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1

Idle reprocessing plant nuke waste fix moving  

SciTech Connect

A system is discussed for cleanup at a defunct nuclear waste reprocessing plant in upstate New York. The new system, a solidification process, is designed to stabilize 600,000 gal of highly radioactive waste into glass logs. The design for a waste-solidification process consists of a slurry-fed, ceramic kiln where the molten borosilicate glass is mixed with wastes. The mix is poured into steel canisters where it hardens into glass logs to be buried at a federal depository. Also discussed is a new disposal method, called caisson waste disposal, for the low-level radioactive waste generated during cleanup.

Not Available

1984-02-01

2

Specialized Disposal Sites for Different Reprocessing Plant Wastes  

SciTech Connect

Once-through fuel cycles have one waste form: spent nuclear fuel (SNF). In contrast, the reprocessed SNF yields multiple wastes with different chemical, physical, and radionuclide characteristics. The different characteristics of each waste imply that there are potential cost and performance benefits to developing different disposal sites that match the disposal requirements of different waste. Disposal sites as defined herein may be located in different geologies or in a single repository containing multiple sections, each with different characteristics. The paper describes disposal options for specific wastes and the potential for a waste management system that better couples various reprocessing plant wastes with disposal facilities. (authors)

Forsberg, Charles W. [Nuclear Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831 (United States); Driscoll, Michael J. [Department of Nuclear Science and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA, 02139 (United States)

2007-07-01

3

Mesoscale to plant-scale models of nuclear waste reprocessing.  

SciTech Connect

Imported oil exacerabates our trade deficit and funds anti-American regimes. Nuclear Energy (NE) is a demonstrated technology with high efficiency. NE's two biggest political detriments are possible accidents and nuclear waste disposal. For NE policy, proliferation is the biggest obstacle. Nuclear waste can be reduced through reprocessing, where fuel rods are separated into various streams, some of which can be reused in reactors. Current process developed in the 1950s is dirty and expensive, U/Pu separation is the most critical. Fuel rods are sheared and dissolved in acid to extract fissile material in a centrifugal contactor. Plants have many contacts in series with other separations. We have taken a science and simulation-based approach to develop a modern reprocessing plant. Models of reprocessing plants are needed to support nuclear materials accountancy, nonproliferation, plant design, and plant scale-up.

Noble, David Frederick; O'Hern, Timothy John; Moffat, Harry K.; Nemer, Martin B.; Domino, Stefan Paul; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Brotherton, Christopher M.; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Pawlowski, Roger Patrick

2010-09-01

4

Actinide partitioning processes for fuel reprocessing and refabrication plant wastes  

SciTech Connect

Chemical processing methods have been developed on a laboratory scale to partition the actinides from the liquid and solid fuel reprocessing plant (FRP) and refabrication plant (FFP) wastes. It was envisioned that these processes would be incorporated into separate waste treatment facilities (WTFs) that are adjacent to, but not integrated with, the fuel reprocessing and refabrication plants. Engineering equipment and material balance flowsheets have been developed for WTFs in support of a 2000-MTHM/year FRP and a 660-MTHM/year MOX-FFP. The processing subsystems incorporated in the FRP-WTF are: High-Level Solid Waste Treatment, High-Level Liquid Waste Treatment, Solid Alpha Waste Treatment, Cation Exchange Chromatography, Salt Waste Treatment, Actinide Recovery, Solvent Cleanup and recycle, Off-Gas Treatment, Actinide Product Concentration, and Acid and Water Recycle. The WTF supporting a fuel refabrication facility, although similar, does not contain subsystems (1) and (2). Based on the results of the laboratory and hot-cell experimental work, we believe that the processes and flowsheets offer the potential to reduce the total unrecovered actinides in FRP and FFP wastes to less than or equal to 0.25%. The actinide partitioning processes and the WTF concept represent advanced technology that would require substantial work before commercialization. It is estimated that an orderly development program would require 15 to 20 years to complete and would cost about 700 million 1979 dollars. It is estimated that the capital cost and annual operating cost, in mid-1979 dollars, for the FRP-WTF are $1035 million and $71.5 million/year, and for the FFP-WTF are $436 million and $25.6 million/year, respectively.

Finney, B.C.; Tedder, D.W.

1980-01-01

5

Treatment of wastes from BNFL's THORP reprocessing plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reprocessing of light water reactor (LWR) fuels by the PUREX process is a well-established technology for recovery of uranium and plutonium for subsequent recycle. While the chemistry and engineering of the PUREX system have been refined to a considerable degree, treatment of the wastes arising from reprocessing present an equally demanding challenge. British Nuclear Fuels experience from the design of

Jeapes

1993-01-01

6

Removal of actinides from nuclear reprocessing wastes: a pilot plant study using non-radioactive simulants  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear fuel reprocessing wastes generated at the ICPP contain small amounts of actinides, primarily Pu and Am. Removal of these actinides reduces the long term storage hazards of the waste. The development of a flowsheet to remove trivalent actinides is discussed in this paper. Pilot plant studies used actinide simulants. As a result of these studies, the Height of a Transfer Unit (HTU) was selected as the better measure of pulse column separation efficiency.

Maxey, H.R.; McIsaac, L.D.; Chamberlain, D.B.; McManus, G.J.

1980-01-01

7

Considerations affecting deep-well disposal of tritium-bearing low-level aqueous waste from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present concepts of disposal of low-level aqueous wastes (LLAW) that contain much of the fission-product tritium from light water reactors involve dispersal to the atmosphere or to surface streams at fuel reprocessing plants. These concepts have been challenged in recent years. Deep-well injection of low-level aqueous wastes, an alternative to biospheric dispersal, is the subject of this presentation. Many factors

L. E. Trevorrow; D. L. Warner; M. J. Steindler

1977-01-01

8

Industrial reprocessing and waste minimization at COGEMA, La Hague  

Microsoft Academic Search

COGEMA is making significant progress in waste volume reduction at the UP3 reprocessing plant. The plant was designed to generate three-quarters of a canister of vitrified high-level waste and three drums of bitumenized medium-level waste per metric ton of reprocessed uranium. With the ongoing plant modifications and new waste management practices, the need for bitumen waste form will disappear by

Ledermann

1993-01-01

9

NO\\/sub x\\/ emissions from Hanford nuclear fuels reprocessing plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operation of the existing Hanford nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities will increase the release of nitrogen oxides (NO\\/sub x\\/) to the atmosphere over present emission rates. Stack emissions from two reprocessing facilities, one waste storage facility and two coal burning power plants will contain increased concentrations of NO\\/sub x\\/. The opacity of the reprocessing facilities' emissions is predicted to periodically exceed

A. L. Pajunen; R. L. Dirkes

1978-01-01

10

Geohydrologic conditions at the nuclear-fuels reprocessing plant and waste-management facilities at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center, Cattaraugus County, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant, a high-level radioactive liquid-waste tank complex, and related waste facilities occupy 100 hectares (ha) within the Western New York Nuclear Service Center near West Valley, N.Y. The facilities are underlain by glacial and postglacial deposits that fill an ancestrial bedrock valley. The main plant facilities are on an elevated plateau referred to as the north plateau. Groundwater on the north plateau moves laterally within a surficial sand and gravel from the main plant building to areas northeast, east, and southeast of the facilities. The sand and gravel ranges from 1 to 10 m thick and has a hydraulic conductivity ranging from 0.1 to 7.9 m/day. Two separate burial grounds, a 4-ha area for low-level radioactive waste disposal and a 2.9-ha area for disposal of higher-level waste are excavated into a clay-rich till that ranges from 22 to 28 m thick. Migration of an organic solvent from the area of higher level waste at shallow depth in the till suggests that a shallow, fractured, oxidized, and weathered till is a significant pathway for lateral movement of groundwater. Below this zone, groundwater moves vertically downward through the till to recharge a lacustrine silt and fine sand. Within the saturated parts of the lacustrine unit, groundwater moves laterally to the northeast toward Buttermilk Creek. Hydraulic conductivity of the till, based on field and laboratory analyses , ranges from 0.000018 to 0.000086 m/day. (USGS)

Bergeron, M. P.; Kappel, W. M.; Yager, R. M.

1987-01-01

11

Repository disposal requirements for commercial transuranic wastes (generated without reprocessing)  

SciTech Connect

This report forms a preliminary planning basis for disposal of commercial transuranic (TRU) wastes in a geologic repository. Because of the unlikely prospects for commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing in the near-term, this report focuses on TRU wastes generated in a once-through nuclear fuel cycle. The four main objectives of this study were to: develop estimates of the current inventories, projected generation rates, and characteristics of commercial TRU wastes; develop proposed acceptance requirements for TRU wastes forms and waste canisters that ensure a safe and effective disposal system; develop certification procedures and processing requirements that ensure that TRU wastes delivered to a repository for disposal meet all applicable waste acceptance requirements; and identify alternative conceptual strategies for treatment and certification of commercial TRU first objective was accomplished through a survey of commercial producers of TRU wastes. The TRU waste acceptance and certification requirements that were developed were based on regulatory requirements, information in the literature, and from similar requirements already established for disposal of defense TRU wastes in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) which were adapted, where necessary, to disposal of commercial TRU wastes. The results of the TRU waste-producer survey indicated that there were a relatively large number of producers of small quantities of TRU wastes.

Daling, P.M.; Ludwick, J.D.; Mellinger, G.B.; McKee, R.W.

1986-06-01

12

Repository Disposal Requirements for Commercial Transuranic Wastes (Generated Without Reprocessing).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report forms a preliminary planning basis for disposal of commercial transuranic (TRU) wastes in a geologic repository. Because of the unlikely prospects for commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing in the near-term, this report focuses on TRU wast...

P. M. Daling J. D. Ludwick G. B. Mellinger R. W. McKee

1986-01-01

13

Issues Related to the Closing of the Nuclear Fuel Services, Incorporated, Reprocessing Plant at West Valley, New York.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following topics are considered: the NFS reprocessing plant history; A description of NFS reprocessing operations; What is the condition of the waste tanks; What is the condition of the waste; What is the status of technology for managing NFS waste; W...

1977-01-01

14

Nuclear Accountability Data at the Eurex Reprocessing Plant. Pt. 1. MTR Fuel Reprocessing Campaign.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the present work the physical inventory's and fissile material balance's data, which have been collected during the irradiated MTR fuel reprocessing campaign at the EUREX plant in Saluggia (VC), are reported, together with the most important procedures...

S. Ilardi F. Pozzi

1976-01-01

15

Cost and availability of gadolinium for nuclear fuel reprocessing plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gadolinium is currently planned for use as a soluble neutron poison in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants to prevent criticality of solutions of spent fuel. Gadolinium is relatively rare and expensive. The present study was undertaken therefore to estimate whether this material is likely to be available in quantities sufficient for fuel reprocessing and at reasonable prices. It was found that

Klepper

1985-01-01

16

Evaluation of radioactivity release at Rokkasho reprocessing plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

JNFL have been conducting Active Test with spent fuels at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP). In Active Test, the evaluation of radioactivity release to the environment (atmosphere and sea) was obtained. (authors)

Hiroshi Sugiyama; Noriyuki Ishihara; Akira Maki

2007-01-01

17

Evaluation of radioactivity release at Rokkasho reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

JNFL have been conducting Active Test with spent fuels at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP). In Active Test, the evaluation of radioactivity release to the environment (atmosphere and sea) was obtained. (authors)

Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Noriyuki; Maki, Akira [Engineering Section, Engineering Department, Reprocessing Plant, Reprocessing Business Division, Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited 4-108, Aza Okitsuke, Oaza Obuchi, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori-ken, 039-3212 (Japan)

2007-07-01

18

Cost and Availability of Gadolinium for Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gadolinium is currently planned for use as a soluble neutron poison in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants to prevent criticality of solutions of spent fuel. Gadolinium is relatively rare and expensive. The present study was undertaken therefore to estimate ...

O. H. Klepper

1985-01-01

19

Explosion investigation of asphalt–salt mixtures in a reprocessing plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cause investigation of a fire and explosion at the nuclear fuel waste reprocessing plant indicated that self-heating ignition of an asphalt–salt-waste, bituminized, mixture (AS) caused the disaster. A 220l drum was filled with the AS at a temperature of about 180°C. About 20h later the drum ignited and burned as it was being cooled. It is estimated that the AS

Kazutoshi Hasegawa; Yongfu Li

2000-01-01

20

10 CFR Appendix F to Part 50 - Policy Relating to the Siting of Fuel Reprocessing Plants and Related Waste Management Facilities  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Appendix F to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ...for reprocessing irradiated reactor fuels.) High-level...be designed to defray all costs of disposal and perpetual...the facility is permanently decommissioned. Criteria for the...

2009-01-01

21

Process for recovery of palladium from nuclear fuel reprocessing wastes  

DOEpatents

Palladium is selectively removed from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing waste by adding sugar to a strong nitric acid solution of the waste to partially denitrate the solution and cause formation of an insoluble palladium compound. The process includes the steps of: (a) adjusting the nitric acid content of the starting solution to about 10 M, (b) adding 50% sucrose solution in an amount sufficient to effect the precipitation of the palladium compound, (c) heating the solution at reflux temperature until precipitation is complete, and (d) centrifuging the solution to separate the precipitated palladium compound from the supernatant liquid.

Campbell, David O. (Oak Ridge, TN); Buxton, Samuel R. (Wartburg, TN)

1981-01-01

22

Process for recovery of palladium from nuclear fuel reprocessing wastes  

DOEpatents

Palladium is selectively removed from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing waste by adding sugar to a strong nitric acid solution of the waste to partially denitrate the solution and cause formation of an insoluble palladium compound. The process includes the steps of: (a) adjusting the nitric acid content of the starting solution to about 10 M; (b) adding 50% sucrose solution in an amount sufficient to effect the precipitation of the palladium compound; (c) heating the solution at reflux temperature until precipitation is complete; and (d) centrifuging the solution to separate the precipitated palladium compound from the supernatant liquid.

Campbell, D.O.; Buxton, S.R.

1980-06-16

23

Vitrification Technology Development Plan in Tokai Reprocessing Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Tokai Vitrification Facility (TVF) is the only operating vitrification plant in Japan, constructed and operated by JAEA, to vitrify concentrated high radioactive liquid waste (HALW) in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP). JAEA started TVF hot operation in 1995 and produced 218 canisters as of March, 2006. An existing melter is the second melter, which was installed from 2002 to 2004 in place of the first melter stopped its operation by damage of a main electrode. JAEA has estimated that the damage was caused by accumulation of noble metal. Therefore, melter bottom structure was improved to get better drain ability of glass containing noble metal. Completing the melter replacement, vitrification operation was restarted in October 2004 and produced 88 canisters successfully until the end of March 2006. Through these experiences, JAEA made basic strategy to achieve stable TVF operation: keeping stable operation of the existing melter preventing adverse effect by noble metal accumulation and developing a new advanced melter with long lifetime preparing for future exchange as the third melter. Based on the basic strategy, JAEA made a decade development plan of necessary key technologies and has started the development since 2005. (authors)

Atsushi Aoshima; Kazuhiko Tanaka [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan)

2006-07-01

24

Remotex and servomanipulator needs in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants  

SciTech Connect

Work on the conceptual design of a pilot-scale plant for reprocessing breeder reactor fuels is being performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The plant design will meet all current federal regulations for repocessing plants and will serve as prototype for future production plants. A unique future of the concept is the incorporation of totally remote operation and maintenance of the process equipment within a large barn-like hot cell. This approach, caled Remotex, utilizes servomanipulators coupled with television viewing to extend man's capabilities into the hostile cell environment. The Remotex concept provides significant improvements for fuel reprocessing plants and other nuclear facilities in the areas of safeguarding nuclear materials, reducing radiation exposure, improving plant availability, recovering from unplanned events, and plant decommissioning.

Garin, J.

1981-01-01

25

Status of radioiodine control for nuclear fuel reprocessing plants  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the status of radioiodine control in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant with respect to capture, fixation, and disposal. Where possible, we refer the reader to a number of survey documents which have been published in the last four years. We provide updates where necessary. Also discussed are factors which must be considered in developing criteria for iodine control. For capture from gas streams, silver mordenite and a silver nitrate impregnated silica (AC-6120) are considered state-of-the-art and are recommended. Three aqueous scrubbing processes have been demonstrated: Caustic scrubbing is simple but probably will not give an adequate iodine retention by itself. Mercurex (mercuric nitrate-nitric acid scrubbing) has a number of disadvantages including the use of toxic mercury. Iodox (hyperazeotropic nitric acid scrubbing) is effective but employs a very corrosive and hazardous material. Other technologies have been tested but require extensive development. The waste forms recommended for long-term storage or disposal are silver iodide, the iodates of barium, strontium, or calcium, and silver loaded sorbents, all fixed in cement. Copper iodide in bitumen (asphalt) is a possibility but requires testing. The selection of a specific form will be influenced by the capture process used.

Burger, L.L.; Scheele, R.D.

1983-07-01

26

MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES RELEASED FROM NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING PLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, and the fission products Tc, I, Cs, Sr, released from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization

2006-01-01

27

Active test of separation facility at Rokkasho reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

During the second and third steps of Active Test at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP), the performances of the Separation Facility have been checked; (A) diluent washing efficiency, (B) plutonium stripping efficiency, (C) decontamination factor of fission products and (D) plutonium and uranium leakage into raffinate and spent solvent. Test results were equivalent to or better than expected. (authors)

Iseki, Tadahiro; Inaba, Makoto; Takahashi, Naoki [Separation Section, Plant Operation Department, Reprocessing Plant, Reprocessing Business Division, Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited, 4-108, Aza Okitsuke, Oaza Obuchi, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori-ken (Japan)

2007-07-01

28

Concept of off-Gas Purification in Reprocessing Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Concepts and individual processes for the off-gas purification in reprocessing plants are described which are suited to achieve a better retention of the gaseous and volatile radionuclides sup 129 I, sup 85 Kr, sup 14 C, and tritium. Improved and new proc...

E. Henrich R. von Ammon

1986-01-01

29

Development of a fluidized-bed calciner and past-treatment processes for solidification of commercial fuel-reprocessing liquid wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of development efforts to adapt fluidized-bed-calcination technology, demonstrated by plant operation since 1963 with radioactive wastes at the ICPP Waste Calcining Facility, to the solidification of radioactive liquid wastes from the reprocessing of commercial nuclear-reactor fuels are presented. Pilot-plant calcining tests with simulated wastes verify the feasibility of fluidized-bed calcination of a variety of projected waste compositions. The

R. E. Schindler; J. R. Berreth; G. G. Simpson; J. H. Valentine; M. S. Walker

1977-01-01

30

Technical requirements for the control of 129I in a nuclear fuels reprocessing plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proposed regulation would limit the release of ¹²I to the environment to 0.005 Ci\\/GWe-yr of nuclear power produced. This corresponds to an overall ¹²I retention factor of about 250 for the LWR fuel cycle. Technolgies available and under development for removing iodine from off-gas and waste water streams in an LWR nuclear fuel reprocessing plant and for converting iodine

L. L. Burger; R. E. Burns

1979-01-01

31

Lessons Learned in International Safeguards - Implementation of Safeguards at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this report is lessons learned at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP). However, the subject of lessons learned for application of international safeguards at reprocessing plants includes a cumulative history of inspections starting at the West Valley (New York, U.S.A.) reprocessing plant in 1969 and proceeding through all of the efforts over the years. The RRP is the

Michael H Ehinger; Shirley Johnson

2010-01-01

32

Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Sodium Bearing Waste - Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Determination  

SciTech Connect

U.S. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management, Section I.1.C, requires that all radioactive waste subject to Department of Energy Order 435.1 be managed as high-level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, or low-level radioactive waste. Determining the radiological classification of the sodium-bearing waste currently in the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tank Farm Facility inventory is important to its proper treatment and disposition. This report presents the technical basis for making the determination that the sodium-bearing waste is waste incidental to spent fuel reprocessing and should be managed as mixed transuranic waste. This report focuses on the radiological characteristics of the sodiumbearing waste. The report does not address characterization of the nonradiological, hazardous constituents of the waste in accordance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act requirements.

Jacobson, Victor Levon

2002-08-01

33

ON-LINE MONITORING FOR CONTROL AND SAFEGUARDING OF RADIOCHEMICAL STREAMS AT SPENT FUEL REPROCESSING PLANT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced techniques that enhance safeguarding of spent fuel reprocessing plants are urgently needed. Our approach is based on the prerequisite that real-time monitoring of solvent extraction flowsheets at a spent fuel reprocessing plant provides the unique capability to quickly detect unwanted manipulations with fissile isotopes present in the radiochemical streams during reprocessing activities. The methods used to monitor these processes

Samuel A. Bryan; Tatiana G. Levitskaia; Amanda M. Lines; Justin M. Billing; Amanda J. Casella; Amanda M. Johnsen; James M. Peterson; Elizabeth M. Thomas

2009-01-01

34

Water reuse in a paper reprocessing plant. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project was undertaken to determine the feasibility of water reuse in a paper reprocessing plant with the goal being to 'close the loop' or to demonstrate zero discharge technology. Before the project began, Big Chief Roofing Company at Ardmore, OK, was discharging 7.89 1\\/sec (125 gpm). Normal operation is now zero discharge with approximately 0.76 1\\/sec (12 gpm) fresh

L. E. Streebin; G. W. Reid; P. Law; C. Hogan

1976-01-01

35

Remote handling and robotics at the BNFL Sellafield reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

As a direct result of its interest in the use of robotics within active plants, British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. (BNFL) has adopted a positive attitude toward both national and European initiatives in this area. During the early operation of the Sellafield reprocessing plant, the process vessels and cell voids were monitored using simple pole and camera combinations. In 1985, BNFL embarked on the provision of a series of machines intended to satisfy the advancing needs for inspection while increasing the level of expertise within the company in this important area. DIMAN 1, DIMAN 2, RODMAN, REPMAN, and RAFFMAN remote handling and robotic machines are described.

Jones, E.L.

1990-01-01

36

Current status of active tests at Rokkasho reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

At Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP), the first commercial reprocessing plant in Japan, the test operation has been carried out step by step with 'water and steam', 'chemical products', 'depleted uranium' and 'spent fuels' toward the planned start of the commercial operation. Water Test was performed as the final stage of plant construction work and functioning of each equipment was tested with water and steam. In Chemical Test the performance of each equipment and unit was verified with chemical products such as nitric acid. In Uranium Test with depleted uranium, function and performance of equipment such as the sharing machine and the dissolver was verified. All its tests were completed by 22 January 2006. Active Test has been performed with spent fuels for the verification of safety functions and performances of equipment and facilities related to the processing of fission products and of plutonium, which had not been tested previously. Active Test which has been in progress since 31 March 2006 is divided into 5 steps, and Step 1, Step 2 and Step 3 are already completed. (authors)

Nago, Toshihide; Ishihara, Noriyuki; Ohtou, Yoshihiro [Engineering Section, Engineering Department, Reprocessing Plant Reprocessing Business Division, Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited 4-108, Aza Okitsuke, Oaza Obuchi, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori-ken, 039-3212 (Japan)

2007-07-01

37

Near-real-time verification approaches for the process area of reprocessing plants  

SciTech Connect

Adoption of near-real-time accountancy in large reprocessing plants will necessitate more timely verification. We discuss techniques and instruments that are suitable for on-site verification of input, output, waste streams, and in-process inventory estimation of tanks, solvent extraction contractors, and concentrators. Calculations show that estimates of solvent extraction contractor inventories may make an insignificant contribution to the total uncertainty of the material balance, relative to the contributions by transfer and process tank inventory measurements. 45 refs., 2 tabs.

Hakkila, E.A.; Barnes, J.W.; Picard, R.R.; Gutmacher, R.G.

1989-01-01

38

Nuclear fuel reprocessing deactivation plan for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The decision was announced on April 28, 1992 to cease all United States Department of Energy (DOE) reprocessing of nuclear fuels. This decision leads to the deactivation of all fuels dissolution, solvent extraction, krypton gas recovery operations, and product denitration at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The reprocessing facilities will be converted to a safe and stable shutdown condition awaiting future alternate uses or decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). This ICPP Deactivation Plan includes the scope of work, schedule, costs, and associated staffing levels necessary to achieve a safe and orderly deactivation of reprocessing activities and the Waste Calcining Facility (WCF). Deactivation activities primarily involve shutdown of operating systems and buildings, fissile and hazardous material removal, and related activities. A minimum required level of continued surveillance and maintenance is planned for each facility/process system to ensure necessary environmental, health, and safety margins are maintained and to support ongoing operations for ICPP facilities that are not being deactivated. Management of the ICPP was transferred from Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) to Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) on October 1, 1994 as part of the INEL consolidated contract. This revision of the deactivation plan (formerly the Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Phaseout Plan for the ICPP) is being published during the consolidation of the INEL site-wide contract and the information presented here is current as of October 31, 1994. LITCO has adopted the existing plans for the deactivation of ICPP reprocessing facilities and the plans developed under WINCO are still being actively pursued, although the change in management may result in changes which have not yet been identified. Accordingly, the contents of this plan are subject to revision.

Patterson, M.W.

1994-10-01

39

Radioactive airborne effluent measurement and monitoring survey of reprocessing and waste treatment facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The installed and planned sampling and monitoring systems for several ERDA and commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing and high-level waste solidification facilities are described. Source terms, estimated concentrations, and probable monitoring requirements for commercial facilities are presented and discussed. The state-of-the-art technology for reprocessing and waste solidification sampling and monitoring is described and present limitations discussed. Ongoing advanced sampling and monitoring

R. B. Hower; B. Hekkala; D. T. Pence

1977-01-01

40

Potential safety-related incidents with possible applicability to a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

The occurrence of certain potential events in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants could lead to significant consequences involving risk to operating personnel or to the general public. This document is a compilation of such potential initiating events in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Possible general incidents and incidents specific to key operations in fuel reprocessing are considered, including possible causes, consequences, and safety features designed to prevent, detect, or mitigate such incidents.

Perkins, W.C.; Durant, W.S.; Dexter, A.H.

1980-12-01

41

10 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to construct and operate a nuclear power plant or a fuel reprocessing...as the following: reactor physics, stress, thermal, hydraulic...requirements shall be available at the nuclear power plant or fuel reprocessing...evidence shall be retained at the nuclear power plant or fuel...

2010-01-01

42

MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES RELEASED FROM NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING PLANTS.  

SciTech Connect

Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, and the fission products Tc, I, Cs, Sr, released from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides and the fission products under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

FRANCIS,A.J.

2006-10-18

43

AN ALTERNATIVE PROCESS TO IMMOBILIZE INTERMEDIATE WASTES FROM LWR FUEL REPROCESSING  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new concept for converting the intermediate wastes which result from light water reactor (LWR) fuel reprocessing into a single phase material, sodium zirconium phosphate ((NZP)), has been established. This conversion utilizes such waste materials as metals (zirconium alloy, stainless steels, and nickel alloy), spent solvent tri-butyl phosphate (TBP), and concentrated solution of sodium nitrate, and is accomplished using a

Yasuo Hirose; Tetsuo Fukasawa; Dinesh K. Agrawal; Barry E. Scheetz; Rama Nageswaran; Jay A. Curtis; Santosh Y. Limaye

1999-01-01

44

Assessment of photochemical applications to specific stages in Savannah River Plant actinide reprocessing streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of photochemical redox methods has been evaluated as a means of separating actinides in Purex reprocessing streams. This chemistry promises to eliminate many of the chemical reagents which are otherwise necessary to effect valence control of such actinides as plutonium and neptunium. The most promising processing stages of the Savannah River Plant reprocessing facility for feasibility testing of

L. M. Toth; J. T. Bell; J. C. Mailen; K. E. Dodson

1986-01-01

45

On-Line Monitoring for Control and Safeguarding of Radiochemical Streams at Spent Fuel Reprocessing Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced techniques enabling enhanced safeguarding of the spent fuel reprocessing plants are urgently needed. Our approach is based on prerequisite that real time monitoring of the solvent extraction flowsheets provides unique capability to quickly detect unwanted manipulations with fissile isotopes present in the radiochemical streams during reprocessing activities. The methods used to monitor these processes must be robust and must

Samuel A. Bryan; Tatiana G. Levitskaia; Justin M. Billing; Amanda J. Casella; Amanda M. Johnsen; James M. Peterson

2009-01-01

46

Fast Breeder Reactor Fuel Reprocessing R and D: Technological Development for a Commercial Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The technological developments undertaken by the CEA are applied to a plant project of a 50 t/y capacity, having to reprocess in particular the SUPERPHENIX 1 reactor fuel. French experience on fast breeder reactor fuel reprocessing is presented, then the ...

J. Colas D. Saudray J. A. Coste J. P. Roux A. Jouan

1987-01-01

47

10 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to installation, preoperational tests, and operational tests during nuclear power plant or fuel reprocessing...means, the status of inspections and tests performed upon individual items of the nuclear power plant or fuel...

2009-01-01

48

Decommissioning Alternatives for the West Valley, New York, Fuel Reprocessing Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The methodology and numerical values of NUREG-0278 were applied to four decommissioning alternatives for the West Valley Fuel Reprocessing Plant. The cost and impacts of the following four alternatives for the process building, fuel receiving and storage,...

L. F. Munson J. F. Nemec A. K. Koochi

1978-01-01

49

Correlation of radioactive waste treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: reprocessing light-water reactor fuel. [Radiation dose commitment to human populations from radioactive effluents released to environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cost\\/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials from a model nuclear fuel reprocessing plant which processes light-water reactor (LWR) fuels, and to determine the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the released materials on the environment. The study is designed to assist in defining

B. C. Finney; R. E. Blanco; R. C. Dahlman; G. S. Hill; F. G. Kitts; R. E. Moore; J. P. Witherspoon

2011-01-01

50

(Design of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, Neuherberg, Munich, Hannover and Wackersdorf, FRG, July 5--19, 1989): Foreign trip report  

SciTech Connect

The proposed fuel reprocessing site was characterized as to meteorological and hydrological characteristics and population geographical distribution. Data were gathered characterizing the fuel reprocessing plant licensing procedure currently used in the FRG. Comparisons were made of fuel reprocessing in the FRG, France, and Great Britain.

Fields, D.E.

1989-07-24

51

Conceptual designs of NDA instruments for the NRTA system at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors are studying conceptual designs of selected nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments for the near-real-time accounting system at the rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) of Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL). The JNFL RRP is a large-scale commercial reprocessing facility for spent fuel from boiling-water and pressurized-water reactors. The facility comprises two major components: the main process area to separate and produce

T. K. Li; S. F. Klosterbuer; H. O. Menlove

1996-01-01

52

Sensitization and Intergranular Corrosion Behavior of High Nitrogen Type 304LN Stainless Steels for Reprocessing and Waste Management Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High nitrogen 304LN stainless steels (SS) intended for chloride and nitric acid environments in spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and waste management applications were evaluated for their sensitization and intergranular corrosion (IGC) resistance. For this purpose, high nitrogen (0.132 pct, 0.193 pct and 0.406 pct) containing, impurity-controlled, vanadium-added 304LN SS alloys were developed. For comparison, 304L SS, which is currently used in reprocessing plants, was also studied. These stainless steels were subjected to heat treatment at 948 K (675 °C) for various durations ranging from 1 to 1000 hours and tested for susceptibility to IGC as per ASTM A262 Practice A and E tests. The degree of sensitization was estimated with the double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation technique. The increase in nitrogen content resulted in higher hardness and finer grain size. Based on the detailed microstructural and corrosion studies, it was determined that an addition of 0.132 pct and 0.193 pct nitrogen showed better IGC resistance and an additional increase in nitrogen resulted in deterioration resulting from chromium nitride precipitation, which was confirmed by electrochemical phase separation and X-ray diffraction studies. The onset of desensitization was faster for the alloy with 0.132 pct nitrogen as well as 0.406 pct nitrogen because of the lower nitrogen content in the former case and the finer grain size in the latter case. The higher hardness and superior IGC resistance of 0.132 pct and 0.193 pct nitrogen containing Type 304LN SS suggests the suitability of this alloy for nitric acid- and chloride-containing environments of reprocessing and waste management plants.

Parvathavarthini, N.; Kamachi Mudali, U.; Nenova, Lilyana; Andreev, Chavdar; Raj, Baldev

2012-06-01

53

Spent fuels reprocessing and associated waste management operations at Sellafield, United Kingdom. Foreign trip report, July 10--20, 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this visit was to become more familiar with the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel and associated waste management operations. Staff from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory visited the Sellafield nuclear site in England. The visit includ...

D. J. Bradley A. T. Luksic

1992-01-01

54

Conservatism in effective dose calculations for accident events involving fuel reprocessing waste tanks.  

PubMed

Conservatism in the calculation of the effective dose following an airborne release from an accident involving a fuel reprocessing waste tank is examined. Within the regulatory constraints at the Hanford Site, deterministic effective dose calculations are conservative by at least an order of magnitude. Deterministic calculations should be used with caution in reaching decisions associated with required safety systems and mitigation philosophy related to the accidental release of airborne radioactive material to the environment. PMID:21617391

Bevelacqua, J J

2011-07-01

55

An overview of a nuclear reprocessing plant Human Factors programme.  

PubMed

This paper presents a case study of a large Human Factors programme applied in the nuclear fuel reprocessing industry (1987-1991). The paper outlines the key Human Factors issues addressed, as well as the impacts achieved, and gives an indication of the resources utilised (approximately 15 person-years of effort). It also considers the starting point of the programme, in terms of the factors that led to the need for such an extensive programme. Some general lessons learned are given at the end of the paper. PMID:12963330

Kirwan, Barry

2003-09-01

56

Materials management in an internationally safeguarded fuels reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

The following appendices are included: aqueous reprocessing and conversion technology, reference facilities, process design and operating features relevant to materials accounting, operator's safeguards system structure, design principles of dynamic materials accounting systems, modeling and simulation approach, optimization of measurement control, aspects of international verification problem, security and reliability of materials measurement and accounting system, estimation of in-process inventory in solvent-extraction contactors, conventional measurement techniques, near-real-time measurement techniques, isotopic correlation techniques, instrumentation available to IAEA inspectors, and integration of materials accounting and containment and surveillance. (DLC)

Hakkila, E.A.; Baker, A.L.; Cobb, D.D.

1980-04-01

57

Data bank for probabilistic risk-assessment of nuclear-fuel reprocessing plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Savannah river laboratory maintains a compilation of operating problems and equipment failures that have occurred in the fuel reprocessing areas of the Savannah river plant. The data bank contains more than 175000 entries, ranging from minor equipment malfunctions to incidents with potential for injury or contamination of personnel, or for economic loss. The data bank has been used extensively

William S. Durant; C. Ray Lux; Wallam D. Galloway

1988-01-01

58

Method of Separating Plutonium from the Process Streams of a Reprocessing Plant for HTR Fuel Elements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The process streams of a reprocessing plant for Th-U fuel elements can be purified of Pu, using a chromatographic method. The process is based on the principles of extraction chromatography with the application of the method of breakthrough chromatography...

D. Herz R. Kankura U. Wenzel

1975-01-01

59

Development of a Phosphate Ceramic as a Host for Halide-contaminated Plutonium Pyrochemical Reprocessing Wastes  

SciTech Connect

The presence of halide anions in four types of wastes arising from the pyrochemical reprocessing of plutonium required an immobilization process to be developed in which not only the actinide cations but also the halide anions were immobilized in a durable waste form. At AWE, we have developed such a process using Ca3(PO4)2 as the host material. Successful trials of the process with actinide- and Cl-bearing Type I waste were carried out at PNNL where the immobilization of the waste in a form resistant to aqueous leaching was confirmed. Normalized mass losses determined at 40°C and 28 days were 12 x 10-6 g?m-2 and 2.7 x 10-3 g?m-2 for Pu and Cl, respectively. Accelerated radiation-induced damage effects are being determined with specimens containing 238Pu. No changes in the crystalline lattice have been detected with XRD after the 239Pu equivalent of 400 years ageing. Confirmation of the process for Type II waste (a oxyhydroxide-based waste) is currently underway at PNNL. Differences in the ionic state of Pu in the four types of waste have required different surrogates to be used. Samarium chloride was used successfully as a surrogate for both Pu(III) and Am(III) chlorides. Initial investigations into the use of HfO2 as the surrogate for Pu(IV) oxide in Type II waste indicated no significant differences.

Metcalfe, Brian; Fong, Shirley K.; Gerrard, Lee A.; Donald, Ian W.; Strachan, Denis M.; Scheele, Randall D.

2007-03-31

60

Iodine129 levels in milk and water near a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of substantial ¹²⁹I concentration in animal thyroids ; collected in the environs of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in West Valley, ; New York, signified a general buildup of ¹²⁹I in the environment ; surrounding the plant. Concern for a possible public health problem led to the ; development of a program to establish ¹²⁹I levels in milk and

J. C. Daly; S. Goodyear; C. J. Paperiello; J. M. Matuszek

1974-01-01

61

Development and demonstration of near-real-time accounting systems for reprocessing plants  

SciTech Connect

A program to develop and demonstrate near-real-time accounting systems for reprocessing plants has been active at Los Alamos since 1976. The technology has been developed through modeling and simulation of process operation and measurement systems and evaluation of these data using decision analysis techniques. Aspects of near-real-time systems have been demonstrated successfully at the AGNS reprocessng plant as part of a joint study of near-real-time accounting.

Cobb, D.D.; Hakkila, E.A.; Dayem, H.A.; Shipley, J.P.; Baker, A.L.

1981-01-01

62

Development of a computerized nuclear materials control and accounting system for a fuel reprocessing plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computerized nuclear materials control and accounting system (CNMCAS) for a fuel reprocessing plant is being developed by Allied-General Nuclear Services at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant. Development work includes on-line demonstration of near real-time measurement, measurement control, accounting, and processing monitoring\\/process surveillance activities during test process runs using natural uranium. A technique for estimating in-process inventory is also being

J. M. Crawford; M. H. Ehinger; C. Joseph; M. L. Madeen

1979-01-01

63

Precipitates Formation Behavior in Simulated High Level Liquid Waste of Fuel Reprocessing  

Microsoft Academic Search

To clarify various kinds of precipitates formation behavior in high level liquid waste (HLLW) from the nuclear fuel reprocessing process, undissolved materials generated in concentration step under vacuum evaporation and aging step at various temperatures and nitric acid concentrations using simulated HLLW solution were closely investigated.Three kinds of material, mixed crystalline salt of barium and strontium (Ba0.5Sr0.5(NO3)2), phosphomolybdic acid (P2O5·24MoO3·7H2O),

Tatsuo IZUMIDA; Fumio KAWAMURA

1990-01-01

64

Active Test of Purification Facility at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant  

SciTech Connect

During the second and third steps of Active Test of the Plutonium Purification unit, the extraction and reextraction performances of pulsed columns and mixer-settlers have been checked. Plutonium losses into wastes have been also checked. As a result, it was confirmed that the expected performances had been achieved. (authors)

Iseki, Tadahiro [Separation Section, Plant Operation Department, Reprocessing Plant Reprocessing Business Division, Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited 4-108, Aza Okitsuke, Oaza Obuchi, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori-ken (Japan); Tsujimura, Akino; Nitta, Takeshi; Matsuda, Takashi [Purification Section, Plant Operation Department, Reprocessing Plant Reprocessing Business Division, Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited 4-108, Aza Okitsuke, Oaza Obuchi, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori-ken (Japan)

2007-07-01

65

Designing and Operating for Safeguards: Lessons Learned From the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP)  

SciTech Connect

This paper will address the lessons learned during the implementation of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) which are relevant to the issue of ‘safeguards by design’. However, those lessons are a result of a cumulative history of international safeguards experiences starting with the West Valley reprocessing plant in 1969, continuing with the Barnwell plant, and then with the implementation of international safeguards at WAK in Germany and TRP in Japan. The design and implementation of safeguards at RRP in Japan is the latest and most challenging that the IAEA has faced. This paper will discuss the work leading up to the development of a safeguards approach, the design and operating features that were introduced to improve or aid in implementing the safeguards approach, and the resulting recommendations for future facilities. It will provide an overview of how ‘safeguardability’ was introduced into RRP.

Johnson, Shirley J.; Ehinger, Michael

2010-08-07

66

The second US/FRG workshop on near-real-time accounting for reprocessing plants  

SciTech Connect

The second technical workshop on near-real-time accounting in an industrial scale reprocessing plant was held from December 7--9, 1987 in Los Alamos. The workshop was organized within the context of the US/DOE--FRG/BMFT agreement in the field of international safeguards. The workshop was initiated by the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the DWK, which has responsibility for construction and operation of a planned industrial scale reprocessing plant in the FRG. The workshop objective was to review current state-of-the-art in the near-real-time accounting and to develop a common understanding among experts from the participating countries to identify problems requiring additional work.

Hakkila, E.A.; Gutmacher, R.G.; Weh, R.

1988-01-01

67

Development of a Phosphate Ceramic as a Host for Halide-Contaminated Plutonium Pyrochemical Reprocessing Wastes  

SciTech Connect

The presence of halide anions in four types of wastes arising from the pyrochemical reprocessing of plutonium required an immobilization process to be developed in which not only the actinide cations but also the halide anions were immobilized in a durable, leach resistant form. AWE has developed such a process using Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} as the host material. Successful trials of the process using actinide-doped Type I waste (essentially a chloride-based waste) were carried out at PNNL where the immobilization of the waste in a form resistant to aqueous leaching was confirmed. Normalized mass losses determined using a modified MCC-1 test at 40 deg. C/28 days were 12 x 10{sup -6} g.m{sup -2} and 2.7 x 10{sup -3} g.m{sup -2} for Pu and Cl, respectively. Accelerated radiation-induced damage effects are being determined with specimens containing {sup 238}Pu. No changes in the crystalline lattice have been detected with XRD after the {sup 239}Pu equivalent of 400 years ageing. Confirmation of the process for Type II waste (an oxyhydroxide-based waste) is currently underway at PNNL. Differences in the ionic state of plutonium in the four types of waste have required different surrogates to be used. Samarium chloride was used successfully as a surrogate for both Pu(III) and Am(III) chlorides. Early investigations into the use of HfO{sub 2} as the surrogate for Pu(IV) oxide in Type II waste showed some apparent differences in the phase assemblages of the surrogate and actinide-based products. However XRD examination of the products at higher resolution has demonstrated there is no significant difference and that for this work HfO{sub 2} is a suitable surrogate for PuO{sub 2}. (authors)

Metcalfe, Brian; Fong, Shirley; Gerrard, Lee; Donald, Ian [MSRD, AWE plc, AWE Aldermaston, Reading, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Strachan, Denis; Scheele, Randall [PNNL, Richland, WA, 99352 (United States)

2007-07-01

68

Active test of head-end facility at Rokkasho reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

During the first step, the second and the third step of Active Test (AT) at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP), the performances of the Head-end Facility were checked, mainly for shearing and dissolution: shearing force and shearing time were the values as expected and concentration of U and Pu in dissolution solution were the values as expected. And safety requirement for acidity in dissolution solution was satisfied. (authors)

Yamamoto, Yoshiro; Tanaka, Satoshi; Kawabe, Shuji; Kamada, Yoshiaki [Head-End Section, Plant Operation Department, Reprocessing Plant Reprocessing Business Division, Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited 4-108, Aza Okitsuke, Oaza Obuchi, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori-ken (Japan)

2007-07-01

69

Lessons Learned in International Safeguards - Implementation of Safeguards at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this report is lessons learned at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP). However, the subject of lessons learned for application of international safeguards at reprocessing plants includes a cumulative history of inspections starting at the West Valley (New York, U.S.A.) reprocessing plant in 1969 and proceeding through all of the efforts over the years. The RRP is the latest and most challenging application the International Atomic Energy Agency has faced. In many ways the challenges have remained the same, timely inspection and evaluation with limited inspector resources, with the continuing realization that planning and preparations can never start early enough in the life cycle of a facility. Lessons learned over the years have involved the challenges of using ongoing advances in technology and dealing with facilities with increased throughput and continuous operation. This report will begin with a review of historical developments and lessons learned. This will provide a basis for a discussion of the experiences and lessons learned from the implementation of international safeguards at RRP.

Ehinger, Michael H [ORNL; Johnson, Shirley [Tucker Creek Consulting

2010-02-01

70

Krypton-85 health risk assessment for a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

The risks involved in the routine release of /sup 85/Kr from nuclear fuel reprocessing operations to the environment were compared to those resulting from the capture and storage of /sup 85/Kr. Instead of releasing the /sup 85/Kr to the environment when fuel is reprocessed, it can be captured, immobilized and stored. Two alternative methods of capturing /sup 85/Kr (cryogenic distillation and fluorocarbon absorption) and one method of immobilizing the captured gas (ion implantation/sputtering) were theoretically incorporated into a representative fuel reprocessing plant, the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant, even though there are no known plans to start up this facility. Given the uncertainties in the models used to generate lifetime risk numbers (0.02 to 0.027 radiation induced fatal cancers expected in the occupational workforce and 0.017 fatal cancers in the general population), the differences in total risks for the three situations, (i.e., no-capture and two-capture alternatives) cannot be considered meaningful. It is possible that no risks would occur from any of the three situations. There is certainly no reason to conclude that risks from /sup 85/Kr routinely released to the environment are greater than those that would result from the other two situations considered. Present regulations mandate recovery and disposal of /sup 85/Kr from the off gases of a facility reprocessing spent fuel from commercial sources. Because of the lack of a clear-cut indication that recovery woud be beneficial, it does not seem prudent to burden the facilities with a requirement for /sup 85/Kr recovery, at least until operating experience demonstrates the incentive. The probable high aging of the early fuel to be processed and the higher dose resulting from the release of the unregulated /sup 3/H and /sup 14/C also encourage delaying implementation of the /sup 85/Kr recovery in the early plants.

Mellinger, P.J.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Tanner, J.E.; Gilbert, E.S.

1984-08-01

71

Intergranular corrosion mechanism of ultra-low carbon type 304 stainless steel in a nuclear reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion of the components which contains nitric acid solution such as vessels, tanks and pipes is an important problem for a PUREX method nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. In Tokai Reprocessing Plant which was startup in 1977 as the first Japanese plant, several events caused by corrosion have been experienced for about 30 years operation. The second plant in Japan, Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant, will start commercial operation from 2007. For stable operation of Rokkasho plant, maintenance management of components will be important. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the corrosion mechanism and to reflect the results of the research for a maintenance program of the plant adequately. If high burnup fuel will increase in future nuclear power plants, it will become necessary to reprocess the spent fuel which includes more fission products and transuranium from now. Then the study of corrosion mechanism and life evaluation will become more important problem. Authors were aimed for development of life evaluation method of components and clarification of intergranular corrosion mechanism of ultra-low carbon type 304 stainless steel in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. In this report, the results of long-term corrosion test in boiling nitric acid by using ultra-low carbon stainless steel made mock-up test apparatus was described. And then, the relation between corrosion rate change and intergranular corrosion behavior were discussed. (authors)

Ueno, Fumiyoshi; Kato, Chiaki; Motooka, Takafumi; Yamamoto, Masahiro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency Shirakata Shirane 2-4, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki pref., 319-1195 (Japan); Ichikawa, Shiro [Kobelco Research Institute, Inc. 1-5-5, Takatsukadai, Nishi-ku, Kobe city, 651-2271 (Japan)

2007-07-01

72

Evaluation and development plan of NRTA measurement methods for the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant  

SciTech Connect

Near-real-time accounting (NRTA) has been proposed as a safeguards method at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP), a large-scale commercial boiling water and pressurized water reactors spent-fuel reprocessing facility. NRTA for RRP requires material balance closures every month. To develop a more effective and practical NRTA system for RRP, we have evaluated NRTA measurement techniques and systems that might be implemented in both the main process and the co-denitration process areas at RRP to analyze the concentrations of plutonium in solutions and mixed oxide powder. Based on the comparative evaluation, including performance, reliability, design criteria, operation methods, maintenance requirements, and estimated costs for each possible measurement method, recommendations for development were formulated. This paper discusses the evaluations and reports on the recommendation of the NRTA development plan for potential implementation at RRP.

Li, T.K.; Hakkila, E.A.; Flosterbuer, S.F. [and others

1995-08-01

73

Reprocessing plant input accountability measurements - a new and simplified spiking technique  

SciTech Connect

Isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) is the most widely applied analytical technique for input accountability measurements in reprocessing plants. The procedure usually involves lengthy sample preparation-subsampling an aliquot of the concentrated sample, accurately diluting with nitric acid, and spiking of diluted aliquots with tracer materials, such as {sup 233}U and {sup 242}Pu or {sup 244}Pu. The many steps involved are not only time-consuming but can also be sources of significant errors. De Biever et al. have reported results for a procedure that uses well-defined solid spikes of {sup 235}U/{sup 239}Pu or {sup 235}U/{sup 242}Pu. Metallic spikes were prepared from certified metallic source materials by a high-frequency levitation technique. The technique appeals to safeguards authorities and plant operators because of the relative simplicity of sample preparation. Its routine use was never promoted, however, because of unresolved questions concerning the spikes' homogeneity, cost, and long-term supply. A large size dry (LSD) spike has been proposed as an alternative to the metal spike and subjected to an experiment at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant. Participating in the experiment were the plant operator, the national safeguards authority, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

Kuno, Y.; Takeda, S.; Sato, S.; Akiyama, T.; Tsutaki, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Kuhn, E.; Deron, S.; Sirisena, K.

1989-11-01

74

Sodium Recycle Economics for Waste Treatment Plant Operations  

SciTech Connect

Sodium recycle at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) would reduce the number of glass canisters produced, and has the potential to save the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tens of millions of dollars. The sodium, added in the form of sodium hydroxide, was originally added to minimize corrosion of carbon-steel storage tanks from acidic reprocessing wastes. In the baseline Hanford treatment process, sodium hydroxide is required to leach gibbsite and boehmite from the high level waste (HLW) sludge. In turn, this reduces the amount of HLW glass produced. Currently, a significant amount of additional sodium hydroxide will be added to the process to maintain aluminate solubility at ambient temperatures during ion exchange of cesium. The vitrification of radioactive waste is limited by sodium content, and this additional sodium mass will increase low-activity waste-glass mass.

Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Fountain, Matthew S.

2008-03-01

75

Accumulation of COGEMA-La Hague-derived reprocessing wastes in French salt marsh sediments.  

PubMed

Over the past five decades, authorized low-level discharges from coastal nuclear facilities have released significant quantities of artificial radionuclides into the marine environment. In northwest Europe, the majority of the total discharge has derived from nuclear reprocessing activities at Sellafield in the United Kingdom and COGEMA-La Hague in France. At the Sellafield site, a significant amount of the discharges has been trapped in offshore fine sediment deposits, and notably in local coastal and estuarine sediments, and much research has been focused on understanding the distribution, accumulation, and reworking of long-lived radionuclides in these deposits. In contrast, there are few high-resolution published data on the vertical distribution of radionuclides in fine-grained estuarine sediments near, and downstream of, COGEMA-La Hague. This paper therefore examines the vertical distribution of a range of anthropogenic radionuclides in dated salt marsh cores from two estuaries, one adjacent to, and the other downstream of, the COGEMA-La Hague discharge point (the Havre de Carteret at Barneville-Carteret and the Baie de Somme, respectively). The radionuclides examined show a vertical distribution which predominantly reflects variations in input from COGEMA-La Hague (albeit much more clearly at Barneville-Carteret than at the Baie de Somme site), and Pu isotopic ratios are consistent with a La Hague, rather than weapons' fallout, source. Because of sediment mixing, the marshes apparently retain an integrated record of the La Hague discharges, rather than an exact reproduction of the discharge history. Sorption of radionuclides increases in the order 90Sr < 137Cs < 60Co < 239,240Pu, which is consistent with Kd values reported in the literature. In general, the radionuclide activities observed at the sites studied are low (particularly in comparison with salt marsh sediments near the Sellafield facility), but are similar to those found in areas of fine sedimentation in the central Channel. These marshes are not major sinks for discharged reprocessing wastes. PMID:12523411

Cundy, Andrew B; Croudace, Ian W; Warwick, Phillip E; Oh, Jung-Suk; Haslett, Simon K

2002-12-01

76

Use of process monitoring for verifying facility design of large-scale reprocessing plants  

SciTech Connect

During the decade of the 1990s, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) faces the challenge of implementing safeguards in large, new reprocessing facilities. The Agency will be involved in the design, construction, checkout and initial operation of these new facilities to ensure effective safeguards are implemented. One aspect of the Agency involvement is in the area of design verification. The United States Support Program has initiated a task to develop methods for applying process data collection and validation during the cold commissioning phase of plant construction. This paper summarizes the results of this task. 14 refs., 1 tab.

Hakkila, E.A.; Zack, N.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Ehinger, M.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Franssen, F. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria))

1991-01-01

77

Results of Active Test of Uranium-Plutonium Co-denitration Facility at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant  

SciTech Connect

In the U-Pu co-denitration facility at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP), Active Test which composes of 5 steps was performed by using uranium-plutonium nitrate solution that was extracted from spent fuels. During Active Test, two kinds of tests were performed in parallel. One was denitration performance test in denitration ovens, and expected results were successfully obtained. The other was validation and calibration of non-destructive assay (NDA) systems, and expected performances were obtained and their effectiveness as material accountancy and safeguards system was validated. (authors)

Numao, Teruhiko; Nakayashiki, Hiroshi; Arai, Nobuyuki; Miura, Susumu; Takahashi, Yoshiharu [Denitration Section, Plant Operation Dept., Reprocessing Plant, Reprocessing Business Division, Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited Rokkasho-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori-ken (Japan); Nakamura, Hironobu; Tanaka, Izumi [Technical Support Dept., Reprocessing Plant, Reprocessing Business Division, Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited Rokkasho-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori-ken (Japan)

2007-07-01

78

Full-scale experimental facility for the development technologies for the reprocessing of tritium contaminated light and heavy water wastes by CECE process and cryogenic distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of the formation and accumulation of the tritiated heavy and light water wastes produced under operation of the various nuclear facilities is considered. It is shown that the tritium contaminated wastes may have a wide spectrum of isotope concentrations of H:D:T and correlation one with other. Reprocessing of these wastes is expensive matter due to the small tritium

V. D. Trenin; I. A. Alekseev; S. P. Karpov; S. D. Bondarenko; T. V. Vasyanina; K. A. Konoplev; O. A. Fedorchenko; V. V. Uborski; T. Voronina

1995-01-01

79

Corrosion mechanisms of austenitic stainless steels in nitric media used in reprocessing plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Austenitic stainless steels type 304L, 316L and 310Nb are largely used as structural materials for equipments handling nitric acid media in reprocessing plants. In almost all nitric media, these materials, protected by a chromium(III) oxide rich layer, remain in their passive state. However, in some particular nitric media, their corrosion potential may be shifted towards their transpassive domain. In this domain, they can suffer intergranular corrosion, even though they are not sensitized owing to their very low carbon content. The corrosion potential of the steel depends greatly on the cathodic reaction involved in the oxido-reduction process between the elements Fe, Cr, Ni of the steel and the oxidizing species of the medium. Three cases of an increase in the corrosion potential can be found in reprocessing media: pure nitric acid-water solutions, in which the cathodic reaction is the reduction reaction of HNO 3; nitric acid media containing oxidizing species, in which the cathodic reaction is the reaction of reduction of the oxidizing species into the reduced one; nitric media containing metallic elements electrochemically more noble than the steels, causing galvanic coupling. In each case, the mechanism and the relevant situations we experimentally studied are described.

Fauvet, P.; Balbaud, F.; Robin, R.; Tran, Q.-T.; Mugnier, A.; Espinoux, D.

2008-03-01

80

New U/Pu metallic spikes for safeguards accountancy measurements at reprocessing plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new generation of metallic uranium/plutonium spikes has been developed for U and Pu determinations in undiluted input solutions of reprocessing plants. The Pu spike is in the form of a Gd-6% Pu-0.16% Nd (mass%) alloy disc prepared by levitation melting. The Gd provides a ductile matrix in which the Pu is present in solid solution. The alloy has good oxidation resistance, but is readily soluble in the nitric acid medium of the input solution. The Nd addition is to permit a determination of input tank volume via the measurement of {142}/{143}Nd ratios. The U spike is a metal disc with a 235U enrichment of 19.9 amount%. A ?-counting method of plutonium homogeneity control was developed using a Monte-Carlo simulation to correct for ?-ray self-absorption. The spikes were certified for uranium and plutonium mass fractions and amount ratios as Isotopic Reference Material (Spike) IRMM-1030.

Ingelbrecht, C.; Egan, D.; Peetermans, F.; Verbruggen, A.

1997-02-01

81

Technology development program for Idaho Chemical Processing Plant spent fuel and waste management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irradiated nuclear fuel has been reprocessed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) since 1953 to recover uranium-235 and krypton-85 for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The resulting acidic high-level liquid radioactive waste (HLLW) has been solidified to a high-level waste (HLW) calcine since 1963 and stored in stainless-steel bins enclosed in concrete vaults. Residual HLW and radioactive sodium-bearing

L. F. Ermold; D. A. Knecht; G. W. Hogg; A. L. Olson

1993-01-01

82

The Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Safeguards and Separations Reprocessing Plant Toolkit  

SciTech Connect

This report details the progress made in the development of the Reprocessing Plant Toolkit (RPTk) for the DOE Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program. RPTk is an ongoing development effort intended to provide users with an extensible, integrated, and scalable software framework for the modeling and simulation of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plants by enabling the insertion and coupling of user-developed physicochemical modules of variable fidelity. The NEAMS Safeguards and Separations IPSC (SafeSeps) and the Enabling Computational Technologies (ECT) supporting program element have partnered to release an initial version of the RPTk with a focus on software usability and utility. RPTk implements a data flow architecture that is the source of the system's extensibility and scalability. Data flows through physicochemical modules sequentially, with each module importing data, evolving it, and exporting the updated data to the next downstream module. This is accomplished through various architectural abstractions designed to give RPTk true plug-and-play capabilities. A simple application of this architecture, as well as RPTk data flow and evolution, is demonstrated in Section 6 with an application consisting of two coupled physicochemical modules. The remaining sections describe this ongoing work in full, from system vision and design inception to full implementation. Section 3 describes the relevant software development processes used by the RPTk development team. These processes allow the team to manage system complexity and ensure stakeholder satisfaction. This section also details the work done on the RPTk ``black box'' and ``white box'' models, with a special focus on the separation of concerns between the RPTk user interface and application runtime. Section 4 and 5 discuss that application runtime component in more detail, and describe the dependencies, behavior, and rigorous testing of its constituent components.

McCaskey, Alex [ORNL; Billings, Jay Jay [ORNL; de Almeida, Valmor F [ORNL

2011-08-01

83

Computerized Analytical Data Management System and Automated Analytical Sample Transfer System at the COGEMA Reprocessing Plants in La Hague.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Managing the operation of large commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, such as UP3 and UP2-800 in La Hague, France, requires an extensive analytical program and the shortest possible analysis response times. COGEMA, together with its engineeri...

T. Flament F. Goasmat F. Poilane

2002-01-01

84

Diverse Monitoring Approaches Reveal C Dispersion Pattern and Its Impact on the Environment around the Tokai Reprocessing Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon-14 (C) is of great interest in the assessment of dose due to the nuclear industry because of the biological importance of carbon. We collected atmospheric CO2, rice grain, leafy vegetable, and Japanese mugwort samples at various locations at different time intervals, and measured their C concentrations to show the spatiotemporal distribution of C around the Tokai reprocessing plant (TRP).

Jun KOARASHI; Hiroki FUJITA; Hitoshi WATANABE; Shuichi SUMIYA

2011-01-01

85

Studies for a Comparison of the Maximum Possible Consequences of Accidents in a Reprocessing Plant and a Nuclear Power Station.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The article aims at comparing the danger potential of a commercial reprocessing plant with that of a large NPP. For doing this, the radiological effects of a so-called 'Super-MCA' were tested with no safety measures: melting of the fuel element receiving ...

D. Bachner D. Holm A. Meltzer G. Morlock P. Neusser

1976-01-01

86

Iodine Pathways and Off-Gas Stream Characteristics for Aqueous Reprocessing Plants – A Literature Survey and Assessment  

SciTech Connect

Used nuclear fuel is currently being reprocessed in only a few countries, notably France, England, Japan, and Russia. The need to control emissions of the gaseous radionuclides to the air during nuclear fuel reprocessing has already been reported for the entire plant. But since the gaseous radionuclides can partition to various different reprocessing off-gas streams, for example, from the head end, dissolver, vessel, cell, and melter, an understanding of each of these streams is critical. These off-gas streams have different flow rates and compositions and could have different gaseous radionuclide control requirements, depending on how the gaseous radionuclides partition. This report reviews the available literature to summarize specific engineering data on the flow rates, forms of the volatile radionuclides in off-gas streams, distributions of these radionuclides in these streams, and temperatures of these streams. This document contains an extensive bibliography of the information contained in the open literature.

R. T. Jubin; D. M. Strachan; N. R. Soelberg

2013-09-01

87

Computerized Analytical Data Management System and Automated Analytical Sample Transfer System at the COGEMA Reprocessing Plants in La Hague  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managing the operation of large commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, such as UP3 and UP2-800 in La Hague, France, requires an extensive analytical program and the shortest possible analysis response times. COGEMA, together with its engineering subsidiary SGN, decided to build high-performance laboratories to support operations in its plants. These laboratories feature automated equipment, safe environments for operators, and

T. Flament; F. Goasmat; F. Poilane

2002-01-01

88

Idaho Chemical Processing Plant spent fuel and waste management technology development program plan: 1994 Update  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage since 1951 and reprocessing since 1953. Until April 1992, the major activity of the ICPP was the reprocessing of SNF to recover fissile uranium and the management of the resulting high-level wastes (HLW). In 1992, DOE chose to discontinue reprocessing SNF for uranium recovery and shifted its focus toward the continued safe management and disposition of SNF and radioactive wastes accumulated through reprocessing activities. Currently, 1.8 million gallons of radioactive liquid wastes (1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid wastes and 0.3 million gallons of high-level liquid waste), 3,800 cubic meters of calcine waste, and 289 metric tons heavy metal of SNF are in inventory at the ICPP. Disposal of SNF and high-level waste (HLW) is planned for a repository. Preparation of SNF, HLW, and other radioactive wastes for disposal may include mechanical, physical, and/or chemical processes. This plan outlines the program strategy of the ICPP spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program (SF&WMTDP) to develop and demonstrate the technology required to ensure that SNF and radioactive waste will be properly stored and prepared for final disposal in accordance with regulatory drivers. This Plan presents a brief summary of each of the major elements of the SF&WMTDP; identifies key program assumptions and their bases; and outlines the key activities and decisions that must be completed to identify, develop, demonstrate, and implement a process(es) that will properly prepare the SNF and radioactive wastes stored at the ICPP for safe and efficient interim storage and final disposal.

Not Available

1994-09-01

89

Adequacy of radioiodine control and monitoring at nuclear fuels reprocessing plants  

SciTech Connect

The present backlog of irradiated reactor fuel leads to projections that no fuel out of the reactor less than 10 years need be reprocessed prior to the year 2000. The only radioiodine present in such aged fuel is /sup 129/I (half-life 1.6 x 10/sup 7/ y). The /sup 131/I initially present in the fuel decays to insignificance in the first few hundred days post-reactor. The /sup 129/I content of irradiated fuel is about 1 Ci per gigawatt-year of electricity generated (Ci/GW(e)-y). The US EPA has specified, in 40 CFR 190, a release limit for /sup 129/I of 5 mCi/GW(e)-y. Thus a retention factor (RF) of 200 for /sup 129/I at the fuel reprocessing plant (FRP) is required. Experience indicates that RF values obtained under actual FRP operating conditions can average as little as 10% of experimentally determined RF values. Therefore processes theoretically capable of achieving RF values of up to 10/sup 4/ have been investigated. The US EPA has also specified in 40 CFR 90 a thyroid dose limit of 75 mrem/y for a member of the general public. This dose limit could be readily met at a typical FRP site with an RF value of about 10 or less. Therefore, the limit of 5 mCi/GW(e)-y is more restrictive than the thyroid dose limit for /sup 129/I. The absence of /sup 131/I in effluents from processing of aged fuels makes analysis of /sup 129/I somewhat easier. However, in-line, real-time monitoring for /sup 129/I in FRP gas streams is currently not feasible. Moisture, chemicals, and other radioactive fission products interfere with in-plant measurements. Samples collected over several days must be taken to a laboratory for /sup 129/I analysis. Measurement techniques currently in use or under investigation include neutron activation analysis, scintillation counting, mass spectroscopy, and gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detection. 26 references, 3 figures, 7 tables.

Scheele, R.D.; Burger, L.L.; Soldat, J.K.

1984-06-01

90

Optimal measurement uncertainties for materials accounting in a fast breeder reactor spent-fuel reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

Optimization techniques are used to calculate measurement uncertainties for materials accountability instruments in a fast breeder reactor spent-fuel reprocessing plant. Optimal measurement uncertainties are calculated so that performance goals for detecting materials loss are achieved while minimizing the total instrument development cost. Improved materials accounting in the chemical separations process (111 kg Pu/day) to meet 8-kg plutonium abrupt (1 day) and 40-kg plutonium protracted (6 months) loss-detection goals requires: process tank volume and concentration measurements having precisions less than or equal to 1%; accountability and plutonium sample tank volume measurements having precisions less than or equal to 0.3%, short-term correlated errors less than or equal to 0.04%, and long-term correlated errors less than or equal to 0.04%; and accountability and plutonium sample tank concentration measurements having precisions less than or equal to 0.4%, short-term correlated errors less than or equal to 0.1%, and long-term correlated errors less than or equal to 0.05%.

Dayem, H.A.; Kern, E.A.; Markin, J.T.

1982-01-01

91

Computerized Analytical Data Management System and Automated Analytical Sample Transfer System at the COGEMA Reprocessing Plants in La Hague  

SciTech Connect

Managing the operation of large commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, such as UP3 and UP2-800 in La Hague, France, requires an extensive analytical program and the shortest possible analysis response times. COGEMA, together with its engineering subsidiary SGN, decided to build high-performance laboratories to support operations in its plants. These laboratories feature automated equipment, safe environments for operators, and short response times, all in centralized installations. Implementation of a computerized analytical data management system and a fully automated pneumatic system for the transfer of radioactive samples was a key factor contributing to the successful operation of the laboratories and plants.

Flament, T.; Goasmat, F.; Poilane, F.

2002-02-25

92

Report on the NGS3 Working Group on Safeguards by Design For Aqueous Reprocessing Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the Working Group on SBD for Aqueous Reprocessing Facilities was to provide recommendations, for facility operators and designers, which would aid in the coordination and integration of nuclear material accountancy and the safeguards requ...

M. Ehinger M. Schanfein S. J. Johnson

2011-01-01

93

Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage and reprocessing since 1953. Reprocessing of SNF has resulted in an existing inventory of 1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid waste and 3800 cubic meters (m{sup 3}) of calcine, in addition to the 768 metric tons (MT) of SNF and various other fuel materials in inventory. To date, the major activity of the ICPP has been the reprocessing of SNF to recover fissile uranium; however, recent changes in world events have diminished the demand to recover and recycle this material. As a result, DOE has discontinued reprocessing SNF for uranium recovery, making the need to properly manage and dispose of these and future materials a high priority. In accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982, as amended, disposal of SNF and high-level waste (HLW) is planned for a geological repository. Preparation of SNF, HLW, and other radioactive wastes for disposal may include mechanical, physical, and/or chemical processes. This plan outlines the program strategy of the ICPP Spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program (SF&WMTDP) to develop and demonstrate the technology required to ensure that SNF and radioactive waste will properly stored and prepared for final disposal. Program elements in support of acceptable interim storage and waste minimization include: developing and implementing improved radioactive waste treatment technologies; identifying and implementing enhanced decontamination and decommissioning techniques; developing radioactive scrap metal (RSM) recycle capabilities; and developing and implementing improved technologies for the interim storage of SNF.

NONE

1993-09-01

94

Characterization of past and present solid waste streams from the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant  

SciTech Connect

During the next two decades the transuranic wastes, now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site, are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Over 7% of the transuranic waste to be retrieved for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant has been generated at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. The purpose of this report is to characterize the radioactive solid wastes generated by PUREX using process knowledge, existing records, and oral history interviews. The PUREX Plant is currently operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy and is now in standby status while being prepared for permanent shutdown. The PUREX Plant is a collection of facilities that has been used primarily to separate plutonium for nuclear weapons from spent fuel that had been irradiated in the Hanford Site`s defense reactors. Originally designed to reprocess aluminum-clad uranium fuel, the plant was modified to reprocess zirconium alloy clad fuel elements from the Hanford Site`s N Reactor. PUREX has provided plutonium for research reactor development, safety programs, and defense. In addition, the PUREX was used to recover slightly enriched uranium for recycling into fuel for use in reactors that generate electricity and plutonium. Section 2.0 provides further details of the PUREX`s physical plant and its operations. The PUREX Plant functions that generate solid waste are as follows: processing operations, laboratory analyses and supporting activities. The types and estimated quantities of waste resulting from these activities are discussed in detail.

Pottmeyer, J.A.; Weyns, M.I.; Lorenzo, D.S.; Vejvoda, E.J. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., NM (US); Duncan, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (US)

1993-04-01

95

Technology development program for Idaho Chemical Processing Plant spent fuel and waste management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acidic high-level radioactive waste (HLW) resulting from fuel reprocessing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been solidified to a calcine since 1963 and stored in stainless steel bins enclosed by concrete vaults. Several different types of unprocessed irradiated DOE-owned fuels are also in storage at the ICPP. In April, 1992, DOE

L. F. Ermold; D. A. Knecht; G. W. Hogg; A. L. Olson

1993-01-01

96

Field test of New TASTEX system for plutonium product verification at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the field test results of the New TASTEX system. This system consisting of the high resolution gamma spectrometer and the k-edge densitometer can measure both isotopic abundances and concentration of plutonium simultaneously. Entire system is controlled by the multichannel analyzer and a multi-user computer. The system was designed and built under the Japan Support Program for Agency Safeguards (JASPAS). The software of this system developed at LANL and LLNL has been installed in the system assembled at the Tokai reprocessing plant (TRP) in July 1985. In the course of campaigns from 1985 until 1988, field tests have been carried out on plutonium product solutions of TRP. The results of plutonium concentration and isotopic abundances obtained by the k-edge densitometer and the high resolution gamma spectrometer (HRGS) have been compared with those by controlled potential coulometer and mass spectrometer respectively. Precision of plutonium determination with k-edge densitometer is estimated approximately 0.7% and 1.0% for the freshly processed plutonium and the aged plutonium respectively. The scatters in the relative differences between HRGS and the destructive analysis (DA) detected on the results of freshly processed plutonium sample were 1.6%, 0.4%, 0.5%, 1.1%, 8.0% for Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and Pu-242 respectively, whereas those on the results of aged sample were 1.4%, 0.5%, 1.1%, 1.1% for Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, and Pu-241 respectively. 9 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

Kuno, Y.; Shigeoka, K.; Nishida, K.; Ikeda, H.; Hayashi, N.; Wachi, I.; Hsue, S.T.; Sprinkle, J.K.; Gunnink, R.; Ruhter, W.D.

1988-01-01

97

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project Waste Form Qualification Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy has created a waste acceptance process to help guide the overall program for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a federal repository. This Waste Form Qualification Program Plan describes the hierarchy of strategies used by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project to satisfy the waste form qualification obligations of that waste acceptance process. A description of the functional relationship of the participants contributing to completing this objective is provided. The major activities, products, providers, and associated scheduling for implementing the strategies also are presented.

Randklev, E.H.

1993-06-01

98

Component failure-rate data with potential applicability to a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 1223 pieces of component failure-rate data, under 136 subject categories, have been compiled from published literature and computer searches of a number of data bases. Component selections were based on potential applicability to facilities for reprocessing spent nuclear fuels. The data will be useful in quantifying fault trees for probabilistic safety analyses and risk assessments.

A. H. Dexter; W. C. Perkins

1982-01-01

99

PUREX Plant waste analysis plan. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

A Washington Administrative Code 173-303-300 requires that a facility develop and follow a written waste analysis plan which describes the procedures that will be followed to ensure that its dangerous wastes are managed properly. This document covers the activities at the PUREX Plant to characterize the designate waste that is generated within the plant, stored in Tanks F18, U3/U4, and managed through elementary neutralization in Tank 31.

Villalobos, C.N.

1995-04-10

100

Waste Estimates for a Future Recycling Plant in the US Based Upon AREVA Operating Experience - 13206  

SciTech Connect

Estimates of process and secondary wastes produced by a recycling plant built in the U.S., which is composed of a used nuclear fuel (UNF) reprocessing facility and a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility, are performed as part of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored study [1]. In this study, a set of common inputs, assumptions, and constraints were identified to allow for comparison of these wastes between different industrial teams. AREVA produced a model of a reprocessing facility, an associated fuel fabrication facility, and waste treatment facilities to develop the results for this study. These facilities were divided into a number of discrete functional areas for which inlet and outlet flow streams were clearly identified to allow for an accurate determination of the radionuclide balance throughout the facility and the waste streams. AREVA relied primarily on its decades of experience and feedback from its La Hague (reprocessing) and MELOX (MOX fuel fabrication) commercial operating facilities in France to support this assessment. However, to perform these estimates for a U.S. facility with different regulatory requirements and to take advantage of some technological advancements, such as in the potential treatment of off-gases, some deviations from this experience were necessary. A summary of AREVA's approach and results for the recycling of 800 metric tonnes of initial heavy metal (MTIHM) of LWR UNF per year into MOX fuel under the assumptions and constraints identified for this DOE study are presented. (authors)

Foare, Genevieve; Meze, Florian [AREVA E and P, SGN - 1, rue des Herons, 78182 Montigny-le-Bretonneux (France)] [AREVA E and P, SGN - 1, rue des Herons, 78182 Montigny-le-Bretonneux (France); Bader, Sven; McGee, Don; Murray, Paul [AREVA Federal Services LLC, 7207 IBM Drive, Mail Code CLT- 1D, Charlotte NC 28262 (United States)] [AREVA Federal Services LLC, 7207 IBM Drive, Mail Code CLT- 1D, Charlotte NC 28262 (United States); Prud'homme, Pascal [AREVA NC SA - 1, place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris La Defense CEDEX (France)] [AREVA NC SA - 1, place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris La Defense CEDEX (France)

2013-07-01

101

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant remote handling application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project, to be constructed on the Hanford reservation in southeastern Washington State during the 1990's, will immobilize the liquid, high-level defense waste stored there. The wastes will be retrieved from double-shell tanks and pretreated at an existing facility onsite. Pretreatment will significantly reduce the volume of wastes to be solidified in HWVP by separating

L. D. Swenson; B. A. Wolfe

1989-01-01

102

Division of Waste Management, Production, and Reprocessing programs progress report for January--December 1976  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of the acid digestion process for treating combustible nuclear wastes has progressed to design and construction of the Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU). Tests were continued in the nonradioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (ADTU) in an effort to improve the performance of the system. Nitric acid consumption has been decreased from 8.8 to 4.5 kg HNOâ\\/kg digested waste

1977-01-01

103

Adequacy of radioiodine control and monitoring at nuclear fuels reprocessing plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present backlog of irradiated reactor fuel leads to projections that no fuel out of the reactor less than 10 years need be reprocessed prior to the year 2000. The only radioiodine present in such aged fuel is ¹²⁹I (half-life 1.6 x 10⁷ y). The ¹³¹I initially present in the fuel decays to insignificance in the first few hundred days

R. D. Scheele; L. L. Burger; J. K. Soldat

1984-01-01

104

CALIBRATION AND HOT TESTING OF THE ADVANCED NUCLEAR MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS USED FOR WASTE CHARACTERIZATION IN COGEMA'S NEW ACC COMPACTION FACILITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spent nuclear fuel from commercial power reactors is reprocessed at the COGEMA plant in La Hague. After shearing and dissolution of the fuel assemblies, the hulls and nozzles are sent to COGEMA's new compaction facility (ACC) to reduce the final volume of waste. Technological waste generated in the reprocessing plant is also sent to the ACC facility. Compacted waste is

H. Toubon; Vuillier; T. Gain; M. Huver

2003-01-01

105

Waste handling and packaging plant project description  

SciTech Connect

ORNL currently has about 300 m{sup 3} of remote handled transuranic (RHTRU) solid waste retrievably stored in trenches and a bunker. This material will be processed through the Waste Handling and Packaging Plant (WHDP) for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Details of siting, construction, and conceptual flow of RHTRU waste through the plant are provided. ORNL also has liquid waste and sludge stored in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST). The sludge also contains TRU waste, and the WHPP will process an expected volume of 500,000 gallons of a suernatant/sludge slurry for shipment to the WIPP. Specific systems which require more development include the cask transfer system, the linear accelerator-based nondestructive assay and nondestructive evaluation equipment. (MHB)

Turner, D.W.; Moore, J.W.; Conatser, D.A.

1991-01-01

106

The Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant at Sellafield - Lessons Learned from 10 Years of Hot Operations and their Applicability to the DOE Environmental Management Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (Thorp) at Sellafield in northwest England is a $4 billion integrated plant that takes irradiated fuel from worldwide Light Water Reactors and UK Gas-Cooled Reactors and separates the uranium and plutonium from the fission products so that the latter can be vitrified and safely stored. The uranium and plutonium are further separated so that the

C. Burrows; C. Phillips; A. Milliken

2006-01-01

107

Influence of releases of I-129 from reprocessing plants on the marine environment of the North Adriatic Sea.  

PubMed

Compared to the pre-nuclear era, large amounts of (129)I have been released to the marine environment, especially as liquid and gaseous discharges from two European reprocessing plants located at Sellafield and La Hague. Their liquid discharges influence Northern Europe and most research was conducted in the area of the North Atlantic Ocean and the Baltic Sea. In this article data on (129)I content and (129)I/(127)I ratios observed in the North Adriatic Sea, which is a rather enclosed basin of the Mediterranean Sea, are presented. To the best of our knowledge no data on (129)I in the Mediterranean Sea have previously been reported. As this area is isolated from direct liquid discharges, the main transport pathway is probably gaseous releases from reprocessing plants. Surface sea water, the marine alga Fucus virsoides, an iodine accumulator, and the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis collected in 2009 and 2010, and marine sediment collected in 2005 and 2009 were analysed. The (129)I/(127)I isotopic ratios observed were in the range from 0.8 to 3.0×10(-08) for seawater, from 0.06 to 0.35×10(-08) for marine sediment, from 0.05 to 0.10×10(-08) for F. virsoides and from 0.3 to 0.9×10(-08) for M. galloprovincialis. PMID:22205048

Osterc, Andrej; Stibilj, Vekoslava

2012-03-01

108

Adsorptive Separation of Krypton-85 in Reprocessing Plant in Consideration of Gas Impurities and a Xenon-Preseparation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After loading at low temperatures and following desorption on activated charcoal krypton is separated out of waste gas. In a compact pilot plant a high degree of retention is achieved. The components in waste gas like methane, carbondioxid, laughing gas a...

G. Assmann

1986-01-01

109

Reprocessing and reuse of waste tire rubber to solve air-quality related problems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

There is a potential for using waste tire rubber to make activated-carbon adsorbents for air-quality control applications. Such an approach provides a recycling path for waste tires and the production of new adsorbents from a low-cost waste material. Tire-derived activated carbons (TDACs) were prepared from waste tires. The resulting products are generally mesoporous, with N2-BET specific surface areas ranging from 239 to 1031 m2/g. TDACs were tested for their ability to store natural gas and remove organic compounds and mercury species from gas streams. TDACs are able to achieve 36% of the recommended adsorbed natural gas (methane) storage capacity for natural-gas-fueled vehicles. Equilibrium adsorption capacities for CH4 achieved by TDACs are comparable to Calgon BPL, a commercially available activated-carbon adsorbent. The acetone adsorption capacity for a TDAC is 67% of the adsorption capacity achieved by BPL at 1 vol % acetone. Adsorption capacities of mercury in simulated flue-gas streams are, in general, larger than adsorption capacities achieved by coal-derived activated carbons (CDACs) and BPL. Although TDACs may not perform as well as commercial adsorbents in some air pollution control applications, the potential lower cost of TDACS should be considered when evaluating economics.

Lehmann, C. M. B.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M. J.; Sun, J.

1998-01-01

110

Small Mobile Installation for Reprocessing of Radioactive Waste from Technological Circuits of Nuclear Power Facilities of Nuclear Submarines Subject to Recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a One of significant issues that are to be borne in mind in the process of nuclear submarine (NS) decommissioning, temporary\\u000a storage and recycling is reduction of risk of radiation impact upon personnel, population and the environment. In this respect,\\u000a liquid radioactive waste (LRAW) presents most serious difficulties from the viewpoint of isolation. Reprocessing of LRAW that\\u000a consists in considerable reduction

S. P. Malyshev; A. N Krylov

111

NRC Perspectives on Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Consultations and Monitoring - 13398  

SciTech Connect

Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 (NDAA) requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to consult with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for certain non-high level waste (HLW) determinations. The NDAA also requires NRC to monitor DOE's disposal actions related to those determinations to assess compliance with NRC regulations in 10 CFR Part 61, Subpart C. The NDAA applies to DOE activities that will remain within the States of South Carolina and Idaho. DOE has chosen to, under DOE Order 435.1, engage in consultation with NRC for similar activities in the State of Washington and New York, however, the NRC has no monitoring responsibilities. In 2007, the NRC developed a draft Final Report for Interim Use entitled, NUREG-1854: NRC Staff Guidance for Activities Related to U.S. Department of Energy Waste Determinations. Since the law was enacted, the DOE and NRC have consulted on three waste determinations within the affected States: (1) the Saltstone Disposal Facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) within the State of South Carolina in 2005, (2) the INTEC Tank Farm at the Idaho National Laboratory within the State of Idaho in 2006, and (3) the F Tank Farm at SRS in 2011. After the end of consultation and issuance by DOE of the final waste determination, monitoring began at each of these sites, including the development of monitoring plans. In addition to the NDAA sites, DOE has requested NRC consultation support on both individual tanks and the entire C Tank Farm at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in the State of Washington. DOE also requested consultation of waste determinations performed on the melter and related feed tanks at the West Valley site in New York that would be disposed offsite. In the next few years, NRC and DOE will consult on the last of the NDAA waste determinations for a while, the H Tank Farm waste determination at SRS. DOE may identify other activities in the future but largely NRC's role will change from doing both consultation and monitoring to being focused on monitoring activities within NDAA. DOE has identified other activities at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation that would continue consultation activities but outside of the NDAA in the future. During the past seven years of consultations and monitoring a number of lessons learned about the process, communication issues, and technical guidance have been identified. With the change in focus from reviewing initial performance assessments and draft waste determinations to long-term monitoring (e.g., individual waste tank closure, at F Tank Farm or complete tank farm closure at INTEC expected in the near future), the NRC is going to revise and update its guidance over the next few years to reflect the lessons learned and the change in focus. In addition to the lessons learned, improvements in the guidance will have to account possible rule and guidance changes underway within Part 61. This paper will discuss the initial plans, approaches, and time lines to revise the guidance within NUREG-1854, including opportunities for public involvement. (authors)

McKenney, Christepher A.; Suber, Gregory F.; Felsher, Harry D.; Mohseni, Aby [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Mail Stop T8F5, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)] [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Mail Stop T8F5, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)

2013-07-01

112

Present State of Reprocessing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The operation of several reprocessing plants - industrial size and pilot plants - has made it possible to build up substantial experience in the processing of irradiated fuels. More than 28,000 tons of fuels from gas-graphite reactors were processed on an...

K. L. Huppert

1977-01-01

113

Spent Fuel Reprocessing  

SciTech Connect

Reprocessing of used nuclear fuel is undertaken for several reasons. These include (1) recovery of the valuable fissile constituents (primarily {sup 235}U and plutonium) for subsequent reuse in recycle fuel: (2) reduction in the volume of high-level waste (HLW) that must be placed in a geologic repository; and (3) recovery of special isotopes. There are two broad approches to reprocessng: aqueous and electrochemical. This portion of the course will only address the aqueous methods. Aqueous reprocessing involves the application of mechanical and chemical processing steps to separate, recover, purify, and convert the constituents in the used fuel for subsequent use or disposal. Other major support systems include chemical recycle and waste handling (solid, HLW, low-level liquid waste (LLLW), and gaseous waste).

Jubin, Robert Thomas [ORNL

2009-01-01

114

Transformative Monitoring Approaches for Reprocessing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The future of reprocessing in the United States is strongly driven by plant economics. With increasing safeguards, security, and safety requirements, future plant monitoring systems must be able to demonstrate more efficient operations while improving the...

B. B. Cipiti

2011-01-01

115

NUCLEAR POWER PLANT WASTE HEAT HORTICULTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of the feasibility of using low grade (70 degrees F) waste heat from the condenser cooling water of the Vermont Yaknee nuclear plant for commercial food enhancement. The study addressed the possible impact of laws on the use of waste heat from ...

116

Safety at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a Department of Energy (DOE) project designed to demonstrate safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) wastes in the excavations of a salt bed situated 2,150 feet underground. The operational philosophy of the WIPP is th...

C. F. Wu

1992-01-01

117

A comparision of TRUEX and CMP solvent extraction processes for actinide removal from ICPP wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) is currently engaged in development efforts for the decontamination of high-level radioactive wastes generated from decades of nuclear fuel reprocessing. These wastes include several types of calcine, generated by high temperature solidification of reprocessing raffinates. In addition to calcine, there are smaller quantities of secondary wastes from decontamination and solvent wash activities which are

R. S. Herbst; K. N. Brewer; T. G. Garn; J. D. Law

1996-01-01

118

Corrosion studies on materials of construction for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant equipment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrosion studies on specimens of commercial Type 304L stainless steel (SS), nuclear grade type 304L SS, extra low-carbon nitric acid grade (NAG) Uranus-16 SS, NAG Uranus-65 SS, Ti, Ti-5% Ta, Ti-0.25% Pd, Zircaloy-2, weldments of Ti and of Ti-5% Ta, and surface-modified (thermally oxidised and anodised) Ti were carried out to assess their corrosion resistance in nitric acid medium. The results indicated that Zircaloy-2, Ti-5% Ta, Uranus-16 SS and Uranus-65 SS have excellent corrosion resistance in boiling nitric acid solution. Specimens of Zircaloy-2, Ti-5% Ta and thermally-oxidised Ti showed excellent corrosion resistance also in a simulated uranium-containing reprocessing medium in a concentrated nitric acid solution. SEM and XRD analyses were carried out on the tested specimens to examine the scale morphology and phases present on the surface.

Mudali, U. Kamachi; Dayal, R. K.; Gnanamoorthy, J. B.

1993-07-01

119

Glass ceramic obtained by tailings and tin mine waste reprocessing from Llallagua, Bolivia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Bolivia Sn mining activity produces large tailings of SiO2-rich residues. These tailings contain potentially toxic elements that can be removed into the surface water and produce a high environmental pollution. This study determines the thermal behaviour and the viability of the manufacture of glass-ceramics from glass. The glass has been obtained from raw materials representative of the Sn mining activities from Llallagua (Bolivia). Temperatures of maximum nucleation rate (Tn) and crystallization (Tcr) were calculated from the differential thermal analyses. The final mineral phases were determined by X-ray diffraction and textures were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Crystalline phases are nefeline occurring with wollastonite or plagioclase. Tn for nepheline is between 680 ºC and 700 ºC, for wollastonite, 730 ºC and for plagioclase, 740 ºC. Tcr for nefeline is between 837 and 965 ºC; for wollastonite, 807 ºC and for plagioclase, 977 ºC. In order to establish the mechanical characteristics and efficiency of the vitrification process in the fixation of potentially toxic elements the resistance to leaching and micro-hardness were determined. The obtained contents of the elements leached from the glass ceramic are well below the limits established by the European legislation. So, these analyses confirm that potentially toxic elements remain fixed in the structure of mineral phases formed in the glass-ceramic process. Regarding the values of micro-hardness results show that they are above those of a commercial glass. The manufacture of glass-ceramics from mining waste reduces the volume of tailings produced for the mining industry and, in turn enhances the waste, transforming it into a product with industrial application. Acknowledgements: This work was partly financed by the project AECID: A3/042750/11, and the SGR 2009SGR-00444.

Arancibia, Jony Roger Hans; Villarino, Cecilia; Alfonso, Pura; Garcia-Valles, Maite; Martinez, Salvador; Parcerisa, David

2014-05-01

120

Waste-Water Treatment Plant Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Carrousel is a waste-water treatment plant based on the functioning of the activated sludge process. in this biochemical process, ammonium and nitrate and/or nitrite are broken down by living biomass. The main contribution to plant operation costs is ...

K. van Schagen R. Banning A. M. J. Veersma

1996-01-01

121

Reprocessing in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel to separate uranium and plutonium has been undertaken in the United Kingdom for almost forty years and will shortly enter a significant new phase with the operation of British Nuclear Fuels plc's new Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) at the Sellafield site in North West England. This paper focuses on THORP's central facility in

1992-01-01

122

Sodium Recycle Economics for Waste Treatment Plant Operations  

SciTech Connect

Sodium recycle at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) would reduce the number of glass canisters produced, and has the potential to significantly reduce the cost to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) of treating the tank wastes by hundreds of millions of dollars. The sodium, added in the form of sodium hydroxide, was originally added to minimize corrosion of carbon-steel storage tanks from acidic reprocessing wastes. In the baseline Hanford treatment process, sodium hydroxide is required to leach gibbsite and boehmite from the high level waste (HLW) sludge. In turn, this reduces the amount of HLW glass produced. Currently, a significant amount of additional sodium hydroxide will be added to the process to maintain aluminate solubility at ambient temperatures during ion exchange of cesium. The vitrification of radioactive waste is limited by sodium content, and this additional sodium mass will increase low-activity waste-glass mass. An electrochemical salt-splitting process, based on sodium-ion selective ceramic membranes, is being developed to recover and recycle sodium hydroxide from high-salt radioactive tank wastes in DOE’s complex. The ceramic membranes are from a family of materials known as sodium (Na)—super-ionic conductors (NaSICON)—and the diffusion of sodium ions (Na+) is allowed, while blocking other positively charged ions. A cost/benefit evaluation was based on a strategy that involves a separate caustic-recycle facility based on the NaSICON technology, which would be located adjacent to the WTP facility. A Monte Carlo approach was taken, and several thousand scenarios were analyzed to determine likely economic results. The cost/benefit evaluation indicates that 10,000–50,000 metric tons (MT) of sodium could be recycled, and would allow for the reduction of glass production by 60,000–300,000 MT. The cost of the facility construction and operation was scaled to the low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification facility, showing cost would be roughly $150 million to $400 million for construction and $10 million to $40 million per year for operations. Depending on the level of aluminate supersaturation allowed in the storage tanks in the LAW Pretreatment Facility, these values indicate a return on investment of up to 25% to 60%.

Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Fountain, Matthew S.

2008-08-31

123

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant applied technology plan  

SciTech Connect

This Applied Technology Plan describes the process development, verification testing, equipment adaptation, and waste form qualification technical issues and plans for resolution to support the design, permitting, and operation of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant. The scope of this Plan includes work to be performed by the research and development contractor, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, other organizations within Westinghouse Hanford Company, universities and companies with glass technology expertise, and other US Department of Energy sites. All work described in this Plan is funded by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project and the relationship of this Plan to other waste management documents and issues is provided for background information. Work to performed under this Plan is divided into major areas that establish a reference process, develop an acceptable glass composition envelope, and demonstrate feed processing and glass production for the range of Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant feeds. Included in this work is the evaluation and verification testing of equipment and technology obtained from the Defense Waste Processing Facility, the West Valley Demonstration Project, foreign countries, and the Hanford Site. Development and verification of product and process models and other data needed for waste form qualification documentation are also included in this Plan. 21 refs., 4 figs., 33 tabs.

Kruger, O.L.

1990-09-01

124

Neurotoxic effects from residential exposure to chemicals from an oil reprocessing facility and superfund site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurotoxicity has been described in workers exposed to solvents, PCBs, certain metals, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons but not often in residents near refineries or factories. We compared the neurobehavioral performance of residents near a plant that reprocessed used motor oil and chemical waste from 1966–1983 to referents from beyond the plant's modeled air dispersal and water drainage zones. Neurophysiological and psychological

Kaye H. Kilburn; Raphael H. Warshaw

1995-01-01

125

Spent fuel transport and reprocessing  

SciTech Connect

The reprocessing experience in India started with the commissioning in 1964 at Trombay a plant designed to handle metallic uranium fuels from research reactors. This was entirely executed by indigenous effort. Since then the reprocessing programme has evolved in stages matching with the growth of nuclear programme. The reprocessing plant at Tarapur, under operation at present, is the next one to be built capable of reprocessing uranium oxide fuels from the power reactors at Rajasthan (PHWR) and Tarapur (BWR). The third plant now under construction will reprocess the spent fuels from the power reactors (PHWR) and the Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) located at Kalpakkam. By this planned progressive approach considerable experience has been acquired which will be useful in the design and construction of even larger plants to meet the projected demands. Setting up of a larger plant is being planned. To meet the increasing demands for movement of spent fuel arisings from reactors to reprocessing plants, transportation casks, each weighing up to 70 tonnes, have been designed and manufactured within the country. These casks each conform to test standards stipulated in the IAEA transport regulations. This paper discusses the experience in aspects dealing with spent fuel transport and reprocessing.

Prasad, A.N.; Rao, M.K.; Seetharamiah, P.

1985-01-01

126

Mechanical compaction of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant simulated waste  

SciTech Connect

The investigation described in this report acquired experimental information about how materials simulating transuranic (TRU) waste compact under axial compressive stress, and used these data to define a model for use in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) disposal room analyses. The first step was to determine compaction curves for various simultant materials characteristic of TRU waste. Stress-volume compaction curves for various combinations of these materials were than derived to represent the combustible, metallic, and sludge waste categories. Prediction of compaction response in this manner is considered essential for the WIPP program because of the difficulties inherent in working with real (radioactive) waste. Next, full-sized 55-gallon drums of simulated combustible, metallic, and sludge waste were axially compacted. These results provided data that can be directly applied to room consolidation and data for comparison with the predictions obtained in Part 1 of the investigation. Compaction curves, which represent the combustible, metallic, and sludge waste categories, were determined, and a curve for the averaged waste inventory of the entire repository was derived. 9 refs., 31 figs., 12 tabs.

Butcher, B.M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Thompson, T.W.; VanBuskirk, R.G.; Patti, N.C. (Science Applications International Corp., Golden, CO (United States))

1991-06-01

127

Waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), DOE/WIPP-069, was initially developed by a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Steering Committee to provide performance requirements to ensure public health and safety as well as the safe handling of transuranic (TRU) waste at the WIPP. This revision updates the criteria and requirements of previous revisions and deletes those which were applicable only to the test phase. The criteria and requirements in this document must be met by participating DOE TRU Waste Generator/Storage Sites (Sites) prior to shipping contact-handled (CH) and remote-handled (RH) TRU waste forms to the WIPP. The WIPP Project will comply with applicable federal and state regulations and requirements, including those in Titles 10, 40, and 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). The WAC, DOE/WIPP-069, serves as the primary directive for assuring the safe handling, transportation, and disposal of TRU wastes in the WIPP and for the certification of these wastes. The WAC identifies strict requirements that must be met by participating Sites before these TRU wastes may be shipped for disposal in the WIPP facility. These criteria and requirements will be reviewed and revised as appropriate, based on new technical or regulatory requirements. The WAC is a controlled document. Revised/changed pages will be supplied to all holders of controlled copies.

NONE

1996-04-01

128

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Information System (Public Access)  

DOE Data Explorer

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a DOE facility located in the desert outside Carlsbad, New Mexico. Its mission is to safely dispose of defense-related transuranic radioactive waste. Disposal ôroomsö are carved out of the Permian Salt Formation deep below the desertÆs surface. The WIPP Waste Information Service (WWIS) was established in accordance with an Agreement between the United States Department of Energy and the New Mexico Environment Department, dated February 11, 2005, Docket Number HWB 04-07 (CO). The service provides information the containers emplaced at WIPP and the waste products they hold. The public may query by shipment number, location of waste stream or location of the container after it is placed at WIPP, date placed, and Haz Codes or other information about the waste stream profiles. For example, choosing the waste stream identified as ID-SDA-SLUDGE reveals that it may contain more than 20 chemical waste products, including arsenic, spent halogenated solvents, potassium cyanide, and chloroform. The system then tells you each numbered container that has this kind of sludge. Container data is available within 14 days after the containerÆs emplacement in the WIPP Repository.

129

The use of process information for verification of inventory in solvent extraction contactors in near-real-time accounting for reprocessing plants  

SciTech Connect

Near-real-time accounting is being studied as a technique for improving the timeliness of accounting in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. A major criticism of near-real-time accounting is perceived disclosure of proprietary data for IAEA verification, particularly in verifying the inventory of solvent extraction contactors. This study indicates that the contribution of uncertainties in estimating the inventory of pulsed columns or mixer settlers may be insignificant compared to uncertainties in measured throughput and measurable inventory for most reprocessing plants, and verification may not be a serious problem. Verification can become a problem for plants with low throughput and low inventory in tanks if contactor inventory variations or uncertainties are greater than /approximately/25%. Each plant must be evaluated with respect to its specific inventory and throughput characteristics. 11 refs., 4 figs.

Hakkila, E.A.; Barnes, J.W.; Hafer, J.F.

1988-01-01

130

A glass-encapsulated calcium phosphate wasteform for the immobilization of actinide-, fluoride-, and chloride-containing radioactive wastes from the pyrochemical reprocessing of plutonium metal  

SciTech Connect

The presence of halide anions in four types of wastes arising from the pyrochemical reprocessing of plutonium required an immobilization process to be developed in which not only the actinide cations but also the halide anions were immobilized in a durable waste form. At AWE, we have developed such a process using Ca3(PO4)2 as the host material. Successful trials of the process with actinide- and Cl-bearing Type I waste were carried out at PNNL where the immobilization of the waste in a form resistant to aqueous leaching was confirmed. Normalized mass losses determined at 40°C and 28 days were 12 x 10-6 g?m-2 and 2.7 x 10-3 g?m-2 for Pu and Cl, respectively. Accelerated radiation-induced damage effects are being determined with specimens containing 238Pu. No changes in the crystalline lattice have been detected with XRD after the 239Pu equivalent of 400 years ageing. Confirmation of the process for Type II waste (a oxyhydroxide-based waste) is currently underway at PNNL. Differences in the ionic state of Pu in the four types of waste have required different surrogates to be used. Samarium chloride was used successfully as a surrogate for both Pu(III) and Am(III) chlorides. Initial investigations into the use of HfO2 as the surrogate for Pu(IV) oxide in Type II waste indicated no significant differences.

Donald, Ian W.; Metcalfe, Brian; Fong, Shirley K.; Gerrard, Lee A.; Strachan, Denis M.; Scheele, Randall D.

2007-03-31

131

Impacts of extended advanced spent-fuel storage on reprocessing. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluated the effect of various spent fuel storage methods on the operations of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. A survey was made of the various techniques being considered to expand at-reactor storage capacity and their effect on fuel integrity. Variations of these techniques employ dry storage, fuel assembly canistering, and rod consolidation. The fuel receipt operations and chemical plant procedures developed for the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant were used as a basis for comparison. The study examined areas of possible incompatibility between reprocessing operations and the proposed storage methods. The results show that storage of fuel for nominally 10 years or more prior to reprocessing is generally advantageous from the standpoint of plant maintenance, waste disposal, and reprocessing plant operation. Extended storage is not expected to increase the incidence of failed fuel. However, reprocessing plants do have equipment limits which must be considered by the designers of fuel storage processes. In particular, the implementation of certain fuel canistering concepts could effectively preclude fuel receipt at the reprocessing plant. Technical guidelines are included, which serve as guidance to engineers who are involved in evaluating new spent fuel storage concepts.

Anderson, R.T.

1984-08-01

132

Plywood Plant Glue Wastes Disposal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The cleanup of glue spreaders at plywood mills produces a waste that is high in pollutional strength, though quite low in volume. The plywood industry uses three basic types of glue: the blood-soya, or protein variety, for interior grade plywood; the phen...

D. G. Bodien

1969-01-01

133

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical manual  

SciTech Connect

A key element of the Hanford waste management strategy is the construction of a new facility, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), to vitrify existing and future liquid high-level waste produced by defense activities at the Hanford Site. The HWVP mission is to vitrify pretreated waste in borosilicate glass, cast the glass into stainless steel canisters, and store the canisters at the Hanford Site until they are shipped to a federal geological repository. The HWVP Technical Manual (Manual) documents the technical bases of the current HWVP process and provides a physical description of the related equipment and the plant. The immediate purpose of the document is to provide the technical bases for preparation of project baseline documents that will be used to direct the Title 1 and Title 2 design by the A/E, Fluor. The content of the Manual is organized in the following manner. Chapter 1.0 contains the background and context within which the HWVP was designed. Chapter 2.0 describes the site, plant, equipment and supporting services and provides the context for application of the process information in the Manual. Chapter 3.0 provides plant feed and product requirements, which are primary process bases for plant operation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes the technology for each plant process. Chapter 5.0 describes the engineering principles for designing major types of HWVP equipment. Chapter 6.0 describes the general safety aspects of the plant and process to assist in safe and prudent facility operation. Chapter 7.0 includes a description of the waste form qualification program and data. Chapter 8.0 indicates the current status of quality assurance requirements for the Manual. The Appendices provide data that are too extensive to be placed in the main text, such as extensive tables and sets of figures. The Manual is a revision of the 1987 version.

Larson, D.E. [ed.; Watrous, R.A.; Kruger, O.L. [and others

1996-03-01

134

Putting power plant wastes to work  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article offers an overview of current power plant waste utilization projects. It is predicted that fly ash\\/bottom ash will become the country's fourth most abundant mineral resource by 1985. Fly ash can be used in concrete cement manufacture, and in the stabilization of industrial sludge. Use of fly ash in structural road fill, and in asphalt mixes is being

Makansi

1983-01-01

135

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Transuranic Waste Baseline inventory report. Volume 2. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This document is the Baseline Inventory Report for the transuranic (alpha-bearing) wastes stored at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. Waste stream profiles including origin, applicable EPA codes, typical isotopic composition, typical waste densities, and typical rates of waste generation for each facility are presented for wastes stored at the WIPP.

NONE

1995-02-01

136

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Safety Analysis Report  

SciTech Connect

The following provides a summary of the specific issues addressed in this FY-95 Annual Update as they relate to the CH TRU safety bases: Executive Summary; Site Characteristics; Principal Design and Safety Criteria; Facility Design and Operation; Hazards and Accident Analysis; Derivation of Technical Safety Requirements; Radiological and Hazardous Material Protection; Institutional Programs; Quality Assurance; and Decontamination and Decommissioning. The System Design Descriptions`` (SDDS) for the WIPP were reviewed and incorporated into Chapter 3, Principal Design and Safety Criteria and Chapter 4, Facility Design and Operation. This provides the most currently available final engineering design information on waste emplacement operations throughout the disposal phase up to the point of permanent closure. Also, the criteria which define the TRU waste to be accepted for disposal at the WIPP facility were summarized in Chapter 3 based on the WAC for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.`` This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents the safety analyses that develop and evaluate the adequacy of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contact-Handled Transuranic Wastes (WIPP CH TRU) safety bases necessary to ensure the safety of workers, the public and the environment from the hazards posed by WIPP waste handling and emplacement operations during the disposal phase and hazards associated with the decommissioning and decontamination phase. The analyses of the hazards associated with the long-term (10,000 year) disposal of TRU and TRU mixed waste, and demonstration of compliance with the requirements of 40 CFR 191, Subpart B and 40 CFR 268.6 will be addressed in detail in the WIPP Final Certification Application scheduled for submittal in October 1996 (40 CFR 191) and the No-Migration Variance Petition (40 CFR 268.6) scheduled for submittal in June 1996. Section 5.4, Long-Term Waste Isolation Assessment summarizes the current status of the assessment.

NONE

1995-11-01

137

Fuel Requirements (Without Reprocessing) for Iran 1, 2, 3 and 4 Nuclear Power Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

By use of a computer program written by the Nuclear Power Plant Management of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, the Yellowcake, natural uranium, and separative work unit (SWU) needs for the first core and ten reloads of the Iran 1, 2, 3 and 4 Nuclea...

M. Peroomian S. Roustayian

1976-01-01

138

129I in the environment of the La Hague nuclear fuel reprocessing plant--from sea to land.  

PubMed

In recent years, particular attention was paid to the long-lived radionuclides discharged with authorized low-level radioactive liquid and gaseous effluents by the nuclear spent fuel reprocessing plants of La Hague and Sellafield. The knowledge of (129)I (half-life=15.7 x 10(6) a) distribution in the environment is required to assess the radiological impact to the environment and population living in the area under the direct influence of La Hague NRP discharges. Measurement difficulties of (129)I in environmental matrices, where it is usually present at trace level, limited data published on (129)I activity levels in the European and more particularly in the French territory. Studies conducted to qualify a new alternative measurement method, direct gamma-X spectrometry with experimental self-absorption correction, led to test samples collected in the La Hague marine and terrestrial environment : seaweeds, lichens, grass, bovine thyroids, etc. All these results, often already published separately for analytical purposes and treated for intercomparison exercises, are presented here together in a radioecological manner. The levels of (129)I activity and (129)I/(127)I ratios in these samples show the spatial and temporal influence of the La Hague NRP in its local near-field environment as well as at the regional scale along the French Channel coast. PMID:12915059

Fréchou, C; Calmet, D

2003-01-01

139

Plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings on type 316L stainless steel for pyrochemical reprocessing plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Type 316L stainless steel (SS) is one of the candidate materials proposed for application in pyrochemical reprocessing plants. In the present work, yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings of 300 ?m were applied over type 316L SS with a metallic bond coating of 50 ?m by an optimized plasma spray process, and were assessed for the corrosion behaviour in molten LiCl-KCl medium at 873 K for periods of 5 h, 100 h, 250 h and 500 h. The as-coated and tested samples were examined by optical microscopy and SEM for homogeneity, penetration of molten salt through coating and corrosion of type 316L SS substrate. The results indicated that the yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings performed well without significant degradation and corrosion attack. Laser melting of the coated samples using CO 2 laser was attempted to consolidate the coatings. The development of large grains with segmented cracks was noticed after laser melting, though the coating defects have been eliminated.

Ravi Shankar, A.; Kamachi Mudali, U.; Sole, Ravikumar; Khatak, H. S.; Raj, Baldev

140

The vertical profiles of iodine-129 in the Pacific Ocean and the Japan Sea before the routine operation of a new nuclear fuel reprocessing plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anticipating the release of 129I from a new spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Rokkasho in Japan, the levels of 129I in seawater before its operation were measured at the western North Pacific Ocean and the Japan Sea from surface to bottom.Iodine isotopic ratios (129I\\/127I) in surface seawater at the offshore of Kushiro, the Japan Basin and the Yamato Basin

Takashi Suzuki; Masayuki Minakawa; Hikaru Amano; Orihiko Togawa

2010-01-01

141

Protection of Operators and Environment - the Safety Concept of the Karlsruhe Vitrification Plant VEK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Karlsruhe Vitrification Plant (VEK) plant is a milestone in decommissioning and complete dismantling of the former Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant WAK, which is in an advanced stage of disassembly. The VEK is scheduled to vitrify approx. 70 m3 of the highly radioactive liquid waste (HLW) resulting from reprocessing. Site preparation, civil work and component manufacturing began in 1999. The building

J. Fleisch; H. Kuttruf; W. Lumpp; W. Pfeifer; G. Roth; S. Weisenburger

2002-01-01

142

Robust Solution to Difficult Hydrogen Issues When Shipping Transuranic Waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has been open, receiving, and disposing of transuranic (TRU) waste since March 26, 1999. The majority of the waste has a path forward for shipment to and disposal at the WIPP, but there are about two percent (2%) or approximately 3,020 cubic meters (m³) of the volume of TRU waste (high wattage TRU waste)

S. S. Countiss; G. T. Basabilvazo; D. C. Moody; S. A. Lott; M. Pickerell; T. Baca; S. Tujague; H. Svetlik; T. Hannah

2003-01-01

143

Waste isolation pilot plant disposal room model  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes development of the conceptual and mathematical models for the part of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository performance assessment that is concerned with what happens to the waste over long times after the repository is decommissioned. These models, collectively referred to as the {open_quotes}Disposal Room Model,{close_quotes} describe the repository closure process during which deformation of the surrounding salt consolidates the waste. First, the relationship of repository closure to demonstration of compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard (40 CFR 191 Appendix C) and how sensitive performance results are to it are examined. Next, a detailed description is provided of the elements of the disposal region, and properties selected for the salt, waste, and other potential disposal features such as backfill. Included in the discussion is an explanation of how the various models were developed over time. Other aspects of closure analysis, such as the waste flow model and method of analysis, are also described. Finally, the closure predictions used in the final performance assessment analysis for the WIPP Compliance Certification Application are summarized.

Butcher, B.M.

1997-08-01

144

Tritium concentrations in the atmospheric environment at Rokkasho, Japan before the final testing of the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant.  

PubMed

This study aimed at obtaining background tritium concentrations in precipitation and air at Rokkasho where the first commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Japan has been under construction. Tritium concentration in monthly precipitation during fiscal years 2001-2005 had a seasonal variation pattern which was high in spring and low in summer. The tritium concentration was higher than that observed at Chiba City as a whole. The seasonal peak concentration at Rokkasho was generally higher than that at Chiba City, while the baseline concentrations of both were similar. The reason for the difference may be the effect of air mass from the Asian continent which is considered to have high tritium concentration. Atmospheric tritium was operationally separated into HTO, HT and hydrocarbon (CH(3)T) fractions, and the samples collected every 3 d-14 d during fiscal year 2005 were analyzed for these fractions. The HTO concentration as radioactivity in water correlated well with that in the precipitation samples. The HT concentration was the highest among the chemical forms analyzed, followed by the HTO and CH(3)T concentrations. The HT and CH(3)T concentrations did not have clear seasonal variation patterns. The HT concentration followed the decline previously reported by Mason and Östlund with an apparent half-life of 4.8 y. The apparent and environmental half-lives of CH(3)T were estimated as 9.2 y and 36.5 y, respectively, by combining the present data with literature data. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change used the atmospheric lifetime of 12 y for CH(4) to estimate global warming in its 2007 report. The longer environmental half-life of CH(3)T suggested its supply from other sources than past nuclear weapon testing in the atmosphere. PMID:21703737

Akata, Naofumi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Shima, Nagayoshi; Iyogi, Takashi; Momoshima, Noriyuki; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

2011-09-01

145

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant foreign alternatives feasibility study. Revision 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The impacts and uncertainties of changing from the current Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technology and plant design based on the liquid-fed ceramic melter to the French Ateliers Vitrification La Hague vitrification technology and plant design for vit...

1990-01-01

146

Remote handling equipment at the hanford waste treatment plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cold war plutonium production led to extensive amounts of radioactive waste stored in tanks at the Department of Energy's Hanford Waste Treatment Plant. The storage tanks could potentially leak into the ground water and into the Columbia River. The solution for this risk of the leaking waste is vitrification. Vitrification is a process of mixing molten glass with radioactive waste

M. A. Bardal; J. D. Roach

2007-01-01

147

Glass Formulation Development for INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

For about four decades, radioactive wastes have been collected and calcined from nuclear fuels reprocessing at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), formerly Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Over this time span, secondary radioactive wastes have also been collected and stored as liquid from decontamination, laboratory activities, and fuel-storage activities. These liquid wastes are collectively called sodium-bearing wastes

J. D. Vienna; M. J. Schweiger; D. E. Smith; H. D. Smith; J. V. Crum; D. K. Peeler; I. A. Reamer; C. A. Musick; R. D. Tillotson

1999-01-01

148

Glass Formulation Development for INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For about four decades, radioactive wastes have been collected and calcined from nuclear fuels reprocessing at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), formerly Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Over this time span, secondary rad...

J. D. Vienna M. J. Schweiger D. E. Smith H. D. Smith J. V. Crum D. K. Peeler I. A. Reamer C. A. Musick R. D. Tillotson

1999-01-01

149

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Strategic Plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Strategic Plan is to provide decision makers, project participants, and the public with a high-level overview of the objectives, issues, and strategiesthat impact a decision on the suitability of WIPP as a permanent, safe disposal facility for transuranic (TRU) waste that has resulted from defense activities. This document is a component of an integrated planning process and is a key management tool that is coordinated and consistent with the Secretary`s Disposal Decision Plan and the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) Five-Year Plan. This documentsupports other US Department of Energy (DOE) planning efforts, including the TRU Waste Program. The WIPP Strategic Plan addresses the WIPP Program Test Phase, Disposal Decision, Disposal Phase, and Decommissioning Phase (decontamination and decommissioning). It describes the actions and activities that the DOE will conduct to ensure that WIPP will comply with applicable, relevant, and appropriate requirements of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), State of New Mexico, and other applicable federal and state regulations. It also includes the key assumptions under which the strategy was developed. A comprehensive discussion of the multitude of activities involved in the WIPP Program cannot be adequately presented in this document. The specific details of these activities are presented in other, more detailed WIPP planningdocuments.

Not Available

1993-03-01

150

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Strategic Plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Strategic Plan is to provide decision makers, project participants, and the public with a high-level overview of the objectives, issues, and strategiesthat impact a decision on the suitability of WIPP as a permanent, safe disposal facility for transuranic (TRU) waste that has resulted from defense activities. This document is a component of an integrated planning process and is a key management tool that is coordinated and consistent with the Secretary's Disposal Decision Plan and the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) Five-Year Plan. This documentsupports other US Department of Energy (DOE) planning efforts, including the TRU Waste Program. The WIPP Strategic Plan addresses the WIPP Program Test Phase, Disposal Decision, Disposal Phase, and Decommissioning Phase (decontamination and decommissioning). It describes the actions and activities that the DOE will conduct to ensure that WIPP will comply with applicable, relevant, and appropriate requirements of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), State of New Mexico, and other applicable federal and state regulations. It also includes the key assumptions under which the strategy was developed. A comprehensive discussion of the multitude of activities involved in the WIPP Program cannot be adequately presented in this document. The specific details of these activities are presented in other, more detailed WIPP planningdocuments.

Not Available

1993-03-01

151

Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing  

SciTech Connect

Reprocessing is essential to closing nuclear fuel cycle. Natural uranium contains only 0.7 percent 235U, the fissile (see glossary for technical terms) isotope that produces most of the fission energy in a nuclear power plant. Prior to being used in commercial nuclear fuel, uranium is typically enriched to 3–5% in 235U. If the enrichment process discards depleted uranium at 0.2 percent 235U, it takes more than seven tonnes of uranium feed to produce one tonne of 4%-enriched uranium. Nuclear fuel discharged at the end of its economic lifetime contains less one percent 235U, but still more than the natural ore. Less than one percent of the uranium that enters the fuel cycle is actually used in a single pass through the reactor. The other naturally occurring isotope, 238U, directly contributes in a minor way to power generation. However, its main role is to transmute into plutoniumby neutron capture and subsequent radioactive decay of unstable uraniumand neptuniumisotopes. 239Pu and 241Pu are fissile isotopes that produce more than 40% of the fission energy in commercially deployed reactors. It is recovery of the plutonium (and to a lesser extent the uranium) for use in recycled nuclear fuel that has been the primary focus of commercial reprocessing. Uraniumtargets irradiated in special purpose reactors are also reprocessed to obtain the fission product 99Mo, the parent isotope of technetium, which is widely used inmedical procedures. Among the fission products, recovery of such expensive metals as platinum and rhodium is technically achievable, but not economically viable in current market and regulatory conditions. During the past 60 years, many different techniques for reprocessing used nuclear fuel have been proposed and tested in the laboratory. However, commercial reprocessing has been implemented along a single line of aqueous solvent extraction technology called plutonium uranium reduction extraction process (PUREX). Similarly, hundreds of types of reactor fuels have been irradiated for different purposes, but the vast majority of commercial fuel is uranium oxide clad in zirconium alloy tubing. As a result, commercial reprocessing plants have relatively narrow technical requirements for used nuclear that is accepted for processing.

Harold F. McFarlane; Terry Todd

2013-11-01

152

Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Energy (DOE) has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage and reprocessing since 1953. Reprocessing of SNF has resulted in an existing inventory of 1.5 million gallons of radioac...

1993-01-01

153

Idaho Chemical Processing Plant spent fuel and waste management technology development program plan: 1994 Update.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Energy has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage since 1951 and reprocessing since 1953. Until April 1992, the major activity of the ICPP was the reprocessing of SNF to recove...

1994-01-01

154

Codigestion of manure and organic wastes in centralized biogas plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Centralized biogas plants in Denmark codigest mainly manure, together with other organic waste such as industrial organic\\u000a waste, source sorted household waste, and sewage sludge. Today 22 large-scale centralized biogas plants are in operation in\\u000a Denmark, and in 2001 they treated approx 1.2 million tons of manure as well as approx 300,000 of organic industrial waste.\\u000a Besides the centralized biogas

I. Angelidaki; L. Ellegaard

2003-01-01

155

Making Plant-Support Structures From Waste Plant Fiber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Environmentally benign, biodegradable structures for supporting growing plants can be made in a process based on recycling of such waste plant fiber materials as wheat straw or of such derivative materials as paper and cardboard. Examples of structures that can be made in this way include plant plugs, pots, planter-lining mats, plant fences, and root and shoot barriers. No chemical binders are used in the process. First, the plant material is chopped into smaller particles. The particles are leached with water or steam to remove material that can inhibit plant growth, yielding a fibrous slurry. If the desired structures are plugs or sheets, then the slurry is formed into the desired shapes in a pulp molding subprocess. If the desired structures are root and shoot barriers, pots, or fences, then the slurry is compression-molded to the desired shapes in a heated press. The processed materials in these structures have properties similar to those of commercial pressboard, but unlike pressboard, these materials contain no additives. These structures have been found to withstand one growth cycle, even when wet

Morrow, Robert C.; < oscjmocl. < attjew K/; {ertzbprm. A,amda; Ej (e. Cjad); Hunt, John

2006-01-01

156

Deposition and resuspension of antimony-125 and cesium-137 in the soil-plant system in the environment of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

Field studies were conducted during the summer of 1987 to characterize the levels of {sup 125}Sb and {sup 137}Cs releases and the distribution of the two radionuclides in vegetation and soil at distances of 0.45 and 0.75 km from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant stack. Samples were collected of sagebrush, wheatgrass, and rabbitbrush and their leaves, stems, roots, and litter were separated. Vegetation samples were dried at 70{degree}C for 48 hours, ground, and concentrations of {sup 125}Sb and {sup 137}Cs were determined by gamma spectrometry. Soil samples were collected from the surface to a depth of 18 cm (at 3 cm increments), dried at 45{degree}C, and the concentrations of {sup 125}Sb and {sup 137}Cs measured in the same manner as for vegetation samples. Results showed that the activity of {sup 125}Sb was higher in the leaves than in the stem and roots. Total activity of {sup 125}Sb (1041.77 Bq m{sup {minus}2}) was distributed as 33.4% in vegetation and 66.6% in soil. Deposition of airborne {sup 125}Sb measured through absorption by transplanted vegetation was about one Bq m{sup {minus}2} day{sup {minus}1}. The resuspension rate of {sup 125}Sb from vegetation determined by an air-flux chamber positioned over sagebrush plants was less than 61 x 10{sup {minus}11} sec{sup {minus}1}. Cesium-137 concentrations were lower in the leaves than in the stems and roots indicating slow movement through plant tissues.

Ghuman, G.S. (Savannah State Coll., GA (United States)); Motes, B.G.; Fernandez, S.J.; Weesner, F.J.; McManus, G.J.; Wilcox, C.M. (Idaho Research Center, Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Nuclear and Environmental Measurements Section)

1989-03-22

157

Reduction in waste load from a meat processing plant: Beef  

SciTech Connect

;Contents: Introduction (Randolph Packing Company, Meat Plant Wastewaters, Slaughterhouses, Packing Houses, Sources of Wastewater, Secondary Manufacturing Processes, An Example of Water Conservation and Waste Control, Water Conservation Program); Plant Review and Survey (Survey for Product Losses and Wastes, Water Use and Waste Load, Wastewater Discharge Limitations and Costs); Waste Centers, Changes, Costs and Results (In-Plant Control Measures, Water Conservation, Recovery Products, By-Products and Reducing Waste Load, Blood Conservation, Paunch Handling and Processing, Summary of Process Changes, Pretreatment, Advantages and Disadvantages of Pretreatment, Pretreatment Systems).

NONE

1986-10-31

158

Remote handling system for waste at the waste isolation pilot plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The construction of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico, for disposal of transuranic wastes from defense programs is nearing completion. The majority of waste received at WIPP will have low surface dose rates and will be handled routinely without special shielding or remote handling equipment. But WIPO will also receive and remotely handle some transuranic waste

Likar

1987-01-01

159

Safety at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a Department of Energy (DOE) project designed to demonstrate safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) wastes in the excavations of a salt bed situated 2,150 feet underground. The operational philosophy of the WIPP is threefold: to start clean and stay clean, to meet or exceed regulatory requirements, and to keep radiation exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). The well-being of the public, the environment, and the workers is the project`s first priority. Extensive safety measures have been and will continue to be taken throughout all phases of project activities. This paper describes the major elements of the WIPP safety program which includes a training program with special emphasis on safety, for operations, maintenance, engineering, and all technical support positions; a TRU Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) for safe transportation of TRU waste; radiation protection programs; a volatile organic compound (VOC) monitoring program; and an ALARA committee to oversee and provide guidance to ALARA activities.

Wu, Chuan-Fu

1992-12-31

160

Acceptable knowledge document for INEEL stored transuranic waste -- Rocky Flats Plant waste. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

This document and supporting documentation provide a consistent, defensible, and auditable record of acceptable knowledge for waste generated at the Rocky Flats Plant which is currently in the accessible storage inventory at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The inventory consists of transuranic (TRU) waste generated from 1972 through 1989. Regulations authorize waste generators and treatment, storage, and disposal facilities to use acceptable knowledge in appropriate circumstances to make hazardous waste determinations. Acceptable knowledge includes information relating to plant history, process operations, and waste management, in addition to waste-specific data generated prior to the effective date of the RCRA regulations. This document is organized to provide the reader a comprehensive presentation of the TRU waste inventory ranging from descriptions of the historical plant operations that generated and managed the waste to specific information about the composition of each waste group. Section 2 lists the requirements that dictate and direct TRU waste characterization and authorize the use of the acceptable knowledge approach. In addition to defining the TRU waste inventory, Section 3 summarizes the historical operations, waste management, characterization, and certification activities associated with the inventory. Sections 5.0 through 26.0 describe the waste groups in the inventory including waste generation, waste packaging, and waste characterization. This document includes an expanded discussion for each waste group of potential radionuclide contaminants, in addition to other physical properties and interferences that could potentially impact radioassay systems.

NONE

1998-01-23

161

Reprocessing input data validation  

SciTech Connect

The Isotope Correlation Technique (ICT), in conjunction with the gravimetric (Pu/U ratio) method for mass determination, provides an independent verification of the input accountancy at the dissolver or accountancy stage of the reprocessing plant. The Isotope Correlation Technique has been applied to many classes of domestic and international reactor systems (light-water, heavy-water, graphite, and liquid-metal) operating in a variety of modes (power, research, production, and breeder), and for a variety of reprocessing fuel cycle management strategies. Analysis of reprocessing operations data based on isotopic correlations derived for assemblies in a PWR environment and fuel management scheme, yielded differences between the measurement-derived and ICT-derived plutonium mass determinations of ({minus}0.02 {plus minus} 0.23)% for the measured U-235 and (+0.50 {plus minus} 0.31)% for the measured Pu-239, for a core campaign. The ICT analyses has been implemented for the plutonium isotopics in a depleted uranium assembly in a heavy-water, enriched uranium system and for the uranium isotopes in the fuel assemblies in light-water, highly-enriched systems. 7 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Persiani, P.J.; Bucher, R.G.; Pond, R.B.; Cornella, R.J.

1990-01-01

162

Liquid radioactive waste discharges from B plant to cribs  

SciTech Connect

This engineering report compiles information on types and quantities of liquid waste discharged from B-Plant directly to cribs, ditches, reverse wells, etc., that are associated with B-Plant. Waste discharges to these cribs via overflow form 241-B, 241-BX, and 241-BY tank farms, and waste discharged to these cribs from sources other than B-Plant are discussed.Discharges from B-Plant to other cribs, unplanned releases, or waste remaining in tanks are not included in the report. Waste stream composition information is used to predict quantities of individual chemicals sent to cribs. This provides an accurate mass balance of waste streams from B-Plant to these cribs. These predictions are compared with known crib inventories as a verification of the process.

Williams, J.C., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-05-29

163

Laboratory Evaporation of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this strea...

C. A. Nash C. L. Crawford D. J. Adamson D. J. McCabe W. R. Wilmarth

2014-01-01

164

Vitrification of Polyvinyl Chloride Waste from Korean Nuclear Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

Vitrification is considered as an economical and safe treatment technology for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated from nuclear power plants (NPPs). Korea is in the process of preparing for its first ever vitrification plant to handle LLW from its NPPs. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) has the largest volume of dry active wastes and is the main waste stream to treat. Glass formulation development for PVC waste is the focus of study. The minimum additive waste stabilization approach has been utilized in vitrification. It was found that glasses can incorporate a high content of PVC ash (up to 50 wt%), which results in a large volume reduction. A glass frit, KEP-A, was developed to vitrify PVC waste after the optimization of waste loading, melt viscosity, melting temperature, and chemical durability. The KEP-A could satisfactorily vitrify PVC with a waste loading of 30 to 50 wt%. The PVC-frit was tolerant of variations in waste composition.

Sheng, Jiawei [Kyoto University (Japan); Choi, Kwansik [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Kyung-Hwa [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myung-Chan [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (Korea, Republic of); Song, Myung-Jae [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (Korea, Republic of)

2000-02-15

165

Reduction in Waste Load from a Meat Processing Plant: Beef.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Introduction (Randolph Packing Company, Meat Plant Wastewaters, Slaughterhouses, Packing Houses, Sources of Wastewater, Secondary Manufacturing Processes, An Example of Water Conservation and Waste Control, Water Conservation Program); Plant Rev...

1986-01-01

166

Reprocessing option for spent fuel  

SciTech Connect

The options available to utilities for disposal of fuel discharged from their nuclear reactors is not limited to bury or burn. Many utilities in Europe and Japan have already opted to reprocess their spent fuel in the United Kingdom and/or France. This enables the utility to recycle the recovered uranium and plutonium and allows the utilities' countries to formulate a waste disposal policy without the time constraints that would otherwise be placed on them. This paper gives an insight into how and why British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is continuing to provide services to reprocess and recycle spent nuclear fuel. The closed fuel cycle represents the complete irradiated fuel management option and, with its use of well-established technologies, reprocessing of spent fuel is the only option that is available to utilities now.

Woolf, D.N. (British Nuclear Fuels PLC, Risley (United Kingdom))

1991-11-01

167

Polymer solidification of mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rocky Flats Plant is pursuing polymer solidification as a viable treatment option for several mixed waste streams that are subject to land disposal restrictions within the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act provisions. Tests completed to date using both surrogate and actual wastes indicate that polyethylene microencapsulation is a viable treatment option for several mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats

A. M. Faucette; B. W. Logsdon; J. J. Lucerna; R. J. Yudnich

1994-01-01

168

WTE plant approaches total integration. [Waste to Energy  

SciTech Connect

This article examines a French waste to energy plant that incorporates recycling, composting and waste to energy production under one roof including composting of sewage sludge and hospital waste incineration. The topics discussed include project location, purpose and background, option studies, choosing the developer, financing and project operation.

Crow, C.T.; Stucki, H. (Harbert/Triga Resource Recovery, Birmingham, AL (United States))

1989-10-01

169

Energy recovery from army ammunition plant solid waste by pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Army Ammunition Plants (AAP's) dispose of large quantities of solid waste by incineration, open-air burning, and landfill. There is at present no attempt at energy recovery. The present study was conducted to determine the feasibility of adapting pyrolysis technology for energy recovery from these solid wastes. Eight AAP's were surveyed to identify the types and amounts of solid waste generated.

J. D. Pinkerton; R. F. Tobias; R. Scola

1979-01-01

170

Reprocessing RERTR silicide fuels  

SciTech Connect

The Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor Program is one element of the United States Government's nonproliferation effort. High-density, low-enrichment, aluminum-clad uranium silicide fuels may be substituted for the highly enriched aluminum-clad alloy fuels now in use. Savannah River Laboratory has performed studies which demonstrate reprocessability of spent RERTR silicide fuels at Savannah River Plant. Results of dissolution and feed preparation tests and solvent extraction processing demonstrations with both unirradiated and irradiated uranium silicide fuels are presented.

Rodrigues, G.C.; Gouge, A.P.

1983-05-01

171

Texas refiner starts up new waste water treatment plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chevron Corp. has started up a new waste water treatment plant at its Port Arthur, Tex., refinery. The new facility has an hydraulic capacity of 10,000 gpm and will treat process waste water, cooling tower blowdown, and contaminated storm water. The plant includes: A process unit for removing free and emulsified oil; and equalization facility; a biological system for organics

N. Al-Tell; R. Lueders

1994-01-01

172

METHODS FOR RECONSTRUCTION OF RADIONUCLIDE COMPOSITION AND ACTIVITY OF FISSION PRODUCTS ACCUMULATED IN THE IRRADIATED URANIUM AT THE MOMENT OF ITS RADIOCHEMICAL REPROCESSING AT PLANT “B”, “MAYAK” PA IN THE EARLY 1950s  

SciTech Connect

The article describes calculation procedure for reconstruction of radionuclide composition and activity of fission fragments accumulated in the irridated uranium from “Mayak” PA graphite-uranium reactors at the moment, when irradiation is completed, and at the moment, when the uranium is transferred to radiochemical processing (plant B) in the early 1950s. The procedure includes a reactor model and a cooling pool model. It is based on archive data on monthly uranium unloading and loading in the reactor and in the cooling pool of each reactor. The objects of reconstruction include: order of reloading of uranium versus its location radius in the reactor core; duration of irradiation and radionuclide composition of fission fragments for each radius; order of uranium removal from the cooling pool; effective time of uranium storage in the pool; radionuclide composition and activity of fission fragments in the irradiated uranium delivered to radiochemical reprocessing daily and on average for each month. The model is intended for use in reconstruction of parameters of radionuclide release source into the atmosphere and the source of liquid radioactive waste generation at the “Mayak” PA radiochemical plant.

Glagolenko, Y. V.; Drozhko, Evgeniy G.; Mokrov, Y.; Rovny, Sergey I.; Lyzhkov, A. V.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

2008-06-01

173

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant hydrogen generation  

SciTech Connect

The most promising method for the disposal of highly radioactive nuclear wastes is a vitrification process in which the wastes are incorporated into borosilicate glass logs, the logs are sealed into welded stainless steel canisters, and the canisters are buried in suitably protected burial sites for disposal. The purpose of the research supported by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) project of the Department of Energy through Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and summarized in this report was to gain a basic understanding of the hydrogen generation process and to predict the rate and amount of hydrogen generation during the treatment of HWVP feed simulants with formic acid. The objectives of the study were to determine the key feed components and process variables which enhance or inhibit the.production of hydrogen. Information on the kinetics and stoichiometry of relevant formic acid reactions were sought to provide a basis for viable mechanistic proposals. The chemical reactions were characterized through the production and consumption of the key gaseous products such as H{sub 2}. CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}0, NO, and NH{sub 3}. For this mason this research program relied heavily on analyses of the gases produced and consumed during reactions of the HWVP feed simulants with formic acid under various conditions. Such analyses, used gas chromatographic equipment and expertise at the University of Georgia for the separation and determination of H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and NO.

King, R.B.; King, A.D. Jr.; Bhattacharyya, N.K. [and others

1996-02-01

174

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant alcove gas barrer  

SciTech Connect

A full-scale composite, precast concrete and steel lining system was designed to seal and isolate test alcoves within the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The lining system and internal bulkheads are designed to control gas leakage along an alcove access drift and through damaged rock surrounding the drift. Flow along the access drift is prevented by redundant membranes included in the rigid structural lining . Flow through the rock will be minimized by providing a rigid lining that will induce healing of damaged salt rock and arrest ongoing damage in clay and anhydrite interbeds. Provisions for grouting disturbed zones of rock are also provided. Instrumentation is specified to measure the structural response of the lining.

Lin, M.S. (Parsons, Brinckerhoff, Quade and Douglas, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)); Van Sambeek, L.L. (RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States))

1992-11-01

175

Analysis of the Factors That Impact the Reliability of High Level Waste Canister Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The analysis encompassed identification and analysis of potential threats to canister integrity arising in the course of waste solidification, interim storage at the fuels reprocessing plant, wet and dry shipment, and geologic storage. Fabrication techniq...

W. K. Boyd A. M. Hall

1977-01-01

176

Boiler tube failures in municipal waste-to-energy plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste-to-energy plants experienced increased boiler tube failures when the design changed from waste-heat boilers to radiant furnace waterwalls using superheat. Fireside attack by chlorine and sulfur compounds in refuse combustion products caused many forced outages in early European plants operating at high steam temperatures and pressures. Despite conservative steam conditions in the first US plants, failures occurred. As steam temperatures

H. H. Krause; I. G. Wright

1996-01-01

177

Polymer solidification of mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Rocky Flats Plant is pursuing polymer solidification as a viable treatment option for several mixed waste streams that are subject to land disposal restrictions within the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act provisions. Tests completed to date using both surrogate and actual wastes indicate that polyethylene microencapsulation is a viable treatment option for several mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant, including nitrate salts, sludges, and secondary wastes such as ash. Treatability studies conducted on actual salt waste demonstrated that the process is capable of producing waste forms that comply with all applicable regulatory criteria, including the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. Tests have also been conducted to evaluate the feasibility of macroencapsulating certain debris wastes in polymers. Several methods and plastics have been tested for macroencapsulation, including post-consumer recycle and regrind polyethylene.

Faucette, A.M.; Logsdon, B.W.; Lucerna, J.J.; Yudnich, R.J.

1994-02-01

178

Treatment of molten salt wastes by phosphate precipitation: removal of fission product elements after pyrochemical reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels in chloride melts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The removal of fission product elements from molten salt wastes arising from pyrochemical reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels has been investigated. The experiments were conducted in LiCl-KCl eutectic at 550 °C and NaCl-KCl equimolar mixture at 750 °C. The behavior of the following individual elements was investigated: Cs, Mg, Sr, Ba, lanthanides (La to Dy), Zr, Cr, Mo, Mn, Re (to simulate Tc), Fe, Ru, Ni, Cd, Bi and Te. Lithium and sodium phosphates were used as precipitants. The efficiency of the process and the composition of the solid phases formed depend on the melt composition. The distribution coefficients of these elements between chloride melts and precipitates were determined. Some volatile chlorides were produced and rhenium metal was formed by disproportionation. Lithium-free melts favor formation of double phosphates. Some experiments in melts containing several added fission product elements were also conducted to study possible co-precipitation reactions. Rare earth elements and zirconium can be removed from both the systems studied, but alkaline earth metal fission product elements (Sr and Ba) form precipitates only in NaCl-KCl based melts. Essentially the reverse behavior was found with magnesium. Some metals form oxide rather than phosphate precipitates and the behavior of certain elements is solvent dependent. Caesium cannot be removed completely from chloride melts by a phosphate precipitation technique.

Volkovich, Vladimir A.; Griffiths, Trevor R.; Thied, Robert C.

2003-11-01

179

Radioactive solid waste handling at the Plutonium Finishing Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Plutonium Finishing Plant is located on the Hanford Site in the southeast section of Washington State. It has been in operation since 1949. The mission of the plant is to produce plutonium metal and related products for the US Department of Energy defense programs. Solid transuranic, low-level, and mixed wastes are generated at the plant, the radioactive contaminants in

Manthos

1990-01-01

180

Establishing the acceptability of Savannah River Plant waste glass  

SciTech Connect

Construction of the United States' first facility to immobilize high-level nuclear waste, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), is scheduled to be completed in 1989. In the DWPF, Savannah River Plant (SRP) high-level radioactive waste will be immobilized in durable borosilicate glass. Production of canistered waste forms by the DWPF is scheduled to begin well before submission of the license application for the first repository. The Department of Energy has defined waste acceptance specifications to ensure that DWPF canistered waste forms will be acceptable for eventual disposal. To ensure that canistered waste forms meet those specifications, a program is being carried out to qualify the waste form and those aspects of the production process which affect product quality. 16 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Plodinec, M.J. (Du Pont de Nemours (E.I.) and Co., Aiken, SC (USA). Savannah River Plant)

1989-01-01

181

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan  

SciTech Connect

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to conduct environmental monitoring. Environmental monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is conducted in order to: (a) Verify and support compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, permits, and orders; (b) Establish baselines and characterize trends in the physical, chemical, and biological condition of effluent and environmental media; (c) Identify potential environmental problems and evaluate the need for remedial actions or measures to mitigate the problems; (d) Detect, characterize, and report unplanned releases; (e) Evaluate the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control, and pollution abatement programs; and (f) Determine compliance with commitments made in environmental impact statements, environmental assessments, safety analysis reports, or other official DOE documents. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) explains the rationale and design criteria for the environmental monitoring program, extent and frequency of monitoring and measurements, procedures for laboratory analyses, quality assurance (QA) requirements, program implementation procedures, and direction for the preparation and disposition of reports. Changes to the environmental monitoring program may be necessary to allow the use of advanced technology and new data collection techniques. This EMP will document changes in the environmental monitoring program. Guidance for preparation of EMPs is contained in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance.

Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

2008-03-12

182

ICPP waste management technology development program  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program has been implemented at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) to identify technologies for disposing of sodium-bearing liquid radioactive waste, radioactive calcine, and irradiated spent fuel stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The sodium bearing waste and calcine, have resulted from ICPP reprocessing operations conducted since 1953. The irradiated spent fuel consists of various fuel compositions

G. W. Hogg; A. L. Olson; D. A. Knecht; M. J. Bonkoski

1993-01-01

183

ICPP Waste Management Technology Development Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of the decision to curtail reprocessing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), a Spent fuel and Waste Management Technology Development plan has been implemented to identify acceptable options for disposing of the (1) sodium-bearing liquid radioactive waste, (2) radioactive calcine, and (3) irradiated spent fuel stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The plan was

G. W. Hogg; A. L. Olson; D. A. Knecht; M. J. Bonkoski

1993-01-01

184

Material Investigations on Solidification of Intermediate-Level Waste Solutions in Cement: Leachability of Strontium and Cesium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Investigations are reported on reducing cesium and strontium leachability from products formed at the cementation of intermediatelevel waste solutions from reprocessing plants. The leach tests used were the IAEA method and an accelerated test. One particu...

G. Rudolph R. Koester

1979-01-01

185

Physical Properties of Saltstone: A Savannah River Plant Waste Form  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cement-based waste form, ''saltstone'', has been designed for disposal of Savannah River Plant low-level radioactive salt waste. Laboratory and field tests indicate that this stabilization process greatly reduces the mobility of all of the waste constituents in the surface and near-surface environment. Bulk properties of this material have been tailored with respect to salt leach rate, permeability, and compressive

Langston

1984-01-01

186

Hanford waste vitrification plant remote-handling application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project, to be constructed on the Hanford site in southeastern Washington State, will immobilize the liquid high-level defense waste stored there. The wastes will be retrieved from double-shell tanks (DSTs) and pretreated at another facility on-site. The vitrification process will provide immobilization and allow eventual permanent disposal of the low-volume, high-activity fraction of the

L. D. Swenson; B. A. Wolfe

1989-01-01

187

Design of Waste Heat Boiler for Scranton Army Ammunition Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Army Ammunition Plant at Scranton, Pennsylvania, has rotary hearth furnaces to heat billets for the forging operation. Mechanical Technology Incorporated established the economic and operational feasibility of waste heat recovery from the most used fu...

R. J. Krowech G. Scullin

1980-01-01

188

Mitigation of Plant Penetration into Radioactive Waste Utilizing Herbicides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the use of herbicides as an effective method of precluding plant root penetration into buried radioactive wastes. The discussed surface applications are selective herbicides to control broadleaf vegetation in grasses; nonselective her...

G. R. Cox

1982-01-01

189

MICROORGANISMS AND HIGHER PLANTS FOR WASTE WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Batch experiments were conducted to compare the waste water treatment efficiencies of plant-free microbial filters with filters supporting the growth of reeds (Phragmites communis), cattail (Typha latifolia), rush (Juncus effusus), and bamboo (Bambusa multiplex). The experimental...

190

Supply, Operation and Radioactive Waste Disposal of Nuclear Power Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The subject of 'Nuclear Fuel Cycle' is treated in 5 reports: 1. Uranium supply; 2. Fabrication and characteristics of fuel elements; 3. Design, operation and safety of nuclear power plants after Harrisburg; 4. Radioactive waste disposal of nuclear power p...

H. Mohrhauer M. Krey G. Haag J. Wolters E. Merz

1981-01-01

191

Environmental Controls for Waste-to-Energy Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper provides a literature review of selected, published literature relative to the performance of certain pollution control technologies that have been applied to Waste-to-Energy (WTE) plants. It discusses various environmental standards which have ...

G. L. Huffman

1987-01-01

192

Energy Recovery from Army Ammunition Plant Solid Waste by Pyrolysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Army Ammunition Plants (AAP's) dispose of large quantities of solid waste by incineration, open-air burning, and landfill. There is at present no attempt at energy recovery. The present study was conducted to determine the feasibility of adapting pyrolysi...

J. D. Pinkerton R. F. Tobias R. Scola

1979-01-01

193

Removal of Tetranitromethane from TNT Plant Waste Gases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This patent application describes a method of removing tetranitromethane from waste gases (e.g., from trinitrotoluene plants) by scrubbing the waste gases with a mixture of (1) an alkali metal hydroxide, (2) water, and (3) a liquid alcohol. Most of the te...

T. N. Hall W. H. Gilligan

1975-01-01

194

Removal of Tetranitromethane from TNT Plant Waste Gases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application discusses a method of removing tetranitromethane from waste gases (e.g., from trinitrotoluene plants) by scrubbing the waste gases with a solution of (1) water, (2) hydrogen peroxide, and (3) an alkali metal hydroxide or alkali meta...

W. N. Gilligan T. N. Hall

1975-01-01

195

Savannah River Plant low-level waste incinerator demonstration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-year demonstration facility was constructed at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) to incinerate suspect contaminated solid and low-level solvent wastes. Since startup in January 1984, 4460 kilograms and 5300 liters of simulated (uncontaminated) solid and solvent waste have been incinerated to establish the technical and operating data base for the facility. Combustion safeguards have been enhanced, process controls and

Tallman

1984-01-01

196

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan  

SciTech Connect

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to conduct environmental monitoring. Environmental monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is conducted in order to: (a) Verify and support compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, permits, and orders; (b) Establish baselines and characterize trends in the physical, chemical, and biological condition of effluent and environmental media; (c) Identify potential environmental problems and evaluate the need for remedial actions or measures to mitigate the problem; (d) Detect, characterize, and report unplanned releases; (e) Evaluate the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control, and pollution abatement programs; and (f) Determine compliance with commitments made in environmental impact statements, environmental assessments, safety analysis reports, or other official DOE documents. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) has been written to contain the rationale and design criteria for the monitoring program, extent and frequency of monitoring and measurements, procedures for laboratory analyses, quality assurance (QA) requirements, program implementation procedures, and direction for the preparation and disposition of reports. Changes to the environmental monitoring program may be necessary to allow the use of advanced technology and new data collection techniques. This EMP will document any proposed changes in the environmental monitoring program. Guidance for preparation of Environmental Monitoring Plans is contained in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance. The plan will be effective when it is approved by the appropriate Head of Field Organization or their designee. The plan discusses major environmental monitoring and hydrology activities at the WIPP and describes the programs established to ensure that WIPP operations do not have detrimental effects on the environment. This EMP is to be reviewed annually and updated every three years unless otherwise requested by the DOE or contractor.

Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

2004-02-19

197

Inventories of 239+240Pu, 137Cs, and excess 210Pb in sediments from freshwater and brackish lakes in Rokkasho, Japan, adjacent to a spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the vertical profiles of 239+240Pu, 137Cs, and excess 210Pb (210Pbex) in sediment core samples obtained from two freshwater lakes and two brackish lakes situated near the first commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Rokkasho, Japan, before the final test of the plant using actual spent nuclear fuel. The inventory of 239+240Pu in those lakes was larger than

Shinji Ueda; Yoshihito Ohtsuka; Kunio Kondo; Shun'ichi Hisamatsu

2009-01-01

198

Defense waste salt disposal at the Savannah River Plant. [Cement-based waste form, saltstone  

SciTech Connect

A cement-based waste form, saltstone, has been designed for disposal of Savannah River Plant low-level radioactive salt waste. The disposal process includes emplacing the saltstone in engineered trenches above the water table but below grade at SRP. Design of the waste form and disposal system limits the concentration of salts and radionuclides in the groundwater so that EPA drinking water standards will not be exceeded at the perimeter of the disposal site. 10 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

Langton, C A; Dukes, M D

1984-01-01

199

Methodology for Determining the Radiological Status of a Process: Application to Decommissioning of a Fuel Reprocessing Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decommissioning a nuclear facility is subject to various constraints including regulatory safety requirements, but also the obligation to limit the waste volume and toxicity. To meet these requirements the activity level in each component must be known at each stage of decommissioning, from the preliminary studies to the final release of the premises. This document describes a set of methods

Ph. Girones; C. Ducros; C. Legoaller; F. Lamadie; J. M. Fulconis; V. Thiebaut; C. Mahe

2006-01-01

200

Dairy Food Plant Wastes and Waste Treatment Practices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper reports a comprehensive study of the state-of-the-art of dairy wastes, their control and treatment, both from the point of view of past literature and current industrial knowledge and practice. The dairy industry has only limited knowledge of t...

J. Grosshopf J. L. Blaisdell W. J. Harper

1971-01-01

201

Radiological Monitoring of Waste Treatment Plant  

SciTech Connect

Scheduled waste in West Malaysia is handled by Concession Company and is stored and then is incinerated. It is known that incineration process may result in naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) to be concentrated. In this study we have measured three samples consist of by-product from the operation process such as slag, filter cake and fly ash. Other various environmental media such as air, surface water, groundwater and soil within and around the plant have also been analysed for their radioactivity levels. The concentration of Ra-226, Ac-228 and K-40 in slag are 0.062 Bq/g, 0.016 Bq/g and 0.19 Bq/g respectively. The total activity (Ra{sub eq}) in slag is 99.5 Bq/kg. The concentration in fly ash is 0.032 Bq/g, 0.16 Bq/g and 0.34 Bq/g for Ra-226, Ac-228 and K-40 respectively resulting in Raeq of 287.0 Bq/kg. For filter cake, the concentration is 0.13 Bq/g, 0.031 Bq/g and 0.33 Bq/g for Ra-226, Ac-228 and K-40 respectively resulting in Raeq of 199.7 Bq/kg. The external radiation level ranges from 0.08 {mu}Sv/h (Administrative building) to 0.35 {mu}Sv/h (TENORM storage area). The concentration level of radon and thoron progeny varies from 0.0001 to 0.0016 WL and 0.0006 WL to 0.002 WL respectively. For soil samples, the activity ranges from 0.11 Bq/g to 0.29 Bq/g, 0.06 Bq/g to 0.18 Bq/g and 0.065 Bq/g to 0.38 Bq/g for Ra-226, Ac-228 and K-40 respectively. While activity in water, except for a trace of K-40, it is non-detectable.

Amin, Y. M. [Physics Dept, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Nik, H. W. [Asialab (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd, 14 Jalan Industri USJ 1, 47600 Subang Jaya (Malaysia)

2011-03-30

202

Radiological Monitoring of Waste Treatment Plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scheduled waste in West Malaysia is handled by Concession Company and is stored and then is incinerated. It is known that incineration process may result in naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) to be concentrated. In this study we have measured three samples consist of by-product from the operation process such as slag, filter cake and fly ash. Other various environmental media such as air, surface water, groundwater and soil within and around the plant have also been analysed for their radioactivity levels. The concentration of Ra-226, Ac-228 and K-40 in slag are 0.062 Bq/g, 0.016 Bq/g and 0.19 Bq/g respectively. The total activity (Raeq) in slag is 99.5 Bq/kg. The concentration in fly ash is 0.032 Bq/g, 0.16 Bq/g and 0.34 Bq/g for Ra-226, Ac-228 and K-40 respectively resulting in Raeq of 287.0 Bq/kg. For filter cake, the concentration is 0.13 Bq/g, 0.031 Bq/g and 0.33 Bq/g for Ra-226, Ac-228 and K-40 respectively resulting in Raeq of 199.7 Bq/kg. The external radiation level ranges from 0.08 ?Sv/h (Administrative building) to 0.35 ?Sv/h (TENORM storage area). The concentration level of radon and thoron progeny varies from 0.0001 to 0.0016 WL and 0.0006 WL to 0.002 WL respectively. For soil samples, the activity ranges from 0.11 Bq/g to 0.29 Bq/g, 0.06 Bq/g to 0.18 Bq/g and 0.065 Bq/g to 0.38 Bq/g for Ra-226, Ac-228 and K-40 respectively. While activity in water, except for a trace of K-40, it is non-detectable.

Amin, Y. M.; Nik, H. W.

2011-03-01

203

Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Waste Feed Qualification Program Development Approach - 13114  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is a nuclear waste treatment facility being designed and constructed for the U.S. Department of Energy by Bechtel National, Inc. and subcontractor URS Corporation (under contract DE-AC27-01RV14136 [1]) to process and vitrify radioactive waste that is currently stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. A wide range of planning is in progress to prepare for safe start-up, commissioning, and operation. The waste feed qualification program is being developed to protect the WTP design, safety basis, and technical basis by assuring acceptance requirements can be met before the transfer of waste. The WTP Project has partnered with Savannah River National Laboratory to develop the waste feed qualification program. The results of waste feed qualification activities will be implemented using a batch processing methodology, and will establish an acceptable range of operator controllable parameters needed to treat the staged waste. Waste feed qualification program development is being implemented in three separate phases. Phase 1 required identification of analytical methods and gaps. This activity has been completed, and provides the foundation for a technically defensible approach for waste feed qualification. Phase 2 of the program development is in progress. The activities in this phase include the closure of analytical methodology gaps identified during Phase 1, design and fabrication of laboratory-scale test apparatus, and determination of the waste feed qualification sample volume. Phase 3 will demonstrate waste feed qualification testing in support of Cold Commissioning. (authors)

Markillie, Jeffrey R.; Arakali, Aruna V.; Benson, Peter A.; Halverson, Thomas G. [Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Project, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)] [Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Project, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Adamson, Duane J.; Herman, Connie C.; Peeler, David K. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01

204

Small Waste to Ethanol Plants, Phase II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The economics of the conversion of waste cellulose to ethanol through acid hydrolysis are estimated at three levels of production: 1 million, 5 million, and 10 million gallons per year of motor fuel grade alcohol. Assumptions and estimating techniques are...

G. F. Huff M. C. Fogle

1980-01-01

205

Operating limit study for the proposed solid waste landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proposed solid waste landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) would accept wastes generated during normal operations that are identified as non-radioactive. These wastes may include small amounts of radioactive material from incidental contamination during plant operations. A site-specific analysis of the new solid waste landfill is presented to determine a proposed operating limit that will allow for waste

D. W. Lee; J. C. Wang; D. C. Kocher

1995-01-01

206

Waste Minimization Policy at the Romanian Nuclear Power Plant  

SciTech Connect

The radioactive waste management system at Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in Romania was designed to maintain acceptable levels of safety for workers and to protect human health and the environment from exposure to unacceptable levels of radiation. In accordance with terminology of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), this system consists of the ''pretreatment'' of solid and organic liquid radioactive waste, which may include part or all of the following activities: collection, handling, volume reduction (by an in-drum compactor, if appropriate), and storage. Gaseous and aqueous liquid wastes are managed according to the ''dilute and discharge'' strategy. Taking into account the fact that treatment/conditioning and disposal technologies are still not established, waste minimization at the source is a priority environmental management objective, while waste minimization at the disposal stage is presently just a theoretical requirement for future adopted technologies . The necessary operational and maintenance procedures are in place at Cernavoda to minimize the production and contamination of waste. Administrative and technical measures are established to minimize waste volumes. Thus, an annual environmental target of a maximum 30 m3 of radioactive waste volume arising from operation and maintenance has been established. Within the first five years of operations at Cernavoda NPP, this target has been met. The successful implementation of the waste minimization policy has been accompanied by a cost reduction while the occupational doses for plant workers have been maintained at as low as reasonably practicable levels. This paper will describe key features of the waste management system along with the actual experience that has been realized with respect to minimizing the waste volumes at the Cernavoda NPP.

Andrei, V.; Daian, I.

2002-02-26

207

Saltstone: cement-based waste form for disposal of Savannah River Plant low-level radioactive salt waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defense waste processing at the Savannah River Plant will include decontamination and disposal of approximately 400 million liters of waste containing NaNOâ, NaOH, NaâSOâ, and NaNOâ. After decontamination, the salt solution is classified as low-level waste. A cement-based waste form, saltstone, has been designed for disposal of Savannah River Plant low-level radioactive salt waste. Bulk properties of this material have

Langton

1984-01-01

208

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) fact sheet  

SciTech Connect

Pursuant to the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended (42 USC 6901, et seq.), and the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act (Section 74-4-1 et seq., NMSA 1978), Permit is issued to the owner and operator of the US DOE, WIPP site (hereafter called the Permittee(s)) to operate a hazardous waste storage facility consisting of a container storage unit (Waste Handling Building) and two Subpart X miscellaneous below-ground storage units (Bin Scale Test Rooms 1 and 3), all are located at the above location. The Permittee must comply with all terms and conditions of this Permit. This Permit consists of the conditions contained herein, including the attachments. Applicable regulations cited are the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Management Regulations, as amended 1992 (HWMR-7), the regulations that are in effect on the date of permit issuance. This Permit shall become effective upon issuance by the Secretary of the New Mexico Environment Department and shall be in effect for a period of ten (10) years from issuance. This Permit is also based on the assumption that all information contained in the Permit application and the administrative record is accurate and that the activity will be conducted as specified in the application and the administrative record. The Permit application consists of Revision 3, as well as associated attachments and clarifying information submitted on January 25, 1993, and May 17, 1993.

Not Available

1993-10-01

209

Characterization recommendations for waste sites at the Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect

One hundred and sixty six disposal facilities that received or may have received waste materials resulting from operations at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) have been identified. These waste range from innocuous solid and liquid materials (e.g., wood piles) to process effluents that contain hazardous and/or radioactive constituents. The waste sites have been grouped into 45 categories according the the type of waste materials they received. Waste sites are located with SRP coordinates, a local Department of Energy (DOE) grid system whose grid north is 36 degrees 22 minutes west of true north. DOE policy is to close all waste sites at SRP in a manner consistent with protecting human health and environment and complying with applicable environmental regulations (DOE 1984). A uniform, explicit characterization program for SRP waste sites will provide a sound technical basis for developing closure plans. Several elements are summarized in the following individual sections including (1) a review of the history, geohydrology, and available characterization data for each waste site and (2) recommendations for additional characterization necessary to prepare a reasonable closure plan. Many waste sites have been fully characterized, while others have not been investigated at all. The approach used in this report is to evaluate available groundwater quality and site history data. For example, groundwater data are compared to review criteria to help determine what additional information is required. The review criteria are based on regulatory and DOE guidelines for acceptable concentrations of constituents in groundwater and soil.

Carlton, W.H.; Gordon, D.E.; Johnson, W.F.; Kaback, D.S.; Looney, B.B.; Nichols, R.L.; Shedrow, C.B.

1987-11-01

210

Final environmental impact statement. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the appendices for the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Alternative geologic environs are considered. Salt, crystalline rock, argillaceous rock, and tuff are discussed. Studies on alternate geologic regions for the siting of WIPP are reviewed. President Carter's message to Congress on the management of radioactive wastes and the findings and recommendations of the interagency review group on nuclear waste management are included. Selection criteria for the WIPP site including geologic, hydrologic, tectonic, physicochemical compatability, and socio-economic factors are presented. A description of the waste types and the waste processing procedures are given. Methods used to calculate radiation doses from radionuclide releases during operation are presented. A complete description of the Los Medanos site, including archaeological and historic aspects is included. Environmental monitoring programs and long-term safety analysis program are described. (DMC)

Not Available

1980-10-01

211

Management of radioactive waste from nuclear power plants: An overview  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear power industry, which accounts for about 20% of the total electricity supply, is a vital part of the nation`s energy resource. While it generates approximately one-third of the commercial low-level radioactive waste produced in the country, it has achieved one of the most successful examples in waste minimization. On the other hand, progress on development of new disposal facilities by the state compacts is currently stalled. The milestones have been repeatedly postponed, and the various Acts passed by Congress on nuclear waste disposal have not accomplished what they were intended to do. With dwindling access to waste disposal sites and with escalating disposal costs, the power plant utilities are forced to store wastes onsite as an interim measure. However, such temporary measures are not a permanent solution. A national will is sorely needed to break out of the current impasse.

Devgun, J.S.

1994-07-01

212

A solution density model for hanford waste treatment plant supernatants  

SciTech Connect

The density of nuclear waste solution is used as a process control parameter in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant pretreatment process and is crucial to tank utilization evaluations. The supernatants, however, have many different dissolved sodium salts, including nitrate, nitrite, carbonate, sulfate, phosphate, hydroxide, and aluminate. The large concentrations and diversity of salts in the waste has made the predictions of solution densities difficult historically. The purpose of this study is to determine if a new model of multi-component electrolyte solution densities, recently published in the literature, is effective at predicting the density of nuclear waste supernatants. A statistically designed set of solution densities containing the most prevalent electrolytes in Hanford tank waste was used for model validation. The densities of the simulants were calculated by the model and compared to the experimentally determined densities. The average model error was just 0.1%. These results indicate that the model can be used to accurately predict the density of nuclear waste processed at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant. (authors)

Reynolds, J.G.; Bernards, J.K. [Washington Group International, Richland, WA (United States); Carter, R. [Energy Solutions, Richland, WA (United States)

2007-07-01

213

Corrosion-Resistant Ti- xNb- xZr Alloys for Nitric Acid Applications in Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reports the development, microstructure, and corrosion behavior of two new alloys such as Ti-4Nb-4Zr and Ti-2Nb-2Zr in boiling nitric acid environment. The corrosion test was carried out in the liquid, vapor, and condensate phases of 11.5 M nitric acid, and the potentiodynamic anodic polarization studies were performed at room temperature for both alloys. The samples subjected to three-phase corrosion testing were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDAX). As Ti-2Nb-2Zr alloy exhibited inferior corrosion behavior in comparison to Ti-4Nb-4Zr in all three phases, weldability and heat treatment studies were carried out only on Ti-4Nb-4Zr alloy. The weldability of the new alloy was evaluated using tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding processes, and the welded specimen was thereafter tested for its corrosion behavior in all three phases. The results of the present investigation revealed that the newly developed near alpha Ti-4Nb-4Zr alloy possessed superior corrosion resistance in all three phases and excellent weldability compared to conventional alloys used for nitric acid application in spent nuclear reprocessing plants. Further, the corrosion resistance of the beta heat-treated Ti-4Nb-4Zr alloy was superior when compared to the sample heat treated in the alpha + beta phase.

Manivasagam, Geetha; Anbarasan, V.; Kamachi Mudali, U.; Raj, Baldev

2011-09-01

214

Radiological Monitoring of Waste Treatment Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scheduled waste in West Malaysia is handled by Concession Company and is stored and then is incinerated. It is known that incineration process may result in naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) to be concentrated. In this study we have measured three samples consist of by-product from the operation process such as slag, filter cake and fly ash. Other various environmental

Y. M. Amin; H. W. Nik

2011-01-01

215

Small Waste to Ethanol Plants, Phase I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a study of the economics of the conversion of waste cellulose to ethanol through enzyme hydrolysis developed at three production levels: 1 million, 5 million, and 10 million gallons per year of motor grade alcohol. The feedstock is the combustible...

G. F. Huff M. C. Fogle

1980-01-01

216

Nuclear fuel reprocessing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel is a relatively simple, well-developed, and successful technology. Large, expensive reprocessing facilities are in use, principally in the UK and France, and are under construction in Japan and the CIS. As in most industrial processes, the viability of the process depends on the usefulness of its function and products, operational costs, and the economics of

Foreman

1992-01-01

217

Reprocessing in the United Kingdom: Part II  

Microsoft Academic Search

BNFL`s Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) was one of the largest construction projects in Europe. Similarly its control system is one of the most complex and comprehensive ever installed. This paper briefly reviews construction and then focuses on the organisation for, and challenges met in, commissioning the plant. In particular, the way in which the regulatory interface was managed is

K. G. Jackson; D. R. Bonser

1994-01-01

218

Indoor air concentrations of mercury species in incineration plants for municipal solid waste (MSW) and hospital waste (HW)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until now, there is limited information about mercury exposures inside solid waste incineration plants although incineration has been considered as one of major solid waste treatments. This study investigated indoor air concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and particulate mercury (Hgp) and indoor dust mercury concentrations in a municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plant and a

Yangsheng Liu; Ziyu Zhan; Fang Du; Sifang Kong; Yushan Liu

2009-01-01

219

Hatfield Township, Pennsylvania, Advanced Waste Treatment Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hatfield Township, Pennsylvania, Water Pollution Control Plant was designed to encompass primary chemical treatment, secondary combined activated sludge and nitrification facilities, tertiary chemical tube clarification and mixed media filtration. The...

T. W. Greenlund F. R. Gaines

1975-01-01

220

Transformative monitoring approaches for reprocessing.  

SciTech Connect

The future of reprocessing in the United States is strongly driven by plant economics. With increasing safeguards, security, and safety requirements, future plant monitoring systems must be able to demonstrate more efficient operations while improving the current state of the art. The goal of this work was to design and examine the incorporation of advanced plant monitoring technologies into safeguards systems with attention to the burden on the operator. The technologies examined include micro-fluidic sampling for more rapid analytical measurements and spectroscopy-based techniques for on-line process monitoring. The Separations and Safeguards Performance Model was used to design the layout and test the effect of adding these technologies to reprocessing. The results here show that both technologies fill key gaps in existing materials accountability that provide detection of diversion events that may not be detected in a timely manner in existing plants. The plant architecture and results under diversion scenarios are described. As a tangent to this work, both the AMUSE and SEPHIS solvent extraction codes were examined for integration in the model to improve the reality of diversion scenarios. The AMUSE integration was found to be the most successful and provided useful results. The SEPHIS integration is still a work in progress and may provide an alternative option.

Cipiti, Benjamin B.

2011-09-01

221

Desulphurization Wastes from Coal-Fired Power Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the desulphurization process of coal-fired power plants, solid products are formed, which must be handled as waste due to their quality or small use potential. These are sulphite-rich products of the wet-dry process and ashes produced by fluid-bed and ...

J. Ranta M. Wahlstroem J. Ruohomaeki T. Haekkinen P. Lindroos

1987-01-01

222

STRATEGIES FOR WATER AND WASTE REDUCTION IN DAIRY FOOD PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was undertaken to reduce water and waste discharges in a complex, multiproduct dairy food plant through management control and modifications of equipment and processes. The objectives were to develop approaches that would be broadly applicable throughout the dairy industr...

223

Sampling and Analysis Plan - Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality

Reidel; Steve P

2006-01-01

224

Sampling and Analysis Plan Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the Saddle Mountains Basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be

Brouns; Thomas M

2007-01-01

225

Solidification\\/Stabilization of Power Plants Wastes Potential Water Pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intensive firing of coal in power plants can harm the environment. The problems are caused by the emission of solid particles, sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, as well as by pollution of the surrounding waters and the degradation of the land due to the disposition of the solid wastes: fly ash, bottom ash

Aleksandra Kosti?-Pulek; Svetlana Popov

226

DISPOSAL OF WASTES FROM WATER TREATMENT PLANTS—PART 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this report is to provide current information on the nature of the water treatment plant waste disposal problem, and to assist water utilities in solving the problem. The report describes technology presently available, defines new approaches to the problem, and suggests future directions for the coordination and dissemination of information.

R. I. Dick; R. B. Dean; D. D. Adrian; A. P. Black; R. N. Kinman; K. E. Shull; G. Tchobanoglous; W. K. Neubauer; D. P. Proudfit; W. W. Aultman; S. L. Bishop; P. W. Doe; J. C. Nebiker; W. H. Plautz; J. W. Krasauskas; Lee Streicher; C. M. Bach; H. Hartung; C. E. Johnson; H. R. Peters; J. C. Webber; J. C. Lamb III; E. C. Weber; J. B. Coulter; G. H. Eagle; Vern Fahy; Edgar Henry; H. B. Russelmann

1970-01-01

227

Waste Minimization Audit Report: Case Studies of Minimization of Mercury-Bearing Wastes at a Mercury Cell Chloralkali Plant,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report documents the results of waste minimization audits carried out at two mercury cell chloralkali plants in 1987. The audit addressed to waste streams, K-071-brine purification muds, and K-106-wastewater treatment sludges from Mercury cell process...

M. Drabkin E. Rissmann

1988-01-01

228

Waste migration studies at the Savannah River Plant burial ground  

SciTech Connect

The low-level radioactive waste burial ground at the Savannah River Plant is a typical shallow-land-burial disposal site in a humid region. Studies of waste migration at this site provide generic data for designing other disposal facilities. A program of field, laboratory, and modeling studies for the SRP burial ground has been conducted for several years. Recent results of lysimeter tests, soil-water chemistry studies, and transport modeling are reported. The lysimeter experiments include ongoing tests with 40 lysimeters containing a variety of defense wastes, and recently concluded lysimeter tests with tritium and plutonium waste forms. The tritium lysimeter operated 12 years. In chemistry studies, measurements of soil-water distribution coefficients (K/sub d/) were concluded. Current emphasis is on identification of trace organic compounds in groundwater from the burial site. Development of the dose-to-man model was completed, and the computer code is available for routine use. 16 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Stone, J A; Oblath, S B; Hawkins, R H; Grant, M W; Hoeffner, S L; King, C M

1985-01-01

229

Removal of dissolved and suspended radionuclides from Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant liquid wastes  

SciTech Connect

It was determined during Preliminary Design of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant that certain intermediate process liquid waste streams should be decontaminated in a way that would permit the purge of dissolved chemical species from the process recycle shop. This capability is needed to ensure proper control of product glass chemical composition and to avoid excessive corrosion of process equipment. This paper discusses the process design of a system that will remove both radioactive particulates and certain dissolved fission products from process liquid waste streams. Supporting data obtained from literature sources as well as from laboratory- and pilot-scale tests are presented. 3 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Sharp, S.D. (Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (USA)); Nankani, F.D. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA)); Bray, L.A.; Eakin, D.E.; Larson, D.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

1990-12-01

230

Environmental Solutions, A Summary of Contributions for CY04: Battelle Contributions to the Waste Treatment Plant  

SciTech Connect

In support of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP), Battelle conducted tests on mixing specific wastes within the plant, removing troublesome materials from the waste before treatment, and determining if the final waste forms met the established criteria. In addition, several Battelle experts filled full-time positions in WTP's Research and Testing and Process and Operations departments.

Beeman, Gordon H.

2005-03-08

231

In situ testing program at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Plant (WIPP) was created by the US Department of Energy as a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of defense-related radioactive wastes. The WIPP, by Public Law 96-164, is authorized to investigate and develop the technology required for the long-term isolation of transuranic (TRU) wastes in a geologic repository of rock salt. The WIPP nuclear waste technology experimental program was established to investigate phenomena associated with emplacing radioactive wastes in a rock-salt environment. The in situ testing program is an integral part of the WIPP experimental program. Conducted by the nuclear waste technology department of Sandia National Laboratories, the in situ testing program collects site-specific data from experiments based in the host rock. The data are then used to evaluate and revise the constitutive models and predictive techniques intended to assess the long-term (up to 10,000 years) performance of the waste repository. Laboratory and theoretical studies began in 1975, while the in situ testing program began in 1984 with the opening of the underground experimental area. The design concepts of the WIPP in situ tests were developed to validate the laboratory and theoretical studies. The tests are based on data from earlier field tests, computer models, and on the many requirements established for the WIPP performance assessment.

Schultheis, T.M.; Pickering, S.Y.; Orrell, S.A. (Sandia National Lab., Carlsbad, NM (United States))

1991-01-01

232

Waste heat recovery in asphalt mixing plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an asphalt mixing plant, a portion of the heat used to vaporize water in the process of drying aggregate is recovered by conducting dryer exhaust gases through parallel ducts which extend serially through the aggregate cold feed bins. These parallel ducts are vertically elongated for optimum heat transfer and to avoid impeding aggregated flow. The ducts have vertically extending

1983-01-01

233

Boiler tube failures in municipal waste-to-energy plants  

SciTech Connect

Waste-to-energy plants experienced increased boiler tube failures when the design changed from waste-heat boilers to radiant furnace waterwalls using superheat. Fireside attack by chlorine and sulfur compounds in refuse combustion products caused many forced outages in early European plants operating at high steam temperatures and pressures. Despite conservative steam conditions in the first US plants, failures occurred. As steam temperatures increased, corrosion problems multiplied. The problems have been alleviated by covering the waterwalls with either refractory or weld overlays of nickel-based alloys and using high nickel-chromium alloys for superheater tubes. Changes in furnace design to provide uniform combustion and avoid reducing conditions in the waterwall zone and to lower the gas temperature in the superheater also have helped minimize corrosion.

Krause, H.H.; Wright, I.G. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

1996-01-01

234

Handling and treatment of low-level radioactive wastes from United States gaseous diffusion plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US gaseous diffusion plants currently generate very small quantities of low-level radioactive wastes. These wastes consist primarily of airborne effluent solid trapping media and liquid scrubber solutions; liquid effluent treatment sludges; waste oils and solvents; scrap metals; and conventional combustible wastes such as floor sweepings, cleaning rags, and shoe covers. In addition to waste emanating from current operations, large

J. F. Wing; M. E. Mitchell; J. E. Behrend

1983-01-01

235

Final environmental impact statement. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this document as environmental input to future decisions regarding the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which would include the disposal of transuranic waste, as currently authorized. The alternatives covered in this document are the following: (1) Continue storing transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) as it is now or with improved confinement. (2) Proceed with WIPP at the Los Medanos site in southeastern New Mexico, as currently authorized. (3) Dispose of TRU waste in the first available repository for high-level waste. The Los Medanos site would be investigated for its potential suitability as a candidate site. This is administration policy and is the alternative preferred by the DOE. (4) Delay the WIPP to allow other candidate sites to be evaluated for TRU-waste disposal. This environmental impact statement is arranged in the following manner: Chapter 1 is an overall summary of the analysis contained in the document. Chapters 2 and 4 set forth the objectives of the national waste-management program and analyze the full spectrum of reasonable alternatives for meeting these objectives, including the WIPP. Chapter 5 presents the interim waste-acceptance criteria and waste-form alternatives for the WIPP. Chapters 6 through 13 provide a detailed description and environmental analysis of the WIPP repository and its site. Chapter 14 describes the permits and approvals necessary for the WIPP and the interactions that have taken place with Federal, State, and local authorities, and with the general public in connection with the repository. Chapter 15 analyzes the many comments received on the DEIS and tells what has been done in this FEIS in response. The appendices contain data and discussions in support of the material in the text.

Not Available

1980-10-01

236

Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing  

SciTech Connect

This is an a submission for the Encyclopedia of Sustainable Technology on the subject of Reprocessing Spent Nuclear Fuel. No formal abstract was required for the article. The full article will be attached.

Michael F. Simpson; Jack D. Law

2010-02-01

237

Mixed waste storage facility CDR review, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant; Solid waste landfill CDR review, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant  

SciTech Connect

This report consists of two papers reviewing the waste storage facility and the landfill projects proposed for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant complex. The first paper is a review of DOE`s conceptual design report for a mixed waste storage facility. This evaluation is to review the necessity of constructing a separate mixed waste storage facility. The structure is to be capable of receiving, weighing, sampling and the interim storage of wastes for a five year period beginning in 1996. The estimated cost is assessed at approximately $18 million. The review is to help comprehend and decide whether a new storage building is a feasible approach to the PGDP mixed waste storage problem or should some alternate approach be considered. The second paper reviews DOE`s conceptual design report for a solid waste landfill. This solid waste landfill evaluation is to compare costs and the necessity to provide a new landfill that would meet State of Kentucky regulations. The assessment considered funding for a ten year storage facility, but includes a review of other facility needs such as a radiation detection building, compactor/baler machinery, material handling equipment, along with other personnel and equipment storage buildings at a cost of approximately $4.1 million. The review is to help discern whether a landfill only or the addition of compaction equipment is prudent.

NONE

1998-08-01

238

Bentonite as a waste isolation pilot plant shaft sealing material  

SciTech Connect

Current designs of the shaft sealing system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) propose using bentonite as a primary sealing component. The shaft sealing designs anticipate that compacted bentonite sealing components can perform through the 10,000-year regulatory period and beyond. To evaluate the acceptability of bentonite as a sealing material for the WIPP, this report identifies references that deal with the properties and characteristics of bentonite that may affect its behavior in the WIPP environment. This report reviews published studies that discuss using bentonite as sealing material for nuclear waste disposal, environmental restoration, toxic and chemical waste disposal, landfill liners, and applications in the petroleum industry. This report identifies the physical and chemical properties, stability and seal construction technologies of bentonite seals in shafts, especially in a saline brine environment. This report focuses on permeability, swelling pressure, strength, stiffness, longevity, and densification properties of bentonites.

Daemen, J.; Ran, Chongwei [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

1996-12-01

239

Development of an environmentally benign reprocessing technology—pyrometallurgical reprocessing technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present status of research and development on pyrometallurgical reprocessing technology in Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry is described with emphasis on electrorefining and waste salt immobilization. As for the electrorefining, three different electrodes — anode basket, solid cathode, and liquid-cadmium cathode — have been being investigated; prismatic anode basket with faster rotation was found to accelerate metal-fuel dissolution.

T. Nishimura; T. Koyama; M. Iizuka; H. Tanaka

1998-01-01

240

Reuse of waste materials as growing media for ornamental plants.  

PubMed

The use of different waste materials: pine bark, coconut fibre and sewage sludge as substrates in the production of ornamental plants was studied, with an special interest on the suitability of coconut fibre as growing substrate for conifer plants. The plant species tested were Pinus pinea, Cupressus arizonica and C. sempervirens and the substrate mixtures were: (1) pine bark, (2) pine bark with 15% of sewage sludge compost, (3) pine bark with 30% of sewage sludge compost, (4) coconut fibre, (5) coconut fibre with 15% of sewage sludge compost and (6) coconut fibre with 30% of sewage sludge compost. Substrates were physically and chemically well characterized, and 75-cm plants were grown on them for one year. Plant and substrate status were periodically tested along the experiment. As biosolid recycling is the main objective of the present work, the mixtures with 30% of composted sewage sludge will be the most convenient substrate to use. For C. sempervirens and C. arizonica, a mixture between pine bark or coconut fibre and 30% of biosolid compost in volume gave the best results, but the lower cost of the pine bark than the coconut fibre substrate indicated the use of the PB+30% CSS. For P. pinea the research of new combinations between waste products is recommended to attain better results. PMID:15364091

Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes; Gascó, Antonio M; Gascó, José M; Guerrero, Francisca

2005-01-01

241

Indicator organisms for assessing sanitization during composting of plant wastes.  

PubMed

The potential for using plant pathogens and seeds as indicator organisms for assessing sanitization of plant wastes during composting was tested in bench-scale flask and large-scale systems. Plasmodiophora brassicae was unsuitable due to high temperature tolerance in dry to moist composts, and detection of viable inoculum post-composting using bioassay plants not corresponding with that using TaqMan® PCR, possibly due to preservation of nucleic acids at elevated temperatures. Several other plant pathogens (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Microdochium nivale, Phytophthora cinnamomi and Phytophthora nicotianae) were unsuitable due their low temperature tolerance. Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cepae and f.sp. radicis-lycopersici chlamydospores and tomato seeds were suitable indicators due to their moderate temperature tolerance and ease of viability testing post-composting. Abutilon seeds were more tolerant than tomato seeds of compost temperatures ?52°C but more prone to degradation at lower temperatures and therefore less suitable as indicators. Relationships between compost temperature during exposures of 2-10 days and subsequent viability of the above chlamydospores or seeds enabled the sanitizing effect of composting processes to be predicted within 2-6 days. Plant waste type (woody or vegetable) had a small but significant effect on the relationship for tomato seeds but not for F. oxysporum chlamydospores. PMID:21546235

Noble, R; Dobrovin-Pennington, A; Pietravalle, S; Weekes, R; Henry, C M

2011-08-01

242

Industrial Experience of Irradiated Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At the moment and during the next following years, France and La Hague plant particularly, own the greatest amount of industrial experience in the field of reprocessing, since this experience is referred to three types of reactors, either broadly spread a...

M. Delange

1981-01-01

243

Testing in flue gas cleaning systems of waste incineration plants  

SciTech Connect

Test racks containing creviced, welded coupons of stainless steels (SS), nickel-based alloys, and titanium were exposed in gas cleaning systems in municipal waste incineration plants. The environments in the cleaning systems were very corrosive. The best corrosion resistance was shown by the superaustenitic SS UNS S32654 and the nickel-based alloys UNS N10276 (C-276) and N06022 (C-22). Titanium performed poorly and was attacked by excessive uniform corrosion.

Wallen, B.; Bergquist, A.; Nordstroem, J. [Avesta Sheffield AB (Sweden)

1995-07-01

244

Cut waste to reduce surcharges for your dairy plant  

SciTech Connect

Wastewater from most dairy plants is discharged to publicly owned treatment works (POTWs), where the majority of the pollutants are removed before the water is discharged to the environment. Treating the water costs money, and most treatment works charge according to the volume of sewage treated. In addition, they commonly charge extra (apply a surcharge) if the waste load exceeds certain specified levels because it costs more to treat water that contains more pollutants.

Carawan, R.E.

1988-12-31

245

High Level Waste Remote Handling Equipment in the Melter Cave Support Handling System at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cold war plutonium production led to extensive amounts of radioactive waste stored in tanks at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site. Bechtel National, Inc. is building the largest nuclear Waste Treatment Plant in the world located at the Department of Energy's Hanford site to immobilize the millions of gallons of radioactive waste. The site comprises five main facilities; Pretreatment,

M. A. Bardal; N. J. Darwen

2008-01-01

246

CORAL: a stepping stone for establishing the Indian fast reactor fuel reprocessing technology  

SciTech Connect

The reprocessing of spent fuel from Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) has been successfully demonstrated in the pilot plant, CORAL (COmpact Reprocessing facility for Advanced fuels in Lead shielded cell). Since commissioning in 2003, spent mixed carbide fuel from FBTR of different burnups and varying cooling period, have been reprocessed in this facility. Reprocessing of the spent fuel with a maximum burnup of 100 GWd/t has been successfully carried out so far. The feed backs from these campaigns with progressively increasing specific activities, have been useful in establishing a viable process flowsheet for reprocessing the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) spent fuel. Also, the design of various equipments and processes for the future plants, which are either under design for construction, namely, the Demonstration Fast Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Plant (DFRP) and the Fast reactor fuel Reprocessing Plant (FRP) could be finalized. (authors)

Venkataraman, M.; Natarajan, R.; Raj, Baldev [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

2007-07-01

247

Waste Management Strategy for Dismantling Waste to Reduce Costs for Power Plant Decommissioning - 13543  

SciTech Connect

Decommissioning of nuclear power plants generates large volumes of radioactive or potentially radioactive waste. The proper management of the dismantling waste plays an important role for the time needed for the dismantling phase and thus is critical to the decommissioning cost. An efficient and thorough process for inventorying, characterization and categorization of the waste provides a sound basis for the planning process. As part of comprehensive decommissioning studies for Nordic NPPs, Westinghouse has developed the decommissioning inventories that have been used for estimations of the duration of specific work packages and the corresponding costs. As part of creating the design basis for a national repository for decommissioning waste, the total production of different categories of waste packages has also been predicted. Studsvik has developed a risk based concept for categorization and handling of the generated waste using six different categories with a span from extremely small risk for radiological contamination to high level waste. The two companies have recently joined their skills in the area of decommissioning on selected market in a consortium named 'ndcon' to further strengthen the proposed process. Depending on the risk for radiological contamination or the radiological properties and other properties of importance for waste management, treatment routes are proposed with well-defined and proven methods for on-site or off-site treatment, activity determination and conditioning. The system is based on a graded approach philosophy aiming for high confidence and sustainability, aiming for re-use and recycling where found applicable. The objective is to establish a process where all dismantled material has a pre-determined treatment route. These routes should through measurements, categorization, treatment, conditioning, intermediate storage and final disposal be designed to provide a steady, un-disturbed flow of material to avoid interruptions. Bottle-necks in the process causes increased space requirements and will have negative impact on the project schedule, which increases not only the cost but also the dose exposure to personnel. For these reasons it is critical to create a process that transfers material into conditioned waste ready for disposal as quickly as possible. To a certain extent the decommissioning program should be led by the waste management process. With the objective to reduce time for handling of dismantled material at site and to efficiently and environmental-friendly use waste management methods (clearance for re-use followed by clearance for recycling), the costs for the plant decommissioning could be reduced as well as time needed for performing the decommissioning project. Also, risks for delays would be reduced with a well-defined handling scheme which limits surprises. Delays are a major cost driver for decommissioning projects. (authors)

Larsson, Arne; Lidar, Per [Studsvik Nuclear AB, SE-611 82 Nykoeping (Sweden)] [Studsvik Nuclear AB, SE-611 82 Nykoeping (Sweden); Bergh, Niklas; Hedin, Gunnar [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Fredholmsgatan 2, SE-721 63, Vaesteraas (Sweden)] [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Fredholmsgatan 2, SE-721 63, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

2013-07-01

248

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan  

SciTech Connect

DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program Requirements (DOE, 1990a), requires each DOE facility to prepare an EMP. This document is prepared for WIPP in accordance with the guidance contained in DOE Order 5400.1; DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment (DOE, 1990b); Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T; DOE, 1991); and the Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 834, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment (Draft). Many sections of DOE Order 5400.1 have been replaced by DOE Order 231.1 (DOE, 1995), which is the driver for the Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) and the guidance source for preparing many environmental program documents. The WIPP project is operated by Westinghouse Electric Company, Waste Isolation Division (WID), for the DOE. This plan defines the extent and scope of the WIPP's effluent and environmental monitoring programs during the facility's operational life and also discusses the WIPP's quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) program as it relates to environmental monitoring. In addition, this plan provides a comprehensive description of environmental activities at WIPP including: A summary of environmental programs, including the status of environmental monitoring activities A description of the WIPP project and its mission A description of the local environment, including demographics An overview of the methodology used to assess radiological consequences to the public, including brief discussions of potential exposure pathways, routine and accidental releases, and their consequences Responses to the requirements described in the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE, 1991). This document references DOE orders and other federal and state regulations affecting environmental monitoring programs at the site. WIPP procedures, which implement the requirements of this program plan, are also referenced. The DOE regulates its own activities for radiation protection of the public under the authority of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (42 U.S.C. 2011). The effluent and environmental monitoring activities prescribed by DOE Order 5400.5 and the DOE/EH-0173T guidance manual are designed to ensure that DOE facilities implement standards and regulations to protect members of the public and the environment against undue risk from radiation. Effluent and environmental monitoring also provide 1999 Environmental Monitoring Plan DOE/WIPP 99-2194 the data necessary to demonstrate compliance with applicable environmental protection regulations. Other federal agencies, such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), are empowered through specific legislation to regulate certain aspects of DOE activities potentially affecting public health and safety or the environment. Presidential Executive Order 12088, Federal Compliance with Pollution Control Standards (43 FR 47707), requires the heads of executive agencies to ensure that all federal facilities and activities comply with applicable pollution control standards and to take all necessary actions for the prevention, control, and abatement of environmental pollution. Beyond statutory requirements, the DOE has established a general environmental protection policy. The Environmental Policy Statement (issued by then Secretary Herrington on January 8, 1986, and extended on January 7, 1987) describes the DOE's commitment to national environmental protection goals in that it conducts operations ''in an environmentally safe and sound manner . . . in compliance with the letter and spirit of applicable environmental statutes, regulations, and standards'' (DOE, 1986). This Environmental Policy Statement also states the DOE's commitment to ''good environmental management in all of its programs and at all of its facilities in order to correct existing environmental problems, to minimize risks to the environment or public health, and to anticipate and address pote

Westinghouse Electric Company Waste Isolation Division

1999-09-29

249

Sealing concepts for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility is proposed for development in the southeast portion of the State of New Mexico. The proposed horizon is in bedded salt located approximately 2150 ft below the surface. The purpose of the WIPP is to provide an R&D facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from defense activities of the United States. As such, it will include a disposal demonstration for transuranic (TRU) wastes and an experimental area to address issues associated with disposal of defense high level wastes (DHLW) in bedded salt. All DHLW used in the experiments are planned for retrieval at the termination of testing; the TRU waste can be permanently disposed of at the site after the pilot phase is complete. This report addresses only the Plugging and Sealing program, which will result in an adequate and acceptable technology for final sealing and decommissioning of the facility at the WIPP site. The actual plugging operations are intended to be conducted on a commercial industrial basis through contracts issued by the DOE. This report is one in a series that is based on a technical program of modeling, laboratory materials testing and field demonstration which will provide a defensible basis for the actual plugging operations to be conducted by the DOE for final closure of the facility.

Christensen, C.L.; Gulick, C.W.; Lambert, S.J.

1982-09-01

250

Assessing pollutions of soil and plant by municipal waste dump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research is few in the literature regarding the investigation and assessment of pollutions of soil and plant by municipal waste dumps. Based upon previous work in seven waste dumping sites (nonsanitary landfills) in Beijing, Shanghai and Shijiazhuang, this study expounds the investigation and assessment method and report major pollutants. Using relative background values, this study assesses soil pollution degree in the seven dumping sites. Preliminary conclusions are: (1) pollution degrees are moderate or heavy; (2) pollution distance by domestic waste that is dumped on a plane ground is 85 m; (3) the horizontal transport distance of pollutants might be up to 120 m if waste leachates are directly connected with water in saturated soils; (4) vertical transport depth is about 3 m in unsaturated silty clayey soils. Furthermore, using relative background values and hygiene standards of food and vegetable this study assesses the pollutions of different parts of reed, sorghum, watermelon and sweet-melon. It is found: (1) in comparison with the relative background values in a large distance to the waste dumping sites, domestic wastes have polluted the roots and stems of reed and sorghum, whereas fine coal ash has polluted the leaves, rattans and fruits of watermelon and sweet-melon; (2) domestic wastes and fine coal ash have heavily polluted the edible parts of sorghum, water melon and sweet-melon. As, Hg, Pb and F have far exceeded standard values, e.g., Hg has exceeded the standard value by up to 650 1,700 times and Cd by 120 275 times, and the comprehensive pollution index is up to 192.9 369.7; (3) the polluted sorghum, watermelon and sweet-melon are inedible.

Liu, Changli; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Feng'e.; Zhang, Sheng; Yin, Miying; Ye, Hao; Hou, Hongbing; Dong, Hua; Zhang, Ming; Jiang, Jianmei; Pei, Lixin

2007-04-01

251

Deriving a Planting Medium from Solid Waste Compost and Construction, Demolition and Excavation Waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lebanon's very high population density has been increasing since the end of the war in the early 1990s reaching 416.36 people per square kilometer. Furthermore, the influx of refugees from conflicts in the region has increased the resident population significantly. All these are exerting pressure on the country's natural resources, pushing the Lebanese to convert more forest and agricultural land into roads, buildings and houses. This has led to a building boom and rapid urbanization which in turn has created a demand for construction material - mainly rock, gravel, sand, etc. nearly all of which were locally acquired through quarrying to the tune of three million cubic meters annually. This boom has been followed by a war with Israel in 2006 which resulted in thousands of tonnes of debris. The increase in population has also led to an increase in solid waste generation with 1.57 million tonnes of solid waste generated in Lebanon per year. The combination of construction, demolition and excavation (CDE) waste along with the increase in solid waste generation has put a major stress on the country and on the management of its solid waste problem. Compounding this problem are the issues of quarries closure and rehabilitation and a decrease in forest and vegetative cover. The on-going research reported in this paper aims to provide an integrated solution to the stated problem by developing a "soil mix" derived from a mélange of the organic matter of the solid waste (compost), the CDE waste, and soil. In this mix, native and indicator plants are planted (in pots) from which the most productive mix will be selected for further testing at field level in later experiments. The plant species used are Matiolla, a native Lebanese plant and Zea mays, which is commonly known used as an indicator plant due to its sensitivity to environmental conditions. To ensure sustainability and environmental friendliness of the mix, its physical and chemical characteristics are monitored and assessed. The leachate from the irrigation of the pots is also monitored and assessed to ensure that if selected for field trials, the mix will not pose a threat to water bodies. The presentation at the conference will aim to report the latest results from the on-going experiment.

Farajalla, Nadim; Assaf, Eleni; Bashour, Issam; Talhouk, Salma

2014-05-01

252

Nondestructive assay and nondestructive examination of remote-handled transuranic waste at the ORNL waste handling and packaging plant  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this investigation is to examine the use of an electron linear accelerator (LINAC) in the performance of nondestructive assay (NDA) and nondestructive examination (NDE) measurements of remote-handled transuranic wastes. The system will be used to perform waste characterization and certification activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's proposed Waste Handling and Packaging Plant. The NDA and NDE technologies which were developed for contact-handled wastes are inadequate to perform such measurements on high gamma and neutron dose-rate wastes. A single LINAC will provide the interrogating fluxes required for both NDA and NDE measurements of the wastes. 11 refs., 6 figs.

Schultz, F.J.; Caldwell, J.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA); Pajarito Scientific Corp. (USA))

1989-01-01

253

Estimation and characterization of decontamination and decommissioning solid waste expected from the Plutonium Finishing Plant  

SciTech Connect

Purpose of the study was to estimate the amounts of equipment and other materials that are candidates for removal and subsequent processing in a solid waste facility when the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant is decontaminated and decommissioned. (Building structure and soil are not covered.) Results indicate that {approximately}5,500 m{sup 3} of solid waste is expected to result from the decontamination and decommissioning of the Pu Finishing Plant. The breakdown of the volumes and percentages of waste by category is 1% dangerous solid waste, 71% low-level waste, 21% transuranic waste, 7% transuranic mixed waste.

Millar, J.S.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; Stratton, T.J. [and others

1995-01-01

254

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2001 Site Environmental Report  

SciTech Connect

The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Westinghouse TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2001 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year (CY) 2001 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH- 0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above Orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an annual site environmental report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health; and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during CY 2001. WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 2001, no evidence was found of any adverse effects from WIPP on the surrounding environment.

Westinghouse TRU Solutions, Inc.

2002-09-20

255

Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to summarize the waste acceptance criteria applicable to the transportation, storage, and disposal of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). These criteria serve as the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) primary directive for ensuring that CH-TRU waste is managed and disposed of in a manner that protects human health and safety and the environment.The authorization basis of WIPP for the disposal of CH-TRU waste includes the U.S.Department of Energy National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear EnergyAuthorization Act of 1980 (reference 1) and the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA;reference 2). Included in this document are the requirements and associated criteriaimposed by these acts and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA,reference 3), as amended, on the CH-TRU waste destined for disposal at WIPP.|The DOE TRU waste sites must certify CH-TRU waste payload containers to thecontact-handled waste acceptance criteria (CH-WAC) identified in this document. Asshown in figure 1.0, the flow-down of applicable requirements to the CH-WAC istraceable to several higher-tier documents, including the WIPP operational safetyrequirements derived from the WIPP CH Documented Safety Analysis (CH-DSA;reference 4), the transportation requirements for CH-TRU wastes derived from theTransuranic Package Transporter-Model II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT Certificates ofCompliance (references 5 and 5a), the WIPP LWA (reference 2), the WIPP HazardousWaste Facility Permit (reference 6), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) Compliance Certification Decision and approval for PCB disposal (references 7,34, 35, 36, and 37). The solid arrows shown in figure 1.0 represent the flow-down of allapplicable payload container-based requirements. The two dotted arrows shown infigure 1.0 represent the flow-down of summary level requirements only; i.e., the sitesmust reference the regulatory source documents from the U.S. Nuclear RegulatoryCommission (NRC) and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) for acomprehensive and detailed listing of the requirements.This CH-WAC does not address the subject of waste characterization relating to adetermination of whether the waste is hazardous; rather, the sites are referred to theWaste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit fordetails of the sampling and analysis protocols to be used in determining compliance withthe required physical and chemical properties of the waste. Requirements andassociated criteria pertaining to a determination of the radiological properties of thewaste, however, are addressed in appendix A of this document. The collectiveinformation obtained from waste characterization records and acceptable knowledge(AK) serves as the basis for sites to certify that their CH-TRU waste satisfies the WIPPwaste acceptance criteria listed herein.

Washington TRU Solutions LLC

2005-12-29

256

Simulation of Spent Fuel Reprocessing Processes: Realizations and Prospects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The separation of uranium and plutonium in the Purex process is very complex and for the extension of reprocessing plants optimization of the process requires mathematical modelling. The development of this model is reviewed. (ERA citation 13:000272)

B. Boullis

1986-01-01

257

Life cycle assessment (LCA) of waste management strategies: Landfilling, sorting plant and incineration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of four waste management strategies: landfill without biogas utilization; landfill with biogas combustion to generate electricity; sorting plant which splits the inorganic waste fraction (used to produce electricity via Refuse Derived Fuels, RDF) from the organic waste fraction (used to produce biogas via anaerobic digestion); direct incineration of waste. These scenarios

Francesco Cherubini; Silvia Bargigli; Sergio Ulgiati

2009-01-01

258

Pyrolysis of plant, animal and human waste: physical and chemical characterization of the pyrolytic products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrolysis (carbonization) has been proposed as one of several optional technologies for disposing and recycling waste products in Japan. Plant wastes (sugarcane bagasse and rice husks), animal waste (cow biosolids) and human waste (treated municipal sludge) were pyrolyzed at temperatures from 250–800 °C in closed containers. The carbonized materials were evaluated for specific physical properties (yield, surface area, density) and

Yoshiyuki Shinogi; Yutaka Kanri

2003-01-01

259

Scaled Testing to Evaluate Pulse Jet Mixer Performance in Waste Treatment Plant Mixing Vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at Hanford is being designed and built to pre-treat and vitrify the waste in Hanfords 177 underground waste storage tanks. Numerous process vessels will hold waste at various stages in the WTP. These vessels have pulse jet mixer (PJM) systems. A test program was developed to evaluate the adequacy of mixing system designs

James A. Fort; Perry A. Meyer; Judith A. Bamberger; Carl W. Enderlin; Paul A. Scott; Michael J. Minette; Phillip A. Gauglitz

2010-01-01

260

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report  

SciTech Connect

This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 2000, to March 31, 2002. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA)(Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office's (CBFO) compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico. In the prior BECR, the CBFO and the management and operating contractor (MOC)committed to discuss resolution of a Letter of Violation that had been issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) in August 1999, which was during the previous BECR reporting period. This Letter of Violation alleged noncompliance with hazardous waste aisle spacing, labeling, a nd tank requirements. At the time of publication of the prior BECR, resolution of the Letter of Violation was pending. On July 7, 2000, the NMED issued a letter noting that the aisle spacing and labeling concerns had been adequately addressed and that they were rescinding the violation alleging that the Exhaust Shaft Catch Basin failed to comply with the requirements for a hazardous waste tank. During the current reporting period, WIPP received a Notice of Violation and a compliance order alleging the violation of the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Regulations and the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP).

Washinton TRU Solutions LLC

2002-09-30

261

[Mercury pollution investigation in predominant plants surrounding Shenzhen Qingshuihe municipal solid waste incineration plant].  

PubMed

In order to investigate the effects of mercury emission from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) on the surrounding plants and soils, the mercury concentrations were examined in the plant samples including leaves and stems and the soil samples around Shenzhen Qingshuihe MSWI Plant. Results show that, these plants are significantly polluted by mercury, the mercury concentrations of the plant leaves are 0.030 9-0.246 7 mg x kg(-1), with the mean value 0.094 8 mg x kg(-1), among the local prominent plants, the mercury concentrations in the leaves are in the order of: Acacia confuse > Litsea rotundifolia > Acacia mangium > Acacia auriculaeformis > Schima superb > Ilex asprella. The mercury concentrations of the plant stems are 0.007 4-0.119 6 mg x kg(-1), with the mean value 0.041 7 mg x kg(-1). For the same plant, the mercury concentration in its leaf correlates positively with that in its stem, but presents little correlation with that in the soil where it grows. Under the direction of the dominant wind, the concentration of smoke diffusion is often influenced by the distance from the stack and the difference of terrain. The mercury concentrations of the plant leaves and stems vary almost in accordance with spatial heterogeneity patterns of smoke diffusion. These results demonstrate that the interaction of the smoke and plant leaves play the leading role in the mercury exchange between plants and environment. PMID:19927841

Zhao, Hong-Wei; Zhong, Xiu-Ping; Liu, Yang-Sheng; Wang, Jun-Jian; Hong, Yuan; Zhao, Kang-Sai; Zeng, Hui

2009-09-15

262

Compliance status report for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the disposition of transuranic (TRU) waste generated through national defense-related activities. Approximately 53,700 m{sup 2} of these wastes have been generated and are currently stored at government defense installations across the country. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located in southeastern New Mexico, has been sited and constructed to meet the criteria established by the scientific and regulatory community for the safe, long-term disposal of TRU and TRU-mixed wastes. This Compliance Status Report (CSR) provides an assessment of the progress of the WIPP Program toward compliance with long-term disposal regulations, set forth in Title 40 CFR 191 (EPA, 1993a), Subparts B and C, and Title 40 CFR {section}268.6 (EPA, 1993b), in order to focus on-going and future experimental and engineering activities. The CSR attempts to identify issues associated with the performance of the WIPP as a long-term repository and to focus on the resolution of these issues. This report will serve as a tool to focus project resources on the areas necessary to ensure complete, accurate, and timely submittal of the compliance application. This document is not intended to constitute a statement of compliance or a demonstration of compliance.

Not Available

1994-03-31

263

A historical review of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant backfill development  

SciTech Connect

Backfills have been part of Sandia National Laboratories' [Sandia's] Waste Isolation Pilot Plant [WIPP] designs for over twenty years. Historically, backfill research at Sandia has depended heavily on the changing mission of the WIPP facility. Early testing considered heat producing, high level, wastes. Bentonite/sand/salt mixtures were evaluated and studies focused on developing materials that would retard brine ingress, sorb radionuclides, and withstand elevated temperatures. The present-day backfill consists of pure MgO [magnesium oxide] in a pelletized form and is directed at treating the relatively low contamination level, non-heat producing, wastes actually being disposed of in the WIPP. Its introduction was motivated by the need to scavenging CO{sub 2} [carbon dioxide] from decaying organic components in the waste. However, other benefits, such as a substantial desiccating capacity, are also being evaluated. The MgO backfill also fulfills a statutory requirement for assurance measures beyond those needed to demonstrate compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] regulatory release limits. However, even without a backfill, the WIPP repository design still operates within EPA regulatory release limits.

KRUMHANSL,JAMES L.; MOLECKE,MARTIN A.; PAPENGUTH,HANS W.; BRUSH,LAURENCE H.

2000-06-05

264

Experience in the reprocessing of mixed-oxide fuels at PNC (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) in Japan has experience in reprocessing mixed-oxide (MOX) fuels for the advanced thermal reactor (ATR) Fugen at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP) and for fast breeder reactors (FBRs) at the Chemical Processing Facility (CPF). The TRP was originally designed and constructed as the first reprocessing plant for light water reactor fuels

Hisato Komatsu; Moichi Onishi; Sadao Araya; Misao Fukushima

1989-01-01

265

Accelerator-driven Transmutation of Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear waste from commercial power plants contains large quantities of plutonium, other fissionable actinides, and long-lived fission products that are potential proliferation concerns and create challenges for the long-term storage. Different strategies for dealing with nuclear waste are being followed by various countries because of their geologic situations and their views on nuclear energy, reprocessing and non-proliferation. The current United

Francesco Venneri

1998-01-01

266

Microbial gas generation under expected Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gas generation from the microbial degradation of the organic constituents of transuranic waste under conditions expected at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository was investigated at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The biodegradation of mixed c...

A. J. Francis J. B. Gillow M. R. Giles

1997-01-01

267

Selected problems of minimization and management of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plant decommissioning. Part 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The processing prior to storage of radioactive wastes produced in nuclear power plant decommissioning is described as are the types of containers employed for waste transport and/or disposal. Data are summarized on exposure of personnel to radioactivity r...

M. Kyrs A. Moravec

1988-01-01

268

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant No-migration variance petition. Addendum: Volume 7, Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This report describes various aspects of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) including design data, waste characterization, dissolution features, ground water hydrology, natural resources, monitoring, general geology, and the gas generation/test program.

Not Available

1990-03-01

269

Evaluation of air effluent and workplace radioactivity monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Improvements are needed in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) air effluent and workplace radioactivity monitoring prior to receipt of radioactive wastes. This report provides a detailed review Zf radioactivity air monitoring regulatory requirements an...

W. T. Bartlett

1993-01-01

270

INTELLIGENT DECISION SUPPORT FOR WASTE MINIMIZATION IN ELECTROPLATING PLANTS. (R824732)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Wastewater, spent solvent, spent process solutions, and sludge are the major waste streams generated in large volumes daily in electroplating plants. These waste streams can be significantly minimized through process modification and operational improvement. I...

271

Hazardous solid waste from domestic wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed Central

The treatment of liquid wastes in municipal sewage treatment plants creates significant quantities of solid residue for disposal. The potential hazard from these wastes requires that their characteristics be determined accurately to develop environmentally sound management criteria. It is readily recognized that the sludge characteristics vary with the type and degree of industrial activity within a wastewater collection system and that these characteristics play a significant role in determining whether the material has potential for beneficial reuse or if it must be directed to final disposal. This paper offers an overview of past and present practices of sewage sludge disposal, an indication of quantities produced, and experience with beneficial reuse. An estimated range of costs involved, expected environmental effects and potential for continued use is offered for each disposal or reuse system discussed.

Harrington, W M

1978-01-01

272

Radon monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

A year-long radon monitoring program began in July 1990 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to determine the background concentrations of radon (222Rn) in specific areas of interest. Electret-passive radon monitors (E-PERMs) were the primary measurement instruments used in one configuration to measure radon concentrations and in another configuration to measure the location-by-location gamma background radiation. Time-integrated radon concentrations for the first quarter of monitoring indicated that both surface and underground radon concentrations were less than 1.0 pCi/liter and that concrete liners of the Air Intake Shaft and Waste Shaft do not appear to increase the radon concentrations underground. 3 refs., 2 tabs.

Pendlebury, L.S. (USDOE Albuquerque Operations Office, Carlsbad, NM (USA). Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Project Office); Boyer, R.D.; Cordes, O.L. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (USA). Waste Isolation Div.)

1991-01-01

273

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant simulated RH TRU waste experiments: Data and interpretation pilot  

SciTech Connect

The simulated, i.e., nonradioactive remote-handled transuranic waste (RH TRU) experiments being conducted underground in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were emplaced in mid-1986 and have been in heated test operation since 9/23/86. These experiments involve the in situ, waste package performance testing of eight full-size, reference RH TRU containers emplaced in horizontal, unlined test holes in the rock salt ribs (walls) of WIPP Room T. All of the test containers have internal electrical heaters; four of the test emplacements were filled with bentonite and silica sand backfill materials. We designed test conditions to be ``near-reference`` with respect to anticipated thermal outputs of RH TRU canisters and their geometrical spacing or layout in WIPP repository rooms, with RH TRU waste reference conditions current as of the start date of this test program. We also conducted some thermal overtest evaluations. This paper provides a: detailed test overview; comprehensive data update for the first 5 years of test operations; summary of experiment observations; initial data interpretations; and, several status; experimental objectives -- how these tests support WIPP TRU waste acceptance, performance assessment studies, underground operations, and the overall WIPP mission; and, in situ performance evaluations of RH TRU waste package materials plus design details and options. We provide instrument data and results for in situ waste container and borehole temperatures, pressures exerted on test containers through the backfill materials, and vertical and horizontal borehole-closure measurements and rates. The effects of heat on borehole closure, fracturing, and near-field materials (metals, backfills, rock salt, and intruding brine) interactions were closely monitored and are summarized, as are assorted test observations. Predictive 3-dimensional thermal and structural modeling studies of borehole and room closures and temperature fields were also performed.

Molecke, M.A.; Argueello, G.J.; Beraun, R.

1993-04-01

274

Analysis and comparison of municipal solid waste and reject fraction as fuels for incineration plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Municipal solid waste, before (MSW) and after (RDF) the material recovery carried out in mechanical-biological treatment plants (MBT plants), have been analyzed in order to compare the efficiency of incineration of both fractions. RDF of MBT plants is about 67% by volume of the initial MSW and is usually landfilled; in order to minimize the amount of landfilled waste, incineration

Cristina Montejo; Carlos Costa; Pedro Ramos; María del Carmen Márquez

2011-01-01

275

SIMPLIFIED METHODS FOR ESTIMATING EMISSIONS FROM WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS, BASED ON APPLICATION OF WATER9 TO MODEL PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A set of model waste water treatment plant designs, estimates of their air emissions, and advice for selecting a model plant and scaling it up or down to represent a real plant. This will save much of the analytical work needed to fully model a particular plant using the complet...

276

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program description for high-level waste form development and qualification. Revision 3, Part 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project has been established to convert the high-level radioactive waste associated with nuclear defense production at the Hanford Site into a waste form suitable for disposal in a deep geologic repository. The Hanfor...

1993-01-01

277

Life Cycle Assesment of Daugavgriva Waste Water Treatment Plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the assessment of the environmental impacts caused by the treatment of Riga's waste water in the Daugavgriva plant with biogas energy cogeneration through the life cycle assessment (LCA). The LCA seems to be a good tool to assess and evaluate the most serious environmental impacts of a facility The results showed clearly that the impact category contributing the most to the total impact -eutrophicationcomes from the wastewater treatment stage. Climate change also seems to be a relevant impact coming from the wastewater treatment stage and the main contributor to the Climate change is N2O. The main environmental benefits, in terms of the percentages of the total impact, associated to the use of biogas instead of any other fossil fuel in the cogeneration plant are equal to: 3,11% for abiotic depletation, 1,48% for climate change, 0,51% for acidification and 0,12% for eutrophication.

Romagnoli, F.; Sampaio, F.; Blumberga, D.

2009-01-01

278

Experimental program plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy has prepared this Experimental Program Plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (EPP) to provide a summary of the DOE experimental efforts needed for the performance assessment process for the WIPP, and of the linkages of this process to the appropriate regulations. The Plan encompasses a program of analyses of the performance of the planned repository based on scientific studies, including tests with transuranic waste at laboratory sites, directed at evaluating compliance with the principal regulations governing the WIPP. The Plan begins with background information on the WIPP project, the requirements of the LWA (Land Withdrawal Act), and its objective and scope. It then presents an overview of the regulatory requirements and the compliance approach. Next are comprehensive discussions of plans for compliance with disposal regulations, followed by the SWDA (Solid Waste Disposal Act) and descriptions of activity programs designed to provide information needed for determining compliance. Descriptions and justifications of all currently planned studies designed to support regulatory compliance activities are also included.

Not Available

1994-01-01

279

Modeling Offgas Systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant  

SciTech Connect

To augment steady-state design calculations, dynamic models of three offgas systems that will be used in the Waste Treatment Plant now under construction at the Hanford Site were developed using Aspen Custom Modeler{trademark}. The offgas systems modeled were those for the High Level Waste (HLW) melters, Low Activity Waste (LAW) melters and HLW Pulse Jet Ventilation (PJV) system. The models do not include offgas chemistry but only consider the two major species in the offgas stream which are air and water vapor. This is sufficient to perform material and energy balance calculations that accurately show the dynamic behavior of gas pressure, temperature, humidity and flow throughout the systems. The models are structured to perform pressure drop calculations across the various unit operations using a combination of standard engineering calculations and empirical data based correlations for specific pieces of equipment. The models include process controllers, gas ducting, control valves, exhaust fans and the offgas treatment equipment. The models were successfully used to analyze a large number of operating scenarios including both normal and off-normal conditions.

Smith, Frank G., III

2005-09-02

280

Effect of textile waste water on tomato plant, Lycopersicon esculentum.  

PubMed

In this study Sanganer town, Jaipur was selected as study area. The plants of Lycopersicon esculentum var. K 21(Tomato) treated with 20 and 30% textile wastewater were analyzed for metal accumulation, growth and biochemical parameters at per, peak and post flowering stages. Findings of the study revealed that chlorophyll content was most severely affected with the increase in metal concentration. Total chlorophyll content showed a reduction of 72.44% while carbohydrate, protein and nitrogen content showed a reduction of 46.83, 71.65 and 71.65% respectively. With the increase in waste water treatment the root and shoot length, root and shoot dry weight and total dry weight were reduced to 50.55, 52.06, 69.93, 72.42, 72.10% respectively. After crop harvesting, the fruit samples of the plants treated with highest concentration of textile waste water contained 2.570 mg g(-1)d.wt. of Zn, 0.800 mg g(-1) d.wt. Cu, 1.520 mg g(-1) d.wt. Cr and 2.010 mg g(-1) d.wt. Pb. PMID:23734449

Marwari, Richa; Khan, T I

2012-09-01

281

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2002  

SciTech Connect

The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2002 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year 2002 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, and Guidance for the Preparation of DOE Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs) for Calendar Year 2002 (DOE Memorandum EH-41: Natoli:6-1336, April 4, 2003). These Orders and the guidance document require that DOE facilities submit an annual site environmental report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health; and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).

Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

2003-09-17

282

Management of intermediate-level radioactive wastes in the United States  

SciTech Connect

While used extensively, the term intermediate-level waste is not a clearly defined waste category. Assuming the ILW includes all radioactive wastes requiring shielding but not ordinarily included in a high-level waste canister, its major sources include power plant operations, spent fuel storage, and spent fuel reprocessing. While the volume is approx. 10/sup 2/ greater than that of high-level waste, ILW contains only approx. 1% of the radioactivity. Power plant waste, constituting approx. 87% of the waste volume, is generally nontransuranic waste. The other approximately 13% from fuel reprocessing is generally transuranic. Intermediate-level wastes fall into the general categories of highly radioactive hardware, failed equipment, HEPA filters, wet wastes, and noncombustible solids. Within each category, however, the waste characteristics can vary widely, necessitating different treatments. The wet wastes, primarily power plant resins and sludges, contribute the largest volume; fuel hulls and core hardware represent the greatest activity. Numerous treatments for intermediate-level wastes are available and have been used successfully. Packaging and transportation systems are also available. Intermediate-level wastes from power plants are disposed of by shallow-land burial. However, the alpha-bearing wastes are being stored pending eventual disposal to a geologic repository or by other means, e.g., intermediate-depth burial, sea disposal. Problem areas associated with intermediate-level wastes include: disposal criteria need to be established; fixation of organic ion exchange resins from power plant operation needs improvement; and reprocessing of LWR fuels will produce ILW considerably different from power plant ILW and requiring different treatment.

Aaberg, R.L.; Lakey, L.T.; Greenborg, J.

1980-07-01

283

Benchmarking of municipal waste water treatment plants (an Austrian project).  

PubMed

An Austrian research project focused on the development of process indicators for treatment plants with different process and operation modes. The whole treatment scheme was subdivided into four processes, i.e. mechanical pretreatment (Process 1), mechanical-biological waste water treatment (Process 2), sludge thickening and stabilisation (Process 3) and further sludge treatment and disposal (Process 4). In order to get comparable process indicators it was necessary to subdivide the sample of 76 individual treatment plants all over Austria into five groups according to their mean organic load (COD) in the influent. The specific total yearly costs, the yearly operating costs and the yearly capital costs of the four processes have been related to the yearly average of the measured organic load expressed in COD (110 g COD/pe/d). The specific investment costs for the whole treatment plant and for Process 2 have been related to a calculated standard design capacity of the mechanical-biological part of the treatment plant expressed in COD. The capital costs of processes 1, 3 and 4 have been related to the design capacity of the treatment plant. For each group (related to the size of the plant) a benchmark band has been defined for the total yearly costs, the total yearly operational costs and the total yearly capital costs. For the operational costs of the Processes 1 to 4 one benchmark ([see symbol in text] per pe/year) has been defined for each group. In addition a theoretical cost reduction potential has been calculated. The cost efficiency in regard to water protection and some special sub-processes such as aeration and sludge dewatering has been analysed. PMID:15553485

Lindtner, S; Kroiss, H; Nowak, O

2004-01-01

284

Intermediate-level waste management at Sellafield - a comprehensive strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management of the inventory of historic intermediate level wastes at Sellafield is a task that compares in magnitude and complexity with the construction of the thermal oxide reprocessing plant (THORP). A successful outcome will crucially influence the future direction of civil nuclear power in the United Kingdom. British Nuclear Fuels plc has commenced this task and is already committed to

P. E. Vickery; A. P. Power

1994-01-01

285

Impact of Wastes from a Water Treatment Plant: Evaluative Procedures and Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarized the procedures used and the results obtained in assessing the effects on a stream in Illinois of waste discharges from a water treatment plant that employs the clarification process. The water treatment plant serving Pontiac, Illino...

R. L. Evans D. H. Schnepper T. E. Hill

1979-01-01

286

Unresolved issues for the disposal of remote-handled transuranic waste in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is to dispose of 176,000 cubic meters of transuranic (TRU) waste generated by the defense activities of the US Government. The envisioned inventory contains approximately 6 million cubic feet of contac...

M. K. Silva R. H. Neill

1994-01-01

287

Hanford Waste Simulants Created to Support the Research and Development on the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant  

SciTech Connect

The development of nonradioactive waste simulants to support the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant bench and pilot-scale testing is crucial to the design of the facility. The report documents the simulants development to support the SRTC programs and the strategies used to produce the simulants.

Eibling, R.E.

2001-07-26

288

WASTE MINIMIZATION AUDIT REPORT: CASE STUDIES OF MINIMIZATION OF MERCURY-BEARING WASTES AT A MERCURY CELL CHLORALKALI PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report documents the results of waste minimization audits carried out at two mercury cell chloralkali plants in 1987. The audit addressed to waste streams, K-071-brine purification muds, and K-106-wastewater treatment sludges from Mercury cell processes in chlorine production...

289

Integrated international safeguards concepts for fuel reprocessing  

SciTech Connect

This report is the fourth in a series of efforts by the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, to identify problems and propose solutions for international safeguarding of light-water reactor spent-fuel reprocessing plants. Problem areas for international safeguards were identified in a previous Problem Statement (LA-7551-MS/SAND79-0108). Accounting concepts that could be verified internationally were presented in a subsequent study (LA-8042). Concepts for containment/surveillance were presented, conceptual designs were developed, and the effectiveness of these designs was evaluated in a companion study (SAND80-0160). The report discusses the coordination of nuclear materials accounting and containment/surveillance concepts in an effort to define an effective integrated safeguards system. The Allied-General Nuclear Services fuels reprocessing plant at Barnwell, South Carolina, was used as the reference facility.

Hakkila, E.A.; Gutmacher, R.G.; Markin, J.T.; Shipley, J.P.; Whitty, W.J.; Camp, A.L.; Cameron, C.P.; Bleck, M.E.; Ellwein, L.B.

1981-12-01

290

Summary of Waste Calcination at INTEC  

SciTech Connect

Fluidized-bed calcination at the Idaho Nuclear Technologies and Engineering Center (INTEC, formally called the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant) has been used to solidify acidic metal nitrate fuel reprocessing and incidental wastes wastes since 1961. A summary of waste calcination in full-scale and pilot plant calciners has been compiled for future reference. It contains feed compositions and operating conditions for all the processing campaigns for the original Waste Calcining Facility (WCF), the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) started up in 1982, and numerous small scale pilot plant tests for various feed types. This summary provides a historical record of calcination at INTEC, and will be useful for evaluating calcinability of future wastes.

O'Brien, Barry Henry; Newby, Bill Joe

2000-10-01

291

Ethylene plant steam strips waste water to recover benzene  

SciTech Connect

Du Pont's Sabine River Works' ethylene plant in Orange, Tex., has selected a steam stripping process to remove benzene from its waste water stream. Timely completion of the project plan diverted a possible cleanup cost in excess of $100 million. The Du Pont plant was constructed in 1967 to crack feedstocks ranging from 50% ethane/50% propane to purity ethane. The plant is currently cracking purity ethane in the presence of dilution steam to produce ethylene and various byproducts. The dilution steam is added to improve selectivity and reduce fouling in the heater coils. The cracked gas exists the heaters and goes to the quench tower, where the steam and a portion of the heavier hydrocarbons such as benzene, toulene, and styrene are condensed. After the cracked gas is cooled in the quench tower, it is compressed and then separated into the various products in the distillation train. The condensed steam and hydrocarbons are separated in the quench settler. The hydrocarbons are sent to the heavy aromatic distillate (HAD) storage for sale. The condensed steam, with dissolved hydrocarbons, combines with the effluent from the API separator and goes to the dissolved gas flotation (DGF) unit, which was installed in 1988. When the plant was started up, the quench water was recycled, to make dilution steam. However, this system was plagued by plugging problems, and the quench water was rerouted to the biponds. The API separator is the collection point for all of the oil and water blowdowns in the ethylene plant. In addition to the blowdowns, large quantities of rainwater go to the API separator. The hydrocarbons leaving the DGF go to HAD storage, and the water goes to the bioponds.

Taylor, M.A. (E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co. Inc., Orange, TX (US))

1991-05-27

292

Technical basis for external dosimetry at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The WIPP External Dosimetry Program, administered by Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Waste Isolation Division, for the US Department of Energy (DOE), provides external dosimetry support services for operations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site. These operations include the receipt, experimentation with, storage, and disposal of transuranic (TRU) wastes. This document describes the technical basis for the WIPP External Radiation

E. W. Bradley; C. F. Wu; T. E. Goff

1993-01-01

293

Energy recovery from army ammunition plant solid waste by pyrolysis. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Army Ammunition Plants (AAP's) dispose of large quantities of solid waste by incineration, open-air burning, and landfill. There is at present no attempt at energy recovery. The present study was conducted to determine the feasibility of adapting pyrolysis technology for energy recovery from these solid wastes. Eight AAP's were surveyed to identify the types and amounts of solid waste generated.

J. D. Pinkerton; R. F. Tobias; R. Scola

1979-01-01

294

Process technology for vitrification of defense high-level waste at the Savannah River Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitrification in borosilicate glass is now the leading worldwide process for immobilizing high-level radioactive waste. Each vitrification project, however, has its unique mission and technical challenges. The Defense Waste Vitrification Facility (DWPF) now under construction at the Savannah River Plant will concentrate and vitrify a large amount of relatively low-power alkaline waste. Process research and development for the DWPF have

Boersma

1984-01-01

295

In-plant measurements of gamma-ray transmissions for precise K-edge and passive assay of plutonium concentration and isotopic abundance in product solutions at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant  

SciTech Connect

A field test has been carried out for more than 2 years for determination of plutonium concentration by K-edge absorption densitometry and for determination of plutonium isotopic abundance by transmission-corrected passive gamma-ray spectrometry. This system was designed and built at Los Alamos National Laboratory and installed at the Tokai reprocessing plant of the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation as a part of the Tokai Advanced Safeguards Technology Exercise (TASTEX). For K-edge measurement of plutonium concentration, the transmissions at two discrete gamma-ray energies are measured using the 121.1- and 122.1-keV gamma rays from /sup 75/Se and /sup 57/Co. Intensities of the plutonium passive gamma rays in the energy regions between 38 and 51 keV and between 129 and 153 keV are used for determination of the isotopic abundances. More than 200 product solution samples have been measured in a timely fashion during these 2 years. The relative precisions and accuracies of the plutonium concentration measurement are shown to be within 0.6% (1 sigma) in these applications, and those for plutonium isotopic abundances are within 3% for /sup 238/Pu, 0.4% for /sup 239/Pu, 1.2% for /sup 240/Pu, 1.3% for /sup 241/Pu, and 7% for /sup 242/Pu. The time required is 10 min for the concentration assay, 10 min for the isotopics assay, and about 15 min for handling procedures in the laboratory.

Asakura, Y.; Kondo, I.; Masui, J.; Shoji, K.; Russo, P.A.; Hsue, S.T.; Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Johnson, S.S.

1982-01-01

296

Anaerobic digestion of organic waste in Japan: the first demonstration plant at Kyoto City.  

PubMed

Recycling of Municipal Solid Waste is vigorously promoted in Japan and the necessity of energy recovery from organic waste is increasing. An anaerobic digestion demonstration plant for organic waste in Kyoto City, Japan has been operated for about two years. Three kinds of wastes (garbage and leftovers from hotels, yard waste and used paper) mixed at various ratios are used. The plant has maintained stable operations with each mixture, generating biogas by the decomposition of VS at the rate of about 820 m3N/ton-VS. PMID:12201091

Komatsu, T; Kimura, T; Kuriyama, Y; Isshiki, Y; Kawano, T; Hirao, T; Masuda, M; Yokoyama, K; Matsumoto, T; Takeda, M

2002-01-01

297

Increased BLSS closure using mineralized human waste in plant cultivation on a neutral substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work was to study the full-scale potential use of human mineralized waste (feces and urine) as a source of mineral elements for plant cultivation in a biological life support system (BLSS). Plants that are potential candidates for a photosynthesizing link were grown on a neutral solution containing human mineralized waste. Spring wheat Triticum aestivum L., peas

S. Ushakova; A. Tikhomirov; V. Shikhov; Yu. Kudenko; O. Anischenko; J.-B. Gros; Ch. Lasseur

2009-01-01

298

Plant uptake and dissipation of PBDEs in the soils of electronic waste recycling sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant uptake and dissipation of weathered PBDEs in the soils of e-waste recycling sites were investigated in a greenhouse study. Eighteen PBDE congeners (tri- through deca-) were detected in the plant tissues. The proportion of lower brominated PBDEs (mono- through hexa-) in plant roots was higher than that in the soils. A concentration gradient was observed of PBDEs in plants

Honglin Huang; Shuzhen Zhang; Peter Christie

2011-01-01

299

Reference commercial high-level waste glass and canister definition.  

SciTech Connect

This report presents technical data and performance characteristics of a high-level waste glass and canister intended for use in the design of a complete waste encapsulation package suitable for disposal in a geologic repository. The borosilicate glass contained in the stainless steel canister represents the probable type of high-level waste product that will be produced in a commercial nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant. Development history is summarized for high-level liquid waste compositions, waste glass composition and characteristics, and canister design. The decay histories of the fission products and actinides (plus daughters) calculated by the ORIGEN-II code are presented.

Slate, S.C.; Ross, W.A.; Partain, W.L.

1981-09-01

300

Recycling plant, human and animal wastes to plant nutrients in a closed ecological system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The essential minerals for plant growth are nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium (macronutrients), calcium, magnesium, sulfur (secondary nutrients), iron, manganese, boron, copper, zinc, chlorine, sodium, and molybdenum (micronutrients). The first step in recycling wastes will undoubtedly be oxidation of carbon and hydrogen to CO2 and H2O. Transformation of minerals to plant nutrients depends upon the mode of oxidation to define the state of the nutrients. For the purpose of illustrating the type of processing required, ash and off-gas compositions of an incineration process were assumed and subsequent processing requirements were identified. Several processing schemes are described for separating out sodium chloride from the ash, leading to reformulation of a nutrient solution which should be acceptable to plants.

Meissner, H. P.; Modell, M.

1979-01-01

301

Enviromental impact of a hospital waste incineration plant in Krakow (Poland).  

PubMed

The environmental impact of a hospital waste incineration plant in Krakow was investigated. The objective of this study was to assess the degree of environmental effect of the secondary solid waste generated during the incineration process of medical waste. The analysis of pollution of the air emissions and leaching test of ashes and slag were carried out. The obtained results allowed us to conclude that (i) the hospital waste incineration plant significantly solves the problems of medical waste treatment in Krakow; (ii) the detected contaminant concentrations were generally lower than the permissible values; (iii) the generated ashes and slag contained considerable concentrations of heavy metals, mainly zinc, and chloride and sulfate anions. Ashes and slag constituted 10-15% of the mass of incinerated wastes; they are more harmful for the environment when compared with untreated waste, and after solidification they can be deposited in the hazardous waste disposal. PMID:23640706

Gielar, Agnieszka; Helios-Rybicka, Edeltrauda

2013-07-01

302

B Plant complex hazardous, mixed and low level waste certification plan  

SciTech Connect

This plan describes the administrative steps and handling methodology for certification of hazardous waste, mixed waste, and low level waste generated at B Plant Complex. The plan also provides the applicable elements of waste reduction and pollution prevention, including up front minimization and end product reduction of volume and/or toxicity. The plan is written to satisfy requirements for Hanford Site waste generators to have a waste certification program in place at their facility. This plan, as described, applies only to waste which is generated at, or is the responsibility of, B Plant Complex. The scope of this plan is derived from the requirements found in WHC-EP-0063, Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria.

Beam, T.G.

1994-11-01

303

Radioactive Releases Impact from Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant, Bulgaria into the Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to present a general overview of the radioactive releases impact generated by Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP), Bulgaria to the environment and public. The liquid releases presented are known as the so called controlled water discharges, that are generated after reprocessing of the inevitable accumulated liquid radioactive waste in the plant operation process. The

G. T. Genchev; I. Kuleff; N. T. Tanev; E. S. Delistoyanova; T. Guentchev

2002-01-01

304

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant alcove gas barrer. Final design report  

SciTech Connect

A full-scale composite, precast concrete and steel lining system was designed to seal and isolate test alcoves within the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The lining system and internal bulkheads are designed to control gas leakage along an alcove access drift and through damaged rock surrounding the drift. Flow along the access drift is prevented by redundant membranes included in the rigid structural lining . Flow through the rock will be minimized by providing a rigid lining that will induce healing of damaged salt rock and arrest ongoing damage in clay and anhydrite interbeds. Provisions for grouting disturbed zones of rock are also provided. Instrumentation is specified to measure the structural response of the lining.

Lin, M.S. [Parsons, Brinckerhoff, Quade and Douglas, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Van Sambeek, L.L. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States)

1992-11-01

305

Waste receiving and processing plant control system; system design description  

SciTech Connect

The Plant Control System (PCS) is a heterogeneous computer system composed of numerous sub-systems. The PCS represents every major computer system that is used to support operation of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility. This document, the System Design Description (PCS SDD), includes several chapters and appendices. Each chapter is devoted to a separate PCS sub-system. Typically, each chapter includes an overview description of the system, a list of associated documents related to operation of that system, and a detailed description of relevant system features. Each appendice provides configuration information for selected PCS sub-systems. The appendices are designed as separate sections to assist in maintaining this document due to frequent changes in system configurations. This document is intended to serve as the primary reference for configuration of PCS computer systems. The use of this document is further described in the WRAP System Configuration Management Plan, WMH-350, Section 4.1.

LANE, M.P.

1999-02-24

306

Key Geomechanics Issues at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Geomechanics  

SciTech Connect

Mechanical and hydrological properties of rock salt provide excellent bases for geological isolation of hazardous materials. Regulatory compliance determinations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) stand as testament to the widely held conclusion that salt provides excellent isolation properties. The WIPP saga began in the 1950s when the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS) recommended a salt vault as a promising solution to the national problem of nuclear waste disposal. For over 20 years, the Scientific basis for the NAS recommendation has been fortified by Sandia National Laboratories through a series of large scale field tests and laboratory investigations of salt properties. These scientific investigations helped develop a comprehensive understanding of salt's 4 reformational behavior over an applicable range of stresses and temperatures. Sophisticated constitutive modeling, validated through underground testing, provides the computational ability to model long-term behavior of repository configurations. In concert with advancement of the mechanical models, fluid flow measurements showed not only that the evaporite lithology was essentially impermeable but that the WIPP setting was hydrologically inactive. Favorable mechanical properties ensure isolation of materials placed in a salt geological setting. Key areas of the geomechanics investigations leading to the certification of WIPP are in situ experiments, laboratory tests, and shaft seal design.

HANSEN,FRANCIS D.

1999-09-01

307

A new concept of nuclear fuel reprocessing by applying ion-exchange technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of advanced technology for the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing should be achieved not only considering cost, non proliferation and reduction of radioactive wastes but also corresponding to both spent nuclear fuels of LWR and FBR.We have proposed an ion exchange process for reprocessing using a new type ion exchanger developed to chemical method of U enrichment technology. This

T. Hoshikawa; F. Kawamura; T. Sawa; A. Suzuoki; M. Kumagai; Y. Takashima; M. Asou; T. Namba; H. Kinumaki; S. Ohe

1998-01-01

308

Construction and operation of an industrial solid waste landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Waste Management, proposes to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide PORTS with additional landfill capacity for non-hazardous and asbestos wastes. The proposed action is needed to support continued operation of PORTS, which generates non-hazardous wastes on a daily basis and asbestos wastes intermittently. Three alternatives are evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA): the proposed action (construction and operation of the X-737 landfill), no-action, and offsite shipment of industrial solid wastes for disposal.

NONE

1995-10-01

309

Waste reduction assistance program (WRAP) on-site consultation audit report: Seafood processing plant  

SciTech Connect

The waste audit study was conducted at a seafood processing plant in Alaska. The report discusses process descriptions, waste types and quantities, current waste and materials management practices, and waste reduction alternatives. The company's current practices include use of fish waste, burning of used oil and solvents, and water conservation. Additional opportunities include microfiltration of solvents and oils, recycling of used batteries, inventory control and formation of a waste reduction team. Appendices include a summary of state regulations, a fact sheet on used oil, and a list of vendors and services.

Not Available

1989-07-29

310

Potential radiological impact of tornadoes on the safety of Nuclear Fuel Services' West Valley Fuel Reprocessing Plant. 2. Reentrainment and discharge of radioactive materials  

SciTech Connect

This report describes results of a parametric study of quantities of radioactive materials that might be discharged by a tornado-generated depressurization on contaminated process cells within the presently inoperative Nuclear Fuel Services' (NFS) fuel reprocessing facility near West Valley, New York. The study involved the following tasks: determining approximate quantities of radioactive materials in the cells and characterizing particle-size distribution; estimating the degree of mass reentrainment from particle-size distribution and from air speed data presented in Part 1; and estimating the quantities of radioactive material (source term) released from the cells to the atmosphere. The study has shown that improperly sealed manipulator ports in the Process Mechanical Cell (PMC) present the most likely pathway for release of substantial quantities of radioactive material in the atmosphere under tornado accident conditions at the facility.

Davis, W. Jr.

1981-07-01

311

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Groundwater Monitoring Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a groundwater monitoring program is an integral part of any radioactive waste disposal facility. Monitoring improves our understanding of the geologic and hydrologic framework, which improves conceptual models and the quality of groundwater models that provide data input for performance assessment. The purpose of a groundwater monitoring program is to provide objective evidence that the hydrologic system is behaving as expected (i.e., performance confirmation). Monitoring should not be limited to near-field observations but should include the larger natural system in which the repository is situated. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility designed for the safe disposal of transuranic wastes resulting from U.S. defense programs, can serve as a model for other radioactive waste disposal facilities. WIPP has a long-established groundwater monitoring program that is geared towards meeting compliance certification requirements set forth by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The primary task of the program is to measure various water parameters (e.g.., water level, pressure head, chemical and physical properties) using a groundwater monitoring network that currently consists of 85 wells in the vicinity of the WIPP site. Wells are completed to a number of water-bearing horizons and are monitored on a monthly basis. In many instances, they are also instrumented with programmable pressure transducers that take high-frequency measurements that supplement the monthly measurements. Results from higher frequency measurements indicate that the hydrologic system in the WIPP vicinity is in a transient state, responding to both natural and anthropogenic stresses. The insights gathered from the monitoring, as well as from hydrologic testing activities, provide valuable information that contributes to groundwater modeling efforts and performance assessment. Sandia is a multi program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04- 94AL85000. This research is funded by WIPP programs administered by the Office of Environmental Management (EM) of the U.S Department of Energy.

Hillesheim, M. B.; Beauheim, R. L.

2006-12-01

312

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program description for high-level waste form development and qualification. Revision 3, Part 2  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project has been established to convert the high-level radioactive waste associated with nuclear defense production at the Hanford Site into a waste form suitable for disposal in a deep geologic repository. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant will mix processed radioactive waste with borosilicate material, then heat the mixture to its melting point (vitrification) to forin a glass-like substance that traps the radionuclides in the glass matrix upon cooling. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program has been established to support the mission of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant. This Quality Assurance Program Description has been written to document the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program.

Not Available

1993-08-01

313

Safety Evaluation for Hull Waste Treatment Process in JNC  

SciTech Connect

Hull wastes and some scrapped equipment are typical radioactive wastes generated from reprocessing process in Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP). Because hulls are the wastes remained in the fuel shearing and dissolution, they contain high radioactivity. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has started the project of Hull Waste Treatment Facility (HWTF) to treat these solid wastes using compaction and incineration methods since 1993. It is said that Zircaloy fines generated from compaction process might burn and explode intensely. Therefore explosive conditions of the fines generated in compaction process were measured. As these results, it was concluded that the fines generated from the compaction process were not hazardous material. This paper describes the outline of the treatment process of hulls and results of safety evaluation.

Kojima, H.; Kurakata, K.

2002-02-26

314

Noble gas atmospheric monitoring at reprocessing facilities  

SciTech Connect

The discovery in Iraq after the Gulf War of the existence of a large clandestine nuclear-weapon program has led to an across-the-board international effort, dubbed Programme 93+2, to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. One particularly significant potential change is the introduction of environmental monitoring (EM) techniques as an adjunct to traditional safeguards methods. Monitoring of stable noble gas (Kr, Xe) isotopic abundances at reprocessing plant stacks appears to be able to yield information on the burnup and type of the fuel being processed. To estimate the size of these signals, model calculations of the production of stable Kr, Xe nuclides in reactor fuel and the subsequent dilution of these nuclides in the plant stack are carried out for two case studies: reprocessing of PWR fuel with a burnup of 35 GWd/tU, and reprocessing of CAND fuel with a burnup of 1 GWd/tU. For each case, a maximum-likelihood analysis is used to determine the fuel burnup and type from the isotopic data.

Nakhleh, C.W.; Perry, R.T. Jr.; Poths, J.; Stanbro, W.D.; Wilson, W.B.; Fearey, B.L.

1997-05-01

315

Cost analysis of the US spent nuclear fuel reprocessing facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Department of Energy is actively seeking ways in which to delay or obviate the need for additional nuclear waste repositories beyond Yucca Mountain. All of the realistic approaches require the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. However, the US currently lacks the infrastructure to do this and the costs of building and operating the required facilities are poorly established.

E. A. Schneider; M. R. Deinert; K. B. Cady

2009-01-01

316

Reprocessing of nonoptimally exposed holograms  

SciTech Connect

Two reprocessing techniques have been investigated that are capable of correcting the effects of nonoptimum optical density of photographic amplitude holograms recorded on Agfa-Gevaert type 10E75 plates. In some cases a reprocessed hologram will exhibit a diffraction efficiency even higher than that obtainable from a hologram exposed and processed to the optimum density. The SNR of the reprocessed holograms is much higher than that of the same holograms belached with cupric bromide. In some cases the SNR approaches the optimum value for a properly exposed amplitude hologram. Subjective image quality and resolution of reprocessed hologram reconstructins appear to be no different than for normal single-development holograms. Repeated reprocessing is feasible and in some cases desirable as a means of increasing diffraction efficiency.

Phipps, G.S.; Robertson, C.E.; Tamashiro, F.M.

1980-03-01

317

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Transuranic Waste Baseline inventory report. Volume 1. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This document provides baseline inventories of transuranic wastes for the WIPP facility. Information on waste forms, forecasting of future inventories, and waste stream originators is also provided. A diskette is provided which contains the inventory database.

NONE

1995-02-01

318

Handling of the Bottom Residues of a Nuclear Power Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following technological operations are suggested for reprocessing bottom residues from nuclear power plants: separation of radionuclides using oxidation, filtration, and selective absorption, solidification and long-term storage of secondary radioactive wastes (cement compound from filtration stage and spent sorbent in filters); concentration and obtaining dry salts from bottom residues from which radionuclides have been removed. Laboratory and stand tests have

S. A. Dmitriev; F. A. Lifanov; A. E. Savkin; C. M. Lashchenov

2000-01-01

319

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

The DOE established the Groundwater Monitoring Program (GMP) (WP 02-1) to monitor groundwater resources at WIPP. In the past, the GMP was conducted to establish background data of existing conditions of groundwater quality and quantity in the WIPP vicinity, and to develop and maintain a water quality database as required by regulation. Today the GMP is conducted consistent with 204.1.500 NMAC (New MexicoAdministrative Code), "Adoption of 40 CFR [Code of Federal Regulations] Part 264,"specifically 40 CFR §264.90 through §264.101. These sections of 20.4.1 NMAC provide guidance for detection monitoring of groundwater that is, or could be, affected by waste management activities at WIPP. Detection monitoring at WIPP is designed to detect contaminants in the groundwater long before the general population is exposed. Early detection will allow cleanup efforts to be accomplished before any exposure to the general population can occur. Title 40 CFR Part 264, Subpart F, stipulates minimum requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §6901 et seq.) (RCRA) groundwater monitoring programs including the number and location of monitoring wells; sampling and reporting schedules; analytical methods and accuracy requirements; monitoring parameters; and statistical treatment of monitoring data. This document outlines how WIPP intends to protect and preserve groundwater within the WIPP Land Withdrawal Area (WLWA). Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. An overview of the entire environmental protection effort can be found in DOE/WIPP 99-2194, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan. The WIPP GMP is designed to statistically determine if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will then be determined and the appropriate corrective action(s) initiated.

Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

2005-07-01

320

Probability of failure of the waste hoist brake system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)  

SciTech Connect

In its most recent report on the annual probability of failure of the waste hoist brake system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the annual failure rate is calculated to be 1.3E({minus}7)(1/yr), rounded off from 1.32E({minus}7). A calculation by the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) produces a result that is about 4% higher, namely 1.37E({minus}7)(1/yr). The difference is due to a minor error in the US Department of Energy (DOE) calculations in the Westinghouse 1996 report. WIPP`s hoist safety relies on a braking system consisting of a number of components including two crucial valves. The failure rate of the system needs to be recalculated periodically to accommodate new information on component failure, changes in maintenance and inspection schedules, occasional incidents such as a hoist traveling out-of-control, either up or down, and changes in the design of the brake system. This report examines DOE`s last two reports on the redesigned waste hoist system. In its calculations, the DOE has accepted one EEG recommendation and is using more current information about the component failures rates, the Nonelectronic Parts Reliability Data (NPRD). However, the DOE calculations fail to include the data uncertainties which are described in detail in the NPRD reports. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission recommended that a system evaluation include mean estimates of component failure rates and take into account the potential uncertainties that exist so that an estimate can be made on the confidence level to be ascribed to the quantitative results. EEG has made this suggestion previously and the DOE has indicated why it does not accept the NRC recommendation. Hence, this EEG report illustrates the importance of including data uncertainty using a simple statistical example.

Greenfield, M.A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Sargent, T.J. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)]|[Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Hoover Institution

1998-01-01

321

AIR DISPERSION MODELING AT THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT  

SciTech Connect

One concern at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the amount of alpha-emitting radionuclides or hazardous chemicals that can become airborne at the facility and reach the Exclusive Use Area boundary as the result of a release from the Waste Handling Building (WHB) or from the underground during waste emplacement operations. The WIPP Safety Analysis Report (SAR), WIPP RCRA Permit, and WIPP Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessments include air dispersion calculations to address this issue. Meteorological conditions at the WIPP facility will dictate direction, speed, and dilution of a contaminant plume of respirable material due to chronic releases or during an accident. Due to the paucity of meteorological information at the WIPP site prior to September 1996, the Department of Energy (DOE) reports had to rely largely on unqualified climatic data from the site and neighboring Carlsbad, which is situated approximately 40 km (26 miles) to the west of the site. This report examines the validity of the DOE air dispersion calculations using new meteorological data measured and collected at the WIPP site since September 1996. The air dispersion calculations in this report include both chronic and acute releases. Chronic release calculations were conducted with the EPA-approved code, CAP88PC and the calculations showed that in order for a violation of 40 CFR61 (NESHAPS) to occur, approximately 15 mCi/yr of 239Pu would have to be released from the exhaust stack or from the WHB. This is an extremely high value. Hence, it is unlikely that NESHAPS would be violated. A site-specific air dispersion coefficient was evaluated for comparison with that used in acute dose calculations. The calculations presented in Section 3.2 and 3.3 show that one could expect a slightly less dispersive plume (larger air dispersion coefficient) given greater confidence in the meteorological data, i.e. 95% worst case meteorological conditions. Calculations show that dispersion will decrease slightly if a more stable wind class is assumed, where very little vertical mixing occurs. It is recommended that previous reports which used fixed values for calculating the air dispersion coefficient be updated to reflect the new meteorological data, such as the WIPP Safety Analysis Report and the WIPP Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment. It is also recommended that uncertainty be incorporated into the calculations so that a more meaningful assessment of risk during accidents can be achieved.

Rucker, D.F.

2000-08-01

322

Potential radiological impact of tornadoes on the safety of Nuclear Fuel Services' West Valley Fuel Reprocessing Plant. Volume I. Tornado effects on head-end cell airflow  

SciTech Connect

This report describes results of a parametric study of the impacts of a tornado-generated depressurization on airflow in the contaminated process cells within the presently inoperative Nuclear Fuel Services fuel reprocessing facility near West Valley, NY. The study involved the following tasks: (1) mathematical modeling of installed ventilation and abnormal exhaust pathways from the cells and prediction of tornado-induced airflows in these pathways; (2) mathematical modeling of individual cell flow characteristics and prediction of in-cell velocities induced by flows from step 1; and (3) evaluation of the results of steps 1 and 2 to determine whether any of the pathways investigated have the potential for releasing quantities of radioactively contaminated air from the main process cells. The study has concluded that in the event of a tornado strike, certain pathways from the cells have the potential to release radioactive materials of the atmosphere. Determination of the quantities of radioactive material released from the cells through pathways identified in step 3 is presented in Part II of this report.

Holloway, L.J.; Andrae, R.W.

1981-09-01

323

Computer simulated plant design for waste minimization\\/pollution prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The book discusses several paths to pollution prevention and waste minimization by using computer simulation programs. It explains new computer technologies used in the field of pollution prevention and waste management; provides information pertaining to overcoming technical, economic, and environmental barriers to waste reduction; gives case-studies from industries; and covers computer aided flow sheet design and analysis for nuclear fuel

Bumble

2000-01-01

324

WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: A CLASS 8 TRUCK ASSEMBLY PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has developed a systematic approach to identify and implement options to reduce or eliminate hazardous waste. he approach is presented in a report entitled, "Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual" (EPA/625/7-88/O03). his report describes the application of the wast...

325

WASTE MINIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: A CLASS 8 TRUCK ASSEMBLY PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has developed a systematic approach to identify and implement options to reduce or eliminate hazardous waste. he approach is presented in a report entitled, "Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual" (EPA/625/7-88/O03). his report describes the application of the wast...

326

National Perspective on Waste Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sources of nuclear wastes are listed and the quantities of these wastes per year are given. Methods of processing and disposing of mining and milling wastes, low-level wastes, decommissioning wastes, high-level wastes, reprocessing wastes, spent fuels, an...

J. L. Crandall

1980-01-01

327

Codigestion of manure and industrial organic waste at centralized biogas plants: process imbalances and limitations.  

PubMed

The present study focuses on process imbalances in Danish centralized biogas plants treating manure in combination with industrial waste. Collection of process data from various full-scale plants along with a number of interviews showed that imbalances occur frequently. High concentrations of ammonia or long chain fatty acids is in most cases expected to be the cause of microbial inhibitions/imbalances while foaming in the prestorage tanks and digesters is the most important practical process problem at the plants. A correlation between increased residual biogas production (suboptimal process conditions) and high fractions of industrial waste in the feedstock was also observed. The process imbalances and suboptimal conditions are mainly allowed to occur due to 1) inadequate knowledge about the waste composition, 2) inadequate knowledge about the waste degradation characteristics, 3) inadequate process surveillance, especially with regard to volatile fatty acids, and 4) insufficient pre-storage capacity causing inexpedient mixing and hindering exact dosing of the different waste products. PMID:18957768

Nielsen, H B; Angelidaki, I

2008-01-01

328

Characterisation and Evaluation of Wastes for Treatment in the Batch Pyrolysis Plant in Studsvik, Sweden - 13586  

SciTech Connect

The new batch pyrolysis plant in Studsvik is built primarily for treatment of uranium containing dry active waste, 'DAW'. Several other waste types have been identified that are considered or assumed suitable for treatment in the pyrolysis plant because of the possibility to carefully control the atmosphere and temperature of the thermal treatment. These waste types must be characterised and an evaluation must be made with a BAT perspective. Studsvik have performed or plan to perform lab scale pyrolysis tests on a number of different waste types. These include: - Pyrophoric materials (uranium shavings), - Uranium chemicals that must be oxidised prior to being deposited in repository, - Sludges and oil soaks (this category includes NORM-materials), - Ion exchange resins (both 'free' and solidified/stabilised), - Bitumen solidified waste. Methodology and assessment criteria for various waste types, together with results obtained for the lab scale tests that have been performed, are described. (authors)

Lindberg, Maria; Oesterberg, Carl; Vernersson, Thomas [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Studsvik Nuclear AB, 611 82 Nykoeping (Sweden)] [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Studsvik Nuclear AB, 611 82 Nykoeping (Sweden)

2013-07-01

329

Detection, Composition and Treatment of Volatile Organic Compounds from Waste Treatment Plants  

PubMed Central

Environmental policies at the European and global level support the diversion of wastes from landfills for their treatment in different facilities. Organic waste is mainly treated or valorized through composting, anaerobic digestion or a combination of both treatments. Thus, there are an increasing number of waste treatment plants using this type of biological treatment. During waste handling and biological decomposition steps a number of gaseous compounds are generated or removed from the organic matrix and emitted. Different families of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) can be found in these emissions. Many of these compounds are also sources of odor nuisance. In fact, odors are the main source of complaints and social impacts of any waste treatment plant. This work presents a summary of the main types of VOC emitted in organic waste treatment facilities and the methods used to detect and quantify these compounds, together with the treatment methods applied to gaseous emissions commonly used in composting and anaerobic digestion facilities.

Font, Xavier; Artola, Adriana; Sanchez, Antoni

2011-01-01

330

Analysis of the factors that impact the reliability of high level waste canister materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis encompassed identification and analysis of potential threats to canister integrity arising in the course of waste solidification, interim storage at the fuels reprocessing plant, wet and dry shipment, and geologic storage. Fabrication techniques and quality assurance requirements necessary to insure optimum canister reliability were considered taking into account such factors as welding procedure, surface preparation, stress relief, remote

W. K. Boyd; A. M. Hall

1977-01-01

331

Evaluation of concrete as a matrix for solidification of Savannah River Plant waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of concrete as a matrix for solidification of Savannah River Plant (SRP) high-level radioactive wastes were studied. In an experimental, laboratory-scale program, concrete specimens were prepared and evaluated with both simulated and actual SRP waste sludges. Properties of concrete were found adequate for fixation of SRP wastes. Procedures were developed for preparation of simulated sludges and concrete-sludge castings.

1977-01-01

332

Municipal Waste Water as a Source of Cooling Water for California Electric Power Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses sources of municipal waste water for potential use as cooling water in California power plants. It notes the major factors which affect this practice. Municipal treatment facilities in California with discharge volumes deemed adequat...

T. MacDonald

1980-01-01

333

History of geophysical studies at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), southeastern New Mexico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A variety of geophysical methods including the spectrum of seismic, electrical, electromagnetic and potential field techniques have supported characterization, monitoring and experimental studies at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The geophysical ...

D. J. Borns

1997-01-01

334

Volatilization from Borosilicate Glass Melts of Simulated Savannah River Plant Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Laboratory scale studies determined the rates at which the semivolatile components sodium, boron, lithium, cesium, and ruthenium volatilized from borosilicate glass melts that contained simulated Savannah River Plant waste sludge. Sodium and boric oxides ...

G. W. Wilds

1978-01-01

335

Foaming in Hanford River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant LAW Evaporation Processes - FY01 Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The LAW evaporation processes currently being designed for the Hanford River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant are subject to foaming. Experimental simulant studies have been conducted in an effort to achieve an effective antifoam agent suitable to mitigate such foaming.

Calloway, T.B.

2002-07-23

336

Site-Specific Seismic Site Response Model for the Waste Treatment Plant, Hanford, Washington  

SciTech Connect

This interim report documents the collection of site-specific geologic and geophysical data characterizing the Waste Treatment Plant site and the modeling of the site-specific structure response to earthquake ground motions.

Rohay, Alan C.; Reidel, Steve P.

2005-02-24

337

Characterization and environmental studies on anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes: Pompano Beach plant. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this program is to evaluate and verify the technical and economical feasibiilty of the solid waste to methane fermentation process. Since anaerobic fermentation of solid waste materials has not been demonstrated on a large scale, there is a definite risk factor that the system will not perform as current research suggests. The proof of concept plant was

S. Sengupta; K. F. V. Wong; N. Nemerow; M. Strietfeld; R. Narasimhan; A. Tilles

1983-01-01

338

An overview of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory waste-handling and packaging plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Waste-Handling and Packaging Plant (WHPP) has been proposed as a fiscal year (FY) 1993 capital line-item project to be built at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The mission of this project is to retrieve, receive, repackage, certify, and ship remotely handled (RH) and special case transuranic (TRU) waste. Approximately 90% of the inventory of RH TRU stored at

D. W. Turner; R. S. Stewart; J. W. Moore

1989-01-01

339

Elimination of Pollutants by Utilization of Egg Breaking Plant Shell-Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Egg breaking plants yield an estimated 50,000 tons of waste annually. These wastes are commonly disposed of on land. This method of disposal is becoming more difficult due to the potential for pollution of local water resources. A triple pass rotary drum ...

J. M. Vandepopuliere H. V. Walton W. Jaynes O. J. Cotterill

1978-01-01

340

A novel composting process for plant wastes in Taiwan military barracks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Military barracks throughout Taiwan produce large quantities of organic wastes from gardening, such as leaves, grass and flowers. By manipulating and observing the related parameters of the windrow composting process, the study seeks to find an optimum treatment method for plant wastes. Mature compost was used in small amounts as a fermenting source for each experimental sample. Results show that

Hua-Shan Tai; Wei-Hsiung He

2007-01-01

341

A study of commercial thermoelectric generation in a processing plant of combustible solid waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the applicability of a commercially available thermoelectric generator for waste heat recovery in a processing plant of combustible solid waste. Oil heat transfer medium is utilized for heating the commercially available thermoelectric generator employed in this study so that the generator can be operated at a much lower pressure than that using water. Low pressure operation is

A. Tsuyoshi; S. Kagawa; M. Sakamoto; K. Matsuura

1997-01-01

342

Test container design/fabrication/function for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant gas generation experiment glovebox.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The gas generation experiments (GGE) are being conducted at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL0W) with contact handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The purpose of the GGE is to...

C. J. Knight N. E. Russell W. W. Benjamin K. E. Rosenberg J. A. Michelbacher

1997-01-01

343

Plan for Solidification of Savannah River Plant High-Level Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The plan for the long-term management of Savannah River Plant high-level waste, now stored as alkaline salt and sludge in large underground tanks, is to convert this waste to a high integrity solid for shipment to a Federal repository. The reference proce...

A. S. Jennings

1977-01-01

344

Examples of technical innovations in rock property measurements prompted by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) planned repository for transuranic waste generated by defense programs. The WIPP repository 660 meters underground in bedded salt. Bedded salt was chosen for the repository be...

T. L. Christian-Frear

1997-01-01

345

Equipment evaluation for low density polyethylene encapsulated nitrate salt waste at the Rocky Flats Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) are subject to regulation by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Polymer solidification is being developed as a final treatment technology for several of these mixed wastes, including nitrate salts. Encapsulation nitrate salts with low density polyethylene (LDPE) has been the preliminary focus of the RFP polymer solidification effort. Literature reviews,

W. I. Yamada; A. M. Faucette; R. C. Jantzen; B. W. Logsdon; J. H. Oldham; D. M. Saiki; R. J. Yudnich

1993-01-01

346

Solid-waste incineration at Lima Army Tank Plant, OH. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the shortage of landfill space for solid waste disposal and the escalating cost of using commercial landfills, Lima Army Tank Plant, OH, asked the U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (USACERL) to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of burning shredded wood and waste paper in an existing coal-fired boiler. The Life Cycle Cost in Design (LCCID) computer

1992-01-01

347

Native Plant Uptake Model for Radioactive Waste Disposal Areas at the Nevada Test Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report defines and defends the basic framework, methodology, and associated input parameters for modeling plant uptake of radionuclides for use in Performance Assessment (PA) activities of Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). PAs are used to help determine whether waste disposal configurations meet applicable regulatory standards for the protection of human health, the environment,

THERESA J. BROWN; SHARON WIRTH

1999-01-01

348

40 CFR 62.15035 - Is my small municipal waste combustion unit subject to different requirements based on plant...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...subject to different requirements based on plant capacity? 62.15035 Section 62...subject to different requirements based on plant capacity? This subpart specifies...capacity of the municipal waste combustion plant as defined in paragraphs (a) and...

2013-07-01

349

Vitrification of HLW Produced by Uranium/Molybdenum Fuel Reprocessing in COGEMA's Cold Crucible Melter  

SciTech Connect

The performance of the vitrification process currently used in the La Hague commercial reprocessing plants has been continuously improved during more than ten years of operation. In parallel COGEMA (industrial Operator), the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and SGN (respectively COGEMA's R&D provider and Engineering) have developed the cold crucible melter vitrification technology to obtain greater operating flexibility, increased plant availability and further reduction of secondary waste generated during operations. The cold crucible is a compact water-cooled melter in which the radioactive waste and the glass additives are melted by direct high frequency induction. The cooling of the melter produces a solidified glass layer that protects the melter's inner wall from corrosion. Because the heat is transferred directly to the melt, high operating temperatures can be achieved with no impact on the melter itself. COGEMA plans to implement the cold crucible technology to vitrify high level liquid waste from reprocessed spent U-Mo-Sn-Al fuel (used in gas cooled reactor). The cold crucible was selected for the vitrification of this particularly hard-to-process waste stream because it could not be reasonably processed in the standard hot induction melters currently used at the La Hague vitrification facilities : the waste has a high molybdenum content which makes it very corrosive and also requires a special high temperature glass formulation to obtain sufficiently high waste loading factors (12 % in molybdenum). A special glass formulation has been developed by the CEA and has been qualified through lab and pilot testing to meet standard waste acceptance criteria for final disposal of the U-Mo waste. The process and the associated technologies have been also being qualified on a full-scale prototype at the CEA pilot facility in Marcoule. Engineering study has been integrated in parallel in order to take into account that the Cold Crucible should be installed remotely in one of the R7 vitrification cell. This paper will present the results obtained in the framework of these qualification programs.

Do Quang, R.; Petitjean, V.; Hollebecque, F.; Pinet, O.; Flament, T.; Prod'homme, A.

2003-02-25

350

Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 3: Appendix BIR Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic Waste Baseline Inventory Report (WTWBIR) establishes a methodology for grouping wastes of similar physical and chemical properties, from across the US Department of Energy (DOE) transuranic (TRU) waste system, into a series of ``waste profiles`` that can be used as the basis for waste form discussions with regulatory agencies. The majority of this document reports TRU waste inventories of DOE defense sites. An appendix is included which provides estimates of commercial TRU waste from the West Valley Demonstration Project. The WIPP baseline inventory is estimated using waste streams identified by the DOE TRU waste generator/storage sites, supplemented by information from the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR) and the 1994 Integrated Data Base (IDB). The sites provided and/or authorized all information in the Waste Stream Profiles except the EPA (hazardous waste) codes for the mixed inventories. These codes were taken from the MWIR (if a WTWBIR mixed waste stream was not in MWIR, the sites were consulted). The IDB was used to generate the WIPP radionuclide inventory. Each waste stream is defined in a waste stream profile and has been assigned a waste matrix code (WMC) by the DOE TRU waste generator/storage site. Waste stream profiles with WMCs that have similar physical and chemical properties can be combined into a waste matrix code group (WMCG), which is then documented in a site-specific waste profile for each TRU waste generator/storage site that contains waste streams in that particular WMCG.

NONE

1995-03-31

351

An overview of the waste handling and packaging plant, a major processing facility for remote-handled transuranic waste  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Handling and Packaging Plant (WHPP) is a FY 1991 line item project proposed for construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The purpose of the facility is to receive, package, certify and ship remote-handled (RH) and special case (SC) transuranic (TRU) waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The scope of the facility includes the mobilization of liquids and sludges from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks, transport of these liquids and sludges to the WHPP, solidification to a certifiable waste form, and final packaging and shipment to WIPP. Various solid hot cell wastes will be received at the WHPP from storage at ORNL and from other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The solid wastes will be removed from the storage or shipping container, examined, processed as required, certified and packaged for shipment to WIPP. All packages coming from the processing cell will be in 55 gallon drums, and the facility will have the capability to load these directly into a shielded drum shipping cask, or to load these into the RH TRU canister for remote welding and shipment to WIPP using the RH TRU canister cask. 4 figs.

Turner, D.W.; Stewart, R.C.; du Mont, S.P.

1988-01-01

352

Operating limit study for the proposed solid waste landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant  

SciTech Connect

A proposed solid waste landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) would accept wastes generated during normal operations that are identified as non-radioactive. These wastes may include small amounts of radioactive material from incidental contamination during plant operations. A site-specific analysis of the new solid waste landfill is presented to determine a proposed operating limit that will allow for waste disposal operations to occur such that protection of public health and the environment from the presence of incidentally contaminated waste materials can be assured. Performance objectives for disposal were defined from existing regulatory guidance to establish reasonable dose limits for protection of public health and the environment. Waste concentration limits were determined consistent with these performance objectives for the protection of off-site individuals and inadvertent intruders who might be directly exposed to disposed wastes. Exposures of off-site individuals were estimated using a conservative, site-specific model of the groundwater transport of contamination from the wastes. Direct intrusion was analyzed using an agricultural homesteader scenario. The most limiting concentrations from direct intrusion or groundwater transport were used to establish the concentration limits for radionuclides likely to be present in PGDP wastes.

Lee, D.W.; Wang, J.C.; Kocher, D.C.

1995-06-01

353

Cement-based waste forms for disposal of Savannah River Plant low-level radioactive salt waste  

SciTech Connect

Defense waste processing at the Savannah River Plant will include decontamination and disposal of approximately 100 million liters of soluble salts containing primarily NaNO/sub 3/, NaOH, NaNO/sub 2/, NaAl(OH)/sub 4/, and Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. A cement-based waste form, saltstone, has been designed for disposal of Savannah River Plant low-level radioactive salt waste. Bulk properties of this material have been tailored with respect to salt leach rate, permeability, and compressive strength. Microstructure and mineralogy of leached and unleached specimens were characterized by SEM and x-ray diffraction analyses, respectively. It has been concluded that the salt leach rate can be limited so that amounts of salt and radionuclides in the groundwater at the perimeter of the 100-acre disposal site will not exceed EPA drinking water standards. 7 references, 4 figures, 6 tables.

Langton, C A; Dukes, M D; Simmons, R V

1983-01-01

354

Optimization of Biological Recycling of Plant Nutrients in Livestock Waste by Utilizing Waste Heat from Cooling Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results are presented from a 5-year study to develop aquatic methods which beneficially use condenser cooling water from electric generating power plants. A method is proposed which uses a system for aquatic farming. Livestock waste is used to fertilize p...

J. J. Maddox L. L. Behrends D. W. Burch J. B. Kingsley E. L. Waddell

1982-01-01

355

Spent fuel reprocessing: A vital link in Indian nuclear power program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of the three stage Indian nuclear energy program is inter-linked with the establishment of an efficient closed fuel cycle approach with recycling of both fissile and fertile components of the spent fuel to appropriate reactor systems. The Indian reprocessing journey was started way back in 1964 with the commissioning of a plant based on PUREX technology to reprocess

P. K. Dey; N. K. Bansal

2006-01-01

356

Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes  

SciTech Connect

In 2006, DOE-ORP initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct Vs measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) confirmation of the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the corehole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt was also penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of movement and less than 15 feet of repeated section. Most of the movement on the fault appears to have occurred before the youngest lava flow, the 10.5 million year old Elephant Mountain Member was emplaced above the Pomona Member.

Barnett, D. BRENT; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Fecht, Karl R.; Lanigan, David C.; Reidel, Steve; Rust, Colleen F.

2007-02-28

357

Nuclear waste-form risk assessment for US Defense waste at Savannah River Plant. Annual report FY 1981  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River Plant has been supporting the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in its present effort to perform risk assessments of alternative waste forms for defense waste. This effort relates to choosing a suitable combination of solid form and geologic medium on the basis of risk of exposure to future generations; therefore, the focus is on post-closure considerations of deep geologic repositories. The waste forms being investigated include borosilicate glass, SYNROC, and others. Geologic media under consideration are bedded salt, basalt, and tuff. The results of our work during FY 1981 are presented in this, our second annual report. The two complementary tasks that comprise our program, analysis of waste-form dissolution and risk assessment, are described.

Cheung, H.; Edwards, L.L.; Harvey, T.F.; Jackson, D.D.; Revelli, M.A.

1981-12-01

358

Process description and plant design for preparing ceramic high-level waste forms  

SciTech Connect

The ceramics process flow diagram has been simplified and upgraded to utilize only two major processing steps - fluid-bed calcination and hot isostatic press consolidating. Full-scale fluid-bed calcination has been used at INEL to calcine high-level waste for 18 y; and a second-generation calciner, a fully remotely operated and maintained calciner that meets ALARA guidelines, started calcining high-level waste in 1982. Full-scale hot isostatic consolidation has been used by DOE and commercial enterprises to consolidate radioactive components and to encapsulate spent fuel elements for several years. With further development aimed at process integration and parametric optimization, the operating knowledge of full-scale demonstration of the key process steps should be rapidly adaptable to scale-up of the ceramic process to full plant size. Process flowsheets used to prepare ceramic and glass waste forms from defense and commercial high-level liquid waste are described. Preliminary layouts of process flow diagrams in a high-level processing canyon were prepared and used to estimate the preliminary cost of the plant to fabricate both waste forms. The estimated costs for using both options were compared for total waste management costs of SRP high-level liquid waste. Using our design, for both the ceramic and glass plant, capital and operating costs are essentially the same for both defense and commercial wastes, but total waste management costs are calculated to be significantly less for defense wastes using the ceramic option. It is concluded from this and other studies that the ceramic form may offer important advantages over glass in leach resistance, waste loading, density, and process flexibility. Preliminary economic calculations indicate that ceramics must be considered a leading candidate for the form to immobilize high-level wastes.

Grantham, L.F.; McKisson, R.L.; Guon, J.; Flintoff, J.F.; McKenzie, D.E.

1983-02-25

359

Critique of Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant off-gas sampling requirements  

SciTech Connect

Off-gas sampling and monitoring activities needed to support operations safety, process control, waste form qualification, and environmental protection requirements of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) have been evaluated. The locations of necessary sampling sites have been identified on the basis of plant requirements, and the applicability of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) reference sampling equipment to these HWVP requirements has been assessed for all sampling sites. Equipment deficiencies, if present, have been described and the bases for modifications and/or alternative approaches have been developed.

Goles, R.W.

1996-03-01

360

Nuclear waste form risk assessment for US defense waste at Savannah River Plant. Annual report fiscal year 1980  

SciTech Connect

Waste form dissolution studies and preliminary performance analyses were carried out to contribute a part of the data needed for the selection of a waste form for the disposal of Savannah River Plant defense waste in a deep geologic repository. The first portion of this work provides descriptions of the chemical interactions between the waste form and the geologic environment. We reviewed critically the dissolution/leaching data for borosilicate glass and SYNROC. Both chemical kinetic and thermodynamic models were developed to describe the dissolution process of these candidate waste forms so as to establish a fundamental basis for interpretation of experimental data and to provide directions for future experiments. The complementary second portion of this work is an assessment of the impacts of alternate waste forms upon the consequences of disposal in various proposed geological media. Employing systems analysis methodology, we began to evaluate the performance of a generic waste form for the case of a high risk scenario for a bedded salt repository. Results of sensitivity analysis, uncertainty analyses, and sensitivity to uncertainty analysis are presented.

Cheung, H.; Jackson, D.D.; Revelli, M.A.

1981-07-01

361

Development of Ceramic Waste Forms for High-Level Nuclear Waste Over the Last 30 Years  

SciTech Connect

Many types of ceramics have been put forward for immobilisation of high-level waste (HLW) from reprocessing of nuclear power plant fuel or weapons production. After describing some historical aspects of waste form research, the essential features of the chemical design and processing of these different ceramic types will be discussed briefly. Given acceptable laboratory and long-term predicted performance based on appropriately rigorous chemical design, the important processing parameters are mostly waste loading, waste throughput, footprint, offgas control/minimization, and the need for secondary waste treatment. It is concluded that the 'problem of high-level nuclear waste' is largely solved from a technical point of view, within the current regulatory framework, and that the main remaining question is which technical disposition method is optimum for a given waste. (author)

Vance, Eric [Institute of Materials and Engineering Science, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, New Illawarra Road, Menai, NSW, 2234 (Australia)

2007-07-01

362

Geopolymerisation of silt generated from construction and demolition waste washing plants.  

PubMed

Recycling plants that size, sort and wash construction and demolition waste can produce high quality aggregate. However, they also produce up to 80ton per hour of filter cake waste containing fine (<63mum) silt particles that is classified as inert waste and normally landfilled. This research investigated the potential to form geopolymers containing silt, which would allow this problematic waste to be beneficially reused as aggregate. This would significantly improve the economic viability of recycling plants that wash wastes. Silt filter cakes have been collected from a number of aggregate washing plants operating in the UK. These were found to contain similar aluminosilicate crystalline phases. Geopolymer samples were produced using silt and silt mixed with either metakaolin or pulverised fuel ash (PFA). Silt geopolymers cured at room temperature had average 7-day compressive strengths of 18.7MPa, while partial substitution of silt by metakaolin or PFA increased average compressive strengths to 30.5 and 21.9MPa, respectively. Curing specimens for 24h at 105 degrees C resulted in a compressive strength of 39.7MPa and microstructural analysis confirmed the formation of dense materials. These strengths are in excess of those required for materials to be used as aggregate, particularly in unbound applications. The implications of this research for the management of waste silt at construction and demolition waste washing plants are discussed. PMID:18579370

Lampris, C; Lupo, R; Cheeseman, C R

2009-01-01

363

Two Legionnaires' disease cases associated with industrial waste water treatment plants: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Finnish and Swedish waste water systems used by the forest industry were found to be exceptionally heavily contaminated with legionellae in 2005. Case presentation We report two cases of severe pneumonia in employees working at two separate mills in Finland in 2006. Legionella serological and urinary antigen tests were used to diagnose Legionnaires' disease in the symptomatic employees, who had worked at, or close to, waste water treatment plants. Since the findings indicated a Legionella infection, the waste water and home water systems were studied in more detail. The antibody response and Legionella urinary antigen finding of Case A indicated that the infection had been caused by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. Case A had been exposed to legionellae while installing a pump into a post-clarification basin at the waste water treatment plant of mill A. Both the water and sludge in the basin contained high concentrations of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, in addition to serogroups 3 and 13. Case B was working 200 meters downwind from a waste water treatment plant, which had an active sludge basin and cooling towers. The antibody response indicated that his disease was due to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 2. The cooling tower was the only site at the waste water treatment plant yielding that serogroup, though water in the active sludge basin yielded abundant growth of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 5 and Legionella rubrilucens. Both workers recovered from the disease. Conclusion These are the first reported cases of Legionnaires' disease in Finland associated with industrial waste water systems.

2010-01-01

364

Waste salt disposal at the Savannah River Plant. [Saltstone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste salt solution, produced during processing of high-level nuclear waste, will be incorporated in a cement matrix for emplacement in an engineered disposal facility. Wasteform characteristics and disposal facility details will be presented along with results of a field test of wasteform contaminant release and of modeling studies to predict releases. 5 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

C. A. Langton; S. B. Oblath; D. W. Pepper; E. L. Wilhite

1986-01-01

365

Compliance status report for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the disposition of transuranic (TRU) waste generated through national defense-related activities. Approximately 53,700 m(sup 2) of these wastes have been generated and are currently stored at government...

1994-01-01

366

Vermicomposting of milk processing industry sludge spiked with plant wastes.  

PubMed

This work illustrates the vermistabilization of wastewater sludge from a milk processing industry (MPIS) unit spiked with cow dung (CD), sugarcane trash (ST) and wheat straw (WS) employing earthworms Eisenia fetida. A total of nine experimental vermibeds were established and changes in chemical parameters of waste material have been observed for 90 days. Vermistabilization caused significant reduction in pH, organic carbon and C:N ratio and substantial increase in total N, available P and exchangeable K. The waste mixture containing MPIS (60%)+CD (10%)+ST (30%) and MPIS (60%)+CD (10%)+WS (30%) had better waste mineralization rate among waste mixtures studied. The earthworm showed better biomass and cocoon numbers in all vermibeds during vermicomposting operation. Results, thus suggest the suitability of E. fetida for conversion of noxious industrial waste into value-added product for land restoration programme. PMID:22609678

Suthar, Surindra; Mutiyar, Pravin K; Singh, Sushma

2012-07-01

367

State of the art review of radioactive waste volume reduction techniques for commercial nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

A review is made of the state of the art of volume reduction techniques for low level liquid and solid radioactive wastes produced as a result of: (1) operation of commercial nuclear power plants, (2) storage of spent fuel in away-from-reactor facilities, and (3) decontamination/decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants. The types of wastes and their chemical, physical, and radiological characteristics are identified. Methods used by industry for processing radioactive wastes are reviewed and compared to the new techniques for processing and reducing the volume of radioactive wastes. A detailed system description and report on operating experiences follow for each of the new volume reduction techniques. In addition, descriptions of volume reduction methods presently under development are provided. The Appendix records data collected during site surveys of vendor facilities and operating power plants. A Bibliography is provided for each of the various volume reduction techniques discussed in the report.

Not Available

1980-04-01

368

Impact of imidacloprid residues on the development of Eisenia fetida during vermicomposting of greenhouse plant waste.  

PubMed

Pesticide application in agriculture causes residues in post-harvest plant waste at different concentrations. Knowledge concerning how pesticide concentrations in such waste affect earthworms is essential for recycling greenhouse plant debris through vermicomposting. Here, we have evaluated the effects of imidacloprid (IMD) residues on earthworms (Eisenia fetida) during the vermicomposting of plant waste from greenhouse crops in Spain. Before, the effect of different IMD concentrations on earthworms was tested using cattle manure as an optimum waste for worm development. The results after using cattle manure indicate that IMD dose ? 5 mg kg(-1) hinders worm growth and even causes death, whereas IMD dose ? 2 mg IMD kg(-1) allows worm growth similar to control but impedes reproduction. The results from the vermicomposting of plant waste reveal that IMD inhibits adequate worm growth and increases mortality. Although 89% worms became sexually mature in substrate containing 2 mg IMD kg(-1), they did not produce cocoons. IMD also affected microorganisms harboured in the substrates for vermicomposting, as indicated by the reduction in their dehydrogenase activity. This enzyme activity was restored after vermicomposting. This study provides a sound basis for the vermicomposting of pesticide-contaminated plant waste. PMID:21775059

Fernández-Gómez, Manuel J; Romero, Esperanza; Nogales, Rogelio

2011-09-15

369

Ground-water Flow Near Two Radioactive-waste-disposal Areas at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center, Cattaraugus County, New York; Results of Flow Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two adjacent burial areas were excavated in a clay-rich till at a radioactive waste disposal site near West Valley in Cattaraugus County, N.Y.: (1) which contains mainly low-level radioactive wastes generated onsite by a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, has been in operation since 1966; and (2) which contains commercial low-level radioactive wastes, was operated during 1963-75. Groundwater below the upper

Marcel P. Bergeron; Edward F. Bugliosi

1988-01-01

370

Retrospective CMORPH Reprocessing Efforts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Climate Prediction Center morphing method (CMORPH) uses motion vectors derived from half-hourly interval geostationary satellite IR imagery to propagate the relatively high quality precipitation estimates derived from passive microwave (PMW) data to define high-resolution precipitation estimates over the globe (Joyce et al. 2004). Precipitation estimates from all available PMW sensors are merged for each 30-minute period, and calibrated to the TRMM TMI 2A12 rainfall estimates before propagation. Currently PMW precipitation estimates from nine instruments are used (TRMM TMI, AQUA AMSR-E, two DMSP SSM/I, four NOAA AMSU, and METOP-A MHS). Infrared (IR) data from five geostationary meteorological satellites are used to infer the movement of precipitation features that have been identified by the PMW information by performing spatial lag correlations on IR imagery that are 30 minutes apart in time. Essentially, the IR data are used to determine cloud motion, and that motion is applied to the PMW-derived rainfall. The shape and intensity of the PMW derived rainfall patterns are modified by "morphing". This is accomplished by doing a linear interpolation (in time) between rainfall features propagated forward in time, i.e. from the previous PMW overpass to the most current scan, and rainfall propagated backward in time, i.e. from the most current overpass to the previous scan. Currently the CMORPH archive is slightly longer than five years initiating in December 2002, corresponding to the methodology conception date. A project is underway at NOAA/CPC to extend the CMORPH satellite estimates back to 2000. PMW rainfall estimates from the NOAA-17 AMSU and AQUA AMSR-E are available from mid-2002, NOAA-16 AMSU from late 2000, NOAA-15 AMSU from early 2000, DMSP-15 SSMI since late 1999, TRMM TMI since December 1997, DMSP-14 since mid-1997, and DMSP-13 since mid-1995. Thus while PMW sampling previous to the December 2002 CMORPH inception is sparse relative to the current PMW constellation, there is enough to retrospectively reprocess CMORPH well beyond the current archive start. Also IR based PMW calibrated rainfall estimates will be calculated as part of the retrospective reprocessing. These estimates will be blended for times and locations that the PMW information is too old for relative accuracy. This blended method (CMORPH-IR) combines the CMORPH and IR based estimates via an error model developed by running test CMORPH processing, albeit withholding random high quality PMW estimates, and determining the error/skill of the CMORPH relative to the IR-based rainfall as a function of season, surface type, region, and age of PMW information in half hourly increments from PMW scan time. The retrospective processing will be performed for Year 2002 and proceed backward. Detailed results will be reported at the meeting.

Yarosh, Y.; Joyce, R.; Xie, P.

2008-05-01

371

Behov av investeringsbidrag till avfallskraftvaermeverk. (Need for an investment subsidy for waste cogeneration plants).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Building of new waste-fueled CHPs has been economically evaluated. Total investment cost have been calculated for plants of three different sizes, 2x15, 2x25, and 2x50 MW thermal power, respectively. The calculations show that the small plants have poor a...

O. Maardsjoe

1992-01-01

372

A primer on the rejection of waste heat from power plants. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report explains the workings and importance of cooling systems in power plants. Many of the terms used in the energy industry are defined in the chapter reviewing the basic operation of power plants. The rest of the report focuses on the cost and efficiency of various waste heat rejection systems (cooling systems), such as once-through circulating systems, cooling ponds

R. D. Mitchell; R. D. Horsak

1978-01-01

373

Physic-Chemical Characterisation of Slag Waste Coming From IGCC Thermal Power Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new Integrated Gasification in Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants produce electricity more efficiently than conventional thermal power plants, but they produce a high quantity of wastes in the form of slag and fly ashes. Nowadays, these by-products are sold as low-value secondary raw material in construction. In order to evaluate the capability of these products to be recycled, with higher

A. Acosta; M. Aineto; I. Iglesias; M. Romero; J. Ma. Rincón; S. Burgos

374

Neurotoxic effects from residential exposure to chemicals from an oil reprocessing facility and superfund site.  

PubMed

Neurotoxicity has been described in workers exposed to solvents, PCBs, certain metals, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons but not often in residents near refineries or factories. We compared the neurobehavioral performance of residents near a plant that reprocessed used motor oil and chemical waste from 1966-1983 to referents from beyond the plant's modeled air dispersal and water drainage zones. Neurophysiological and psychological tests, a Profile of Mood States (POMS) and a symptom questionnaire were administered to 131 subjects exposed at the site who were matched for age, sex, and ethnicity 2:1 with 66 unexposed subjects from 35 km away. Test scores were adjusted for a 1.4-year difference in educational attainment by coefficients from regression equations but not for income as the latter coefficients were not significant. Exposed subjects were significantly impaired for body balance (sway speed) and simple and two choice visual reaction time as compared to referents. Blink reflex latency (R-1) and eye closure speed were normal in both groups. Cognitive function in the exposed was impaired as measured by Culture Fair and by block design from the WAIS. Placing pegs in a grooved board and making of trails (A and B) were also impaired. Group differences in recall and memory were not significant. The exposed group's symptom frequencies and POMS scores for depression, anger, confusion, tension, and fatigue were elevated indicating depression. Confounding from medical and neurological disorders or occupational exposures was minimal. Subjects exposed residentially for up to 17 years to chemicals dispersed from a waste oil reprocessing plant showed neurophysiological and neuropsychological impairment. PMID:7760780

Kilburn, K H; Warshaw, R H

1995-01-01

375

Methane Production from Plant Wastes and Chicken Manure at Different Working Conditions of a One-stage Anaerobic Digester  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents laboratory scale studies on the anaerobic digestion of plant wastes using a continuously flow type vertical cylindrical biogas plant. In the first experiment, plant wastes and chicken manure mixture at a dry matter content of 12%, retention time of 30 days, and fermentation temperature of 35°C were examined (Exp. 1). In the second experiment, fermentation material was

O. Yaldiz; S. Sozer; N. Caglayan; C. Ertekin; D. Kaya

2011-01-01

376

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Title I operator dose calculations. Final report, LATA report No. 90  

SciTech Connect

The radiation exposure dose was estimated for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) operating personnel who do the unloading and transporting of the transuranic contact-handled waste. Estimates of the radiation source terms for typical TRU contact-handled waste were based on known composition and properties of the waste. The operations sequence for waste movement and storage in the repository was based upon the WIPP Title I data package. Previous calculations had been based on Conceptual Design Report data. A time and motion sequence was developed for personnel performing the waste handling operations both above and below ground. Radiation exposure calculations were then performed in several fixed geometries and folded with the time and motion studies for individual workers in order to determine worker exposure on an annual basis.

Hughes, P.S.; Rigdon, L.D.

1980-02-01

377

Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes  

SciTech Connect

In 2006, the U.S. Department of Energy initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct shear wave velocity (Vs) measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) geologic studies to confirm the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the core hole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member, and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt also was penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed, and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of movement and less than 15 ft of repeated section. Most of the movement on the fault appears to have occurred before the youngest lava flow, the 10.5-million-year-old Elephant Mountain Member, was emplaced above the Pomona Member.

Barnett, D. Brent; Fecht, Karl R.; Reidel, Stephen P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Rust, Colleen F.

2007-05-11

378

ICPP radioactive liquid and calcine waste technologies evaluation. Interim report  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage since 1951 and reprocessing since 1953. Until recently, the major activity of the ICPP has been the reprocessing of SNF to recover fissile uranium; however, changing world events have raised questions concerning the need to recover and recycle this material. In April 1992, DOE chose to discontinue reprocessing SNF for uranium recovery and shifted its focus toward the management and disposition of radioactive wastes accumulated through reprocessing activities. Currently, 1.8 million gallons of radioactive liquid wastes (1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid wastes and 0.3 million gallons of high-level liquid waste) and 3,800 cubic meters (m{sup 3}) of calcine waste are in inventory at the ICPP. Legal drivers and agreements exist obligating the INEL to develop, demonstrate, and implement technologies for safe and environmentally sound treatment and interim storage of radioactive liquid and calcine waste. Candidate treatment processes and waste forms are being evaluated using the Technology Evaluation and Analysis Methodology (TEAM) Model. This process allows decision makers to (1) identify optimum radioactive waste treatment and disposal form alternatives; (2) assess tradeoffs between various optimization criteria; (3) identify uncertainties in performance parameters; and (4) focus development efforts on options that best satisfy stakeholder concerns. The Systems Analysis technology evaluation presented in this document supports the DOE in selecting the most effective radioactive liquid and calcine waste management plan to implement in compliance with established regulations, court orders, and agreements.

Murphy, J.A.; Pincock, L.F.; Christiansen, I.N.

1994-06-01

379

Disposal of defense spent fuel and HLW from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid high-level radioactive waste (HLW) resulting from fuel reprocessing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been solidified to a calcine since 1963 and stored in stainless steel bins enclosed by concrete vaults. Several different types of unprocessed irradiated DOE-owned fuels are also in storage ate the ICPP. In April, 1992, DOE

L. F. Ermold; H. H. Loo; R. D. Klingler; J. D. Herzog; D. A. Knecht

1992-01-01

380

Can we talk? Communications management for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, a complex nuclear waste management project  

SciTech Connect

Sandia Nuclear Waste Management Program is pursuing for DOE an option for permanently disposing radioactive waste in deep geologic repositories. Included in the Program are the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project for US defense program mixed waste the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) for spent power reactor fuel and vitrified high-level waste, projects for other waste types, and development efforts in environmental decision support technologies. WIPP and YMP are in the public arena, of a controversial nature, and provide significant management challenges. Both projects have large project teams, multiple organization participants, large budgets, long durations, are very complex, have a high degree of programmatic risk, and operate in an extremely regulated environment requiring legal defensibility. For environmental projects like these to succeed, SNL`s Program is utilizing nearly all areas in PMI`s Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) to manage along multiple project dimensions such as the physical sciences (e.g., geophysics and geochemistry; performance assessment; decision analysis) management sciences (controlling the triple constraint of performance, cost and schedule), and social sciences (belief systems; public participation; institutional politics). This discussion focuses primarily on communication challenges active on WIPP. How is the WIPP team meeting the challenges of managing communications?`` and ``How are you approaching similar challenges?`` will be questions for a dialog with the audience.

Goldstein, S.A.; Pullen, G.M.; Brewer, D.R.

1995-07-01

381

Barium and Radium in Water Treatment Plant Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water treatment plants at nine locations (10 plants) in Illinois and Iowa were studied to determine the characteristics and disposal practices for the sludge, brine, and backwash water containing radium (Ra) and/or barium (Ba). The treatment processes in ...

A. G. Myers C. K. Jongeward S. K. Richter V. L. Snoeyink

1985-01-01

382

Pilot plant studies of the fluidized bed waste calcination process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were conducted in 6- and 12-in, dia. electrically heated fluidized beds and in a 24-in.-square NaK-heated bed and are being extended in the two larger units. Although exploratory studies demonstrated the feasibility of this process for stainless steel and zirconium fuel wastes, the overwhelming majority of the work was with aluminium fuel wastes. Feed rates from 5 to 150

J. A. Buckham; J. A. McBride

2008-01-01

383

BARIUM AND RADIUM IN WATER TREATMENT PLANT WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Water treatment plants at nine locations (10 plants) in Illinois and Iowa were studied to determine the characteristics and disposal practices for the sludge, brine, and backwash water containing radium (Ra) and/or barium (Ba). The treatment processes in these ten plants include ...

384

Inventories of 239+240Pu, 137Cs, and excess 210Pb in sediments from freshwater and brackish lakes in Rokkasho, Japan, adjacent to a spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant.  

PubMed

We investigated the vertical profiles of (239+240)Pu, (137)Cs, and excess (210)Pb ((210)Pb(ex)) in sediment core samples obtained from two freshwater lakes and two brackish lakes situated near the first commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Rokkasho, Japan, before the final test of the plant using actual spent nuclear fuel. The inventory of (239+240)Pu in those lakes was larger than that in soil in Rokkasho, which indicated the inflow of (239+240)Pu from the catchment area in addition to direct deposition on the lake surfaces. The (137)Cs inventory in sediments of the brackish lakes was lower than that in the soil, which showed that part of the (137)Cs was removed from the sediments by the brackish water or that it was not deposited into the sediments, because of the high solubility of Cs in brackish water. The (137)Cs inventory in sediments of the freshwater lakes was higher than that of the brackish lakes, and comparable with that in soil except for one core sample out of four. The (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs ratio in freshwater lake sediments was higher than that in soil, and that indicated that part of the (137)Cs was lost from the sediments. The low inventory of (137)Cs may be attributable to competition for absorption sites in sediments with ammonium ions formed in the reducing environment which occurs from summer to fall in the sediments. Those data will be used as background data on the artificial radionuclides in the lakes to assess the effect of released radionuclides on their concentrations. PMID:19586693

Ueda, Shinji; Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Kondo, Kunio; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

2009-10-01

385

Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Site Development Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) mission is to receive and store spent nuclear fuels and radioactive wastes for disposition for Department of Energy (DOE) in a cost-effective manner that protects the safety of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) employees, the public, and the environment by: Developing advanced technologies to process spent nuclear fuel for permanent offsite disposition and to achieve waste minimization. Receiving and storing Navy and other DOE assigned spent nuclear fuels. Managing all wastes in compliance with applicable laws and regulations. Identifying and conducting site remediation consistent with facility transition activities. Seeking out and implementing private sector technology transfer and cooperative development agreements. Prior to April 1992, the ICPP mission included fuel reprocessing. With the recent phaseout of fuel reprocessing, some parts of the ICPP mission have changed. Others have remained the same or increased in scope.

Ferguson, F.G.

1994-02-01

386

An overview of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory waste-handling and packaging plant  

SciTech Connect

The Waste-Handling and Packaging Plant (WHPP) has been proposed as a fiscal year (FY) 1993 capital line-item project to be built at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The mission of this project is to retrieve, receive, repackage, certify, and ship remotely handled (RH) and special case transuranic (TRU) waste. Approximately 90% of the inventory of RH TRU stored at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is stored at ORNL, and all of this waste requires repackaging before it can be shipped. The WHPP may also process TRU waste from other DOE sites, such as the Hanford, Washington, facilities; the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory; and the Argonne National Laboratory. The certified TRU waste would be shipped from WHPP to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) located near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The WHPP has been proposed to provide processing, packaging, and certification to the waste acceptance criteria for WIPP. All waste-handling activities will be remotely operated in shielded hot cells. Figure 1 is a conceptual design sectional view of the WHPP. A key design feature is the large double-lid transfer system for transferring the solid waste into the process cell. The RH TRU waste will require a facility qualified for alpha containment with shielding for gamma and neutron radiation doses up to 1500 rem/h. Waste will be loaded into inner containers, or liners, and then loaded into type A drums. The drums will be checked for contamination, decontaminated if necessary, and then certified as required. The certified packages will be loaded into type B shipping casks and shipped to WIPP.

Turner, D.W.; Stewart, R.S.; Moore, J.W.

1989-01-01

387

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1989  

SciTech Connect

This is the 1989 Site Environmental Report (SER) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP is a government owned and contractor-operated facility. The WIPP project is operated by Westinghouse Electric Corporation for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The mission of the WIPP is to provide a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste generated by the defense activities of the US Government. This report provides a comprehensive description of environmental activities at the WIPP during calendar year 1989. The WIPP facility will not receive waste until all concerns affecting opening the WIPP are addressed to the satisfaction of the Secretary of Energy. Therefore, this report describes the status of the preoperational activities of the Radiological Environmental Surveillance (RES) program, which are outlined in the Radiological Baseline Program for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WTSD-TME-057). 72 refs., 13 figs., 20 tabs.

Not Available

1989-01-01

388

Process waste treatment system upgrades: Clarifier startup at the nonradiological wastewater treatment plant  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Management Operations Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory recently modified the design of a reactor/clarifier at the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant, which is now referred to as the Process Waste Treatment Complex--Building 3608, to replace the sludge-blanket softener/clarifier at the Process Waste Treatment Plant, now referred to as the Process Waste Treatment Complex-Building 3544 (PWTC-3544). This work was conducted because periodic hydraulic overloads caused poor water-softening performance in the PWTC-3544 softener, which was detrimental to the performance and operating costs of downstream ion-exchange operations. Over a 2-month time frame, the modified reactor/clarifier was tested with nonradiological wastewater and then with radioactive wastewater to optimize softening performance. Based on performance to date, the new system has operated more effectively than the former one, with reduced employee radiological exposure, less downtime, lower costs, and improved effluent quality.

Lucero, A.J.; McTaggart, D.R.; Van Essen, D.C.; Kent, T.E.; West, G.D.; Taylor, P.A.

1998-07-01

389

BAR-CODE BASED WEIGHT MEASUREMENT STATION FOR PHYSICAL INVENTORY TAKING OF PLUTONIUM OXIDE CONTAINERS AT THE MINING AND CHEMICAL COMBINE RADIOCHEMICAL REPROCESSING PLANT NEAR KRASNOYARSK, SIBERIA.  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the technical tasks being implemented to computerize the physical inventory taking (PIT) at the Mining and Chemical Combine (Gorno-Khimichesky Kombinat, GKhK) radiochemical plant under the US/Russian cooperative nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) program. Under the MPC and A program, Lab-to-Lab task agreements with GKhK were negotiated that involved computerized equipment for item verification and confirmatory measurement of the Pu containers. Tasks under Phase I cover the work for demonstrating the plan and procedures for carrying out the comparison of the Pu container identification on the container with the computerized inventory records. In addition to the records validation, the verification procedures include the application of bar codes and bar coded TIDs to the Pu containers. Phase II involves the verification of the Pu content. A plan and procedures are being written for carrying out confirmatory measurements on the Pu containers.

SUDA,S.

1999-09-20

390

Plants meet challenges, reap benefits of on-site waste firing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author says several companies use hazardous-waste-derived fuels. He describes the Tennessee Eastman Corporation plant in Kingsport, Tennessee, which involves a variety of hazardous and non-hazardous waste streams, co-firing in existing pulverized coal and spreader-stoker-fired boilers, and a central incinerator with a heat-recovery steam generator. Other company programs that are discussed are those at the 3M Company and General Motors

Makansi

1987-01-01

391

Leaching characteristics of paraffin waste forms generated from Korean nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaching tests of paraffin waste forms including boric acid, cobalt, strontium and cesium were performed to investigate the leaching characteristics of paraffin waste forms which had been generated in Korean nuclear power plants. The leaching tests were conducted according to ANSI\\/ANS-16.1 test procedure and the cumulative fractions leached (CFLs) of boric acid, cobalt, strontium and cesium were obtained. The compressive

Ju Youl Kim; Chang Lak Kim; Chang Hyun Chung

2001-01-01

392

Graded Approach to Application of Quality Assurance Controls at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper documents Washington TRU Solution's LLC (WTS) reengineering initiative for the application of graded approach at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is a non-reactor nuclear facility used for permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. In the early 1990s, the “graded approach” concept to the application of quality assurance (QA) controls was institutionalized.

E. L. Ater; A. E. Strait

2006-01-01

393

Analysis of the implications of the USSR providing reprocessing and MOX fabrication services to other countries  

SciTech Connect

This brief analysis, which is based on unclassified sources, seeks to identify what some of the implications would be if the Soviets started to move actively to try to provide reprocessing and MOX fabrication services to the US and other countries. While information on Soviet intentions is limited, it postulates that the Soviets would offer to reprocess spent LWR at competitive prices, fabricate the plutonium and reenrich the uranium, and sell these products back to the customer. Since it is not known whether they would insist on returning the waste from reprocessing or would be prepared to keep it, we comment briefly on what the implications of either of these actions might be.

NONE

1994-12-31

394

One System Integrated Project Team: Retrieval and Delivery of Hanford Tank Wastes for Vitrification in the Waste Treatment Plant - 13234  

SciTech Connect

The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed in late 2011 as a way for improving the efficiency of delivery and treatment of highly radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) 586-square-mile Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The purpose of the One System IPT is to improve coordination and integration between the Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) contractor and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC). The vision statement is: One System is a WTP and TOC safety-conscious team that, through integrated management and implementation of risk-informed decision and mission-based solutions, will enable the earliest start of safe and efficient treatment of Hanford's tank waste, to protect the Columbia River, environment and public. The IPT is a formal collaboration between Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), which manages design and construction of the WTP for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (DOEORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), which manages the TOC for ORP. More than fifty-six (56) million gallons of highly radioactive liquid waste are stored in one hundred seventy-seven (177) aging, underground tanks. Most of Hanford's waste tanks - one hundred forty-nine (149) of them - are of an old single-shell tank (SST) design built between 1944 and 1964. More than sixty (60) of these tanks have leaked in the past, releasing an estimated one million gallons of waste into the soil and threatening the nearby Columbia River. There are another twenty-eight (28) new double-shelled tanks (DSTs), built from 1968 to 1986, that provide greater protection to the environment. In 1989, DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) signed a landmark agreement that required Hanford to comply with federal and state environmental standards. It also paved the way for agreements that set deadlines for retrieving the tank wastes and for building and operating the WTP. The tank wastes are the result of Hanford's nearly fifty (50) years of plutonium production. In the intervening years, waste characteristics have been increasingly better understood. However, waste characteristics that are uncertain and will remain as such represent a significant technical challenge in terms of retrieval, transport, and treatment, as well as for design and construction of WTP. What also is clear is that the longer the waste remains in the tanks, the greater the risk to the environment and the people of the Pacific Northwest. The goal of both projects - tank operations and waste treatment - is to diminish the risks posed by the waste in the tanks at the earliest possible date. About two hundred (200) WTP and TOC employees comprise the IPT. Individual work groups within One System include Technical, Project Integration and Controls, Front-End Design and Project Definition, Commissioning, Nuclear Safety and Engineering Systems Integration, and Environmental Safety and Health and Quality Assurance (ESH and QA). Additional functions and team members will be added as the WTP approaches the operational phase. The team has undertaken several initiatives since its formation to collaborate on issues: (1) alternate scenarios for delivery of wastes from the tank farms to WTP; (2) improvements in managing Interface Control Documents; (3) coordination on various technical issues, including the Defense Nuclear Facilities Nuclear Safety Board's Recommendation 2010-2; (4) deployment of the SmartPlant{sup R} Foundation-Configuration Management System; and (5) preparation of the joint contract deliverable of the Operational Readiness Support Plan. (authors)

Harp, Benton J. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Post Office Box 550, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)] [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Post Office Box 550, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Kacich, Richard M. [Bechtel National, Inc., 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)] [Bechtel National, Inc., 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Skwarek, Raymond J. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Post Office Box 850, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)] [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Post Office Box 850, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

2013-07-01

395

Record new waste-to-energy capacity built in 1990 joins 128 existing plants  

SciTech Connect

The Institute of Resource Recovery reports that waste-to-energy plants will operate at a record setting rate in 1991, handling 14% of the 185 million tons of trash expected to be generated. In addition, 47 plants with a capacity of 57,596 tons per day are in the advanced planning stages. Movement into construction will depend on factors such as financing and securing environmental permits. Some states are working towards integrated facilities that will combine waste reduction, recycling, combustion, and landfilling. Nevertheless, waste-to-energy will be a critical part of workable plans for the following reasons: it reduces the volume of trash up to 90%; it recovers steam and electricity from the combustion process, thus reducing the need for imported energy; present plants have some of the cleanest facilities in the country due to strict air emissions requirements.

Not Available

1991-01-01

396

The potential for adding plastic waste fuel at a coal gasification power plant.  

PubMed

Plastics wastes from a municipal solid waste plant have a high energy content which make it an interesting option for co-processing with coal. The potential for adding plastic waste to a coal fired Texaco IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) power station is examined. The resulting efficiency increases due to the improved gasification qualities of plastic over coal. For the overall economics to be the same as the coal only case, the maximum amount that the power station can afford to spend on preparing the plastic waste for use is similar to the assumed coal cost, plus the avoided landfill cost, minus the transport cost. The location of the power station plays a key role, since this has an effect on the transport costs as well as on the landfill charges. The sensitivity of the economics of co-processing plastic waste with coal for a variety of power station operational parameters is presented. PMID:12201682

Campbell, P E; Evans, R H; McMullan, J T; Williams, B C

2001-12-01

397

An overview of metals recovery from thermal power plant solid wastes.  

PubMed

Thermal power plants (TPPs) that burn fossil fuels emit several pollutants linked to the environmental problems of acid rain, urban ozone, and the possibility of global climate change. As coal is burned in a power plant, its noncombustible mineral content is partitioned into bottom ash, which remains in the furnace, and fly ash, which rises with flue gases. Two other by-products of coal combustion air-pollution control technologies are flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastes and fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) wastes. This paper analyzed and summarized the generation, characteristics and application of TPP solid wastes and discussed the potential effects of such solid wastes on the environment. On this basis, a review of a number of methods for recovery of metals from TPP solid wastes was made. They usually contain a quantity of valuable metals and they are actually a secondary resource of metals. By applying mineral processing technologies and hydrometallurgical and biohydrometallurgical processes, it is possible to recover metals such as Al, Ga, Ge, Ca, Cd, Fe, Hg, Mg, Na, Ni, Pb, Ra, Th, V, Zn, etc., from TPP solid wastes. Recovery of metals from such wastes and its utilization are important not only for saving metal resources, but also for protecting the environment. PMID:20702078

Meawad, Amr S; Bojinova, Darinka Y; Pelovski, Yoncho G

2010-12-01

398

Assessing Waste Water Treatment Plant Effluent for Thyroid Hormone Disruption  

EPA Science Inventory

Much information has been coming to light on the estrogenic and androgenic activity of chemicals present in the waste water stream and in surface waters, but much less is known about the presence of chemicals with thyroid activity. To address this issue, we have utilized two assa...

399

Projecting plant economics for wind, wood and waste fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for determining the cost of producing electricity by using the energy of wind and the energy obtained with combustion of wood and solid wastes, to evaluate the economic expediencey of construction an energy system on alternative energy sources as compared to other variants. Data are presented for conditions of northeast United States which characterize the outlays

J. M. Perkins; W. L. Rundle

1983-01-01

400

WOOD WASTE AS A POWER PLANT FUEL IN THE OZARKS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the testing program conducted on a chain-grate stoker boiler with a blended coal and wood waste fuel. The boiler was designed to produce 18,000 lb/hr of saturated steam at 150 psig. The objective of the tests was to determine the difference, if any, in the pe...

401

Processing of nuclear power plant waste streams containing boric acid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Boric acid is used in PWR type reactor's primary coolant circuit to control the neutron flux. However, boric acid complicates the control of water chemistry of primary coolant and the liquid radioactive waste produced from NPP. The purpose of this report ...

1996-01-01

402

Management of radioactive waste from nuclear power plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Even thought risk assessment is an essential consideration in all projects involving radioactive or hazardous waste, its public role is often unclear, and it is not fully utilized in the decision-making process for public acceptance of such facilities. Ri...

1993-01-01

403

Waste-to-energy plants air pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book identifies and describes the available approaches to air pollution control for Waste-to-Energy facilities on a comparative basis. It discusses limits of performance together with costs in detail and provides a single ''road map'' on the entire subject designed to save time and money in research. The book covers a wealth of technical information geared toward overcoming the stumbling

1987-01-01

404

WATER QUALITY RENOVATION OF ANIMAL WASTE LAGOONS UTILIZING AQUATIC PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Duckweeds Spirodela oligorhiza, S. polyrhiza, and Lemna gibba (clone G3) grown on dairy waste lagoons gave an estimated maximum annual yield of 22,023 kg dry wt./ha. S. oligorhiza and L. gibba had higher growth rates in the spring, fall, and winter, with L. gibba growing througho...

405

They`re up! They`re down! They`re waste-to-energy plants  

SciTech Connect

Burning garbage - either just to get rid of it, or to recover its latent energy as heat or electricity - has never been a sweet-sounding or -smelling idea. Long before the first boiler and turbine/generator were integrated with a trash incinerator - turning it into a waste-to-energy (WTE) plant - public concern about the air pollution produced by burning municipal solid waste (MSW) began placing an upper bound on the growth of the WTE industry, as it continues to do today. This paper describes some statistics, benefits and problems related to WTE plants.

Varrasi, J.

1996-03-01

406

Coupling plant growth and waste recycling systems in a controlled life support system (CELSS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of bioregenerative systems as part of the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) program depends, in large part, on the ability to recycle inorganic nutrients, contained in waste material, into plant growth systems. One significant waste (resource) stream is inedible plant material. This research compared wheat growth in hydroponic solutions based on inorganic salts (modified Hoagland's) with solutions based on the soluble fraction of inedible wheat biomass (leachate). Recycled nutrients in leachate solutions provided the majority of mineral nutrients for plant growth, although additions of inorganic nutrients to leachate solutions were necessary. Results indicate that plant growth and waste recyling systems can be effectively coupled within CELSS based on equivalent wheat yield in leachate and Hoagland solutions, and the rapid mineralization of waste organic material in the hydroponic systems. Selective enrichment for microbial communities able to mineralize organic material within the leachate was necessary to prevent accumulation of dissolved organic matter in leachate-based solutions. Extensive analysis of microbial abundance, growth, and activity in the hydroponic systems indicated that addition of soluble organic material from plants does not cause excessive microbial growth or 'biofouling', and helped define the microbially-mediated flux of carbon in hydroponic solutions.

Garland, Jay L.

1992-01-01

407

RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - 25 YEARS SINCE THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion

E. Farfan; T. Jannik

2011-01-01

408

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant hydrogen generation study: Formation of ammonia from nitrate and nitrate in hydrogen generating systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed for the Departrnent of Energy (DOE) to immobilize pretreated highly radioactive wastes in glass for permanent disposal in the HWVP, formic acid is added to the waste before vitrification to adjust glass redox and melter feed rheology. The operation of the glass melter and durability of the glass are affected by

R. B. King; N. K. Bhattacharyya

1996-01-01

409

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 1, Revision 3  

SciTech Connect

This volume includes the following chapters: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant RCRA A permit application; facility description; waste analysis plan; groundwater monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; RCRA contingency plan; personnel training; corrective action for solid waste management units; and other Federal laws.

Not Available

1993-03-01

410

Waste fuel, EMS may save plant $1M yearly  

SciTech Connect

A mixture of paper trash and coal ash fueling an Erie, Pa. General Electric plant and a Network 90 microprocessor-based energy-management system (EMS) to optimize boiler efficiency will cost about $3 million and have a three-to-four-year payback. Over half the savings will come from the avoided costs of burning plant-generated trash. The EMS system will monitor fuel requirements in the boiler and compensate for changes in steam demand. It will also monitor plant electrical needs and control the steam diverted for cogeneration. (DCK)

Barber, J.

1982-05-24

411

Long-term strategy for management of Savannah River Plant defense high-level nuclear wastes  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) nearing completion at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) is the lead installation in the US Department of Energy program for ending interim storage and achieving permanent disposal of large quantities of defense high-level nuclear wastes in the United States. At projected processing rates, the DWPF will convert the existing SRP inventory of aqueous high-level wastes to solid glass form in steel canisters in about 20 years, with process adjustments required in a terminal campaign to handle residual waste components. Following completion of the existing inventory workoff, significantly modified facilities and procedures will be needed to accommodate the down-sized waste output of a single reactor (NPR) operation. The SRP program at this time, in contrast to the other defense waste as well as commercial waste programs, will be dominated by requirements of a small-scale technology, suitable for processing low volumes of wastes as-generated in relatively high-activity form. 19 refs., 3 figs.

Boersma, M.D.; McDonell, W.R.; Goodlett, C.B.; Thomas, S.D.; Slate, S.C. (Du Pont de Nemours (E.I.) and Co., Aiken, SC (USA). Savannah River Lab.; Du Pont de Nemours (E.I.) and Co., Aiken, SC (USA). Savannah River Plant; Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

1989-01-01

412

[Application of Vc fermentation waste residue on prevention and control of plant diseases in protective ground].  

PubMed

The prevention and control of tomato plant diseases were conducted in protective ground using Vc fermentation waste residue treated by enzymolysis and ultrasonic wave. The results showed that the seedlings planted for 3 weeks on the protective ground soil continuously cropped tomato plant for 9 years and fertilized 75, 150 and 300 kg.hm-2 grew well. Their biomass were increased by 123%, 164% and 182%, and the disease incidence rates were decreased by 59%, 78% and 85%, respectively. Under application of 300 kg.hm-2 Vc fermentation waste residue, the products of tomato grown for 10 weeks on the soil continuously cropped tomato plant for 9, 6 and 2 years were increased by 60%, 43% and 14%, respectively, and the disease incidence rates were all decreased by 50%. PMID:12974022

Zhu, Keli; Su, Zhencheng; Lu, Suxia; Zhang, Zhongze

2003-06-01

413

Biological Purification of Waste Water from a Coking Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Biological treatment of effluent, such as those from coking plants, is difficult. Phenols present in those effluents are less likely to influence the treatment than are associated inhibiting constituents such as cyanides, thiocyanates, sulphides and perha...

B. Boman J. Norrman

1981-01-01

414

Evaluation of wastes from the East St. Louis Water Treatment Plant and their impact on the Mississippi River  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to determine the quantity and characteristics of wastes generated by the East St. Louis, Illinois, water treatment plant, a large plant employing the clarification process, and to assess their effects on the Mississippi River. The major chemical constituents of the solids wastes are iron (inherent in the suspended sediments in transport in the river) and aluminum

Shundar Lin; Ralph L. Evans; Donald Schnepper; Thomas Hill

1984-01-01

415

Codigestion of manure and organic waste at centralized biogas plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The present study focuses on process inhibitions in Danish centralized biogas plants. Collection of data from the plants and a number,of interviews sho wed that inhibitions occur frequently. High concentrations of ammonia, long chain fatty acids o r other inhibitory compounds, and foaming in prestorage tanks are well known,causes of inhibitio n. These problems,mainly occurs due to: 1) inadequate

H. b. Nielsen; I. Angelidaki

416

Radioactive waste spill and cleanup on storage tank at the Savannah River Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report was prepared for historical purpose to document events associated with a radioactive spill and subsequent cleanup efforts at the Savannah River Plant. On December 29, 1983, approximately 100 gallons of liquid radioactive waste, containing an estimated 200-600 curies of cesium-137, leaked from a flushwater line onto the top of the Savannah River Plant's Tank 13 in H-area. The

W. G. Boore; F. G. McNatt; R. K. Ryland; R. A. Scaggs; E. D. Strother; R. W. Wilson

1986-01-01

417

Waste-to-energy plant for paper industry sludges disposal: technical-economic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a detailed technical-economic analysis of a fluidized bed based waste-to-energy system for disposal of paper manufacturing sludges has been carried out. Specific reference is made to a case study represented by the largest plant in Italy producing recycled paper, with a daily sludge output of about 52t.The adopted plant has been sized for a nominal capacity of

Antonio C. Caputo; Pacifico M. Pelagagge

2001-01-01

418

Study on Shielding Requirements for Radioactive Waste Transportation in a Mo-99 Production Plant - 13382  

SciTech Connect

Brazil is currently planning to produce {sup 99}Mo from fission of low enriched uranium (LEU) targets. The planned end of irradiation activity of {sup 99}Mo is about 185 TBq (5 kCi) per week to meet the present domestic demand of {sup 99m}Tc generators. The radioactive wastes from the production plant will be transferred to a waste treatment facility at the same site. The total activity of the actinides, fission and activation products present in the wastes can be predicted based on the yields of fission and activation data for the irradiation conditions, such as composition and mass of uranium targets, irradiation time, neutron flux, production schedule, etc., which were in principle already established by the project management. The transportation of the wastes from the production plant to the treatment facility will be done by means of special shielded packages. An assessment of the shielding required for the packages has been done and the results are presented here, aiming at contributing to the design of the waste management facility for the {sup 99}Mo production plant. (authors)

Melo Rego, Maria Eugenia de; Kazumi Sakata, Solange; Vicente, Roberto; Hiromoto, Goro [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP (Brazil)] [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP (Brazil)

2013-07-01

419

Application of a Plasma Mass Separator to Advanced LWR Spent Fuel Reprocessing  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is investigating spent fuel reprocessing for the purposes of increasing the effective capacity of a deep geological repository, reducing the radiotoxicity of waste placed in the repository and conserving nuclear fuel resources. DOE is considering hydro-chemical processing of the spent fuel after cutting the fuel cladding and fuel dissolution in nitric acid. The front end process, known as UREX, is largely based on the PUREX process and extracts U, Tc as well as fission product gases. A number of additional processing steps have become known as UREX+. One of the steps includes a further chemical treatment of remove Cs and Sr to reduce repository heat load. Other steps include successive extraction of the actinides from residual fission products, including the lanthanides. The additional UREX+ processing renders the actinides suitable for burning as reactor fuel in an advanced reactor to convert actinides to shorter-lived fission products and to produce power. New methods for separating groups of elements by their atomic mass have been developed and can be exploited to enhance spent fuel reprocessing. These physical processes dry the waste streams so that they can be vaporized and singly ionized in plasma that is contained in longitudinal magnetic and perpendicular electric fields. Proper configuration of the fields causes the plasma to rapidly rotate and expel heavier mass ions at the center of the machine. Lower mass ions form closed orbits within the cylindrical plasma column and are transported to either end of the machine. This plasma mass separator was originally developed to reduce the mass of material that must be immobilized in borosilicate glass from DOE defense waste at former weapons production facilities. The plasma mass separator appears to be well-suited for processing the UREX raffinate and solids streams by exploiting the large atomic mass gap that exists between lanthanides (< {approx}180 amu) and actinides (> {approx}220 amu). In one processing step the raffinate and solids would be separated into a group of residual fission products including the lanthanides and another group containing predominately Pu and mixed higher actinides. The plasma mass separator could process the UREX raffinate and solids directly for spent fuel that has cooled for 50 years or more, but there may be some advantage to removing Cs and Sr by hydro-chemical means for relatively short ({approx}10 years) cooled fuel. This paper will explore the potential cost and environmental impact advantages of combining a hydro-chemical front end with a plasma mass separator back end in an advanced spent fuel reprocessing plant. (authors)

Freeman, Richard; Miller, Robert; Papay, Larry; Wagoner, John [Archimedes Technology Group, 5660 Eastgate Drive, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Ahlfeld, Charles; Czerwinski, Ken [Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Box 454003, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154-4003 (United States)

2006-07-01

420

Management activities for retrieved and newly generated transuranic waste, Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to assess the potential environmental impacts of the retrieval and processing of retrieved and newly generated transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste at the Savannah River Plant (SRP), including the transportation of the processes TRU waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. A new TRU Waste Facility (TWF) will be constructed at SRP to retrieve and process the SRP TRU waste in interim storage to meet WIPP criteria. This EA has been prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended, and the requirements of the Council of Environmental Quality Regulations for implementing NEPA (40 CFR Parts 1500--1508). The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires the assessment of environmental consequences of all major federal actions that may affect the quality of the human environment. This document describes the environmental impact of constructing and operating the TWF facility for processing and shipment of the TRU waste to WIPP and considers alternatives to the proposed action. 40 refs., 12 figs., 12 tabs.

Not Available

1988-08-01

421

Strategy for addressing composition uncertainties in a Hanford high-level waste vitrification plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Various requirements will be imposed on the feed material and glass produced by the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification plant at the Hanford Site. A statistical process/product control system will be used to control the melter feed composition and to che...

M. F. Bryan G. F. Piepel

1996-01-01

422

Toxics turf fight: DOE, EPA battling over waste rules at nuke plants  

SciTech Connect

The US DOE's contention that its nuclear weapons and research plants across the country are not subject to the hazardous waste disposal requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act will be tested in federal court if the Justice Dept. agrees with DOE. The pollution problems in Oak Ridge, TN are discussed.

Not Available

1984-01-05

423

Investigation of Evaporator Facilities for Liquid Radioactive Wastes in Nuclear Power Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The decontamination effect of single-stage evaporators for liquid radioactive wastes in the nuclear power plants at Stade (KKS), Wuergassen (KKW) and Biblis (unit A) was studied. Independently of the type of mist collector column all of the facilities ach...

W. Herzog

1980-01-01

424

Hydraulic testing of Salado Formation evaporites at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site: Second interpretive report  

SciTech Connect

Pressure-pulse, constant-pressure flow, and pressure-buildup tests have been performed in bedded evaporites of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to evaluate the hydraulic properties controlling brine flow through the Salado. Transmissivities have been interpreted from six sequences of tests conducted on five stratigraphic intervals within 15 m of the WIPP underground excavations.

Beauheim, R.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, R.M.; Dale, T.F.; Fort, M.D.; Stensrud, W.A. [INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

1993-12-01

425

Annual Site Environmental Monitoring Report for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Calendar Year 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the first Annual Site Environmental Monitoring Report for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP project is operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the purpose of providing a research and development ...

C. Reith, K. Prince, T. Fischer, A. Rodriguez, D. Uhland

1986-01-01

426

Utilization of low value waste heat for an aqua-ammonia refrigeration pilot plant  

SciTech Connect

Design data for absorption refrigeration pilot plants utilizing low quality waste heat from commercial manufacturing operations is described. This facility is being developed as an energy source for commercial freezing and cold storage. Successful completion of this project will have a major impact on energy saving in food refrigeration.

Pigott, G.M.; Bucove, G.

1983-12-01

427

Effect of stratigraphic dip on brine inflow and gas migration at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The natural dip of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), although regionally only about 111, has the potential to affect brine inflow and gas-migration distances due to buoyancy forces. Current models, including those in WIPP Per...

S. W. Webb K. W. Larson

1996-01-01

428

Volatilization from borosilicate glass melts of simulated Savannah River Plant waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory scale studies determined the rates at which the semivolatile components sodium, boron, lithium, cesium, and ruthenium volatilized from borosilicate glass melts that contained simulated Savannah River Plant waste sludge. Sodium and boric oxides volatilize as the thermally stable compound sodium metaborate, and accounted for approx. 90% of the semivolatiles that evolved. The amounts of semivolatiles that evolved increased linearly

Wilds

1978-01-01

429

Class, race, and the disposal of urban waste: Locations of landfills, incinerators, and sewage treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the socioeconomic status, racial composition, and ethnic composition of 49 randomly selected U.S. cities with those of the census tracts containing the solid waste disposal facilities and sewage treatment plants for those cities. Contrary to the environmental racism and classism hypotheses, residents of tracts with landfills or incinerators had higher incomes and were less likely to be

William T. Markham; Eric Rufa

1997-01-01

430

Valuation of Potash Occurrences Within the Nuclear Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site in Southeastern New Mexico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Current production costs and market conditions in the potash industry of the Carlsbad area were studied to determine the potential values of the potash mineral resource that would be lost or foregone if the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility is c...

R. C. Weisner J. F. Lemons L. V. Coppa

1980-01-01

431

Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) closure, Savannah River Plant: Clay cap test section construction report  

SciTech Connect

This report contains appendices 3 through 6 for the Clay Cap Test Section Construction Report for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) closure at the Savannah River Plant. The Clay Cap Test Program was conducted to evaluate the source, lab. permeability, in-situ permeability, and compaction characteristics, representative of kaolin clays from the Aiken, South Carolina vicinity. (KJD)

Not Available

1988-02-26

432

DISPOSAL OF WASTES FROM WATER TREATMENT PLANTS—PART 3 [with Discussion of Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this report is to provide current information on the nature of the water treatment plant waste disposal problem, and to assist water utilities in solving the problem. The report describes technology presently available, defines new approaches to the problem, and suggests future directions for the coordination and dissemination of information.

John H. Nebiker; Donald D. Adrian; William W. Aultman; George Tchobanoglous; Peter W. Doe; Curtis E. Johnson; Robert B. Dean; Richard I. Dick; John W. Krasauskas; Joseph C. Webber; A. P. Black; Herbert O. Hartung

1969-01-01

433

``Recycling'' Nuclear Power Plant Waste: Technical Difficulties and Proliferation Concerns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most vexing problems associated with nuclear energy is the inability to find a technically and politically viable solution for the disposal of long-lived radioactive waste. The U.S. plan to develop a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel at Yucca Mountain in Nevada is in jeopardy, as a result of managerial incompetence, political opposition and regulatory standards that may be impossible to meet. As a result, there is growing interest in technologies that are claimed to have the potential to drastically reduce the amount of waste that would require geologic burial and the length of time that the waste would require containment. A scenario for such a vision was presented in the December 2005 Scientific American. While details differ, these technologies share a common approach: they require chemical processing of spent fuel to extract plutonium and other long-lived actinide elements, which would then be ``recycled'' into fresh fuel for advanced reactors and ``transmuted'' into shorter-lived fission products. Such a scheme is the basis for the ``Global Nuclear Energy Partnership,'' a major program unveiled by the Department of Energy (DOE) in early 2006. This concept is not new, but has been studied for decades. Major obstacles include fundamental safety issues, engineering feasibility and cost. Perhaps the most important consideration in the post-9/11 era is that these technologies involve the separation of plutonium and other nuclear weapon-usable materials from highly radioactive fission products, providing opportunities for terrorists seeking to obtain nuclear weapons. While DOE claims that it will only utilize processes that do not produce ``separated plutonium,'' it has offered no evidence that such technologies would effectively deter theft. It is doubtful that DOE's scheme can be implemented without an unacceptable increase in the risk of nuclear terrorism.

Lyman, Edwin

2007-04-01

434

Milestones for disposal of radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Since its identification as a potential deep geologic repository in about 1973, the regulatory assessment process for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico has developed over the past 25 years. National policy issues, negotiated agreements, and court settlements over the first half of the project had a strong influence on the amount and type of scientific data collected. Assessments and studies before the mid 1980s were undertaken primarily (1) to satisfy needs for environmental impact statements, (2) to develop general understanding of selected natural phenomena associated with nuclear waste disposal, or (3) to satisfy negotiated agreements with the State of New Mexico. In the last third of the project, federal compliance policy and actual regulations were sketched out, but continued to evolve until 1996. During this eight-year period, four preliminary performance assessments, one compliance performance assessment, and one verification performance assessment were performed.

Rechard, R.P.

1998-04-01

435

Milestones for disposal of radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the United States  

SciTech Connect

The opening of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant on March 26, 1999, was the culmination of a regulatory assessment process that had taken 25 years. National policy issues, negotiated agreements, and court settlements during the first 15 years of the project had a strong influence on the amount and type of scientific data collected up to this point. Assessment activities before the mid 1980s were undertaken primarily (1) to satisfy needs for environmental impact statements, (2) to satisfy negotiated agreements with the State of New Mexico, or (3) to develop general understanding of selected natural phenomena associated with nuclear waste disposal. In the last 10 years, federal compliance policy and actual regulations were sketched out, and continued to evolve until 1996. During this period, stochastic simulations were introduced as a tool for the assessment of the WIPP's performance, and four preliminary performance assessments, one compliance performance assessment, and one verification performance assessment were performed.

RECHARD,ROBERT P.

2000-03-01

436

Emissions model of waste treatment operations at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant  

SciTech Connect

An integrated model of the waste treatment systems at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) was developed using a commercially-available process simulation software (ASPEN Plus) to calculate atmospheric emissions of hazardous chemicals for use in an application for an environmental permit to operate (PTO). The processes covered by the model are the Process Equipment Waste evaporator, High Level Liquid Waste evaporator, New Waste Calcining Facility and Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal facility. The processes are described along with the model and its assumptions. The model calculates emissions of NO{sub x}, CO, volatile acids, hazardous metals, and organic chemicals. Some calculated relative emissions are summarized and insights on building simulations are discussed.

Schindler, R.E.

1995-03-01

437

Wool-waste as organic nutrient source for container-grown plants.  

PubMed

A container experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that uncomposted wool wastes could be used as nutrient source and growth medium constituent for container-grown plants. The treatments were: (1) rate of wool-waste application (0 or unamended control, 20, 40, 80, and 120 g of wool per 8-in. pot), (2) growth medium constituents [(2.1) wool plus perlite, (2.2) wool plus peat, and (2.3) wool plus peat plus perlite], and (3) plant species (basil and Swiss chard). A single addition of 20, 40, 80, or 120 g of wool-waste to Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L.) and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) in pots with growth medium provided four harvests of Swiss chard and five harvests of basil. Total basil yield from the five harvests was 1.6-5 times greater than the total yield from the unamended control, while total Swiss chard yield from the four harvests was 2-5 times greater relative to the respective unamended control. The addition of wool-waste to the growth medium increased Swiss chard and basil tissue N, and NO(3)-N and NH(4)-N in growth medium relative to the unamended control. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis of wool fibers sampled at the end of the experiments indicated various levels of decomposition, with some fibers retaining their original surface structure. Furthermore, most of the wool fibers' surfaces contained significant concentrations of S and much less N, P, or K. SEM/EDX revealed that some plant roots grow directly on wool-waste fibers suggesting either (1) root directional growth towards sites with greater nutrient concentration and/or (2) a possible role for roots or root exudates in wool decomposition. Results from this study suggest that uncomposted wool wastes can be used as soil amendment, growth medium constituent, and nutrient source for container-grown plants. PMID:19345569

Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Stratton, Glenn W; Pincock, James; Butler, Stephanie; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina A; Nedkov, Nedko K; Gerard, Patrick D

2009-07-01

438

Knowledge-based and model-based hybrid methodology for comprehensive waste minimization in electroplating plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electroplating industry of over 10,000 planting plants nationwide is one of the major waste generators in the industry. Large quantities of wastewater, spent solvents, spent process solutions, and sludge are the major wastes generated daily in plants, which costs the industry tremendously for waste treatment and disposal and hinders the further development of the industry. It becomes, therefore, an urgent need for the industry to identify technically most effective and economically most attractive methodologies and technologies to minimize the waste, while the production competitiveness can be still maintained. This dissertation aims at developing a novel WM methodology using artificial intelligence, fuzzy logic, and fundamental knowledge in chemical engineering, and an intelligent decision support tool. The WM methodology consists of two parts: the heuristic knowledge-based qualitative WM decision analysis and support methodology and fundamental knowledge-based quantitative process analysis methodology for waste reduction. In the former, a large number of WM strategies are represented as fuzzy rules. This becomes the main part of the knowledge base in the decision support tool, WMEP-Advisor. In the latter, various first-principles-based process dynamic models are developed. These models can characterize all three major types of operations in an electroplating plant, i.e., cleaning, rinsing, and plating. This development allows us to perform a thorough process analysis on bath efficiency, chemical consumption, wastewater generation, sludge generation, etc. Additional models are developed for quantifying drag-out and evaporation that are critical for waste reduction. The models are validated through numerous industrial experiments in a typical plating line of an industrial partner. The unique contribution of this research is that it is the first time for the electroplating industry to (i) use systematically available WM strategies, (ii) know quantitatively and accurately what is going on in each tank, and (iii) identify all WM opportunities through process improvement. This work has formed a solid foundation for the further development of powerful WM technologies for comprehensive WM in the following decade.

Luo, Keqin

1999-11-01

439

Progress and Status of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant's New Solid Waste Management and Storage Facilities  

SciTech Connect

A considerable amount of dry radioactive waste from former NPP operation has accumulated up to date and is presently stored at the Ignalina NPP site, Lithuania. Current storage capacities are nearly exhausted and more waste is to come from future decommissioning of the two RMBKtype reactors. Additionally, the existing storage facilities does not comply to the state-of-the-art technology for handling and storage of radioactive waste. In 2005, INPP faced this situation of a need for waste processing and subsequent interim storage of these wastes by contracting NUKEM with the design, construction, installation and commissioning of new waste management and storage facilities. The subject of this paper is to describe the scope and the status of the new solid waste management and storage facilities at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant. In summary: The turnkey contract for the design, supply and commission of the SWMSF was awarded in December 2005. The realisation of the project was initially planned within 48 month. The basic design was finished in August 2007 and the Technical Design Documentation and Preliminary Safety Analyses Report was provided to Authorities in October 2007. The construction license is expected in July 2008. The procurement phase was started in August 2007, start of onsite activities is expected in November 2007. The start of operation of the SWMSF is scheduled for end of 2009. (authors)

Rausch, J.; Henderson, R.W. [NUKEM Technologies GmbH, Alzenau (Germany); Penkov, V. [State Enterprise Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant, Visaginas (Lithuania)

2008-07-01

440

A short history of waste management at the Hanford Site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world’s first full-scale nuclear reactors and chemical reprocessing plants built at the Hanford Site in the desert of southeastern Washington State produced two-thirds of the plutonium generated in the United States for nuclear weapons. Operating these facilities also created large volumes of radioactive and chemical waste, some of which was released into the environment exposing people who lived downwind and downstream. Hanford now contains the largest accumulation of nuclear waste in the Western Hemisphere. Hanford’s last reactor shut down in 1987 followed by closure of the last reprocessing plant in 1990. Today, Hanford’s only mission is cleanup. Most onsite radioactive waste and nuclear material lingers inside underground tanks or storage facilities. About half of the chemical waste remains in tanks while the rest persists in the soil, groundwater, and burial grounds. Six million dollars each day, or nearly two billion dollars each year, are spent on waste management and cleanup activities. There is significant uncertainty in how long cleanup will take, how much it will cost, and what risks will remain for future generations. This paper summarizes portions of the waste management history of the Hanford Site published in the book “Hanford: A Conversation about Nuclear Waste and Cleanup.” ( Gephart, 2003).

Gephart, Roy E.

441

A Short History of Waste Management at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

"The world’s first full-scale nuclear reactors and chemical reprocessing plants built at the Hanford Site in the desert of eastern Washington State produced two-thirds of the plutonium generated in the United States for nuclear weapons. Operating these facilities also created large volumes of radioactive and chemical waste, some of which was released into the environment exposing people who lived downwind and downstream. Hanford now contains the largest accumulation of nuclear waste in the Western Hemisphere. Hanford’s last reactor shut down in 1987 followed by closure of the last reprocessing plant in 1990. Today, Hanford’s only mission is cleanup. Most onsite radioactive waste and nuclear material lingers inside underground tanks or storage facilities. About half of the chemical waste remains in tanks while the rest persists in the soil, groundwater, and burial grounds. Six million dollars each day, or nearly two billion dollars each year, are spent on waste management and cleanup activities. There is significant uncertainty in how long cleanup will take, how much it will cost, and what risks will remain for future generations. This paper summarizes portions of the waste management history of the Hanford Site published in the book “Hanford: A Conversation about Nuclear Waste and Cleanup.”(1) "

Gephart, Roy E.

2010-03-31

442

Characterisation of radioactive waste products associated with plant decommissioning.  

PubMed

The inventory of radioactivity that must be considered in the decommissioning of a typical 1000 MWe Spanish pressurised water reactor (PWR) was investigated as part of a generic plant decommissioning study. Analyses based on DORT models (in both R-Z and R-theta geometries) were used with representative plant operating history and core power distribution data in defining the expected neutron environment in regions near the reactor core. The activation analyses were performed by multiplying the DORT scalar fluxes by energy-dependent reaction cross sections (based on ENDF/B-VI data) to generate reaction rates on a per atom basis. The results from the ORIGEN2 computer code were also used for determining the activities associated with certain nuclides where multi-group cross section data were not available. In addition to the bulk material activation of equipment and structures near the reactor, the activated corrosion-product (or 'crud') deposits on system and equipment surfaces were considered. The projected activities associated with these sources were primarily based on plant data and experience from operating PWR plants. PMID:16381771

Sejvar, J; Fero, A H; Gil, C; Hagler, R J; Santiago, J L; Holgado, A; Swenson, R

2005-01-01

443

Fluidized bed biodenitrification of gaseous diffusion plant aqueous wastes  

SciTech Connect

Decontamination and uranium recovery operations at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant generate nitrate containing raffinates. A biodenitrification process will be used to meet more stringent EPA nitrate emission constraints soon in effect. Fluidized bed reactor studies at ORNL provided data necessary to characterize bioreactor performance and generate design criteria. 11 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Kowalchuk, M.L.; Hancher, C.W.

1982-10-24

444

Recycling of Power Plants Wastes - Potential Water Pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fly ash and bottom ash are major by-products of the coal combustion process in thermal power plants. They are composed of oxides of Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, Na and K. Along with oxides, fly ash and bottom ash contain trace elements (Sb, As, F, Cr, Cu, Co, Ni, Zn, Cd, Mn, Pb, Hg, V etc.) which represent the potential

Slobodanka Marinkovic; Prvoslav Treifunovic; Svetlana Popov; Aleksandra Kostic-Pulek

445

Solid waste management of a chemical-looping combustion plant using Cu-based oxygen carriers.  

PubMed

Waste management generated from a Chemical-Looping Combustion (CLC) plant using copper-based materials is analyzed by two ways: the recovery and recycling of the used material and the disposal of the waste. A copper recovery process coupled to the CLC plant is proposed to avoid the loss of active material generated by elutriation from the system. Solid residues obtained from a 10 kWth CLC prototype operated during 100 h with a CuO-Al2O3 oxygen carrier prepared by impregnation were used as raw material in the recovery process. Recovering efficiencies of approximately 80% were obtained in the process, where the final products were an eluate of Cu(NO3)2 and a solid. The eluate was used for preparation of new oxygen carriers by impregnation, which exhibited high reactivity for reduction and oxidation reactions as well as adequate physical and chemical properties to be used in a CLC plant. The proposed recovery process largely decreases the amount of natural resources (Cu and Al203) employed in a CLC power plant as well as the waste generated in the process. To determine the stability of the different solid streams during deposition in a landfill, these were characterized with respect to their leaching behavior according to the European Union normative. The solid residue finally obtained in the CLC plant coupled to the recovery process (composed by Al2O3 and CuAl2O4) can be classified as a stable nonreactive hazardous waste acceptable at landfills for nonhazardous wastes. PMID:17874801

García-Labiano, Francisco; Gayán, Pilar; Adánez, Juan; De Diego, Luis F; Forero, Carmen R

2007-08-15

446

Transfer of elements relevant to radioactive waste from soil to five boreal plant species.  

PubMed

In long-term safety assessment models for radioactive waste disposal, uptake of radionuclides by plants is an important process with possible adverse effects in ecosystems. Cobalt-60, (59,63)Ni, (93)Mo, and (210)Pb are examples of long-living radionuclides present in nuclear waste. The soil-to-plant transfer of stable cobalt, nickel, molybdenum and lead and their distribution across plant parts were investigated in blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), May lily (Maianthemum bifolium), narrow buckler fern (Dryopteris carthusiana), rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) at two boreal forest sites in Eastern Finland. The concentrations of all of the studied elements were higher in roots than in above-ground plant parts showing that different concentration ratios (CR values) are needed for modelling the transfer to roots and stems/leaves. Some significant differences in CR values were found in comparisons of different plant species and of the same species grown at different sites. However, large within-species variation suggests that it is not justified to use different CR values for modelling soil-to-plant transfer of these elements in the different boreal forest plant species. PMID:21190719

Roivainen, Päivi; Makkonen, Sari; Holopainen, Toini; Juutilainen, Jukka

2011-04-01

447

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 194 - Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191...RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191...Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part...

2013-07-01

448

Groundwater stream experiment for the waste isolation pilot plant  

SciTech Connect

This project was conducted to evaluate the practicality of using laboratory groundwater stream experiments to model a hydraulic breach of a nuclear waste repository located deep in a bedded salt environment. A test plan is included in this report that gives details of the apparatus, rocks, solutions, and analyses to be used in a groundwater stream experiment. Preliminary experiments revealed the essential impermeability of halite; only a small concentration of water (about 75 ppM) moved in halite by diffusion, with a coefficient of 2.0 x 10/sup -7/ cm/sup 2//s. From work completed in this program, groundwater stream experiments appear to be a practical method of establishing the chemical interactions that would occur in a breached repository in bedded salt.

Seitz, M.G.; Bowers, D.; Fortney, D.R.

1981-08-01

449

Disease suppression on greenhouse tomatoes using plant waste compost.  

PubMed

This study investigated the disease suppression abilities of a compost amendment that was added to the conventional growing medium, yellow cedar sawdust, used in most British Columbia vegetable greenhouses. The compost amendment was produced in a controlled, in-vessel process primarily from greenhouse crop waste materials. The pathogen and cultivar under study were Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL) on Dombito (FORL-susceptible) beefsteak greenhouse tomatoes. Significant reduction of Fusarium crown and root rot was also realized in tomato seedlings by applying compost amendment from several different batches, as a seed cover or plug substitute. In a greenhouse trial, disease suppression using a mixture of 2:1 sawdust to amendment by volume was shown to be most effective. As a result, the tomato yield over a nine-month growing season was improved by 74% where the medium was deliberately infested with FORL. PMID:15913017

Cheuk, William; Lo, Kwang Victor; Copeman, Robert; Joliffe, Peter; Fraser, Bud S

2005-01-01

450

Bacterial amelioration of bauxite residue waste of industrial alumina plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

  The high alkali content of bauxite residue deposits from alumina production plants in industrial nations poses a challenge\\u000a to reestablish flora and fauna at the deposit sites. The present study demonstrated that low levels of injured bacterial cells\\u000a in the bauxite residue actively grew using various added nutrients and\\/or hay. The organisms grew from less than 10 to more\\u000a than

M K Hamdy; F S Williams

2001-01-01

451

Idaho Chemical Processing Plant low-level waste grout stabilization development program FY-96 status report  

SciTech Connect

The general purpose of the Grout Stabilization Development Program is to solidify and stabilize the liquid low-level wastes (LLW) generated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). It is anticipated that LLW will be produced from the following: (1) chemical separation of the tank farm high-activity sodium-bearing waste; (2) retrieval, dissolution, and chemical separation of the aluminum, zirconium, and sodium calcines; (3) facility decontamination processes; and (4) process equipment waste. The main tasks completed this fiscal year as part of the program were chromium stabilization study for sodium-bearing waste and stabilization and solidification of LLW from aluminum and zirconium calcines. The projected LLW will be highly acidic and contain high amounts of nitrates. Both of these are detrimental to Portland cement chemistry; thus, methods to precondition the LLW and to cure the grout were explored. A thermal calcination process, called denitration, was developed to solidify the waste and destroy the nitrates. A three-way blend of Portland cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash was successfully tested. Grout cubes were prepared at various waste loadings to maximize loading while meeting compressive strength and leach resistance requirements. For the sodium LLW, a 25% waste loading achieves a volume reduction of 3.5 and a compressive strength of 2,500 pounds per square inch while meeting leach, mix, and flow requirements. It was found that the sulfur in the slag reduces the chromium leach rate below regulatory limits. For the aluminum LLW, a 15% waste loading achieves a volume reduction of 8.5 and a compressive strength of 4,350 pounds per square inch while meeting leach requirements. Likewise for zirco