ossein factory wastes used in digesters. These substitutes would be useful, without seriously reducing total gas production, for methane production if they partially mixed with cattle dung. As a result of this preliminary study, we suggest that ossein factory wastes are potential alternative sources for biogas production in ossein factory. PMID:23741852

  19. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant design validation: Final report, Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-10-01

    This volume is comprised of the following appendices: DOE stipulated agreement with State of New Mexico (partial); geologic correlations; mathematical simulation of underground in situ behavior; C and SH shaft geologic logs and maps; waste shaft geologic logs and maps; exhaust shaft geologic log; test rooms geologic maps and sections; drift cross sections; facility level geologic core hole logs; geomechanical instrumentation data plots; and analytical data plots.

  20. Unit operations used to treat process and/or waste streams at nuclear power plants. [R

    SciTech Connect

    Godbee, H.W.; Kibbey, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    Estimates are given of the annual amounts of each generic type of LLW (i.e., Government and commerical (fuel cycle and non-fuel cycle)) that is generated at LWR plants. Many different chemical engineering unit operations used to treat process and/or waste streams at LWR plants include adsorption, evaporation, calcination, centrifugation, compaction, crystallization, drying, filtration, incineration, reverse osmosis, and solidification of waste residues. The treatment of these various streams and the secondary wet solid wastes thus generated is described. The various treatment options for concentrates or solid wet wastes, and for dry wastes are discussed. Among the dry waste treatment methods are compaction, baling, and incineration, as well as chopping, cutting and shredding. Organic materials (liquids (e.g., oils or solvents) and/or solids), could be incinerated in most cases. The filter sludges, spent resins, and concentrated liquids (e.g., evaporator concentrates) are usually solidified in cement, or urea-formaldehyde or unsaturated polyester resins prior to burial. Incinerator ashes can also be incorporated in these binding agents. Asphalt has not yet been used. This paper presents a brief survey of operational experience at LWRs with various unit operations, including a short discussion of problems and some observations on recent trends.

  1. Radioactive waste management in the Chernobyl exclusion zone: 25 years since the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Oskolkov, Boris Y; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Zinkevich, Lubov I; Proskura, Nikolai I; Farfán, Eduardo B; Jannik, G Timothy

    2011-10-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities in the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste-related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and, in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. PMID:21878768

  2. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - An International Center of Excellence for ''Training in and Demonstration of Waste Disposal Technologies''

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Mark L.; Eriksson, Leif G.

    2003-02-25

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site, which is managed and operated by the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (USDOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and located in the State of New Mexico, presently hosts an underground research laboratory (URL) and the world's first certified and operating deep geological repository for safe disposition of long-lived radioactive materials (LLRMs). Both the URL and the repository are situated approximately 650 meters (m) below the ground surface in a 250-million-year-old, 600-m-thick, undisturbed, bedded salt formation, and they have been in operation since 1982 and 1999, respectively. Founded on long-standing CBFO collaborations with international and national radioactive waste management organizations, since 2001, WIPP serves as the Center of Excellence in Rock Salt for the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA's) International Network of Centers on ''Training in and Demonstration of Waste Disposal Technologies in Underground Research Facilities'' (the IAEA Network). The primary objective for the IAEA Network is to foster collaborative projects among IAEA Member States that: supplement national efforts and promote public confidence in waste disposal schemes; contribute to the resolution of key technical issues; and encourage the transfer and preservation of knowledge and technologies.

  3. Khazar Iodine Production Plant Site Remediation in Turkmenistan. NORM Contaminated Waste Repository Establishment - 12398

    SciTech Connect

    Gelbutovskiy, Alexander B.; Cheremisin, Peter I.; Troshev, Alexander V.; Egorov, Alexander J.; Boriskin, Mikhail M.; Bogod, Mikhail A. [JSC 'ECOMET-S', Sosnoviy Bor, Leningrad region, 188540 (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    Radiation safety provisions for NORM contaminated areas are in use in a number of the former Soviet republics. Some of these areas were formed by absorbed radionuclides at the iodine and bromine extraction sites. As a rule, there are not any plant radiation monitoring systems nor appropriate services to ensure personnel, population and environmental radiation safety. The most hazardous sites are those which are situated in the Caspian Sea coastal zone. The bulk of the accumulated waste is represented by a loose mixture of sand and charcoal, which was basically used as the iodine extraction sorbent. The amounts of these wastes were estimated to be approximately 20,000 metric tons. The waste contamination is mainly composed of Ra-226 (U-238 decay series) and Ra-224, Ra-228 (Th-232 decay series). In 2009, the 'ECOMET-S', a Closed Joint-Stock Company from St. Petersburg, Russian Federation, was authorized by the Turkmenistan government to launch the rehabilitation project. The project includes D and D activities, contaminated areas remediation, collected wastes safe transportation to the repository and its disposal following repository closure. The work at the Khazar chemical plant started in September, 2010. Comprehensive radiological surveys to estimate the waste quantities were carried out in advance. In course of the rehabilitation work at the site of the Khazar chemical plant additional waste quantities (5,000 MT, 10,000 m{sup 3}) were discovered after the sludge was dumped and drained. Disposal volumes for this waste was not provided initially. The additional volume of the construction wastes was required in order to accommodate all the waste to be disposed. For the larger disposal volume the project design enterprise VNIPIET, offered to erect a second wall outside the existing one and this solution was adopted. As of May, 2011, 40,575 m{sup 3} of contaminated waste were collected and disposed safely. This volume represents 96.6% of the initial repository volume. Now work is underway to erect the second repository wall, which will allow housing of the additional 16,800 m{sup 3} The Khazar chemical plant territory restoration work is underway as well. (authors)

  4. Direct utilization of human liquid wastes by plants in a closed ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisovsky, G. M.; Gitelson, J. I.; Shilenko, M. P.; Gribovskaya, I. V.; Trubachev, I. N.

    1997-01-01

    Model experiments in phytotrons have shown that urea is able to cover 70% of the demand in nitrogen of the conveyer cultivated wheat. At the same time wheat plants can directly utilize human liquid wastes. In this article by human liquid wastes the authors mean human urine only. In a long-term experiment on ``man-higher plants'' system with two crewmen, plants covered 63 m^2, with wheat planted to - 39.6 m^2. For 103 days, complete human urine (total amount - 210.7 l) was supplied into the nutrient solution for wheat. In a month and a half NaCl supply into the nutrient solution stabilized at 0.9-1.65 g/l. This salination had no marked effect on wheat production. The experiment revealed the realistic feasibility to directly involve liquid wastes into the biological turnover of the life support system. The closure of the system, in terms of water, increased by 15.7% and the supply of nutrients for wheat plants into the system was decreased. Closedness of biological turnover of matter in a man-made ``man - higher plants'' ecological system might involve, among other processes, direct utilization of human liquid wastes by plants. The amount of urine comprises 15-20% of the total amount of water cycling within the system including water as part of food, household, hygiene and potable water necessary for man. What is more, it they contains most nitrogen-bearing compounds emitted by man, almost all of the NaCl and some other substances involved in the biological turnover. Human liquid wastes can be utilized either by preliminary physical-chemical treatment (evaporating or freezing out the water, finally oxidizing the organic matter, isolating the mineral components required for plants, etc.) and further involvement of the obtained products or by direct application into the nutrient solution for plants. The challenge of direct utilization is that plants have no need of Na^+ and Cl^-, and also the organic forms of nitrogen emitted by man cannot fully meet the demand of plants for this element. Besides, hygienic and/or psychological reasons make it desirable to avoid direct use of liquid wastes in the nutrient solutions that would have direct contact with edible part of plants (tubers, roots, bulbs). Feasibility of direct utilization of liquid wastes by plants in a closed ``man - higher plants'' ecosystem has been experimentally studied on wheat - grain culture as a model plant with the edible part in the form of seeds spatially dissociated with the nutrient medium. The wheat covered 60-65% of the area under higher plants. The studies have been carried out in ``Bios-3'' experimental facility described in detail elsewhere.

  5. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2005 - June 2006, Volume 2, Supporting Data

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2007-03-25

    This report is a compilation of geotechnical data presented as plots for each active instrument installed in the underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) through June 30, 2006. A summary of the geotechnical analyses that were performed using the enclosed data is provided in Volume 1 of the Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR).

  6. Hydraulic testing of Salado Formation evaporites at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site: Second interpretive report

    SciTech Connect

    Beauheim, R.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, R.M.; Dale, T.F.; Fort, M.D.; Stensrud, W.A. [INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Pressure-pulse, constant-pressure flow, and pressure-buildup tests have been performed in bedded evaporites of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to evaluate the hydraulic properties controlling brine flow through the Salado. Transmissivities have been interpreted from six sequences of tests conducted on five stratigraphic intervals within 15 m of the WIPP underground excavations.

  7. Radioactive and Chemical Waste Characterization, Segregation, and Remedial Action at the Fusrap Middlesex Sampling Plant Site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Wankum; J. Kenney; M. Mizrahi; P. ODwyer; D. M. Miller

    2007-01-01

    The challenge of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) designated Middlesex Sampling Plant (MSP) site is to economically meet the clean up criteria for both radiological and chemical hazards present. The goal is to ensure the site is remediated in accordance with the Record of Decision (ROD), while at the same time minimizing waste generation and maintaining the

  8. The partitioning and fate of heavy metals from municipal solid waste incineration plants in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1998-01-01

    This study investigates the fate and partitioning of heavy metals in the municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator ash collected from a typical mass burning incineration plant in Taiwan. The results indicate that large amounts of heavy metals are contributed by noncombustible composition in the MSW. Regarding the partitioning results, Cd and its high vapor pressure compounds were relatively volatile compared

  9. Simple emission-reducing measures in an open biological waste treatment plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franz Ferdinand Reinthaler; Gilda Wüst; Doris Haas; Gebhard Feierl; Gerald Ruckenbauer; Egon Marth

    2004-01-01

    In the course of composting biological waste, concentrations of various thermophilic and thermotolerant microorganisms increase. Moving piles of compost results in increased emissions of Actinomycetes and fungi. The present investigation deals with the reduction of airborne microorganism emission and immission in large-scale composting plants with open piles. Simple measures were introduced in order to reduce the release of bioaerosols when

  10. Optimization of waste heat recovery boiler of a combined cycle power plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Seyedan; P. L. Dhar; R. R. Gaur; G. S. Bindra

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the details of a procedure developed for optimization of a waste heat recovery boiler (WHRB) of a combined cycle power plant (CCPP) using the program for performance prediction of a typical CCPP, details of which have been presented elsewhere (Seyedan et al., 1994). In order to illustrate the procedure, the optimum design of a WHRB for a

  11. Molecular analysis of poliovirus 3 isolated from an aerosol generated by a waste water treatment plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele Muscillo; Giuseppina La Rosa; Annalaura Carducci; Laura Cantiani; Cinzia Marianelli

    1997-01-01

    We examined three samples of lysates from cell cultures that had previously been infected by the aerosol generated by a waste water treatment plant near Pisa. We first attempted to confirm that we were dealing with one of the enterovirus family, using an inverse PCR analysis of the RNA extracted from the cell lysates. This identified a single genome sequences

  12. Variation in heavy metal removal by a conventional municipal waste water treatment plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Pavlogeorgatos; Lekkas Themistokles; Kampas George

    1997-01-01

    It is known that there are many factors which affect the removal of metals in conventional sewage treatment plant. The purpose of this research was the determination of ten metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, V, Li) in the wastewater of the town of Kavala (80,000 population), at the inlet and at the outlet of the waste

  13. Interactions between concrete and brine at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site, New Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Lambert; E. J. Nowak; L. D. Wakeley; T. S. Poole

    1991-01-01

    A concrete liner emplaced in 1984 in a shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant has served as a natural laboratory for observing interactions among concrete, evaporite rocks, and brine. During a routine inspection of the liner in the spring of 1990, discoloration, deposition of secondary salts, wet areas with exposed aggregate grains, softening of paste, surficial spalling, and cracking

  14. Interactions between concrete and brine at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site, New Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Lambert; E. J. Nowak; L. D. Wakeley; T. S. Poole

    1992-01-01

    A concrete liner emplaced in 1984 in a shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant has served as a natural laboratory for observing interactions among concrete, evaporite rocks, and brine. During a routine inspection of the liner in the spring of 1990, discoloration, deposition of secondary salts, wet areas with exposed aggregate grains, softening of paste, surficial spalling, and cracking

  15. Antifungal activity and enhancement of plant growth by Bacillus cereus grown on shellfish chitin wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-Teish Chang; Yu-Chung Chen; Chia-Ling Jao

    2007-01-01

    Bacillus cereus QQ308 produced antifungal hydrolytic enzymes, comprising chitinase, chitosanase and protease, when grown in a medium containing shrimp and crab shell powder (SCSP) produced from marine waste. The growth of the plant-pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, and Pythium ultimum were considerably affected by the presence of the QQ308 culture supernatant. The supernatant inhibited spore germination and germ tube

  16. Operational readiness\\/risk assessment at the waste isolation pilot plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1988-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is currently preparing to enter its operational phase. In preparation, a risk-based management (RBM) program is being developed to ensure maximum safety and reliability of all aspects of facility operation. Training of workers, preparation of procedures, and development of emergency action plans are examples of activities currently being performed. The RBM program will verify

  17. Thermodynamics -2 An industrial plant produces a waste stream of hot compressed air

    E-print Network

    Virginia Tech

    Thermodynamics - 2 An industrial plant produces a waste stream of hot compressed air: Pressure P is maximum work that can be produced if the air is discharged to the atmosphere at atmospheric pressure be produced if the air is discharged to the atmosphere at atmospheric pressure and temperature, using any

  18. Borehole Summary Report for Core Hole C4998 – Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D. BRENT; Garcia, Benjamin J.

    2006-12-15

    Seismic borehole C4998 was cored through the upper portion of the Columbia River Basalt Group and Ellensburg Formation to provide detailed lithologic information and intact rock samples that represent the geology at the Waste Treatment Plant. This report describes the drilling of borehole C4998 and documents the geologic data collected during the drilling of the cored portion of the borehole.

  19. Optimal design of hybrid separation systems for in-plant waste reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Hamad, A.A.; Crabtree, E.W.; El-Halwagi, M.M. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Garrison, G.W. [Matrix Process Integration, Leesburg, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A general procedure for using hybrid separation systems to prevent pollution is presented. The design procedure integrates segregation, interception, and recycle. A systematic method developed to identify the optimal design combination is illustrated through a case study. The case study presented is the removal of cresol from aqueous wastes in a tricresyl phosphate plant. 21 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Soil and Plant Response to Applications of Municipal Solid Waste Compost and Fertilizer to Willamette Raspberries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. Warman

    2009-01-01

    An experiment was initiated in 1997 to compare two application rates of municipal solid waste (MSW) compost with commercial fertilizer for the cultivation of “Willamette” raspberries. Mehlich 3 extractable soil elements, plant leaf tissue, and fruit elemental analysis were assessed from 2000 to 2002. The lower rate of compost was applied to provide the same amount of N used for

  1. Reducing Uncertainty in the Seismic Design Basis for the Waste Treatment Plant, Hanford, Washington

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas M. Brouns; Alan C. Rohay; Steve Reidel; Martin G. Gardner

    2007-01-01

    The seismic design basis for the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) at the Department of Energys (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland was re-evaluated in 2005, resulting in an increase by up to 40% in the seismic design basis. The original seismic design basis for the WTP was established in 1999 based on a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis completed in 1996. The

  2. Utilization of low value waste heat for an aqua-ammonia refrigeration pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Pigott, G.M.; Bucove, G.

    1983-12-01

    Design data for absorption refrigeration pilot plants utilizing low quality waste heat from commercial manufacturing operations is described. This facility is being developed as an energy source for commercial freezing and cold storage. Successful completion of this project will have a major impact on energy saving in food refrigeration.

  3. PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) 241-Z LIQUID WASTE TREATMENT FACILITY DEACTIVATION AND DEMOLITION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHNSTON GA

    2008-01-01

    Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) is proud to submit the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) 241-Z liquid Waste Treatment Facility Deactivation and Demolition (D&D) Project for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2008. The decommissioning of the 241-Z Facility presented numerous challenges, many of which were unique with in the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. The

  4. Conceivable new recycling of nuclear waste by nuclear power companies in their plants

    E-print Network

    Santilli, R M

    1997-01-01

    We outline the basic principles and the needed experiments for a conceivable new recycling of nuclear waste by the power plants themselves to avoid its transportation and storage to a (yet unknown) dumping area. Details are provided in an adjoining paper and in patents pending.

  5. Membrane processing of an aqueous waste stream from a catalyst manufacturing plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nipun Lamba; Z. V. P. Murthy; Raj Kumar

    2002-01-01

    Separation of rhenium from a dilute aqueous waste stream of a catalyst manufacturing plant by a thin film composite polyamide membrane using the principle of reverse osmosis is studied. In the present study, permeate flux increases linearly with applied pressure, with slight increase in percent rejection of rhenium from the wastewater. Over 96% retention of rhenium by the membrane is

  6. Research on ECS control scheme of waste incineration based power plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pingli Wu; Guoguang Gao

    2011-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of waste incineration based power plant and its demand for electric monitoring, an scheme of electric control system (ECS) was designed in this paper. Through the cooperation with electrical special equipment such as ASS, AVR etc. our system has realized automatic quasi-synchronization between generator and power network, and also provides a man - machine interface between

  7. Milestones for disposal of radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Rechard, R.P.

    1998-04-01

    Since its identification as a potential deep geologic repository in about 1973, the regulatory assessment process for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico has developed over the past 25 years. National policy issues, negotiated agreements, and court settlements over the first half of the project had a strong influence on the amount and type of scientific data collected. Assessments and studies before the mid 1980s were undertaken primarily (1) to satisfy needs for environmental impact statements, (2) to develop general understanding of selected natural phenomena associated with nuclear waste disposal, or (3) to satisfy negotiated agreements with the State of New Mexico. In the last third of the project, federal compliance policy and actual regulations were sketched out, but continued to evolve until 1996. During this eight-year period, four preliminary performance assessments, one compliance performance assessment, and one verification performance assessment were performed.

  8. Milestones for disposal of radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    RECHARD,ROBERT P.

    2000-03-01

    The opening of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant on March 26, 1999, was the culmination of a regulatory assessment process that had taken 25 years. National policy issues, negotiated agreements, and court settlements during the first 15 years of the project had a strong influence on the amount and type of scientific data collected up to this point. Assessment activities before the mid 1980s were undertaken primarily (1) to satisfy needs for environmental impact statements, (2) to satisfy negotiated agreements with the State of New Mexico, or (3) to develop general understanding of selected natural phenomena associated with nuclear waste disposal. In the last 10 years, federal compliance policy and actual regulations were sketched out, and continued to evolve until 1996. During this period, stochastic simulations were introduced as a tool for the assessment of the WIPP's performance, and four preliminary performance assessments, one compliance performance assessment, and one verification performance assessment were performed.

  9. No-migration variance petition for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Carnes, R.G.; Hart, J.S. (Benchmark Environmental Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Knudtsen, K. (International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) project to provide a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive waste resulting from US defense activities and programs. The DOE is developing the WIPP facility as a deep geologic repository in bedded salt for transuranic (TRU) waste currently stored at or generated by DOE defense installations. Approximately 60 percent of the wastes proposed to be emplaced in the WIPP are radioactive mixed wastes. Because such mixed wastes contain a hazardous chemical component, the WIPP is subject to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). In 1984 Congress amended the RCRA with passage of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA), which established a stringent regulatory program to prohibit the land disposal of hazardous waste unless (1) the waste is treated to meet treatment standards or other requirements established by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under {section}3004(n), or (2) the EPA determines that compliance with the land disposal restrictions is not required in order to protect human health and the environment. The DOE WIPP Project Office has prepared and submitted to the EPA a no-migration variance petition for the WIPP facility. The purpose of the petition is to demonstrate, according to the requirements of RCRA {section}3004(d) and 40 CFR {section}268.6, that to a reasonable degree of certainty, there will be no migration of hazardous constituents from the WIPP facility for as long as the wastes remain hazardous. This paper provides an overview of the petition and describes the EPA review process, including key issues that have emerged during the review. 5 refs.

  10. Emissions model of waste treatment operations at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Schindler, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    An integrated model of the waste treatment systems at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) was developed using a commercially-available process simulation software (ASPEN Plus) to calculate atmospheric emissions of hazardous chemicals for use in an application for an environmental permit to operate (PTO). The processes covered by the model are the Process Equipment Waste evaporator, High Level Liquid Waste evaporator, New Waste Calcining Facility and Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal facility. The processes are described along with the model and its assumptions. The model calculates emissions of NO{sub x}, CO, volatile acids, hazardous metals, and organic chemicals. Some calculated relative emissions are summarized and insights on building simulations are discussed.

  11. An update on the quality assurance for the waste vitrification plants

    SciTech Connect

    Caplinger, W.H.; Shugars, D.L.; Carlson, M.K.

    1990-01-01

    Immobilization of high-level defense production wastes is an important step in environmental restoration. The best available technology for immobilization of this waste currently is by incorporation into borosilicate glass, i.e., vitrification. Three US sites are active in the design, construction, or operation of vitrification facilities. The status, facility description and Quality Assurance (QA) development for each facility was presented at the 1989 Energy Division Conference. This paper presents the developments since that time. The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) in northwestern New York State has demonstrated the technology. At the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has completed design, construction is essentially complete, and preparation for operation is underway. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) in Washington State is in initial Detailed Design. 4 refs.

  12. A Short History of Waste Management at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Gephart, Roy E.

    2010-03-31

    "The world’s first full-scale nuclear reactors and chemical reprocessing plants built at the Hanford Site in the desert of eastern Washington State produced two-thirds of the plutonium generated in the United States for nuclear weapons. Operating these facilities also created large volumes of radioactive and chemical waste, some of which was released into the environment exposing people who lived downwind and downstream. Hanford now contains the largest accumulation of nuclear waste in the Western Hemisphere. Hanford’s last reactor shut down in 1987 followed by closure of the last reprocessing plant in 1990. Today, Hanford’s only mission is cleanup. Most onsite radioactive waste and nuclear material lingers inside underground tanks or storage facilities. About half of the chemical waste remains in tanks while the rest persists in the soil, groundwater, and burial grounds. Six million dollars each day, or nearly two billion dollars each year, are spent on waste management and cleanup activities. There is significant uncertainty in how long cleanup will take, how much it will cost, and what risks will remain for future generations. This paper summarizes portions of the waste management history of the Hanford Site published in the book “Hanford: A Conversation about Nuclear Waste and Cleanup.”(1) "

  13. A short history of waste management at the Hanford Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gephart, Roy E.

    The world’s first full-scale nuclear reactors and chemical reprocessing plants built at the Hanford Site in the desert of southeastern Washington State produced two-thirds of the plutonium generated in the United States for nuclear weapons. Operating these facilities also created large volumes of radioactive and chemical waste, some of which was released into the environment exposing people who lived downwind and downstream. Hanford now contains the largest accumulation of nuclear waste in the Western Hemisphere. Hanford’s last reactor shut down in 1987 followed by closure of the last reprocessing plant in 1990. Today, Hanford’s only mission is cleanup. Most onsite radioactive waste and nuclear material lingers inside underground tanks or storage facilities. About half of the chemical waste remains in tanks while the rest persists in the soil, groundwater, and burial grounds. Six million dollars each day, or nearly two billion dollars each year, are spent on waste management and cleanup activities. There is significant uncertainty in how long cleanup will take, how much it will cost, and what risks will remain for future generations. This paper summarizes portions of the waste management history of the Hanford Site published in the book “Hanford: A Conversation about Nuclear Waste and Cleanup.” ( Gephart, 2003).

  14. Metal transfer in vermicomposting of sewage sludge and plant wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, R. (Univ. of Guelph, Ontario); Klauck, C.; Stonefield, K.I.

    1983-12-01

    Sewage sludge is an urban waste that has a potential nutrient value for recycling into food production. A set of guidelines has been developed that prescribes the quality of sludge suitable for utilization on foodlands. A number of sewage sludges do not meet the criteria and are therefore not acceptable for direct foodland application. One of the options available for such sludges is the production of compost and one of these composting processes involves worms (vermicomposting). This study looks at a pilot vermicomposting operation and follows metal concentrations by batch lot from the sewage sludge to the final commercial product.

  15. Study of waste-heat recovery and utilization at the Farmington Municipal Power Plant. Final report, December 1, 1980June 30, 1981

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. G. Leigh; W. R. Edgel; K. T. Jr. Feldman; E. J. Moss

    1982-01-01

    An examination was made of the technical and economc feasibility of utilizing waste heat from the Farmington Municipal Power Plant. First, the production cycles of the natural-gas-fired plant were assessed to determine the quantity and quality of recoverable waste heat created by the plant during its operation. Possibilities for utilizing waste heat from the exhaust gases and the cooling water

  16. Engineering modifications to existing waste atactic polypropylene to fuel conversion plant, Novamont Corp. , LaPorte, Texas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amato

    1980-01-01

    Procedyne Corp. demonstrated a process for the conversion of waste atactic polypropylene to fuel oil on Contract No. EC-77-C-01-5077 dated 9\\/12\\/77. The demonstration program was successful and resulted in construction of the first commercial scale Waste Atactic to Fuel Conversion plant at the Novamont Corp. polypropylene producing plant in Texas. The design capacity of the plant is 17,000,000 lbs per

  17. Status of waste heat utilization and dual-purpose plant projects

    SciTech Connect

    Beall, S.E. Jr.; Yarosh, M.M.

    1973-01-01

    From joint meeting of the American Nuclear Society and the Atomic Industrial Forum and Nuclear Energy Exhibition; San Francisco, California, USA (11 Nov 1973). The use of power plant thermal effluents, in the form of warm water or steam, to heat buildings for raising both plant and animal food crops, in aquaculture to produce fish and seafood, in outdoor agriculture, and in industry for distilling water and processing chemicals is discussed and illustrated. Facilities engaged in studying each of these waste heat applications and the results of such studies are described. It is concluded that rising energy costs and diminishing natural supplies of food will provide the incentive for the funther development of commercial uses of waste heat from power plants. (LC L)

  18. Characterisation of radioactive waste products associated with plant decommissioning.

    PubMed

    Sejvar, J; Fero, A H; Gil, C; Hagler, R J; Santiago, J L; Holgado, A; Swenson, R

    2005-01-01

    The inventory of radioactivity that must be considered in the decommissioning of a typical 1000 MWe Spanish pressurised water reactor (PWR) was investigated as part of a generic plant decommissioning study. Analyses based on DORT models (in both R-Z and R-theta geometries) were used with representative plant operating history and core power distribution data in defining the expected neutron environment in regions near the reactor core. The activation analyses were performed by multiplying the DORT scalar fluxes by energy-dependent reaction cross sections (based on ENDF/B-VI data) to generate reaction rates on a per atom basis. The results from the ORIGEN2 computer code were also used for determining the activities associated with certain nuclides where multi-group cross section data were not available. In addition to the bulk material activation of equipment and structures near the reactor, the activated corrosion-product (or 'crud') deposits on system and equipment surfaces were considered. The projected activities associated with these sources were primarily based on plant data and experience from operating PWR plants. PMID:16381771

  19. Recycling of Power Plants Wastes - Potential Water Pollutants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Slobodanka Marinkovic; Prvoslav Treifunovic; Svetlana Popov; Aleksandra Kostic-Pulek

    Fly ash and bottom ash are major by-products of the coal combustion process in thermal power plants. They are composed of oxides of Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, Na and K. Along with oxides, fly ash and bottom ash contain trace elements (Sb, As, F, Cr, Cu, Co, Ni, Zn, Cd, Mn, Pb, Hg, V etc.) which represent the potential

  20. Fluidized bed biodenitrification of gaseous diffusion plant aqueous wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalchuk, M.L.; Hancher, C.W.

    1982-10-24

    Decontamination and uranium recovery operations at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant generate nitrate containing raffinates. A biodenitrification process will be used to meet more stringent EPA nitrate emission constraints soon in effect. Fluidized bed reactor studies at ORNL provided data necessary to characterize bioreactor performance and generate design criteria. 11 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Phytomining of valuable metals from waste incineration residues using hyperaccumulator plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenkranz, Theresa; Kisser, Johannes; Gattringer, Heinz; Iordanopoulos-Kisser, Monika; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Worldwide the availability of primary sources of certain economically important metals is decreasing, resulting in high supply risks and increasing prices for this materials. Therefore, an alternative way of retrieving these high valuable technical metals is the recycling and use of anthropogenic secondary sources, such as waste incineration residues. Phytomining offers an environmentally sound and cheap technology to recover such metals from secondary sources. Thus, the aim of our research work is to investigate the potential of phytomining from waste incineration slags by growing metal hyperaccumulating plants on this substrates and use the metal enriched biomass as a bio-ore. As a first stage, material from Vienna's waste incineration plants was sampled and analyzed. Residues from municipal wastes as well as residues from hazardous waste incineration and sewage sludge incineration were analyzed. In general, the slags can be characterized by a very high pH, high salinity and high heavy metal concentrations. Our work is targeting the so-called critical raw materials defined by the European Commission in 2014. Thus, the target metal species in our project are amongst others cobalt, chromium, antimony, tungsten, gallium, nickel and selected rare earth elements. This elements are present in the slags at moderate to low concentrations. In order to optimize the substrate for plant growth the high pH and salt content as well as the low nitrogen content in the slags need to be controlled. Thus, different combinations of amendments, mainly from the waste industry, as well as different acidifying agents were tested for conditioning the substrate. Washing the slags with diluted nitric acid turned out to be effective for lowering the pH. The acid treated substrate in combination with material from mechanical biological waste treatment and biochar, is currently under investigation in a greenhouse pot experiment. The experimental setup consists of a full factorial design involving six plant species and an unplanted control as well as two different substrates. Fast growing species (Brassica napus, B. juncea, Nicotiana tabacum) will be harvested after two months, whereas slowly growing hyperaccumulators (Sedum plumbizincicola, Alyssum pintodasilvae) will be harvested after four months of growth. The plant tissue will be analyzed for the accumulation of the target metals. Moreover, the influence of plants on the substrate and solubility of certain metals is going to be evaluated.

  2. Native Plant Uptake Model for Radioactive Waste Disposal Areas at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN,THERESA J.; WIRTH,SHARON

    1999-09-01

    This report defines and defends the basic framework, methodology, and associated input parameters for modeling plant uptake of radionuclides for use in Performance Assessment (PA) activities of Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). PAs are used to help determine whether waste disposal configurations meet applicable regulatory standards for the protection of human health, the environment, or both. Plants adapted to the arid climate of the NTS are able to rapidly capture infiltrating moisture. In addition to capturing soil moisture, plant roots absorb nutrients, minerals, and heavy metals, transporting them within the plant to the above-ground biomass. In this fashion, plant uptake affects the movement of radionuclides. The plant uptake model presented reflects rooting characteristics important to plant uptake, biomass turnover rates, and the ability of plants to uptake radionuclides from the soil. Parameters are provided for modeling plant uptake and estimating surface contaminant flux due to plant uptake under both current and potential future climate conditions with increased effective soil moisture. The term ''effective moisture'' is used throughout this report to indicate the soil moisture that is available to plants and is intended to be inclusive of all the variables that control soil moisture at a site (e.g., precipitation, temperature, soil texture, and soil chemistry). Effective moisture is a concept used to simplify a number of complex, interrelated soil processes for which there are too little data to model actual plant available moisture. The PA simulates both the flux of radionuclides across the land surface and the potential dose to humans from that flux. Surface flux is modeled here as the amount of soil contamination that is transferred from the soil by roots and incorporated into aboveground biomass. Movement of contaminants to the surface is the only transport mechanism evaluated with the model presented here. Parameters necessary for estimating surface contaminant flux due to native plants expected to inhabit the NTS RWMSS are developed in this report. The model is specific to the plant communities found at the NTS and is designed for both short-term (<1,000 years) and long-term (>1,000 years) modeling efforts. While the model has been crafted for general applicability to any NTS PA, the key radionuclides considered are limited to the transuranic (TRU) wastes disposed of at the NTS.

  3. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant low-level waste grout stabilization development program FY-96 status report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.

    1996-09-01

    The general purpose of the Grout Stabilization Development Program is to solidify and stabilize the liquid low-level wastes (LLW) generated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). It is anticipated that LLW will be produced from the following: (1) chemical separation of the tank farm high-activity sodium-bearing waste; (2) retrieval, dissolution, and chemical separation of the aluminum, zirconium, and sodium calcines; (3) facility decontamination processes; and (4) process equipment waste. The main tasks completed this fiscal year as part of the program were chromium stabilization study for sodium-bearing waste and stabilization and solidification of LLW from aluminum and zirconium calcines. The projected LLW will be highly acidic and contain high amounts of nitrates. Both of these are detrimental to Portland cement chemistry; thus, methods to precondition the LLW and to cure the grout were explored. A thermal calcination process, called denitration, was developed to solidify the waste and destroy the nitrates. A three-way blend of Portland cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash was successfully tested. Grout cubes were prepared at various waste loadings to maximize loading while meeting compressive strength and leach resistance requirements. For the sodium LLW, a 25% waste loading achieves a volume reduction of 3.5 and a compressive strength of 2,500 pounds per square inch while meeting leach, mix, and flow requirements. It was found that the sulfur in the slag reduces the chromium leach rate below regulatory limits. For the aluminum LLW, a 15% waste loading achieves a volume reduction of 8.5 and a compressive strength of 4,350 pounds per square inch while meeting leach requirements. Likewise for zirconium LLW, a 30% waste loading achieves a volume reduction of 8.3 and a compressive strength of 3,570 pounds per square inch.

  4. Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-03-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a research and development facility for the demonstration of the permanent isolation of transuranic radioactive wastes in a geologic formation. The facility was constructed in southeastern New Mexico in a manner intended to meet criteria established by the scientific and regulatory community for the safe, long-term disposal of transuranic wastes. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing an application to demonstrate compliance with the requirements outlined in Title 40, Part 191 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) for the permanent disposal of transuranic wastes. As mandated by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Land Withdrawal Act of 1992, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must evaluate this compliance application and provide a determination regarding compliance with the requirements within one year of receiving a complete application. Because the WIPP is a very complex program, the DOE has planned to submit the application as a draft in two parts. This strategy will allow for the DOE and the EPA to begin technical discussions on critical WIPP issues before the one-year compliance determination period begins. This report is the first of these two draft submittals.

  5. Sewage sludge drying process integration with a waste-to-energy power plant.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, A; Bonfiglioli, L; Pellegrini, M; Saccani, C

    2015-08-01

    Dewatered sewage sludge from Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) is encountering increasing problems associated with its disposal. Several solutions have been proposed in the last years regarding energy and materials recovery from sewage sludge. Current technological solutions have relevant limits as dewatered sewage sludge is characterized by a high water content (70-75% by weight), even if mechanically treated. A Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) with good thermal characteristics in terms of Lower Heating Value (LHV) can be obtained if dewatered sludge is further processed, for example by a thermal drying stage. Sewage sludge thermal drying is not sustainable if the power is fed by primary energy sources, but can be appealing if waste heat, recovered from other processes, is used. A suitable integration can be realized between a WWTP and a waste-to-energy (WTE) power plant through the recovery of WTE waste heat as energy source for sewage sludge drying. In this paper, the properties of sewage sludge from three different WWTPs are studied. On the basis of the results obtained, a facility for the integration of sewage sludge drying within a WTE power plant is developed. Furthermore, energy and mass balances are set up in order to evaluate the benefits brought by the described integration. PMID:25959614

  6. Two Approaches to the Geologic Disposal of Long-Lived Nuclear Waste: Yucca Mountain, Nevada and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Carlsbad, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Levich, R. A.; Patterson, R. L.; Linden, R. M.

    2002-02-26

    A key component of the US energy program is to provide for the safe and permanent isolation of spent nuclear fuel and long-lived radioactive waste produced through programs related to national defense and the generation of electric power by nuclear utilities. To meet this challenge, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a multi-faceted approach to the geologic disposal of long-lived nuclear wastes. Two sites are being developed or studied as current or potential deep geologic repositories for long lived radioactive wastes, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico and Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  7. Manufactured gas plant sites: Characterization of wastes and IGT`s innovative remediation alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, V.J.

    1993-12-31

    Manufactured gas plants (MGP)--often referred to as town gas plants--have existed in many parts of the world, including the United States, during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Consequently, many of these plants disposed of process wastes and less valuable by-products onsite, contaminated with coal-tar wastes, light oils, naphthalene, etc. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are components of coal-tar wastes and other wastes that remain at many of these town gas sites. PAH- containing soils, as a result, represent the largest waste type at most MGP sites. Also, certain PAHs are recognized today as being potential animal and/or human carcinogens and, as such, represent an environmental hazard. The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) has developed and/or evaluated several techniques/processes to improve the biodegradation of PAHs present at MGP sites. As a result of extensive studies, IGT has successfully developed and demonstrated an integrated Chemical/Biological Treatment (CBT) process that is capable of enhancing the rate as well as the extent of PAH degradation. This process combines two complementary as well as powerful remedial techniques: (1) chemical pretreatment using Fenton`s reagent and (2) a biological system using native aerobic microorganisms. This paper presents the general characteristics of MGP sites and wastes and the innovative IGT processes at various stages of development and demonstration. This paper also discusses the IGT/GRI treatability protocol that can be used to determine the potential of bioremediation for any MGP site soil within a 2 to 3-month period.

  8. Air radon concentration decrease in a waste water treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Juste, B; Ortiz, J; Verdú, G; Martorell, S

    2015-06-01

    (222)Rn is a naturally occurring gas created from the decay of (226)Ra. The long-term health risk of breathing radon is lung cancer. One particular place where indoor radon concentrations can exceed national guidelines is in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) where treatment processes may contribute to ambient airborne concentrations. The aim of this paper was to study the radon concentration decrease after the application of corrective measures in a Spanish WWTP. According to first measures, air radon concentration exceeded International Commission Radiologica1 Protection (ICRP) normative (recommends intervention between 400 and 1000 Bq m(-3)). Therefore, the WWTP improved mechanical forced ventilation to lower occupational exposure. This measure allowed to increase the administrative controls, since the limitation of workers access to the plant changed from 2 h d(-1) (considering a maximum permissible dose of 20 mSv y(-1) averaged over 5 y) to 7 h d(-1). PMID:25971342

  9. Bacterial amelioration of bauxite residue waste of industrial alumina plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M K Hamdy; F S Williams

    2001-01-01

      The high alkali content of bauxite residue deposits from alumina production plants in industrial nations poses a challenge\\u000a to reestablish flora and fauna at the deposit sites. The present study demonstrated that low levels of injured bacterial cells\\u000a in the bauxite residue actively grew using various added nutrients and\\/or hay. The organisms grew from less than 10 to more\\u000a than

  10. Socioeconomic study for the proposed waste isolation pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    This document presents the historical and existing socioeconomic conditions in the vicinity of the proposed plant, projected changes in those conditions with and without the plant, and an outline of the various techniques used to make these projections. The analysis predicts impacts on the general economy in the area near the plant and on employment, personal income, population, social structure, the private economic sector, housing, land use, community services and facilities, and local government finances. Among the most important results are the following predictions: The economy of the area will derive $165 million directly and indirectly during the first 7.5 years of the project. After that, it will derive about $21 million directly and indirectly during each year of full operation. About 2100 jobs will be created directly and indirectly at the peak of the construction and about 950 jobs during the full operation. A net in-migration will occur: about 2250 people at the peak of the construction and about 1000 people during operation. A housing shortage may begin in Carlsbad in 1981 or 1982 and last for about 2 years.

  11. Environmental impact statement for initiation of transuranic waste disposal at the waste isolation pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, H.E. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Carlsbad, NM (United States) Carlsbad Area Office; Whatley, M.E. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.

    1996-08-01

    WIPP`s long-standing mission is to demonstrate the safe disposal of TRU waste from US defense activities. In 1980, to comply with NEPA, US DOE completed its first environmental impact statement (EIS) which compared impacts of alternatives for TRU waste disposal. Based on this 1980 analysis, DOE decided to construct WIPP in 1981. In a 1990 decision based on examination of alternatives in a 1990 Supplemental EIS, DOE decided to continue WIPP development by proceeding with a testing program to examine WIPP`s suitability as a TRU waste repository. Now, as DOE`s Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) attempts to complete its regulatory obligations to begin WIPP disposal operations, CAO is developing WIPP`s second supplemental EIS (SEIS-II). To complete the SEIS-II, CAO will have to meet a number of challenges. This paper explores both the past and present EISs prepared to evaluate the suitability of WIPP. The challenges in completing an objective comparison of alternatives, while also finalizing other critical-path compliance documents, controlling costs, and keeping stakeholders involved during the decision-making process are addressed.

  12. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Waste Composition and High Efficiency Particulate Air Filter Loading

    SciTech Connect

    ZIMMERMAN, B.D.

    2000-12-11

    This analysis evaluates the effect of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) waste isotopic composition on Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) accidents involving high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter failure in Double-Contained Receiver Tanks (DCRTs). The HEPA Filter Failure--Exposure to High Temperature or Pressure, and Steam Intrusion From Interfacing Systems accidents are considered. The analysis concludes that dose consequences based on the PFP waste isotopic composition are bounded by previous FSAR analyses. This supports USQD TF-00-0768.

  13. Wetlands proximity mapping of 86 waste sites on the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, J.R. (South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (USA). Dept. of Geography)

    1985-09-16

    This project developed wetlands proximity maps and provided wetlands information by means of a Geographic Environmental Data Base (GEDB) for each of 11 interaction zones identified in DPST-84-684. It includes an analysis of 86 hazardous waste sites at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The map of each interaction zone is intended to indicate major wetland and land cover types, with emphasis on locations of hazardous waste sites with wetland areas identified within a 1000 meter radius. Statistics of aerial extent for wetland and land cover for each interaction zone are provided. 80 figs., 93 tabs.

  14. Strategy for product composition control in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, M.F.; Piepel, G.F.

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) will immobilize transuranic and high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass. The major objective of the Process/Product Model Development (PPMD) cost account of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory HWVP Technology Development (PHTD) Project is the development of a system for guiding control of feed slurry composition (which affects glass properties) and for checking and documenting product quality. This document lays out the broad structure of HWVP`s product composition control system, discusses five major algorithms and technical issues relevant to this system, and sketches the path of development and testing.

  15. Development of waste minimization and decontamination technologies at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, R.L.; Archibald, K.E.; Demmer, R.L. [and others

    1995-11-01

    Emphasis on the minimization of decontamination secondary waste has increased because of restrictions on the use of hazardous chemicals and Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) waste handling issues. The Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co. (LITCO) Decontamination Development Subunit has worked to evaluate and introduce new performed testing, evaluations, development and on-site demonstrations for a number of novel decontamination techniques that have not yet previously been used at the ICPP. This report will include information on decontamination techniques that have recently been evaluated by the Decontamination Development Subunit.

  16. Characterization of a thermal power plant air heater washing waste: a case study from Iran.

    PubMed

    Saeedi, M; Amini, H R

    2007-02-01

    In Iran most of the electricity is generated by thermal power plants. As a result of fuel oil burning in winter time, the air heaters of the boilers have to be washed and cleaned frequently. The wastewater originating from air heater washing is then treated in an effluent treatment plant by chemical precipitation followed by dewatering of the sludge produced. The resulting waste is classified as specific industrial waste that should be characterized in detail under the Waste Management Act of Iran. The quantity of this waste produced in the studied power plant is about 20 tonnes year(-1). In the present investigation, the first to be carried out in Iran, seven composite samples of dewatered sludge from air heater washing wastewater treatment were subjected to investigation of the physical properties, chemical composition and leaching properties. The most likely pollutants that were of concern in this study were heavy and other hazardous metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and V). The results revealed that mean pH, wet and dry density and moisture content of the waste were 6.31, 1532 kg m(-30, 1879 kg m(-3) and 15.35%, respectively. Magnetite, SiO2, P2O5, CaO, Al2O3 and MgO were the main constituents of the waste with a weight percentage order of 68.88, 5.91, 3.39, 2.64, 2.59 and 1.76%, respectively. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure test results for some heavy and other hazardous metals showed that mean elemental concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in leachate were 0.06, 1.55, 5.49, 36.32, 209.10, 0.58, 314.06 and 24.84 mg L(-1), respectively. According to the Waste Management Act of Iran this waste should be classified as hazardous and should be disposed of in accordance with hazardous waste disposal regulations. PMID:17346012

  17. The Development and Delivery of the Waste Encapsulation Plant at UKAEA Harwell

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, D.W.; Squires, R. [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Major Projects and Engineering Division, 404 Harwell, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0RA (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    The UKAEA site at Harwell, Oxfordshire currently stores Remote Handled Intermediate Level Wastes (RHILW) generated from its research works dating from the 1950's and wastes received when Harwell provided the UK National Disposal Service (NDS) for radioactive wastes. Additional RHILW is also being generated from UKAEA's progressive decommissioning and site remediation activities at Harwell. The reference strategy for the management of RHILW at UKAEA Harwell is to encapsulate the waste within a cementitious grout, thereby rendering it passively safe and in a form suitable for long-term storage and eventual disposal to a national repository. In order to achieve this objective, a purpose built facility, the Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) was needed. The WEP is a key element, and the final part, of the near-term strategy for the management of solid RHILW at Harwell. The successful completion of the WEP will allow UKAEA to significantly reduce the hazards at Harwell, which will lead to significant environmental, safety and cost benefits. Following a number of feasibility studies and research works to determine the most appropriate encapsulation medium, a competitive two-phase design and build contract was awarded. This paper describes the development of the project from inception, through the research works, to the novel commercial and technical approaches used to ensure a quality, cost effective solution for these unique and difficult wastes. The final design solution is presented, the benefits in construction, operation, maintenance and decommissioning identified, and the processes used for determined the most appropriate solution explained. (authors)

  18. Persistence of engineered nanoparticles in a municipal solid-waste incineration plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walser, Tobias; Limbach, Ludwig K.; Brogioli, Robert; Erismann, Esther; Flamigni, Luca; Hattendorf, Bodo; Juchli, Markus; Krumeich, Frank; Ludwig, Christian; Prikopsky, Karol; Rossier, Michael; Saner, Dominik; Sigg, Alfred; Hellweg, Stefanie; Günther, Detlef; Stark, Wendelin J.

    2012-08-01

    More than 100 million tonnes of municipal solid waste are incinerated worldwide every year. However, little is known about the fate of nanomaterials during incineration, even though the presence of engineered nanoparticles in waste is expected to grow. Here, we show that cerium oxide nanoparticles introduced into a full-scale waste incineration plant bind loosely to solid residues from the combustion process and can be efficiently removed from flue gas using current filter technology. The nanoparticles were introduced either directly onto the waste before incineration or into the gas stream exiting the furnace of an incinerator that processes 200,000 tonnes of waste per year. Nanoparticles that attached to the surface of the solid residues did not become a fixed part of the residues and did not demonstrate any physical or chemical changes. Our observations show that although it is possible to incinerate waste without releasing nanoparticles into the atmosphere, the residues to which they bind eventually end up in landfills or recovered raw materials, confirming that there is a clear environmental need to develop degradable nanoparticles.

  19. PLANNING AND ASSESSMENT MEASURES TO UPDATING RESOURCES RECYCLING EQUIPMENTS IN COLLABORATION WITH SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS AND WASTE INCINERATION PLANTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakakubo, Toyohiko; Tokai, Akihiro; Ohno, Koichi

    This study aims to assess two biomass utilization policies: the integration of food waste treatment in a sewerage treatment plant with an anaerobic digestion tank, and the pruned branch usage as heat source for drying sludge. We focused on two points in our analysis that the impact of the increase of dewatered sludge on sludge treatment processes after digestion and the improvement of the efficiency of waste power generation plants. A developed model was applied to the case study in Kobe city and evaluated the impact until 2030 by four indicators: energy consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, phosphorus-recovery, and cost. The results showed that case 3-C, which introducing the combined sludge and food waste digestion system, pyrolysis gasification with gas engine and wood-chip boiler, could supply additional 452 TJ/y of energy, recovery 93 t-P/y of phosphorus, and reduce 38 kt-CO2eq./y of GHG while shrinking the cost by 88 million yen/y compared to business as usual types-update case.

  20. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 2, Chapter C, Appendix C1--Chapter C, Appendix C3 (beginning), Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This volume contains appendices for the following: Rocky Flats Plant and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory waste process information; TRUPACT-II content codes (TRUCON); TRUPACT-II chemical list; chemical compatibility analysis for Rocky Flats Plant waste forms; chemical compatibility analysis for waste forms across all sites; TRU mixed waste characterization database; hazardous constituents of Rocky Flats Transuranic waste; summary of waste components in TRU waste sampling program at INEL; TRU waste sampling program; and waste analysis data.

  1. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant TruDock crane system analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, B.C. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Carter, M. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.

    1996-10-01

    The WIPP TruDock crane system located in the Waste Handling Building was identified in the WIPP Safety Analysis Report (SAR), November 1995, as a potential accident concern due to failures which could result in a dropped load. The objective of this analysis is to evaluate the frequency of failure of the TruDock crane system resulting in a dropped load and subsequent loss of primary containment, i.e. drum failure. The frequency of dropped loads was estimated to be 9.81E-03/year or approximately one every 102 years (or, for the 25% contingency, 7.36E-03/year or approximately one every 136 years). The dominant accident contributor was the failure of the cable/hook assemblies, based on failure data obtained from NUREG-0612, as analyzed by PLG, Inc. The WIPP crane system undergoes a rigorous test and maintenance program, crane operation is discontinued following any abnormality, and the crane operator and load spotter are required to be trained in safe crane operation, therefore it is felt that the WIPP crane performance will exceed the data presented in NUREG-0612 and the estimated failure frequency is felt to be conservative.

  2. Case study: the characteristics of the biodegradable waste for the anaerobic digestion plant in Lisbon area.

    PubMed

    Vaz, F; Torres, A; Correia, C Neiva

    2008-01-01

    Taking into account the physical-chemical characteristics of the SC-OFMSW processed at Valorsul's anaerobic digestion plant, the influence of seasonal effects was studied. The waste presents a good quality, with a putrescible content of around 90%. In terms of chemical characteristics, the waste composition is similar to the one referred in the literature. The results show that seasonal variations seem not to affect the SC-OFMSW characteristics. The waste is very soluble and for that reason the solids content in the digester is low (TS in the digestor is 2.8%). The production of biogas is higher than the one predicted in the design operational parameters. Consequently, smaller quantities of compost are produced. PMID:19001708

  3. Demonstrating compliance with WAPS 1.3 in the Hanford waste vitrification plant process

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, M.F.; Piepel, G.F.; Simpson, D.B.

    1996-03-01

    The high-level waste (HLW) vitrification plant at the Hanford Site was being designed to immobilize transuranic and high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass. This document describes the statistical procedure to be used in verifying compliance with requirements imposed by Section 1.3 of the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS, USDOE 1993). WAPS 1.3 is a specification for ``product consistency,`` as measured by the Product Consistency Test (PCT, Jantzen 1992b), for each of three elements: lithium, sodium, and boron. Properties of a process batch and the resulting glass are largely determined by the composition of the feed material. Empirical models are being developed to estimate some property values, including PCT results, from data on feed composition. These models will be used in conjunction with measurements of feed composition to control the HLW vitrification process and product.

  4. Synthesis of biomass and utilization of plants wastes in a physical model of biological life-support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirov, A. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Lisovsky, G. M.; Kudenko, Yu. A.; Kovalev, V. S.; Gribovskaya, I. V.; Tirranen, L. S.; Zolotukhin, I. G.; Gros, J. B.; Lasseur, Ch.

    2003-08-01

    The paper considers problems of biosynthesis of higher plants' biomass and "biological incineration" of plant wastes in a working physical model of biological LSS. The plant wastes are "biologically incinerated" in a special heterotrophic block involving Californian worms, mushrooms and straw. The block processes plant wastes (straw, haulms) to produce soil-like substrate (SLS) on which plants (wheat, radish) are grown. Gas exchange in such a system consists of respiratory gas exchange of SLS and photosynthesis and respiration of plants. Specifics of gas exchange dynamics of high plants — SLS complex has been considered. Relationship between such a gas exchange and PAR irradiance and age of plants has been established. Nitrogen and iron were found to the first to limit plants' growth on SLS when process conditions are deranged. The SLS microflora has been found to have different kinds of ammonifying and denitrifying bacteria which is indicative of intensive transformation of nitrogen-containing compounds. The number of physiological groups of microorganisms in SLS was, on the whole, steady. As a result, organic substances — products of exchange of plants and microorganisms were not accumulated in the medium, but mineralized and assimilated by the biocenosis. Experiments showed that the developed model of a man-made ecosystem realized complete utilization of plant wastes and involved them into the intrasystem turnover.

  5. Synthesis of biomass and utilization of plants wastes in a physical model of biological life-support system.

    PubMed

    Tikhomirov, A A; Ushakova, S A; Manukovsky, N S; Lisovsky, G M; Kudenko, Yu A; Kovalev, V S; Gribovskaya, I V; Tirrannen, L S; Zolotukhin, I G; Gros, J B; Lasseur, Ch

    2003-01-01

    The paper considers problems of biosynthesis of higher plants' biomass and "biological incineration" of plant wastes in a working physical model of biological LSS. The plant wastes are "biologically incinerated" in a special heterotrophic block involving Californian worms, mushrooms and straw. The block processes plant wastes (straw, haulms) to produce soil-like substrate (SLS) on which plants (wheat, radish) are grown. Gas exchange in such a system consists of respiratory gas exchange of SLS and photosynthesis and respiration of plants. Specifics of gas exchange dynamics of high plants--SLS complex has been considered. Relationship between such a gas exchange and PAR irradiance and age of plants has been established. Nitrogen and iron were found to the first to limit plants' growth on SLS when process conditions are deranged. The SLS microflora has been found to have different kinds of ammonifying and denitrifying bacteria which is indicative of intensive transformation of nitrogen-containing compounds. The number of physiological groups of microorganisms in SLS was, on the whole, steady. As a result, organic substances--products of exchange of plants and microorganisms were not accumulated in the medium, but mineralized and assimilated by the biocenosis. Experiments showed that the developed model of a man-made ecosystem realized complete utilization of plant wastes and involved them into the intrasystem turnover. PMID:14649254

  6. Core analyses for selected samples from the Culebra Dolomite at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, V.A.; Saulnier, G.J. Jr. (INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Two groups of core samples from the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation at and near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant were analyzed to provide estimates of hydrologic parameters for use in flow-and-transport modeling. Whole-core and core-plug samples were analyzed by helium porosimetry, resaturation and porosimetry, mercury-intrusion porosimetry, electrical-resistivity techniques, and gas-permeability methods. 33 refs., 25 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. Analytical approach for monitoring endocrine-disrupting compounds in urban waste water treatment plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aldo Roda; Mara Mirasoli; Elisa Michelini; Maria Magliulo; Patrizia Simoni; Massimo Guardigli; Roberta Curini; Manuel Sergi; Alessandra Marino

    2006-01-01

    The presence of endocrine-disrupting compounds in influent and effluent water samples from four waste water treatment plants\\u000a located in Italy was studied. The estrogen-like activity of the water samples was measured using a chemiluminescent recombinant\\u000a yeast assay which is based on genetically engineered yeast cells that express the human estrogen receptor. This receptor,\\u000a once activated, elicits the expression of the

  8. Polyfluorinated compounds in waste water treatment plant effluents and surface waters along the River Elbe, Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lutz Ahrens; Sebastian Felizeter; Renate Sturm; Zhiyong Xie; Ralf Ebinghaus

    2009-01-01

    Polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were investigated in waste water treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and surface waters of the River Elbe from samples collected in 2007. Concentrations of various PFCs, including C4–C8 perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs), C6 and C8 perfluorinated sulfinates, 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate, C5–C13 perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), C4 and C8 perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides and 6:2, 8:2 and 10:2 unsaturated fluorotelomercarboxylic acids were

  9. Data used in preliminary performance assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (1990)

    SciTech Connect

    Rechard, R.P (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Luzzolino, H. (Geo-Centers, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Sandha, J.S. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-12-01

    This report documents the data available as of August 1990 and used by the Performance Assessment Division of Sandia National Laboratories in its December 1990 preliminary performance assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Parameter values are presented in table form for the geologic subsystem, engineered barriers, borehole flow properties, climate variability, and intrusion characteristics. Sources for the data and a brief discussion of each parameter are provided. 101 refs., 72 figs., 21 tabs.

  10. Design of cost-effective waste-reduction systems for synthetic fuel plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony Warren; M. M. El-Halwagi; B. K. Srinivas

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the applicability of the Reactive mass-exchange (REAMEN) synthesis methodology in designing cost-effective desulfurization systems for synthetic-fuel plants. The REAMEN design technique provides a systematic framework to simultaneously screen several potentially applicable technologies and separating agents and identify the most cost-effective solution for a given waste-minimization task. It is based on developing mass-exchange

  11. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical background document for toxics best available control technology demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1992-10-01

    This document provides information on toxic air pollutant emissions to support the Notice of Construction for the proposed Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) to be built at the the Department of Energy Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Because approval must be received prior to initiating construction of the facility, state and federal Clean Air Act Notices of construction are being prepared along with necessary support documentation.

  12. Reducing waste contamination from animal-processing plants by anaerobic thermophilic fermentation and by flesh fly digestion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Marchaim; A. Gelman; Y. Braverman

    2003-01-01

    There is currently no market in Israel for the large amounts of waste from fish- and poultry-processing plants. Therefore,\\u000a this waste is incinerated, as part of the measures to prevent the spread of pathogens. Anaerobic methanogenic thermophilic\\u000a fermentation (AMTF) of wastes from the cattle-slaughtering industry was examined previously, as an effective system to treat\\u000a pathogenic bacteria, and in this article,

  13. METHODS FOR DETERMINING AGITATOR MIXING REQUIREMENTS FOR A MIXING & SAMPLING FACILITY TO FEED WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PLANT)

    SciTech Connect

    GRIFFIN PW

    2009-08-27

    The following report is a summary of work conducted to evaluate the ability of existing correlative techniques and alternative methods to accurately estimate impeller speed and power requirements for mechanical mixers proposed for use in a mixing and sampling facility (MSF). The proposed facility would accept high level waste sludges from Hanford double-shell tanks and feed uniformly mixed high level waste to the Waste Treatment Plant. Numerous methods are evaluated and discussed, and resulting recommendations provided.

  14. Polonium-210 in the environment around a radioactive waste disposal area and phosphate ore processing plant.

    PubMed

    Arthur, W J; Markham, O D

    1984-04-01

    Polonium-210 concentrations were determined for soil, vegetation and small mammal tissues collected at a solid radioactive waste disposal area, near a phosphate ore processing plant and at two rural areas in southeastern Idaho. Polonium concentrations in media sampled near the radioactive waste disposal facility were equal to or less than values from rural area samples, indicating that disposal of solid radioactive waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Site has not resulted in increased environmental levels of polonium. Concentrations of 210Po in soils, deer mice hide and carcass samples collected near the phosphate processing plant were statistically (P less than or equal to 0.05) greater than the other sampling locations; however, the mean 210Po concentration in soils and small mammal tissues from sampling areas near the phosphate plant were only four and three times greater, respectively, than control values. No statistical (P greater than 0.05) difference was observed for 210Po concentrations in vegetation among any of the sampling locations. PMID:6706588

  15. Metal uptake by native plants and revegetation potential of mining sulfide-rich waste-dumps.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Patrícia; Valente, Teresa; Pamplona, Jorge; Braga, Maria Amália Sequeira; Pissarra, José; Gil, José António Grande; de la Torre, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Waste dumps resulting from metal exploitation create serious environmental damage, providing soil and water degradation over long distances. Phytostabilization can be used to remediate these mining sites. The present study aims to evaluate the behavior of selected plant species (Erica arborea, Ulex europaeus, Agrostis delicatula, and Cytisus multiflorus) that grow spontaneously in three sulfide-rich waste-dumps (Lapa Grande, Cerdeirinha, and Penedono, Portugal). These sites represent different geological, climatic and floristic settings. The results indicate distinctive levels and types of metal contamination: Penedono presents highest sulfate and metal contents, especially As, with low levels of Fe. In contrast, at Lapa Grande and Cerdeirinha Fe, Mn, and Zn are the dominant metals. In accordance, each waste dump develops a typical plant community, providing a specific vegetation inventory. At Penedono, Agrostis delicatula accumulates As, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Zn, showing higher bioaccumulation factors (BF) for Mn (32.1) and As (24.4). At Cerdeirinha, Ulex europaeus has the highest BF for Pb (984), while at Lapa Grande, Erica arborea presents high BF for Mn (9.8) and Pb (8.1). Regarding TF, low values were obtained for most of the metals, especially As (TF < 1). Therefore, the results obtained from representative plant species suggest appropriate behavior for phytostabilization measures. PMID:24933904

  16. Radiological hazards of TENORM in precipitated calcium carbonate generated as waste at nitrophosphate fertilizer plant in Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabiha-Javied; Nasim-Akhtar; M. Tufail

    2011-01-01

    The NORM (naturally occurring radioactive material) in phosphate rock is transferred as TENORM (technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material) to phosphatic fertilizers and to the waste generated by the chemical processes. The waste generated at the NP (nitrophosphate) fertilizer plant at Multan in Pakistan is PCC (precipitated calcium carbonate). Thirty samples of the PCC were collected from the heaps of

  17. Candidate glass-ceramic waste forms for immobilization of the calcines stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vinjamuri

    1995-01-01

    Candidate glass-ceramic waste forms for immobilizaion of the major types of calcines stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) were synthesized and characterized. The waste forms were prepared by hot isostatically pressing a mixture 70 wt% of precompacted simulated non-radioactive calcine and 30 wt% additives (Silica and Al or Ti metal powders). The types of calcines stored in stainless

  18. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results obtained in the 1992 performance assessment for the waste isolation pilot plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Helton; D. R. Anderson; B. L. Baker; J. E. Bean; J. W. Berglund; W. Beyeler; K. Economy; J. W. Garner; S. C. Hora; H. J. Iuzzolino; P. Knupp; M. G. Marietta; J. Rath; R. P. Rechard; P. J. Roache; D. K. Rudeen; K. Salari; J. D. Schreiber; P. N. Swift; M. S. Tierney; P. Vaughn

    1996-01-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results obtained in the 1992 performance assessment (PA) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented. The primary performance measure under study is the complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF) used in assessing compliance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). The analysis

  19. Recent Update of Gastrointestinal Endoscope Reprocessing

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Kyong Hee

    2013-01-01

    As infection-related issues have become one of the most important concerns in endoscopy centers, proper reprocessing of endoscopes has attracted great interest. Compliance with established guidelines for reprocessing is critical to prevent pathogen transmission. However, hospital compliance with guidelines has not been satisfactory. To increase compliance, efforts have focused on developing new and more innovative disinfectants and an automated endoscope reprocessor. Reprocessing must be performed by appropriately trained personnel and regular monitoring of reprocessing is essential for quality assurance to improve compliance. PMID:23767038

  20. Remote ignitability analysis of high-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Lundholm, C.W.; Morgan, J.M.; Shurtliff, R.M.; Trejo, L.E.

    1992-09-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), was used to reprocess nuclear fuel from government owned reactors to recover the unused uranium-235. These processes generated highly radioactive liquid wastes which are stored in large underground tanks prior to being calcined into a granular solid. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and state/federal clean air statutes require waste characterization of these high level radioactive wastes for regulatory permitting and waste treatment purposes. The determination of the characteristic of ignitability is part of the required analyses prior to calcination and waste treatment. To perform this analysis in a radiologically safe manner, a remoted instrument was needed. The remote ignitability Method and Instrument will meet the 60 deg. C. requirement as prescribed for the ignitability in method 1020 of SW-846. The method for remote use will be equivalent to method 1020 of SW-846.

  1. Concept for dismantling the Hllw treatment facility on the Former Wak Reprocessing Site

    SciTech Connect

    Birringer, K.J.; Fleisch, J.; Graffunder, I.; Pfeifer, W. [Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe, Ruckbau- und Entsorgungs- GmbH, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The German pilot reprocessing plant WAK was operated until 1990 and processed about 200 tons of nuclear fuels from test and power reactors. In late 1991, the Federal Republic of Germany, the State of Baden-Wuerttemberg, and the utilities decided to shut down the WAK and to dismantle it completely to the green field. In the years 2000/2001, remote-controlled dismantling of the process cells in the reprocessing building was completed. Part of the building has already been subjected to release measurement and released from the obligations under the German Atomic Energy Act. However, a major prerequisite for the complete dismantling of the WAK is the management of the 60 m{sup 3} high-level liquid waste (HLLW) with an activity of 8.0 E 17 Bq resulting from reprocessing. For this purpose, the Karlsruhe vitrification plant (VEK) was constructed and is now under commissioning /1/. Hot operation is foreseen for the years 2007/2008. Following vitrification operation, dismantling of the four HLLW tanks in the storage building will be a particularly challenging task in terms of radiology. The HLLW tanks are located in thick-walled concrete cells that require remote- controlled horizontal access. For this purpose, a new access building, the southern extension, was built. It serves to bring in and operate the remote handling tools and allows for the contamination-safe removal and measurement of the MAW drums. In contrast to the crane in the process building, the manipulator carrier system used here is an 8 Mg excavator. All tools, including the wall cutter, chisel, cutting disk, scissors, and the electric master-slave manipulator (EMSM), can be docked to this excavator. The VEK installations shall be dismantled parallel to the HLLW storage tanks. Due to the dose rates expected after operation, two dismantling areas have to be distinguished in the VEK: The core area with the HLLW transfer cell, melter cell, and exhaust gas cell requires remote dismantling. All remaining cells and rooms may presumably be dismantled manually. (authors)

  2. Waste Treatment Plant Support Program: Summaries of Reports Produced During Fiscal Years 1999-2010

    SciTech Connect

    Beeman, Gordon H.

    2010-08-12

    The Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) being built on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site will be the largest chemical processing plant in the United States. Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) is the designer and constructor for the WTP. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has provided significant research and testing support to the WTP. This report provides a summary of reports developed initially under PNNL’s “1831” use agreement and later PNNL’s “1830” prime contract with DOE in support of the WTP. In March 2001, PNNL under its “1831” use agreement entered into a contract with BNI to support their research and testing activities. However, PNNL support to the WTP predates BNI involvement. Prior to March 2001, PNNL supported British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. in its role as overall designer and constructor. In February 2007, execution of PNNL’s support to the WTP was moved under its “1830” prime contract with DOE. Documents numbered “PNWD-XXXX” were issued under PNNL’s “1831” use agreement. Documents numbered “PNNL-XXXX” were issued under PNNL’s “1830” prime contract with DOE. The documents are sorted by fiscal year and categorized as follows: ? Characterization ? HLW (High Level Waste) ? Material Characterization ? Pretreatment ? Simulant Development ? Vitrification ? Waste Form Qualification. This report is intended to provide a compendium of reports issued by PNWD/PNNL in support of the Waste Treatment Plant. Copies of all reports can be obtained by clicking on http://www.pnl.gov/rpp-wtp/ and downloading the .pdf file(s) to your computer.

  3. A Short History of Hanford Waste Generation, Storage, and Release

    SciTech Connect

    Gephart, Roy E.

    2003-10-01

    Nine nuclear reactors and four reprocessing plants at Hanford produced nearly two-thirds of the plutonium used in the United States for government purposes . These site operations also created large volumes of radioactive and chemical waste. Some contaminants were released into the environment, exposing people who lived downwind and downstream. Other contaminants were stored. The last reactor was shut down in 1987, and the last reprocessing plant closed in 1990. Most of the human-made radioactivity and about half of the chemicals remaining onsite are kept in underground tanks and surface facilities. The rest exists in the soil, groundwater, and burial grounds. Hanford contains about 40% of all the radioactivity that exists across the nuclear weapons complex. Today, environmental restoration activities are under way.

  4. Biological processes for the treatment of waste water from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Vredenbregt, L.H.J.; Potma, A.A.; Enoch, G.D.

    1998-07-01

    In The Netherlands, all coal-fired power stations are equipped with a wet lime(stone)-gypsum flue gas desulfurization (FGD) installation, in order to meet the SO{sub 2} emission requirements. During wet desulfurization a waste water stream is produced containing among others suspended solids, heavy metals, nitrate and in some cases ammonia. Besides, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the waste water is increased if the FGD process is optimized by application of organic buffers. The traditional waste water treatment plant (WWTP) does not remove nitrate, ammonia and COD, and only poorly removes the anions of oxygenated metals such as selenium. In a previous research it was demonstrated that nitrate and ammonia can be removed biologically, even at the relatively extreme conditions of FGD waste water, which is characterized by a high chloride concentration (5 and 40 g/l) and relatively high temperatures (typically 35--50 C). However, the removal is no longer solely focused on nitrogen components, but also on COD removal and for the anions of some oxygenated metals target values are expected in the near future. In this paper attention is focused on two biological processes. One process is the combined removal of nitrate and COD in a fluid-bed reactor which can be applied upstream of the traditional WWTP. The application of this process was successfully demonstrated at a bench-scale fluid bed reactor. The optimal process conditions were determined in activated-sludge reactors on a laboratory scale. The second biological process is the combined removal of COD and metals from FGD waste water. An upflow sludge blanket reactor was successfully tested on laboratory scale at a wide range of process conditions with actual waste water. The possible advantages and disadvantages of the biological removal processes are discussed and compared with the well known chemical precipitation process.

  5. Methodology for estimating reprocessing costs for nuclear fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, W. L.; Rainey, R. H.

    1980-02-01

    A technological and economic evaluation of reprocessing requirements for alternate fuel cycles requires a common assessment method and a common basis to which various cycles can be related. A methodology is described for the assessment of alternate fuel cycles utilizing a side-by-side comparison of functional flow diagrams of major areas of the reprocessing plant with corresponding diagrams of the well-developed Purex process as installed in the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP). The BNFP treats 1500 metric tons of uranium per year (MTU/yr). Complexity and capacity factors are determined for adjusting the estimated facility and equipment costs of BNFP to determine the corresponding costs for the alternate fuel cycle. Costs of capacities other than the reference 1500 MT of heavy metal per year are estimated by the use of scaling factors. Unit costs of reprocessed fuel are calculated using a discounted cash flow analysis for three economic bases to show the effect of low-risk, typical, and high-risk financing methods.

  6. Plant response to FBC waste-coal slurry solid mixtures. [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Darmody, R.G.; Dunker, R.E. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States); Dreher, G.B.; Roy, W.R.; Steel, J.D. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The goal of this project is to test the feasibility of stabilizing coal slurry solids (CSS) wastes by directly seeding plants into the waste. This is not done conventionally because the waste can generate toxic amounts of sulfuric acid. Our approach is to neutralize the potential acidity by mixing fluidized bed combustion (FBC) waste into the slurry. If successful, this approach would both help dispose of FBC wastes while providing a more economical slurry stabilization technique. The project involves growing forage plants in CSS-FBC mixtures in the greenhouse. This is the first quarter of the project. We have designed the experiment, secured greenhouse space, purchased the seeds, collected and dried the FBC and CSS samples. The samples represent a typical range of properties. We retrieved two FBC and two CSS samples. One CSS sample appears to have a higher pyrite content than the other.

  7. Solvent extraction of [sup 99]Tc from radioactive intermediate liquid waste by dibenzo-18-crown-6.

    SciTech Connect

    Paviet-Hartmann, P. (Patricia)

    2001-01-01

    Technetium is one of the most prominent problems since its most stable specie in the environment, the pertechnetate ion, is highly mobile and considered as a long-term hazard in nuclear waste disposal. Because of the small activities of 99Tc relative to other fission products 137Cso r 90Sr,a nd its long half-life time (t1/2 = 2.1{center_dot}10{sup 5} yrs), 99Tci s one of the key isotopes that should always be analyzed in the radioactive liquid waste streams from the reprocessing industry where the largest concentrations are to be expected. Furthermore, as a pure beta-emitter, Tc has to be isolated from the intermediate level waste (ILW) stream prior to any measurement in such complex media. We have developed a method for 99Tc extraction providing recommendations that will be useful for extracting it from acid and basic ILW. The extraction of 99Tc from L W by dibenzo-18-crown-6 (DB18C6) has been investigated and a simplex optimization of key parameters involved in the procedure has allowed us to set up their best values. Experiments have been carried out on synthetic and real effluents from La Hague reprocessing plant, France, and results show that DB18C6 is highly selective towards 99Tc. The application of this procedure has been successfully demonstrated through the analysis of actual waste streams coming from two reprocessing plants at La Hague and Marcoule, France.

  8. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF 99Tc FROM RADIOACTIVE INTERMEDIATE LIQUID WASTE BY DIBENZO-18-CROWN-6

    SciTech Connect

    Paviet-Hartmann, P.

    2002-02-25

    Technetium is one of the most prominent problems since its most stable specie in the environment, the pertechnetate ion, is highly mobile and considered as a long-term hazard in nuclear waste disposal. Because of the small activities of 99Tc relative to other fission products 137Cs or 90Sr, and its long half-life time (t1/2 = 2.1 x 105 yrs), 99Tc is one of the key isotopes that should always be analyzed in the radioactive liquid waste streams from the reprocessing industry where the largest concentrations are to be expected. Furthermore, as a pure beta-emitter, 99Tc has to be isolated from the intermediate level waste (ILW) stream prior to any measurement in such complex media. We have developed a method for 99Tc extraction providing recommendations that will be useful for extracting it from acid and basic ILW. The extraction of 99Tc from ILW by dibenzo-18-crown-6 (DB18C6) has been investigated and a simplex optimization of key parameters involved in the procedure has allowed us to set u p their best values. Experiments have been carried out on synthetic and real effluents from La Hague reprocessing plant, France, and results show that DB18C6 is highly selective towards 99Tc. The application of this procedure has been successfully demonstrated through the analysis of actual waste streams coming from two reprocessing plants at La Hague and Marcoule, France.

  9. Solvent extraction of 99Tc from radioactive intermediate liquid waste by dibenzo-18-crown-6.

    SciTech Connect

    Paviet-Hartmann, P. (Patricia)

    2001-01-01

    Technetium is one of the most prominent problems since its most stable specie in the environment, the pertechnetate ion, is highly mobile and considered as a long-term hazard in nuclear waste disposal. Because of the small activities of 99Tc relative to other fission products 137Cs or 90Sr, and its long half-life time (t1/2 = 2.1x10{sup 5} yrs), 99Tc is one of the key isotopes that should always be analyzed in the radioactive liquid waste streams from the reprocessing industry where the largest concentrations are to be expected. Furthermore, as a pure betaemitter, 99Tc has to be isolated from the intermediate level waste (ILW) stream prior to any measurement in such complex media. We have developed a method for 99Tc extraction providing recommendations that will be useful for extracting it from acid and basic ILW. The extraction of 99Tc from ILW by dibenzo-18-crown-6 (DB18C6) has been investigated and a simplex optimization of key parameters involved in the procedure has allowed us to set up their best values. Experiments have been carried out on synthetic and real effluents from La Hague reprocessing plant, France, and results show that DB18C6 is highly selective towards 99Tc. The application of this procedure has been successfully demonstrated through the analysis of actual waste streams coming from two reprocessing plants at La Hague and Marcoule, France.

  10. Anaerobic/aerobic/coagulation treatment of leachate from a municipal solid wastes incineration plant.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fang; Abbas, Abdulhussain A; Chen, You-Peng; Liu, Zhi-Ping; Gao, Xu; Guo, Jin-Song

    2012-01-01

    Municipal solid wastes (MSW) in China contain a large fraction of food waste and have high moisture content. MSW is usually held in waste pits for a few days to reduce moisture content before combustion in an incineration plant. In this study, leachate from the Tongxing MSW incineration plant was characterized and a combined anaerobic-aerobic-coagulation system was proposed and investigated. Optimal operation conditions for the processes in the proposed system were identified. The performance of the treatment process was assessed by monitoring the removal of organic matter (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N). The results showed that the optimal volume ratio of leachate and sewage was 1:6. During the initial anaerobic treatment, 62.1% COD and 49.5% ammonia were removed (optimal reaction time: 20 h, hydraulic retention time: 4 d). During the subsequent aerobic treatment (optimal aeration time of 14 h, dissolved oxygen of4 mg/L), up to 94.0% COD and 89.4% ammonia could be removed. The coagulation process served as a polishing step. The optimal dose of Fe2(SO4)3 was 600 mg/L at a pH of 5.0. The COD and ammonia concentrations in the final effluent after the combined treatment were 138 mg/L and 22 mg/L, respectively, which meet the Chinese integrated wastewater discharge standards. PMID:22720417

  11. Effect of yard waste compost on plant-parasitic nematode densities in vegetable crops.

    PubMed

    McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N

    1995-12-01

    The effects of yard-waste compost on densities of plant-parasitic nematodes were determined on four crops at two sites in north Florida. Separate experiments were conducted with sweet corn (Zea mays), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo), and okra (Hibiscus esculentus). In each test, the design was a randomized complete block replicated four times and involving three treatments: 269 mt/ha yard-waste compost applied to the soil surface as a mulch, 269 mt/ha compost incorporated into the soil, and an unamended control. Final population densities of Criconemella spp. and Meloidogyne incognita were lower in plots receiving a compost treatment than in unamended control plots in only one of eight tests (P 0.10). Vegetable yields were either unaffected by treatment or, in some tests, were lowest following the mulch treatment (P waste compost used had little effect on densities of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with short-term (ca. 4 months) vegetable crops. PMID:19277320

  12. Long term plant biomonitoring in the vicinity of waste incinerators in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Chris; van Doorn, Wim; van Alfen, Bert

    2015-03-01

    Since the mid-nineties new waste incineration plants have come into operation in the Netherlands. Burning of waste can result in the emission of potentially toxic compounds. Although the incineration plants must comply with strict conditions concerning emission control, public concern on the possible impact on human health and the environment still exists. Multiple year (2004-2013) biomonitoring programs were set up around three waste incinerators for early detection of possible effects of stack emissions on the quality of crops and agricultural products. The results showed that the emissions did not affect the quality of crops and cow milk. Concentrations of heavy metals, PAHs and dioxins/PCBs were generally similar to background levels and did not exceed standards for maximum allowable concentrations in foodstuffs (e.g. vegetables and cow milk). Some exceedances of the fluoride standard for cattle feed were found almost every year in the maximum deposition areas of two incinerators. Biomonitoring with leafy vegetables can be used to monitor the real impact of these emissions on agricultural crops and to communicate with all stakeholders. PMID:25465951

  13. Influence of fermented tannery solid waste on morphological, biochemical, yield and nutritional responses of tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, B; Wong, J W C; Selvam, A; Murugesan, K; Mohanapriya, D; Sekaran, G

    2015-03-01

    The non-tanned proteinaceous tannery solid waste animal fleshing (ANFL), containing high nutritive value, was hydrolyzed using bacteria Selenomonas ruminantium HM000123 through submerged (SmF) and solid-state (SSF) fermentation processes. In addition, the effects of ANFL fermentative hydrolysate on growth, yield and biochemical properties of tomato plants were investigated. The treatments included T1 (SmF-ANFL), T2 (SSF-ANFL), T3 (recommended dose of NPK fertilizers) and a control without any amendment. Hydrolysates of both SmF-ANFL and SSF-ANFL treatments increased the biomass and yield as evidenced by plant height, stem girth, number of leaves and fruit yield when compared with both NPK and control plants. In this 90-day study, significant (p???0.05) changes were observed in SSF-ANFL treated plants compared to the other treatments. Protein profile analyzed through SDS-PAGE indicates the expression of a high molecular weight protein (205 kDa) and other proteins in the leaves of the SSF-ANFL treated plants. Overall results revealed that SSF-ANFL can be successfully utilized as a fertilizer particularly for cultivating tomato plants. PMID:25296938

  14. Characteristics and behavior of emulsion at nuclear fuel reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Gonda, K.; Nemoto, T.; Oka, K.

    1982-05-01

    The characteristics and behavior of the emulsion formed in mixer-settlers during nuclear fuel reprocessing were studied with the dissolver solution of spent fuel burned up to 28,000 MWd/MTU and a palladium colloidal solution, respectively. The emulsion was observed to be oil in water where nonsoluble residues of spent fuel were condensed as emulsifiers. Emulsion formed at interfaces in the settler showed electric conductivity due to continuity of the aqueous phase of the emulsion and viscosity due to the creamy state of the emulsion. The higher the palladium particle concentration was, the larger the amount of emulsion formed. This result agreed well with experience obtained in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant operation that both nonsoluble residues and emulsion formation increased remarkably on fuels in which burnup exceeded 20 000 MWd/MTU.

  15. Determination of particle size distribution of salt crystals in aqueous slurries. [From reprocessing of fuel elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1977-01-01

    A method for determining particle size distribution of water-soluble crystals in aqueous slurries is described. The salt slurries, containing sodium salts of predominantly nitrate, but also nitrite, sulfate, phosphate, aluminates, carbonate, and hydroxide, occur in radioactive, concentrated chemical waste from the reprocessing of nuclear fuel elements. The method involves separating the crystals from the aqueous phase, drying them, and then

  16. LABORATORY OPTIMIZATION TESTS OF TECHNETIUM DECONTAMINATION OF HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT LOW ACTIVITY WASTE OFF-GAS CONDENSATE SIMULANT

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Nash, C.; McCabe, D.

    2014-09-29

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also compatible with longterm tank storage and immobilization methods. For this new application, testing is needed to demonstrate acceptable treatment sorbents and precipitating agents and measure decontamination factors for additional radionuclides in this unique waste stream. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet and will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. One of the radionuclides that is volatile and expected to be in greatest abundance in this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream is Technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc). Technetium will not be removed from the aqueous waste in the Hanford WTP, and will primarily end up immobilized in the LAW glass by repeated recycle of the off-gas condensate into the LAW melter. Other radionuclides that are low but are also expected to be in measurable concentration in the LAW Off-Gas Condensate are {sup 129}I, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 241}Pu, and {sup 241}Am. These are present due to their partial volatility and some entrainment in the off-gas system. This report discusses results of optimized {sup 99}Tc decontamination testing of the simulant. Testing examined use of inorganic reducing agents for {sup 99}Tc. Testing focused on minimizing the quantity of sorbents/reactants added, and minimizing mixing time to reach the decontamination targets in this simulant formulation. Stannous chloride and ferrous sulfate were tested as reducing agents to determine the minimum needed to convert soluble pertechnetate to the insoluble technetium dioxide. The reducing agents were tried with and without sorbents.

  17. Survey of Endoscope Reprocessing in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong Bae; Yang, Jae Nam; Koo, Ja Seol; Jang, Jae Young; Park, Sang Hoon; Hong, Su Jin; Kim, Sang-Woo; Chun, Hoon Jai

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims There is a growing emphasis on quality management in endoscope reprocessing. Previous surveys conducted in 2002 and 2004 were not practitioner-oriented. Therefore, this survey is significant for being the first to target actual participants in endoscope reprocessing in Korea. Methods This survey comprised 33 self-filled questions, and was personally delivered to nurses and nursing auxiliaries in the endoscopy departments of eight hospitals belonging to the society. The anonymous responses were collected after 1 week either by post or in person by committee members. Results The survey included 100 participants. In the questionnaire addressing compliance rates with the reprocessing guideline, the majority (98.9%) had a high compliance rate compared to 27% of respondents in 2002 and 50% in 2004. The lowest rate of compliance with a reprocessing procedure was reported for transporting the contaminated endoscope in a sealed container. Automated endoscope reprocessors were available in all hospitals. Regarding reprocessing time, more than half of the subjects replied that reprocessing took more than 15 minutes (63.2%). Conclusions The quality management of endoscope reprocessing has improved as since the previous survey. A national survey expanded to include primary clinics is required to determine the true current status of endoscope reprocessing. PMID:25674525

  18. Recent Improvements In Interface Management For Hanfords Waste Treatment And Immobilization Plant - 13263

    SciTech Connect

    Arm, Stuart T. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Pell, Michael J. [Bechtel National, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Van Meighem, Jeffery S. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Duncan, Garth M. [Bechtel National, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Harrington, Christopher C. [Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, Washington (United States)

    2012-11-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for management and completion of the River Protection Project (RPP) mission, which comprises both the Hanford Site tank farms operations and the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The RPP mission is to store, retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste; store and dispose of treated wastes; and close the tank farm waste management areas and treatment facilities by 2047. The WTP is currently being designed and constructed by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) for DOE-ORP. BNI relies on a number oftechnical services from other Hanford contractors for WTP's construction and commissioning. These same services will be required of the future WTP operations contractor. The WTP interface management process has recently been improved through changes in organization and technical issue management documented in an Interface Management Plan. Ten of the thirteen active WTP Interface Control Documents (ICDs) have been revised in 2012 using the improved process with the remaining three in progress. The value of the process improvements is reflected by the ability to issue these documents on schedule.

  19. Waste-assimilation study of Koshkonong Creek below sewage-treatment plant at Sun Prairie, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grant, R. Stephen

    1976-01-01

    A waste-load-assimilation study of a reach of Koshkonong Creek below the Sun Prairie, Wisconsin, sewage-treatment-plant outfall indicated that a high level of treatment would be required to meet Wisconsin water-quality standards. To maintain a minimum dissolved-oxygen concentration of 5 mg/liter during the critical summer low-flow period, 5-day carbonaceous biochemical-oxygen demand in waste discharges should not exceed 5 mg/liter and ammonium nitrogen should not exceed 1.5 mg/liter. Advanced treatment with denitrification is required because stream-reaeration coefficients are not high enough to offset deoxygenation caused by an abundance of attached biological slimes. The slimes apparently consumed dissolved oxygen at a rate of about 110 mg/liter per day at the time of the stream survey. During the critical summer low-flow period, natural stream discharge is very small compared to waste-water discharge , so benefits of dilution are insignificant. An evaluation of two proposed alternative waste-water discharge sites indicated that the present discharge site is hydraulically superior to these sites. Stream-reaeration coefficients used in the study were based on measurements using the radioactive-tracer method. (Woodard-USGS)

  20. The Geologic and Hydrogeologic Setting of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, P.N.; Corbet, T.F.

    1999-03-04

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a mined repository constructed by the US Department of Energy for the permanent disposal of transuranic wastes generated since 1970 by activities related to national defense. The WIPP is located 42 km east of Carlsbad, New Mexico, in bedded salt (primarily halite) of the Late Permian (approximately 255 million years old) Salado Formation 655 m below the land surface. Characterization of the site began in the mid-1970s. Construction of the underground disposal facilities began in the early 1980s, and the facility received final certification from the US Environmental Protection Agency in May 1998. Disposal operations are planned to begin following receipt of a final permit from the State of New Mexico and resolution of legal issues. Like other proposed geologic repositories for radioactive waste, the WIPP relies on a combination of engineered and natural barriers to isolate the waste from the biosphere. Engineered barriers at the WIPP, including the seals that will be emplaced in the access shafts when the facility is decommissioned, are discussed in the context of facility design elsewhere in this volume. Physical properties of the natural barriers that contribute to the isolation of radionuclides are discussed here in the context of the physiographic, geologic, and hydrogeologic setting of the site.

  1. Status of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant compliance with 40 CFR 191B, December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Marietta, M.G.; Anderson, D.R.

    1993-10-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with long-term regulations of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for final compliance evaluations. This paper describes the 1992 preliminary comparison with Subpart B of the Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191), which regulates long-term releases of radioactive waste. Results of the 1992 PA are preliminary, and cannot be used to determine compliance or noncompliance with EPA regulations because portions of the modeling system and data base are incomplete. Results are consistent, however, with those of previous iterations of PA, and the SNL WIPP PA Department has high confidence that compliance with 40 CFR 191B can be demonstrated. Comparison of predicted radiation doses from the disposal system also gives high confidence that the disposal system is safe for long-term isolation.

  2. Materials selection for process equipment in the Hanford waste vitrification plant

    SciTech Connect

    Elmore, M R; Jensen, G A

    1991-07-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed to vitrify defense liquid high-level wastes and transuranic wastes stored at Hanford. The HWVP Functional Design Criteria (FDC) requires that materials used for fabrication of remote process equipment and piping in the facility be compatible with the expected waste stream compositions and process conditions. To satisfy FDC requirements, corrosion-resistant materials have been evaluated under simulated HWVP-specific conditions and recommendations have been made for HWVP applications. The materials recommendations provide to the project architect/engineer the best available corrosion rate information for the materials under the expected HWVP process conditions. Existing data and sound engineering judgement must be used and a solid technical basis must be developed to define an approach to selecting suitable construction materials for the HWVP. This report contains the strategy, approach, criteria, and technical basis developed for selecting materials of construction. Based on materials testing specific to HWVP and on related outside testing, this report recommends for constructing specific process equipment and identifies future testing needs to complete verification of the performance of the selected materials. 30 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  3. The Challenges of Creating a Real-Time Data Management System for TRU-Mixed Waste at the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Paff, S. W; Doody, S.

    2003-02-25

    This paper discusses the challenges associated with creating a data management system for waste tracking at the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Plant (AMWTP) at the Idaho National Engineering Lab (INEEL). The waste tracking system combines data from plant automation systems and decision points. The primary purpose of the system is to provide information to enable the plant operators and engineers to assess the risks associated with each container and determine the best method of treating it. It is also used to track the transuranic (TRU) waste containers as they move throughout the various processes at the plant. And finally, the goal of the system is to support paperless shipments of the waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This paper describes the approach, methodologies, the underlying design of the database, and the challenges of creating the Data Management System (DMS) prior to completion of design and construction of a major plant. The system was built utilizing an Oracle database platform, and Oracle Forms 6i in client-server mode. The underlying data architecture is container-centric, with separate tables and objects for each type of analysis used to characterize the waste, including real-time radiography (RTR), non-destructive assay (NDA), head-space gas sampling and analysis (HSGS), visual examination (VE) and coring. The use of separate tables facilitated the construction of automatic interfaces with the analysis instruments that enabled direct data capture. Movements are tracked using a location system describing each waste container's current location and a history table tracking the container's movement history. The movement system is designed to interface both with radio-frequency bar-code devices and the plant's integrated control system (ICS). Collections of containers or information, such as batches, were created across the various types of analyses, which enabled a single, cohesive approach to be developed for verification and validation activities. The DMS includes general system functions, including task lists, electronic signature, non-conformance reports and message systems, that cut vertically across the remaining subsystems. Oracle's security features were utilized to ensure that only authorized users were allowed to log in, and to restrict access to system functionality according to user role.

  4. Engineering modifications to existing waste atactic polypropylene to fuel conversion plant, Novamont Corp. , LaPorte, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Amato, A.

    1980-10-01

    Procedyne Corp. demonstrated a process for the conversion of waste atactic polypropylene to fuel oil on Contract No. EC-77-C-01-5077 dated 9/12/77. The demonstration program was successful and resulted in construction of the first commercial scale Waste Atactic to Fuel Conversion plant at the Novamont Corp. polypropylene producing plant in Texas. The design capacity of the plant is 17,000,000 lbs per year of waste atactic polypropylene converted to 2,300,000 gallons per year of fuel oil. The commercial plant has been in startup operation since early 1980. The conversion process has been successfully operated; however, there are four areas which are giving difficulties and preventing stable long-term operation. The report is accompanied by a quotation for the necessary modifications for the plant to meet design basis operation. The price of this work is $282,729. Delivery of all items will be before March 30, 1981. It is anticipated that the proposed modifications will eliminate current operating difficulties. The success of the commercial operation on the Novamont Corp. plant, LaPorte, Texas, is fundamentally important to the success of the total waste atactic to fuel conversion program and to the waste plastic to fuel conversion program.

  5. Program for closure of an inactive radioactive waste disposal site at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The 643-G Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility was operated at the Savannah River Plant from 1952 through 1974, and has been inactive since that time. The actions leading to closure of 643-G will involve a combination of activities consisting of limited waste removal, stabilization, capping, and monitoring. The overall effect of these closure actions will be to place the 643-G site in a physically and chemically stable state which will remain stable over a long period of time. During a one-hundred year institutional control period surveillance and monitoring of the site will be carried out to verify that the performance of the system is acceptable, and access of the general public to the site will be restricted. The program described in this paper is a recommendation; the actual closure plan will be negotiated with regulatory authorities. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Microbial Gas Generation Under Expected Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Repository Conditions: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.

    2011-07-01

    Gas generation from the microbial degradation of the organic constituents of transuranic (TRU) waste under conditions expected in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was investigated. The biodegradation of mixed cellulosic materials and electron-beam irradiated plastic and rubber materials (polyethylene, polyvinylchloride, hypalon, leaded hypalon, and neoprene) was examined. We evaluated the effects of environmental variables such as initial atmosphere (air or nitrogen), water content (humid ({approx}70% relative humidity, RH) and brine inundated), and nutrient amendments (nitogen phosphate, yeast extract, and excess nitrate) on microbial gas generation. Total gas production was determined by pressure measurement and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) were analyzed by gas chromatography; cellulose degradation products in solution were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Microbial populations in the samples were determined by direct microscopy and molecular analysis. The results of this work are summarized.

  7. Historical Background on the Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    RECHARD,ROBERT P.

    1999-10-21

    In 1979, six years after selecting the Delaware Basin as a potential disposal area, Congress authorized the U.S. Department of Energy to build the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico, as a Research and development facility for the safe management storage, and disposal of waste contaminated with transuranic radioisotopes. In 1998, 19 years after authorization and after site selection, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified that the WIPP disposal system complied with its regulations. The EPA's decision was primarily based on the results from a performance. assessment conducted in 1996, which is summarized in this special issue of Reliability Engineering and System Safety. This performance assessment was the culmination of four preliminary performance assessments conducted between 1989 and 1992. This paper provides a historical setting and context for how the performance of the deep geologic repository at the WIPP was analyzed. Also included is background on political forces acting on the project.

  8. Hydraulic Testing of Salado Formation Evaporites at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Beauheim, Richard L.; Domski, Paul S.; Roberts, Randall M.

    1999-07-01

    This report presents interpretations of hydraulic tests conducted in bedded evaporates of the Salado Formation from May 1992 through May 1995 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP is a US Department of Energy research and development facility designed to demonstrate safe disposal of transuranic wastes from the nation's defense programs. The WIPP disposal horizon is located in the lower portion of the Permian Salado Formation. The hydraulic tests discussed in this report were performed in the WIPP underground facility by INTERA inc. (now Duke Engineering and Services, Inc.), Austin, Texas, following the Field Operations Plan and Addendum prepared by Saulnier (1988, 1991 ) under the technical direction of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  9. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site environmental report for calendar year 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Operational Environmental Monitoring Plan (OEMP) monitors a comprehensive set of parameters in order to detect any potential environmental impacts and establish baselines for future quantitative environmental impact evaluations. Surface water and groundwater, soil, and biotics are measured for background radiation. Nonradiological environmental monitoring activities include meteorological, air quality, soil properties, and the status of the local biological community. Ecological studies focus on the immediate area surrounding the site with emphasis on the salt storage pile, whereas baseline radiological surveillance covers a broader geographic area including nearby ranches, villages, and cities. Since the WIPP is still in a preoperational state, no waste has been received; therefore, certain elements required by Order DOE 5400.1 are not presented in this report. 15 figs. 19 tabs.

  10. Estimation of waste water treatment plant methane emissions: methodology and results from a short campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yver-Kwok, C. E.; Müller, D.; Caldow, C.; Lebegue, B.; Mønster, J. G.; Rella, C. W.; Scheutz, C.; Schmidt, M.; Ramonet, M.; Warneke, T.; Broquet, G.; Ciais, P.

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes different methods to estimate methane emissions at different scales. These methods are applied to a waste water treatment plant (WWTP) located in Valence, France. We show that Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) measurements as well as Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) can be used to measure emissions from the process to the regional scale. To estimate the total emissions, we investigate a tracer release method (using C2H2) and the Radon tracer method (using 222Rn). For process-scale emissions, both tracer release and chamber techniques were used. We show that the tracer release method is suitable to quantify facility- and some process-scale emissions, while the Radon tracer method encompasses not only the treatment station but also a large area around. Thus the Radon tracer method is more representative of the regional emissions around the city. Uncertainties for each method are described. Applying the methods to CH4 emissions, we find that the main source of emissions of the plant was not identified with certainty during this short campaign, although the primary source of emissions is likely to be from solid sludge. Overall, the waste water treatment plant represents a small part (3%) of the methane emissions of the city of Valence and its surroundings,which is in agreement with the national inventories.

  11. Removal of criticality accident alarm systems at the Y-12 Plant waste management facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Marble, R.C.; Taylor, R.G. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States)

    1998-09-01

    This paper discusses why criticality accident alarm systems (CAASs) were installed in certain waste management buildings at the Y-12 Plant, why the plant now wants to remove them, and what steps were taken to allow the US Department of Energy (DOE) to authorize the removal of the systems. To begin with, the systems in question were installed in the mid- to late-1980s. Some of the facilities were new, and there was no operating experience with the processes. A CAAS, although expensive, is an absolute necessity where criticality accidents are credible. But, they are a superfluous and unnecessary expense in those facilities where it has been determined that a criticality accident is incredible (defined as having a probability of <1 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}/yr). The PRAs have been performed to evaluate six Y-12 Plant waste management facilities, five storage facilities, and a nondestructive analysis facility, with an additional study now being performed on the West End Treatment Facility. The results to date have shown that the probability of various criticality accident scenarios at these facilities is <1 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}/yr and that the CAASs are not needed in these facilities.

  12. Vetiver grass, Vetiveria zizanioides: a choice plant for phytoremediation of heavy metals and organic wastes.

    PubMed

    Danh, Luu Thai; Truong, Paul; Mammucari, Raffaella; Tran, Tam; Foster, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Glasshouse and field studies showed that Vetiver grass can produce high biomass (>100t/ tha(-1) year(-1)) and highly tolerate extreme climatic variation such as prolonged drought, flood, submergence and temperatures (-15 degrees - 55 degrees C), soils high in acidity and alkalinity (pH 3.3-9.5), high levels of Al (85% saturation percentage), Mn (578 mg kg(-1)), soil salinity (ECse 47.5 dS m(-1)), sodicity (ESP 48%), anda wide range of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn). Vetiver can accumulate heavy metals, particularly lead (shoot 0.4% and root 1%) and zinc (shoot and root 1%). The majority of heavy metals are accumulated in roots thus suitable for phytostabilization, and for phytoextraction with addition of chelating agents. Vetiver can also absorb and promote biodegradation of organic wastes (2,4,6-trinitroluene, phenol, ethidium bromide, benzo[a]pyrene, atrazine). Although Vetiver is not as effective as some other species in heavy metal accumulation, very few plants in the literature have a wide range of tolerance to extremely adverse conditions of climate and growing medium (soil, sand, and railings) combined into one plant as vetiver. All these special characteristics make vetiver a choice plant for phytoremediation of heavy metals and organic wastes. PMID:19810597

  13. REPROCESSING OF POWER REACTOR FUELS. The Enrico Fermi Fast Breeder Reactor Fuel Progress Report No. 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierce

    1959-01-01

    A summary of work on the problems of reprocessing Enrico Fermi Fast ;\\u000a Breeder Reactor between July 1958 and January 1959 is given. Dissolution ;\\u000a experience with the Zr-clad U-Mo fuel pins is related. Corrosion of the ;\\u000a stainless steel waste evaporator was studied. Nuclear hazards, flow sheet design ;\\u000a and chemistry, and waste handling studies are also reported. (For

  14. Plant cover and water balance in gravel admixtures at an arid waste-burial site

    SciTech Connect

    Waugh, W.J. [Department of Energy Grand Junction Projects Office, CO (United States); Thiede, M.E.; Bates, D.J. [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1994-07-01

    Isolation of radioactive waste buried in unsaturated zones will require long-term control of recharge and erosion. Soil covers control recharge at and sites by storing rainwater close enough to the surface to be removed by evapotranspiration. Surface layers of rock or gravel control erosion at sites with sparse vegetation, but can also alter plant habitat and cause recharge through interred waste. As an alternative, gravel mixed into the uppermost soil law may control erosion ever the king-term better than surface gravel layers. Gravel admixtures may also not influence plant establishment or sod water balance in waste-site covers. The interactive effects of gravel admixture concentration, vegetation, and precipitation on soil water content and plant cover were measured at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. Results support use of a combination of vegetation and gravel admixtures for erosion control. Vegetation seasonally depleted root zone water storage to about 6.5 volume % regardless of precipitation amount or the presence of gravel admixture amendments. In contrast, yearly increases in soil water storage as deep as 225 cm in plots without vegetation may be a leading indicator of recharge. The composition and abundance of vegetation changed over time and with precipitation amount, but was not influenced by gravel amendments. Seeded wheatgrasses [Agropyron sibericum Wilde and Agropyron dasystachyum (Hook.) Scribn.] established only when irrigated with twice average precipitation, but persisted after the irrigation ceased. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) and Russian thistle (Salsola kali L.) colonized areas receiving both irrigation and ambient precipitation. Stands with wheatgrasses extracted water more rapidly and depleted soil water to lower levels than cheatgrass-dominated stands. Increases in gravel cover and near-surface gravel concentrations after 5 yr were evidence of the formation of a protective gravel veneer. 44 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Treating waste water from heat and electrical power plants and state regional power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Beigel`drud, G.M.

    1995-03-01

    Water is often contaminated with oil and other petroleum products when used by local and regional power plants. This article outlines the various methods of treating oil contaminated water and removing emulsions. Coagulation and flocculation are commonly used methods of treatment, but there are other means including flotation and electrochemical methods. Ammonium nitrite was used to accelerates the oil removal with an electrochemical method, which was chosen as the most efficient path towards removal.

  16. An overview of performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Jow, Hong-Nian; Anderson, D.R.; Marietta, M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of the methodology used in the recent performance assessment (PA) to support the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Area Office`s (CAO`s) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Compliance Certification Application (CCA). The results of this recently completed WIPP PA will be presented. Major release modes contributing to the total radionuclide release to the accessible environment will be discussed. Comparison of the mean complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF) curve against the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radionuclide release limits will be presented.

  17. Test drilling for potash resources: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site, Eddy County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, C.L.

    1978-01-01

    Twenty-one borings to augment existing information on potash resources at the proposed site for a waste isolation pilot plant in eastern Eddy County, N. Mex., were drilled and logged in an 11-week period, mid-August to November 1976. The basic data developed from the borings are tabulated in the present report. The tabulation includes lithologic and geophysical logs of all the borings, as well as the results of chemical analyses, X-ray determinations, and calculations to establish a modal mineralogical composition of core samples from potash ore zones and mineralized salt beds.

  18. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Alcove Gas Barrier trade-off study

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, M.S. (Parsons, Brinckerhoff, Quade and Douglas, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)); Van Sambeek, L.L. (RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States))

    1992-07-01

    A modified Kepner-Tregoe method was used for a trade-off study of Alcove Gas Barrier (AGB) concepts for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The AGB is a gas-constraining seal to be constructed in an alcove entrance drift. In this trade-off study, evaluation criteria were first selected. Then these criteria were classified as to their importance to the task, assigning a weighting value to each aspect. Eleven conceptual design alternatives were developed based on geometrical/geological considerations, construction materials, constructibility, and other relevant factors and evaluated.

  19. Optimization of waste heat recovery boiler of a combined cycle power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Seyedan, B.; Dhar, P.L.; Gaur, R.R. [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Bindra, G.S. [Bharat Heavy Electrical Ltd., New Delhi (India)

    1996-07-01

    This paper describes the details of a procedure developed for optimization of a waste heat recovery boiler (WHRB) of a combined cycle power plant (CCPP) using the program for performance prediction of a typical CCPP, details of which have been presented elsewhere (Seyedan et al., 1994). In order to illustrate the procedure, the optimum design of a WHRB for a typical CCPP (employing dual-pressure bottoming cycle) built by a prominent Indian company, has been carried out. The present design of a WHRB is taken as the base design and the newer designs generated by this procedure are compared with it to assess the extent of cost reduction possible.

  20. Condensed listing of surface boreholes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Project through 31 December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.R.; Aguilar, R.; Mercer, J.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Newman, G. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This report contains a condensed listing of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project surface boreholes drilled for the purpose of site selection and characterization through 31 December 1995. The US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored the drilling activities, which were conducted primarily by Sandia National Laboratories. The listing provides physical attributes such as location (township, range, section, and state-plane coordinates), elevation, and total borehole depth, as well as the purpose for the borehole, drilling dates, and information about extracted cores. The report also presents the hole status (plugged, testing, monitoring, etc.) and includes salient findings and references. Maps with borehole locations and times-of-drilling charts are included.

  1. Use of Performance Assessment in Support of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Programmatic Activity Planning

    SciTech Connect

    BASABILVAZO,GEORGE; JOW,HONG-NIAN; LARSON,KURT W.; MARIETTA,MELVIN G.

    1999-09-22

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the geologic (deep underground) disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. A Compliance Certification Application (CCA) of the WIPP for such disposal was submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October 1996, and was approved by EPA in May 1998. In June 1998, two separate, but related, lawsuits were filed, one against DOE and one against EPA. On March 22, 1999, the court ruled in favor of DOE, and on March 26, 1999, DOE formally began disposal operations at the WIPP for non-mixed (non-hazardous) TRU waste. Before the WIPP can begin receiving mixed (hazardous) TRU waste, a permit from the State of New Mexico for hazardous waste disposal needs to be issued. It is anticipated that the State of New Mexico will issue a hazardous waste permit by November 1999. It is further anticipated that the EPA lawsuit will be resolved by July 1999. Congress (Public Law 102-579, Section 8(f)) requires the WIPP project to be recertified by the EPA at least as frequently as once every five years from the first receipt of TRU waste at the WIPP site. As part of the DOE's WIPP project recertification strategy, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has used systems analysis and performance assessment to prioritize its scientific and engineering research activities. Two 1998 analyses, the near-field systems analysis and the annual sensitivity analysis, are discussed here. Independently, the two analyses arrived at similar conclusions regarding important scientific activities associated with the WIPP. The use of these techniques for the recent funding allocations at SNL's WIPP project had several beneficial effects. It increased the level of acceptance among project scientists that management had fairly and credibly compared alternatives when making prioritization decisions. It improved the ability of SNL and its project sponsor, the Carlsbad Area Office of the DOE, to demonstrate the importance of ongoing scientific and engineering activities associated with the WIPP project. Finally, it provided objective documentation of the decision-making process for issues with an impact on safety at the WIPP, a critical topic for the general public and the regulatory agencies.

  2. DRSPALL :spallings model for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2004 recertification.

    SciTech Connect

    Gilkey, Amy P. (GRAM Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Hansen, Clifford W.; Schatz, John F. (John F. Schatz Research & Consulting, Inc., Del Mar, CA); Rudeen, David Keith (GRAM Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Lord, David L.

    2006-02-01

    This report presents a model to estimate the spallings releases for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Performance Assessment (WIPP PA). A spallings release in the context of WIPP PA refers to a portion of the solid waste transported from the subsurface repository to the ground surface due to inadvertent oil or gas drilling into the WIPP repository at some time after site closure. Some solid waste will be removed by the action of the drillbit and drilling fluid; this waste is referred to as cuttings and cavings. If the repository is pressurized above hydrostatic at the time of intrusion, solid waste material local to the borehole may be subject to mechanical failure and entrainment in high-velocity gases as the repository pressure is released to the borehole. Solid material that fails and is transported into the wellbore and thus to the surface comprise the spallings releases. The spallings mechanism is analogous to a well blowout in the modern oil and gas drilling industry. The current spallings conceptual model and associated computer code, DRSPALL, were developed for the 2004 recertification because the prior spallings model used in the 1996 WIPP Compliance Certification Application (CCA) was judged by an independent peer review panel as inadequate (DOE 1996, 9.3.1). The current conceptual model for spallings addresses processes that take place several minutes before and after a borehole intrusion of a WIPP waste room. The model couples a pipe-flow wellbore model with a porous flow repository model, allowing high-pressure gas to flow from the repository to the wellbore through a growing cavity region at the well bottom. An elastic stress model is applied to the porous solid domain that allows for mechanical failure of repository solids if local tensile stress exceeds the tensile strength of the waste. Tensile-failed solids may be entrained into the wellbore flow stream by a fluidized bed model, in which case they are ultimately transported to the land surface comprising a release. In July 2003, DOE/SNL presented the spallings conceptual model to a independent peer review panel in accordance with NUREG 1297 guidelines (NRC, 1988). The panel ultimately judged the model as adequate for implementation in WIPP PA (Yew et al., 2003). This report documents the spallings model history from 1997 to the implementation of DRSPALL in the 2004 Compliance Recertification Application (CRA) (DOE, 2004). The scope of this report includes descriptions of the conceptual model, numerical model, verification and validation techniques, model sensitivity studies, and WIPP PA spallings results as presented in the 2004 CRA.

  3. Laboratory-scale vitrification and leaching of Hanford high-level waste for the purpose of simulant and glass property models validation

    SciTech Connect

    Morrey, E.V.; Elliott, M.L.; Tingey, J.M.

    1993-02-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being built to process the high-level and TRU waste into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Testing programs have been established within the Project to verify process technology using simulated waste. A parallel testing program with actual radioactive waste is being performed to confirm the validity of using simulates and glass property models for waste form qualification and process testing. The first feed type to be processed by and the first to be tested on a laboratory-scale is pretreated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW). The NCAW is a neutralized high-level waste stream generated from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel in the Plutonium and Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant at Hanford. As part of the fuel reprocessing, the high-level waste generated in PUREX was denitrated with sugar to form current acid waste (CAW). Sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrite were added to the CAW to minimize corrosion in the tanks, thus yielding neutralized CAW. The NCAW contains small amounts of plutonium, fission products from the irradiated fuel, stainless steel corrosion products, and iron and sulfate from the ferrous sulfamate reductant used in the PUREX process. This paper will discuss the results and status of the laboratory-scale radioactive testing.

  4. Can we build better compost? Use of waste drywall to enhance plant growth on reclamation sites.

    PubMed

    Naeth, M Anne; Wilkinson, Sarah R

    2013-11-15

    Compost is a readily available source of organic matter and nutrients and is produced large scale in many jurisdictions. Novel advancements in composting include addition of construction waste, such as drywall, to address its disposal while potentially improving compost quality for use in land reclamation. Varying compositions (15-30% by weight) of coarse and ground waste drywall were added to manure and biosolids during composting. Six composts were applied at four rates (0, 50, 100, 200 Mg ha(-1)) to three reclamation soils (agricultural, urban clean fill, oil sands tailings). Response to composts was assessed in the greenhouse with three plant species (Hordeum vulgare L. (barley), Agropyron trachycaulum (Link) Malte (slender wheat grass) and Festuca saximontana Rydb. (rocky mountain fescue). Drywall added to biosolids or manure during composting had no detrimental effects on vegetation; any negative effects of compost occurred with and without drywall. In agricultural soil and clean fill, biosolids composts with 15% coarse and 18% ground drywall improved native grass response, particularly biomass, relative to biosolids compost without drywall. Drywall manure composts reduced native grass response relative to manure compost without drywall. Only low quality tailings sand was improved by 30% coarse drywall. Compost rate significantly affected above and below ground biomass in agricultural soil and reduced performance of native species at highest rates, suggesting a threshold beyond which conditions will not be suitable for reclamation. Grinding drywall did not significantly improve plant performance and use of coarse drywall would eliminate the need for specialized equipment and resources. This initial research demonstrates that drywall composts are appropriate soil amendments for establishment of native and non native plant species on reclamation sites with consideration of substrate properties and plant species tolerances to dictate which additional feed stocks should be used. PMID:24013559

  5. Waste-to-energy plant for paper industry sludges disposal: technical-economic study.

    PubMed

    Caputo, A C; Pelagagge, P M

    2001-02-16

    In this work, a detailed technical-economic analysis of a fluidized bed based waste-to-energy system for disposal of paper manufacturing sludges has been carried out. Specific reference is made to a case study represented by the largest plant in Italy producing recycled paper, with a daily sludge output of about 52t. The adopted plant has been sized for a nominal capacity of 140t per day also allowing the progressive elimination of sludges accumulated in a previously utilized landfill, giving a nominal electrical power output of 3.5MW. The main plant sections have been described and the adopted technical solutions have been outlined. A detailed process and equipment characterization has been carried out leading to a thorough evaluation of capital investment, operating costs and revenues. A differential analysis has been performed with respect to the alternative solution represented by the disposal of untreated sludges in an external landfill in order to highlight the savings obtainable. The economic profitability of the investment has been evaluated regarding several performance indices. The economic evaluation has been completed by a sensitivity and risk analysis in order to assess the effects of uncertainties in the economically significant parameters. Adopting most probable values, the savings obtained with the considered waste-to-energy system are evaluated in the 15--20 million Euro range during the estimated plant life of 15 years with a foreseen pay back time of 4 years. Moreover, many environmental benefits result such as the remediation of existing landfill, the avoidance of new landfills opening and very low air pollutants emissions. PMID:11163691

  6. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 2, Technical basis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with applicable long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for a final compliance evaluation. This volume, Volume 2, contains the technical basis for the 1992 PA. Specifically, it describes the conceptual basis for consequence modeling and the PA methodology, including the selection of scenarios for analysis, the determination of scenario probabilities, and the estimation of scenario consequences using a Monte Carlo technique and a linked system of computational models. Additional information about the 1992 PA is provided in other volumes. Volume I contains an overview of WIPP PA and results of a preliminary comparison with the long-term requirements of the EPA`s Environmental Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). Volume 3 contains the reference data base and values for input parameters used in consequence and probability modeling. Volume 4 contains uncertainty and sensitivity analyses related to the preliminary comparison with 40 CFR 191B. Volume 5 contains uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of gas and brine migration for undisturbed performance. Finally, guidance derived from the entire 1992 PA is presented in Volume 6.

  7. Potential nutraceutical food beverage with antioxidant properties from banana plant bio-waste (pseudostem and rhizome).

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Kandasamy; Aradhya, Somaradhya Mallikarjuna

    2011-10-01

    Banana plant biomass waste, viz. pseudostem (BPS) and rhizome (BR), contribute 30.81 and 12.67 per cent respectively. A negligible percentage of these were used for fresh consumption, otherwise they are waste and incinerated. In order to utilize these bio-wastes in a bioactive perspective, nutritional and nutraceutical components were studied from the juices and its Ready-To-Serve (RTS) beverage. When compared to BPS juice, BR juice showed higher total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of 341.44 mgGAE and 87.60 mgCE/200 ?L, respectively, and concomitantly exhibited high antioxidant activity (AOA) in all the assays tested, viz. DPPH radical scavenging activity (82.93%), superoxide radical scavenging activity (49.45%), metal chelation activity (48.32%) total reducing power (0.846 OD at 700 nm) and total antioxidant capacity (928 mmol ascorbic acid equivalents). High quantity of polyphenols present in BR juice resulted high AOA. Strong positive correlations were observed between TPC and TFC of BPS and BR juice with AOA assays. Among the different concentrations of RTS beverages prepared, 25% BPS juice and 20% BR juice with 15°brix TSS and 0.3% acidity were adjudged as best by sensory panelists. Thus, BPS and BR juice can be effectively used to produce new generation functional beverages. PMID:21915417

  8. Performance Assessment in Support of the 1996 Compliance Certification Application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.R.; Basabilvazo, G.; Helton, J.C.; Jow, H.-N.; Marietta, M.G.

    1998-10-14

    The conceptual and computational structure of a performance assessment (PA) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is described. Important parts of thk structure are @ maintenance of a separation between stochastic (i.e., aleatory) and subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertain, with stochastic uncefinty arising from the many possible disruptions that could occur over the 10,000 Y regulatory period fiat applies to the WIPP and subjective uncertainty arising from `the imprecision with which many of the quantities rquired in tie `hdysis are known, (ii) use of Latin hypercttbe sampling to incorporate the effects of subjective uncefirtty, (iii) use of Monte Carlo (i.e., random) sampling to incorporate the effects of stochastic uncetinty, and OV) efficient use of tie necessarily limited number of mechanistic calculations that can be performed to SUPPOII the analysis. The WIPP is under development by the U.S. Department of Ener~ (DOE) for the geologic (i.e., deep underground) disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste, with the indicated PA supporting a ~Compliance Certification Application (CCA) by the DOE to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October 1996 for tie necessary certifications for the WIPP to begin operation. If certified, the WIPP will be the first operational faciliv in tie United States for the geologic disposal of ra&oactive waste.

  9. Development of a gas-generation model for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brush, L.H.; Storz, L.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Garner, J.W. [Applied Physics, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Design-basis transuranic (TRU) waste to be emplaced in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico may generate significant quantities of gas, which may affect the performance of the WIPP with respect to regulations for radioactive and/or chemically hazardous waste constituents. We are developing a model to predict gas generation in WIPP disposal rooms during and after filling and sealing. Currently, the model includes: (1) oxic and anoxic corrosion of steels and other Fe-base alloys, including passivation and depassivation; (2) microbial degradation of cellulosics with O{sub 2}, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, FeO(OH), SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, or CO{sub 2} as the electron acceptor; (3) {alpha} radiolysis of brine; (4) consumption of CO{sub 2} and, perhaps, H{sub 2}S by Ca(OH){sub 2} (in cementitious materials) and CaO (a potential backfill additive). The code simulates these processes and interactions among them by converting reactants (steels, cellulosics, etc.) to gases and other products at experimentally observed or estimated rates and plotting temporal reaction paths in three-dimensional phase diagrams for solids in the Fe-H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}-H{sub 2}S system.

  10. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 3, Chapter C, Appendix C3 (conclusion)--Chapter C, Appendix C9: Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Roggenthen, D. K.; McFeeters, T. L.; Nieweg, R. G.; Blakeslee, J. J.

    1993-03-01

    This volume contains appendices for the following: results of extraction procedure (EP) toxicity data analyses; summary of headspace gas analysis in Rocky Flats Plant sampling program-FY 1988; waste drum gas generation sampling program at Rocky Flats Plant during FY 1988; TRU waste sampling program waste characterization; summary of headspace gas analyses in TRU waste sampling program; summary of volatile organic compounds analyses in TRU waste sampling program; totals analysis versus toxicity characteristic leaching procedure; Waste Isolation Pilot Plant waste characterization sampling and analysis methods; Waste Isolation Pilot Plant waste characterization analytical methods; data reduction, validation and reporting; examples of waste screening checklists; and Waste Isolation Pilot Plant generator/storage site waste screening and acceptance audit program.

  11. Development and Testing of Srex Flowsheets for Treatment of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Sodium-Bearing Waste Using Centrifugal Contactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack D. Law; Donald J. Wood; R. Scott Herbst

    1997-01-01

    Laboratory experimentation has indicated that the SREX process is effective for partitioning Sr from acidic radioactive waste solutions located at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A baseline flowsheet has been proposed for the treatment of sodiumbearing waste (SBW) which includes extraction of strontium from liquid SBW into the SREX solvent (0.15 M 4?,4? (5?)-di-(tert-butyldicyclohexo)-18-crown-6 and 1.2 M TBP in Isopar

  12. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 6, Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This volume contains Appendix D2, engineering design basis reports. Contents include: Design considerations for the waste hoist of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); A site-specific study of wind and tornado probabilities at the WIPP Site in southeast New Mexico; Seismic evaluation report of underground facilities; and calculations for analysis of wind loads and tornado loads for WHB, seismic calculations, calculations for VOC-10 monitoring system, and for shaft at station A.

  13. Use of Clearance Indexes to Assess Waste Disposal Issues for the HYLIFE-II Inertial Fusion Energy Power Plant Design

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, S; Latkowski, J F; Sanz, J

    2002-01-17

    Traditionally, waste management studies for fusion energy have used the Waste Disposal Rating (WDR) to evaluate if radioactive material from irradiated structures could qualify for shallow land burial. However, given the space limitations and the negative public perception of large volumes of waste, there is a growing international motivation to develop a fusion waste management system that maximizes the amount of material that can be cleared or recycled. In this work, we present an updated assessment of the waste management options for the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant, using the concept of Clearance Index (CI) for radioactive waste disposal. With that purpose, we have performed a detailed neutronics analysis of the HYLIFE-II design, using the TART and ACAB computer codes for neutron transport and activation, respectively. Whereas the traditional version of ACAB only provided the user with the WDR as an index for waste considerations, here we have modified the code to calculate Clearance Indexes using the current International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) clearance limits for radiological waste disposal. The results from the analysis are used to perform an assessment of the waste management options for the HYLIFE-II IFE design.

  14. One System Integrated Project Team Progress in Coordinating Hanford Tank Farms and the Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Skwarek, Raymond J. [Washington River Protection Systems, Richland, WA (United States); Harp, Ben J. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Duncan, Garth M. [Bechtel National, Inc. (United States)

    2013-12-18

    The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed at the Hanford Site in late 2011 as a way to improve coordination and itegration between the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) on interfaces between the two projects, and to eliminate duplication and exploit opportunities for synergy. The IPT is composed of jointly staffed groups that work on technical issues of mutal interest, front-end design and project definition, nuclear safety, plant engineering system integration, commissioning, planning and scheduling, and environmental, safety, health and quality (ESH&Q) areas. In the past year important progress has been made in a number of areas as the organization has matured and additional opportunities have been identified. Areas covered in this paper include: Support for development of the Office of Envirnmental Management (EM) framework document to progress the Office of River Protection's (ORP) River Protection Project (RPP) mission; Stewardship of the RPP flowsheet; Collaboration with Savannah River Site (SRS), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Operations programs integration; and, Further development of the waste acceptance criteria.

  15. Radioactivity of coals and ash and slag wastes at coal-fired thermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylov, D. A.; Sidorova, G. P.

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of published data on the content of radioactive nuclides in coals originating from various coal deposits, and in ash and slag wastes produced at coal-fired thermal power plants, as well as in fly ash emitted from thermal power plants into the atmosphere. Problems related to the use of coals with an elevated content of natural radionuclides (NRNs) and methods of their solution implemented at the Urtuyskoe coalfield are dealt with. Data on the analysis of Transbaikal coals for the NRN content, as well as weighted mean content of uranium and thorium in coals from the Siberian Region, are given. In order to reduce irradiation of plant personnel and the population of the areas where coal producers and coal-fired thermal power plants are located, it is necessary to organize very careful control of the NRN content in both coals and products of their combustion that are released into the environment. To solve the problem related to the control of radioactivity, the centralized approach and creation of a proper normative base are needed. Experience gained in developing the Urtuyskoe coalfield shows that it is possible to create an efficient system of coal quality control with respect to the radiation hygiene factor and provide protection of the environment and health of the population.

  16. Evaluation of methanogenic activity of biogas plant slurry for monitoring codigestion of ossein factory wastes and cyanobacterial biomass.

    PubMed

    Chellapandi, P; Prabaharan, D; Uma, L

    2010-09-01

    Overall measurement of methanogenic activity of sludge and or slurry is thought as a key for understanding the basic physiology of anaerobic consortia involved in anaerobic digestion process of an alternative biomass. In this study, the methanogenic activity of biogas plant slurry was used to evaluate the anaerobic digestion of ossein factory wastes such as sinews and primary clarified bone waste (PCBW) and cyanobacterial biomass in standard assay conditions. A maximum methanogenic activity was reported here when ossein factory wastes mixed with cyanobacterial biomass in specific proportions in which sinews and PCBW alone also favored to a significant methane yield. Cyanobacterial biomass alone did not give a desirable methanogenic activity. Approximately 48% of total solids were destroyed from these wastes after 30 days. This study gives information on the use of these wastes with suitable proportions for taking an effort in a large-scale anaerobic digestion in an effective way of ossein factory. PMID:19911119

  17. Plant growth response in experimental soilless mixes prepared from coal combustion products and organic waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bardhan, S.; Watson, M.; Dick, W.A. [Ohio State University, Wooster, OH (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Large quantities of organic materials such as animal manures, yard trimmings, and biosolids are produced each year. Beneficial use options for them are often limited, and composting has been proposed as a way to better manage these organic materials. Similarly, burning of coal created 125 million tons of coal combustion products (CCP) in the United States in 2006. An estimated 53 million tons of CCP were reused, whereas the remainder was deposited in landfills. By combining CCP and composted organic materials (COM), we were able to create soilless plant growth mixes with physicochemical conditions that can support excellent plant growth. An additional benefit is the conservation of natural raw materials, such as peat, which is generally used for making soilless mixes. Experimental mixes were formulated by combining CCP and COM at ratios ranging from 2:8 to 8:2 (vol/vol), respectively. Water content at saturation for the created mixes was 63% to 72%, whereas for the commercial control, it was 77%. pH values for the best performing mixes ranged between 5.9 and 6.8. Electrical conductivity and concentrations of required plant nutrient were also within plant growth recommendations for container media. Significantly (P < 0.0001) higher plant biomass growth (7%-130%) was observed in the experimental mixes compared with a commercial mix. No additional fertilizers were provided during the experiment, and reduced fertilization costs can thus accrue as an added benefit to the grower. In summary, combining CCP and COM, derived from source materials often viewed as wastes, can create highly productive plant growth mixes.

  18. Evaluation of wastes from the East St. Louis Water Treatment Plant and their impact on the Mississippi River

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, S.; Evans, R.L.; Schnepper, D.; Hill, T.

    1984-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the quantity and characteristics of wastes generated by the East St. Louis, Illinois, water treatment plant, a large plant employing the clarification process, and to assess their effects on the Mississippi River. The major chemical constituents of the solids wastes are iron (inherent in the suspended sediments in transport in the river) and aluminum (derived from the use of alum as a supplemental coagulant in the treatment plant). Except during 7-day 10-year low flow conditions, increases in suspended solids in the Mississippi River during occurrences of maximum waste discharges will not be perceptible. The influence of the waste is detectable in the bottom sediments of the river by increases in iron, aluminum, moisture, and volatile (organic) content, and by changes in particle size distribution. However, that influence is limited to an impacted area about 100 feet offshore and within 4000 feet downstream of the waste outfalls, and it appears that the types of changes in the composition of the sediments are not a mark of environmental degradation. This conclusion is strengthened by observations of benthic macroinvertebrates in the area. There was no significant difference in the near-shore stations upstream or downstream of the waste outfalls in terms of types and densities of macroinvertebrates.

  19. Recent Improvements in Interface Management for Hanford's Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - 13263

    SciTech Connect

    Arm, Stuart T.; Van Meighem, Jeffery S. [Washington River Protection Solutions, P.O. Box 850, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States)] [Washington River Protection Solutions, P.O. Box 850, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States); Duncan, Garth M.; Pell, Michael J. [Bechtel National Inc., 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States)] [Bechtel National Inc., 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States); Harrington, Christopher C. [Department of Energy - Office of River Protection, 2440 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States)] [Department of Energy - Office of River Protection, 2440 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for management and completion of the River Protection Project (RPP) mission, which includes the Hanford Site tank farms operations and the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The RPP mission is to store, retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste; store and dispose of treated wastes; and close the tank farm waste management areas and treatment facilities by 2047. The WTP is currently being designed and constructed by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) for DOE-ORP. BNI relies on a number of technical services from other Hanford contractors for WTP's construction and commissioning. These same services will be required of the future WTP operations contractor. Partly in response to a DNFSB recommendation, the WTP interface management process managing these technical services has recently been improved through changes in organization and issue management. The changes are documented in an Interface Management Plan. The organizational improvement is embodied in the One System Integrated Project Team that was formed by integrating WTP and tank farms staff representing interfacing functional areas into a single organization. A number of improvements were made to the issue management process but most notable was the formal appointment of technical, regulatory and safety subject matter experts to ensure accurate identification of issues and open items. Ten of the thirteen active WTP Interface Control Documents have been revised in 2012 using the improved process with the remaining three in progress. The value of the process improvements is reflected by the ability to issue these documents on schedule and accurately identify technical, regulatory and safety issues and open items. (authors)

  20. Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Closure Plan - Plutonium Finishing Plant Treatment Unit Glovebox HA-20MB

    SciTech Connect

    PRIGNANO, A.L.

    2003-06-25

    This closure plan describes the planned activities and performance standards for closing the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) glovebox HA-20MB that housed an interim status ''Resource Conservation and Recovery Act'' (RCRA) of 1976 treatment unit. This closure plan is certified and submitted to Ecology for incorporation into the Hanford Facility RCRA Permit (HF RCRA Permit) in accordance with Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement; TPA) Milestone M-83-30 requiring submittal of a certified closure plan for ''glovebox HA-20MB'' by July 31, 2003. Glovebox HA-20MB is located within the 231-5Z Building in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility. Currently glovebox HA-20MB is being used for non-RCRA analytical purposes. The schedule of closure activities under this plan supports completion of TPA Milestone M-83-44 to deactivate and prepare for dismantlement the above grade portions of the 234-5Z and ZA, 243-Z, and 291-Z and 291-Z-1 stack buildings by September 30, 2015. Under this closure plan, glovebox HA-20MB will undergo clean closure to the performance standards of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 with respect to all dangerous waste contamination from glovebox HA-20MB RCRA operations. Because the intention is to clean close the PFP treatment unit, postclosure activities are not applicable to this closure plan. To clean close the unit, it will be demonstrated that dangerous waste has not been left at levels above the closure performance standard for removal and decontamination. If it is determined that clean closure is not possible or is environmentally impractical, the closure plan will be modified to address required postclosure activities. Because dangerous waste does not include source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. Any information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge. Clearance form only sent to RHA.