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1

Idle reprocessing plant nuke waste fix moving  

SciTech Connect

A system is discussed for cleanup at a defunct nuclear waste reprocessing plant in upstate New York. The new system, a solidification process, is designed to stabilize 600,000 gal of highly radioactive waste into glass logs. The design for a waste-solidification process consists of a slurry-fed, ceramic kiln where the molten borosilicate glass is mixed with wastes. The mix is poured into steel canisters where it hardens into glass logs to be buried at a federal depository. Also discussed is a new disposal method, called caisson waste disposal, for the low-level radioactive waste generated during cleanup.

Not Available

1984-02-01

2

Actinide partitioning processes for fuel reprocessing and refabrication plant wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical processing methods have been developed on a laboratory scale to partition the actinides from the liquid and solid fuel reprocessing plant (FRP) and refabrication plant (FFP) wastes. It was envisioned that these processes would be incorporated into separate waste treatment facilities (WTFs) that are adjacent to, but not integrated with, the fuel reprocessing and refabrication plants. Engineering equipment and

B. C. Finney; D. W. Tedder

1980-01-01

3

Specialized Disposal Sites for Different Reprocessing Plant Wastes  

SciTech Connect

Once-through fuel cycles have one waste form: spent nuclear fuel (SNF). In contrast, the reprocessed SNF yields multiple wastes with different chemical, physical, and radionuclide characteristics. The different characteristics of each waste imply that there are potential cost and performance benefits to developing different disposal sites that match the disposal requirements of different waste. Disposal sites as defined herein may be located in different geologies or in a single repository containing multiple sections, each with different characteristics. The paper describes disposal options for specific wastes and the potential for a waste management system that better couples various reprocessing plant wastes with disposal facilities. (authors)

Forsberg, Charles W. [Nuclear Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831 (United States); Driscoll, Michael J. [Department of Nuclear Science and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA, 02139 (United States)

2007-07-01

4

Actinide partitioning processes for fuel reprocessing and refabrication plant wastes  

SciTech Connect

Chemical processing methods have been developed on a laboratory scale to partition the actinides from the liquid and solid fuel reprocessing plant (FRP) and refabrication plant (FFP) wastes. It was envisioned that these processes would be incorporated into separate waste treatment facilities (WTFs) that are adjacent to, but not integrated with, the fuel reprocessing and refabrication plants. Engineering equipment and material balance flowsheets have been developed for WTFs in support of a 2000-MTHM/year FRP and a 660-MTHM/year MOX-FFP. The processing subsystems incorporated in the FRP-WTF are: High-Level Solid Waste Treatment, High-Level Liquid Waste Treatment, Solid Alpha Waste Treatment, Cation Exchange Chromatography, Salt Waste Treatment, Actinide Recovery, Solvent Cleanup and recycle, Off-Gas Treatment, Actinide Product Concentration, and Acid and Water Recycle. The WTF supporting a fuel refabrication facility, although similar, does not contain subsystems (1) and (2). Based on the results of the laboratory and hot-cell experimental work, we believe that the processes and flowsheets offer the potential to reduce the total unrecovered actinides in FRP and FFP wastes to less than or equal to 0.25%. The actinide partitioning processes and the WTF concept represent advanced technology that would require substantial work before commercialization. It is estimated that an orderly development program would require 15 to 20 years to complete and would cost about 700 million 1979 dollars. It is estimated that the capital cost and annual operating cost, in mid-1979 dollars, for the FRP-WTF are $1035 million and $71.5 million/year, and for the FFP-WTF are $436 million and $25.6 million/year, respectively.

Finney, B.C.; Tedder, D.W.

1980-01-01

5

Reproductive Life Events in the Population Living in the Vicinity of a Nuclear Waste Reprocessing Plant  

E-print Network

Reproductive Life Events in the Population Living in the Vicinity of a Nuclear Waste Reprocessing: There is concern about the health of populations living close to nuclear waste reprocessing plants. We conducted a comparative study on reproductive life events in the general population living near the nuclear waste

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

6

10 CFR Appendix F to Part 50 - Policy Relating to the Siting of Fuel Reprocessing Plants and Related Waste Management Facilities  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Reprocessing Plants and Related Waste Management Facilities F Appendix F to...Reprocessing Plants and Related Waste Management Facilities 1. Public health...storage of highlevel radioactive wastes, may be located on...

2012-01-01

7

10 CFR Appendix F to Part 50 - Policy Relating to the Siting of Fuel Reprocessing Plants and Related Waste Management Facilities  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Reprocessing Plants and Related Waste Management Facilities F Appendix F to...Reprocessing Plants and Related Waste Management Facilities 1. Public health...storage of highlevel radioactive wastes, may be located on...

2013-01-01

8

10 CFR Appendix F to Part 50 - Policy Relating to the Siting of Fuel Reprocessing Plants and Related Waste Management Facilities  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Reprocessing Plants and Related Waste Management Facilities F Appendix F to...Reprocessing Plants and Related Waste Management Facilities 1. Public health...storage of highlevel radioactive wastes, may be located on...

2014-01-01

9

Preliminary analysis of treatment strategies for transuranic wastes from reprocessing plants  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a comparison of six treatment options for transuranic wastes (TRUW) resulting from the reprocessing of commercial spent fuel. Projected transuranic waste streams from the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP), the reference fuel reprocessing plant in this report, were grouped into the five categories of hulls and hardware, failed equipment, filters, fluorinator solids, and general process trash (GPT) and sample and analytical cell (SAC) wastes. Six potential treatment options were selected for the five categories of waste. These options represent six basic treatment objectives: (1) no treatment, (2) minimum treatment (compaction), (3) minimum number of processes and products (cementing or grouting), (4) maximum volume reduction without decontamination (melting, incinerating, hot pressing), (5) maximum volume reduction with decontamination (decontamination, treatment of residues), and (6) noncombustible waste forms (melting, incinerating, cementing). Schemes for treatment of each waste type were selected and developed for each treatment option and each type of waste. From these schemes, transuranic waste volumes were found to vary from 1 m/sup 3//MTU for no treatment to as low as 0.02 m/sup 3//MTU. Based on conceptual design requirements, life-cycle costs were estimated for treatment plus on-site storage, transportation, and disposal of both high-level and transuranic wastes (and incremental low-level wastes) from 70,000 MTU. The study concludes that extensive treatment is warranted from both cost and waste form characteristics considerations, and that the characteristics of most of the processing systems used are acceptable. The study recommends that additional combinations of treatment methods or strategies be evaluated and that in the interim, melting, incineration, and cementing be further developed for commercial TRUW. 45 refs., 9 figs., 32 tabs.

Ross, W.A.; Schneider, K.J.; Swanson, J.L.; Yasutake, K.M.; Allen, R.P.

1985-07-01

10

Nuclear waste glass composition limitations. [Effects of reprocessing plant flowsheets on cost of vitrification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the primary considerations involved in nuclear waste glass composition development, explains why the maximum content of certain elements in those glasses is limited, and suggests some possible improvements in reprocessing and waste management practices that might reduce vitrification costs. The basic task is to formulate a glass that can be processed with an acceptably high waste loading

L. A. Chick; J. L. Swanson; D. S. Goldman

1984-01-01

11

Geohydrologic Conditions at the Nuclear-fuels Reprocessing Plant and Waste-management Facilities at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center, Cattaraugus County, New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant, a high-level radioactive liquid-waste tank complex, and related waste facilities occupy 100 hectares (ha) within the Western New York Nuclear Service Center near West Valley, N.Y. The facilities are underlain by glacial and postglacial deposits that fill an ancestrial bedrock valley. The main plant facilities are on an elevated plateau referred to as the north plateau.

Marcel P. Bergeron; William M. Kappel; Richard M. Yager

1987-01-01

12

Geohydrologic conditions at the Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant and Waste-Management Facilities at the western New York Nuclear Service Center, Cattaraugus County, New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant, a high-level radioactive liquid-waste tank complex, and related waste facilities occupy 100 hectares (ha) within the Western New York Nuclear Service Center near West Valley, NY. The facilities are underlain by glacial and postglacial deposits that fill an ancestral bedrock valley. The main plant facilities are on an elevated plateau referred to as the north plateau.

M. P. Bergeron; W. M. Kappel; R. M. Yager

1987-01-01

13

The incidence of childhood leukaemia around the La Hague nuclear waste reprocessing plant (France): a survey for the years 1978–1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDA previous study has suggested an increased incidence rate of leukaemia from 1978 to 1992 in people aged 0 to 24 years and living in the vicinity of the La Hague nuclear waste reprocessing plant without considering age and cytological type.SETTINGThe Nord Cotentin region (France) and the island of Alderney (United Kingdom).STUDY OBJECTIVETo describe the occurrence of leukaemia for each

A-V Guizard; O Boutou; D Pottier; X Troussard; D Pheby; G Launoy; R Slama; A Spira

2001-01-01

14

Application of curium measurements for safeguarding at reprocessing plants. Study 1: High-level liquid waste and Study 2: Spent fuel assemblies and leached hulls  

SciTech Connect

In large-scale reprocessing plants for spent fuel assemblies, the quantity of plutonium in the waste streams each year is large enough to be important for nuclear safeguards. The wastes are drums of leached hulls and cylinders of vitrified high-level liquid waste. The plutonium amounts in these wastes cannot be measured directly by a nondestructive assay (NDA) technique because the gamma rays emitted by plutonium are obscured by gamma rays from fission products, and the neutrons from spontaneous fissions are obscured by those from curium. The most practical NDA signal from the waste is the neutron emission from curium. A diversion of waste for its plutonium would also take a detectable amount of curium, so if the amount of curium in a waste stream is reduced, it can be inferred that there is also a reduced amount of plutonium. This report studies the feasibility of tracking the curium through a reprocessing plant with neutron measurements at key locations: spent fuel assemblies prior to shearing, the accountability tank after dissolution, drums of leached hulls after dissolution, and canisters of vitrified high-level waste after separation. Existing pertinent measurement techniques are reviewed, improvements are suggested, and new measurements are proposed. The authors integrate these curium measurements into a safeguards system.

Rinard, P.M.; Menlove, H.O.

1996-03-01

15

Geohydrologic conditions at the nuclear-fuels reprocessing plant and waste-management facilities at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center, Cattaraugus County, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant, a high-level radioactive liquid-waste tank complex, and related waste facilities occupy 100 hectares (ha) within the Western New York Nuclear Service Center near West Valley, N.Y. The facilities are underlain by glacial and postglacial deposits that fill an ancestrial bedrock valley. The main plant facilities are on an elevated plateau referred to as the north plateau. Groundwater on the north plateau moves laterally within a surficial sand and gravel from the main plant building to areas northeast, east, and southeast of the facilities. The sand and gravel ranges from 1 to 10 m thick and has a hydraulic conductivity ranging from 0.1 to 7.9 m/day. Two separate burial grounds, a 4-ha area for low-level radioactive waste disposal and a 2.9-ha area for disposal of higher-level waste are excavated into a clay-rich till that ranges from 22 to 28 m thick. Migration of an organic solvent from the area of higher level waste at shallow depth in the till suggests that a shallow, fractured, oxidized, and weathered till is a significant pathway for lateral movement of groundwater. Below this zone, groundwater moves vertically downward through the till to recharge a lacustrine silt and fine sand. Within the saturated parts of the lacustrine unit, groundwater moves laterally to the northeast toward Buttermilk Creek. Hydraulic conductivity of the till, based on field and laboratory analyses , ranges from 0.000018 to 0.000086 m/day. (USGS)

Bergeron, M.P.; Kappel, W.M.; Yager, R.M.

1987-01-01

16

WATER REUSE IN A PAPER REPROCESSING PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

This project was undertaken to determine the feasibility of water reuse in a paper reprocessing plant with the goal being to 'close the loop' or to demonstrate zero discharge technology. Before the project began, Big Chief Roofing Company at Ardmore, OK, was discharging 7.89 1/se...

17

Liquid waste handling facilities for a conceptual light water reactor spent fuel reprocessing complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

One alternative for closing the nuclear fuel cycle is efficient, high decontamination separation of uranium and plutonium and fabrication of a Pu-U mixed-oxide fuel. Detailed flowsheets were prepared by Savannah River Laboratory for a conceptual 10 MT\\/day reprocessing facility. The generation of liquid waste and the associated liquid waste handling facilities for the reprocessing plant were defined. Over 40 individual

D. C. Witt; R. F. Bradley

1979-01-01

18

Report of reprocessing of reflection seismic profile X-5 Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site, Eddy County, New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seismic reflection profile X-5 exhibits a 7,700 ft long anomalous zone of poor quality to nonexistent reflections between shotpoints 100 and 170, compared to the high-quality, flat-lying, coherent reflections on either side. Results from drill holes in the area suggest 'layer cake' geology with no detectable abnormalities such as faults present. In an attempt to determine whether the anomalous zone of the seismic profile is an artifact or actually indicates a geologic condition, the data were extensively reprocessed using state-of-the-art processing techniques and the following conclusions were made: 1. The field-recorded data in the anomalous zone are of poor quality due to surface conditions and recording parameters used. 2. Reprocessing shows reflectors throughout the anomalous zone at all levels. However, it cannot prove that the reflectors are continuous throughout the anomalous zone. 3. Significant improvement in data quality may be achieved if the line is reshot using carefully determined recording parameters.

Miller, John J.

1983-01-01

19

Material control for a reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

Adequate control of special nuclear material (SNM) implies a basic knowledge of the quantities of SNM processed through or contained within a fuels processing facility with sufficient accuracy that diversion of the SNM for deleterious purposes can be detected in a timely manner. This report to the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) describes the primary process streams containing plutonium that are handled routinely within a spent fuel reprocessing plant and conversion facility. As an aid in implementing the objectives of the accountability system in a realistic situation, the Allied General Nuclear Services (AGNS) reprocessing plant now under construction near Barnwell, South Carolina, was chosen as the study model. The AGNS plant processes are discussed in detail emphasizing those portions of the process that contain significant quantities of plutonium. The unit processes within the separations plant, nitrate storage, plutonium product facility and the analytical laboratory are described with regard to the SNM control system currently planned for use in the facilities. A general discussion of laboratory techniques, nondestructive assay and process instrumentation for plutonium process and product material from a reprocessing plant is included. A comprehensive discussion is given of holdup measurements in plutonium recycle facilities. A brief preliminary overview is presented of alternative processing strategies for LWR fuel. An extensive review and summary of modeling efforts for liquid-liquid extraction cycles is included. A comprehensive bibliography of previous modeling efforts is covered.

Rundquist, D.; Bray, G.; Donelson, S.; Glancy, J.; Gozani, T.; Harris, L.; McNamera, R.; Pence, D.; Ringham, M.

1976-08-15

20

Plasma Mass Filters For Nuclear Waste Reprocessing  

SciTech Connect

Practical disposal of nuclear waste requires high-throughput separation techniques. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which contains the most active and mobile radioisotopes and produces most of the heat. We suggest that the fission products could be separated as a group from nuclear waste using plasma mass filters. Plasmabased processes are well suited to separating nuclear waste, because mass rather than chemical properties are used for separation. A single plasma stage can replace several stages of chemical separation, producing separate streams of bulk elements, fission products, and actinoids. The plasma mass filters may have lower cost and produce less auxiliary waste than chemical processing plants. Three rotating plasma configurations are considered that act as mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, the Ohkawa filter, and the asymmetric centrifugal trap.

Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

2011-05-25

21

Plasma Mass Filters For Nuclear Waste Reprocessing  

SciTech Connect

Practical disposal of nuclear waste requires high-throughput separation techniques. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which contains the most active and mobile radioisotopes and produces most of the heat. We suggest that the fission products could be separated as a group from nuclear waste using plasma mass filters. Plasmabased processes are well suited to separating nuclear waste, because mass rather than chemical properties are used for separation. A single plasma stage can replace several stages of chemical separation, producing separate streams of bulk elements, fission products, and actinoids. The plasma mass filters may have lower cost and produce less auxiliary waste than chemical processing plants. Three rotating plasma configurations are considered that act as mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, the Ohkawa filter, and the asymmetric centrifugal trap.

Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

2011-05-26

22

Hybrid KED/XRF measurement of minor actinides in reprocessing plants  

SciTech Connect

Minor actinides have received considerable attention recently in the nuclear power industry. Because of their potential value as recycle fuels in thermal and breeder reactors, reprocessing plants may have an economic incentive to extract Np, Am, and Cm from their waste streams. This report discusses the technique of hybrid densitometry and its potential to measure Np and Am in reprocessing plants. Precision estimates are made for the hybrid analysis of Np and Am in two types of dissolver solutions.

Hsue, S.T.; Collins, M.L.

1996-12-31

23

Cost and availability of gadolinium for nuclear fuel reprocessing plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gadolinium is currently planned for use as a soluble neutron poison in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants to prevent criticality of solutions of spent fuel. Gadolinium is relatively rare and expensive. The present study was undertaken therefore to estimate whether this material is likely to be available in quantities sufficient for fuel reprocessing and at reasonable prices. It was found that

Klepper

1985-01-01

24

10 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...fuel reprocessing plant site prior to...retained at the nuclear power plant or fuel reprocessing...effectiveness of the control of quality by...components of the nuclear power plant or fuel reprocessing...established to control materials,...

2013-01-01

25

10 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...fuel reprocessing plant site prior to...retained at the nuclear power plant or fuel reprocessing...effectiveness of the control of quality by...components of the nuclear power plant or fuel reprocessing...established to control materials,...

2011-01-01

26

10 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...fuel reprocessing plant site prior to...retained at the nuclear power plant or fuel reprocessing...effectiveness of the control of quality by...components of the nuclear power plant or fuel reprocessing...established to control materials,...

2014-01-01

27

10 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...fuel reprocessing plant site prior to...retained at the nuclear power plant or fuel reprocessing...effectiveness of the control of quality by...components of the nuclear power plant or fuel reprocessing...established to control materials,...

2012-01-01

28

DIRECT DISMANTLING OF REPROCESSING PLANT CELLS THE EUREX PLANT EXPERIENCEe2d12c  

SciTech Connect

After finishing the reprocessing campaigns in 1970-1983, the EUREX pilot reprocessing plant of ENEA Saluggia Research Center started into a new phase, aiming to materials and irradiated fuel systemation and radioactive wastes conditioning. In 1997 the project ''CORA'' for a vitrification plant for the high and intermediate liquid radioactive wastes started. The ''CORA'' plant will be hosted in some dismantled cells of the EUREX plant, reusing many of the EUREX plant auxiliary systems, duly refurbished, saving money and construction time and avoiding a new nuclear building in the site. Two of the cells that will be reused were part of the EUREX chemical process (solvent recovery and 2nd extraction cycle) and the components were obviously internally contaminated. In 2000 the direct (hands-on) dismantling of one of them started and has been completed in summer 2002; the second one will be dismantled in the next year and then the ''CORA'' plant will be assembled inside the cells. Special care w as taken to avoid spread of contamination in the cells, where ''CORA'' installation activities will start in the next years, during the dismantling process The analysis of data and results collected during the dismantling of the first cell shows that direct dismantling can be achieved with careful choice of tools, procedures and techniques, to reduce volumes of wastes to be disposed and radiological burden.

Gili, M.; Troiani, F.; Risoluti, P.

2003-02-27

29

Process monitoring in international safeguards for reprocessing plants: A demonstration  

SciTech Connect

In the period 1985--1987, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory investigated the possible role of process monitoring for international safeguards applications in fuel reprocessing plants. This activity was conducted under Task C.59, ''Review of Process Monitoring Safeguards Technology for Reprocessing Facilities'' of the US program of Technical Assistance to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards program. The final phase was a demonstration of process monitoring applied in a prototypical reprocessing plant test facility at ORNL. This report documents the demonstration and test results. 35 figs.

Ehinger, M.H.

1989-01-01

30

Environmental control aspects for fabrication, reprocessing and waste disposal of alternative LWR and LMFBR fuels  

SciTech Connect

Environmental control aspects of alternative fuel cycles have been analyzed by evaluating fabrication, reprocessing, and waste disposal operations. Various indices have been used to assess potential environmental control requirements. For the fabrication and reprocessing operations, 50-year dose commitments were used. Waste disposal was evaluated by comparing projected nuclide concentrations in ground water at various time periods with maximum permissible concentrations (MPCs). Three different fabrication plants were analyzed: a fuel fabrication plant (FFP) to produce low-activity uranium and uranium-thorium fuel rods; a plutonium fuel refabrication plant (PFRFP) to produce plutonium-uranium and plutonium-thorium fuel rods; and a uranium fuel refabrication plant (UFRFP) to produce fuel rods containing the high-activity isotopes /sup 232/U and /sup 233/U. Each plant's dose commitments are discussed separately. Source terms for the analysis of effluents from the fuel reprocessing plant (FRP) were calculated using the fuel burnup codes LEOPARD, CINDER and ORIGEN. Effluent quantities are estimated for each fuel type. Bedded salt was chosen for the waste repository analysis. The repository site is modeled on the Waste Isolation Pilot Program site in New Mexico. Wastes assumed to be stored in the repository include high-level vitrified waste from the FRP, packaged fuel residue from the FRP, and transuranic (TRU) contaminated wastes from the FFP, PFRFP, and UFRFP. The potential environmental significance was determined by estimating the ground-water concentrations of the various nuclides over a time span of a million years. The MPC for each nuclide was used along with the estimated ground-water concentration to generate a biohazard index for the comparison among fuel compositions.

Nolan, A.M.; Lewallen, M.A.; McNair, G.W.

1979-11-01

31

Childhood leukemia incidence in the vicinity of La Hague nuclear-waste reprocessing facility (France)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of leukemia is examined in young people (aged under 25 years) living within a 35 km radius of the French nuclear-waste reprocessing plant operating in La Hague, Normandy. During the period 1978–90, a total of 23 cases was diagnosed, giving an incidence rate of 2.99 per 100,000 which is close to the expected rate. In the ‘canton’ in

Jean-François Viel; Sylvia Richardson; Patrick Danel; Patrick Boutard; Michèle Malet; Paul Barrelier; Oumédaly Reman; André Carré

1993-01-01

32

Process for recovery of palladium from nuclear fuel reprocessing wastes  

DOEpatents

Palladium is selectively removed from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing waste by adding sugar to a strong nitric acid solution of the waste to partially denitrate the solution and cause formation of an insoluble palladium compound. The process includes the steps of: (a) adjusting the nitric acid content of the starting solution to about 10 M, (b) adding 50% sucrose solution in an amount sufficient to effect the precipitation of the palladium compound, (c) heating the solution at reflux temperature until precipitation is complete, and (d) centrifuging the solution to separate the precipitated palladium compound from the supernatant liquid.

Campbell, David O. (Oak Ridge, TN); Buxton, Samuel R. (Wartburg, TN)

1981-01-01

33

Process for recovery of palladium from nuclear fuel reprocessing wastes  

DOEpatents

Palladium is selectively removed from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing waste by adding sugar to a strong nitric acid solution of the waste to partially denitrate the solution and cause formation of an insoluble palladium compound. The process includes the steps of: (a) adjusting the nitric acid content of the starting solution to about 10 M; (b) adding 50% sucrose solution in an amount sufficient to effect the precipitation of the palladium compound; (c) heating the solution at reflux temperature until precipitation is complete; and (d) centrifuging the solution to separate the precipitated palladium compound from the supernatant liquid.

Campbell, D.O.; Buxton, S.R.

1980-06-16

34

Vitrification of IFR and MSBR halide salt reprocessing wastes  

SciTech Connect

Both of the genuinely sustainable (breeder) nuclear fuel cycles (IFR - Integral Fast Reactor - and MSBR - Molten Salt Breeder Reactor -) studied by the USA's national laboratories would generate high level reprocessing waste (HLRW) streams consisting of a relatively small amount ( about 4 mole %) of fission product halide (chloride or fluoride) salts in a matrix comprised primarily (about 95 mole %) of non radioactive alkali metal halide salts. Because leach resistant glasses cannot accommodate much of any of the halides, most of the treatment scenarios previously envisioned for such HLRW have assumed a monolithic waste form comprised of a synthetic analog of an insoluble crystalline halide mineral. In practice, this translates to making a 'substituted' sodalite ('Ceramic Waste Form') of the IFR's chloride salt-based wastes and fluoroapatite of the MSBR's fluoride salt-based wastes. This paper discusses my experimental studies of an alternative waste management scenario for both fuel cycles that would separate/recycle the waste's halide and immobilize everything else in iron phosphate (Fe-P) glass. It will describe both how the work was done and what its results indicate about how a treatment process for both of those wastes should be implemented (fluoride and chloride behave differently). In either case, this scenario's primary advantages include much higher waste loadings, much lower overall cost, and the generation of a product (glass) that is more consistent with current waste management practices. (author)

Siemer, D.D. [Idaho National Laboratory, 12N 3167E, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)

2013-07-01

35

Equipment specifications for an electrochemical fuel reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

Electrochemical reprocessing is a technique used to chemically separate and dissolve the components of spent nuclear fuel, in order to produce new metal fuel. There are several different variations to electrochemical reprocessing. These variations are accounted for by both the production of different types of spent nuclear fuel, as well as different states and organizations doing research in the field. For this electrochemical reprocessing plant, the spent fuel will be in the metallurgical form, a product of fast breeder reactors, which are used in many nuclear power plants. The equipment line for this process is divided into two main categories, the fuel refining equipment and the fuel fabrication equipment. The fuel refining equipment is responsible for separating out the plutonium and uranium together, while getting rid of the minor transuranic elements and fission products. The fuel fabrication equipment will then convert this plutonium and uranium mixture into readily usable metal fuel.

Hemphill, Kevin P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

36

Status of radioiodine control for nuclear fuel reprocessing plants  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the status of radioiodine control in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant with respect to capture, fixation, and disposal. Where possible, we refer the reader to a number of survey documents which have been published in the last four years. We provide updates where necessary. Also discussed are factors which must be considered in developing criteria for iodine control. For capture from gas streams, silver mordenite and a silver nitrate impregnated silica (AC-6120) are considered state-of-the-art and are recommended. Three aqueous scrubbing processes have been demonstrated: Caustic scrubbing is simple but probably will not give an adequate iodine retention by itself. Mercurex (mercuric nitrate-nitric acid scrubbing) has a number of disadvantages including the use of toxic mercury. Iodox (hyperazeotropic nitric acid scrubbing) is effective but employs a very corrosive and hazardous material. Other technologies have been tested but require extensive development. The waste forms recommended for long-term storage or disposal are silver iodide, the iodates of barium, strontium, or calcium, and silver loaded sorbents, all fixed in cement. Copper iodide in bitumen (asphalt) is a possibility but requires testing. The selection of a specific form will be influenced by the capture process used.

Burger, L.L.; Scheele, R.D.

1983-07-01

37

Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Sodium Bearing Waste - Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Determination  

SciTech Connect

U.S. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management, Section I.1.C, requires that all radioactive waste subject to Department of Energy Order 435.1 be managed as high-level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, or low-level radioactive waste. Determining the radiological classification of the sodium-bearing waste currently in the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tank Farm Facility inventory is important to its proper treatment and disposition. This report presents the technical basis for making the determination that the sodium-bearing waste is waste incidental to spent fuel reprocessing and should be managed as mixed transuranic waste. This report focuses on the radiological characteristics of the sodiumbearing waste. The report does not address characterization of the nonradiological, hazardous constituents of the waste in accordance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act requirements.

Jacobson, Victor Levon

2002-08-01

38

Outline of human machine interface at Rokkasho reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

The Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL) has been performing the active tests since the end of March, 2006, for its Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant using the spent fuels retrieved from the Light Water Reactors. At the early stage of the tests relatively low burn-up fuels have been used, and the burn-up will be increased at later stages until the start of commercial operation planned next year. The plant is operated from the main control room in the Control Building, where two types of operator consoles are located for plant monitoring and operation. The Operator Interface Station (OIS) driven by computer systems is chiefly used for instrumentation and control for production activities during normal operation. In addition to this, safety panels composed of hardware circuits are installed for nuclear safety functions such as criticality safety management, explosion protection, and confinement of radioactive materials. This paper outlines the Human Machine Interface features applied to the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant. (authors)

Niioka, T.; Miyazaki, T.; Fujita, D.; Esashika, A.; Yoshida, Y.; Nakamura, W.; Tochigi, T. [Maintenance Dept., Instrumentation and Control Maintenance Section, Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited, 4-108, Aza Okitsuke, Kamikita-gun, Aomori, 039-3212 (Japan); Yoshimoto, A.; Yokoi, M. [Nuclear Energy Systems and Services Div., Toshiba Corporation, 1-1, Shibaura 1-Chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-8001 (Japan)

2006-07-01

39

ON-LINE MONITORING FOR CONTROL AND SAFEGUARDING OF RADIOCHEMICAL STREAMS AT SPENT FUEL REPROCESSING PLANT  

SciTech Connect

Advanced techniques that enhance safeguarding of spent fuel reprocessing plants are urgently needed. Our approach is based on the prerequisite that real-time monitoring of solvent extraction flowsheets at a spent fuel reprocessing plant provides the unique capability to quickly detect unwanted manipulations with fissile isotopes present in the radiochemical streams during reprocessing activities. The methods used to monitor these processes must be robust and capable of withstanding harsh radiation and chemical environments. A new on-line monitoring system satisfying these requirements and featuring Raman spectroscopy combined with a Coriolis and conductivity probes recently has been developed by our research team for tank waste retrieval. It provides immediate chemical data and flow parameters of high-level radioactive waste streams with high brine content generated during retrieval activities from nuclear waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The nature of the radiochemical streams at the spent fuel reprocessing plant calls for additional spectroscopic information that can be gained by using Vis-NIR capabilities augmenting Raman spectroscopy. A fiber optic Raman probe allows monitoring of high concentration species encountered in both aqueous and organic phases within the UREX suite of flowsheets, including metal oxide ions, such as uranyl, components of the organic solvent, inorganic oxo-anions, and water. Actinides and lanthanides are monitored remotely by Vis-NIR spectroscopy in aqueous and organic phases. In this report, we present our results on spectroscopic measurements of simulant flowsheet solutions and commercial fuels designed to demonstrate the applicability of Raman and Vis-NIR spectroscopic analysis for actual dissolver feed solutions.

Bryan, Samuel A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lines, Amanda M.; Billing, Justin M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Johnsen, Amanda M.; Peterson, James M.; Thomas, Elizabeth M.

2009-11-10

40

Waste management system alternatives for treatment of wastes from spent fuel reprocessing  

SciTech Connect

This study was performed to help identify a preferred TRU waste treatment alternative for reprocessing wastes with respect to waste form performance in a geologic repository, near-term waste management system risks, and minimum waste management system costs. The results were intended for use in developing TRU waste acceptance requirements that may be needed to meet regulatory requirements for disposal of TRU wastes in a geologic repository. The waste management system components included in this analysis are waste treatment and packaging, transportation, and disposal. The major features of the TRU waste treatment alternatives examined here include: (1) packaging (as-produced) without treatment (PWOT); (2) compaction of hulls and other compactable wastes; (3) incineration of combustibles with cementation of the ash plus compaction of hulls and filters; (4) melting of hulls and failed equipment plus incineration of combustibles with vitrification of the ash along with the HLW; (5a) decontamination of hulls and failed equipment to produce LLW plus incineration and incorporation of ash and other inert wastes into HLW glass; and (5b) variation of this fifth treatment alternative in which the incineration ash is incorporated into a separate TRU waste glass. The six alternative processing system concepts provide progressively increasing levels of TRU waste consolidation and TRU waste form integrity. Vitrification of HLW and intermediate-level liquid wastes (ILLW) was assumed in all cases.

McKee, R.W.; Swanson, J.L.; Daling, P.M.; Clark, L.L.; Craig, R.A.; Nesbitt, J.F.; McCarthy, D.; Franklin, A.L.; Hazelton, R.F.; Lundgren, R.A.

1986-09-01

41

Neptunium flow-sheet verification at reprocessing plants  

SciTech Connect

Due to their fissile nature, neptunium and americium have at least a theoretical potential application as nuclear explosives and their proliferation potential was considered by the IAEA in studies in the late 1990's. This work was motivated by an increased awareness of the proliferation potential of americium and neptunium and a number of emerging projects in peaceful nuclear programmes which could result in an increase in the available quantities of these minor actinides. The studies culminated in proposals for various voluntary measures including the reporting of international transfers of separated americium and neptunium, declarations concerning the amount of separated neptunium and americium held by states and the application of flow-sheet verification to ensure that facilities capable of separating americium or neptunium are operated in a manner consistent with that declared. This paper discusses the issue of neptunium flowsheet verification in reprocessing plants. The proliferation potential of neptunium is first briefly discussed and then the chemistry of neptunium relevant to reprocessing plants described with a view to indicating a number of issues relevant to the verification of neptunium flow-sheets. Finally, the scope of verification activities is discussed including analysis of process and engineering design information, plant monitoring and sampling and the potential application of containment and surveillance measures. (authors)

Rance, P.; Chesnay, B.; Killeen, T.; Murray, M.; Nikkinen, M.; Petoe, A.; Plumb, J.; Saukkonen, H. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)

2007-07-01

42

Near-real-time verification approaches for the process area of reprocessing plants  

SciTech Connect

Adoption of near-real-time accountancy in large reprocessing plants will necessitate more timely verification. We discuss techniques and instruments that are suitable for on-site verification of input, output, waste streams, and in-process inventory estimation of tanks, solvent extraction contractors, and concentrators. Calculations show that estimates of solvent extraction contractor inventories may make an insignificant contribution to the total uncertainty of the material balance, relative to the contributions by transfer and process tank inventory measurements. 45 refs., 2 tabs.

Hakkila, E.A.; Barnes, J.W.; Picard, R.R.; Gutmacher, R.G.

1989-01-01

43

Nuclear fuel reprocessing deactivation plan for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The decision was announced on April 28, 1992 to cease all United States Department of Energy (DOE) reprocessing of nuclear fuels. This decision leads to the deactivation of all fuels dissolution, solvent extraction, krypton gas recovery operations, and product denitration at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The reprocessing facilities will be converted to a safe and stable shutdown condition awaiting future alternate uses or decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). This ICPP Deactivation Plan includes the scope of work, schedule, costs, and associated staffing levels necessary to achieve a safe and orderly deactivation of reprocessing activities and the Waste Calcining Facility (WCF). Deactivation activities primarily involve shutdown of operating systems and buildings, fissile and hazardous material removal, and related activities. A minimum required level of continued surveillance and maintenance is planned for each facility/process system to ensure necessary environmental, health, and safety margins are maintained and to support ongoing operations for ICPP facilities that are not being deactivated. Management of the ICPP was transferred from Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) to Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) on October 1, 1994 as part of the INEL consolidated contract. This revision of the deactivation plan (formerly the Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Phaseout Plan for the ICPP) is being published during the consolidation of the INEL site-wide contract and the information presented here is current as of October 31, 1994. LITCO has adopted the existing plans for the deactivation of ICPP reprocessing facilities and the plans developed under WINCO are still being actively pursued, although the change in management may result in changes which have not yet been identified. Accordingly, the contents of this plan are subject to revision.

Patterson, M.W.

1994-10-01

44

Potential safety-related incidents with possible applicability to a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

The occurrence of certain potential events in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants could lead to significant consequences involving risk to operating personnel or to the general public. This document is a compilation of such potential initiating events in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Possible general incidents and incidents specific to key operations in fuel reprocessing are considered, including possible causes, consequences, and safety features designed to prevent, detect, or mitigate such incidents.

Perkins, W.C.; Durant, W.S.; Dexter, A.H.

1980-12-01

45

AN ALTERNATIVE PROCESS TO IMMOBILIZE INTERMEDIATE WASTES FROM LWR FUEL REPROCESSING  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new concept for converting the intermediate wastes which result from light water reactor (LWR) fuel reprocessing into a single phase material, sodium zirconium phosphate ((NZP)), has been established. This conversion utilizes such waste materials as metals (zirconium alloy, stainless steels, and nickel alloy), spent solvent tri-butyl phosphate (TBP), and concentrated solution of sodium nitrate, and is accomplished using a

Yasuo Hirose; Tetsuo Fukasawa; Dinesh K. Agrawal; Barry E. Scheetz; Rama Nageswaran; Jay A. Curtis; Santosh Y. Limaye

1999-01-01

46

On-Line Monitoring and Control of Radiochemical Streams at Spent Fuel Reprocessing Plant  

SciTech Connect

Techniques are needed to provide on-line monitoring and control of the radiochemical processes that are being developed and demonstrated under the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) initiative. The instrumentation used to monitor these processes must be robust and must be able to withstand harsh radiation and chemical environments. A new on-line monitoring system satisfying these requirements featuring Raman spectroscopy combined with a Coriolis and conductivity probes, has been recently developed by our research team. It provides immediate chemical data and flow parameters of high-level radioactive waste streams with high brine/high alkalinity generated during retrieval from Hanford nuclear waste storage tanks. We are currently applying similar methodology for monitoring the radiochemical streams generated at the spent fuel reprocessing plant. The nature of these strems calls for additional spectroscopic information, which can be gained by the utilization of UV-vis-NIR capabilities.

Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Bryan, Samuel A.

2008-05-23

47

Fully integrated safeguards and security for reprocessing plant monitoring.  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear fuel reprocessing plants contain a wealth of plant monitoring data including material measurements, process monitoring, administrative procedures, and physical protection elements. Future facilities are moving in the direction of highly-integrated plant monitoring systems that make efficient use of the plant data to improve monitoring and reduce costs. The Separations and Safeguards Performance Model (SSPM) is an analysis tool that is used for modeling advanced monitoring systems and to determine system response under diversion scenarios. This report both describes the architecture for such a future monitoring system and present results under various diversion scenarios. Improvements made in the past year include the development of statistical tests for detecting material loss, the integration of material balance alarms to improve physical protection, and the integration of administrative procedures. The SSPM has been used to demonstrate how advanced instrumentation (as developed in the Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies campaign) can benefit the overall safeguards system as well as how all instrumentation is tied into the physical protection system. This concept has the potential to greatly improve the probability of detection for both abrupt and protracted diversion of nuclear material.

Duran, Felicia Angelica; Ward, Rebecca; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Middleton, Bobby D.

2011-10-01

48

Authentication of reprocessing plant safeguards data through correlation analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report investigates the feasibility and benefits of two new approaches to the analysis of safeguards data from reprocessing plants. Both approaches involve some level of plant modeling. All models involve some form of mass balance, either applied in the usual way that leads to material balances for individual process vessels at discrete times or applied by accounting for pipe flow rates that leads to material balances for individual process vessels at continuous times. In the first case, material balances are computed after each tank-to-tank transfer. In the second case, material balances can be computed at any desired time. The two approaches can be described as follows. The first approach considers the application of a new multivariate sequential test. The test statistic is a scalar, but the monitored residual is a vector. The second approach considers the application of recent nonlinear time series methods for the purpose of empirically building a model for the expected magnitude of a material balance or other scalar variable. Although the report restricts attention to monitoring scalar time series, the methodology can be extended to vector time series.

Burr, T.L.; Wangen, L.E.; Mullen, M.F.

1995-04-01

49

Crystal chemistry of sodium zirconium phosphate based simulated ceramic waste forms of effluent cations (Ba(2+), Sn(4+), Fe(3+), Cr(3+), Ni(2+) and Si(4+)) from light water reactor fuel reprocessing plants.  

PubMed

A novel concept of immobilization of light water reactor (LWR) fuel reprocessing waste effluent through interaction with sodium zirconium phosphate (NZP) has been established. Such conversion utilizes waste materials like zirconium and nickel alloys, stainless steel, spent solvent tri-butyl phosphate and concentrated solution of NaNO(3). The resultant multi component NZP material is a physically and chemically stable single phase crystalline product having good mechanical strength. The NZP matrix can also incorporate all types of fission product cations in a stable crystalline lattice structure; therefore, the resultant solid solutions deserve quantification of crystallographic data. In this communication, crystal chemistry of the two types of simulated waste forms (type I-Na(1.49)Zr(1.56)Sn(0.02)Fe(0).(28)Cr(0.07)Ni(0.07)P(3)O(12) and type II-Na(1.35)Ba(0.14)Zr(1.56)Sn(0.02)Fe(0).(28)Cr(0.07)Ni(0.07)P(2.86)Si(0.14)O(12)) has been investigated using General Structure Analysis System (GSAS) programming of the X-ray powder diffraction data. About 4001 data points of each have been subjected to Rietveld analysis to arrive at a satisfactory structural convergence of Rietveld parameters; R-pattern (R(p))=0.0821, R-weighted pattern (R(wp))=0.1266 for type I and R(p)=0.0686, R(wp)=0.0910 for type II. The structure of type I and type II waste forms consist of ZrO(6) octahedra and PO(4) tetrahedra linked by the corners to form a three-dimensional network. Each phosphate group is on a two-fold rotation axis and is linked to four ZrO(6) octahedra while zirconium octahedra lies on a three-fold rotation axis and is connected to six PO(4) tetrahedra. Though the expansion along c-axis and shrinkage along a-axis with slight distortion of bond angles in the synthesized crystal indicate the flexibility of the structure, the waste forms are basically of NZP structure. Morphological examination by SEM reveals that the size of almost rectangular parallelepiped crystallites varies between 0.5 and 1.5 microm. The EDX analysis provides the analytical evidence of immobilization of effluent cations in the matrix. The particle size distributions of the material along selected reflecting planes have been calculated by Scherrer's formula. PMID:17905513

Shrivastava, O P; Chourasia, Rashmi

2008-05-01

50

Study on release and transport of aerial radioactive materials in reprocessing plants  

SciTech Connect

The release and transport characteristics of radioactive materials at a boiling accident of the high active liquid waste (HALW) in a reprocessing plant have been studied for improving experimental data of source terms of the boiling accident. In the study, a heating test and a thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) test were conducted. In the heating test using a simulated HALW, it was found that ruthenium was mainly released into the air in the form of gas and that non-volatile elements were released into the air in the form of mist. In the TG-DTA test, the rate constants and reaction heat of thermal decomposition of ruthenium nitrosyl nitrate were obtained from TG and DTA curves. (authors)

Amano, Y.; Tashiro, S.; Uchiyama, G.; Abe, H.; Yamane, Y.; Yoshida, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirane, Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan); Kodama, T. [Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd., 4-108 Okitsuke, Obuchi, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori, 039-3212 (Japan)

2013-07-01

51

NUCLEAR MATERIALS CONTROL SYSTEM (NMCS). PHASE II. SPECIFIC GRAVITY INSTRUMENTS FOR A NUCLEAR FUELS REPROCESSING PLANT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific gravity instrumentation suitable for a nuclear fuels ; reprocessing plant was evaluated for possible use in a Nuclear Materials Control ; System (NMCS). Two basic types of instruments were considered: Pneumatic ; \\

W. E. Foster; E. R. Rosal

1959-01-01

52

Guide to the selection, training, and licensing or certification of reprocessing plant operators. Volume I  

SciTech Connect

The Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 55, establishes procedures and criteria for the licensing of operators, including senior operators, in ''Production and Utilization Facilities'', which includes plants for reprocessing irradiated fuel. A training guide is presented which will facilitate the licensing of operators for nuclear reprocessing plants by offering generalized descriptions of the basic principles (theory) and the unit operations (mechanics) employed in reprocessing spent fuels. In the present volume, details about the portions of a training program that are of major interest to management are presented. (JSR)

None

1976-06-01

53

Solidification of Savannah River Plant high-level waste  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy, in accord with recommendations from the Du Pont Company, has started construction of a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Plant. The facility should be completed by the end of 1988, and full-scale operation should begin in 1990. This facility will immobilize in borosilicate glass the large quantity of high-level radioactive waste now stored at the plant plus the waste to be generated from continued chemical reprocessing operations. The existing wastes at the Savannah River Plant will be completely converted by about 2010. 21 figures.

Maher, R; Shafranek, L F; Stevens, III, W R

1983-01-01

54

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed to immobilize pretreated Hanford high-level waste and transuranic waste in borosilicate glass contained in stainless steel canisters. Testing is being conducted in the HWVP Technology Development Project to ensure that adapted technologies are applicable to the candidate Hanford wastes and to generate information for waste form qualification. Empirical modeling is being conducted to define a glass composition range consistent with process and waste form qualification requirements. Laboratory studies are conducted to determine process stream properties, characterize the redox chemistry of the melter feed as a basis for controlling melt foaming and evaluate zeolite sorption materials for process waste treatment. Pilot-scale tests have been performed with simulated melter feed to access filtration for solids removal from process wastes, evaluate vitrification process performance and assess offgas equipment performance. Process equipment construction materials are being selected based on literature review, corrosion testing, and performance in pilot-scale testing. 3 figs., 6 tabs.

Larson, D.E.; Allen, C.R. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Kruger, O.L.; Weber, E.T. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States))

1991-10-01

55

Progress and experiences from the decommissioning of the Eurochemic reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

Belgoprocess started the industrial decommissioning of the main process building of the former EUROCHEMIC reprocessing plant in 1990, after completion of a pilot project in which two buildings were emptied and decontaminated to background levels. The remaining structures were demolished and the concrete debris was disposed of as industrial waste and green field conditions restored. The Eurochemic reprocessing plant operated from 1966 to 1974 to process fuel from power reactors and research reactors. The main building is a large concrete structure, comprising a surface area of 55,000 m{sup 2}, concrete volume 12,500 m{sup 3}, and 1,500 Mg of metal components. The building is divided into multiple cells. About 106 individual cell structures have to be dismantled, involving the removal and decontamination of equipment from each cell, the decontamination of the cell walls, ceilings and floors, the dismantling of the ventilation system. Most of the work involves hands-on operations under protective clothing tailored to each specific task. Tool automation and automatic positioning systems are successfully applied. In view of the final demolition of the main process building, the main process building is divided into three parts - each part is isolated from the others. In the middle of 2008, after the removal of the NDA-IPAN/GEA installation, the eastern part will be demolished. The paper presents a status overview of the decommissioning and decontamination activities at the main process building of the former Eurochemic reprocessing plant on the nuclear site of Dessel in Belgium. The specific BELGOPROCESS approach will be highlighted, in which the decommissioning activities are carried out on an industrial scale with special emphasis on cost minimisation, the use of technology on an industrial representative scale and the specific alpha contamination of equipment and building surfaces, requiring that the decommissioning work is done with adequate protective clothing. Also specific breathing and cooling air systems have been provided to allow the operators to carry out the decommissioning tasks in acceptable working conditions. (authors)

Gills, R.; Lewandowski, P.; Ooms, B.; Reusen, N.; Van Laer, W.; Walthery, R. [Belgoprocess n.v., Decommissioning and Decontamination Division, Dessel (Belgium)

2007-07-01

56

Sensitization and Intergranular Corrosion Behavior of High Nitrogen Type 304LN Stainless Steels for Reprocessing and Waste Management Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High nitrogen 304LN stainless steels (SS) intended for chloride and nitric acid environments in spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and waste management applications were evaluated for their sensitization and intergranular corrosion (IGC) resistance. For this purpose, high nitrogen (0.132 pct, 0.193 pct and 0.406 pct) containing, impurity-controlled, vanadium-added 304LN SS alloys were developed. For comparison, 304L SS, which is currently used in reprocessing plants, was also studied. These stainless steels were subjected to heat treatment at 948 K (675 °C) for various durations ranging from 1 to 1000 hours and tested for susceptibility to IGC as per ASTM A262 Practice A and E tests. The degree of sensitization was estimated with the double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation technique. The increase in nitrogen content resulted in higher hardness and finer grain size. Based on the detailed microstructural and corrosion studies, it was determined that an addition of 0.132 pct and 0.193 pct nitrogen showed better IGC resistance and an additional increase in nitrogen resulted in deterioration resulting from chromium nitride precipitation, which was confirmed by electrochemical phase separation and X-ray diffraction studies. The onset of desensitization was faster for the alloy with 0.132 pct nitrogen as well as 0.406 pct nitrogen because of the lower nitrogen content in the former case and the finer grain size in the latter case. The higher hardness and superior IGC resistance of 0.132 pct and 0.193 pct nitrogen containing Type 304LN SS suggests the suitability of this alloy for nitric acid- and chloride-containing environments of reprocessing and waste management plants.

Parvathavarthini, N.; Kamachi Mudali, U.; Nenova, Lilyana; Andreev, Chavdar; Raj, Baldev

2012-06-01

57

Conservatism in effective dose calculations for accident events involving fuel reprocessing waste tanks.  

PubMed

Conservatism in the calculation of the effective dose following an airborne release from an accident involving a fuel reprocessing waste tank is examined. Within the regulatory constraints at the Hanford Site, deterministic effective dose calculations are conservative by at least an order of magnitude. Deterministic calculations should be used with caution in reaching decisions associated with required safety systems and mitigation philosophy related to the accidental release of airborne radioactive material to the environment. PMID:21617391

Bevelacqua, J J

2011-07-01

58

Reprocessing of nuclear fuels at the Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect

For more than 30 years, the Savannah River Plant (SRP) has been a major supplier of nuclear materials such as plutonium-239 and tritium-3 for nuclear and thermonuclear weapons, plutonium-238 for space exploration, and isotopes of americium, curium, and californium for use in the nuclear research community. SRP is a complete nuclear park, providing most of the processes in the nuclear fuel cycle. Key processes involve fabrication and cladding of the nuclear fuel, target, and control assemblies; rework of heavy water for use as reactor moderator; reactor loading, operation, and unloading; chemical recovery of the reactor transmutation products and spent fuels; and management of the gaseous, liquid, and solid nuclear and chemical wastes; plus a host of support operations. The site's history and the key processes from fabrication of reactor fuels and targets to finishing of virgin plutonium for use in the nuclear weapons complex are reviewed. Emphasis has been given to the chemistry of the recovery and purification of weapons grade plutonium from irradiated reactor targets.

Gray, L.W.

1986-10-04

59

Potential safety-related incidents with possible applicability to a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

The Safety Technology Group is developing methodology that can be used to assess the risk of operating a plant to reprocess spent nuclear fuel. As an early step in the methodology, a preliminary hazards analysis identifies safety-related incidents. In the absence of appropriate safety features, these incidents could lead to significant consequences and risk to onsite personnel or to the public. This report is a compilation of potential safety-related incidents that have been identified in studies at SRL and in safety analyses of various commercially designed reprocessing plants. It is an expanded revision of the version originally published as DP-1558, Published December 1980.

Durant, W.S.; Perkins, W.C.; Lee, R.; Stoddard, D.H.

1982-05-20

60

Materials management in an internationally safeguarded fuels reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

The following appendices are included: aqueous reprocessing and conversion technology, reference facilities, process design and operating features relevant to materials accounting, operator's safeguards system structure, design principles of dynamic materials accounting systems, modeling and simulation approach, optimization of measurement control, aspects of international verification problem, security and reliability of materials measurement and accounting system, estimation of in-process inventory in solvent-extraction contactors, conventional measurement techniques, near-real-time measurement techniques, isotopic correlation techniques, instrumentation available to IAEA inspectors, and integration of materials accounting and containment and surveillance. (DLC)

Hakkila, E.A.; Baker, A.L.; Cobb, D.D.

1980-04-01

61

Development of a Phosphate Ceramic as a Host for Halide-contaminated Plutonium Pyrochemical Reprocessing Wastes  

SciTech Connect

The presence of halide anions in four types of wastes arising from the pyrochemical reprocessing of plutonium required an immobilization process to be developed in which not only the actinide cations but also the halide anions were immobilized in a durable waste form. At AWE, we have developed such a process using Ca3(PO4)2 as the host material. Successful trials of the process with actinide- and Cl-bearing Type I waste were carried out at PNNL where the immobilization of the waste in a form resistant to aqueous leaching was confirmed. Normalized mass losses determined at 40°C and 28 days were 12 x 10-6 g?m-2 and 2.7 x 10-3 g?m-2 for Pu and Cl, respectively. Accelerated radiation-induced damage effects are being determined with specimens containing 238Pu. No changes in the crystalline lattice have been detected with XRD after the 239Pu equivalent of 400 years ageing. Confirmation of the process for Type II waste (a oxyhydroxide-based waste) is currently underway at PNNL. Differences in the ionic state of Pu in the four types of waste have required different surrogates to be used. Samarium chloride was used successfully as a surrogate for both Pu(III) and Am(III) chlorides. Initial investigations into the use of HfO2 as the surrogate for Pu(IV) oxide in Type II waste indicated no significant differences.

Metcalfe, Brian; Fong, Shirley K.; Gerrard, Lee A.; Donald, Ian W.; Strachan, Denis M.; Scheele, Randall D.

2007-03-31

62

Tritium control by water recycle in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary study was made of the use of water recycle within a reprocessing plant to control the escape of tritium and to consolidate it for disposal. Tritium distribution was evaluated in the leacher, high-level, and low-level systems for seven different flowsheet conditions. Tritium retention efficiency was also evaluated for these flowsheet conditions. Impact of tritiated water recycle on the

N. E. Hall; G. N. Ward

1975-01-01

63

Workshop on instrumentation and analyses for a nuclear fuel reprocessing hot pilot plant  

SciTech Connect

In order to assist in the study of instrumentation and analytical needs for reprocessing plants, a workshop addressing these needs was held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory from May 5 to 7, 1980. The purpose of the workshop was to incorporate the knowledge of chemistry and of advanced measurement techniques held by the nuclear and radiochemical community into ideas for improved and new plant designs for both process control and inventory and safeguards measurements. The workshop was athended by experts in nuclear and radiochemistry, in fuel recycle plant design, and in instrumentation and analysis. ORNL was a particularly appropriate place to hold the workshop since the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) is centered there. Requirements for safeguarding the special nuclear materials involved in reprocessing, and for their timely measurement within the process, within the reprocessing facility, and at the facility boundaries are being studied. Because these requirements are becoming more numerous and stringent, attention is also being paid to the analytical requirements for these special nuclear materials and to methods for measuring the physical parameters of the systems containing them. In order to provide a focus for the consideration of the workshop participants, the Hot Experimental Facility (HEF) being designed conceptually by the CFRP was used as a basis for consideration and discussions.

Babcock, S.M.; Feldman, M.J.; Wymer, R.G.; Hoffman, D.

1980-05-01

64

Development and demonstration of near-real-time accounting systems for reprocessing plants  

SciTech Connect

A program to develop and demonstrate near-real-time accounting systems for reprocessing plants has been active at Los Alamos since 1976. The technology has been developed through modeling and simulation of process operation and measurement systems and evaluation of these data using decision analysis techniques. Aspects of near-real-time systems have been demonstrated successfully at the AGNS reprocessng plant as part of a joint study of near-real-time accounting.

Cobb, D.D.; Hakkila, E.A.; Dayem, H.A.; Shipley, J.P.; Baker, A.L.

1981-01-01

65

Waste Treatment Plant - 12508  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) will immobilize millions of gallons of Hanford's tank waste into solid glass using a proven technology called vitrification. The vitrification process will turn the waste into a stable glass form that is safe for long-term storage. Our discussion of the WTP will include a description of the ongoing design and construction of this large, complex, first-of-a-kind project. The concept for the operation of the WTP is to separate high-level and low-activity waste fractions, and immobilize those fractions in glass using vitrification. The WTP includes four major nuclear facilities and various support facilities. Waste from the Tank Farms is first pumped to the Pretreatment Facility at the WTP through an underground pipe-in-pipe system. When construction is complete, the Pretreatment Facility will be 12 stories high, 540 feet long and 215 feet wide, making it the largest of the four major nuclear facilities that compose the WTP. The total size of this facility will be more than 490,000 square feet. More than 8.2 million craft hours are required to construct this facility. Currently, the Pretreatment Facility is 51 percent complete. At the Pretreatment Facility the waste is pumped to the interior waste feed receipt vessels. Each of these four vessels is 55-feet tall and has a 375,000 gallon capacity, which makes them the largest vessels inside the Pretreatment Facility. These vessels contain a series of internal pulse-jet mixers to keep incoming waste properly mixed. The vessels are inside the black-cell areas, completely enclosed behind thick steel-laced, high strength concrete walls. The black cells are designed to be maintenance free with no moving parts. Once hot operations commence the black-cell area will be inaccessible. Surrounded by black cells, is the 'hot cell canyon'. The hot cell contains all the moving and replaceable components to remove solids and extract liquids. In this area, there is ultrafiltration equipment, cesium-ion exchange columns, evaporator boilers and recirculation pumps, and various mechanical process pumps for transferring process fluids. During the first phase of pretreatment, the waste will be concentrated using an evaporation process. Solids will be filtered out, and the remaining soluble, highly radioactive isotopes will be removed using an ion-exchange process. The high-level solids will be sent to the High-Level Waste (HLW) Vitrification Facility, and the low activity liquids will be sent to the Low-Activity Waste (LAW) Vitrification Facility for further processing. The high-level waste will be transferred via underground pipes to the HLW Facility from the Pretreatment Facility. The waste first arrives at the wet cell, which rests inside a black-cell area. The pretreated waste is transferred through shielded pipes into a series of melter preparation and feed vessels before reaching the melters. Liquids from various facility processes also return to the wet cell for interim storage before recycling back to the Pretreatment Facility. (authors)

Harp, Benton; Olds, Erik [US DOE (United States)

2012-07-01

66

Designing and Operating for Safeguards: Lessons Learned From the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP)  

SciTech Connect

This paper will address the lessons learned during the implementation of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) which are relevant to the issue of ‘safeguards by design’. However, those lessons are a result of a cumulative history of international safeguards experiences starting with the West Valley reprocessing plant in 1969, continuing with the Barnwell plant, and then with the implementation of international safeguards at WAK in Germany and TRP in Japan. The design and implementation of safeguards at RRP in Japan is the latest and most challenging that the IAEA has faced. This paper will discuss the work leading up to the development of a safeguards approach, the design and operating features that were introduced to improve or aid in implementing the safeguards approach, and the resulting recommendations for future facilities. It will provide an overview of how ‘safeguardability’ was introduced into RRP.

Johnson, Shirley J.; Ehinger, Michael

2010-08-07

67

Development of a Phosphate Ceramic as a Host for Halide-Contaminated Plutonium Pyrochemical Reprocessing Wastes  

SciTech Connect

The presence of halide anions in four types of wastes arising from the pyrochemical reprocessing of plutonium required an immobilization process to be developed in which not only the actinide cations but also the halide anions were immobilized in a durable, leach resistant form. AWE has developed such a process using Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} as the host material. Successful trials of the process using actinide-doped Type I waste (essentially a chloride-based waste) were carried out at PNNL where the immobilization of the waste in a form resistant to aqueous leaching was confirmed. Normalized mass losses determined using a modified MCC-1 test at 40 deg. C/28 days were 12 x 10{sup -6} g.m{sup -2} and 2.7 x 10{sup -3} g.m{sup -2} for Pu and Cl, respectively. Accelerated radiation-induced damage effects are being determined with specimens containing {sup 238}Pu. No changes in the crystalline lattice have been detected with XRD after the {sup 239}Pu equivalent of 400 years ageing. Confirmation of the process for Type II waste (an oxyhydroxide-based waste) is currently underway at PNNL. Differences in the ionic state of plutonium in the four types of waste have required different surrogates to be used. Samarium chloride was used successfully as a surrogate for both Pu(III) and Am(III) chlorides. Early investigations into the use of HfO{sub 2} as the surrogate for Pu(IV) oxide in Type II waste showed some apparent differences in the phase assemblages of the surrogate and actinide-based products. However XRD examination of the products at higher resolution has demonstrated there is no significant difference and that for this work HfO{sub 2} is a suitable surrogate for PuO{sub 2}. (authors)

Metcalfe, Brian; Fong, Shirley; Gerrard, Lee; Donald, Ian [MSRD, AWE plc, AWE Aldermaston, Reading, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Strachan, Denis; Scheele, Randall [PNNL, Richland, WA, 99352 (United States)

2007-07-01

68

Process monitoring for reprocessing plant safeguards: a summary review  

SciTech Connect

Process monitoring is a term typically associated with a detailed look at plant operating data to determine plant status. Process monitoring has been generally associated with operational control of plant processes. Recently, process monitoring has been given new attention for a possible role in international safeguards. International Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) Task C.59 has the goal to identify specific roles for process monitoring in international safeguards. As the preliminary effort associated with this task, a review of previous efforts in process monitoring for safeguards was conducted. Previous efforts mentioned concepts and a few specific applications. None were comprehensive in addressing all aspects of a process monitoring application for safeguards. This report summarizes the basic elements that must be developed in a comprehensive process monitoring application for safeguards. It then summarizes the significant efforts that have been documented in the literature with respect to the basic elements that were addressed.

Kerr, H.T.; Ehinger, M.H.; Wachter, J.W.; Hebble, T.L.

1986-10-01

69

Corrosion mechanisms of austenitic stainless steels in nitric media used in reprocessing plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Austenitic stainless steels type 304L, 316L and 310Nb are largely used as structural materials for equipments handling nitric acid media in reprocessing plants. In almost all nitric media, these materials, protected by a chromium(III) oxide rich layer, remain in their passive state. However, in some particular nitric media, their corrosion potential may be shifted towards their transpassive domain. In this

P. Fauvet; F. Balbaud; R. Robin; Q.-T. Tran; A. Mugnier; D. Espinoux

2008-01-01

70

Preliminary concepts: coordinated safeguards for materials management in a thorium--uranium fuel reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses preliminary concepts for coordinated safeguards materials management in a typical generic thorium--uranium-fueled light-water reactor (LWR) fuels reprocessing plant. The reference facility is designed to recover thorium and uranium from first-generation (denatured /sup 235/U) startup fuels, first-recycle and equilibrium (denatured /sup 233/U) thorium--uranium LWR fuels, and to recover the plutonium generated in the /sup 238/U denaturant as well. 12 figures, 3 tables.

Hakkila, E.A.; Barnes, J.W.; Dayem, H.A.; Dietz, R.J.; Shipley, J.P.

1978-10-01

71

Lessons Learned in International Safeguards - Implementation of Safeguards at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this report is lessons learned at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP). However, the subject of lessons learned for application of international safeguards at reprocessing plants includes a cumulative history of inspections starting at the West Valley (New York, U.S.A.) reprocessing plant in 1969 and proceeding through all of the efforts over the years. The RRP is the latest and most challenging application the International Atomic Energy Agency has faced. In many ways the challenges have remained the same, timely inspection and evaluation with limited inspector resources, with the continuing realization that planning and preparations can never start early enough in the life cycle of a facility. Lessons learned over the years have involved the challenges of using ongoing advances in technology and dealing with facilities with increased throughput and continuous operation. This report will begin with a review of historical developments and lessons learned. This will provide a basis for a discussion of the experiences and lessons learned from the implementation of international safeguards at RRP.

Ehinger, Michael H [ORNL; Johnson, Shirley [Tucker Creek Consulting

2010-02-01

72

Use of the Waste-Incidental-to-Reprocessing Citation Process at the West Valley Demonstration Project - 12250  

SciTech Connect

The West Valley Demonstration Project recently achieved a breakthrough in management of radioactive waste from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel by taking advantage of lessons learned at other Department of Energy (DOE) sites in implementation of the waste-incidental-to-reprocessing citation process of DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management. This breakthrough involved a revision to the site procedure on waste-incidental to reprocessing. This procedure revision served as the basis for a determination by the DOE West Valley field office using the citation process that three secondary waste streams consisting of equipment that had once been contaminated by association with HLW are not HLW following decontamination and may be disposed of as low-level waste (LLW) or transuranic waste. These waste streams, which comprised much of the approximately 380 cubic meters of West Valley waste contaminated by association with HLW, included several vessels and certain tank farm equipment. By making use of lessons learned in use of the citation process by other DOE sites and information developed to support use of the citation process at the Hanford site and the Savannah River Site, the team developed a technical basis for showing that use of the citation process of DOE Manual 435.1-1 for the three new waste stream was appropriate and technically justified. The Waste Management Working Group of the EFCOG assisted in transferring lessons learned by drawing on experience from around the DOE complex. This process shared knowledge about effective implementation of the citation process in a manner that proved to be beneficial to the West Valley Demonstration Project and resulted in a technical basis document that could be used to determine that the three new waste streams were not HLW. (authors)

Sullivan, Dan; Suttora, Linda [U.S. Department of Energy (United States); Goldston, Sonny [EnergySolutions - USA (United States); Petras, Robert [Savannah River Remediation (United States); Rowell, Laurene [URS Corporation (United States); McNeil, Jim [Consultant - USA (United States)

2012-07-01

73

Krypton-85 health risk assessment for a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

The risks involved in the routine release of /sup 85/Kr from nuclear fuel reprocessing operations to the environment were compared to those resulting from the capture and storage of /sup 85/Kr. Instead of releasing the /sup 85/Kr to the environment when fuel is reprocessed, it can be captured, immobilized and stored. Two alternative methods of capturing /sup 85/Kr (cryogenic distillation and fluorocarbon absorption) and one method of immobilizing the captured gas (ion implantation/sputtering) were theoretically incorporated into a representative fuel reprocessing plant, the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant, even though there are no known plans to start up this facility. Given the uncertainties in the models used to generate lifetime risk numbers (0.02 to 0.027 radiation induced fatal cancers expected in the occupational workforce and 0.017 fatal cancers in the general population), the differences in total risks for the three situations, (i.e., no-capture and two-capture alternatives) cannot be considered meaningful. It is possible that no risks would occur from any of the three situations. There is certainly no reason to conclude that risks from /sup 85/Kr routinely released to the environment are greater than those that would result from the other two situations considered. Present regulations mandate recovery and disposal of /sup 85/Kr from the off gases of a facility reprocessing spent fuel from commercial sources. Because of the lack of a clear-cut indication that recovery woud be beneficial, it does not seem prudent to burden the facilities with a requirement for /sup 85/Kr recovery, at least until operating experience demonstrates the incentive. The probable high aging of the early fuel to be processed and the higher dose resulting from the release of the unregulated /sup 3/H and /sup 14/C also encourage delaying implementation of the /sup 85/Kr recovery in the early plants.

Mellinger, P.J.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Tanner, J.E.; Gilbert, E.S.

1984-08-01

74

AVLIS production plant waste management plan  

SciTech Connect

Following the executive summary, this document contains the following: (1) waste management facilities design objectives; (2) AVLIS production plant wastes; (3) waste management design criteria; (4) waste management plan description; and (5) waste management plan implementation. 17 figures, 18 tables.

Not Available

1984-11-15

75

Intergranular corrosion mechanism of ultra-low carbon type 304 stainless steel in a nuclear reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion of the components which contains nitric acid solution such as vessels, tanks and pipes is an important problem for a PUREX method nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. In Tokai Reprocessing Plant which was startup in 1977 as the first Japanese plant, several events caused by corrosion have been experienced for about 30 years operation. The second plant in Japan, Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant, will start commercial operation from 2007. For stable operation of Rokkasho plant, maintenance management of components will be important. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the corrosion mechanism and to reflect the results of the research for a maintenance program of the plant adequately. If high burnup fuel will increase in future nuclear power plants, it will become necessary to reprocess the spent fuel which includes more fission products and transuranium from now. Then the study of corrosion mechanism and life evaluation will become more important problem. Authors were aimed for development of life evaluation method of components and clarification of intergranular corrosion mechanism of ultra-low carbon type 304 stainless steel in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. In this report, the results of long-term corrosion test in boiling nitric acid by using ultra-low carbon stainless steel made mock-up test apparatus was described. And then, the relation between corrosion rate change and intergranular corrosion behavior were discussed. (authors)

Ueno, Fumiyoshi; Kato, Chiaki; Motooka, Takafumi; Yamamoto, Masahiro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency Shirakata Shirane 2-4, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki pref., 319-1195 (Japan); Ichikawa, Shiro [Kobelco Research Institute, Inc. 1-5-5, Takatsukadai, Nishi-ku, Kobe city, 651-2271 (Japan)

2007-07-01

76

Waste-Incidental-to-Reprocessing Evaluation for the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Melter - 12167  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that the vitrification melter used in the West Valley Demonstration Project can be disposed of as low-level waste (LLW) after completion of a waste-incidental-to-reprocessing evaluation performed in accordance with the evaluation process of DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. The vitrification melter - which consists of a ceramic lined, electrically heated box structure - was operated for more than 5 years melting and fusing high-level waste (HLW) slurry and glass formers and pouring the molten glass into 275 stainless steel canisters. Prior to shutdown, the melter was decontaminated by processing low-activity decontamination flush solutions and by extracting molten glass from the melter cavity. Because it could not be completely emptied, residual radioactivity conservatively estimated at approximately 170 TBq (4,600 Ci) remained in the vitrification melter. To establish whether the melter was incidental to reprocessing, DOE prepared an evaluation to demonstrate that the vitrification melter: (1) had been processed to remove key radionuclides to the maximum extent technically and economically practical; (2) would be managed to meet safety requirements comparable to the performance objectives for LLW established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); and (3) would be managed by DOE in accordance with DOE's requirements for LLW after it had been incorporated in a solid physical form with radionuclide concentrations that do not exceed the NRC concentration limits for Class C LLW. DOE consulted with the NRC on the draft evaluation and gave other stakeholders an opportunity to submit comments before the determination was made. The NRC submitted a request for additional information in connection with staff review of the draft evaluation; DOE provided the additional information and made improvements to the evaluation, which was issued in January 2012. DOE considered the NRC Technical Evaluation Report as well as comments received from other stakeholders prior to making its determination that the vitrification melter is not HLW, does not require permanent isolation in a geologic repository, and can be disposed of as LLW. (authors)

McNeil, Jim; Kurasch, David [consultant - USA (United States); Sullivan, Dan; Crandall, Thomas [U.S. Department of Energy (United States)

2012-07-01

77

PRELIMINARY STUDY OF CERAMICS FOR IMMOBILIZATION OF ADVANCED FUEL CYCLE REPROCESSING WASTES  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed a series of ceramic waste forms for the immobilization of Cesium/Lanthanide (CS/LN) and Cesium/Lanthanide/Transition Metal (CS/LN/TM) waste streams anticipated to result from nuclear fuel reprocessing. Simple raw materials, including Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO, and TiO{sub 2} were combined with simulated waste components to produce multiphase ceramics containing hollandite-type phases, perovskites (particularly BaTiO{sub 3}), pyrochlores, zirconolite, and other minor metal titanate phases. Identification of excess Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} via X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) in the first series of compositions led to a Phase II study, with significantly reduced Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations and increased waste loadings. Three fabrication methodologies were used, including melting and crystallizing, pressing and sintering, and Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS), with the intent of studying phase evolution under various sintering conditions. XRD and SEM/EDS results showed that the partitioning of the waste elements in the sintered materials was very similar, despite varying stoichiometry of the phases formed. The Phase II compositions generally contained a reduced amount of unreacted Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as identified by XRD, and had phase assemblages that were closer to the initial targets. Chemical composition measurements showed no significant issues with meeting the target compositions. However, volatilization of Cs and Mo was identified, particularly during melting, since sintering of the pressed pellets and SPS were performed at lower temperatures. Partitioning of some of the waste components was difficult to determine via XRD. SEM/EDS mapping showed that those elements, which were generally present in small concentrations, were well distributed throughout the waste forms. Initial studies of radiation damage tolerance using ion beam irradiation at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) showed little if any modification of the material after irradiation. Additional study in this area is needed. Chemical durability was briefly studied using the Product Consistency Test (PCT). Most of the elements measured were retained by the ceramic waste forms, indicating good chemical durability. Cs, Mo, and Rb were released at somewhat higher rates as compared to the matrix components, although benchmark compositions and additional characterization are needed in order to qualify the PCT results.

Fox, K.; Billings, A.; Brinkman, K.; Marra, J.

2010-09-22

78

Sodium Recycle Economics for Waste Treatment Plant Operations  

SciTech Connect

Sodium recycle at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) would reduce the number of glass canisters produced, and has the potential to save the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tens of millions of dollars. The sodium, added in the form of sodium hydroxide, was originally added to minimize corrosion of carbon-steel storage tanks from acidic reprocessing wastes. In the baseline Hanford treatment process, sodium hydroxide is required to leach gibbsite and boehmite from the high level waste (HLW) sludge. In turn, this reduces the amount of HLW glass produced. Currently, a significant amount of additional sodium hydroxide will be added to the process to maintain aluminate solubility at ambient temperatures during ion exchange of cesium. The vitrification of radioactive waste is limited by sodium content, and this additional sodium mass will increase low-activity waste-glass mass.

Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Fountain, Matthew S.

2008-03-01

79

Fuel reprocessing. A General Electric view  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of reprocessing plant should satisfy key requirements of ; safety, minimum environmental impact, and operability, as the indispensable ; matiers. The MFRP (Midwest Fuel Recovery Plant) uses a single cycle of solvent ; extraction to separate more than 99.9% of fission product radioactivity in an ; aqueous waste stream of moderate volume. Pu and Np are recovered by

Levy

1973-01-01

80

Reprocessing plant input accountability measurements - a new and simplified spiking technique  

SciTech Connect

Isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) is the most widely applied analytical technique for input accountability measurements in reprocessing plants. The procedure usually involves lengthy sample preparation-subsampling an aliquot of the concentrated sample, accurately diluting with nitric acid, and spiking of diluted aliquots with tracer materials, such as {sup 233}U and {sup 242}Pu or {sup 244}Pu. The many steps involved are not only time-consuming but can also be sources of significant errors. De Biever et al. have reported results for a procedure that uses well-defined solid spikes of {sup 235}U/{sup 239}Pu or {sup 235}U/{sup 242}Pu. Metallic spikes were prepared from certified metallic source materials by a high-frequency levitation technique. The technique appeals to safeguards authorities and plant operators because of the relative simplicity of sample preparation. Its routine use was never promoted, however, because of unresolved questions concerning the spikes' homogeneity, cost, and long-term supply. A large size dry (LSD) spike has been proposed as an alternative to the metal spike and subjected to an experiment at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant. Participating in the experiment were the plant operator, the national safeguards authority, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

Kuno, Y.; Takeda, S.; Sato, S.; Akiyama, T.; Tsutaki, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Kuhn, E.; Deron, S.; Sirisena, K.

1989-11-01

81

Methodology of Qualification of CCIM Vitrification Process Applied to the High- Level Liquid Waste from Reprocessed Oxide Fuels - 12438  

SciTech Connect

The vitrification of high-level liquid waste from reprocessed oxide fuels (UOX fuels) by Cold Crucible Induction Melter is planed by AREVA in 2013 in a production line of the R7 facility at La Hague plant. Therefore, the switch of the vitrification technology from the Joule Heated Metal Melter required a complete process qualification study. It involves three specialties, namely the matrix formulation, the glass long-term behavior and the vitrification process development on full-scale pilot. A new glass frit has been elaborated in order to adapt the redox properties and the thermal conductivity of the glass suitable for being vitrified with the Cold Crucible Induction Melter. The role of cobalt oxide on the long term behavior of the glass has been described in the range of the tested concentrations. Concerning the process qualification, the nominal tests, the sensitivity tests and the study of the transient modes allowed to define the nominal operating conditions. Degraded operating conditions tests allowed to identify means of detecting incidents leading to these conditions and allowed to define the procedures to preserve the process equipments protection and the material quality. Finally, the endurance test validated the nominal operating conditions over an extended time period. This global study allowed to draft the package qualification file. The qualification file of the UOX package is currently under approval by the French Nuclear Safety Authority. (authors)

Lemonnier, S.; Labe, V.; Ledoux, A.; Nonnet, H.; Godon, N. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA) DEN/DTCD/LCV, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Naline, S. [AREVA NC, Tour AREVA, 1 place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris La Defense (France)

2012-07-01

82

Use of process monitoring for verifying facility design of large-scale reprocessing plants  

SciTech Connect

During the decade of the 1990s, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) faces the challenge of implementing safeguards in large, new reprocessing facilities. The Agency will be involved in the design, construction, checkout and initial operation of these new facilities to ensure effective safeguards are implemented. One aspect of the Agency involvement is in the area of design verification. The United States Support Program has initiated a task to develop methods for applying process data collection and validation during the cold commissioning phase of plant construction. This paper summarizes the results of this task. 14 refs., 1 tab.

Hakkila, E.A.; Zack, N.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Ehinger, M.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Franssen, F. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria))

1991-01-01

83

Historic American Engineering Record, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex  

SciTech Connect

Just as automobiles need fuel to operate, so do nuclear reactors. When fossil fuels such as gasoline are burned to power an automobile, they are consumed immediately and nearly completely in the process. When the fuel is gone, energy production stops. Nuclear reactors are incapable of achieving this near complete burn-up because as the fuel (uranium) that powers them is burned through the process of nuclear fission, a variety of other elements are also created and become intimately associated with the uranium. Because they absorb neutrons, which energize the fission process, these accumulating fission products eventually poison the fuel by stopping the production of energy from it. The fission products may also damage the structural integrity of the fuel elements. Even though the uranium fuel is still present, sometimes in significant quantities, it is unburnable and will not power a reactor unless it is separated from the neutron-absorbing fission products by a method called fuel reprocessing. Construction of the Fuel Reprocessing Complex at the Chem Plant started in 1950 with the Bechtel Corporation serving as construction contractor and American Cyanamid Company as operating contractor. Although the Foster Wheeler Corporation assumed responsibility for the detailed working design of the overall plant, scientists at Oak Ridge designed all of the equipment that would be employed in the uranium separations process. After three years of construction activity and extensive testing, the plant was ready to handle its first load of irradiated fuel.

Susan Stacy; Julie Braun

2006-12-01

84

Corrosion mechanisms of austenitic stainless steels in nitric media used in reprocessing plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Austenitic stainless steels type 304L, 316L and 310Nb are largely used as structural materials for equipments handling nitric acid media in reprocessing plants. In almost all nitric media, these materials, protected by a chromium(III) oxide rich layer, remain in their passive state. However, in some particular nitric media, their corrosion potential may be shifted towards their transpassive domain. In this domain, they can suffer intergranular corrosion, even though they are not sensitized owing to their very low carbon content. The corrosion potential of the steel depends greatly on the cathodic reaction involved in the oxido-reduction process between the elements Fe, Cr, Ni of the steel and the oxidizing species of the medium. Three cases of an increase in the corrosion potential can be found in reprocessing media: pure nitric acid-water solutions, in which the cathodic reaction is the reduction reaction of HNO 3; nitric acid media containing oxidizing species, in which the cathodic reaction is the reaction of reduction of the oxidizing species into the reduced one; nitric media containing metallic elements electrochemically more noble than the steels, causing galvanic coupling. In each case, the mechanism and the relevant situations we experimentally studied are described.

Fauvet, P.; Balbaud, F.; Robin, R.; Tran, Q.-T.; Mugnier, A.; Espinoux, D.

2008-03-01

85

Assessment of photochemical applications to specific stages in Savannah River Plant actinide reprocessing streams  

SciTech Connect

The application of photochemical redox methods has been evaluated as a means of separating actinides in Purex reprocessing streams. This chemistry promises to eliminate many of the chemical reagents which are otherwise necessary to effect valence control of such actinides as plutonium and neptunium. The most promising processing stages of the Savannah River Plant reprocessing facility for feasibility testing of the photochemical method appear to be those in which the concentrations of the actinides in question are the lowest, thus minimizing the required amount of absorbed light. Although neptunium valence control appears to be feasible through the photochemical generation of nitrite ion, the urgency for its control is secondary to that of plutonium. Therefore, the Purex ''2nd-U-cycle feed'' stage has been selected as the top priority for testing the photochemical technique. The chemistry initially involves the photoreduction of U(VI) to U(IV), which in turn reduces Pu(IV) to Pu(III). The results of preliminary experiments on nitrate ion and uranyl ion photoreduction are also given. With less than 100 W of absorbed power, the rates of NO/sub 2//sup -/ and U/sup 4 +/ generation, respectively, appear ample to handle process requirements. 14 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

Toth, L.M.; Bell, J.T.; Mailen, J.C.; Dodson, K.E.

1986-01-01

86

Collocation and integration of reprocessing and repositories: implications for aqueous flowsheets and waste management  

SciTech Connect

It is an accident of history that the current model of the fuel cycle is a separate set of facilities connected by transportation. The question is whether collocation and integration of reprocessing and fuel fabrication with the repository significantly reduce the costs of a closed fuel cycle while improving system performance in terms of safety and long-term repository performance. This paper examines the question in terms of higher-level functional requirements of reprocessing systems and geological repositories.

Forsberg, C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Room 24-207A Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Lewis, L. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 (United States)

2013-07-01

87

Idaho Chemical Processing Plant spent fuel and waste management technology development program plan: 1994 Update  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage since 1951 and reprocessing since 1953. Until April 1992, the major activity of the ICPP was the reprocessing of SNF to recover fissile uranium and the management of the resulting high-level wastes (HLW). In 1992, DOE chose to discontinue reprocessing SNF for uranium recovery and shifted its focus toward the continued safe management and disposition of SNF and radioactive wastes accumulated through reprocessing activities. Currently, 1.8 million gallons of radioactive liquid wastes (1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid wastes and 0.3 million gallons of high-level liquid waste), 3,800 cubic meters of calcine waste, and 289 metric tons heavy metal of SNF are in inventory at the ICPP. Disposal of SNF and high-level waste (HLW) is planned for a repository. Preparation of SNF, HLW, and other radioactive wastes for disposal may include mechanical, physical, and/or chemical processes. This plan outlines the program strategy of the ICPP spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program (SF&WMTDP) to develop and demonstrate the technology required to ensure that SNF and radioactive waste will be properly stored and prepared for final disposal in accordance with regulatory drivers. This Plan presents a brief summary of each of the major elements of the SF&WMTDP; identifies key program assumptions and their bases; and outlines the key activities and decisions that must be completed to identify, develop, demonstrate, and implement a process(es) that will properly prepare the SNF and radioactive wastes stored at the ICPP for safe and efficient interim storage and final disposal.

Not Available

1994-09-01

88

Iodine Pathways and Off-Gas Stream Characteristics for Aqueous Reprocessing Plants – A Literature Survey and Assessment  

SciTech Connect

Used nuclear fuel is currently being reprocessed in only a few countries, notably France, England, Japan, and Russia. The need to control emissions of the gaseous radionuclides to the air during nuclear fuel reprocessing has already been reported for the entire plant. But since the gaseous radionuclides can partition to various different reprocessing off-gas streams, for example, from the head end, dissolver, vessel, cell, and melter, an understanding of each of these streams is critical. These off-gas streams have different flow rates and compositions and could have different gaseous radionuclide control requirements, depending on how the gaseous radionuclides partition. This report reviews the available literature to summarize specific engineering data on the flow rates, forms of the volatile radionuclides in off-gas streams, distributions of these radionuclides in these streams, and temperatures of these streams. This document contains an extensive bibliography of the information contained in the open literature.

R. T. Jubin; D. M. Strachan; N. R. Soelberg

2013-09-01

89

Principles of Product Quality Control of German Radioactive Waste Forms from the Reprocessing of Spent Fuel: Vitrification, Compaction and Numerical Simulation - 12529  

SciTech Connect

The German product quality control is inter alia responsible for control of two radioactive waste forms of heat generating waste: a) homogeneous vitrified HLW and b) heterogeneous compacted hulls, end-pieces and technological metallic waste. In either case, significantly different metrology is employed at the site of the conditioning plant for the obligatory nuclide inventory declaration. To facilitate an independent evaluation and checking of the accompanying documentation numerical simulations are carried out. The physical and chemical properties of radioactive waste residues are used to assess the data consistency and uncertainty margins, as well as to predict the long-term behavior of the radioactive waste. This is relevant for repository acceptance and safety considerations. Our new numerical approach follows a bottom-up simulation starting from the burn-up behavior of the fuel elements in the reactor core. The output of these burn-up calculations is then coupled with a program that simulates the material separation in the subsequent dissolution and extraction processes normalized to the mass balance. Follow-up simulations of the separated reprocessing lines of a) the vitrification of highly-active liquid and b) the compaction of residual intermediate-active metallic hulls remaining after fuel pellets dissolution, end-pieces and technological waste, allows calculating expectation values for the various repository relevant properties of either waste stream. The principles of the German product quality control of radioactive waste residues from the spent fuel reprocessing have been introduced and explained. Namely, heat generating homogeneous vitrified HLW and heterogeneous compacted metallic MLW have been discussed. The advantages of a complementary numerical property simulation have been made clear and examples of benefits are presented. We have compiled a new program suite to calculate the physical and radio-chemical properties of common nuclear waste residues. The immediate benefit is the independent assessment of radio-active inventory declarations and much facilitated product quality control of waste residues that need to be returned to Germany and submitted to a German HLW-repository requirements. Wherever possible, internationally accepted standard programs are used and embedded. The innovative coupling of burn-up calculations (SCALE) with neutron and gamma transport codes (MCPN-X) allows an application in the world of virtual waste properties. If-then-else scenarios of hypothetical waste material compositions and distributions provide valuable information of long term nuclide property propagation under repository conditions over a very long time span. Benchmarking the program with real residue data demonstrates the power and remarkable accuracy of this numerical approach, boosting the reliability of the confidence aforementioned numerous applications, namely the proof tool set for on-the-spot production quality checking and data evaluation and independent verification. Moreover, using the numerical bottom-up approach helps to avoid the accumulation of fake activities that may gradually build up in a repository from the so-called conservative or penalizing nuclide inventory declarations. The radioactive waste properties and the hydrolytic and chemical stability can be predicted. The interaction with invasive chemicals can be assessed and propagation scenarios can be developed from reliable and sound data and HLW properties. Hence, the appropriate design of a future HLW repository can be based upon predictable and quality assured waste characteristics. (authors)

Tietze-Jaensch, Holger; Schneider, Stephan; Aksyutina, Yuliya; Bosbach, Dirk [Product Quality Control Office for Radioactive Waste (PKS) at the Institute of Energy- and Climate Research, Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety Research, IEK-6, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Gauthier, Rene; Eissler, Alexander [WAK Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe Rueckbau- und Entsorgungs- GmbH, Post Box 1263, 76339 Eggenstein- Leopoldshafen (Germany)

2012-07-01

90

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container  

E-print Network

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan Prepared of Energy (DOE) and Nuclear Waste Partnership LLC (NWP), collectively referred to as the Permittees. The Order, at paragraph 22, requires the Permittees to submit a WIPP Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container

Napp, Nils

91

Waste minimization plan, T plant facilities  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the waste minimization plan for the T Plant facilities, located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site in south central Washington State. A waste minimization plan is one part of a multi-faceted waste management program; this waste minimization plan documents the goals and techniques of the waste minimization program, identifies methods for evaluating the program and ensuring quality assurance, and establishes the current baseline waste generation volume estimates.

Kover, K.K.

1997-01-01

92

Optimal measurement uncertainties for materials accounting in a fast breeder reactor spent-fuel reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

Optimization techniques are used to calculate measurement uncertainties for materials accountability instruments in a fast breeder reactor spent-fuel reprocessing plant. Optimal measurement uncertainties are calculated so that performance goals for detecting materials loss are achieved while minimizing the total instrument development cost. Improved materials accounting in the chemical separations process (111 kg Pu/day) to meet 8-kg plutonium abrupt (1 day) and 40-kg plutonium protracted (6 months) loss-detection goals requires: process tank volume and concentration measurements having precisions less than or equal to 1%; accountability and plutonium sample tank volume measurements having precisions less than or equal to 0.3%, short-term correlated errors less than or equal to 0.04%, and long-term correlated errors less than or equal to 0.04%; and accountability and plutonium sample tank concentration measurements having precisions less than or equal to 0.4%, short-term correlated errors less than or equal to 0.1%, and long-term correlated errors less than or equal to 0.05%.

Dayem, H.A.; Kern, E.A.; Markin, J.T.

1982-01-01

93

Case-control study of leukaemia among young people near La Hague nuclear reprocessing plant: the environmental hypothesis revisited.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between childhood leukaemia and established risk factors or other factors related to La Hague nuclear waste reprocessing plant. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Area within a 35 km radius of La Hague, Normandy, France. SUBJECTS: Twenty seven cases of leukaemia diagnosed during the period 1978-93 in people aged under 25 years and 192 controls matched for sex, age, place of birth, and residence at time of diagnosis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Antenatal and postnatal exposure to x rays and viral infections, occupational exposure of parents (particularly ionising radiation), living conditions, lifestyle of parents and children. RESULTS: Increased trends were found for use of local beaches by mothers and children (P < or = 0.01); relative risks 2.87 (95% confidence intervals 1.05 to 8.72) and 4.49 (1.52 to 15.23) when categories were aggregated in two levels (more or less than once a month). Consumption of local fish and shellfish also showed an increased trend (P 0.01); relative risk 2.66 (0.91 to 9.51) when categories were grouped in two levels (more or less than once a week). A relative risk of 1.18 a year (1.03 to 1.42) was observed for length of residence in a granite-built house or in a granitic area. No association was shown with occupational radiation exposure in parents. CONCLUSIONS: There is some convincing evidence in childhood leukaemia of a causal role for environmental radiation exposure from recreational activities on beaches. New methods for identifying the environmental pathways, focusing on marine ecosystems, are warranted. PMID:9006467

Pobel, D.; Viel, J. F.

1997-01-01

94

Conclusions on plutonium separation from atmospheric krypton-85 measured at various distances from the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

For wide-area atmospheric monitoring, krypton-85 is the best indicator for clandestine plutonium separations. The detection and false alarm rates were determined from weekly samples at five different distances from the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant between 1985 and 1988. The detection rate for the separation of 4 kg of plutonium per week was found to be as high as 80–90% at a

Martin B. Kalinowski; Hartmut Sartorius; Stefan Uhl; Wolfgang Weiss

2004-01-01

95

Characterization of past and present solid waste streams from the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant  

SciTech Connect

During the next two decades the transuranic wastes, now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site, are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Over 7% of the transuranic waste to be retrieved for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant has been generated at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. The purpose of this report is to characterize the radioactive solid wastes generated by PUREX using process knowledge, existing records, and oral history interviews. The PUREX Plant is currently operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy and is now in standby status while being prepared for permanent shutdown. The PUREX Plant is a collection of facilities that has been used primarily to separate plutonium for nuclear weapons from spent fuel that had been irradiated in the Hanford Site`s defense reactors. Originally designed to reprocess aluminum-clad uranium fuel, the plant was modified to reprocess zirconium alloy clad fuel elements from the Hanford Site`s N Reactor. PUREX has provided plutonium for research reactor development, safety programs, and defense. In addition, the PUREX was used to recover slightly enriched uranium for recycling into fuel for use in reactors that generate electricity and plutonium. Section 2.0 provides further details of the PUREX`s physical plant and its operations. The PUREX Plant functions that generate solid waste are as follows: processing operations, laboratory analyses and supporting activities. The types and estimated quantities of waste resulting from these activities are discussed in detail.

Pottmeyer, J.A.; Weyns, M.I.; Lorenzo, D.S.; Vejvoda, E.J. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., NM (US); Duncan, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (US)

1993-04-01

96

77 FR 38789 - Notice of Availability of Draft Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Evaluation for the Concentrator...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...and thus are not high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and may be managed and...to DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. DOE is consulting...facility, either the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at DOE's...

2012-06-29

97

Breeder Reprocessing Engineering Test  

SciTech Connect

The Breeder Reprocessing Engineering Test (BRET) is a developmental activity of the US Department of Energy to demonstrate breeder fuel reprocessing technology while closing the fuel cycle for the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). It will be installed in the existing Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, The major objectives of BRET are: (1) close the US breeder fuel cycle; (2) develop and demonstrate reprocessing technology and systems for breeder fuel; (3) provide an integrated test of breeder reactor fuel cycle technology - rprocessing, safeguards, and waste management. BRET is a joint effort between the Westinghouse Hanford Company and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 3 references, 2 figures.

Burgess, C.A.; Meacham, S.A.

1984-01-01

98

INSPECTIONS OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT.  

EPA Science Inventory

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a disposal system for radioactive wastes. Developed by the Department of Energy (DOE), the WIPP is located near Carlsbad in southeastern New Mexico. The DOE is burying radioactive waste 2150 feet underground in an ancient layer of salt ...

99

Component failure-rate data with potential applicability to a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 1223 pieces of component failure-rate data, under 136 subject categories, have been compiled from published literature and computer searches of a number of data bases. Component selections were based on potential applicability to facilities for reprocessing spent nuclear fuels. The data will be useful in quantifying fault trees for probabilistic safety analyses and risk assessments.

Dexter, A.H.; Perkins, W.C.

1982-07-01

100

Waste Estimates for a Future Recycling Plant in the US Based Upon AREVA Operating Experience - 13206  

SciTech Connect

Estimates of process and secondary wastes produced by a recycling plant built in the U.S., which is composed of a used nuclear fuel (UNF) reprocessing facility and a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility, are performed as part of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored study [1]. In this study, a set of common inputs, assumptions, and constraints were identified to allow for comparison of these wastes between different industrial teams. AREVA produced a model of a reprocessing facility, an associated fuel fabrication facility, and waste treatment facilities to develop the results for this study. These facilities were divided into a number of discrete functional areas for which inlet and outlet flow streams were clearly identified to allow for an accurate determination of the radionuclide balance throughout the facility and the waste streams. AREVA relied primarily on its decades of experience and feedback from its La Hague (reprocessing) and MELOX (MOX fuel fabrication) commercial operating facilities in France to support this assessment. However, to perform these estimates for a U.S. facility with different regulatory requirements and to take advantage of some technological advancements, such as in the potential treatment of off-gases, some deviations from this experience were necessary. A summary of AREVA's approach and results for the recycling of 800 metric tonnes of initial heavy metal (MTIHM) of LWR UNF per year into MOX fuel under the assumptions and constraints identified for this DOE study are presented. (authors)

Foare, Genevieve; Meze, Florian [AREVA E and P, SGN - 1, rue des Herons, 78182 Montigny-le-Bretonneux (France)] [AREVA E and P, SGN - 1, rue des Herons, 78182 Montigny-le-Bretonneux (France); Bader, Sven; McGee, Don; Murray, Paul [AREVA Federal Services LLC, 7207 IBM Drive, Mail Code CLT- 1D, Charlotte NC 28262 (United States)] [AREVA Federal Services LLC, 7207 IBM Drive, Mail Code CLT- 1D, Charlotte NC 28262 (United States); Prud'homme, Pascal [AREVA NC SA - 1, place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris La Defense CEDEX (France)] [AREVA NC SA - 1, place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris La Defense CEDEX (France)

2013-07-01

101

DEVELOPMENT OF CRYSTALLINE CERAMICS FOR IMMOBILIZATION OF ADVANCED FUEL CYCLE REPROCESSING WASTES  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is developing crystalline ceramic waste forms to incorporate CS/LN/TM high Mo waste streams consisting of perovskite, hollandite, pyrochlore, zirconolite, and powellite phase assemblages. Simple raw materials, including Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO, and TiO{sub 2} were combined with simulated waste components to produce multiphase crystalline ceramics. Fiscal Year 2011 (FY11) activities included (i) expanding the compositional range by varying waste loading and fabrication of compositions rich in TiO{sub 2}, (ii) exploring the processing parameters of ceramics produced by the melt and crystallize process, (iii) synthesis and characterization of select individual phases of powellite and hollandite that are the target hosts for radionuclides of Mo, Cs, and Rb, and (iv) evaluating the durability and radiation stability of single and multi-phase ceramic waste forms. Two fabrication methods, including melting and crystallizing, and pressing and sintering, were used with the intent of studying phase evolution under various sintering conditions. An analysis of the XRD and SEM/EDS results indicates that the targeted crystalline phases of the FY11 compositions consisting of pyrochlore, perovskite, hollandite, zirconolite, and powellite were formed by both press and sinter and melt and crystallize processing methods. An evaluation of crystalline phase formation versus melt processing conditions revealed that hollandite, perovskite, zirconolite, and residual TiO{sub 2} phases formed regardless of cooling rate, demonstrating the robust nature of this process for crystalline phase development. The multiphase ceramic composition CSLNTM-06 demonstrated good resistance to proton beam irradiation. Electron irradiation studies on the single phase CaMoO{sub 4} (a component of the multiphase waste form) suggested that this material exhibits stability to 1000 years at anticipated self-irradiation doses (2 x 10{sup 10}-2 x 10{sup 11} Gy), but that its stability may be rate dependent, therefore limiting the activity of the waste for which it can be employed. Overall, these preliminary results indicate good radiation damage tolerance for the crystalline ceramic materials. The PCT results showed that, for all of the waste forms tested, the normalized release values for most of the elements measured, including all of the lanthanides and noble metals, were either very small or below the instrument detection limits. Elevated normalized release values were measured only for Cs, Mo, and Rb. It is difficult to draw further conclusions from these data until a benchmark material is developed for the PCT with this type of waste form. Calcined, simulated CS/LN/TM High Mo waste without additives had relatively low normalized release values for Cs, Mo, and Rb. A review of the chemical composition data for this sample showed that these elements were well retained after the calcination. Therefore, it will be useful to further characterize the calcined material to determine what form these elements are in after calcining. This, along with single phase studies on Cs containing crystal structures such as hollandite, should provide insight into the most ideal phases to incorporate these elements to produce a durable waste form.

Fox, K.; Brinkman, K.

2011-09-22

102

Storage of mixed waste at nuclear plants  

SciTech Connect

The problems posed by waste that is both radioactive and classified as hazardous by 40CFR261 include storage, proper treatment and disposal. An Enforcement Action issued by the State of Tennessee required that Sequoyah Nuclear Plant (SQN) either find a means to remove its mixed waste from onsite storage or obtain Part B Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facility by March 1, 1994. Generators of hazardous waste cannot store the material for longer than 90 days without obtaining a Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facility (TSDF) permit. To complicate this regulation, there are very few permitted TSDFs that can receive radioactive waste. Those facilities that can receive the waste have only one year to store it before treatment. Limited treatment is available for mixed waste that will meet the Land Ban requirements.

Bodine, D. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Soddy-Daisy, TN (United States)

1995-05-01

103

Reprocessing and reuse of waste tire rubber to solve air-quality related problems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

There is a potential for using waste tire rubber to make activated-carbon adsorbents for air-quality control applications. Such an approach provides a recycling path for waste tires and the production of new adsorbents from a low-cost waste material. Tire-derived activated carbons (TDACs) were prepared from waste tires. The resulting products are generally mesoporous, with N2-BET specific surface areas ranging from 239 to 1031 m2/g. TDACs were tested for their ability to store natural gas and remove organic compounds and mercury species from gas streams. TDACs are able to achieve 36% of the recommended adsorbed natural gas (methane) storage capacity for natural-gas-fueled vehicles. Equilibrium adsorption capacities for CH4 achieved by TDACs are comparable to Calgon BPL, a commercially available activated-carbon adsorbent. The acetone adsorption capacity for a TDAC is 67% of the adsorption capacity achieved by BPL at 1 vol % acetone. Adsorption capacities of mercury in simulated flue-gas streams are, in general, larger than adsorption capacities achieved by coal-derived activated carbons (CDACs) and BPL. Although TDACs may not perform as well as commercial adsorbents in some air pollution control applications, the potential lower cost of TDACS should be considered when evaluating economics.

Lehmann, C.M.B.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M.J.; Sun, J.

1998-01-01

104

NRC Perspectives on Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Consultations and Monitoring - 13398  

SciTech Connect

Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 (NDAA) requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to consult with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for certain non-high level waste (HLW) determinations. The NDAA also requires NRC to monitor DOE's disposal actions related to those determinations to assess compliance with NRC regulations in 10 CFR Part 61, Subpart C. The NDAA applies to DOE activities that will remain within the States of South Carolina and Idaho. DOE has chosen to, under DOE Order 435.1, engage in consultation with NRC for similar activities in the State of Washington and New York, however, the NRC has no monitoring responsibilities. In 2007, the NRC developed a draft Final Report for Interim Use entitled, NUREG-1854: NRC Staff Guidance for Activities Related to U.S. Department of Energy Waste Determinations. Since the law was enacted, the DOE and NRC have consulted on three waste determinations within the affected States: (1) the Saltstone Disposal Facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) within the State of South Carolina in 2005, (2) the INTEC Tank Farm at the Idaho National Laboratory within the State of Idaho in 2006, and (3) the F Tank Farm at SRS in 2011. After the end of consultation and issuance by DOE of the final waste determination, monitoring began at each of these sites, including the development of monitoring plans. In addition to the NDAA sites, DOE has requested NRC consultation support on both individual tanks and the entire C Tank Farm at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in the State of Washington. DOE also requested consultation of waste determinations performed on the melter and related feed tanks at the West Valley site in New York that would be disposed offsite. In the next few years, NRC and DOE will consult on the last of the NDAA waste determinations for a while, the H Tank Farm waste determination at SRS. DOE may identify other activities in the future but largely NRC's role will change from doing both consultation and monitoring to being focused on monitoring activities within NDAA. DOE has identified other activities at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation that would continue consultation activities but outside of the NDAA in the future. During the past seven years of consultations and monitoring a number of lessons learned about the process, communication issues, and technical guidance have been identified. With the change in focus from reviewing initial performance assessments and draft waste determinations to long-term monitoring (e.g., individual waste tank closure, at F Tank Farm or complete tank farm closure at INTEC expected in the near future), the NRC is going to revise and update its guidance over the next few years to reflect the lessons learned and the change in focus. In addition to the lessons learned, improvements in the guidance will have to account possible rule and guidance changes underway within Part 61. This paper will discuss the initial plans, approaches, and time lines to revise the guidance within NUREG-1854, including opportunities for public involvement. (authors)

McKenney, Christepher A.; Suber, Gregory F.; Felsher, Harry D.; Mohseni, Aby [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Mail Stop T8F5, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)] [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Mail Stop T8F5, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)

2013-07-01

105

Waste Management Trends in Texas Industrial Plants  

E-print Network

The Industrial Assessment Center at Texas A&M University has performed several waste and energy minimization surveys in small- and medium- sized industrial manufacturing plants in Texas. During these surveys, Industrial Assessment Center personnel...

Smith, C. S.; Heffington, W. M.

106

Plutonium finishing plant dangerous waste training plan  

SciTech Connect

This training plan describes general requirements, worker categories, and provides course descriptions for operation of the Plutonium Finish Plant (PFP) waste generation facilities, permitted treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) units, and the 90-Day Accumulation Areas.

ENTROP, G.E.

1999-05-24

107

NUCLEAR POWER PLANT WASTE HEAT HORTICULTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of the feasibility of using low grade (70 degrees F) waste heat from the condenser cooling water of the Vermont Yaknee nuclear plant for commercial food enhancement. The study addressed the possible impact of laws on the use of waste heat from ...

108

Spent Fuel Reprocessing  

SciTech Connect

Reprocessing of used nuclear fuel is undertaken for several reasons. These include (1) recovery of the valuable fissile constituents (primarily {sup 235}U and plutonium) for subsequent reuse in recycle fuel: (2) reduction in the volume of high-level waste (HLW) that must be placed in a geologic repository; and (3) recovery of special isotopes. There are two broad approches to reprocessng: aqueous and electrochemical. This portion of the course will only address the aqueous methods. Aqueous reprocessing involves the application of mechanical and chemical processing steps to separate, recover, purify, and convert the constituents in the used fuel for subsequent use or disposal. Other major support systems include chemical recycle and waste handling (solid, HLW, low-level liquid waste (LLLW), and gaseous waste).

Jubin, Robert Thomas [ORNL

2009-01-01

109

Report on the NGS3 Working Group on Safeguards by Design For Aqueous Reprocessing Plants  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Working Group on SBD for Aqueous Reprocessing Facilities was to provide recommendations, for facility operators and designers, which would aid in the coordination and integration of nuclear material accountancy and the safeguards requirements of all concerned parties - operators, state/regional authorities, and the IAEA. The recommendations, which are to be provided to the IAEA, are intended to assist in optimizing facility design and operating parameters to ensure the safeguardability of the facility while minimizing impact on the operations. The one day Working Group session addressed a wide range of design and operating topics.

Johnson, Shirley J.; Ehinger, Michael; Schanfein, Mark

2011-02-01

110

Determination of the Structure of Vitrified Hydroceramic/CBC Waste Form Glasses Manufactured from DOE Reprocessing Waste  

SciTech Connect

The selection of a glass-making option for the solidification of nuclear waste has dominated DOE waste form programs since the early 1980's. Both West Valley and Savannah River are routinely manufacturing glass logs from the high level waste inventory in tank sludges. However, for some wastes, direct conversion to glass is clearly not the optimum strategy for immobilization. INEEL, for example, has approximately 4400 m{sup 3} of calcined high level waste with an activity that produces approximately 45 watts/m{sup 3}, a rather low concentration of radioactive constituents. For these wastes, there is value in seeking alternatives to glass. An alternative approach has been developed and the efficacy of the process demonstrated that offers a significant savings in both human health and safety exposures and also a lower cost relative to the vitrification option. The alternative approach utilizes the intrinsic chemical reactivity of the highly alkaline waste with the addition of aluminosilicate admixtures in the appropriate proportions to form zeolites. The process is one in which a chemically bonded ceramic is produced. The driving force for reaction is derived from the chemical system itself at very modest temperatures and yet forms predominantly crystalline phases. Because the chemically bonded ceramic requires an aqueous medium to serve as a vehicle for the chemical reaction, the proposed zeolite-containing waste form can more adequately be described as a hydroceramic. The hydrated crystalline materials are then subject to hot isostatic pressing (HIP) which partially melts the material to form a glass ceramic. The scientific advantages of the hydroceramic/CBC approach are: (1) Low temperature processing; (2) High waste loading and thus only modest volumetric bulking from the addition of admixtures; (3) Ability to immobilize sodium; (4) Ability to handle low levels of nitrate (2-3% NO{sub 3}{sup -}); (5) The flexibility of a vitrifiable waste; and (6) A process that is based on an industry with decades of practical experience. The research undertaken in the present investigation builds on a previous study under the NEER program. The earlier studies identified an optimal formulation for the immobilization of the calcine that is both compositionally adequate to retain radionuclides as well as hazardous constituents and which has a reaction rate that will allow the technical employment of the process. The study established in a general way the glass-forming region in the system M{sub 2}O-MO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} (M{sub 2}0 = alkali metal oxides; MO = alkaline earth metal oxide) which provides the base for these hydroceramic/CBC materials (Fig. 1). The objectives of the present program are to track the structural changes that take place during formulation, chemical reaction, and HIPing. Compositions must be varied through the glass-forming region, structures of the crystals and glass matrix of the glass-ceramic determined, and the structural characteristics in turn related to stability and leachability of the final products.

Scheetz, B.E.; White, W. B.; Chesleigh, M.; Portanova, A.; Olanrewaju, J.

2005-05-31

111

Glass ceramic obtained by tailings and tin mine waste reprocessing from Llallagua, Bolivia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Bolivia Sn mining activity produces large tailings of SiO2-rich residues. These tailings contain potentially toxic elements that can be removed into the surface water and produce a high environmental pollution. This study determines the thermal behaviour and the viability of the manufacture of glass-ceramics from glass. The glass has been obtained from raw materials representative of the Sn mining activities from Llallagua (Bolivia). Temperatures of maximum nucleation rate (Tn) and crystallization (Tcr) were calculated from the differential thermal analyses. The final mineral phases were determined by X-ray diffraction and textures were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Crystalline phases are nefeline occurring with wollastonite or plagioclase. Tn for nepheline is between 680 ºC and 700 ºC, for wollastonite, 730 ºC and for plagioclase, 740 ºC. Tcr for nefeline is between 837 and 965 ºC; for wollastonite, 807 ºC and for plagioclase, 977 ºC. In order to establish the mechanical characteristics and efficiency of the vitrification process in the fixation of potentially toxic elements the resistance to leaching and micro-hardness were determined. The obtained contents of the elements leached from the glass ceramic are well below the limits established by the European legislation. So, these analyses confirm that potentially toxic elements remain fixed in the structure of mineral phases formed in the glass-ceramic process. Regarding the values of micro-hardness results show that they are above those of a commercial glass. The manufacture of glass-ceramics from mining waste reduces the volume of tailings produced for the mining industry and, in turn enhances the waste, transforming it into a product with industrial application. Acknowledgements: This work was partly financed by the project AECID: A3/042750/11, and the SGR 2009SGR-00444.

Arancibia, Jony Roger Hans; Villarino, Cecilia; Alfonso, Pura; Garcia-Valles, Maite; Martinez, Salvador; Parcerisa, David

2014-05-01

112

INDEPENDENT POWER PLANT USING WOOD WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

A 1 MWe power plant using waste wood is to be installed at a U.S. Marine Corps base, which will supply all the wood for the plant from a landfill site. The core energy conversion technology is a down-draft gasifier supplying approximately 150 Btu/scf gas to both spark ignition an...

113

Managing nuclear waste from power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

National strategies to manage nuclear waste from commercial nuclear power plants are analyzed and compared. The current strategy is to try to operate a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to dispose storage at a centralized facility or next to nuclear power plants. If either of these is pursued now, the analysis assumes that a repository will be built in 2100

Ralph L. Keeney; Detlof Winterfeldt

1994-01-01

114

Sodium Recycle Economics for Waste Treatment Plant Operations  

SciTech Connect

Sodium recycle at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) would reduce the number of glass canisters produced, and has the potential to significantly reduce the cost to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) of treating the tank wastes by hundreds of millions of dollars. The sodium, added in the form of sodium hydroxide, was originally added to minimize corrosion of carbon-steel storage tanks from acidic reprocessing wastes. In the baseline Hanford treatment process, sodium hydroxide is required to leach gibbsite and boehmite from the high level waste (HLW) sludge. In turn, this reduces the amount of HLW glass produced. Currently, a significant amount of additional sodium hydroxide will be added to the process to maintain aluminate solubility at ambient temperatures during ion exchange of cesium. The vitrification of radioactive waste is limited by sodium content, and this additional sodium mass will increase low-activity waste-glass mass. An electrochemical salt-splitting process, based on sodium-ion selective ceramic membranes, is being developed to recover and recycle sodium hydroxide from high-salt radioactive tank wastes in DOE’s complex. The ceramic membranes are from a family of materials known as sodium (Na)—super-ionic conductors (NaSICON)—and the diffusion of sodium ions (Na+) is allowed, while blocking other positively charged ions. A cost/benefit evaluation was based on a strategy that involves a separate caustic-recycle facility based on the NaSICON technology, which would be located adjacent to the WTP facility. A Monte Carlo approach was taken, and several thousand scenarios were analyzed to determine likely economic results. The cost/benefit evaluation indicates that 10,000–50,000 metric tons (MT) of sodium could be recycled, and would allow for the reduction of glass production by 60,000–300,000 MT. The cost of the facility construction and operation was scaled to the low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification facility, showing cost would be roughly $150 million to $400 million for construction and $10 million to $40 million per year for operations. Depending on the level of aluminate supersaturation allowed in the storage tanks in the LAW Pretreatment Facility, these values indicate a return on investment of up to 25% to 60%.

Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Fountain, Matthew S.

2008-08-31

115

Waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), DOE/WIPP-069, was initially developed by a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Steering Committee to provide performance requirements to ensure public health and safety as well as the safe handling of transuranic (TRU) waste at the WIPP. This revision updates the criteria and requirements of previous revisions and deletes those which were applicable only to the test phase. The criteria and requirements in this document must be met by participating DOE TRU Waste Generator/Storage Sites (Sites) prior to shipping contact-handled (CH) and remote-handled (RH) TRU waste forms to the WIPP. The WIPP Project will comply with applicable federal and state regulations and requirements, including those in Titles 10, 40, and 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). The WAC, DOE/WIPP-069, serves as the primary directive for assuring the safe handling, transportation, and disposal of TRU wastes in the WIPP and for the certification of these wastes. The WAC identifies strict requirements that must be met by participating Sites before these TRU wastes may be shipped for disposal in the WIPP facility. These criteria and requirements will be reviewed and revised as appropriate, based on new technical or regulatory requirements. The WAC is a controlled document. Revised/changed pages will be supplied to all holders of controlled copies.

NONE

1996-04-01

116

Mechanical compaction of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant simulated waste  

SciTech Connect

The investigation described in this report acquired experimental information about how materials simulating transuranic (TRU) waste compact under axial compressive stress, and used these data to define a model for use in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) disposal room analyses. The first step was to determine compaction curves for various simultant materials characteristic of TRU waste. Stress-volume compaction curves for various combinations of these materials were than derived to represent the combustible, metallic, and sludge waste categories. Prediction of compaction response in this manner is considered essential for the WIPP program because of the difficulties inherent in working with real (radioactive) waste. Next, full-sized 55-gallon drums of simulated combustible, metallic, and sludge waste were axially compacted. These results provided data that can be directly applied to room consolidation and data for comparison with the predictions obtained in Part 1 of the investigation. Compaction curves, which represent the combustible, metallic, and sludge waste categories, were determined, and a curve for the averaged waste inventory of the entire repository was derived. 9 refs., 31 figs., 12 tabs.

Butcher, B.M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Thompson, T.W.; VanBuskirk, R.G.; Patti, N.C. (Science Applications International Corp., Golden, CO (United States))

1991-06-01

117

Evaluation of methods for decladding LWR fuel for a pyroprocessing-based reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

The first step in reprocessing disassembled light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel is to separate the zirconium-based cladding from the UO[sub 2] fuel. A survey of decladding technologies has been performed to identify candidate decladding processes suitable for LWR fuel and compatible with downstream pyropr for separation of actinides and fission products. Technologies for the primary separation of Zircaloy cladding from oxide fuel and for secondary separations (in most cases, a further decontamination of the cladding) were reviewed. Because cutting of the fuel cladding is a necessary step in all flowsheet options, metal cutting technologies were also briefly evaluated. The assessment of decladding processes resulted in the identification of the three or four potentially attractive options that may warrant additional near-term evaluation. These options are summarized, and major strengths and issues of each option are discussed.

Bond, W.D.; Mailen, J.C.; Michaels, G.E.

1992-10-01

118

Evaluation of methods for decladding LWR fuel for a pyroprocessing-based reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

The first step in reprocessing disassembled light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel is to separate the zirconium-based cladding from the UO{sub 2} fuel. A survey of decladding technologies has been performed to identify candidate decladding processes suitable for LWR fuel and compatible with downstream pyropr for separation of actinides and fission products. Technologies for the primary separation of Zircaloy cladding from oxide fuel and for secondary separations (in most cases, a further decontamination of the cladding) were reviewed. Because cutting of the fuel cladding is a necessary step in all flowsheet options, metal cutting technologies were also briefly evaluated. The assessment of decladding processes resulted in the identification of the three or four potentially attractive options that may warrant additional near-term evaluation. These options are summarized, and major strengths and issues of each option are discussed.

Bond, W.D.; Mailen, J.C.; Michaels, G.E.

1992-10-01

119

Corrosion studies on materials of construction for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant equipment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrosion studies on specimens of commercial Type 304L stainless steel (SS), nuclear grade type 304L SS, extra low-carbon nitric acid grade (NAG) Uranus-16 SS, NAG Uranus-65 SS, Ti, Ti-5% Ta, Ti-0.25% Pd, Zircaloy-2, weldments of Ti and of Ti-5% Ta, and surface-modified (thermally oxidised and anodised) Ti were carried out to assess their corrosion resistance in nitric acid medium. The results indicated that Zircaloy-2, Ti-5% Ta, Uranus-16 SS and Uranus-65 SS have excellent corrosion resistance in boiling nitric acid solution. Specimens of Zircaloy-2, Ti-5% Ta and thermally-oxidised Ti showed excellent corrosion resistance also in a simulated uranium-containing reprocessing medium in a concentrated nitric acid solution. SEM and XRD analyses were carried out on the tested specimens to examine the scale morphology and phases present on the surface.

Mudali, U. Kamachi; Dayal, R. K.; Gnanamoorthy, J. B.

1993-07-01

120

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant applied technology plan  

SciTech Connect

This Applied Technology Plan describes the process development, verification testing, equipment adaptation, and waste form qualification technical issues and plans for resolution to support the design, permitting, and operation of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant. The scope of this Plan includes work to be performed by the research and development contractor, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, other organizations within Westinghouse Hanford Company, universities and companies with glass technology expertise, and other US Department of Energy sites. All work described in this Plan is funded by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project and the relationship of this Plan to other waste management documents and issues is provided for background information. Work to performed under this Plan is divided into major areas that establish a reference process, develop an acceptable glass composition envelope, and demonstrate feed processing and glass production for the range of Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant feeds. Included in this work is the evaluation and verification testing of equipment and technology obtained from the Defense Waste Processing Facility, the West Valley Demonstration Project, foreign countries, and the Hanford Site. Development and verification of product and process models and other data needed for waste form qualification documentation are also included in this Plan. 21 refs., 4 figs., 33 tabs.

Kruger, O.L.

1990-09-01

121

Water recovery using waste heat from coal fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential to treat non-traditional water sources using power plant waste heat in conjunction with membrane distillation is assessed. Researchers and power plant designers continue to search for ways to use that waste heat from Rankine cycle power plants to recover water thereby reducing water net water consumption. Unfortunately, waste heat from a power plant is of poor quality. Membrane

Stephen W. Webb; Charles W. Morrow; Susan Jeanne Altman; Brian P. Dwyer

2011-01-01

122

On-Line Monitoring for Control and Safeguarding of Radiochemical Streams at Spent Fuel Reprocessing Plant  

SciTech Connect

There is a renewed interest worldwide to promote the use of nuclear power and close the nuclear fuel cycle. The long term successful use of nuclear power is critically dependent upon adequate and safe processing and disposition of the spent nuclear fuel Liquid-liquid extraction is a separation technique commonly employed for the processing of the dissolved spent nuclear fuel. Our approach is based on prerequisite that real time monitoring of the solvent extraction flowsheets provides unique capability to quickly detect unwanted manipulations with fissile isotopes present in the radiochemical streams during reprocessing activities. The instrumentation used to monitor these processes must be robust, require little or no maintenance, and be able to withstand harsh environments such as high radiation fields and aggressive chemical matrices. In addition, the ability for continuous on-line monitoring allows for numerous benefits. Our team experimentally assessed the potential of Raman and vis-NIR spectrophotometric techniques for on-line real-time monitoring of the U(VI)/nitrate ion/nitric acid and Pu(IV)/Np(V)/Nd(III), respectively, in solutions relevant to spent fuel reprocessing. Both techniques demonstrated robust performance in the repetitive batch measurements of each analyte in a wide concentration range using simulant and commercial dissolved spent fuel solutions. Static spectroscopic measurements served as training sets for the multivariate data analysis to obtain partial least squares predictive models, which were validated using on-line centrifugal contactor extraction tests. The corresponding spectrometers used under the laboratory conditions are easily convertible to the process-friendly configurations allowing remote measurements under the flow conditions. A fiber optic Raman probe allows monitoring of the high concentration species encountered in both aqueous and organic phases within the PUREX suite of flowsheets, including metal oxide ions, such as uranyl, components of the organic solvent, inorganic oxo-anions, and water. The actinides and lanthanides are monitored remotely by UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy in aqueous and organic phases. This paper summarizes our methodology and shows results of specific examples.

Bryan, Samuel A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Casella, Amanda J.; Peterson, James M.; Lines, Amanda M.; Jordan, Elizabeth A.; Verdugo, Dawn E.; Skomurski, Frances N.

2011-07-19

123

Waste Water Plant Operators Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual for sewage treatment plant operators was prepared by a committee of operators, educators, and engineers for use as a reference text and handbook and to serve as a training manual for short course and certification programs. Sewage treatment plant operators have a responsibility in water quality control; they are the principal actors in…

Washington State Coordinating Council for Occupational Education, Olympia.

124

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical manual  

SciTech Connect

A key element of the Hanford waste management strategy is the construction of a new facility, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), to vitrify existing and future liquid high-level waste produced by defense activities at the Hanford Site. The HWVP mission is to vitrify pretreated waste in borosilicate glass, cast the glass into stainless steel canisters, and store the canisters at the Hanford Site until they are shipped to a federal geological repository. The HWVP Technical Manual (Manual) documents the technical bases of the current HWVP process and provides a physical description of the related equipment and the plant. The immediate purpose of the document is to provide the technical bases for preparation of project baseline documents that will be used to direct the Title 1 and Title 2 design by the A/E, Fluor. The content of the Manual is organized in the following manner. Chapter 1.0 contains the background and context within which the HWVP was designed. Chapter 2.0 describes the site, plant, equipment and supporting services and provides the context for application of the process information in the Manual. Chapter 3.0 provides plant feed and product requirements, which are primary process bases for plant operation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes the technology for each plant process. Chapter 5.0 describes the engineering principles for designing major types of HWVP equipment. Chapter 6.0 describes the general safety aspects of the plant and process to assist in safe and prudent facility operation. Chapter 7.0 includes a description of the waste form qualification program and data. Chapter 8.0 indicates the current status of quality assurance requirements for the Manual. The Appendices provide data that are too extensive to be placed in the main text, such as extensive tables and sets of figures. The Manual is a revision of the 1987 version.

Larson, D.E. [ed.; Watrous, R.A.; Kruger, O.L. [and others

1996-03-01

125

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Transuranic Waste Baseline inventory report. Volume 2. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This document is the Baseline Inventory Report for the transuranic (alpha-bearing) wastes stored at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. Waste stream profiles including origin, applicable EPA codes, typical isotopic composition, typical waste densities, and typical rates of waste generation for each facility are presented for wastes stored at the WIPP.

NONE

1995-02-01

126

Waste disposal options report. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the potential options for the processing and disposal of mixed waste generated by reprocessing spent nuclear fuel at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. It compares the proposed waste-immobilization processes, quantifies and characterizes the resulting waste forms, identifies potential disposal sites and their primary acceptance criteria, and addresses disposal issues for hazardous waste.

Russell, N.E.; McDonald, T.G.; Banaee, J.; Barnes, C.M.; Fish, L.W.; Losinski, S.J.; Peterson, H.K.; Sterbentz, J.W.; Wenzel, D.R.

1998-02-01

127

The 2010 ERC Directory of Waste-to-Energy Plants  

E-print Network

the U.S. Mayors Climate Pro- tection Agreement, which identifies waste-to-energy as a clean, alternative1 The 2010 ERC Directory of Waste-to-Energy Plants By Ted Michaels The 2010 ERC Directory of Waste-to-Energy Plants provides current information about the waste-to-energy sector in the United States. Since

Columbia University

128

WIND DATA REPORT Scituate Waste Water Treatment Plant, MA  

E-print Network

WIND DATA REPORT Scituate Waste Water Treatment Plant, MA December 1st to February 28th , 2007........................................................................................................................... 7 Sensor Statistics

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

129

WIND DATA REPORT Scituate Waste Water Treatment Plant, MA  

E-print Network

WIND DATA REPORT Scituate Waste Water Treatment Plant, MA June 1st to August 31st Prepared........................................................................................................................... 7 Sensor Statistics

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

130

WIND DATA REPORT Scituate Waste Water Treatment Plant, MA  

E-print Network

WIND DATA REPORT Scituate Waste Water Treatment Plant, MA September 1st to November 30th , 2006........................................................................................................................... 7 Sensor Statistics

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

131

Disposal of Savannah River Plant waste salt  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 26-million gallons of soluble low-level waste salts will be produced during solidification of 6-million gallons of high-level defense waste in the proposed Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Soluble wastes (primarily NaNO/sub 3/, NaNO/sub 2/, and NaOH) stored in the waste tanks will be decontaminated by ion exchange and solidified in concrete. The resulting salt-concrete mixture, saltcrete, will be placed in a landfill on the plantsite such that all applicable federal and state disposal criteria are met. Proposed NRC guidelines for the disposal of waste with the radionuclide content of SRP salt would permit shallow land burial. Federal and state rules require that potentially hazardous chemical wastes (mainly nitrate-nitrate salts in the saltcrete) be contained to the degree necessary to meet drinking water standards in the ground water beneath the landfill boundary. This paper describes the proposed saltcrete landfill and tests under way to ensure that the landfill will meet these criteria. The work includes laboratory and field tests of the saltcrete itself, a field test of a one-tenth linear scale model of the entire landfill system, and a numerical model of the system.

Dukes, M D

1982-01-01

132

Aqueous Waste Treatment Plant at Aldermaston  

SciTech Connect

For over half a century the Pangbourne Pipeline formed part of AWE's liquid waste management system. Since 1952 the 11.5 mile pipeline carried pre-treated wastewater from the Aldermaston site for safe dispersal in the River Thames. Such discharges were in strict compliance with the exacting conditions demanded by all regulatory authorities, latterly, those of the Environment Agency. In March 2005 AWE plc closed the Pangbourne Pipeline and ceased discharges of treated active aqueous waste to the River Thames via this route. The ability to effectively eliminate active liquid discharges to the environment is thanks to an extensive programme of waste minimization on the Aldermaston site, together with the construction of a new Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). Waste minimization measures have reduced the effluent arisings by over 70% in less than four years. The new WTP has been built using best available technology (evaporation followed by reverse osmosis) to remove trace levels of radioactivity from wastewater to exceptionally stringent standards. Active operation has confirmed early pilot scale trials, with the plant meeting throughput and decontamination performance targets, and final discharges being at or below limits of detection. The performance of the plant allows the treated waste to be discharged safely as normal industrial effluent from the AWE site. Although the project has had a challenging schedule, the project was completed on programme, to budget and with an exemplary safety record (over 280,000 hours in construction with no lost time events) largely due to a pro-active partnering approach between AWE plc and RWE NUKEM and its sub-contractors. (authors)

Keene, D. [RWE NUKEM, Ltd, 424 Harwell, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX 110GJ (United Kingdom); Fowler, J.; Frier, S. [AWE plc, Aldermaston, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

2006-07-01

133

Plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings on type 316L stainless steel for pyrochemical reprocessing plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Type 316L stainless steel (SS) is one of the candidate materials proposed for application in pyrochemical reprocessing plants. In the present work, yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings of 300 ?m were applied over type 316L SS with a metallic bond coating of 50 ?m by an optimized plasma spray process, and were assessed for the corrosion behaviour in molten LiCl-KCl medium at 873 K for periods of 5 h, 100 h, 250 h and 500 h. The as-coated and tested samples were examined by optical microscopy and SEM for homogeneity, penetration of molten salt through coating and corrosion of type 316L SS substrate. The results indicated that the yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings performed well without significant degradation and corrosion attack. Laser melting of the coated samples using CO 2 laser was attempted to consolidate the coatings. The development of large grains with segmented cracks was noticed after laser melting, though the coating defects have been eliminated.

Ravi Shankar, A.; Kamachi Mudali, U.; Sole, Ravikumar; Khatak, H. S.; Raj, Baldev

2008-01-01

134

COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF A WASTE TO ENERGY PLANT FOR MONTEVIDEO; AND WASTE TO  

E-print Network

Engineering Center of Columbia University investigated the waste management system of Montevideo, Uruguay in sustainable waste management, as Montevideo has a fairly good waste management system that can warrantee1 COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF A WASTE TO ENERGY PLANT FOR MONTEVIDEO; AND WASTE TO ENERGY IN SMALL

135

10 CFR Appendix I to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Reprocessing Plant Components Under NRC Export Licensing Authority  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Reprocessing irradiated nuclear fuel separates plutonium and uranium from intensely radioactive...followed by separation of the uranium, plutonium, and fission products by solvent extraction...denitration of uranium nitrate, conversion of plutonium nitrate to oxide metal, and...

2014-01-01

136

10 CFR Appendix I to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Reprocessing Plant Components Under NRC Export Licensing Authority  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Reprocessing irradiated nuclear fuel separates plutonium and uranium from intensely radioactive...followed by separation of the uranium, plutonium, and fission products by solvent extraction...denitration of uranium nitrate, conversion of plutonium nitrate to oxide metal, and...

2013-01-01

137

10 CFR Appendix I to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Reprocessing Plant Components Under NRC Export Licensing Authority  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Reprocessing irradiated nuclear fuel separates plutonium and uranium from intensely radioactive...followed by separation of the uranium, plutonium, and fission products by solvent extraction...denitration of uranium nitrate, conversion of plutonium nitrate to oxide metal, and...

2011-01-01

138

10 CFR Appendix I to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Reprocessing Plant Components Under NRC Export Licensing Authority  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Reprocessing irradiated nuclear fuel separates plutonium and uranium from intensely radioactive...followed by separation of the uranium, plutonium, and fission products by solvent extraction...denitration of uranium nitrate, conversion of plutonium nitrate to oxide metal, and...

2012-01-01

139

10 CFR Appendix I to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Reprocessing Plant Components Under NRC Export Licensing Authority  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Reprocessing irradiated nuclear fuel separates plutonium and uranium from intensely radioactive...followed by separation of the uranium, plutonium, and fission products by solvent extraction...denitration of uranium nitrate, conversion of plutonium nitrate to oxide metal, and...

2010-01-01

140

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant capacity increase options  

SciTech Connect

Studies are being conducted by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project on ways to increase the waste processing capacity within the current Vitrification Building structural design. The Phase 1 study on remote systems concepts identification and extent of capacity increase was completed. The study concluded that the HWVP capacity could be increased to four times the current capacity with minor design adjustments to the fixed facility design, and the required design changes would not impact the current footprint of the vitrification building. A further increase in production capacity may be achievable but would require some technology development, verification testing, and a more systematic and extensive engineering evaluation. The primary changes included a single advance melter with a higher capacity, new evaporative feed tank, offgas quench collection tank, ejector venturi scrubbers, and additional inner canister closure station,a smear test station, a new close- coupled analytical facility, waste hold capacity of 400,000 gallon, the ability to concentrate out-of-plant HWVP feed to 90 g/L waste oxide concentration, and limited changes to the current base slab construction package.

Larson, D.E.

1996-04-01

141

Waste isolation pilot plant disposal room model  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes development of the conceptual and mathematical models for the part of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository performance assessment that is concerned with what happens to the waste over long times after the repository is decommissioned. These models, collectively referred to as the {open_quotes}Disposal Room Model,{close_quotes} describe the repository closure process during which deformation of the surrounding salt consolidates the waste. First, the relationship of repository closure to demonstration of compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard (40 CFR 191 Appendix C) and how sensitive performance results are to it are examined. Next, a detailed description is provided of the elements of the disposal region, and properties selected for the salt, waste, and other potential disposal features such as backfill. Included in the discussion is an explanation of how the various models were developed over time. Other aspects of closure analysis, such as the waste flow model and method of analysis, are also described. Finally, the closure predictions used in the final performance assessment analysis for the WIPP Compliance Certification Application are summarized.

Butcher, B.M.

1997-08-01

142

UPGRADING OF WASTE-TO-ENERGY PLANT IN BRESCIA, ITALY  

E-print Network

UPGRADING OF WASTE-TO-ENERGY PLANT IN BRESCIA, ITALY Client: ASM Brescia Financed by: The client commissioned unit 3 dedicated specifically for that purpose. #12;NEW WASTE-TO-ENERGY UNIT IN AALBORG, DENMARK/S Reno-Nord during all stages of the planning and establishment of a new waste-to-energy plant

Columbia University

143

Laboratory Testing of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Surrogate Waste Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a U.S. Department of Energy geological repository for the permanent disposal of defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste. The waste is emplaced in rooms excavated in the bedded Salado salt formation at a depth of 655 m below the ground surface. After emplacement of the waste, the repository will be sealed and decommissioned. WIPP Performance Assessment modeling of the underground material response requires a full and accurate understanding of coupled mechanical, hydrological, and geochemical processes and how they evolve with time. This study was part of a broader test program focused on room closure, specifically the compaction behavior of waste and the constitutive relations to model this behavior. The goal of this study was to develop an improved waste constitutive model. The model parameters are developed based on a well designed set of test data. The constitutive model will then be used to realistically model evolution of the underground and to better understand the impacts on repository performance. The present study results are focused on laboratory testing of surrogate waste materials. The surrogate wastes correspond to a conservative estimate of the degraded containers and TRU waste materials after the 10,000 year regulatory period. Testing consists of hydrostatic, uniaxial, and triaxial tests performed on surrogate waste recipes that were previously developed by Hansen et al. (1997). These recipes can be divided into materials that simulate 50% and 100% degraded waste by weight. The percent degradation indicates the anticipated amount of iron corrosion, as well as the decomposition of cellulosics, plastics, and rubbers. Axial, lateral, and volumetric strain and axial and lateral stress measurements were made. Two unique testing techniques were developed during the course of the experimental program. The first involves the use of dilatometry to measure sample volumetric strain under a hydrostatic condition. Bulk moduli of the samples measured using this technique were consistent with those measured using more conventional methods. The second technique involved performing triaxial tests under lateral strain control. By limiting the lateral strain to zero by controlling the applied confining pressure while loading the specimen axially in compression, one can maintain a right-circular cylindrical geometry even under large deformations. This technique is preferred over standard triaxial testing methods which result in inhomogeneous deformation or "barreling". Manifestations of the inhomogeneous deformation included non-uniform stress states, as well as unrealistic Poisson's ratios (> 0.5) or those that vary significantly along the length of the specimen. Zero lateral strain controlled tests yield a more uniform stress state, and admissible and uniform values of Poisson's ratio. Hansen, F.D., Knowles, M.K., et al. 1997. Description and Evaluation of a Mechanistically Based Conceptual Model for Spall. SAND97-1369. Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Broome, S.; Bronowski, D.; Pfeifle, T.; Herrick, C. G.

2011-12-01

144

Radiolytic gas production from concrete containing Savannah River Plant waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the extent of gas production from radiolysis of concrete containing radioactive Savannah River Plant waste, samples of concrete and simulated waste were irradiated by °Co gamma rays and ²Cm alpha particles. Gamma radiolysis simulated radiolysis by beta particles from fission products in the waste. Alpha radiolysis indicated the effect of alpha particles from transuranic isotopes in the waste.

Bibler

1978-01-01

145

Tritium concentrations in the atmospheric environment at Rokkasho, Japan before the final testing of the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant.  

PubMed

This study aimed at obtaining background tritium concentrations in precipitation and air at Rokkasho where the first commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Japan has been under construction. Tritium concentration in monthly precipitation during fiscal years 2001-2005 had a seasonal variation pattern which was high in spring and low in summer. The tritium concentration was higher than that observed at Chiba City as a whole. The seasonal peak concentration at Rokkasho was generally higher than that at Chiba City, while the baseline concentrations of both were similar. The reason for the difference may be the effect of air mass from the Asian continent which is considered to have high tritium concentration. Atmospheric tritium was operationally separated into HTO, HT and hydrocarbon (CH(3)T) fractions, and the samples collected every 3 d-14 d during fiscal year 2005 were analyzed for these fractions. The HTO concentration as radioactivity in water correlated well with that in the precipitation samples. The HT concentration was the highest among the chemical forms analyzed, followed by the HTO and CH(3)T concentrations. The HT and CH(3)T concentrations did not have clear seasonal variation patterns. The HT concentration followed the decline previously reported by Mason and Östlund with an apparent half-life of 4.8 y. The apparent and environmental half-lives of CH(3)T were estimated as 9.2 y and 36.5 y, respectively, by combining the present data with literature data. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change used the atmospheric lifetime of 12 y for CH(4) to estimate global warming in its 2007 report. The longer environmental half-life of CH(3)T suggested its supply from other sources than past nuclear weapon testing in the atmosphere. PMID:21703737

Akata, Naofumi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Shima, Nagayoshi; Iyogi, Takashi; Momoshima, Noriyuki; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

2011-09-01

146

Low Temperature Waste Energy Recovery at Chemical Plants and Refineries  

E-print Network

Technologies to economically recover low-temperature waste energy in chemical plants and refineries are the holy grail of industrial energy efficiency. Low temperature waste energy streams were defined by the Texas Industries of the Future Chemical...

Ferland, K.; papar, R.; Quinn, J.; Kumar, S.

2013-01-01

147

Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing  

SciTech Connect

Reprocessing is essential to closing nuclear fuel cycle. Natural uranium contains only 0.7 percent 235U, the fissile (see glossary for technical terms) isotope that produces most of the fission energy in a nuclear power plant. Prior to being used in commercial nuclear fuel, uranium is typically enriched to 3–5% in 235U. If the enrichment process discards depleted uranium at 0.2 percent 235U, it takes more than seven tonnes of uranium feed to produce one tonne of 4%-enriched uranium. Nuclear fuel discharged at the end of its economic lifetime contains less one percent 235U, but still more than the natural ore. Less than one percent of the uranium that enters the fuel cycle is actually used in a single pass through the reactor. The other naturally occurring isotope, 238U, directly contributes in a minor way to power generation. However, its main role is to transmute into plutoniumby neutron capture and subsequent radioactive decay of unstable uraniumand neptuniumisotopes. 239Pu and 241Pu are fissile isotopes that produce more than 40% of the fission energy in commercially deployed reactors. It is recovery of the plutonium (and to a lesser extent the uranium) for use in recycled nuclear fuel that has been the primary focus of commercial reprocessing. Uraniumtargets irradiated in special purpose reactors are also reprocessed to obtain the fission product 99Mo, the parent isotope of technetium, which is widely used inmedical procedures. Among the fission products, recovery of such expensive metals as platinum and rhodium is technically achievable, but not economically viable in current market and regulatory conditions. During the past 60 years, many different techniques for reprocessing used nuclear fuel have been proposed and tested in the laboratory. However, commercial reprocessing has been implemented along a single line of aqueous solvent extraction technology called plutonium uranium reduction extraction process (PUREX). Similarly, hundreds of types of reactor fuels have been irradiated for different purposes, but the vast majority of commercial fuel is uranium oxide clad in zirconium alloy tubing. As a result, commercial reprocessing plants have relatively narrow technical requirements for used nuclear that is accepted for processing.

Harold F. McFarlane; Terry Todd

2013-11-01

148

Making Plant-Support Structures From Waste Plant Fiber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Environmentally benign, biodegradable structures for supporting growing plants can be made in a process based on recycling of such waste plant fiber materials as wheat straw or of such derivative materials as paper and cardboard. Examples of structures that can be made in this way include plant plugs, pots, planter-lining mats, plant fences, and root and shoot barriers. No chemical binders are used in the process. First, the plant material is chopped into smaller particles. The particles are leached with water or steam to remove material that can inhibit plant growth, yielding a fibrous slurry. If the desired structures are plugs or sheets, then the slurry is formed into the desired shapes in a pulp molding subprocess. If the desired structures are root and shoot barriers, pots, or fences, then the slurry is compression-molded to the desired shapes in a heated press. The processed materials in these structures have properties similar to those of commercial pressboard, but unlike pressboard, these materials contain no additives. These structures have been found to withstand one growth cycle, even when wet

Morrow, Robert C.; < oscjmocl. < attjew K/; {ertzbprm. A,amda; Ej (e. Cjad); Hunt, John

2006-01-01

149

Widening the envelope of UK HLW vitrification - Experimental studies with high waste loadings and new product formulations on a full scale non-active vitrification plant  

SciTech Connect

The Vitrification Test Rig is a full scale waste vitrification plant that processes non-radioactive liquid HLW simulants based on the active waste streams produced by the reprocessing plants in the UK. Previous work on the rig has primarily concerned increasing the operational envelopes for the active waste vitrification plants at Sellafield to accommodate higher throughputs of Blended waste streams, higher waste oxide incorporation rates in the vitrified products, and the incorporation of legacy waste streams from early reactor commissioning and reprocessing operations at Sellafield. Recent operations have focussed on four main areas; dilute liquid feeds, very high Magnox waste stream incorporation levels, alternative base glass formulations and providing an operational envelope for 28 %w/w Magnox waste vitrification. This paper details the work performed and the major findings of that work. In summary: The VTR has been successfully used to determine operational envelopes and product quality for several HLW feed variations that will allow WVP to increase overall plant throughput via increased waste loading in canisters, increased HLW feed rates or a combination of both. The VTR has also demonstrated the ability to go to waste incorporations, feed rates and glass compositions that are currently beyond WVP specified limits, but that are feasible for future vitrification regimes. In addition, the VTR has trialled dilute feeds similar to those that are likely to be received by WVP in the future and the data obtained from these experiments will allow WVP to prepare adequately for the high throughput challenge of such feeds. Furthermore, new equipment has been trialled on the VTR in water feed mode to determine its suitability and operational limitations for WVP. Future operations will, in the short term, be concerned with increasing the throughput of WVP and are likely to focus on HLW decommissioning operations waste streams in the longer term. (authors)

Short, R.; Gribble, N. [Nexia Solutions, Sellafield, Cumbria, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Riley, A. [Sellafield Ltd, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG, UK (United Kingdom)

2008-07-01

150

Risks of nuclear fuel reprocessing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Savannah River Site's primary function is the production of weapons materials. It consists of four reactors, two fuel reprocessing facilities, a fuel fabrication facility, a nuclear fuel facility for the Navy and a heavy water recycle facility. Under construction is a facility to convert the site's liquid wastes into borosilicate glass. The topic of this paper is risks of

1990-01-01

151

Acceptable knowledge document for INEEL stored transuranic waste -- Rocky Flats Plant waste. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

This document and supporting documentation provide a consistent, defensible, and auditable record of acceptable knowledge for waste generated at the Rocky Flats Plant which is currently in the accessible storage inventory at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The inventory consists of transuranic (TRU) waste generated from 1972 through 1989. Regulations authorize waste generators and treatment, storage, and disposal facilities to use acceptable knowledge in appropriate circumstances to make hazardous waste determinations. Acceptable knowledge includes information relating to plant history, process operations, and waste management, in addition to waste-specific data generated prior to the effective date of the RCRA regulations. This document is organized to provide the reader a comprehensive presentation of the TRU waste inventory ranging from descriptions of the historical plant operations that generated and managed the waste to specific information about the composition of each waste group. Section 2 lists the requirements that dictate and direct TRU waste characterization and authorize the use of the acceptable knowledge approach. In addition to defining the TRU waste inventory, Section 3 summarizes the historical operations, waste management, characterization, and certification activities associated with the inventory. Sections 5.0 through 26.0 describe the waste groups in the inventory including waste generation, waste packaging, and waste characterization. This document includes an expanded discussion for each waste group of potential radionuclide contaminants, in addition to other physical properties and interferences that could potentially impact radioassay systems.

NONE

1998-01-23

152

Report: environmental assessment of Darmstadt (Germany) municipal waste incineration plant.  

PubMed

The focus of this study was the emissions from waste incineration plants using Darmstadt (Germany) waste incineration plant as an example. In the study the emissions generated by incineration of the waste were considered using three different approaches. Initially the emissions from the waste incineration plant were assessed as part of the impact of waste management systems on the environment by using a Municipal Solid Waste Management System (MSWMS) assessment tool (also called: LCA-IWM assessment tool). This was followed by a comparison between the optimal waste incineration process and the real situation. Finally a comparison was made between the emissions from the incineration plant and the emissions from a vehicle. PMID:17439053

Rimaityte, Ingrida; Denafas, Gintaras; Jager, Johannes

2007-04-01

153

Safety at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a Department of Energy (DOE) project designed to demonstrate safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) wastes in the excavations of a salt bed situated 2,150 feet underground. The operational philosophy of the WIPP is threefold: to start clean and stay clean, to meet or exceed regulatory requirements, and to keep radiation exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). The well-being of the public, the environment, and the workers is the project`s first priority. Extensive safety measures have been and will continue to be taken throughout all phases of project activities. This paper describes the major elements of the WIPP safety program which includes a training program with special emphasis on safety, for operations, maintenance, engineering, and all technical support positions; a TRU Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) for safe transportation of TRU waste; radiation protection programs; a volatile organic compound (VOC) monitoring program; and an ALARA committee to oversee and provide guidance to ALARA activities.

Wu, Chuan-Fu

1992-12-31

154

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Land Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

To reflect the requirement of section 4 of the Wastes Isolation Pilot Plant Land Withdrawal Act (the Act) (Public Law 102-579), this land management plan has been written for the withdrawal area consistent with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976. The objective of this document, per the Act, is to describe the plan for the use of the withdrawn land until the end of the decommissioning phase. The plan identifies resource values within the withdrawal area and promotes the concept of multiple-use management. The plan also provides opportunity for participation in the land use planning process by the public and local, State, and Federal agencies. Chapter 1, Introduction, provides the reader with the purpose of this land management plan as well as an overview of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Chapter 2, Affected Environment, is a brief description of the existing resources within the withdrawal area. Chapter 3, Management Objectives and Planned Actions, describes the land management objectives and actions taken to accomplish these objectives.

Not Available

1993-12-01

155

Vitrification of Polyvinyl Chloride Waste from Korean Nuclear Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

Vitrification is considered as an economical and safe treatment technology for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated from nuclear power plants (NPPs). Korea is in the process of preparing for its first ever vitrification plant to handle LLW from its NPPs. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) has the largest volume of dry active wastes and is the main waste stream to treat. Glass formulation development for PVC waste is the focus of study. The minimum additive waste stabilization approach has been utilized in vitrification. It was found that glasses can incorporate a high content of PVC ash (up to 50 wt%), which results in a large volume reduction. A glass frit, KEP-A, was developed to vitrify PVC waste after the optimization of waste loading, melt viscosity, melting temperature, and chemical durability. The KEP-A could satisfactorily vitrify PVC with a waste loading of 30 to 50 wt%. The PVC-frit was tolerant of variations in waste composition.

Sheng, Jiawei [Kyoto University (Japan); Choi, Kwansik [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Kyung-Hwa [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myung-Chan [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (Korea, Republic of); Song, Myung-Jae [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (Korea, Republic of)

2000-02-15

156

High level nuclear waste  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Division of Waste Products through a lead office at Savannah River is developing a program to immobilize all US high-level nuclear waste for terminal disposal. DOE high-level wastes include those at the Hanford Plant, the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, and the Savannah River Plant. Commercial high-level wastes, for which DOE is also developing immobilization technology, include those at the Nuclear Fuel Services Plant and any future commercial fuels reprocessing plants. The first immobilization plant is to be the Defense Waste Processing Facility at Savannah River, scheduled for 1983 project submission to Congress and 1989 operation. Waste forms are still being selected for this plant. Borosilicate glass is currently the reference form, but alternate candidates include concretes, calcines, other glasses, ceramics, and matrix forms.

Crandall, J L

1980-01-01

157

Regulatory basis for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant performance assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the first operational repository designed for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste from the defense programs of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for certifications and regulation of the WIPP facility for the radioactive components of the waste. The EPA has promulgated general

BRYAN A. HOWARD; M. B. CRAWFORD; D. A. GALSON; MELVIN G. MARIETTA

2000-01-01

158

Rock mechanics activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The application of rock mechanics at nuclear waste repositories is a true multidisciplinary effort. A description and historical summary of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is presented. Rock mechanics programs at the WIPP are outlined, and the current rock mechanics modeling philosophy of the Westinghouse Waste Isolation Division is discussed.

Francke, C. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States); Saeb, S. [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-12-31

159

Hydrothermal Oxidation Hazardous Waste Pilot Plant Test Bed  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is fabricating a Hydrothermal Oxidation (HTO) Hazardous Waste Pilot Plant Test Bed to evaluate and test various HTO reactor concepts for initial processing of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed wastes. If the HTO process is successful it will significantly reduce the volume of DOE mixed wastes by destroying the organic constituents.

Welland, H.; Reed, W.; Valentich, D.; Charlton, T.

1995-03-01

160

Nonlinear Model Predictive Control of Municipal Solid Waste Combustion Plants  

E-print Network

, combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) forms a suitable alternative to dumping for many parts of the worldNonlinear Model Predictive Control of Municipal Solid Waste Combustion Plants M. Leskens , R.h.Bosgra@tudelft.nl, p.m.j.vandenhof@tudelft.nl Keywords : nonlinear model predictive control, municipal solid waste

Van den Hof, Paul

161

Economic Comparison of Waste Water Cleaning for Central Waste Water Treatment Plant and Decentralised System with Smaller Waste Water Treatment Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In presented paper two economic analysis of investments for integrated waste water collection and treatment in selected area are presented. The methods of Net present value (NPV) and Capitalised costs (CC) have been used to compare economic efficiency of construction central waste water treatment plant with collecting system and construction of decentralised waste water treatment plants with belonging collecting system

J. ZORKO; D. GORICANEC

162

Texas refiner starts up new waste water treatment plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chevron Corp. has started up a new waste water treatment plant at its Port Arthur, Tex., refinery. The new facility has an hydraulic capacity of 10,000 gpm and will treat process waste water, cooling tower blowdown, and contaminated storm water. The plant includes: A process unit for removing free and emulsified oil; and equalization facility; a biological system for organics

N. Al-Tell; R. Lueders

1994-01-01

163

Effect of Flue Gas Desulfurization Waste on Corn Plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is a by-product of conversion of sulfur dioxide into solid waste from coal combustion power generation plant. This by-product is rich in calcium, magnesium, and contains various other essential plant nutrients. The beneficial use of application of this waste as...

164

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant hydrogen generation  

SciTech Connect

The most promising method for the disposal of highly radioactive nuclear wastes is a vitrification process in which the wastes are incorporated into borosilicate glass logs, the logs are sealed into welded stainless steel canisters, and the canisters are buried in suitably protected burial sites for disposal. The purpose of the research supported by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) project of the Department of Energy through Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and summarized in this report was to gain a basic understanding of the hydrogen generation process and to predict the rate and amount of hydrogen generation during the treatment of HWVP feed simulants with formic acid. The objectives of the study were to determine the key feed components and process variables which enhance or inhibit the.production of hydrogen. Information on the kinetics and stoichiometry of relevant formic acid reactions were sought to provide a basis for viable mechanistic proposals. The chemical reactions were characterized through the production and consumption of the key gaseous products such as H{sub 2}. CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}0, NO, and NH{sub 3}. For this mason this research program relied heavily on analyses of the gases produced and consumed during reactions of the HWVP feed simulants with formic acid under various conditions. Such analyses, used gas chromatographic equipment and expertise at the University of Georgia for the separation and determination of H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and NO.

King, R.B.; King, A.D. Jr.; Bhattacharyya, N.K. [and others

1996-02-01

165

Consideration of nuclear criticality when disposing of transuranic waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on general arguments presented in this report, nuclear criticality was eliminated from performance assessment calculations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a repository for waste contaminated with transuranic (TRU) radioisotopes, located in southeastern New Mexico. At the WIPP, the probability of criticality within the repository is low because mechanisms to concentrate the fissile radioisotopes dispersed throughout the waste

ROBERT P. RECHARD; LAWRENCE C. SANCHEZ; CHRISTINE T. STOCKMAN; HOLLY R. TRELLUE

2000-01-01

166

Remote maintenance in nuclear fuel reprocessing  

SciTech Connect

Remote maintenance techniques applied in large-scale nuclear fuel reprocessing plants are reviewed with particular attention to the three major maintenance philosophy groupings: contact, remote crane canyon, and remote/contact. Examples are given, and the relative success of each type is discussed. Probable future directions for large-scale reprocessing plant maintenance are described along with advanced manipulation systems for application in the plants. The remote maintenance development program within the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is also described. 19 refs., 19 figs.

Herndon, J.N.

1985-01-01

167

Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter (chloride, fluoride, sulfur), will have high ammonia, and will contain carryover particulates of glass-former chemicals. These species have potential to cause corrosion of tanks and equipment, precipitation of solids, release of ammonia gas vapors, and scale in the tank farm evaporator. Routing this stream to the tank farms does not permanently divert it from recycling into the WTP, only temporarily stores it prior to reprocessing. Testing is normally performed to demonstrate acceptable conditions and limits for these compounds in wastes sent to the tank farms. The primary parameter of this phase of the test program was measuring the formation of solids during evaporation in order to assess the compatibility of the stream with the evaporator and transfer and storage equipment. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW facility melter offgas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet, and, thus, the composition will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. This report discusses results of evaporation testing of the simulant. Two conditions were tested, one with the simulant at near neutral pH, and a second at alkaline pH. The neutral pH test is comparable to the conditions in the Hanford Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) evaporator, although that evaporator operates at near atmospheric pressure and tests were done under vacuum. For the alkaline test, the target pH was based on the tank farm corrosion control program requirements, and the test protocol and equipment was comparable to that used for routine evaluation of feed compatibility studies for the 242-A evaporator. One of the

Adamson, Duane J.; Nash, Charles A.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Wilmarth, William R.

2014-01-27

168

Polymer solidification of mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Rocky Flats Plant is pursuing polymer solidification as a viable treatment option for several mixed waste streams that are subject to land disposal restrictions within the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act provisions. Tests completed to date using both surrogate and actual wastes indicate that polyethylene microencapsulation is a viable treatment option for several mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant, including nitrate salts, sludges, and secondary wastes such as ash. Treatability studies conducted on actual salt waste demonstrated that the process is capable of producing waste forms that comply with all applicable regulatory criteria, including the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. Tests have also been conducted to evaluate the feasibility of macroencapsulating certain debris wastes in polymers. Several methods and plastics have been tested for macroencapsulation, including post-consumer recycle and regrind polyethylene.

Faucette, A.M.; Logsdon, B.W.; Lucerna, J.J.; Yudnich, R.J.

1994-02-01

169

TRU waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Revision 3  

SciTech Connect

This document is intended to delineate the criteria by which unclassified waste will be accepted for emplacement at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico and describe the bases upon which these criteria were established. These criteria are not intended to be specifications but rather limits that will allow waste generating and shipping sites to develop their own procedures and specifications for preparation of TRU waste for shipment to the WIPP. These criteria will also allow waste generating sites to plan future facilities for waste preparation that will produce TRU waste forms compatible with WIPP waste emplacement and isolation requirements. These criteria only apply to contract-handled (CH) and remote-handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) waste forms and are not intended to apply to beta-gamma wastes, spent fuel, high-level waste (HLW), low-level waste (LLW), low specific activity (LSA) waste, or forms of radioactive waste for experimental purposes. Specifications for receipt of experimental waste forms will be prepared by the responsible projects in conjunction with the staff of the WIPP project at a later date. In addition, these criteria only apply to waste emplaced in bedded rock salt. Technical bases for these criteria may differ significantly from those for other host rocks. 25 refs. 4 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1989-01-01

170

Reuse of waste materials as growing media for ornamental plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of different waste materials: pine bark, coconut fibre and sewage sludge as substrates in the production of ornamental plants was studied, with an special interest on the suitability of coconut fibre as growing substrate for conifer plants. The plant species tested were Pinus pinea, Cupressus arizonica and C. sempervirens and the substrate mixtures were: (1) pine bark, (2)

Lourdes Hernández-Apaolaza; Antonio M. Gascó; José M. Gascó; Francisca Guerrero

2005-01-01

171

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant borehole data  

SciTech Connect

Data pertaining to all the surface boreholes used at the WIPP site for site characterization hydrological testing and resource evaluation exist in numerous source documents. This project was initiated to develop a comprehensive data base that would include the data on all WIPP related surface boreholes from the Atomic Energy Commission, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Energy Research and Development Administration, Department of Energy, and Hydrologic Test Borehole Programs. The data compiled from each borehole includes: operator, permit number, location, total depth, type of well, driller, drilling record, casing record, plugging schedule, and stratigraphic summary. There are six groups of boreholes contained in this data base, they are as follows: Commercially Drilled Potash Boreholes, Energy Department Wells, Geologic Exploration Boreholes, Hydrologic Test Boreholes, Potash Boreholes, and Subsurface Exploration Boreholes. There were numerous references which contained borehole data. In some cases the data found in one document was inconsistent with data in another document. In order to ensure consistency and accuracy in the data base, the same references were used for as many of the boreholes as possible. For example, all elevations and locations were taken from Compilation and Comparison of Test-Hole Location Surveys in the Vicinity of the WIPP Site. SAND 88-1065, Table 3-5. There are some sections where a data field is left blank. In this case, the information was either not applicable or was unavailable.

NONE

1995-04-01

172

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan  

SciTech Connect

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to conduct environmental monitoring. Environmental monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is conducted in order to: (a) Verify and support compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, permits, and orders; (b) Establish baselines and characterize trends in the physical, chemical, and biological condition of effluent and environmental media; (c) Identify potential environmental problems and evaluate the need for remedial actions or measures to mitigate the problems; (d) Detect, characterize, and report unplanned releases; (e) Evaluate the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control, and pollution abatement programs; and (f) Determine compliance with commitments made in environmental impact statements, environmental assessments, safety analysis reports, or other official DOE documents. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) explains the rationale and design criteria for the environmental monitoring program, extent and frequency of monitoring and measurements, procedures for laboratory analyses, quality assurance (QA) requirements, program implementation procedures, and direction for the preparation and disposition of reports. Changes to the environmental monitoring program may be necessary to allow the use of advanced technology and new data collection techniques. This EMP will document changes in the environmental monitoring program. Guidance for preparation of EMPs is contained in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance.

Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

2008-03-12

173

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Salt Decontamination Testing  

SciTech Connect

On February 14, 2014, americium and plutonium contamination was released in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) salt caverns. At the request of WIPP’s operations contractor, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) personnel developed several methods of decontaminating WIPP salt, using surrogate contaminants and also americium (241Am). The effectiveness of the methods is evaluated qualitatively, and to the extent possible, quantitatively. One of the requirements of this effort was delivering initial results and recommendations within a few weeks. That requirement, in combination with the limited scope of the project, made in-depth analysis impractical in some instances. Of the methods tested (dry brushing, vacuum cleaning, water washing, strippable coatings, and mechanical grinding), the most practical seems to be water washing. Effectiveness is very high, and it is very easy and rapid to deploy. The amount of wastewater produced (2 L/m2) would be substantial and may not be easy to manage, but the method is the clear winner from a usability perspective. Removable surface contamination levels (smear results) from the strippable coating and water washing coupons found no residual removable contamination. Thus, whatever is left is likely adhered to (or trapped within) the salt. The other option that shows promise is the use of a fixative barrier. Bartlett Nuclear, Inc.’s Polymeric Barrier System (PBS) proved the most durable of the coatings tested. The coatings were not tested for contaminant entrapment, only for coating integrity and durability.

Rick Demmer; Stephen Reese

2014-09-01

174

IR and Raman Spectroscopy of Sodium-Aluminophosphate Glasses for Immobilizing High-Level Wastes from Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of sodium-aluminophosphate glasses containing constituents of high-level wastes (cesium, magnesium, copper, and molybdenum oxides) from uranium-graphite reactors was studied by IR and Raman spectroscopy coupled with x-ray diffraction. The structural network was shown to be composed of short P-O chains with embedded AlO4 tetrahedra. Cross-linking by Mg2+ was possible in the Mg-bearing samples. The effect of the other oxides (Cs2O, MoO3, CuO) on the glass structure was negligible for the occurring amounts. The glasses devitrified partially upon quenching and more strongly upon annealing. This was reflected in splitting of the vibrational bands for bonds in the glass anionic structural motif.

Stefanovsky, S. V.; Myasoedov, B. F.; Remizov, M. B.; Belanova, E. A.

2014-09-01

175

MICROORGANISMS AND HIGHER PLANTS FOR WASTE WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Batch experiments were conducted to compare the waste water treatment efficiencies of plant-free microbial filters with filters supporting the growth of reeds (Phragmites communis), cattail (Typha latifolia), rush (Juncus effusus), and bamboo (Bambusa multiplex). The experimental...

176

WASTE MANAGEMENT CONTROL HANDBOOK FOR DAIRY FOOD PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Waste control is resource management control in dairy food plant operations. Appreciable reductions can be achieved in product, water, energy, labor, packaging losses and sewer surcharges. A good program in waste control can increase the profit margin by more than 10%, as well as...

177

Sodium Recycle Economics for Waste Treatment Plant Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium recycle at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) would reduce the number of glass canisters produced, and has the potential to significantly reduce the cost to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) of treating the tank wastes by hundreds of millions of dollars. The sodium, added in the form of sodium hydroxide, was originally added to minimize corrosion of

Gary J. Sevigny; Adam P. Poloski; Matthew S. Fountain

2008-01-01

178

Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project interim acceptance specifications for Defense Waste Processing Facility and West Valley Demonstration Project waste forms and canisterized waste  

SciTech Connect

The waste acceptance specifications presented in this document represent the first stage of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project effort to establish specifications for the acceptance of waste forms for disposal at a nuclear waste repository in Yucca Mountain tuff. The only waste forms that will be dealt with in this document are the reprocessed waste forms resulting from solidification of the Savannah River Plant defense high level waste and the West Valley high level wastes. Specifications for acceptance of spent fuel will be covered in a separate document.

Oversby, V.M.

1984-08-01

179

Near-field krypton-85 measurements in stable meteorological conditions around the AREVA NC La Hague reprocessing plant: estimation of atmospheric transfer coefficients.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to study the near-field dispersion of (85)Kr around the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at La Hague (AREVA NC La Hague - France) under stable meteorological conditions. Twenty-two (85)Kr night-time experimental campaigns were carried out at distances of up to 4 km from the release source. Although the operational Gaussian models predict for these meteorological conditions a distance to plume touchdown of several kilometers, we almost systematically observed a marked ground signal at distances of 0.5-4 km. The calculated atmospheric transfer coefficients (ATC) show values (1) higher than those observed under neutral conditions, (2) much higher than those proposed by the operational models, and (3) higher than those used in the impact assessments. PMID:25078471

Connan, O; Solier, L; Hébert, D; Maro, D; Lamotte, M; Voiseux, C; Laguionie, P; Cazimajou, O; Le Cavelier, S; Godinot, C; Morillon, M; Thomas, L; Percot, S

2014-11-01

180

Pelletization process of postproduction plant waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of investigations on the influence of material, process, and construction parameters on the densification process and density of pellets received from different mixtures of tobacco and fine-grained waste of lemon balm are presented. The conducted research makes it possible to conclude that postproduction waste eg tobacco and lemon balm wastes can be successfully pelletized and used as an ecological, solid fuels.

Obidzi?ski, S.

2012-07-01

181

Environmental aspects of commercial radioactive waste management  

SciTech Connect

Environmental effects (including accidents) associated with facility construction, operation, decommissioning, and transportation in the management of commercially generated radioactive waste were analyzed for plants and systems assuming a light water power reactor scenario that produces about 10,000 GWe-yr through the year 2050. The following alternative fuel cycle modes or cases that generate post-fission wastes requiring management were analyzed: a once-through option, a fuel reprocessing option for uranium and plutonium recycle, and a fuel reprocessing option for uranium-only recycle. Volume 1 comprises five chapters: introduction; summary of findings; approach to assessment of environmental effects from radioactive waste management; environmental effects related to radioactive management in a once-through fuel cycle; and environmental effects of radioactive waste management associated with an LWR fuel reprocessing plant. (LK)

Not Available

1979-05-01

182

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan  

SciTech Connect

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to conduct environmental monitoring. Environmental monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is conducted in order to: (a) Verify and support compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, permits, and orders; (b) Establish baselines and characterize trends in the physical, chemical, and biological condition of effluent and environmental media; (c) Identify potential environmental problems and evaluate the need for remedial actions or measures to mitigate the problem; (d) Detect, characterize, and report unplanned releases; (e) Evaluate the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control, and pollution abatement programs; and (f) Determine compliance with commitments made in environmental impact statements, environmental assessments, safety analysis reports, or other official DOE documents. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) has been written to contain the rationale and design criteria for the monitoring program, extent and frequency of monitoring and measurements, procedures for laboratory analyses, quality assurance (QA) requirements, program implementation procedures, and direction for the preparation and disposition of reports. Changes to the environmental monitoring program may be necessary to allow the use of advanced technology and new data collection techniques. This EMP will document any proposed changes in the environmental monitoring program. Guidance for preparation of Environmental Monitoring Plans is contained in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance. The plan will be effective when it is approved by the appropriate Head of Field Organization or their designee. The plan discusses major environmental monitoring and hydrology activities at the WIPP and describes the programs established to ensure that WIPP operations do not have detrimental effects on the environment. This EMP is to be reviewed annually and updated every three years unless otherwise requested by the DOE or contractor.

Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

2004-02-19

183

Uptake by plants of radionuclides from FUSRAP waste materials  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclides from FUSRAP wastes potentially may be taken up by plants during remedial action activities and permanent near-surface burial of contaminated materials. In order to better understand the propensity of radionuclides to accumulate in plant tissue, soil and plant factors influencing the uptake and accumulation of radionuclides by plants are reviewed. In addition, data describing the uptake of the principal radionuclides present in FUSRAP wastes (uranium-238, thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210, and polonium-210) are summarized. All five radionuclides can accumulate in plant root tissue to some extent, and there is potential for the translocation and accumulation of these radionuclides in plant shoot tissue. Of these five radionuclides, radium-226 appears to have the greatest potential for translocation and accumulation in plant shoot tissue. 28 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

Knight, M.J.

1983-04-01

184

AQUATIC PLANTS FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF WASTE WATER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of aquatic plants to accumulate heavy metals was examined in Bahr in El Bakar drain as one of the first sized drains in Egypt heavily polluted with heavy metals. Metal enrichment was found to be dependent on the plant species and metal type. The most efficient plant species in accumulating heavy metals were Eichhornia crassipes (floating plant), Ceratophyllum

Assia A. El Falaky; S. A. Aboulroos; A. A. Saoud; M. A. Ali

185

Unfavorable Conditions for Nuclear Criticality Following Disposal of Transuranic Waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeling of nuclear criticality was omitted from performance assessment calculations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a repository for waste contaminated with transuranic radioisotopes, located in southeastern New Mexico, based on arguments of low probability and low consequence. Low-probability arguments are presented here. Guidance provided by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) - the regulator of WIPP - allowed either

Rob P. Rechard; Lawrence C. Sanchez; Holly R. Trellue; Christine T. Stockman

2001-01-01

186

Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Waste Feed Qualification Program Development Approach - 13114  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is a nuclear waste treatment facility being designed and constructed for the U.S. Department of Energy by Bechtel National, Inc. and subcontractor URS Corporation (under contract DE-AC27-01RV14136 [1]) to process and vitrify radioactive waste that is currently stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. A wide range of planning is in progress to prepare for safe start-up, commissioning, and operation. The waste feed qualification program is being developed to protect the WTP design, safety basis, and technical basis by assuring acceptance requirements can be met before the transfer of waste. The WTP Project has partnered with Savannah River National Laboratory to develop the waste feed qualification program. The results of waste feed qualification activities will be implemented using a batch processing methodology, and will establish an acceptable range of operator controllable parameters needed to treat the staged waste. Waste feed qualification program development is being implemented in three separate phases. Phase 1 required identification of analytical methods and gaps. This activity has been completed, and provides the foundation for a technically defensible approach for waste feed qualification. Phase 2 of the program development is in progress. The activities in this phase include the closure of analytical methodology gaps identified during Phase 1, design and fabrication of laboratory-scale test apparatus, and determination of the waste feed qualification sample volume. Phase 3 will demonstrate waste feed qualification testing in support of Cold Commissioning. (authors)

Markillie, Jeffrey R.; Arakali, Aruna V.; Benson, Peter A.; Halverson, Thomas G. [Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Project, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)] [Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Project, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Adamson, Duane J.; Herman, Connie C.; Peeler, David K. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01

187

Radiological Monitoring of Waste Treatment Plant  

SciTech Connect

Scheduled waste in West Malaysia is handled by Concession Company and is stored and then is incinerated. It is known that incineration process may result in naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) to be concentrated. In this study we have measured three samples consist of by-product from the operation process such as slag, filter cake and fly ash. Other various environmental media such as air, surface water, groundwater and soil within and around the plant have also been analysed for their radioactivity levels. The concentration of Ra-226, Ac-228 and K-40 in slag are 0.062 Bq/g, 0.016 Bq/g and 0.19 Bq/g respectively. The total activity (Ra{sub eq}) in slag is 99.5 Bq/kg. The concentration in fly ash is 0.032 Bq/g, 0.16 Bq/g and 0.34 Bq/g for Ra-226, Ac-228 and K-40 respectively resulting in Raeq of 287.0 Bq/kg. For filter cake, the concentration is 0.13 Bq/g, 0.031 Bq/g and 0.33 Bq/g for Ra-226, Ac-228 and K-40 respectively resulting in Raeq of 199.7 Bq/kg. The external radiation level ranges from 0.08 {mu}Sv/h (Administrative building) to 0.35 {mu}Sv/h (TENORM storage area). The concentration level of radon and thoron progeny varies from 0.0001 to 0.0016 WL and 0.0006 WL to 0.002 WL respectively. For soil samples, the activity ranges from 0.11 Bq/g to 0.29 Bq/g, 0.06 Bq/g to 0.18 Bq/g and 0.065 Bq/g to 0.38 Bq/g for Ra-226, Ac-228 and K-40 respectively. While activity in water, except for a trace of K-40, it is non-detectable.

Amin, Y. M. [Physics Dept, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Nik, H. W. [Asialab (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd, 14 Jalan Industri USJ 1, 47600 Subang Jaya (Malaysia)

2011-03-30

188

Vitrification of liquid waste from nuclear power plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glass is an acceptable waste form to solidify the low-level waste from nuclear power plants (NPPs) because of the simplicity of processing and its unique ability to accept a wide variety of waste streams. Vitrification is being considered to solidify the high-boron-containing liquid waste generated from Korean NPPs. This study dealt with the development of a glass formulation to solidify the liquid waste. Studies were conducted in a borosilicate glass system. Crucible studies have been performed with surrogate waste. Several developed glass frits were evaluated to determine their suitability for vitrifying the liquid waste. The results indicated that the 20 wt% waste oxides loading required could not be obtained using these glass frits. Flyash produced from coal-burning electric power stations, whose major components are SiO 2 and Al 2O 3, is a desirable glass network former. Detailed product evaluations including waste loading, homogeneity, chemical durability and viscosity, etc., were carried out on selected formulations using flyash. Up to 30 wt% of the waste oxides was successfully solidified into the flyash after the addition of 5-10 wt% Na 2O at 1200°C.

Sheng, Jiawei; Choi, Kwansik; Song, Myung-Jae

2001-07-01

189

Mobile power plants : waste body heat recovery  

E-print Network

Novel methods to convert waste metabolic heat into useful and useable amounts of electricity were studied. Thermoelectric, magneto hydrodynamic, and piezo-electric energy conversions at the desired scope were evaluated to ...

Gibbons, Jonathan S. (Jonathan Scott), 1979-

2004-01-01

190

Saltstone: cement-based waste form for disposal of Savannah River Plant low-level radioactive salt waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defense waste processing at the Savannah River Plant will include decontamination and disposal of approximately 400 million liters of waste containing NaNOâ, NaOH, NaâSOâ, and NaNOâ. After decontamination, the salt solution is classified as low-level waste. A cement-based waste form, saltstone, has been designed for disposal of Savannah River Plant low-level radioactive salt waste. Bulk properties of this material have

Langton

1984-01-01

191

Water recovery using waste heat from coal fired power plants.  

SciTech Connect

The potential to treat non-traditional water sources using power plant waste heat in conjunction with membrane distillation is assessed. Researchers and power plant designers continue to search for ways to use that waste heat from Rankine cycle power plants to recover water thereby reducing water net water consumption. Unfortunately, waste heat from a power plant is of poor quality. Membrane distillation (MD) systems may be a technology that can use the low temperature waste heat (<100 F) to treat water. By their nature, they operate at low temperature and usually low pressure. This study investigates the use of MD to recover water from typical power plants. It looks at recovery from three heat producing locations (boiler blow down, steam diverted from bleed streams, and the cooling water system) within a power plant, providing process sketches, heat and material balances and equipment sizing for recovery schemes using MD for each of these locations. It also provides insight into life cycle cost tradeoffs between power production and incremental capital costs.

Webb, Stephen W.; Morrow, Charles W.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Dwyer, Brian P.

2011-01-01

192

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) fact sheet  

SciTech Connect

Pursuant to the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended (42 USC 6901, et seq.), and the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act (Section 74-4-1 et seq., NMSA 1978), Permit is issued to the owner and operator of the US DOE, WIPP site (hereafter called the Permittee(s)) to operate a hazardous waste storage facility consisting of a container storage unit (Waste Handling Building) and two Subpart X miscellaneous below-ground storage units (Bin Scale Test Rooms 1 and 3), all are located at the above location. The Permittee must comply with all terms and conditions of this Permit. This Permit consists of the conditions contained herein, including the attachments. Applicable regulations cited are the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Management Regulations, as amended 1992 (HWMR-7), the regulations that are in effect on the date of permit issuance. This Permit shall become effective upon issuance by the Secretary of the New Mexico Environment Department and shall be in effect for a period of ten (10) years from issuance. This Permit is also based on the assumption that all information contained in the Permit application and the administrative record is accurate and that the activity will be conducted as specified in the application and the administrative record. The Permit application consists of Revision 3, as well as associated attachments and clarifying information submitted on January 25, 1993, and May 17, 1993.

Not Available

1993-10-01

193

Radioactive waste management plan for the PBMR (Pty) Ltd fuel plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (Pty) Ltd Fuel Plant (PFP) radioactive waste management plan caters for waste from generation, processing through storage and possible disposal. Generally, the amount of waste that will be generated from the PFP is Low and Intermediate Level Waste. The waste management plan outlines all waste streams and the management options for each stream. It also

Mosidi E. Makgae

2009-01-01

194

Characterization recommendations for waste sites at the Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect

One hundred and sixty six disposal facilities that received or may have received waste materials resulting from operations at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) have been identified. These waste range from innocuous solid and liquid materials (e.g., wood piles) to process effluents that contain hazardous and/or radioactive constituents. The waste sites have been grouped into 45 categories according the the type of waste materials they received. Waste sites are located with SRP coordinates, a local Department of Energy (DOE) grid system whose grid north is 36 degrees 22 minutes west of true north. DOE policy is to close all waste sites at SRP in a manner consistent with protecting human health and environment and complying with applicable environmental regulations (DOE 1984). A uniform, explicit characterization program for SRP waste sites will provide a sound technical basis for developing closure plans. Several elements are summarized in the following individual sections including (1) a review of the history, geohydrology, and available characterization data for each waste site and (2) recommendations for additional characterization necessary to prepare a reasonable closure plan. Many waste sites have been fully characterized, while others have not been investigated at all. The approach used in this report is to evaluate available groundwater quality and site history data. For example, groundwater data are compared to review criteria to help determine what additional information is required. The review criteria are based on regulatory and DOE guidelines for acceptable concentrations of constituents in groundwater and soil.

Carlton, W.H.; Gordon, D.E.; Johnson, W.F.; Kaback, D.S.; Looney, B.B.; Nichols, R.L.; Shedrow, C.B.

1987-11-01

195

Waste wash water recycling in ready-mixed concrete plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of large amounts of waste wash water coming from ready-mixed concrete plants leads to problems of environmental impact. National laws usually prohibit the disposal of such types of water, due to their extremely high pH value and suspended matter amount, and require the water to be treated prior to discharge. prEN 1008 provides for recycling waste water in the

Franco Sandrolini; Elisa Franzoni

2001-01-01

196

Waste-heat-driven refrigeration plants for freezer trawlers  

SciTech Connect

An analysis is made of the possibility of utilizing waste heat from a proposed gas-turbine fishing-vessel propulsion engine to power a refrigeration plant. On the basis of superior volume, maintenance and reliability, and cost and availability, the ammonia-water absorption system is chosen over the other waste-heat-driven option considered. It is found to be comparable in volume and in maintenance and reliability to the conventional vapor-compression system.

Kellen, A.D.

1986-01-01

197

Assessing pollutions of soil and plant by municipal waste dump  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research is few in the literature regarding the investigation and assessment of pollutions of soil and plant by municipal\\u000a waste dumps. Based upon previous work in seven waste dumping sites (nonsanitary landfills) in Beijing, Shanghai and Shijiazhuang,\\u000a this study expounds the investigation and assessment method and report major pollutants. Using relative background values,\\u000a this study assesses soil pollution degree in

Changli Liu; Yun Zhang; Feng’e Zhang; Sheng Zhang; Miying Yin; Hao Ye; Hongbing Hou; Hua Dong; Ming Zhang; Jianmei Jiang; Lixin Pei

2007-01-01

198

Solidification of Savannah River plant high level waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Authorization for construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is expected in FY-83. The optimum time for stage 2 authorization is about three years later. Detailed design and construction will require approximately five years for stage 1, with stage 2 construction completed about two to three years later. Production of canisters of waste glass would begin in 1988, and the existing backlog of high level waste sludge stored at SRP would be worked off by about the year 2000. Stage 2 operation could begin in 1990. The technology and engineering are ready for construction and eventual operation of the DWPF for immobilizing high level radioactive waste at Savannah River Plant (SRP). Proceeding with this project will provide the public, and the leadership of this country, with a crucial demonstration that a major quanitity of existing high level nuclear wastes can be safely and permanently immobilized.

Maher, R.; Shafranek, L. F.; Kelley, J. A.; Zeyfang, R. W.

1981-11-01

199

Final environmental impact statement. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the appendices for the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Alternative geologic environs are considered. Salt, crystalline rock, argillaceous rock, and tuff are discussed. Studies on alternate geologic regions for the siting of WIPP are reviewed. President Carter's message to Congress on the management of radioactive wastes and the findings and recommendations of the interagency review group on nuclear waste management are included. Selection criteria for the WIPP site including geologic, hydrologic, tectonic, physicochemical compatability, and socio-economic factors are presented. A description of the waste types and the waste processing procedures are given. Methods used to calculate radiation doses from radionuclide releases during operation are presented. A complete description of the Los Medanos site, including archaeological and historic aspects is included. Environmental monitoring programs and long-term safety analysis program are described. (DMC)

Not Available

1980-10-01

200

Defense waste processing facility project at the Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Du Pont Company is building for the Department of Energy a facility to vitrify high-level waste at the Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will solidify existing and future radioactive wastes produced by defense activities at the site. At the present time engineering and design are 45% complete, the site has been cleared, and startup is expected in 1989. This paper will describe project status as well as features of the design. 9 figures.

Baxter, R G; Maher, R; Mellen, J B; Shafranek, L F; Stevens, III, W R

1984-01-01

201

Hong Kong plans new generation chemical waste plant for 1993  

SciTech Connect

The first comprehensive chemical waste treatment facility in a Pacific Rim country is scheduled for completion in Hong Kong in early 1993. Designed to treat industrial chemical wastes generated in Hong Kong and vicinity, the plant will have an output consisting of environmentally safe materials, energy, and some recovered products. The new waste treatment facility will be located on Tsing-yi Island, which is connected to the New Territories by road, near Ha Kwai Chung. The island is close to the main harbor and western shipping channel, providing immediate access to the Pearl River and Guangzhou (Canton).

Haggin, J. (C and EN, Chicago, IL (US))

1991-02-01

202

Aqueous Waste Treatment Plant at Aldermaston  

Microsoft Academic Search

For over half a century the Pangbourne Pipeline formed part of AWE's liquid waste management system. Since 1952 the 11.5 mile pipeline carried pre-treated wastewater from the Aldermaston site for safe dispersal in the River Thames. Such discharges were in strict compliance with the exacting conditions demanded by all regulatory authorities, latterly, those of the Environment Agency. In March 2005

D. Keene; J. Fowler; S. Frier

2006-01-01

203

Robust Solution to Difficult Hydrogen Issues When Shipping Transuranic Waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has been open, receiving, and disposing of transuranic (TRU) waste since March 26, 1999. The majority of the waste has a path forward for shipment to and disposal at the WIPP, but there are about two percent (2%) or approximately 3,020 cubic meters (m{sup 3}) of the volume of TRU waste (high wattage TRU waste) that is not shippable because of gas generation limits set by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This waste includes plutonium-238 waste, solidified organic waste, and other high plutonium-239 wastes. Flammable gases are potentially generated during transport of TRU waste by the radiolysis of hydrogenous materials and therefore, the concentration at the end of the shipping period must be predicted. Two options are currently available to TRU waste sites for solving this problem: (1) gas generation testing on each drum, and (2) waste form modification by repackaging and/or treatment. Repackaging some of the high wattage waste may require up to 20:1 drum increase to meet the gas generation limits of less than five percent (5%) hydrogen in the inner most layer of confinement (the layer closest to the waste). (This is the limit set by the NRC.) These options increase waste handling and transportation risks and there are high costs and potential worker exposure associated with repackaging this high-wattage TRU waste. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) is pursuing a twofold approach to develop a shipping path for these wastes. They are: regulatory change and technology development. For the regulatory change, a more detailed knowledge of the high wattage waste (e.g., void volumes, gas generation potential of specific chemical constituents) may allow refinement of the current assumptions in the gas generation model for Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging for Contact-Handled (CH) TRU waste. For technology development, one of the options being pursued is the use of a robust container, the ARROW-PAK{trademark} System. (1) The ARROW-PAK{trademark} is a macroencapsulation treatment technology, developed by Boh Environmental, LLC, New Orleans, Louisiana. This technology has been designed to withstand any unexpected hydrogen deflagration (i.e. no consequence) and other benefits such as criticality control.

Countiss, S. S.; Basabilvazo, G. T.; Moody, D. C. III; Lott, S. A.; Pickerell, M.; Baca, T.; CH2M Hill; Tujague, S.; Svetlik, H.; Hannah, T.

2003-02-27

204

Nuclear fuel reprocessing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel is a relatively simple, well-developed, and successful technology. Large, expensive reprocessing facilities are in use, principally in the UK and France, and are under construction in Japan and the CIS. As in most industrial processes, the viability of the process depends on the usefulness of its function and products, operational costs, and the economics of

Foreman

1992-01-01

205

Comparison of RIMPUFF, HYSPLIT, ADMS atmospheric dispersion model outputs, using emergency response procedures, with (85)Kr measurements made in the vicinity of nuclear reprocessing plant.  

PubMed

The Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire (IRSN) performed a series of (85)Kr air sampling campaigns at mesoscale distances (18-50 km) from the AREVA NC La Hague nuclear reprocessing plant (North West France) between 2007 and 2009. The samples were collected in order to test and optimise a technique to measure low krypton-85 ((85)Kr) air concentrations and to investigate the performance of three atmospheric dispersion models (RIMPUFF, HYSPLIT, and ADMS), This paper presents the (85)Kr air concentrations measured at three sampling locations which varied from 2 to 8000 Bq m(-3), along with the (85)Kr air concentrations output by the dispersion models. The dispersion models made reasonable estimates of the mean concentrations of (85)Kr field measurements during steady wind conditions. In contrast, the models failed to accurately predict peaks in (85)Kr air concentration during periods of rapid and large changes in wind speed and/or wind direction. At distances where we made the comparisons (18-50 km), in all cases, the models underestimated the air concentration activities. PMID:23850583

Connan, Olivier; Smith, Kilian; Organo, Catherine; Solier, Luc; Maro, Denis; Hébert, Didier

2013-10-01

206

Rubber lining for FGD scrubbers for waste incinerator plants  

SciTech Connect

Flue gas desulfurization scrubbers for waste incineration plants can be lined with soft rubber or hard rubber for corrosion protection. Hard rubber is cured under high temperature and pressure in an autoclave. The advantage of hard rubber is the excellent temperature and chemical resistance. The authors have experience with hard rubber lined scrubbers that are in service without failures for over 20 years.

Rullmann, H.E. [Smith Corrosion Services, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1999-11-01

207

Mitigation of plant penetration into radioactive waste utilizing herbicides  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the use of herbicides as an effective method of precluding plant root penetration into buried radioactive wastes. The discussed surface applications are selective herbicides to control broadleaf vegetation in grasses; nonselective herbicides, which control all vegetation; and slow-release forms of these herbicides to prolong effectiveness.

Cox, G.R.

1982-01-01

208

Fetal loss and work in a waste water treatment plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated pregnancy outcomes in 101 wives of workers employed in a waste water treatment plant (WWTP), and verified fetal losses by hospital records. Paternal work histories were compiled and each of the 210 pregnancies was assigned a paternal exposure category. The relative risk of fetal loss was increased when paternal exposure to the WWTP occurred around the time of

R. W. Morgan; L. Kheifets; D. L. Obrinsky; M. D. Whorton; D. E. Foliart

1984-01-01

209

Application of fuzzy causal networks to waste water treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A graphical model, the extended fuzzy causal network is introduced and applied to a case study of waste water treatment plants. The structure of the network is developed using parameter sensitivity studies and the relationships between connected parameters are obtained using a learning approach adapted from fuzzy neural networks. The graphical model is shown to be able to translate the

Y. C. Huang; X. Z. Wang

1999-01-01

210

STRATEGIES FOR WATER AND WASTE REDUCTION IN DAIRY FOOD PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was undertaken to reduce water and waste discharges in a complex, multiproduct dairy food plant through management control and modifications of equipment and processes. The objectives were to develop approaches that would be broadly applicable throughout the dairy industr...

211

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROLS FOR WASTE-TO-ENERGY PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper provides a literature review of selected, published literature relative to the performance of certain pollution control technologies that have been applied to Waste-to-Energy (WTE) plants. It discusses various environmental standards which have been adopted by three Eur...

212

Environmental Solutions, A Summary of Contributions for CY04: Battelle Contributions to the Waste Treatment Plant  

SciTech Connect

In support of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP), Battelle conducted tests on mixing specific wastes within the plant, removing troublesome materials from the waste before treatment, and determining if the final waste forms met the established criteria. In addition, several Battelle experts filled full-time positions in WTP's Research and Testing and Process and Operations departments.

Beeman, Gordon H.

2005-03-08

213

Integrated optimization of a waste water treatment plant using statistical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, a waste water treatment plant is systematically optimized. The waste water treatment plant is used to remove aluminium from waste water using precipitation, flocculation and flotation. In total 40 variables influence the combined unit. After systematic selection, the number of variables was reduced to six: the waste water flow, pH, agitation velocity, amount of poly-electrolyte, amount of

Frank Halters; Edwin Zondervan; Andre de Haan

2010-01-01

214

The remote handling of canisters containing nuclear waste in glass at the Savannah River Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is a complete production area being constructed at the Savannah River Plant for the immobilization of nuclear waste in glass. The remote handling of canisters filled with nuclear waste in glass is an essential part of the process of the DWPF at the Savannah River Plant. The canisters are filled with nuclear waste containing

Callan

1986-01-01

215

Transformative monitoring approaches for reprocessing.  

SciTech Connect

The future of reprocessing in the United States is strongly driven by plant economics. With increasing safeguards, security, and safety requirements, future plant monitoring systems must be able to demonstrate more efficient operations while improving the current state of the art. The goal of this work was to design and examine the incorporation of advanced plant monitoring technologies into safeguards systems with attention to the burden on the operator. The technologies examined include micro-fluidic sampling for more rapid analytical measurements and spectroscopy-based techniques for on-line process monitoring. The Separations and Safeguards Performance Model was used to design the layout and test the effect of adding these technologies to reprocessing. The results here show that both technologies fill key gaps in existing materials accountability that provide detection of diversion events that may not be detected in a timely manner in existing plants. The plant architecture and results under diversion scenarios are described. As a tangent to this work, both the AMUSE and SEPHIS solvent extraction codes were examined for integration in the model to improve the reality of diversion scenarios. The AMUSE integration was found to be the most successful and provided useful results. The SEPHIS integration is still a work in progress and may provide an alternative option.

Cipiti, Benjamin B.

2011-09-01

216

Waste Treatment Technology Process Development Plan For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Recycle  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Process Development Plan is to summarize the objectives and plans for the technology development activities for an alternative path for disposition of the recycle stream that will be generated in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility (LAW Recycle). This plan covers the first phase of the development activities. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to recycle it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be concentrated by evaporation and returned to the LAW vitrification facility. Because this stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are also problematic for the glass waste form, they accumulate in the Recycle stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and reducing the halides in the Recycle is a key component of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, this stream does not have a proven disposition path, and resolving this gap becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and to develop a process that will remove radionuclides from this stream and allow its diversion to another disposition path, greatly decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The origin of this LAW Recycle stream will be from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover or precipitates of scrubbed components (e.g. carbonates). The soluble components are mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet, and will not be available until the WTP begins operation, causing uncertainty in its composition, particularly the radionuclide content. This plan will provide an estimate of the likely composition and the basis for it, assess likely treatment technologies, identify potential disposition paths, establish target treatment limits, and recommend the testing needed to show feasibility. Two primary disposition options are proposed for investigation, one is concentration for storage in the tank farms, and the other is treatment prior to disposition in the Effluent Treatment Facility. One of the radionuclides that is volatile and expected to be in high concentration in this LAW Recycle stream is Technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc), a long-lived radionuclide with a half-life of 210,000 years. Technetium will not be removed from the aqueous waste in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), and will primarily end up immobilized in the LAW glass, which will be disposed in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Because {sup 99}Tc has a very long half-life and is highly mobile, it is the largest dose contributor to the Performance Assessment (PA) of the IDF. Other radionuclides that are also expected to be in appreciable concentration in the LAW Recycle are {sup 129}I, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 241}Am. The concentrations of these radionuclides in this stream will be much lower than in the LAW, but they will still be higher than limits for some of the other disposition pathways currently available. Although the baseline process will recycle this stream to the Pretreatment Facility, if the LAW facility begins operation first, this stream will not have a disposition path internal to WTP. One potential solution is to return the stream to the tank farms where it can be evaporated in the 242-A evaporator, or perhaps deploy an auxiliary evaporator to concentrate it prior to return to the tank farms. In either case, testing is needed to evaluat

McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.

2013-08-29

217

Final environmental impact statement. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this document as environmental input to future decisions regarding the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which would include the disposal of transuranic waste, as currently authorized. The alternatives covered in this document are the following: (1) Continue storing transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) as it is now or with improved confinement. (2) Proceed with WIPP at the Los Medanos site in southeastern New Mexico, as currently authorized. (3) Dispose of TRU waste in the first available repository for high-level waste. The Los Medanos site would be investigated for its potential suitability as a candidate site. This is administration policy and is the alternative preferred by the DOE. (4) Delay the WIPP to allow other candidate sites to be evaluated for TRU-waste disposal. This environmental impact statement is arranged in the following manner: Chapter 1 is an overall summary of the analysis contained in the document. Chapters 2 and 4 set forth the objectives of the national waste-management program and analyze the full spectrum of reasonable alternatives for meeting these objectives, including the WIPP. Chapter 5 presents the interim waste-acceptance criteria and waste-form alternatives for the WIPP. Chapters 6 through 13 provide a detailed description and environmental analysis of the WIPP repository and its site. Chapter 14 describes the permits and approvals necessary for the WIPP and the interactions that have taken place with Federal, State, and local authorities, and with the general public in connection with the repository. Chapter 15 analyzes the many comments received on the DEIS and tells what has been done in this FEIS in response. The appendices contain data and discussions in support of the material in the text.

Not Available

1980-10-01

218

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report  

SciTech Connect

This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed and authorized for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 2002, to March 31, 2004. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) (Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico.

Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services (WRES)

2004-10-25

219

Full Focus Needed on Finishing Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant - 12196  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy's (US DOE's) Hanford Nuclear Site has 177 underground waste storage tanks located 19 to 24 km (12 to 15 miles) from the Columbia River in south-central Washington State. Hanford's tanks now hold about 212,000 cu m (56 million gallons) of highly radioactive and chemically hazardous waste. Sixty-seven tanks have leaked an estimated 3,785 cu m (1 million gallons) of this waste into the surrounding soil. Further releases to soil, groundwater, and the Columbia River are the inevitable result of the tanks continuing to age. The risk from this waste is recognized as a threat to the Northwest by both State and Federal governments. US DOE and Bechtel National, Inc., are building the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to treat and vitrify (immobilize in glass) the waste from Hanford's tanks. As is usual for any groundbreaking project, problems have arisen that must be resolved as they occur if treatment is to take place as specified in the court-enforceable Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) and the Consent Decree, entered into by US DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). At times, US DOE's approach to solving these critical issues seems to have caused undue wastes of time, energy, and, ultimately, public funds. Upon reviewing the history of Hanford's tank waste treatment project, Ecology hopes that constructive criticism of past failures and praise of successes will inspire US DOE to consider changing practices, be more transparent with regulatory agencies and the public, and take a 'lean production' approach to successfully completing this project. All three Tri-Party Agreement agencies share the goal of completing WTP on time, ensuring it is operational and in compliance with safety standards. To do this, Ecology believes US DOE should: - Maintain focus on the primary goal of completing the five major facilities of WTP. - Construct a supplemental low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification facility for the two-thirds balance of LAW that will not be treated by the vitrification facility under construction. - Prepare infrastructure for waste feed from the tanks and facilities to handle the WTP waste streams. To support this project track, Ecology expedites dangerous waste permitting by using a design-build approach to integrate WTP into the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act permit for Hanford. (authors)

Dahl, Suzanne; Biyani, Rabindra; Holmes, Erika [Washington State Department of Ecology, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

2012-07-01

220

High level waste vitrification at the SRP (Savannah River Plant) (DWPF (Defense Waste Processing Facility) summary)  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Plant has been operating a nuclear fuel cycle since the early 1950's. Fuel and target elements are fabricated and irradiated to produce nuclear materials. After removal from the reactors, the fuel elements are processed to extract the products, and waste is stored. During the thirty years of operation including evaporation, about 30 million gallons of high level radioactive waste has accumulated. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) under construction at Savannah River will process this waste into a borosilicate glass for long-term geologic disposal. The construction of the DWPF is about 70% complete; this paper will describe the status of the project, including design demonstrations, with an emphasis on the melter system. 9 figs.

Weisman, A F; Knight, J R; McIntosh, D L; Papouchado, L M

1988-01-01

221

Transporting transuranic waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Risk and cost perspectives  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is an authorized US Department of Energy (DOE) research and development facility constructed near the city of Carlsbad in southeastern New Mexico. The facility is intended to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste resulting from US defense activities. Under the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act of 1992 (LWA), federal lands surrounding the WIPP facility were withdrawn from all public use and the title of those lands was transferred to the Secretary of Energy. The DOE's TRU waste is stored, and in some cases is still being generated, at 10 large-quantity and 13 small-quantity sites across the US. After applicable certification requirements have been met, the TRU waste at these sites will be sent to the WIPP to initiate the disposal phase of the facility, which according to current planning is projected to last for approximately 35 years.

Biwer, B. M.; Gilette, J. L.; Poch, L. A.; Suermann, J. F.

1999-02-16

222

Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing  

SciTech Connect

This is an a submission for the Encyclopedia of Sustainable Technology on the subject of Reprocessing Spent Nuclear Fuel. No formal abstract was required for the article. The full article will be attached.

Michael F. Simpson; Jack D. Law

2010-02-01

223

Bentonite as a waste isolation pilot plant shaft sealing material  

SciTech Connect

Current designs of the shaft sealing system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) propose using bentonite as a primary sealing component. The shaft sealing designs anticipate that compacted bentonite sealing components can perform through the 10,000-year regulatory period and beyond. To evaluate the acceptability of bentonite as a sealing material for the WIPP, this report identifies references that deal with the properties and characteristics of bentonite that may affect its behavior in the WIPP environment. This report reviews published studies that discuss using bentonite as sealing material for nuclear waste disposal, environmental restoration, toxic and chemical waste disposal, landfill liners, and applications in the petroleum industry. This report identifies the physical and chemical properties, stability and seal construction technologies of bentonite seals in shafts, especially in a saline brine environment. This report focuses on permeability, swelling pressure, strength, stiffness, longevity, and densification properties of bentonites.

Daemen, J.; Ran, Chongwei [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

1996-12-01

224

Preliminary seal design evaluation for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a preliminary evaluation of design concepts for the eventual sealing of the shafts, drifts, and boreholes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Facility. The purpose of the seal systems is to limit the flow of water into, through, and out of the repository. The principal design strategy involves the consolidation of crushed or granular salt in response to the closure of the excavations in salt. Other candidate seal materials are bentonite, cementitious mixtures, and possibly asphalt. Results from in situ experiments and modeling studies, as well as laboratory materials testing and related industrial experience, are used to develop seal designs for shafts, waste storage panel entryways, non-waste containing drifts, and boreholes. Key elements of the ongoing experimental program are identified. 112 refs., 25 figs., 1 tab.

Stormont, J C

1988-03-01

225

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 1999 Site Environmental Report  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy?s (DOE)Carlsbad Area Office and the Westinghouse Waste Isolation Division (WID) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 1999 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year 1999 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH- 0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an Annual Site Environmental Report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health. The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during calendar year 1999. WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 1999, no evidence was found of any adverse effects from WIPP on the surrounding environment. Radionuclide concentrations in the environment surrounding WIPP were not statistically higher in 1999 than in 1998.

Roy B. Evans, Ph.D.; Randall C. Morris, Ph.D.; Timothy D. Reynolds, Ph.D.; Ronald W. Warren; Westinghouse Waste Isolation Division

2000-09-30

226

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report  

SciTech Connect

This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 1998, to March 31, 2000. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA)(Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, and amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Area Office's (hereinafter the ''CAO'') compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico. An issue was identified in the 1998 BECR relating to a potential cross-connection between the fire-water systems and the site domestic water system. While the CAO and its managing and operating contractor (hereinafter the ''MOC'') believe the site was always in compliance with cross-connection control requirements, hardware and procedural upgrades w ere implemented in March 1999 to strengthen its compliance posture. Further discussion of this issue is presented in section 30.2.2 herein. During this reporting period WIPP received two letters and a compliance order alleging violation of certain requirements outlined in section 9(a)(1) of the LWA. With the exception of one item, pending a final decision by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), all alleged violations have been resolved without the assessment of fines or penalties. Non-mixed TRU waste shipments began on March 26, 1999. Shipments continued through November 26, 1999, the effective date of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF). No shipments regulated under the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit were received at WIPP during this BECR reporting period.

Westinghouse TRU Solutions

2000-12-01

227

[Hygienic monitoring in a municipal solid waste incineration plant].  

PubMed

Under President's Executive Order 915/1982, the Malagrotta waste disposal plant has been surrounded by a water-proof ring. This study reflects a eight-year research activity about "the Plant's steadiness and its impact on the land; hygienic monitoring of aquifers, air quality control and sound pollution; health and safety of workers; disinfection and land reclamation". For surface subsidence to be measured, 21 spots were monitored and 30 piezometers were set up in adjacent critical areas, both inside and outside the plant. Some of them were also used to pick up water and test it for chemical and microbiological purposes. Samples of leachates were analysed, air quality assessed and sound tests carried out. Overall outcomes show good performance in terms of interaction between plant, hydro-geological regimen and possible impact on the surrounding land. PMID:14716379

Boccia, Antonio; Del Cimmuto, Angela; Tufi, Daniela; De Giusti, Maria; Grisolia, Massimo

2003-01-01

228

Remote handling equipment at the hanford waste treatment plant  

SciTech Connect

Cold war plutonium production led to extensive amounts of radioactive waste stored in tanks at the Department of Energy's Hanford Waste Treatment Plant. The storage tanks could potentially leak into the ground water and into the Columbia River. The solution for this risk of the leaking waste is vitrification. Vitrification is a process of mixing molten glass with radioactive waste to form a stable condition for storage. The Department of Energy has contracted Bechtel National, Inc. to build facilities at the Hanford site to process the waste. The waste will be separated into high and low level waste. Four major systems will process the waste, two pretreatment and two high level. Due to the high radiation levels, high integrity custom cranes have been designed to remotely maintain the hot cells. Several critical design parameters were implemented into the remote machinery design, including radiation limitations, remote operations, Important to Safety features, overall equipment effectiveness, minimum wall approaches, seismic constraints, and recovery requirements. Several key pieces of equipment were designed to meet these design requirements - high integrity crane bridges, trolleys, main hoists, mast hoists, slewing hoists, a monorail hoist, and telescoping mast deployed tele-robotic manipulator arms. There were unique and challenging design features and equipment needed to provide the remotely operated high integrity crane/manipulator systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant. The cranes consist of a double girder bridge with various main hoist capacities ranging from one to thirty ton and are used for performing routine maintenance. A telescoping mast mounted tele-robotic manipulator arm with a one-ton hook is deployed from the trolley to perform miscellaneous operations in-cell. A dual two-ton slewing jib hoist is mounted to the bottom of the trolley and rotates 360 degrees around the mast allowing the closest hook wall approaches. Each of the two hoists on this slewer is mounted 180 degrees opposite each other. Another system utilizes a single one-ton slewing jib hoist that can extend and retract as well as rotate 270 degrees around the mast. Yet, another system utilizes an under-hung monorail trolley with one-ton hoist capacity mounted to the bottom of the bridge girder. The main, slewer and monorail hoists each have power-rotating hooks for installing and removing equipment in the hot cell. (authors)

Bardal, M.A. [PaR Systems, Inc., Shoreview, MN, (United States); Roach, J.D. [Bechtel National, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

2007-07-01

229

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Enviromental Report for 2008  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2008 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to characterize site environmental management performance; summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year; confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; highlight significant facility programs and efforts; and describe how compliance and environmental improvement is accomplished through the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS). The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and the management and operating contractor (MOC), Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS), maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). DOE Order 231.1A; DOE Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and workers, and preservation of the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, which requires that DOE facilities submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Chief Health, Safety, and Security Officer. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) Number NM4890139088-TSDF (treatment, storage, and disposal facility) further requires that the ASER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WIPP mission is to safely dispose of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste generated by the production of nuclear weapons and other activities related to the national defense of the United States. In 2008, 5,265 cubic meters (m3) of TRU waste were disposed of at the WIPP facility, including 5,216 m3 of contact-handled (CH) TRU waste and 49 m3 of remote-handled (RH) TRU waste. From the first receipt of waste in March 1999 through the end of 2008, 57,873 m3 of TRU waste had been disposed of at the WIPP facility.

Washington Regulatory and Enviromnetal Services

2009-09-21

230

Reuse of waste materials as growing media for ornamental plants.  

PubMed

The use of different waste materials: pine bark, coconut fibre and sewage sludge as substrates in the production of ornamental plants was studied, with an special interest on the suitability of coconut fibre as growing substrate for conifer plants. The plant species tested were Pinus pinea, Cupressus arizonica and C. sempervirens and the substrate mixtures were: (1) pine bark, (2) pine bark with 15% of sewage sludge compost, (3) pine bark with 30% of sewage sludge compost, (4) coconut fibre, (5) coconut fibre with 15% of sewage sludge compost and (6) coconut fibre with 30% of sewage sludge compost. Substrates were physically and chemically well characterized, and 75-cm plants were grown on them for one year. Plant and substrate status were periodically tested along the experiment. As biosolid recycling is the main objective of the present work, the mixtures with 30% of composted sewage sludge will be the most convenient substrate to use. For C. sempervirens and C. arizonica, a mixture between pine bark or coconut fibre and 30% of biosolid compost in volume gave the best results, but the lower cost of the pine bark than the coconut fibre substrate indicated the use of the PB+30% CSS. For P. pinea the research of new combinations between waste products is recommended to attain better results. PMID:15364091

Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes; Gascó, Antonio M; Gascó, José M; Guerrero, Francisca

2005-01-01

231

Indicator organisms for assessing sanitization during composting of plant wastes.  

PubMed

The potential for using plant pathogens and seeds as indicator organisms for assessing sanitization of plant wastes during composting was tested in bench-scale flask and large-scale systems. Plasmodiophora brassicae was unsuitable due to high temperature tolerance in dry to moist composts, and detection of viable inoculum post-composting using bioassay plants not corresponding with that using TaqMan® PCR, possibly due to preservation of nucleic acids at elevated temperatures. Several other plant pathogens (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Microdochium nivale, Phytophthora cinnamomi and Phytophthora nicotianae) were unsuitable due their low temperature tolerance. Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cepae and f.sp. radicis-lycopersici chlamydospores and tomato seeds were suitable indicators due to their moderate temperature tolerance and ease of viability testing post-composting. Abutilon seeds were more tolerant than tomato seeds of compost temperatures ?52°C but more prone to degradation at lower temperatures and therefore less suitable as indicators. Relationships between compost temperature during exposures of 2-10 days and subsequent viability of the above chlamydospores or seeds enabled the sanitizing effect of composting processes to be predicted within 2-6 days. Plant waste type (woody or vegetable) had a small but significant effect on the relationship for tomato seeds but not for F. oxysporum chlamydospores. PMID:21546235

Noble, R; Dobrovin-Pennington, A; Pietravalle, S; Weekes, R; Henry, C M

2011-08-01

232

Waste Management Strategy for Dismantling Waste to Reduce Costs for Power Plant Decommissioning - 13543  

SciTech Connect

Decommissioning of nuclear power plants generates large volumes of radioactive or potentially radioactive waste. The proper management of the dismantling waste plays an important role for the time needed for the dismantling phase and thus is critical to the decommissioning cost. An efficient and thorough process for inventorying, characterization and categorization of the waste provides a sound basis for the planning process. As part of comprehensive decommissioning studies for Nordic NPPs, Westinghouse has developed the decommissioning inventories that have been used for estimations of the duration of specific work packages and the corresponding costs. As part of creating the design basis for a national repository for decommissioning waste, the total production of different categories of waste packages has also been predicted. Studsvik has developed a risk based concept for categorization and handling of the generated waste using six different categories with a span from extremely small risk for radiological contamination to high level waste. The two companies have recently joined their skills in the area of decommissioning on selected market in a consortium named 'ndcon' to further strengthen the proposed process. Depending on the risk for radiological contamination or the radiological properties and other properties of importance for waste management, treatment routes are proposed with well-defined and proven methods for on-site or off-site treatment, activity determination and conditioning. The system is based on a graded approach philosophy aiming for high confidence and sustainability, aiming for re-use and recycling where found applicable. The objective is to establish a process where all dismantled material has a pre-determined treatment route. These routes should through measurements, categorization, treatment, conditioning, intermediate storage and final disposal be designed to provide a steady, un-disturbed flow of material to avoid interruptions. Bottle-necks in the process causes increased space requirements and will have negative impact on the project schedule, which increases not only the cost but also the dose exposure to personnel. For these reasons it is critical to create a process that transfers material into conditioned waste ready for disposal as quickly as possible. To a certain extent the decommissioning program should be led by the waste management process. With the objective to reduce time for handling of dismantled material at site and to efficiently and environmental-friendly use waste management methods (clearance for re-use followed by clearance for recycling), the costs for the plant decommissioning could be reduced as well as time needed for performing the decommissioning project. Also, risks for delays would be reduced with a well-defined handling scheme which limits surprises. Delays are a major cost driver for decommissioning projects. (authors)

Larsson, Arne; Lidar, Per [Studsvik Nuclear AB, SE-611 82 Nykoeping (Sweden)] [Studsvik Nuclear AB, SE-611 82 Nykoeping (Sweden); Bergh, Niklas; Hedin, Gunnar [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Fredholmsgatan 2, SE-721 63, Vaesteraas (Sweden)] [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Fredholmsgatan 2, SE-721 63, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

2013-07-01

233

Technical Report for the MVB (MSW & Biomass) Waste to Energy Plants and the AVG Hazardous WTE Plant in Hamburg, Germany  

E-print Network

with a small steam-turbine producing 3 MW for the plant's internal needs · The filtration part of the plant is equipped with SNCR technology, baghouse filters, HCl & SO2 scrubbers Power Plant: Coal and Gas MVB Unit 3 Residuals & Waste Wood (Biomass) Energy Recovery Plant (Unit3) · The Biomass energy recovery plant

Columbia University

234

Sealing concepts for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility is proposed for development in the southeast portion of the State of New Mexico. The proposed horizon is in bedded salt located approximately 2150 ft below the surface. The purpose of the WIPP is to provide an R&D facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from defense activities of the United States. As such, it will include a disposal demonstration for transuranic (TRU) wastes and an experimental area to address issues associated with disposal of defense high level wastes (DHLW) in bedded salt. All DHLW used in the experiments are planned for retrieval at the termination of testing; the TRU waste can be permanently disposed of at the site after the pilot phase is complete. This report addresses only the Plugging and Sealing program, which will result in an adequate and acceptable technology for final sealing and decommissioning of the facility at the WIPP site. The actual plugging operations are intended to be conducted on a commercial industrial basis through contracts issued by the DOE. This report is one in a series that is based on a technical program of modeling, laboratory materials testing and field demonstration which will provide a defensible basis for the actual plugging operations to be conducted by the DOE for final closure of the facility.

Christensen, C.L.; Gulick, C.W.; Lambert, S.J.

1982-09-01

235

Cement-based waste forms for disposal of Savannah River Plant low-level radioactive salt waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defense waste processing at the Savannah River Plant will include decontamination and disposal of approximately 100 million liters of soluble salts containing primarily NaNOâ, NaOH, NaNOâ, NaAl(OH)â, and NaâSOâ. A cement-based waste form, saltstone, has been designed for disposal of Savannah River Plant low-level radioactive salt waste. Bulk properties of this material have been tailored with respect to salt leach

C. A. Langton; M. D. Dukes; R. V. Simmons

1983-01-01

236

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan  

SciTech Connect

DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program Requirements (DOE, 1990a), requires each DOE facility to prepare an EMP. This document is prepared for WIPP in accordance with the guidance contained in DOE Order 5400.1; DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment (DOE, 1990b); Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T; DOE, 1991); and the Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 834, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment (Draft). Many sections of DOE Order 5400.1 have been replaced by DOE Order 231.1 (DOE, 1995), which is the driver for the Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) and the guidance source for preparing many environmental program documents. The WIPP project is operated by Westinghouse Electric Company, Waste Isolation Division (WID), for the DOE. This plan defines the extent and scope of the WIPP's effluent and environmental monitoring programs during the facility's operational life and also discusses the WIPP's quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) program as it relates to environmental monitoring. In addition, this plan provides a comprehensive description of environmental activities at WIPP including: A summary of environmental programs, including the status of environmental monitoring activities A description of the WIPP project and its mission A description of the local environment, including demographics An overview of the methodology used to assess radiological consequences to the public, including brief discussions of potential exposure pathways, routine and accidental releases, and their consequences Responses to the requirements described in the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE, 1991). This document references DOE orders and other federal and state regulations affecting environmental monitoring programs at the site. WIPP procedures, which implement the requirements of this program plan, are also referenced. The DOE regulates its own activities for radiation protection of the public under the authority of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (42 U.S.C. 2011). The effluent and environmental monitoring activities prescribed by DOE Order 5400.5 and the DOE/EH-0173T guidance manual are designed to ensure that DOE facilities implement standards and regulations to protect members of the public and the environment against undue risk from radiation. Effluent and environmental monitoring also provide 1999 Environmental Monitoring Plan DOE/WIPP 99-2194 the data necessary to demonstrate compliance with applicable environmental protection regulations. Other federal agencies, such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), are empowered through specific legislation to regulate certain aspects of DOE activities potentially affecting public health and safety or the environment. Presidential Executive Order 12088, Federal Compliance with Pollution Control Standards (43 FR 47707), requires the heads of executive agencies to ensure that all federal facilities and activities comply with applicable pollution control standards and to take all necessary actions for the prevention, control, and abatement of environmental pollution. Beyond statutory requirements, the DOE has established a general environmental protection policy. The Environmental Policy Statement (issued by then Secretary Herrington on January 8, 1986, and extended on January 7, 1987) describes the DOE's commitment to national environmental protection goals in that it conducts operations ''in an environmentally safe and sound manner . . . in compliance with the letter and spirit of applicable environmental statutes, regulations, and standards'' (DOE, 1986). This Environmental Policy Statement also states the DOE's commitment to ''good environmental management in all of its programs and at all of its facilities in order to correct existing environmental problems, to minimize risks to the environment or public health, and to anticipate and address pote

Westinghouse Electric Company Waste Isolation Division

1999-09-29

237

Deep geologic disposal of mixed waste in bedded salt: The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

Mixed waste (i.e., waste that contains both chemically hazardous and radioactive components) poses a moral, political, and technical challenge to present and future generations. But an international consensus is emerging that harmful byproducts and residues can be permanently isolated from the biosphere in a safe and environmentally responsible manner by deep geologic disposal. To investigate and demonstrate such disposal for transuranic mixed waste, derived from defense-related activities, the US Department of Energy has prepared the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. This research and development facility was excavated approximately at the center of a 600 m thick sequence of salt (halite) beds, 655 m below the surface. Proof of the long-term tectonic and hydrological stability of the region is supplied by the fact that these salt beds have remained essentially undisturbed since they were deposited during the Late Permian age, approximately 225 million years ago. Plutonium-239, the main radioactive component of transuranic mixed waste, has a half-life of 24,500 years. Even ten half-lives of this isotope - amounting to about a quarter million years, the time during which its activity will decline to background level represent only 0.11 percent of the history of the repository medium. Therefore, deep geologic disposal of transuranic mixed waste in Permian bedded salt appears eminently feasible.

Rempe, N.T.

1993-12-01

238

Deep geologic disposal of mixed waste in bedded salt: The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

Mixed waste (i.e., waste that contains both chemically hazardous and radioactive components) poses a moral, political, and technical challenge to present and future generations. But an international consensus is emerging that harmful byproducts and residues can be permanently isolated from the biosphere in a safe and environmentally responsible manner by deep geologic disposal. To investigate and demonstrate such disposal for transuranic mixed waste, derived from defense-related activities, the US Department of Energy has prepared the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. This research and development facility was excavated approximately at the center of a 600-m-thick sequence of salt (halite) beds, 655 m below the surface. Proof of the long-term tectonic and hydrological stability of the region is supplied by the fact that these salt beds have remained essentially undisturbed since they were deposited during the Late Permian age, approximately 225 million years ago. Plutonium-239, the main radioactive component of transuranic mixed waste, has a half-life of 24,500 years. Even ten half-lives of this isotope--amounting to about a quarter million years, the time during which its activity will decline to background level--represent only 0.11% of the history of the repository medium. Therefore, deep geologic disposal of transuranic mixed waste in Permian bedded salt appears eminently feasible.

Rempe, N.T. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.

1993-12-31

239

Estimation and characterization of decontamination and decommissioning solid waste expected from the Plutonium Finishing Plant  

SciTech Connect

Purpose of the study was to estimate the amounts of equipment and other materials that are candidates for removal and subsequent processing in a solid waste facility when the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant is decontaminated and decommissioned. (Building structure and soil are not covered.) Results indicate that {approximately}5,500 m{sup 3} of solid waste is expected to result from the decontamination and decommissioning of the Pu Finishing Plant. The breakdown of the volumes and percentages of waste by category is 1% dangerous solid waste, 71% low-level waste, 21% transuranic waste, 7% transuranic mixed waste.

Millar, J.S.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; Stratton, T.J. [and others

1995-01-01

240

Solid waste/oil shale combustion: An environmentally benign plant  

SciTech Connect

The co-combustion of oil shale and Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) in a fluidized bed provides relatively clean stack gas. It is believed that the need for expensive clean-up equipment is therefore eliminated. The fluidized bed boiler of this cogeneration plant is to be fueled by roughly 75 percent RDF and 25 percent oil shale. The resulting ash will have cement-like properties likely making it suitable for the manufacture of some construction materials or simply mixed with water and placed in a landfill where the mixture would form a concrete mass to seal in any environmentally hazardous chemicals that may be present in RDF ash. Several mass burn plants in the United States use municipal solid wastes as fuel. Several dozen more will be operational within the next few years. In order to meet air quality requirements, these plants (as well as most coal-fired power plants) require expensive pollution control equipment. It has been amply demonstrated that fluidized bed combustors are an effective option for coal-fired power plants. In such plants, crushed limestone in the fluidized bed absorbs sulfur compounds, obviating the need for much of the expensive stack gas clean-up equipment that coal-fired power plants normally require. Major oil companies have spent hundreds of millions of dollars to try to economically use the huge energy reserves contained in US oil shale deposits. However, after many years of research and development, they have been unable to utilize this energy directly.

McCarthy, H.E.; Clayson, R.L.; Short, G.R. [Synfuels Engineering and Development Inc., Rifle, CO (United States)

1995-12-31

241

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) We are applying our unique capabilities in actinide and repository  

E-print Network

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) We are applying our unique capabilities in actinide and repository science to help develop and manage salt repositories. 8 08 FACT SHEET Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for geologic formations stable enough to contain radioactive waste for thousands of years. They discovered

242

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant CY 2000 Site Environmental Report  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office and Westinghouse TRU Solutions, LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2000 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year (CY) 2000 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protect ion Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an Annual Site Environmental Report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health. The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during CY 2000. The format of this report follows guidance offered in a June 1, 2001 memo from DOE's Office of Policy and Guidance with the subject ''Guidance for the preparation of Department of Energy (DOE) Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs) for Calendar Year 2000.'' WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 2000, no evidence was found of any adverse effects from WIPP on the surrounding environment.

Westinghouse TRU Solutions, LLC; Environmental Science and Research Foundation, Inc.

2001-12-31

243

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2001 Site Environmental Report  

SciTech Connect

The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Westinghouse TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2001 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year (CY) 2001 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH- 0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above Orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an annual site environmental report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health; and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during CY 2001. WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 2001, no evidence was found of any adverse effects from WIPP on the surrounding environment.

Westinghouse TRU Solutions, Inc.

2002-09-20

244

Improvement of the physical properties of reprocessed paper by using biological treatment with modified cellulase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A primary need for waste paper reprocessing is to preserve optical properties and the physical strength of the paper fibers. In this study, modified cellulase with copolymer, polyethylene oxide (PEO) derivatives and maleic anhydride (MA) was applied to the reprocessing of mixed office waste (MOW). Modified cellulase was prepared by a chemical reaction between amino groups of the cellulase and

2001-01-01

245

Safety Evaluation Report of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contact Handled (CH) Waste Documented Safety Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This Safety Evaluation Report (SER) documents the Department of Energy’s (DOE's) review of Revision 9 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contact Handled (CH) Waste Documented Safety Analysis, DOE/WIPP-95-2065 (WIPP CH DSA), and provides the DOE Approval Authority with the basis for approving the document. It concludes that the safety basis documented in the WIPP CH DSA is comprehensive, correct, and commensurate with hazards associated with CH waste disposal operations. The WIPP CH DSA and associated technical safety requirements (TSRs) were developed in accordance with 10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Management, and DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

Washington TRU Solutions LLC

2005-09-01

246

CORAL: a stepping stone for establishing the Indian fast reactor fuel reprocessing technology  

SciTech Connect

The reprocessing of spent fuel from Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) has been successfully demonstrated in the pilot plant, CORAL (COmpact Reprocessing facility for Advanced fuels in Lead shielded cell). Since commissioning in 2003, spent mixed carbide fuel from FBTR of different burnups and varying cooling period, have been reprocessed in this facility. Reprocessing of the spent fuel with a maximum burnup of 100 GWd/t has been successfully carried out so far. The feed backs from these campaigns with progressively increasing specific activities, have been useful in establishing a viable process flowsheet for reprocessing the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) spent fuel. Also, the design of various equipments and processes for the future plants, which are either under design for construction, namely, the Demonstration Fast Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Plant (DFRP) and the Fast reactor fuel Reprocessing Plant (FRP) could be finalized. (authors)

Venkataraman, M.; Natarajan, R.; Raj, Baldev [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

2007-07-01

247

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report  

SciTech Connect

This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 2000, to March 31, 2002. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA)(Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office's (CBFO) compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico. In the prior BECR, the CBFO and the management and operating contractor (MOC)committed to discuss resolution of a Letter of Violation that had been issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) in August 1999, which was during the previous BECR reporting period. This Letter of Violation alleged noncompliance with hazardous waste aisle spacing, labeling, a nd tank requirements. At the time of publication of the prior BECR, resolution of the Letter of Violation was pending. On July 7, 2000, the NMED issued a letter noting that the aisle spacing and labeling concerns had been adequately addressed and that they were rescinding the violation alleging that the Exhaust Shaft Catch Basin failed to comply with the requirements for a hazardous waste tank. During the current reporting period, WIPP received a Notice of Violation and a compliance order alleging the violation of the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Regulations and the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP).

Washinton TRU Solutions LLC

2002-09-30

248

Compliance status report for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the disposition of transuranic (TRU) waste generated through national defense-related activities. Approximately 53,700 m{sup 2} of these wastes have been generated and are currently stored at government defense installations across the country. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located in southeastern New Mexico, has been sited and constructed to meet the criteria established by the scientific and regulatory community for the safe, long-term disposal of TRU and TRU-mixed wastes. This Compliance Status Report (CSR) provides an assessment of the progress of the WIPP Program toward compliance with long-term disposal regulations, set forth in Title 40 CFR 191 (EPA, 1993a), Subparts B and C, and Title 40 CFR {section}268.6 (EPA, 1993b), in order to focus on-going and future experimental and engineering activities. The CSR attempts to identify issues associated with the performance of the WIPP as a long-term repository and to focus on the resolution of these issues. This report will serve as a tool to focus project resources on the areas necessary to ensure complete, accurate, and timely submittal of the compliance application. This document is not intended to constitute a statement of compliance or a demonstration of compliance.

Not Available

1994-03-31

249

A historical review of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant backfill development  

SciTech Connect

Backfills have been part of Sandia National Laboratories' [Sandia's] Waste Isolation Pilot Plant [WIPP] designs for over twenty years. Historically, backfill research at Sandia has depended heavily on the changing mission of the WIPP facility. Early testing considered heat producing, high level, wastes. Bentonite/sand/salt mixtures were evaluated and studies focused on developing materials that would retard brine ingress, sorb radionuclides, and withstand elevated temperatures. The present-day backfill consists of pure MgO [magnesium oxide] in a pelletized form and is directed at treating the relatively low contamination level, non-heat producing, wastes actually being disposed of in the WIPP. Its introduction was motivated by the need to scavenging CO{sub 2} [carbon dioxide] from decaying organic components in the waste. However, other benefits, such as a substantial desiccating capacity, are also being evaluated. The MgO backfill also fulfills a statutory requirement for assurance measures beyond those needed to demonstrate compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] regulatory release limits. However, even without a backfill, the WIPP repository design still operates within EPA regulatory release limits.

KRUMHANSL,JAMES L.; MOLECKE,MARTIN A.; PAPENGUTH,HANS W.; BRUSH,LAURENCE H.

2000-06-05

250

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Status and Plans - 2012 - 12049  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a deep geologic repository for safe disposal of long-lived transuranic radioactive waste related to the nation's defense, is completing its 12. year of operations. WIPP's mission includes coordination of all Department of Energy (DOE) sites to prepare, package and characterize transuranic (TRU) waste for final shipment and emplacement in WIPP. Five of the 10 disposal panels planned have been filled and sealed from ventilation. Additional small quantity sites have been de-inventoried by consolidating their waste through the certified characterization line at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). New emplacement methods for RH waste in shielded containers are being considered for disposal by WIPP's regulatory authorities. A new large Type B shipping package, was added to the WIPP transportation fleet, and facility modifications to the WIPP waste unloading and emplacement processes for large containers were completed in 2011. Shipments from the Savannah River site in these new large rectangular packages began in August 2011. Licensing efforts are proceeding for a new criticality control over-pack container that will allow almost twice the fissile content to be shipped than previously. This will reduce the number and cost of shipments of Special Nuclear Material (SNM) declared as waste. Modifications to WIPP regulatory requirements for the disposal footprint and disposal unit closure systems are in progress. These, and other developments, make for exciting times at WIPP. This paper provides an up-to-date look at the many aspects of America's only deep geologic long-lived radioactive waste repository, which is completing its 12. year of operations. A record year of safe and compliant shipments to WIPP tops the list of accomplishments in 2011. Four more small quantity sites were de-inventoried by consolidating their waste through the certified characterization line at INL in 2011. A new Type B shipping package, the TRUPACT-III has been added to the transportation fleet, and large waste boxes are being shipped from SRS without the need for repackaging. New emplacement methods for remote-handled waste in shielded containers are undergoing regulatory review. WIPP plans to license a new criticality control payload container that will allow almost twice the fissile content to be shipped than previously, thereby reducing the number and cost of shipments of SNM declared as waste. Other regulatory modifications planned in 2012 include approval of a design change that would replace the disposal concept for panels 9 and 10 from using the common access drifts (the 'mains') with a new footprint south of panels 4 and 5. DOE also plans to change the panel closure design set forth in its certification by EPA and the HWFP by the NMED. The panel closure design change will be a rule making under EPA's procedures and a class 3 permit modification request under NMED procedures. Plans for achieving 90% of legacy TRU waste retrieval and emplacement in WIPP by 2015 have been developed. Key to the success of this so-called 90/15 plan is adequate funding, both for WIPP operations, as well as for TRU retrieval programs at the generator sites. (authors)

Nelson, Roger A.; Ziemianski, Edward J. [U.S. Department of Energy, Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States)

2012-07-01

251

INTELLIGENT DECISION SUPPORT FOR WASTE MINIMIZATION IN ELECTROPLATING PLANTS. (R824732)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Wastewater, spent solvent, spent process solutions, and sludge are the major waste streams generated in large volumes daily in electroplating plants. These waste streams can be significantly minimized through process modification and operational improvement. I...

252

Plant-Wide Waste Management. 1. Synthesis and Multiobjective Aninda Chakraborty and Andreas A. Linninger*  

E-print Network

cleanup and waste treatment efforts often compound actual process overhead unaccounted is mostly directed to a biological treatment facility. For solvent recovery, batch and semibatchPlant-Wide Waste Management. 1. Synthesis and Multiobjective Design Aninda Chakraborty and Andreas

Linninger, Andreas A.

253

[Mercury pollution investigation in predominant plants surrounding Shenzhen Qingshuihe municipal solid waste incineration plant].  

PubMed

In order to investigate the effects of mercury emission from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) on the surrounding plants and soils, the mercury concentrations were examined in the plant samples including leaves and stems and the soil samples around Shenzhen Qingshuihe MSWI Plant. Results show that, these plants are significantly polluted by mercury, the mercury concentrations of the plant leaves are 0.030 9-0.246 7 mg x kg(-1), with the mean value 0.094 8 mg x kg(-1), among the local prominent plants, the mercury concentrations in the leaves are in the order of: Acacia confuse > Litsea rotundifolia > Acacia mangium > Acacia auriculaeformis > Schima superb > Ilex asprella. The mercury concentrations of the plant stems are 0.007 4-0.119 6 mg x kg(-1), with the mean value 0.041 7 mg x kg(-1). For the same plant, the mercury concentration in its leaf correlates positively with that in its stem, but presents little correlation with that in the soil where it grows. Under the direction of the dominant wind, the concentration of smoke diffusion is often influenced by the distance from the stack and the difference of terrain. The mercury concentrations of the plant leaves and stems vary almost in accordance with spatial heterogeneity patterns of smoke diffusion. These results demonstrate that the interaction of the smoke and plant leaves play the leading role in the mercury exchange between plants and environment. PMID:19927841

Zhao, Hong-Wei; Zhong, Xiu-Ping; Liu, Yang-Sheng; Wang, Jun-Jian; Hong, Yuan; Zhao, Kang-Sai; Zeng, Hui

2009-09-15

254

CEWEP -Confederation of European Waste-to-Energy Plants Boulevard Clovis 12A  

E-print Network

CEWEP - Confederation of European Waste-to- Energy Plants Boulevard Clovis 12A B-1000 Brussels Tel incineration. That means that Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants would be considered as performing energy recovery). Classifying WtE plants as recovery operations would in no way reduce these protection levels. Brussels, 13th

Columbia University

255

78 FR 72612 - Criteria for the Certification and Recertification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...WIPP Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Table of Contents I. General...fuel from commercial power plants may be disposed of at the WIPP...consists of items that have become contaminated as a result of activities...of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance...

2013-12-03

256

Analysis and comparison of municipal solid waste and reject fraction as fuels for incineration plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Municipal solid waste, before (MSW) and after (RDF) the material recovery carried out in mechanical-biological treatment plants (MBT plants), have been analyzed in order to compare the efficiency of incineration of both fractions. RDF of MBT plants is about 67% by volume of the initial MSW and is usually landfilled; in order to minimize the amount of landfilled waste, incineration

Cristina Montejo; Carlos Costa; Pedro Ramos; María del Carmen Márquez

2011-01-01

257

ICPP Waste Management Technology Development Program  

SciTech Connect

As a result of the decision to curtail reprocessing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), a Spent fuel and Waste Management Technology Development plan has been implemented to identify acceptable options for disposing of the (1) sodium-bearing liquid radioactive waste, (2) radioactive calcine, and (3) irradiated spent fuel stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The plan was developed jointly by DOE and WINCO.

Hogg, G.W.; Olson, A.L.; Knecht, D.A. [Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co., Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bonkoski, M.J. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1993-01-01

258

Preparation of calcium sulphoaluminate cement using fertiliser plant wastes.  

PubMed

Phosphochalks from fertiliser plants contain significant amount of calcium sulphate along with P(2)O(5) and fluorine. The presence of these impurities makes them unsuitable for most applications and, hence its availability in millions of tons. We demonstrate that it is possible to prepare calcium sulphoaluminate-aluminoferrite based special cements having strength values comparable to ordinary Portland cement (OPC) using these waste chalks. Such cements are insensitive to the presence of impurities in the raw mixture, clinker at low temperatures (1,230 degrees C) and the clinkers produced are soft and friable. An empirical technique has been developed to predict the phase composition of the clinkers given the chemical composition of the starting raw mixture. The proposed low temperature clinkering route appears to be a promising method for converting waste phosphochalks into construction grade cements. PMID:18313844

Singh, Maneesh; Kapur, P C; Pradip

2008-08-30

259

Reprocessing of Reusable Medical Devices  

MedlinePLUS

... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Medical Devices Print this page Share this page E-mail ... Reprocessing of Reusable Medical Devices Reprocessing of Reusable Medical Devices Reusable medical devices are devices that health care ...

260

Endoglucanase-producing micromycetes capable of plant wastes degrading.  

PubMed

The screening study of endoglucanase producers among 58 strains 28 species 12 genera of mesophilous and thermotolerant micromycetes has been performed. Approximately 20% of investigated strains of micromycetes showed the highest endoglucanase activities (hydrolysis rates reached 0.40-0.57) during their submerged cultivation with different cellulose-containing subsrates. Such plant wastes as rye straw, wheat bran, husk of sunflower seeds, leaves and stems of Zostera marina were optimal for fungal growth and high yields of endoglucanase. As a result, 15 strains of mesophilous and thermotolerant micromycetes with high endoglucanase activity were selected among fungi of Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium and Corynascus genera. PMID:20387653

Olishevska, S V; Ayzenberg, V L; Vasylevska, A I; Zhdanova, N M; Kurchenko, I M; Kapichon, G P; Artyshkova, L V; Nakonechna, L T

2009-01-01

261

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2012  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Annual Site Environmental Report for 2012 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to: Characterize site environmental management performance; Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year; Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; Highlight significant environmental accomplishments, including progress toward the DOE Environmental Sustainability Goals made through implementation of the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS).

None

2013-09-01

262

Sampling and Analysis Plan - Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project  

SciTech Connect

This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality assurance plan for the project to guide the procedure development and data collection activities needed to support borehole drilling, geophysical measurements, and sampling. This SAP identifies the American Society of Testing Materials standards, Hanford Site procedures, and other guidance to be followed for data collection activities.

Reidel, Steve P.

2006-05-26

263

Experience in the reprocessing of mixed-oxide fuels at PNC (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) in Japan has experience in reprocessing mixed-oxide (MOX) fuels for the advanced thermal reactor (ATR) Fugen at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP) and for fast breeder reactors (FBRs) at the Chemical Processing Facility (CPF). The TRP was originally designed and constructed as the first reprocessing plant for light water reactor fuels

Hisato Komatsu; Moichi Onishi; Sadao Araya; Misao Fukushima

1989-01-01

264

Consideration of nuclear criticality when disposing of transuranic waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

Based on general arguments presented in this report, nuclear criticality was eliminated from performance assessment calculations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a repository for waste contaminated with transuranic (TRU) radioisotopes, located in southeastern New Mexico. At the WIPP, the probability of criticality within the repository is low because mechanisms to concentrate the fissile radioisotopes dispersed throughout the waste are absent. In addition, following an inadvertent human intrusion into the repository (an event that must be considered because of safety regulations), the probability of nuclear criticality away from the repository is low because (1) the amount of fissile mass transported over 10,000 yr is predicted to be small, (2) often there are insufficient spaces in the advective pore space (e.g., macroscopic fractures) to provide sufficient thickness for precipitation of fissile material, and (3) there is no credible mechanism to counteract the natural tendency of the material to disperse during transport and instead concentrate fissile material in a small enough volume for it to form a critical concentration. Furthermore, before a criticality would have the potential to affect human health after closure of the repository--assuming that a criticality could occur--it would have to either (1) degrade the ability of the disposal system to contain nuclear waste or (2) produce significantly more radioisotopes than originally present. Neither of these situations can occur at the WIPP; thus, the consequences of a criticality are also low.

RECHARD,ROBERT P.; SANCHEZ,LAWRENCE C.; STOCKMAN,CHRISTINE T.; TRELLUE,HOLLY R.

2000-04-01

265

Experimental program plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy has prepared this Experimental Program Plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (EPP) to provide a summary of the DOE experimental efforts needed for the performance assessment process for the WIPP, and of the linkages of this process to the appropriate regulations. The Plan encompasses a program of analyses of the performance of the planned repository based on scientific studies, including tests with transuranic waste at laboratory sites, directed at evaluating compliance with the principal regulations governing the WIPP. The Plan begins with background information on the WIPP project, the requirements of the LWA (Land Withdrawal Act), and its objective and scope. It then presents an overview of the regulatory requirements and the compliance approach. Next are comprehensive discussions of plans for compliance with disposal regulations, followed by the SWDA (Solid Waste Disposal Act) and descriptions of activity programs designed to provide information needed for determining compliance. Descriptions and justifications of all currently planned studies designed to support regulatory compliance activities are also included.

Not Available

1994-01-01

266

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report  

SciTech Connect

This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents compliance with environmental regulations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed and authorized for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste. This BECR covers the reporting period from April 1, 2004, to March 31, 2006. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) (Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) compliance with regulations and permits issued pursuant to the following: (1) Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 191, Subpart A, "Environmental Standards for Management and Storage"; (2) Clean Air Act (CAA) (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §7401, et seq.); (3) Solid Waste Disposal Act (SWDA) (42 U.S.C. §§6901-6992, et seq.); (4) Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) (42 U.S.C. §§300f, et seq.); (5) Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) (15 U.S.C. §§2601, et seq.); (6) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (42 U.S.C. §§9601, et seq.); and all other federal and state of New Mexico laws pertaining to public health and safety or the environment.

Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

2006-10-12

267

Modeling Offgas Systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant  

SciTech Connect

To augment steady-state design calculations, dynamic models of three offgas systems that will be used in the Waste Treatment Plant now under construction at the Hanford Site were developed using Aspen Custom Modeler{trademark}. The offgas systems modeled were those for the High Level Waste (HLW) melters, Low Activity Waste (LAW) melters and HLW Pulse Jet Ventilation (PJV) system. The models do not include offgas chemistry but only consider the two major species in the offgas stream which are air and water vapor. This is sufficient to perform material and energy balance calculations that accurately show the dynamic behavior of gas pressure, temperature, humidity and flow throughout the systems. The models are structured to perform pressure drop calculations across the various unit operations using a combination of standard engineering calculations and empirical data based correlations for specific pieces of equipment. The models include process controllers, gas ducting, control valves, exhaust fans and the offgas treatment equipment. The models were successfully used to analyze a large number of operating scenarios including both normal and off-normal conditions.

Smith, Frank G., III

2005-09-02

268

Summary of scientific investigations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The scientific issues concerning disposal of radioactive wastes in salt formations have received 40 years of attention since the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) first addressed this issue in the mid-50s. For the last 21 years, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) have directed site specific studies for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This paper will focus primarily on the WIPP scientific studies now in their concluding stages, the major scientific controversies regarding the site, and some of the surprises encountered during the course of these scientific investigations. The WIPP project`s present understanding of the scientific processes involved continues to support the site as a satisfactory, safe location for the disposal of defense-related transuranic waste and one which will be shown to be in compliance with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards. Compliance will be evaluated by incorporating data from these experiments into Performance Assessment (PA) models developed to describe the physical and chemical processes that could occur at the WIPP during the next 10,000 years under a variety of scenarios. The resulting compliance document is scheduled to be presented to the EPA in October 1996 and all relevant information from scientific studies will be included in this application and the supporting analyses. Studies supporting this compliance application conclude the major period of scientific investigation for the WIPP. Further studies will be of a ``confirmatory`` and monitoring nature.

Weart, W.D.

1996-02-01

269

ALPHA WASTE MINIMIZATION IN TERMS OF VOLUME AND RADIOACTIVITY AT COGEMA'S MELOX AND LA HAGUE PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the management of alpha waste that cannot be stored in surface repositories under current French regulations. The aim of the paper is to provide an overview of COGEMA's Integrated Waste Management Strategy. The topics discussed include primary waste minimization, from facility design to operating feedback; primary waste management by the plant operator, including waste characterization; waste treatment options that led to building waste treatment industrial facilities for plutonium decontamination, compaction and cement solidification; and optimization of industrial tools, which is strongly influenced by safety and financial considerations.

ARSLAN, M.; DUMONT, J.C.; LONDRES, V.; PONCELET, F.J.

2003-02-27

270

Management of intermediate-level radioactive wastes in the United States  

SciTech Connect

While used extensively, the term intermediate-level waste is not a clearly defined waste category. Assuming the ILW includes all radioactive wastes requiring shielding but not ordinarily included in a high-level waste canister, its major sources include power plant operations, spent fuel storage, and spent fuel reprocessing. While the volume is approx. 10/sup 2/ greater than that of high-level waste, ILW contains only approx. 1% of the radioactivity. Power plant waste, constituting approx. 87% of the waste volume, is generally nontransuranic waste. The other approximately 13% from fuel reprocessing is generally transuranic. Intermediate-level wastes fall into the general categories of highly radioactive hardware, failed equipment, HEPA filters, wet wastes, and noncombustible solids. Within each category, however, the waste characteristics can vary widely, necessitating different treatments. The wet wastes, primarily power plant resins and sludges, contribute the largest volume; fuel hulls and core hardware represent the greatest activity. Numerous treatments for intermediate-level wastes are available and have been used successfully. Packaging and transportation systems are also available. Intermediate-level wastes from power plants are disposed of by shallow-land burial. However, the alpha-bearing wastes are being stored pending eventual disposal to a geologic repository or by other means, e.g., intermediate-depth burial, sea disposal. Problem areas associated with intermediate-level wastes include: disposal criteria need to be established; fixation of organic ion exchange resins from power plant operation needs improvement; and reprocessing of LWR fuels will produce ILW considerably different from power plant ILW and requiring different treatment.

Aaberg, R.L.; Lakey, L.T.; Greenborg, J.

1980-07-01

271

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2002  

SciTech Connect

The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2002 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year 2002 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, and Guidance for the Preparation of DOE Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs) for Calendar Year 2002 (DOE Memorandum EH-41: Natoli:6-1336, April 4, 2003). These Orders and the guidance document require that DOE facilities submit an annual site environmental report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health; and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).

Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

2003-09-17

272

Hanford Waste Simulants Created to Support the Research and Development on the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant  

SciTech Connect

The development of nonradioactive waste simulants to support the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant bench and pilot-scale testing is crucial to the design of the facility. The report documents the simulants development to support the SRTC programs and the strategies used to produce the simulants.

Eibling, R.E.

2001-07-26

273

Automated Sampling and Sample Pneumatic Transport of High Level Tank Wastes at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development work, and design and engineering tasks performed, to provide a fully automated sampling system for the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) project at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, USA. WTP is being built to enable the emptying and immobilization of highly active waste resulting from processing of irradiated nuclear fuel since the 1940's. The

C. Phillips; J. E. Richardson

2006-01-01

274

Summary of Waste Calcination at INTEC  

SciTech Connect

Fluidized-bed calcination at the Idaho Nuclear Technologies and Engineering Center (INTEC, formally called the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant) has been used to solidify acidic metal nitrate fuel reprocessing and incidental wastes wastes since 1961. A summary of waste calcination in full-scale and pilot plant calciners has been compiled for future reference. It contains feed compositions and operating conditions for all the processing campaigns for the original Waste Calcining Facility (WCF), the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) started up in 1982, and numerous small scale pilot plant tests for various feed types. This summary provides a historical record of calcination at INTEC, and will be useful for evaluating calcinability of future wastes.

O'Brien, Barry Henry; Newby, Bill Joe

2000-10-01

275

Spent nuclear fuel reprocessing modeling  

SciTech Connect

The long-term wide development of nuclear power requires new approaches towards the realization of nuclear fuel cycle, namely, closed nuclear fuel cycle (CNFC) with respect to fission materials. Plant nuclear fuel cycle (PNFC), which is in fact the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel unloaded from the reactor and the production of new nuclear fuel (NF) at the same place together with reactor plant, can be one variant of CNFC. Developing and projecting of PNFC is a complicated high-technology innovative process that requires modern information support. One of the components of this information support is developed by the authors. This component is the programme conducting calculations for various variants of process flow sheets for reprocessing SNF and production of NF. Central in this programme is the blocks library, where the blocks contain mathematical description of separate processes and operations. The calculating programme itself has such a structure that one can configure the complex of blocks and correlations between blocks, appropriate for any given flow sheet. For the ready sequence of operations balance calculations are made of all flows, i.e. expenses, element and substance makeup, heat emission and radiation rate are determined. The programme is open and the block library can be updated. This means that more complicated and detailed models of technological processes will be added to the library basing on the results of testing processes using real equipment, in test operating mode. The development of the model for the realization of technical-economic analysis of various variants of technologic PNFC schemes and the organization of 'operator's advisor' is expected. (authors)

Tretyakova, S.; Shmidt, O.; Podymova, T.; Shadrin, A.; Tkachenko, V. [Bochvar Institute, 5 Rogova str., Moscow 123098 (Russian Federation); Makeyeva, I.; Tkachenko, V.; Verbitskaya, O.; Schultz, O.; Peshkichev, I. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center - VNIITF E.I. Zababakhin, p.o.box 245, Snezhinsk, 456770 (Russian Federation)

2013-07-01

276

Radioactive Bench-scale Steam Reformer Demonstration of a Monolithic Steam Reformed Mineralized Waste Form for Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste - 12306  

SciTech Connect

Hanford currently has 212,000 m{sup 3} (56 million gallons) of highly radioactive mixed waste stored in the Hanford tank farm. This waste will be processed to produce both high-level and low-level activity fractions, both of which are to be vitrified. Supplemental treatment options have been under evaluation for treating portions of the low-activity waste, as well as the liquid secondary waste from the low-activity waste vitrification process. One technology under consideration has been the THOR{sup R} fluidized bed steam reforming process offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC (TTT). As a follow-on effort to TTT's 2008 pilot plant FBSR non-radioactive demonstration for treating low-activity waste and waste treatment plant secondary waste, TTT, in conjunction with Savannah River National Laboratory, has completed a bench scale evaluation of this same technology on a chemically adjusted radioactive surrogate of Hanford's waste treatment plant secondary waste stream. This test generated a granular product that was subsequently formed into monoliths, using a geo-polymer as the binding agent, that were subjected to compressibility testing, the Product Consistency Test and other leachability tests, and chemical composition analyses. This testing has demonstrated that the mineralized waste form, produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay using the TTT process, is as durable as low-activity waste glass. Testing has shown the resulting monolith waste form is durable, leach resistant, and chemically stable, and has the added benefit of capturing and retaining the majority of Tc-99, I-129, and other target species at high levels. (authors)

Evans, Brent; Olson, Arlin; Mason, J. Bradley; Ryan, Kevin [THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC - 106 Newberry St. SW, Aiken, SC 29801 (United States); Jantzen, Carol; Crawford, Charles [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNL), LLC, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2012-07-01

277

New developments in upgrading waste-water treatment plant effluent using ultrafiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Netherlands interest in advanced treatment is increasing now that almost all waste-water treatment plants apply full biological treatment and nutrient removal. Membrane filtration, especially ultrafiltration, of waste-water treatment plant effluent appears to be a very promising method. However, many experiments show a rapid decrease in flux, which means that frequent and intensive cleaning is required. Various methods for

Jaap H. J. M. van der Graaf; Jelle H. Roorda

2000-01-01

278

Surface water pollution by herbicides from effluents of waste water treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbicide loads of urban and rural waste water treatment plant effluents were calculated over a one-year period by measuring the herbicide concentrations in 14-day mixed samples. More than three quarters of the total herbicide load of the effluent of the rural waste water treatment plant consists of isoproturon. Particularly large amounts of this substance contribute to the total herbicide load

Walter Schüssler

1998-01-01

279

Steam Production from Waste Stack Gases in a Carbon Black Plant  

E-print Network

Waste stack gases from carbon black plant bag filters are used as fuel to produce superheated steam - G25 PSIG and 7500F. This steam is out into a steam header that serves Conoco plants in the Lake Charles, Louisiana area. Combustion of the waste...

Istre, R. I.

1981-01-01

280

The Diffusion of Biological Waste-Water Treatment Plants in the Dutch Food and Beverage Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article develops an economic model of environmental technology adoption decisions. The model is applied econometrically to the diffusion of biological waste-water treatment plants in the Dutch food and beverage industry. It shows that it is possible to explain the overall diffusion pattern of biological waste-water treatment plants in terms of a rational choice model in which prospective adopters trade

René Kemp

1998-01-01

281

High temperature corrosion in a 65 MW waste to energy plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incineration of municipal solid waste is often associated with high temperature corrosion problems. This paper presents results of full-scale corrosion tests in a 65 MW waste fired combined heat and power plant. A failure case indicated alarmingly high corrosion rate of the superheater tubes. Corrosion tests with five different alloys were carried out within this work in order to determine plant

Kristoffer Persson; Markus Broström; Jörgen Carlsson; Anders Nordin; Rainer Backman

2007-01-01

282

Integrated international safeguards concepts for fuel reprocessing  

SciTech Connect

This report is the fourth in a series of efforts by the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, to identify problems and propose solutions for international safeguarding of light-water reactor spent-fuel reprocessing plants. Problem areas for international safeguards were identified in a previous Problem Statement (LA-7551-MS/SAND79-0108). Accounting concepts that could be verified internationally were presented in a subsequent study (LA-8042). Concepts for containment/surveillance were presented, conceptual designs were developed, and the effectiveness of these designs was evaluated in a companion study (SAND80-0160). The report discusses the coordination of nuclear materials accounting and containment/surveillance concepts in an effort to define an effective integrated safeguards system. The Allied-General Nuclear Services fuels reprocessing plant at Barnwell, South Carolina, was used as the reference facility.

Hakkila, E.A.; Gutmacher, R.G.; Markin, J.T.; Shipley, J.P.; Whitty, W.J.; Camp, A.L.; Cameron, C.P.; Bleck, M.E.; Ellwein, L.B.

1981-12-01

283

Enviromental impact of a hospital waste incineration plant in Krakow (Poland).  

PubMed

The environmental impact of a hospital waste incineration plant in Krakow was investigated. The objective of this study was to assess the degree of environmental effect of the secondary solid waste generated during the incineration process of medical waste. The analysis of pollution of the air emissions and leaching test of ashes and slag were carried out. The obtained results allowed us to conclude that (i) the hospital waste incineration plant significantly solves the problems of medical waste treatment in Krakow; (ii) the detected contaminant concentrations were generally lower than the permissible values; (iii) the generated ashes and slag contained considerable concentrations of heavy metals, mainly zinc, and chloride and sulfate anions. Ashes and slag constituted 10-15% of the mass of incinerated wastes; they are more harmful for the environment when compared with untreated waste, and after solidification they can be deposited in the hazardous waste disposal. PMID:23640706

Gielar, Agnieszka; Helios-Rybicka, Edeltrauda

2013-07-01

284

NRC Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Program: Overview of Consultation and Monitoring Activities at the Idaho National Laboratory and the Savannah River Site - What We Have Learned - 12470  

SciTech Connect

In 2005 the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) began to implement a new set of responsibilities under the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) of Fiscal Year 2005. Section 3116 of the NDAA requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to consult with the NRC for certain non-high level waste determinations and also requires NRC to monitor DOE's disposal actions related to those determinations. In Fiscal Year 2005, the NRC staff began consulting with DOE and completed reviews of draft waste determinations for salt waste at the Savannah River Site. In 2006, a second review was completed on tank waste residuals including sodium-bearing waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tank Farm at the Idaho National Laboratory. Monitoring Plans were developed for these activities and the NRC is actively monitoring disposal actions at both sites. NRC is currently in consultation with DOE on the F-Area Tank Farm closure and anticipates entering consultation on the H-Area Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site. This paper presents, from the NRC perspective, an overview of how the consultation and monitoring process has evolved since its conception in 2005. It addresses changes in methods and procedures used to collect and develop information used by the NRC in developing the technical evaluation report and monitoring plan under consultation and the implementation the plan under monitoring. It will address lessons learned and best practices developed throughout the process. The NDAA has presented significant challenges for the NRC and DOE. Past and current successes demonstrate that the NDAA can achieve its intended goal of facilitating tank closure at DOE legacy defense waste sites. The NRC believes many of the challenges in performing the WD reviews have been identified and addressed. Lessons learned have been collected and documented throughout the review process. Future success will be contingent on each agencies commitment to consistently apply the lessons learned and continue to create an open and collaborative work environment to maintain the process of continuous improvement. (authors)

Suber, Gregory [Nuclear Regulatory Commission (United States)

2012-07-01

285

Reference commercial high-level waste glass and canister definition.  

SciTech Connect

This report presents technical data and performance characteristics of a high-level waste glass and canister intended for use in the design of a complete waste encapsulation package suitable for disposal in a geologic repository. The borosilicate glass contained in the stainless steel canister represents the probable type of high-level waste product that will be produced in a commercial nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant. Development history is summarized for high-level liquid waste compositions, waste glass composition and characteristics, and canister design. The decay histories of the fission products and actinides (plus daughters) calculated by the ORIGEN-II code are presented.

Slate, S.C.; Ross, W.A.; Partain, W.L.

1981-09-01

286

Reference commercial high-level waste glass and canister definition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technical data and performance characteristics of a high level waste glass and canister intended for use in the design of a complete waste encapsulation package suitable for disposal in a geologic repository are presented. The borosilicate glass contained in the stainless steel canister represents the probable type of high level waste product that is produced in a commercial nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant. Development history is summarized for high level liquid waste compositions, waste glass composition and characteristics, and canister design. The decay histories of the fission products and actinides (plus daughters) calculated by the ORIGEN-II code are presented.

Slate, S. C.; Ross, W. A.; Partain, W. L.

1981-09-01

287

Plant availability of an iron waste product utilized as an agricultural fertilizer on calcareous soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Fe?dust waste which accumulates as a by?product from the steel industry poses a disposal problem. Since the waste material contains approximately 43% Fe, 5% Zn, and 2% Mn, it shows potential for recycling as an agricultural plant nutrient. The Fe waste was evaluated in laboratory experiments to explore solubility, availability and soil reaction relationships.Two forms of Fe waste (dust

W. B. Anderson; Preeda Parkpian

1984-01-01

288

Construction and operation of an industrial solid waste landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Waste Management, proposes to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide PORTS with additional landfill capacity for non-hazardous and asbestos wastes. The proposed action is needed to support continued operation of PORTS, which generates non-hazardous wastes on a daily basis and asbestos wastes intermittently. Three alternatives are evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA): the proposed action (construction and operation of the X-737 landfill), no-action, and offsite shipment of industrial solid wastes for disposal.

NONE

1995-10-01

289

Waste reduction assistance program (WRAP) on-site consultation audit report: Seafood processing plant  

SciTech Connect

The waste audit study was conducted at a seafood processing plant in Alaska. The report discusses process descriptions, waste types and quantities, current waste and materials management practices, and waste reduction alternatives. The company's current practices include use of fish waste, burning of used oil and solvents, and water conservation. Additional opportunities include microfiltration of solvents and oils, recycling of used batteries, inventory control and formation of a waste reduction team. Appendices include a summary of state regulations, a fact sheet on used oil, and a list of vendors and services.

Not Available

1989-07-29

290

Properties and behavior of the platinum group metals in the glass resulting from the vitrification of simulated nuclear fuel reprocessing waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of platinum group metal particles were found in borosilicate nuclear waste glasses: needle-shaped RuOâ particles and spherical PdRh{sub {ital x}}Te{sub {ital y}} alloys. They form a dense sediment of high electrical conductivity and relatively high viscosity at the bottom of the ceramic melting furnace. The sludge shows a non-Newtonian flow behavior. The viscosity and conductivity of the sludge

Ch. Krause; B. Luckscheiter

1991-01-01

291

Recycling plant, human and animal wastes to plant nutrients in a closed ecological system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The essential minerals for plant growth are nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium (macronutrients), calcium, magnesium, sulfur (secondary nutrients), iron, manganese, boron, copper, zinc, chlorine, sodium, and molybdenum (micronutrients). The first step in recycling wastes will undoubtedly be oxidation of carbon and hydrogen to CO2 and H2O. Transformation of minerals to plant nutrients depends upon the mode of oxidation to define the state of the nutrients. For the purpose of illustrating the type of processing required, ash and off-gas compositions of an incineration process were assumed and subsequent processing requirements were identified. Several processing schemes are described for separating out sodium chloride from the ash, leading to reformulation of a nutrient solution which should be acceptable to plants.

Meissner, H. P.; Modell, M.

1979-01-01

292

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to prepare a Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan. This document fulfills the requirement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This document was prepared by the Hydrology Section of the Westinghouse TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) Environmental Compliance Department, and it is the responsibility of this group to review the plan annually and update it every three years. This document is not, nor is it intended to be, an implementing document that sets forth specific details on carrying out field projects or operational policy. Rather, it is intended to give the reader insight to the groundwater protection philosophy at WIPP.

Washington TRU Solutions

2002-09-24

293

Annual stability evaluation of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

A stability evaluation of the underground workings of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was completed by the US Bureau of Mines` WIPP evaluation committee. This work included a critical evaluation of the processes employed at WIPP to ensure stability, an extensive review of available deformation measurements, a 3-day site visit, and interviews with the Department of Energy (DOE) and Westinghouse staff. General ground control processes are in place at WIPP to minimize the likelihood that major stability problems will go undetected. To increase confidence in both short- and long-term stability throughout the site (underground openings and shafts), ground stability monitoring systems, mine layout design, support systems and data analyses must be continuously improved. Such processes appear to be in place at WIPP and are discussed in this paper.

Not Available

1993-06-01

294

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

The DOE has mandated in DOE Order 5400.1 that its operations will be conducted in an environmentally safe manner. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) will comply with DOE Order 5400.1 and will conduct its operations in a manner that ensures the safety of the environment and the public. This document outlines how the WIPP will protect and preserve groundwater within and surrounding the WIPP facility. Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. The WIPP groundwater surveillance program is designed to determine statistically if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will be determined and appropriate corrective action initiated.

Not Available

1993-12-31

295

Waste receiving and processing plant control system; system design description  

SciTech Connect

The Plant Control System (PCS) is a heterogeneous computer system composed of numerous sub-systems. The PCS represents every major computer system that is used to support operation of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility. This document, the System Design Description (PCS SDD), includes several chapters and appendices. Each chapter is devoted to a separate PCS sub-system. Typically, each chapter includes an overview description of the system, a list of associated documents related to operation of that system, and a detailed description of relevant system features. Each appendice provides configuration information for selected PCS sub-systems. The appendices are designed as separate sections to assist in maintaining this document due to frequent changes in system configurations. This document is intended to serve as the primary reference for configuration of PCS computer systems. The use of this document is further described in the WRAP System Configuration Management Plan, WMH-350, Section 4.1.

LANE, M.P.

1999-02-24

296

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2010  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Annual Site Environmental Report for 2010 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to: (1) Characterize site environmental management performance. (2) Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year. (3) Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements. (4) Highlight significant environmental accomplishments, including progress toward the DOE Environmental Sustainability Goals made through implementation of the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS). The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and the management and operating contractor (MOC), Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS), maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the WIPP. DOE Order 231.1A; DOE Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and workers, and preservation of the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, which requires that DOE facilities submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Chief Health, Safety, and Security Officer. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Number NM4890139088-TSDF (Permit) further requires that the ASER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).

None

2011-09-01

297

Glass melter assembly for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is designed to solidify high level radioactive waste by converting it into stable borosilicate after mixing with glass frit and water. The heart of this conversion process takes place in the glass melter. The life span of the existing melter is limited by the possible premature failure of the heater assembly, which is not remotely replaceable, in the riser and pour spout. A goal of HWVP Project is to design remotely replaceable riser and pour spout heaters so that the useful life of the melter can be prolonged. The riser pour spout area is accessible only by the canyon crane and impact wrench. It is also congested with supporting frame members, service piping, electrode terminals, canister positioning arm and other various melter components. The visibility is low and the accessibility is limited. The problem is further compounded by the extreme high temperature in the riser core and the electrical conductive nature of the molten glass that flows through it.

Chen, A.E.; Russell, A. [Waste Chem Corp., Irvine, CA (US); Shah, K.R.; Kalia, J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (US)

1993-01-01

298

Nutrient abatement potential and abatement costs of waste water treatment plants in the Baltic Sea region.  

PubMed

We assess the physical potential to reduce nutrient loads from waste water treatment plants in the Baltic Sea region and determine the costs of abating nutrients based on the estimated potential. We take a sample of waste water treatment plants of different size classes and generalize its properties to the whole population of waste water treatment plants. Based on a detailed investment and operational cost data on actual plants, we develop the total and marginal abatement cost functions for both nutrients. To our knowledge, our study is the first of its kind; there is no other study on this issue which would take advantage of detailed data on waste water treatment plants at this extent. We demonstrate that the reduction potential of nutrients is huge in waste water treatment plants. Increasing the abatement in waste water treatment plants can result in 70 % of the Baltic Sea Action Plan nitrogen reduction target and 80 % of the Baltic Sea Action Plan phosphorus reduction target. Another good finding is that the costs of reducing both nutrients are much lower than previously thought. The large reduction of nitrogen would cost 670 million euros and of phosphorus 150 million euros. We show that especially for phosphorus the abatement costs in agriculture would be much higher than in waste water treatment plants. PMID:23996505

Hautakangas, Sami; Ollikainen, Markku; Aarnos, Kari; Rantanen, Pirjo

2014-04-01

299

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Groundwater Monitoring Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a groundwater monitoring program is an integral part of any radioactive waste disposal facility. Monitoring improves our understanding of the geologic and hydrologic framework, which improves conceptual models and the quality of groundwater models that provide data input for performance assessment. The purpose of a groundwater monitoring program is to provide objective evidence that the hydrologic system is behaving as expected (i.e., performance confirmation). Monitoring should not be limited to near-field observations but should include the larger natural system in which the repository is situated. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility designed for the safe disposal of transuranic wastes resulting from U.S. defense programs, can serve as a model for other radioactive waste disposal facilities. WIPP has a long-established groundwater monitoring program that is geared towards meeting compliance certification requirements set forth by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The primary task of the program is to measure various water parameters (e.g.., water level, pressure head, chemical and physical properties) using a groundwater monitoring network that currently consists of 85 wells in the vicinity of the WIPP site. Wells are completed to a number of water-bearing horizons and are monitored on a monthly basis. In many instances, they are also instrumented with programmable pressure transducers that take high-frequency measurements that supplement the monthly measurements. Results from higher frequency measurements indicate that the hydrologic system in the WIPP vicinity is in a transient state, responding to both natural and anthropogenic stresses. The insights gathered from the monitoring, as well as from hydrologic testing activities, provide valuable information that contributes to groundwater modeling efforts and performance assessment. Sandia is a multi program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04- 94AL85000. This research is funded by WIPP programs administered by the Office of Environmental Management (EM) of the U.S Department of Energy.

Hillesheim, M. B.; Beauheim, R. L.

2006-12-01

300

Mechanisms governing the direct removal of wastes from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository caused by exploratory drilling  

SciTech Connect

Two processes are identified that can influence the quantity of wastes brought to the ground surface when a waste disposal room of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is inadvertently penetrated by an exploratory borehole. The first mechanism is due to the erosion of the borehole wall adjacent to the waste caused by the flowing drilling fluid (mud); a quantitative computational model based upon the flow characteristics of the drilling fluid (laminar or turbulent) and other drilling parameters is developed and example results shown. The second mechanism concerns the motion of the waste and borehole spall caused by the flow of waste-generated gas to the borehole. Some of the available literature concerning this process is discussed, and a number of elastic and elastic-plastic finite-difference and finite-element calculations are described that confirm the potential importance of this process in directly removing wastes from the repository to the ground surface. Based upon the amount of analysis performed to date, it is concluded that it is not unreasonable to expect that volumes of waste several times greater than that resulting from direct cutting of a gauge borehole could eventually reach the ground surface. No definitive quantitative model for waste removal as a result of the second mechanism is presented; it is concluded that decomposed waste constitutive data must be developed and additional experiments performed to assess further the full significance of this latter mechanism.

Berglund, J.W. [New Mexico Engineering Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1992-12-01

301

Author's personal copy Cost analysis of the US spent nuclear fuel reprocessing facility  

E-print Network

of this, a 1987 amendment to the US Nuclear Waste Policy Act mandates the Secretary of Energy to reportAuthor's personal copy Cost analysis of the US spent nuclear fuel reprocessing facility E fuel cycle Spent nuclear fuel Reprocessing Energy economics The US Department of Energy is actively

Deinert, Mark

302

Potential radiological impact of tornadoes on the safety of Nuclear Fuel Services' West Valley Fuel Reprocessing Plant. 2. Reentrainment and discharge of radioactive materials  

SciTech Connect

This report describes results of a parametric study of quantities of radioactive materials that might be discharged by a tornado-generated depressurization on contaminated process cells within the presently inoperative Nuclear Fuel Services' (NFS) fuel reprocessing facility near West Valley, New York. The study involved the following tasks: determining approximate quantities of radioactive materials in the cells and characterizing particle-size distribution; estimating the degree of mass reentrainment from particle-size distribution and from air speed data presented in Part 1; and estimating the quantities of radioactive material (source term) released from the cells to the atmosphere. The study has shown that improperly sealed manipulator ports in the Process Mechanical Cell (PMC) present the most likely pathway for release of substantial quantities of radioactive material in the atmosphere under tornado accident conditions at the facility.

Davis, W. Jr.

1981-07-01

303

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Transuranic Waste Baseline inventory report. Volume 1. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This document provides baseline inventories of transuranic wastes for the WIPP facility. Information on waste forms, forecasting of future inventories, and waste stream originators is also provided. A diskette is provided which contains the inventory database.

NONE

1995-02-01

304

Probability of failure of the waste hoist brake system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)  

SciTech Connect

In its most recent report on the annual probability of failure of the waste hoist brake system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the annual failure rate is calculated to be 1.3E({minus}7)(1/yr), rounded off from 1.32E({minus}7). A calculation by the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) produces a result that is about 4% higher, namely 1.37E({minus}7)(1/yr). The difference is due to a minor error in the US Department of Energy (DOE) calculations in the Westinghouse 1996 report. WIPP`s hoist safety relies on a braking system consisting of a number of components including two crucial valves. The failure rate of the system needs to be recalculated periodically to accommodate new information on component failure, changes in maintenance and inspection schedules, occasional incidents such as a hoist traveling out-of-control, either up or down, and changes in the design of the brake system. This report examines DOE`s last two reports on the redesigned waste hoist system. In its calculations, the DOE has accepted one EEG recommendation and is using more current information about the component failures rates, the Nonelectronic Parts Reliability Data (NPRD). However, the DOE calculations fail to include the data uncertainties which are described in detail in the NPRD reports. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission recommended that a system evaluation include mean estimates of component failure rates and take into account the potential uncertainties that exist so that an estimate can be made on the confidence level to be ascribed to the quantitative results. EEG has made this suggestion previously and the DOE has indicated why it does not accept the NRC recommendation. Hence, this EEG report illustrates the importance of including data uncertainty using a simple statistical example.

Greenfield, M.A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Sargent, T.J. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)]|[Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Hoover Institution

1998-01-01

305

Data validation and security for reprocessing.  

SciTech Connect

Next generation nuclear fuel cycle facilities will face strict requirements on security and safeguards of nuclear material. These requirements can result in expensive facilities. The purpose of this project was to investigate how to incorporate safeguards and security into one plant monitoring system early in the design process to take better advantage of all plant process data, to improve confidence in the operation of the plant, and to optimize costs. An existing reprocessing plant materials accountancy model was examined for use in evaluating integration of safeguards (both domestic and international) and security. International safeguards require independent, secure, and authenticated measurements for materials accountability--it may be best to design stand-alone systems in addition to domestic safeguards instrumentation to minimize impact on operations. In some cases, joint-use equipment may be appropriate. Existing domestic materials accountancy instrumentation can be used in conjunction with other monitoring equipment for plant security as well as through the use of material assurance indicators, a new metric for material control that is under development. Future efforts will take the results of this work to demonstrate integration on the reprocessing plant model.

Tolk, Keith Michael; Merkle, Peter Benedict; DurÔan, Felicia Angelica; Cipiti, Benjamin B.

2008-10-01

306

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

The DOE established the Groundwater Monitoring Program (GMP) (WP 02-1) to monitor groundwater resources at WIPP. In the past, the GMP was conducted to establish background data of existing conditions of groundwater quality and quantity in the WIPP vicinity, and to develop and maintain a water quality database as required by regulation. Today the GMP is conducted consistent with 204.1.500 NMAC (New MexicoAdministrative Code), "Adoption of 40 CFR [Code of Federal Regulations] Part 264,"specifically 40 CFR §264.90 through §264.101. These sections of 20.4.1 NMAC provide guidance for detection monitoring of groundwater that is, or could be, affected by waste management activities at WIPP. Detection monitoring at WIPP is designed to detect contaminants in the groundwater long before the general population is exposed. Early detection will allow cleanup efforts to be accomplished before any exposure to the general population can occur. Title 40 CFR Part 264, Subpart F, stipulates minimum requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §6901 et seq.) (RCRA) groundwater monitoring programs including the number and location of monitoring wells; sampling and reporting schedules; analytical methods and accuracy requirements; monitoring parameters; and statistical treatment of monitoring data. This document outlines how WIPP intends to protect and preserve groundwater within the WIPP Land Withdrawal Area (WLWA). Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. An overview of the entire environmental protection effort can be found in DOE/WIPP 99-2194, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan. The WIPP GMP is designed to statistically determine if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will then be determined and the appropriate corrective action(s) initiated.

Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

2005-07-01

307

CEWEP -Confederation of European Waste-to-Energy Plants Boulevard Clovis 12A  

E-print Network

Recovered Fuel) as a fuel in both cement kilns and power plants, dedicated Biomass Energy Plants (BEP; BEP ­ Biomass Energy Plants; LFG ­ Landfill Gas; WtE ­ Waste-to-Energy 1 Excluding agricultural is considered biomass, thus a renewable energy source. Summary of the overall development of Renewable Energy

308

AIR DISPERSION MODELING AT THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT  

SciTech Connect

One concern at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the amount of alpha-emitting radionuclides or hazardous chemicals that can become airborne at the facility and reach the Exclusive Use Area boundary as the result of a release from the Waste Handling Building (WHB) or from the underground during waste emplacement operations. The WIPP Safety Analysis Report (SAR), WIPP RCRA Permit, and WIPP Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessments include air dispersion calculations to address this issue. Meteorological conditions at the WIPP facility will dictate direction, speed, and dilution of a contaminant plume of respirable material due to chronic releases or during an accident. Due to the paucity of meteorological information at the WIPP site prior to September 1996, the Department of Energy (DOE) reports had to rely largely on unqualified climatic data from the site and neighboring Carlsbad, which is situated approximately 40 km (26 miles) to the west of the site. This report examines the validity of the DOE air dispersion calculations using new meteorological data measured and collected at the WIPP site since September 1996. The air dispersion calculations in this report include both chronic and acute releases. Chronic release calculations were conducted with the EPA-approved code, CAP88PC and the calculations showed that in order for a violation of 40 CFR61 (NESHAPS) to occur, approximately 15 mCi/yr of 239Pu would have to be released from the exhaust stack or from the WHB. This is an extremely high value. Hence, it is unlikely that NESHAPS would be violated. A site-specific air dispersion coefficient was evaluated for comparison with that used in acute dose calculations. The calculations presented in Section 3.2 and 3.3 show that one could expect a slightly less dispersive plume (larger air dispersion coefficient) given greater confidence in the meteorological data, i.e. 95% worst case meteorological conditions. Calculations show that dispersion will decrease slightly if a more stable wind class is assumed, where very little vertical mixing occurs. It is recommended that previous reports which used fixed values for calculating the air dispersion coefficient be updated to reflect the new meteorological data, such as the WIPP Safety Analysis Report and the WIPP Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment. It is also recommended that uncertainty be incorporated into the calculations so that a more meaningful assessment of risk during accidents can be achieved.

Rucker, D.F.

2000-08-01

309

Contribution of stack gases and solid process wastes to the organic pollutant output of thermal waste treatment plants.  

PubMed

Within the scope of fundamental investigations as well as individual research projects (W. Knorr, B. Hentschel, C. Marb. S. Schädel, M. Swerev, O. Vierle, J.-P. Lay, 1999. Rückstände aus der Müllverbrennung-Chancen für eine stoffliche Verwertung von Aschen und Schlacken. Initiativen zum Umweltschutz, 13 ed., Deutsche Bundesstiftung Ulmwelt, Erich Schmidt, Berlin), the Bavarian State Office for Environmental Protection performs emission measurements at thermal waste treatment plants to optimize operation, to accompany and support development of new technologies, and to study the effect of this kind of waste treatment technology on the environment. Based on recent studies (October 1995-July 1999) at six municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) in Bavaria all emission streams (solid and gas) are characterized with respect to organic pollutant contents and compared to the emissions of waste pyrolysis. The significant ranges of pollutant concentration as well as the specific congener patterns observed are similar for all MSWI, regardless of differences in technical design and waste input, but differ markedly from those of the pyrolysis products. The overall approach, including the sampling of all output streams and the determination of mass streams and volume flow rates, allows the calculation of the total output of different organic pollutants for waste incineration plants aand to estimate the relative contribution of each of the emission streams to the total pollutant load. Removal efficiencies are also calculated for the air pollution control (APC) systems of the different MSWI plants. PMID:11372858

Hentschel, B; Riedel, H

2001-01-01

310

Saltstone: cement-based waste form for disposal of Savannah River Plant low-level radioactive salt waste  

SciTech Connect

Defense waste processing at the Savannah River Plant will include decontamination and disposal of approximately 400 million liters of waste containing NaNO/sub 3/, NaOH, Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, and NaNO/sub 2/. After decontamination, the salt solution is classified as low-level waste. A cement-based waste form, saltstone, has been designed for disposal of Savannah River Plant low-level radioactive salt waste. Bulk properties of this material have been tailored with respect to salt leach rate, permeability, and compressive strength. Microstructure and mineralogy of leached and unleached specimens were characterized by SEM and x-ray diffraction analyses. The disposal system for the DWPF salt waste includes reconstitution of the crystallized salt as a solution containing 32 wt % solids. This solution will be decontaminated to remove /sup 137/Cs and /sup 90/Sr and then stabilized in a cement-based waste form. Laboratory and field tests indicate that this stabilization process greatly reduces the mobility of all of the waste constitutents in the surface and near-surface environment. Engineered trenches for subsurface burial of the saltstone have been designed to ensure compatibility between the waste form and the environment. The total disposal sytem, saltstone-trench-surrounding soil, has been designed to contain radionuclides, Cr, and Hg by both physical encapsulation and chemical fixation mechanisms. Physical encapsulation of the salts is the mechanism employed for controlling N and OH releases. In this way, final disposal of the SRP low-level waste can be achieved and the quality of the groundwater at the perimeter of the disposal site meets EPA drinking water standards.

Langton, C.A.

1984-01-01

311

Waste Energy Analysis Recovery for a Typical Food Processing Plant  

E-print Network

. Additional analysis, measurements, and observations over a period of 12 months resulted in an evaluation of the losses as well as recommended methods for the effective recovery of the waste heat energy. The waste energy recovery results in significant savings...

Miller, P. H.; Mann, L., Jr.

1980-01-01

312

Plant Availability of Metals in Waste Foundry Sands  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Foundries in the United States generate several million tons of waste sand each year. These sands are no longer suitable for metalcasting processes, and about 90% are discarded in landfills. However, the majority of these waste foundry sands (WFSs) qualify as non-hazardous industrial waste and the...

313

WASTE MINIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: A CLASS 8 TRUCK ASSEMBLY PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has developed a systematic approach to identify and implement options to reduce or eliminate hazardous waste. he approach is presented in a report entitled, "Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual" (EPA/625/7-88/O03). his report describes the application of the wast...

314

WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: A CLASS 8 TRUCK ASSEMBLY PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has developed a systematic approach to identify and implement options to reduce or eliminate hazardous waste. he approach is presented in a report entitled, "Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual" (EPA/625/7-88/O03). his report describes the application of the wast...

315

Removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater by chemically modified plant wastes as adsorbents: a review.  

PubMed

The application of low-cost adsorbents obtained from plant wastes as a replacement for costly conventional methods of removing heavy metal ions from wastewater has been reviewed. It is well known that cellulosic waste materials can be obtained and employed as cheap adsorbents and their performance to remove heavy metal ions can be affected upon chemical treatment. In general, chemically modified plant wastes exhibit higher adsorption capacities than unmodified forms. Numerous chemicals have been used for modifications which include mineral and organic acids, bases, oxidizing agent, organic compounds, etc. In this review, an extensive list of plant wastes as adsorbents including rice husks, spent grain, sawdust, sugarcane bagasse, fruit wastes, weeds and others has been compiled. Some of the treated adsorbents show good adsorption capacities for Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn and Ni. PMID:17681755

Wan Ngah, W S; Hanafiah, M A K M

2008-07-01

316

Characterization of past and present solid waste streams from the plutonium finishing plant  

SciTech Connect

During the next two decades the transuranic (TRU) wastes now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Over 50% of the TRU waste to be retrieved for shipment to the WIPP has been generated at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP), also known as the Plutonium Processing and Storage Facility and Z Plant. The purpose of this report is to characterize the radioactive solid wastes generated by the PFP since its construction in 1947 using process knowledge, existing records, and history-obtained from interviews. The PFP is currently operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the US Department of Energy (DOE).

Duncan, D.R.; Mayancsik, B.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)] [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Pottmeyer, J.A.; Vejvoda, E.J.; Reddick, J.A.; Sheldon, K.M.; Weyns, M.I. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Kennewick, WA (United States)] [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Kennewick, WA (United States)

1993-02-01

317

Detection, Composition and Treatment of Volatile Organic Compounds from Waste Treatment Plants  

PubMed Central

Environmental policies at the European and global level support the diversion of wastes from landfills for their treatment in different facilities. Organic waste is mainly treated or valorized through composting, anaerobic digestion or a combination of both treatments. Thus, there are an increasing number of waste treatment plants using this type of biological treatment. During waste handling and biological decomposition steps a number of gaseous compounds are generated or removed from the organic matrix and emitted. Different families of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) can be found in these emissions. Many of these compounds are also sources of odor nuisance. In fact, odors are the main source of complaints and social impacts of any waste treatment plant. This work presents a summary of the main types of VOC emitted in organic waste treatment facilities and the methods used to detect and quantify these compounds, together with the treatment methods applied to gaseous emissions commonly used in composting and anaerobic digestion facilities. PMID:22163835

Font, Xavier; Artola, Adriana; Sánchez, Antoni

2011-01-01

318

Pilot plant for biomethanation of dairy-industry wastes  

SciTech Connect

This project was undertaken to demonstrate the application of two-phase anaerobic digestion (TPAD) for simultaneous stabilization and biomethanation of high-COD cheese-waste-dairy-manure mixtures by a pilot-plant operation in Wellsville, Utah. The TPAD system exhibited a total COD (TCOD) reduction of up to 97% with feed COD concentration of 60,000 to 45,000 mg/l. The TCOD reduction decreased as the variability as well as the strength of the feed increased. A quick surge of the feed TCOD concentration to 125,000 mg/l effected a large drop in TCOD reduction, but the integrity of the methane digester, which produced 78 {approximately}87 mol% methane-content gas, was measured and TPAD system performance could be restored to normal levels by diluting the feed to obtain TCOD concentrations below 70,000 mg/l. The TPAD system exhibited a methane yield of 0.27 m{sup 3}/kg TCOD charged (0.36 m{sup 3}/kg TCOD removed).

Ghosh, S.; Fukushi, K.; Liu, T. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)] [and others

1994-12-31

319

Sampling and Analysis Plan Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project.  

SciTech Connect

This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the Saddle Mountains Basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality assurance plan for the project to guide the procedure development and data collection activities needed to support borehole drilling, geophysical measurements, and sampling. This SAP identifies the American Society of Testing Materials standards, Hanford Site procedures, and other guidance to be followed for data collection activities. Revision 3 incorporates all interim change notices (ICN) that were issued to Revision 2 prior to completion of sampling and analysis activities for the WTP Seismic Boreholes Project. This revision also incorporates changes to the exact number of samples submitted for dynamic testing as directed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Revision 3 represents the final version of the SAP.

Brouns, Thomas M.

2007-07-15

320

Potential radiological impact of tornadoes on the safety of Nuclear Fuel Services' West Valley Fuel Reprocessing Plant. Volume I. Tornado effects on head-end cell airflow  

SciTech Connect

This report describes results of a parametric study of the impacts of a tornado-generated depressurization on airflow in the contaminated process cells within the presently inoperative Nuclear Fuel Services fuel reprocessing facility near West Valley, NY. The study involved the following tasks: (1) mathematical modeling of installed ventilation and abnormal exhaust pathways from the cells and prediction of tornado-induced airflows in these pathways; (2) mathematical modeling of individual cell flow characteristics and prediction of in-cell velocities induced by flows from step 1; and (3) evaluation of the results of steps 1 and 2 to determine whether any of the pathways investigated have the potential for releasing quantities of radioactively contaminated air from the main process cells. The study has concluded that in the event of a tornado strike, certain pathways from the cells have the potential to release radioactive materials of the atmosphere. Determination of the quantities of radioactive material released from the cells through pathways identified in step 3 is presented in Part II of this report.

Holloway, L.J.; Andrae, R.W.

1981-09-01

321

76 FR 35861 - Safety Culture at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...staff, vulnerable to pressures caused by budget or...testified that they felt pressure to change their testimony...historical information on plutonium dioxide (PuO 2 ) wastes discharged by the Plutonium Finishing Plant to...

2011-06-20

322

Site-Specific Seismic Site Response Model for the Waste Treatment Plant, Hanford, Washington  

SciTech Connect

This interim report documents the collection of site-specific geologic and geophysical data characterizing the Waste Treatment Plant site and the modeling of the site-specific structure response to earthquake ground motions.

Rohay, Alan C.; Reidel, Steve P.

2005-02-24

323

UBC Plant Operations, Waste Management Division 2329 West Mall, V6T 1Z4  

E-print Network

UBC Plant Operations, Waste Management Division 2329 West Mall, V6T 1Z4 Tel: 604-822-3827 Web drivers Note: location must be truck accessible Special notes or requests A representative from UBC Waste Management will contact you within one week of receiving this form. Thank you. Request for Event Composting

Handy, Todd C.

324

A novel composting process for plant wastes in Taiwan military barracks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Military barracks throughout Taiwan produce large quantities of organic wastes from gardening, such as leaves, grass and flowers. By manipulating and observing the related parameters of the windrow composting process, the study seeks to find an optimum treatment method for plant wastes. Mature compost was used in small amounts as a fermenting source for each experimental sample. Results show that

Hua-Shan Tai; Wei-Hsiung He

2007-01-01

325

Native Plant Uptake Model for Radioactive Waste Disposal Areas at the Nevada Test Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report defines and defends the basic framework, methodology, and associated input parameters for modeling plant uptake of radionuclides for use in Performance Assessment (PA) activities of Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). PAs are used to help determine whether waste disposal configurations meet applicable regulatory standards for the protection of human health, the environment,

THERESA J. BROWN; SHARON WIRTH

1999-01-01

326

ELIMINATION OF POLLUTANTS BY UTILIZATION OF EGG BREAKING PLANT SHELL-WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

Egg breaking plants yield an estimated 50,000 tons of waste annually. These wastes are commonly disposed of on land. This method of disposal is becoming more difficult due to the potential for pollution of local water resources. A triple pass rotary drum dehydrator was installed ...

327

Waste heat to save plant $126,000\\/year. [Monarch Fine Foods Co. , Rexdale, Ont  

Microsoft Academic Search

A $400,000 conservation program featuring a waste-heat-recovery system should save the Monarch Fine Foods Co., Rexdale, Ontario $126,000 a year in avoided fuel costs. Using an Alpha-Laval plate heat exchanger and a Templifier TPE-063 heat pump made by Westinghouse, the system will recover waste heat from the plant to preheat boiler feedwater. (DCK)

1982-01-01

328

A study of commercial thermoelectric generation in a processing plant of combustible solid waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the applicability of a commercially available thermoelectric generator for waste heat recovery in a processing plant of combustible solid waste. Oil heat transfer medium is utilized for heating the commercially available thermoelectric generator employed in this study so that the generator can be operated at a much lower pressure than that using water. Low pressure operation is

A. Tsuyoshi; S. Kagawa; M. Sakamoto; K. Matsuura

1997-01-01

329

Infield monitoring of cleaning efficiency in waste water treatment plants using two phenol-sensitive biosensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two amperometric biosensors based on the enzymes cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) and quinoprotein-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (GDH), have been applied for monitoring the phenolic content in water samples, collected at different stages of a waste water treatment process, thus representing different cleaning levels of two waste water treatment plants (WWTPs). The biosensor measurements were performed in-field, compared with the results obtained by

Catalin Nistor; Andreas Rose; Marinella Farré; Leonard Stoica; Ulla Wollenberger; Tautgirdas Ruzgas; Dorothea Pfeiffer; Damià Barceló; Lo Gorton; Jenny Emnéus

2002-01-01

330

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant: Nonradioactive liquid-fed ceramic melter testing for fiscal year 1986  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic objective of ceramic melter testing under the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Program in FY 1986 was to study slurry oxide loading and waste variability effects on melter processability. Secondary objectives included the evaluation of processing characteristics of melter feeds with a glass-former frit that was in a single size range; demonstration that slurries prepared under laboratory- and

R. K. Nakaoka; J. M. Jr. Perez; W. C. Buchmiller; R. W. Goles; S. O. Bates

1986-01-01

331

The DCS of Waste Heat Power Generation of Cement Plant Based on Fuzzy Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heat source of waste heat power generation of cement plant is the waste heat gas of cement rotary kiln. Influenced by the impact of cement production, the control system is complex, so the existing control scheme cannot make the satisfactory effect. Based on a thorough analysis of the existing control scheme and the reference to manual operation experience of

Shaoyun Wang; Qingjin Meng; Jingjian Wu

2009-01-01

332

Parameter sensitivity studies of selected components of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository\\/shaft system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This status report presents preliminary analyses of flow through the rooms, drifts, seals, and shafts of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The purpose of these analyses is to evaluate the importance of various components and parameters of the transuranic waste repository. These analyses are presented to show the current status of repository\\/shaft system modeling, and to provide input for

R. P. Rechard; W. Beyeler; J. D. Schreiber; R. D. McCurley; D. K. Rudeen; J. E. Bean

1990-01-01

333

Probabilistic human intrusion analysis: Applications to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this investigation is to provide a preliminary probabilistic assessment of potential credible human intrusion events at WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) that could compromise the natural containment system envisioned to be provided by the surrounding geology to isolate wastes from people and the environment.

Margulies, T. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Sinha, B. [Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States)

1995-12-31

334

Early1990 status of performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the early-1990 status of the performance- assessment work being done to evaluate compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant with the US Environmental Protection Agency regulation 40 CFR Part 191, Subpart B. This regulation sets environmental standards for radioactive waste disposal. As required by Subpart B, evaluations of compliance will include probabilistic numerical simulations of repository performance

S. G. Bertram-Howery; P. N. Swift

1991-01-01

335

Phase I: the pipeline-gas demonstration plant. Demonstration plant engineering and design. Volume 18. Plant Section 2700 - Waste Water Treatment  

SciTech Connect

Contract No. EF-77-C-01-2542 between Conoco Inc. and the US Department of Energy provides for the design, construction, and operation of a demonstration plant capable of processing bituminous caking coals into clean pipeline quality gas. The project is currently in the design phase (Phase I). This phase is scheduled to be completed in June 1981. One of the major efforts of Phase I is the process and project engineering design of the Demonstration Plant. The design has been completed and is being reported in 24 volumes. This is Volume 18 which reports the design of Plant Section 2700 - Waste Water Treatment. The objective of the Waste Water Treatment system is to collect and treat all plant liquid effluent streams. The system is designed to permit recycle and reuse of the treated waste water. Plant Section 2700 is composed of primary, secondary, and tertiary waste water treatment methods plus an evaporation system which eliminates liquid discharge from the plant. The Waste Water Treatment Section is designed to produce 130 pounds per hour of sludge that is buried in a landfill on the plant site. The evaporated water is condensed and provides a portion of the make-up water to Plant Section 2400 - Cooling Water.

none,

1981-05-01

336

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 194 - Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...to Part 194—Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance...this part, the Agency finds that the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (“WIPP”) will comply with the radioactive waste disposal regulations at part...

2014-07-01

337

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 194 - Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...to Part 194—Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance...this part, the Agency finds that the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (“WIPP”) will comply with the radioactive waste disposal regulations at part...

2012-07-01

338

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 194 - Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...to Part 194—Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance...this part, the Agency finds that the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (“WIPP”) will comply with the radioactive waste disposal regulations at part...

2011-07-01

339

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 194 - Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to Part 194—Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance...this part, the Agency finds that the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (“WIPP”) will comply with the radioactive waste disposal regulations at part...

2013-07-01

340

Dynamic modelling of waste-water treatment plants based on Lemna gibba  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a comprehensive process model able to simulate the behaviour of a waste-water treatment plant based on Lemna gibba has been developed. This model accounts for the main chemical and biochemical phenomena involved in a natural waste-water treatment system. Several comparisons with experimental data obtained both in mini-ponds and in realsize plants have confirmed the reliability of the

G. Vatta; R. Rota; N. Boniardi; G. Nano

1995-01-01

341

Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 3: Appendix BIR Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic Waste Baseline Inventory Report (WTWBIR) establishes a methodology for grouping wastes of similar physical and chemical properties, from across the US Department of Energy (DOE) transuranic (TRU) waste system, into a series of ``waste profiles`` that can be used as the basis for waste form discussions with regulatory agencies. The majority of this document reports TRU waste inventories of DOE defense sites. An appendix is included which provides estimates of commercial TRU waste from the West Valley Demonstration Project. The WIPP baseline inventory is estimated using waste streams identified by the DOE TRU waste generator/storage sites, supplemented by information from the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR) and the 1994 Integrated Data Base (IDB). The sites provided and/or authorized all information in the Waste Stream Profiles except the EPA (hazardous waste) codes for the mixed inventories. These codes were taken from the MWIR (if a WTWBIR mixed waste stream was not in MWIR, the sites were consulted). The IDB was used to generate the WIPP radionuclide inventory. Each waste stream is defined in a waste stream profile and has been assigned a waste matrix code (WMC) by the DOE TRU waste generator/storage site. Waste stream profiles with WMCs that have similar physical and chemical properties can be combined into a waste matrix code group (WMCG), which is then documented in a site-specific waste profile for each TRU waste generator/storage site that contains waste streams in that particular WMCG.

NONE

1995-03-31

342

Unfavorable Conditions for Nuclear Criticality Following Disposal of Transuranic Waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

Modeling of nuclear criticality was omitted from performance assessment calculations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a repository for waste contaminated with transuranic radioisotopes, located in southeastern New Mexico, based on arguments of low probability and low consequence. Low-probability arguments are presented here. Guidance provided by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) - the regulator of WIPP - allowed either qualitative 'credibility' arguments or quantitative probability estimates when screening features, events, and processes such as criticality. Although information to quantitatively evaluate the probability of a criticality event was mostly lacking, qualitatively reasoned discussion of the inability to assemble a critical configuration of fissile material was accepted by the EPA. Specifically, after disposal and prior to an inadvertent human intrusion into the repository, there is no credible mechanism to move radioisotopes (and particularly, fissile material) since only small amounts of brine enter the repository, as adequately demonstrated in calculations over the years. An inadvertent human intrusion (an event that must be considered because of safety regulations) might allow a large pressure gradient to move more brine through the repository, but there is still no credible mechanism to counteract the natural tendency of the material to disperse during transport. Unfavorable physical conditions on concentrating fissile material include low initial solid concentration of fissile material, small mass of fissile material transported over 10 000 yr, and insufficient physical compaction; unfavorable hydrologic conditions include the limited amount of brine available to transport fissile material. Unfavorable geochemical conditions on concentrating the fissile radioisotopes include lack of sufficient adsorption and water chemistry conducive to precipitation.

Rechard, Rob P.; Sanchez, Lawrence C.; Trellue, Holly R.; Stockman, Christine T. [Sandia National Laboratories (United States)

2001-10-15

343

76 FR 45268 - Reprocessing of Reusable Medical Devices  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FDA-2011-N-0294] Reprocessing of Reusable Medical Devices AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...the reprocessing of reusable medical devices, including reprocessing quality...the reprocessing of reusable medical devices, reprocessing...

2011-07-28

344

Cement-based waste forms for disposal of Savannah River Plant low-level radioactive salt waste  

SciTech Connect

Defense waste processing at the Savannah River Plant will include decontamination and disposal of approximately 100 million liters of soluble salts containing primarily NaNO/sub 3/, NaOH, NaNO/sub 2/, NaAl(OH)/sub 4/, and Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. A cement-based waste form, saltstone, has been designed for disposal of Savannah River Plant low-level radioactive salt waste. Bulk properties of this material have been tailored with respect to salt leach rate, permeability, and compressive strength. Microstructure and mineralogy of leached and unleached specimens were characterized by SEM and x-ray diffraction analyses, respectively. It has been concluded that the salt leach rate can be limited so that amounts of salt and radionuclides in the groundwater at the perimeter of the 100-acre disposal site will not exceed EPA drinking water standards. 7 references, 4 figures, 6 tables.

Langton, C A; Dukes, M D; Simmons, R V

1983-01-01

345

Operating limit study for the proposed solid waste landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant  

SciTech Connect

A proposed solid waste landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) would accept wastes generated during normal operations that are identified as non-radioactive. These wastes may include small amounts of radioactive material from incidental contamination during plant operations. A site-specific analysis of the new solid waste landfill is presented to determine a proposed operating limit that will allow for waste disposal operations to occur such that protection of public health and the environment from the presence of incidentally contaminated waste materials can be assured. Performance objectives for disposal were defined from existing regulatory guidance to establish reasonable dose limits for protection of public health and the environment. Waste concentration limits were determined consistent with these performance objectives for the protection of off-site individuals and inadvertent intruders who might be directly exposed to disposed wastes. Exposures of off-site individuals were estimated using a conservative, site-specific model of the groundwater transport of contamination from the wastes. Direct intrusion was analyzed using an agricultural homesteader scenario. The most limiting concentrations from direct intrusion or groundwater transport were used to establish the concentration limits for radionuclides likely to be present in PGDP wastes.

Lee, D.W.; Wang, J.C.; Kocher, D.C.

1995-06-01

346

Optimization of biological recycling of plant nutrients in livestock waste by utilizing waste heat from cooling water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented from a 5-year study to develop aquatic methods which beneficially use condenser cooling water from electric generating power plants. A method is proposed which uses a system for aquatic farming. Livestock waste is used to fertilize planktonic algae production and filter-feeding fish are used to biologically harvest the algae, condenser cooling water (simulated) is used to add

J. J. Maddox; L. L. Behrends; D. W. Burch; J. B. Kingsley; E. L. Jr. Waddell

1982-01-01

347

Nuclear waste-form risk assessment for US Defense waste at Savannah River Plant. Annual report FY 1981  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River Plant has been supporting the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in its present effort to perform risk assessments of alternative waste forms for defense waste. This effort relates to choosing a suitable combination of solid form and geologic medium on the basis of risk of exposure to future generations; therefore, the focus is on post-closure considerations of deep geologic repositories. The waste forms being investigated include borosilicate glass, SYNROC, and others. Geologic media under consideration are bedded salt, basalt, and tuff. The results of our work during FY 1981 are presented in this, our second annual report. The two complementary tasks that comprise our program, analysis of waste-form dissolution and risk assessment, are described.

Cheung, H.; Edwards, L.L.; Harvey, T.F.; Jackson, D.D.; Revelli, M.A.

1981-12-01

348

Vitrification of HLW Produced by Uranium/Molybdenum Fuel Reprocessing in COGEMA's Cold Crucible Melter  

SciTech Connect

The performance of the vitrification process currently used in the La Hague commercial reprocessing plants has been continuously improved during more than ten years of operation. In parallel COGEMA (industrial Operator), the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and SGN (respectively COGEMA's R&D provider and Engineering) have developed the cold crucible melter vitrification technology to obtain greater operating flexibility, increased plant availability and further reduction of secondary waste generated during operations. The cold crucible is a compact water-cooled melter in which the radioactive waste and the glass additives are melted by direct high frequency induction. The cooling of the melter produces a solidified glass layer that protects the melter's inner wall from corrosion. Because the heat is transferred directly to the melt, high operating temperatures can be achieved with no impact on the melter itself. COGEMA plans to implement the cold crucible technology to vitrify high level liquid waste from reprocessed spent U-Mo-Sn-Al fuel (used in gas cooled reactor). The cold crucible was selected for the vitrification of this particularly hard-to-process waste stream because it could not be reasonably processed in the standard hot induction melters currently used at the La Hague vitrification facilities : the waste has a high molybdenum content which makes it very corrosive and also requires a special high temperature glass formulation to obtain sufficiently high waste loading factors (12 % in molybdenum). A special glass formulation has been developed by the CEA and has been qualified through lab and pilot testing to meet standard waste acceptance criteria for final disposal of the U-Mo waste. The process and the associated technologies have been also being qualified on a full-scale prototype at the CEA pilot facility in Marcoule. Engineering study has been integrated in parallel in order to take into account that the Cold Crucible should be installed remotely in one of the R7 vitrification cell. This paper will present the results obtained in the framework of these qualification programs.

Do Quang, R.; Petitjean, V.; Hollebecque, F.; Pinet, O.; Flament, T.; Prod'homme, A.

2003-02-25

349

Process description and plant design for preparing ceramic high-level waste forms  

SciTech Connect

The ceramics process flow diagram has been simplified and upgraded to utilize only two major processing steps - fluid-bed calcination and hot isostatic press consolidating. Full-scale fluid-bed calcination has been used at INEL to calcine high-level waste for 18 y; and a second-generation calciner, a fully remotely operated and maintained calciner that meets ALARA guidelines, started calcining high-level waste in 1982. Full-scale hot isostatic consolidation has been used by DOE and commercial enterprises to consolidate radioactive components and to encapsulate spent fuel elements for several years. With further development aimed at process integration and parametric optimization, the operating knowledge of full-scale demonstration of the key process steps should be rapidly adaptable to scale-up of the ceramic process to full plant size. Process flowsheets used to prepare ceramic and glass waste forms from defense and commercial high-level liquid waste are described. Preliminary layouts of process flow diagrams in a high-level processing canyon were prepared and used to estimate the preliminary cost of the plant to fabricate both waste forms. The estimated costs for using both options were compared for total waste management costs of SRP high-level liquid waste. Using our design, for both the ceramic and glass plant, capital and operating costs are essentially the same for both defense and commercial wastes, but total waste management costs are calculated to be significantly less for defense wastes using the ceramic option. It is concluded from this and other studies that the ceramic form may offer important advantages over glass in leach resistance, waste loading, density, and process flexibility. Preliminary economic calculations indicate that ceramics must be considered a leading candidate for the form to immobilize high-level wastes.

Grantham, L.F.; McKisson, R.L.; Guon, J.; Flintoff, J.F.; McKenzie, D.E.

1983-02-25

350

Critique of Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant off-gas sampling requirements  

SciTech Connect

Off-gas sampling and monitoring activities needed to support operations safety, process control, waste form qualification, and environmental protection requirements of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) have been evaluated. The locations of necessary sampling sites have been identified on the basis of plant requirements, and the applicability of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) reference sampling equipment to these HWVP requirements has been assessed for all sampling sites. Equipment deficiencies, if present, have been described and the bases for modifications and/or alternative approaches have been developed.

Goles, R.W.

1996-03-01

351

Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes  

SciTech Connect

In 2006, DOE-ORP initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct Vs measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) confirmation of the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the corehole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt was also penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of movement and less than 15 feet of repeated section. Most of the movement on the fault appears to have occurred before the youngest lava flow, the 10.5 million year old Elephant Mountain Member was emplaced above the Pomona Member.

Barnett, D. BRENT; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Fecht, Karl R.; Lanigan, David C.; Reidel, Steve; Rust, Colleen F.

2007-02-28

352

Interaction analysis method for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant  

SciTech Connect

In order to anticipate potential problems as early as possible during the design effort, a method for interaction analysis was developed to meet the specific hazards of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). The requirement for interaction analysis is given in DOE Order 6430.1B and DOE-STD-1021-92. The purpose of the interaction analysis is to ensure that non-safety class items will not fail in a manner that will adversely affect the ability of any safety class item to perform its safety function. In the HWVP there are few structures, equipment, or controls that are safety class. In addition to damage due to failure of non-safety class items as a result of natural phenomena, threats to HWVP safety class items include the following: room flooding from firewater, leakage of chemically reactive liquids, high-pressure gas impingement from leaking piping, rocket-type impact from broken pressurized gas cylinders, loss of control of mobile equipment, cryogenic liquid spill, fire, and smoke. The time needed to perform the interaction analysis is minimized by consolidating safety class items into segregated areas. Each area containing safety class items is evaluated, and any potential threat to the safety functions is noted. After relocation of safety class items is considered, items that pose a threat are generally upgraded to eliminate the threat to the safety class items. Upgrading is the preferred option when relocation is not possible. An example will illustrate the method and application in the phased design, procurement, and construction environment of the HWVP.

Grant, P.R.; Deshotels, R.L. [Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States); Van Katwijk, C. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-08-01

353

Development of Ceramic Waste Forms for High-Level Nuclear Waste Over the Last 30 Years  

SciTech Connect

Many types of ceramics have been put forward for immobilisation of high-level waste (HLW) from reprocessing of nuclear power plant fuel or weapons production. After describing some historical aspects of waste form research, the essential features of the chemical design and processing of these different ceramic types will be discussed briefly. Given acceptable laboratory and long-term predicted performance based on appropriately rigorous chemical design, the important processing parameters are mostly waste loading, waste throughput, footprint, offgas control/minimization, and the need for secondary waste treatment. It is concluded that the 'problem of high-level nuclear waste' is largely solved from a technical point of view, within the current regulatory framework, and that the main remaining question is which technical disposition method is optimum for a given waste. (author)

Vance, Eric [Institute of Materials and Engineering Science, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, New Illawarra Road, Menai, NSW, 2234 (Australia)

2007-07-01

354

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2005 Site Environmental Report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide information needed by the DOE to assess WIPP's environmental performance and to make WIPP environmental information available to stakeholders and members of the public. This report has been prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A and DOE guidance. This report documents WIPP's environmental monitoring programs and their results for 2004. The WIPP Project is authorized by the DOE National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Pub. L. 96-164). After more than 20 years of scientific study and public input, WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. Located in southeastern New Mexico, WIPP is the nation's first underground repository permitted to safely and permanently dispose of TRU radioactive and mixed waste (as defined in the WIPP LWA) generated through defense activities and programs. TRU waste is defined, in the WIPP LWA, as radioactive waste containing more than 100 nanocuries (3,700 becquerels [Bq]) of alpha-emitting TRU isotopes per gram of waste, with half-lives greater than 20 years except for high-level waste, waste that has been determined not to require the degree of isolation required by the disposal regulations, and waste the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has approved for disposal. Most TRU waste is contaminated industrial trash, such as rags and old tools; sludges from solidified liquids; glass; metal; and other materials from dismantled buildings. TRU waste is eligible for disposal at WIPP if it has been generated in whole or in part by one or more of the activities listed in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §10101, et seq.), including naval reactors development, weapons activities, verification and control technology, defense nuclear materials production, defense nuclear waste and materials by-products management,defense nuclear materials security and safeguards and security investigations, and defense research and development. The waste must also meet the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria. When TRU waste arrives at WIPP, it is transported into the Waste Handling Building. The waste containers are removed from the shipping containers, placed on the waste hoist, and lowered to the repository level of 655 m (2,150 ft; approximately 0.5 mi) below the surface. Next, the containers of waste are removed from the hoist and placed in excavated disposal rooms in the Salado Formation, a thick sequence of evaporite beds deposited approximately 250 million years ago (Figure 1.1). After each panel of seven rooms has been filled with waste, specially designed closures are emplaced. When all of WIPP's panels have been filled, at the conclusion of WIPP operations, seals will be placed in the shafts. One of the main attributes of salt, as a rock formation in which to isolate radioactive waste, is the ability of the salt to creep, that is, to deform continuously over time. Excavations into which the waste-filled drums are placed will close eventually, flowing around the drums and sealing them within the formation.

Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

2006-10-13

355

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs.

Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E.; Abrigo, G.P. [and others] [and others

1996-03-01

356

Optimization of biological recycling of plant nutrients in livestock waste by utilizing waste heat from cooling water  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented from a 5-year study to develop aquatic methods which beneficially use condenser cooling water from electric generating power plants. A method is proposed which uses a system for aquatic farming. Livestock waste is used to fertilize planktonic algae production and filter-feeding fish are used to biologically harvest the algae, condenser cooling water (simulated) is used to add waste heat to the system, and emergent aquatic plants are used in a flow through series as a bio-filter to improve the water quality and produce an acceptable discharge. Two modes of operation were tested; one uses untreated swine manure as the source of aquatic fertilizer and the other uses anaerobic digester waste as a means of pretreating the manure to produce an organic fertilizer. A set of operating conditions (temperature, retention time, fish stocking rate, fertilizer rates, land and water requirements, suggested fish and plant species, and facility design) were developed from these results. The integrated system allows continual use of power plant condenser cooling water from plants in the southeastern United States.

Maddox, J.J.; Behrends, L.L.; Burch, D.W.; Kingsley, J.B.; Waddell, E.L. Jr.

1982-05-01

357

Comparison of energy and waste management costs and opportunities for reducing related costs in manufacturing plants  

SciTech Connect

Both energy use and waste generation directly impact profitability in the industrial setting. While it is clearly desirable to reduce both energy use and waste generation, the attention given to these areas varies widely depending principally on managements attention to these component costs of operation and previous efforts at reducing energy consumption and waste generation. From the early days of the {open_quotes}energy crisis{close_quotes} to the more recent case of growing concern with changing environmental regulations, plants have established incentives for the implementation of energy conservation and waste minimization measures based mainly on the payback period for specific recommendations considered and their ultimate effect on the company`s profitability. Although most companies give periodic attention to operational costs related to energy use and waste generation, data has not been assembled which demonstrates the cost relationship between energy consumption and waste management for different industries (with a variety of SIC codes). In addition, the relative potential savings related to the undertaking of new measures for energy conservation and waste minimization in the industrial sector has not been clarified. In order to gain some useful insight into the current status of financial incentives for energy conservation and waste minimization in industrial manufacturing plants, actual plant data is required.

Jendrucko, R.J.; Overly, J.C.

1996-05-01

358

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2003 Site Environmental Report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide information needed by the DOE to assess WIPP's environmental performance and to convey that performance to stakeholders and members of the public. This report has been prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A and DOE guidance. This report documents WIPP's environmental monitoring programs and their results for 2003. The WIPP Project is authorized by the DOE National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Pub. L. 96-164). After more than 20 years of scientific study and public input, WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. Located in southeastern New Mexico, WIPP is the nation's first underground repository permitted to safely and permanently dispose of TRU radioactive and mixed waste (as defined in the WIPP LWA) generated through the research and production of nuclear weapons and other activities related to the national defense of the United States. TRU waste is defined in the WIPP LWA as radioactive waste containing more than 100 nanocuries (3,700 becquerels [Bq]) of alpha-emitting transuranic isotopes per gram of waste, with half-lives greater than 20 years. Exceptions are noted as high-level waste, waste that has been determined not to require the degree of isolation required by the disposal regulations, and waste the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has approved for disposal. Most TRU waste is contaminated industrial trash, such as rags and old tools, and sludges from solidified liquids; glass; metal; and other materials from dismantled buildings. A TRU waste is eligible for disposal at WIPP if it has been generated in whole or in partby one or more of the activities listed in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §10101, et seq.), including naval reactors development, weapons activities, verification and control technology, defense nuclear materials production, defense nuclear waste and materials by-products management, defense nuclear materials security and safeguards and security investigations, and defense research and development. The waste must also meet the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria. When TRU waste arrives at WIPP, it is transported into the Waste Handling Building. The waste containers are removed from the shipping containers, placed on the waste hoist, and lowered to the repository level of 655 m (2,150 ft; approximately 0.5 mi) below the surface. Next, the containers of waste are removed from the hoist and placed in excavated storage rooms in the Salado Formation, a thick sequence of evaporite beds deposited approximately 250 million years ago (Figure 1.1). After each panel has been filled with waste, specially designed closures are emplaced. When all of WIPP's panels have been filled, at the conclusion of WIPP operations, seals will be placed in the shafts. Salt under pressure is relatively plastic, and mine openings will be allowed to creep closed for final disposal, encapsulating and isolating the waste.

Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

2005-09-03

359

Idaho Waste Vitrification Facilities Project Vitrified Waste Interim Storage Facility  

SciTech Connect

This feasibility study report presents a draft design of the Vitrified Waste Interim Storage Facility (VWISF), which is one of three subprojects of the Idaho Waste Vitrification Facilities (IWVF) project. The primary goal of the IWVF project is to design and construct a treatment process system that will vitrify the sodium-bearing waste (SBW) to a final waste form. The project will consist of three subprojects that include the Waste Collection Tanks Facility, the Waste Vitrification Facility (WVF), and the VWISF. The Waste Collection Tanks Facility will provide for waste collection, feed mixing, and surge storage for SBW and newly generated liquid waste from ongoing operations at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. The WVF will contain the vitrification process that will mix the waste with glass-forming chemicals or frit and turn the waste into glass. The VWISF will provide a shielded storage facility for the glass until the waste can be disposed at either the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant as mixed transuranic waste or at the future national geological repository as high-level waste glass, pending the outcome of a Waste Incidental to Reprocessing determination, which is currently in progress. A secondary goal is to provide a facility that can be easily modified later to accommodate storage of the vitrified high-level waste calcine. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of the VWISF, which would be constructed in compliance with applicable federal, state, and local laws. This project supports the Department of Energy’s Environmental Management missions of safely storing and treating radioactive wastes as well as meeting Federal Facility Compliance commitments made to the State of Idaho.

Bonnema, Bruce Edward

2001-09-01

360

State of the art review of radioactive waste volume reduction techniques for commercial nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

A review is made of the state of the art of volume reduction techniques for low level liquid and solid radioactive wastes produced as a result of: (1) operation of commercial nuclear power plants, (2) storage of spent fuel in away-from-reactor facilities, and (3) decontamination/decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants. The types of wastes and their chemical, physical, and radiological characteristics are identified. Methods used by industry for processing radioactive wastes are reviewed and compared to the new techniques for processing and reducing the volume of radioactive wastes. A detailed system description and report on operating experiences follow for each of the new volume reduction techniques. In addition, descriptions of volume reduction methods presently under development are provided. The Appendix records data collected during site surveys of vendor facilities and operating power plants. A Bibliography is provided for each of the various volume reduction techniques discussed in the report.

Not Available

1980-04-01

361

Impact of imidacloprid residues on the development of Eisenia fetida during vermicomposting of greenhouse plant waste.  

PubMed

Pesticide application in agriculture causes residues in post-harvest plant waste at different concentrations. Knowledge concerning how pesticide concentrations in such waste affect earthworms is essential for recycling greenhouse plant debris through vermicomposting. Here, we have evaluated the effects of imidacloprid (IMD) residues on earthworms (Eisenia fetida) during the vermicomposting of plant waste from greenhouse crops in Spain. Before, the effect of different IMD concentrations on earthworms was tested using cattle manure as an optimum waste for worm development. The results after using cattle manure indicate that IMD dose ? 5 mg kg(-1) hinders worm growth and even causes death, whereas IMD dose ? 2 mg IMD kg(-1) allows worm growth similar to control but impedes reproduction. The results from the vermicomposting of plant waste reveal that IMD inhibits adequate worm growth and increases mortality. Although 89% worms became sexually mature in substrate containing 2 mg IMD kg(-1), they did not produce cocoons. IMD also affected microorganisms harboured in the substrates for vermicomposting, as indicated by the reduction in their dehydrogenase activity. This enzyme activity was restored after vermicomposting. This study provides a sound basis for the vermicomposting of pesticide-contaminated plant waste. PMID:21775059

Fernández-Gómez, Manuel J; Romero, Esperanza; Nogales, Rogelio

2011-09-15

362

ADSORPTION OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES BY SAVANNAH RIVER PLANT SOIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of radioisotopes on soil was investigated in the ; laboratory to determine the behavior of lowlevel radioactive waste solutions ; discharged to the ground. Strontium, cesium, and plutonium distributions between ; soil and waste solution were studied. The effects of cation concentration and ; acidity were determined. The results of the distribution experiments, and ; material balance considerations,

W. E. PROUT

1958-01-01

363

WASTE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL FROM SEAFOOD PROCESSING PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Examinations of current wastewater and solid waste disposal practices and characterization of the wastewater effluent for seafood processing were carried out in a project within the state of Maryland in order to recommend economical waste treatment and disposal systems for the in...

364

A low-cost computer-based training simulator for waste water treatment plant operators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing numbers of waste water treatment plants coupled with strict environmental legislation enacted over the last decade have resulted in a shortage of well-trained plant operators in this country. Unfortunately, there is an inherent time lag in responding to this need.

R. D. Doering; C. S Bauer; G. R. Silkensen

1982-01-01

365

Recovery of alum from wasted sludge produced from water treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alum is used in the coagulation of raw water in almost all water treatment plants world?wide. The sludge produced from this process is usually thrown away i.e. wasted. In Egypt, thousands of tons of alum are used annually in water treatment plants across the country costing millions of dollars. This paper deals with the recovery of most alum available at

M. S. E. Abdo; K. T. Ewida; Y. M. Youssef

1993-01-01

366

Physic-Chemical Characterisation of Slag Waste Coming From IGCC Thermal Power Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new Integrated Gasification in Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants produce electricity more efficiently than conventional thermal power plants, but they produce a high quantity of wastes in the form of slag and fly ashes. Nowadays, these by-products are sold as low-value secondary raw material in construction. In order to evaluate the capability of these products to be recycled, with higher

A. Acosta; M. Aineto; I. Iglesias; M. Romero; J. Ma. Rincón; S. Burgos

367

An integrated physical-biological treatment plant for nitrogenous fertilizer wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Integrated Physical-Biological Treatment Plant for Nitrogenous Fertilizer Wastes. The manufacturing processes involved in the preparation of ammonia and urea-based fertilizers at two factories under construction in India are described, and a summary is given of the design studies involved in the specification of effluent treatment plants for each location. The treatment process involves a combination of physical treatment (ammonia

R. N. Chakrabarty; B. B. Bhalerao; S. R. Alagarsamy

1977-01-01

368

Removal of chloride from second-cycle wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate methods for ; reducing the concentration of chloride in second-cycle waste stored at the ldaho ; Chemical Processing Plant. Eight methods were inve stigated for possible plant ; installation prior to calcination, including oxidation to chlorine (oxidation ; with ozone, potassium permanganate, and hydrogen peroxide and electrolytic ; oxidation); chloride removal by nitric acid

1973-01-01

369

Hepatitis A among workers from a waste water treatment plant during a small community outbreak  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: This is a case report describing the occurrence of hepatitis A in three workers at a waste water treatment plant during a small community outbreak involving 16 cases. CASE REPORT: The first case was a 26 year old operator who had worked in the plant for two years, the second was a 23 year old employee hired to add

G De Serres; D Laliberté

1997-01-01

370

Energy conservation and resource utilisation in waste-water treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operation of waste-water treatment plants is to a large extent energy-dependent. This paper examines the energy requirements of these plants and explores ways of conserving energy through electrical and thermal load management and resource recovery and utilisation. The gas produced during the process of anaerobic digestion can be used to drive packaged CHP systems for local heat and power

S. A. Tassou

1988-01-01

371

Plant Fiber — Industrial Waste Reinforced Polymer Composites as a Potential Wood Substitute Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation deals with the property characterization and utilization of abundantly available and renewable resources of plant fibers such as jute and sisal. These plant fibers along with industrial wastes (fly ash and red mud) have been used for synthesizing value added composite materials. Relevant engineering properties such as physical and mechanical, resistance to abrasive wear, weathering and fire, etc.,

Mohini Saxena; R. K. Morchhale; P. Asokan; B. K. Prasad

2008-01-01

372

Increased BLSS closure using mineralized human waste in plant cultivation on a neutral substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this work was to study the full-scale potential use of human mineralized waste (feces and urine) as a source of mineral elements for plant cultivation in a biological life support system (BLSS). Plants that are potential candidates for a photosynthesizing link were grown on a neutral solution containing human mineralized waste. Spring wheat Triticum aestivum L., peas Pisum sativum L. Ambrosia cultivar and leaf lettuce Lactuca sativa L., Vitaminny variety, were used. The plants were grown hydroponically on expanded clay aggregates in a vegetation chamber in constant environmental conditions. During plant growth, a determined amount of human mineralized waste was added daily to the nutrient solution. The nutrient solution remained unchanged throughout the vegetation period. Estimated plant requirements for macro-elements were based on a total biological productivity of 0.04 kg day -1 m -2. As the plant requirements for potassium exceeded the potassium content of human waste, a water extract of wheat straw containing the required amount of potassium was added to the nutrient solution. The Knop's solution was used in the control experiments. The experimental and control plants showed no significant differences in state or productivity of their photosynthetic apparatus. A small decrease in total productivity of the experimental plants was observed, which might result in some reduction of ? 2 production in a BLSS.

Ushakova, S.; Tikhomirov, A.; Shikhov, V.; Kudenko, Yu.; Anischenko, O.; Gros, J.-B.; Lasseur, Ch.

2009-10-01

373

Ground-water Flow Near Two Radioactive-waste-disposal Areas at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center, Cattaraugus County, New York; Results of Flow Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two adjacent burial areas were excavated in a clay-rich till at a radioactive waste disposal site near West Valley in Cattaraugus County, N.Y.: (1) which contains mainly low-level radioactive wastes generated onsite by a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, has been in operation since 1966; and (2) which contains commercial low-level radioactive wastes, was operated during 1963-75. Groundwater below the upper

Marcel P. Bergeron; Edward F. Bugliosi

1988-01-01

374

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Title I operator dose calculations. Final report, LATA report No. 90  

SciTech Connect

The radiation exposure dose was estimated for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) operating personnel who do the unloading and transporting of the transuranic contact-handled waste. Estimates of the radiation source terms for typical TRU contact-handled waste were based on known composition and properties of the waste. The operations sequence for waste movement and storage in the repository was based upon the WIPP Title I data package. Previous calculations had been based on Conceptual Design Report data. A time and motion sequence was developed for personnel performing the waste handling operations both above and below ground. Radiation exposure calculations were then performed in several fixed geometries and folded with the time and motion studies for individual workers in order to determine worker exposure on an annual basis.

Hughes, P.S.; Rigdon, L.D.

1980-02-01

375

Waste Heat Recovery in Cement Plants By Fluidized Beds  

E-print Network

. This permit is required for any source discharging process water or wastes into a public waterway. Since the discharge being considered for this proj ect involves cooling water, thermal pollution of the waterway is the greatest concern. Other federal... of high sodium western coals and in black liquor recovery boilers. The method for integrating waste heat from the alka li purge into a power cycle, along with heat recov ery from the clinker cooler is shown in Figure 2. Waste heat is recovered from...

Fraley, L. D.; Ksiao, H. K.; Thunem, C. B.

1984-01-01

376

Environmental analysis of closure options for waste sites at the Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect

Previously acceptable waste management practices (e.g., the use of unlined seepage basins) for discarding of wastes from nuclear materials production has resulted in occasional cases of groundwater contamination beneath some disposal sites, mainly in water-table aquifers. Groundwater contaminants include volatile organic compounds, heavy metals, radionuclides, and other chemicals. The closure of active and inactive waste sites that have received hazardous and/or low-level radioactive materials at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) is planned as part of an overall program to protect groundwater quality. DOE developed and submitted to Congress a groundwater protection plan for SRP. This initial plan and subsequent revisions provide the basis for closure of SRP waste sites to comply with applicable groundwater protection requirements. An environmental analysis of the closure options for the criteria waste sites that have received hazardous and/or low-level radioactive wastes was conducted to provide technical support. The several parts of this environmental analysis include description of geohydrologic conditions; determination of waste inventories; definition of closure options; modeling of environmental pathways; assessment of risk; and analysis of project costs. Each of these components of the overall analysis is described in turn in the following paragraphs. Production operations at SRP have generated a variety of solid, hazardous, and low-level radioactive waste materials. Several locations onplant have been used as waste disposal sites for solid and liquid wastes. Seventy-six individual waste sites at 45 distinct geographical locations on SRP have received hazardous, low-level radioactive, or mixed wastes. These waste sites can be categorized into 26 groupings according to the function of the waste disposed. 15 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Gordon, D.E.; King, C.M.; Looney, B.B.; Stephenson, D.E.; Johnson, W.F.

1987-01-01

377

Tolerance of wheat and lettuce plants grown on human mineralized waste to high temperature stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of a life support system for space missions is to supply a crew with food, water and oxygen, and to eliminate their wastes. The ultimate goal is to achieve the highest degree of closure of the system using controlled processes offering a high level of reliability and flexibility. Enhancement of closure of a biological life support system (BLSS) that includes plants relies on increased regeneration of plant waste, and utilization of solid and liquid human wastes. Clearly, the robustness of a BLSS subjected to stress will be substantially determined by the robustness of the plant components of the phototrophic unit. The aim of the present work was to estimate the heat resistance of two plants (wheat and lettuce) grown on human wastes. Human exometabolites mineralized by hydrogen peroxide in an electromagnetic field were used to make a nutrient solution for the plants. We looked for a possible increase in the heat tolerance of the wheat plants using changes in photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) intensity during heat stress. At age 15 days, plants were subjected to a rise in air temperature (from 23 ± 1 °C to 44 ± 1 °?) under different PAR intensities for 4 h. The status of the photosynthetic apparatus of the plants was assessed by external ??2 gas exchange and fluorescence measurements. The increased irradiance of the plants during the high temperature period demonstrated its protective action for both the photosynthetic apparatus of the leaves and subsequent plant growth and development. The productivity of the plants subjected to temperature changes at 250 W m-2 of PAR did not differ from that of controls, whereas the productivity of the plants subjected to the same heat stress but in darkness was halved.

Ushakova, Sofya A.; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Shikhov, Valentin N.; Gros, Jean-Bernard; Golovko, Tamara K.; Dal'ke, Igor V.; Zakhozhii, Ilya G.

2013-06-01

378

Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes  

SciTech Connect

In 2006, the U.S. Department of Energy initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct shear wave velocity (Vs) measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) geologic studies to confirm the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the core hole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member, and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt also was penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed, and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of movement and less than 15 ft of repeated section. Most of the movement on the fault appears to have occurred before the youngest lava flow, the 10.5-million-year-old Elephant Mountain Member, was emplaced above the Pomona Member.

Barnett, D. Brent; Fecht, Karl R.; Reidel, Stephen P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Rust, Colleen F.

2007-05-11

379

High Level Waste Tank Farm Replacement Project for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Environmental Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0831, for the construction and operation of the High-Level Waste Tank Farm Replacement (HLWTFR) Project for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The HLWTFR Project as originally proposed by the DOE and as analyzed in this EA included: (1) replacement of five high-level liquid waste storage tanks with four new tanks and (2) the upgrading of existing tank relief piping and high-level liquid waste transfer systems. As a result of the April 1992 decision to discontinue the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel at INEL, DOE believes that it is unlikely that the tank replacement aspect of the project will be needed in the near term. Therefore, DOE is not proposing to proceed with the replacement of the tanks as described in this-EA. The DOE`s instant decision involves only the proposed upgrades aspect of the project described in this EA. The upgrades are needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Idaho Hazardous Waste Management Act requirements, and the Department`s obligations pursuant to the Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement and Consent Order among the Environmental Protection Agency, DOE, and the State of Idaho. The environmental impacts of the proposed upgrades are adequately covered and are bounded by the analysis in this EA. If DOE later proposes to proceed with the tank replacement aspect of the project as described in the EA or as modified, it will undertake appropriate further review pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act.

Not Available

1993-06-01

380

Neurotoxic effects from residential exposure to chemicals from an oil reprocessing facility and superfund site.  

PubMed

Neurotoxicity has been described in workers exposed to solvents, PCBs, certain metals, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons but not often in residents near refineries or factories. We compared the neurobehavioral performance of residents near a plant that reprocessed used motor oil and chemical waste from 1966-1983 to referents from beyond the plant's modeled air dispersal and water drainage zones. Neurophysiological and psychological tests, a Profile of Mood States (POMS) and a symptom questionnaire were administered to 131 subjects exposed at the site who were matched for age, sex, and ethnicity 2:1 with 66 unexposed subjects from 35 km away. Test scores were adjusted for a 1.4-year difference in educational attainment by coefficients from regression equations but not for income as the latter coefficients were not significant. Exposed subjects were significantly impaired for body balance (sway speed) and simple and two choice visual reaction time as compared to referents. Blink reflex latency (R-1) and eye closure speed were normal in both groups. Cognitive function in the exposed was impaired as measured by Culture Fair and by block design from the WAIS. Placing pegs in a grooved board and making of trails (A and B) were also impaired. Group differences in recall and memory were not significant. The exposed group's symptom frequencies and POMS scores for depression, anger, confusion, tension, and fatigue were elevated indicating depression. Confounding from medical and neurological disorders or occupational exposures was minimal. Subjects exposed residentially for up to 17 years to chemicals dispersed from a waste oil reprocessing plant showed neurophysiological and neuropsychological impairment. PMID:7760780

Kilburn, K H; Warshaw, R H

1995-01-01

381

ICPP radioactive liquid and calcine waste technologies evaluation. Interim report  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage since 1951 and reprocessing since 1953. Until recently, the major activity of the ICPP has been the reprocessing of SNF to recover fissile uranium; however, changing world events have raised questions concerning the need to recover and recycle this material. In April 1992, DOE chose to discontinue reprocessing SNF for uranium recovery and shifted its focus toward the management and disposition of radioactive wastes accumulated through reprocessing activities. Currently, 1.8 million gallons of radioactive liquid wastes (1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid wastes and 0.3 million gallons of high-level liquid waste) and 3,800 cubic meters (m{sup 3}) of calcine waste are in inventory at the ICPP. Legal drivers and agreements exist obligating the INEL to develop, demonstrate, and implement technologies for safe and environmentally sound treatment and interim storage of radioactive liquid and calcine waste. Candidate treatment processes and waste forms are being evaluated using the Technology Evaluation and Analysis Methodology (TEAM) Model. This process allows decision makers to (1) identify optimum radioactive waste treatment and disposal form alternatives; (2) assess tradeoffs between various optimization criteria; (3) identify uncertainties in performance parameters; and (4) focus development efforts on options that best satisfy stakeholder concerns. The Systems Analysis technology evaluation presented in this document supports the DOE in selecting the most effective radioactive liquid and calcine waste management plan to implement in compliance with established regulations, court orders, and agreements.

Murphy, J.A.; Pincock, L.F.; Christiansen, I.N.

1994-06-01

382

Electrochemical method of reprocessing radioactive waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

UDC 621.039.7:628.165 When operating nuclear powered vehicles and industrial nuclear fuel cycle production units, it becomes necessary to deactivate the surfaces of the work areas, equipment, and mechanisms as a preventive operation prior to repair and dismantling, in order to create safe radiation conditions while the work is carried out. The work areas and the external surfaces of the operated

B. V. Martynov; V. V. Smirnov; V. V. Tugolukov; M. P. Filippov; E. A. Belyakov

1995-01-01

383

International investigation of electronic waste recycling plant design  

E-print Network

This thesis investigates the industry of electronic waste recycling industry in three countries: Germany, the United States, and Chile. Despite differences in the legal structure surrounding the industry, there are many ...

Theurer, Jean E

2010-01-01

384

Pinellas Plant contingency plan for the hazardous waste management facility  

SciTech Connect

Subpart D of Part 264 (264.50 through .56) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations require that each facility maintain a contingency plan detailing procedures to {open_quotes}minimize hazards to human health or the environment from fires, explosions, or any unplanned sudden or non-sudden release of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents to air, soil, or surface water.{close_quotes}

NONE

1988-04-01

385

BARIUM AND RADIUM IN WATER TREATMENT PLANT WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Water treatment plants at nine locations (10 plants) in Illinois and Iowa were studied to determine the characteristics and disposal practices for the sludge, brine, and backwash water containing radium (Ra) and/or barium (Ba). The treatment processes in these ten plants include ...

386

Increase of a BLSS closure using mineralized human waste in plant cultivation on a neutral substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this work was to study the full-scale potential use of human mineralized waste (feces and urine) as a source of mineral elements for plants cultivation in a Biological Life Support System. The plants which are potential candidates for a photosynthesizing link were grown on a neutral solution containing human mineralized waste. Spring wheat Triticum aestivum L., peas Pisum sativum L. Ambrosia cultivar and leaf lettuce Lactuca sativa L., Vitamin variety, were taken as the investigation objects. The plants were grown by hydroponics method on expanded clay aggregates in a vegetation chamber in constant environmental conditions. During the plants growth a definite amount of human mineralized waste was added daily in the nutrient solution. The nutrient solution was not changed during the entire vegetation period. Estimation of the plant needs in macro elements was based on a total biological productivity equal to 0.04 kg.day--1 .m-2 . As the plant requirements in potassium exceeded the potassium content in human waste, water extract of wheat straw containing the required potassium amount was added to the nutrient solution. Knop's solution was used in the control experiments. The experiment and control plants did not show significant differences in their photosynthetic apparatus state and productivity. A small decrease in total productivity of the experimental plants was observed which can result in some reduction of ˆ2 production in a BLSS. Most I probably it is due to the reduced nitrogen use. Therefore in a real BLSS after the mineralization of human feces and urine, it will be efficient to implement a more complete oxidation of nitrogencontaining compounds system, including nitrification. In this case the plants, prospective representatives of the BLSS photosynthesizing unit, could be cultivated on the solutions mainly based on human mineralized waste.

Gros, Jean-Bernard; Ushakova, Sofya; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Kudenko, Yurii; Lasseur, Christophe; Shikhov, V.; Anischenko, O.

387

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1989  

SciTech Connect

This is the 1989 Site Environmental Report (SER) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP is a government owned and contractor-operated facility. The WIPP project is operated by Westinghouse Electric Corporation for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The mission of the WIPP is to provide a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste generated by the defense activities of the US Government. This report provides a comprehensive description of environmental activities at the WIPP during calendar year 1989. The WIPP facility will not receive waste until all concerns affecting opening the WIPP are addressed to the satisfaction of the Secretary of Energy. Therefore, this report describes the status of the preoperational activities of the Radiological Environmental Surveillance (RES) program, which are outlined in the Radiological Baseline Program for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WTSD-TME-057). 72 refs., 13 figs., 20 tabs.

Not Available

1989-01-01

388

One System Integrated Project Team: Retrieval And Delivery Of The Hanford Tank Wastes For Vitrification In The Waste Treatment Plant  

SciTech Connect

The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed in late 2011 as a way for improving the efficiency of delivery and treatment of highly radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) 586-square-mile Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The purpose of the One System IPT is to improve coordination and integration between the Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) contractor and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC). The vision statement is: One System is a WTP and TOC safety conscious team that, through integrated management and implementation of risk-informed decision and mission-based solutions, will enable the earliest start of safe and efficient treatment of Hanford's tank waste, to protect the Columbia River, environment and public. The IPT is a formal collaboration between Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), which manages design and construction of the WTP for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (DOEORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), which manages the TOC for ORP. More than fifty-six (56) million gallons of highly radioactive liquid waste are stored in one hundred seventy-seven (177) aging, underground tanks. Most of Hanford's waste tanks - one hundred forty-nine (149) of them - are of an old single-shell tank (SST) design built between 1944 and 1964. More than sixty (60) of these tanks have leaked in the past, releasing an estimated one million gallons of waste into the soil and threatening the nearby Columbia River. There are another twenty-eight (28) new double-shelled tanks (DSTs), built from 1968 to 1986, that provide greater protection to the environment. In 1989, DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) signed a landmark agreement that required Hanford to comply with federal and state environmental standards. It also paved the way for agreements that set deadlines for retrieving the tank wastes and for building and operating the WTP. The tank wastes are the result of Hanford's nearly fifty (50) years of plutonium production. In the intervening years, waste characteristics have been increasingly better understood. However, waste characteristics that are uncertain and will remain as such represent a significant technical challenge in terms of retrieval, transport, and treatment, as well as for design and construction ofWTP. What also is clear is that the longer the waste remains in the tanks, the greater the risk to the environment and the people of the Pacific Northwest. The goal of both projects - tank operations and waste treatment - is to diminish the risks posed by the waste in the tanks at the earliest possible date. About two hundred (200) WTP and TOC employees comprise the IPT. Individual work groups within One System include Technical, Project Integration & Controls, Front-End Design & Project Definition, Commissioning, Nuclear Safety & Engineering Systems Integration, and Environmental Safety and Health and Quality Assurance (ESH&QA). Additional functions and team members will be added as the WTP approaches the operational phase. The team has undertaken several initiatives since its formation to collaborate on issues: (1) alternate scenarios for delivery of wastes from the tank farms to WTP; (2) improvements in managing Interface Control Documents; (3) coordination on various technical issues, including the Defense Nuclear Facilities Nuclear Safety Board's Recommendation 2010-2; (4) deployment of the SmartPlant? Foundation-configuration Management System; and (5) preparation of the joint contract deliverable of the Operational Readiness Support Plan.

Harp, Benton J. [Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, Washington (United States); Kacich, Richard M. [Bechtel National, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Skwarek, Raymond J. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

2012-12-20

389

One System Integrated Project Team: Retrieval and Delivery of Hanford Tank Wastes for Vitrification in the Waste Treatment Plant - 13234  

SciTech Connect

The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed in late 2011 as a way for improving the efficiency of delivery and treatment of highly radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) 586-square-mile Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The purpose of the One System IPT is to improve coordination and integration between the Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) contractor and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC). The vision statement is: One System is a WTP and TOC safety-conscious team that, through integrated management and implementation of risk-informed decision and mission-based solutions, will enable the earliest start of safe and efficient treatment of Hanford's tank waste, to protect the Columbia River, environment and public. The IPT is a formal collaboration between Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), which manages design and construction of the WTP for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (DOEORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), which manages the TOC for ORP. More than fifty-six (56) million gallons of highly radioactive liquid waste are stored in one hundred seventy-seven (177) aging, underground tanks. Most of Hanford's waste tanks - one hundred forty-nine (149) of them - are of an old single-shell tank (SST) design built between 1944 and 1964. More than sixty (60) of these tanks have leaked in the past, releasing an estimated one million gallons of waste into the soil and threatening the nearby Columbia River. There are another twenty-eight (28) new double-shelled tanks (DSTs), built from 1968 to 1986, that provide greater protection to the environment. In 1989, DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) signed a landmark agreement that required Hanford to comply with federal and state environmental standards. It also paved the way for agreements that set deadlines for retrieving the tank wastes and for building and operating the WTP. The tank wastes are the result of Hanford's nearly fifty (50) years of plutonium production. In the intervening years, waste characteristics have been increasingly better understood. However, waste characteristics that are uncertain and will remain as such represent a significant technical challenge in terms of retrieval, transport, and treatment, as well as for design and construction of WTP. What also is clear is that the longer the waste remains in the tanks, the greater the risk to the environment and the people of the Pacific Northwest. The goal of both projects - tank operations and waste treatment - is to diminish the risks posed by the waste in the tanks at the earliest possible date. About two hundred (200) WTP and TOC employees comprise the IPT. Individual work groups within One System include Technical, Project Integration and Controls, Front-End Design and Project Definition, Commissioning, Nuclear Safety and Engineering Systems Integration, and Environmental Safety and Health and Quality Assurance (ESH and QA). Additional functions and team members will be added as the WTP approaches the operational phase. The team has undertaken several initiatives since its formation to collaborate on issues: (1) alternate scenarios for delivery of wastes from the tank farms to WTP; (2) improvements in managing Interface Control Documents; (3) coordination on various technical issues, including the Defense Nuclear Facilities Nuclear Safety Board's Recommendation 2010-2; (4) deployment of the SmartPlant{sup R} Foundation-Configuration Management System; and (5) preparation of the joint contract deliverable of the Operational Readiness Support Plan. (authors)

Harp, Benton J. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Post Office Box 550, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)] [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Post Office Box 550, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Kacich, Richard M. [Bechtel National, Inc., 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)] [Bechtel National, Inc., 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Skwarek, Raymond J. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Post Office Box 850, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)] [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Post Office Box 850, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

2013-07-01

390

Liner-waste compatibility studies for coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

This is the Second Interim Report on an extended experimental program, the primary purpose of which is to measure, under conditions that simulate some aspects of field service, the long-term effects of wastes generated by coal-fired power plants on waste impoundment lining materials. Various types of lining materials (including three clay soil, three admix, and eight polymeric membrane lining materials) are being exposed in long-term exposure cells to wastes. The long-term cells feature one-sided exposure of liner samples to a 1-ft head of waste at ambient outdoor temperatures. The wastes include slurries from three fly ashes with different pH values, two flue gas desulfurization sludges, an air-preheater cleaning waste, a boiler-cleaning waste, and a water-treatment brine. This report presents the results of monitoring the soil and admix liners exposed for up to four years and the results of testing the polymeric membranes recovered from the cells that were dismantled after 1 to 2 years of exposure. Also presented are limited results of exposing a wide range of polymeric membranes under various other conditions, including immersion in selected wastes and deionized water, exposure to weathering as slabs, bent loops, or liners in small tubs containing wastes, and exposure in pouch tests to assess membrane permeability. 11 refs., 28 figs., 40 tabs.

Haxo, H.E. Jr.; Nelson, N.A.; Haxo, P.D.

1989-05-01

391

Recycle stream impacts on feed treatment flowsheets and glass formulation for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed to vitrify high-level radioactive wastes stored at the Hanford Site. A vitrification flowsheet was developed to ensure low-level effluent streams will be sufficiently low in transuranic and beta\\/gamma activity to allow disposal as a solidified grout in near-surface burial vaults. To achieve this goal, the process was designed to separate high-activity

R. A. Watrous; O. L. Kruger; P. Hrma; J. M. Jr. Perez

1991-01-01

392

Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of rendering plant and slaughterhouse wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Co-digestion of rendering and slaughterhouse wastes was studied in laboratory scale semi-continuously fed continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) at 35 and 55°C. All in all, 10 different rendering plant and slaughterhouse waste fractions were characterised showing high contents of lipids and proteins, and methane potentials of 262–572dm3CH4\\/kg volatile solids(VS)added. In mesophilic CSTR methane yields of ca 720dm3CH4\\/kgVSfed were obtained with

Suvi Bayr; Marianne Rantanen; Prasad Kaparaju; Jukka Rintala

393

Risk of boron and heavy metal pollution from agro-industrial wastes applied for plant nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effects of various agro-industrial wastes were investigated when applied to soil alone or in combination\\u000a with chemical fertilizers, regarding the risks of boron and heavy metal pollution of soils and plants. Nine combinations of\\u000a production residues from various agro-industries, urban wastes, and mineral fertilizers were applied to potatoes in a field\\u000a experiment. The content of available

Müzeyyen Seçer; ?afak Ceylan; Ömer Lütfü Elmaci; Hüseyin Akdemir

2010-01-01

394

Off-design performance of integrated waste-to-energy, combined cycle plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the off-design operation of plants where a waste-to-energy (WTE) system fed with municipal solid waste (MSW) is integrated with a natural gas-fired combined cycle (CC). Integration is accomplished by sharing the steam cycle: saturated steam generated in a MSW grate combustor is exported to the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) of the combined cycle, where it

Stefano Consonni; Paolo Silva

2007-01-01

395

Modeling of Human Intrusion Scenarios at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is a mined, geologic repository designed for permanent disposal of;\\u000atransuranic waste. The facility is owned by the United States Department of Energy, and licensed for;\\u000aoperations by the Environmental Protection Agency. Compliance with license requirements dictates;\\u000athat the repository must comply with regulatory stipulations that performance assessment calculations;\\u000ainclude the effects of resource exploitation

M. B. Gross; F. D. Hansen; M. K. Knowles; K. W. Larson; T. W. Thompson

1998-01-01

396

Idaho Chemical Processing Plant low-level waste grout stabilization development program FY96 status report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general purpose of the Grout Stabilization Development Program is to solidify and stabilize the liquid low-level wastes (LLW) generated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). It is anticipated that LLW will be produced from the following: (1) chemical separation of the tank farm high-activity sodium-bearing waste; (2) retrieval, dissolution, and chemical separation of the aluminum, zirconium, and sodium

Herbst

1996-01-01

397

RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage, but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the SRNL to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. BSR testing with WTP SW waste surrogates and associated analytical analyses and tests of granular products (GP) and monoliths began in the Fall of 2009, and then was continued from the Fall of 2010 through the Spring of 2011. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford's WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of {sup 125/129}I and {sup 99}Tc to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Prior to these radioactive feed tests, non-radioactive simulants were also processed. Ninety six grams of radioactive granular product were made for testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing.

Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

2012-02-02

398

Basic Data Report -- Defense Waste Processing Facility Sludge Plant, Savannah River Plant 200-S Area  

SciTech Connect

This Basic Data Report for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)--Sludge Plant was prepared to supplement the Technical Data Summary. Jointly, the two reports were intended to form the basis for the design and construction of the DWPF. To the extent that conflicting information may appear, the Basic Data Report takes precedence over the Technical Data Summary. It describes project objectives and design requirements. Pertinent data on the geology, hydrology, and climate of the site are included. Functions and requirements of the major structures are described to provide guidance in the design of the facilities. Revision 9 of the Basic Data Report was prepared to eliminate inconsistencies between the Technical Data Summary, Basic Data Report and Scopes of Work which were used to prepare the September, 1982 updated CAB. Concurrently, pertinent data (material balance, curie balance, etc.) have also been placed in the Basic Data Report. It is intended that these balances be used as a basis for the continuing design of the DWPF even though minor revisions may be made in these balances in future revisions to the Technical Data Summary.

Amerine, D.B.

1982-09-01

399

Position paper on gas generation in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

Gas generation by transuranic (TRU) waste is a significant issue because gas will, if produced in significant quantities, affect the performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) with respect to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations for the long-term isolation of radioactive and chemically hazardous waste. If significant gas production occurs, it will also affect, and will be affected by, other processes and parameters in WIPP disposal rooms. The processes that will produce gas in WIPP disposal rooms are corrosion, microbial activity and radiolysis. This position paper describes these processes and the models, assumptions and data used to predict gas generation in WIPP disposal rooms.

Brush, L.H.

1994-11-15

400

Steps of Reprocessing and Equipments  

PubMed Central

With the increasing interest in endoscopy and the rising number of endoscopic examinations in hospitals, the importance of endoscopic reprocessing is also increasing. Cure facilities that are understaffed and ill-equipped are trying to cope with the problems of insufficient cleaning and high infection risks. To prevent endoscopy-associated infection, the endoscope cleaning, and disinfection guidelines prepared by the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy must be followed. In this review, the steps of endoscopic reprocessing and the equipments required in each step are discussed. PMID:23767039

Lee, Yong Kook

2013-01-01

401

Biofiltration treatment of odors from municipal solid waste treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in situ compost biofilter was established for the treatment of odors from biostabilization processing of municipal solid waste. The concentrations of total volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in odors and their components were measured. Biofilter media was characterized in terms of total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), organic matter (OM), pH value and determination of bacterial colony

Qiang Liu; Mi Li; Rong Chen; Zhengyue Li; Guangren Qian; Taicheng An; Jiamo Fu; Guoying Sheng

2009-01-01

402

Assessing Waste Water Treatment Plant Effluent for Thyroid Hormone Disruption  

EPA Science Inventory

Much information has been coming to light on the estrogenic and androgenic activity of chemicals present in the waste water stream and in surface waters, but much less is known about the presence of chemicals with thyroid activity. To address this issue, we have utilized two assa...

403

WATER QUALITY RENOVATION OF ANIMAL WASTE LAGOONS UTILIZING AQUATIC PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Duckweeds Spirodela oligorhiza, S. polyrhiza, and Lemna gibba (clone G3) grown on dairy waste lagoons gave an estimated maximum annual yield of 22,023 kg dry wt./ha. S. oligorhiza and L. gibba had higher growth rates in the spring, fall, and winter, with L. gibba growing througho...

404

BAR-CODE BASED WEIGHT MEASUREMENT STATION FOR PHYSICAL INVENTORY TAKING OF PLUTONIUM OXIDE CONTAINERS AT THE MINING AND CHEMICAL COMBINE RADIOCHEMICAL REPROCESSING PLANT NEAR KRASNOYARSK, SIBERIA.  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the technical tasks being implemented to computerize the physical inventory taking (PIT) at the Mining and Chemical Combine (Gorno-Khimichesky Kombinat, GKhK) radiochemical plant under the US/Russian cooperative nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) program. Under the MPC and A program, Lab-to-Lab task agreements with GKhK were negotiated that involved computerized equipment for item verification and confirmatory measurement of the Pu containers. Tasks under Phase I cover the work for demonstrating the plan and procedures for carrying out the comparison of the Pu container identification on the container with the computerized inventory records. In addition to the records validation, the verification procedures include the application of bar codes and bar coded TIDs to the Pu containers. Phase II involves the verification of the Pu content. A plan and procedures are being written for carrying out confirmatory measurements on the Pu containers.

SUDA,S.

1999-09-20

405

ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE POWER PLANT FOR WASTE HEAT RECOVERY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power Plants based on the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) have been increasingly employed over the last 20 years to produce power from various heat sources when other alternatives were either technically not practical or not economical. These power plants in sizes from 300 kW to 130 MW have demonstrated the maturity of this technology. The cycle is well adapted to

Lucien Y. Bronicki

406

Program for low-level radioactive waste disposal at the Savannah River Plant, a US nuclear materials production site  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated program has been developed for disposal of low-level radioactive wastes and associated mixed (radioactive-hazardous) and transuranic (TRU) wastes generated at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The program, supported by existing as well as new planned facilities, features a systems management approach, in which final disposal sites are specially designed and constructed for appropriately segregated waste streams, and intermediate

E. L. Wilhite; J. R. Cook; W. R. McDonell

1989-01-01

407

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 1, Revision 3  

SciTech Connect

This volume includes the following chapters: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant RCRA A permit application; facility description; waste analysis plan; groundwater monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; RCRA contingency plan; personnel training; corrective action for solid waste management units; and other Federal laws.

Not Available

1993-03-01

408

Background information presented to the expert panel on inadvertent human intrusion into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is planned as a mined geologic repository for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes generated by defense programs of the United States Department of Energy. One of the criteria for evaluating the suitability of the WIPP for disposal of TRU wastes is compliance with the United States Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) standards for

R. V. Guzowski; K. F. Brinster; M. M. Gruebel; P. N. Swift; S. B. Pasztor; W. D. Weart; S. G. Bertram-Howery

1991-01-01

409

Background information presented to the expert panel on inadvertent human intrusion into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is planned as a mined geologic repository for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes generated by defense programs of the United States Department of Energy. One of the criteria for evaluating the suitability of the WIPP for disposal of TRU wastes is compliance with the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) standards for

R. V. Guzowski; K. F. Brinster; M. M. Gruebel; P. N. Swift; S. B. Pasztor; W. D. Weart; S. G. Bertram-Howery

1991-01-01

410

Tannery Waste Treatment: Leaching, Filtration and Cake Dewatering Using a Membrane Filter Press (a Pilot Plant Study)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Alcanena (Portugal) the waste water treatment plant (WWTP) receives tannery waste, after a pretreatment for sulphides and the tanning exhaust baths have been sent to a recovery unit and the municipal waste water from Alcanena residential area. Physical, chemical, and biological treatment processes are involved, and the end products are sludge of ?71% moisture containing mainly organic matter, sulfides,

P. F. M. Correia; J. M. R. de Carvalho

2005-01-01

411

RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - 25 YEARS SINCE THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion

E. Farfan; T. Jannik

2011-01-01

412

Mechanical-biological treatment: performance and potentials. An LCA of 8 MBT plants including waste characterization.  

PubMed

In the endeavour of avoiding presence of biodegradable waste in landfills and increasing recycling, mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plants have seen a significant increase in number and capacity in the last two decades. The aim of these plants is separating and stabilizing the quickly biodegradable fraction of the waste as well as recovering recyclables from mixed waste streams. In this study the environmental performance of eight MBT-based waste management scenarios in Spain was assessed by means of life cycle assessment. The focus was on the technical and environmental performance of the MBT plants. These widely differed in type of biological treatment and recovery efficiencies. The results indicated that the performance is strongly connected with energy and materials recovery efficiency. The recommendation for upgrading and/or commissioning of future plants is to optimize materials recovery through increased automation of the selection and to prioritize biogas-electricity production from the organic fraction over direct composting. The optimal strategy for refuse derived fuel (RDF) management depends upon the environmental compartment to be prioritized and the type of marginal electricity source in the system. It was estimated that, overall, up to ca. 180-190 kt CO2-eq. y(-1) may be saved by optimizing the MBT plants under assessment. PMID:23850761

Montejo, Cristina; Tonini, Davide; Márquez, María del Carmen; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

2013-10-15

413

Coupling plant growth and waste recycling systems in a controlled life support system (CELSS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of bioregenerative systems as part of the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) program depends, in large part, on the ability to recycle inorganic nutrients, contained in waste material, into plant growth systems. One significant waste (resource) stream is inedible plant material. This research compared wheat growth in hydroponic solutions based on inorganic salts (modified Hoagland's) with solutions based on the soluble fraction of inedible wheat biomass (leachate). Recycled nutrients in leachate solutions provided the majority of mineral nutrients for plant growth, although additions of inorganic nutrients to leachate solutions were necessary. Results indicate that plant growth and waste recyling systems can be effectively coupled within CELSS based on equivalent wheat yield in leachate and Hoagland solutions, and the rapid mineralization of waste organic material in the hydroponic systems. Selective enrichment for microbial communities able to mineralize organic material within the leachate was necessary to prevent accumulation of dissolved organic matter in leachate-based solutions. Extensive analysis of microbial abundance, growth, and activity in the hydroponic systems indicated that addition of soluble organic material from plants does not cause excessive microbial growth or 'biofouling', and helped define the microbially-mediated flux of carbon in hydroponic solutions.

Garland, Jay L.

1992-01-01

414

Analysis of the implications of the USSR providing reprocessing and MOX fabrication services to other countries  

SciTech Connect

This brief analysis, which is based on unclassified sources, seeks to identify what some of the implications would be if the Soviets started to move actively to try to provide reprocessing and MOX fabrication services to the US and other countries. While information on Soviet intentions is limited, it postulates that the Soviets would offer to reprocess spent LWR at competitive prices, fabricate the plutonium and reenrich the uranium, and sell these products back to the customer. Since it is not known whether they would insist on returning the waste from reprocessing or would be prepared to keep it, we comment briefly on what the implications of either of these actions might be.

NONE

1994-12-31

415

Waste Form Strategies for Mo-rich Radioactive Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a small scoping study examining potential multiphase ceramic waste forms for wastes deriving from U-Mo research reactor fuel reprocessing. These fuels are being developed as replacements for silicide and aluminium fuels. The aim was to identify plausible phases that can be used in combination to achieve waste form monoliths with high waste loadings. These waste streams have

M. W. A. Stewart; E. R. Vance

2006-01-01

416

High Level Waste Remote Handling Equipment in the Melter Cave Support Handling System at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant  

SciTech Connect

Cold war plutonium production led to extensive amounts of radioactive waste stored in tanks at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site. Bechtel National, Inc. is building the largest nuclear Waste Treatment Plant in the world located at the Department of Energy's Hanford site to immobilize the millions of gallons of radioactive waste. The site comprises five main facilities; Pretreatment, High Level Waste vitrification, Low Active Waste vitrification, an Analytical Lab and the Balance of Facilities. The pretreatment facilities will separate the high and low level waste. The high level waste will then proceed to the HLW facility for vitrification. Vitrification is a process of utilizing a melter to mix molten glass with radioactive waste to form a stable product for storage. The melter cave is designated as the High Level Waste Melter Cave Support Handling System (HSH). There are several key processes that occur in the HSH cell that are necessary for vitrification and include: feed preparation, mixing, pouring, cooling and all maintenance and repair of the process equipment. Due to the cell's high level radiation, remote handling equipment provided by PaR Systems, Inc. is required to install and remove all equipment in the HSH cell. The remote handling crane is composed of a bridge and trolley. The trolley supports a telescoping tube set that rigidly deploys a TR 4350 manipulator arm with seven degrees of freedom. A rotating, extending, and retracting slewing hoist is mounted to the bottom of the trolley and is centered about the telescoping tube set. Both the manipulator and slewer are unique to this cell. The slewer can reach into corners and the manipulator's cross pivoting wrist provides better operational dexterity and camera viewing angles at the end of the arm. Since the crane functions will be operated remotely, the entire cell and crane have been modeled with 3-D software. Model simulations have been used to confirm operational and maintenance functional and timing studies throughout the design process. Since no humans can go in or out of the cell, there are several recovery options that have been designed into the system including jack-down wheels for the bridge and trolley, recovery drums for the manipulator hoist, and a wire rope cable cutter for the slewer jib hoist. If the entire crane fails in cell, the large diameter cable reel that provides power, signal, and control to the crane can be used to retrieve the crane from the cell into the crane maintenance area. (authors)

Bardal, M.A. [PaR Systems, Inc., Shoreview, MN (United States); Darwen, N.J. [Bechtel National, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

2008-07-01

417

CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES--INTEGRATED LIFE-CYCLE OPTIMIZATION INITIATIVES FOR THE HANFORD RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT--WASTE TREATMENT PLANT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the ongoing integrated life-cycle optimization efforts to achieve both design flexibility and design stability for activities associated with the Waste Treatment Plant at Hanford. Design flexibility is required to support the Department of Energy Office of River Protection Balance of Mission objectives, and design stability to meet the Waste Treatment Plant construction and commissioning requirements in order

Auclair

2002-01-01

418

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Waste Gas Treatment Plants for the Glass Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost-effectiveness of different plant solutions for glass furnace waste gas cleaning is compared in the present paper. Plant arrangements based on electrostatic precipi-tator or fabric filter dust collectors and wet, semi-dry, or dry processes for acid gas removal have been considered. A critical survey of each solution's advantages and disadvantages has been presented, taking into account both effectiveness and costs

Antonio C. Caputo; Pacifico M. Pelagagge

1999-01-01

419

Waste-to-energy plant for paper industry sludges disposal: technical-economic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a detailed technical-economic analysis of a fluidized bed based waste-to-energy system for disposal of paper manufacturing sludges has been carried out. Specific reference is made to a case study represented by the largest plant in Italy producing recycled paper, with a daily sludge output of about 52t.The adopted plant has been sized for a nominal capacity of

Antonio C. Caputo; Pacifico M. Pelagagge

2001-01-01

420

Management of radioactive waste from nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

Even thought risk assessment is an essential consideration in all projects involving radioactive or hazardous waste, its public role is often unclear, and it is not fully utilized in the decision-making process for public acceptance of such facilities. Risk assessment should be an integral part of such projects and should play an important role from beginning to end, i.e., from planning stages to the closing of a disposal facility. A conceptual model that incorporates all potential pathways of exposure and is based on site-specific conditions is key to a successful risk assessment. A baseline comparison with existing standards determines, along with other factors, whether the disposal site is safe. Risk assessment also plays a role in setting priorities between sites during cleanup actions and in setting cleanup standards for certain contaminants at a site. The applicable technologies and waste disposal designs can be screened through risk assessment.

Not Available

1993-09-01

421

Advanced Process Monitoring Techniques for Safeguarding Reprocessing Facilities  

SciTech Connect

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established international safeguards standards for fissionable material at spent fuel reprocessing plants to ensure that significant quantities of weapons-grade nuclear material are not diverted from these facilities. For large throughput nuclear facilities, it is difficult to satisfy the IAEA safeguards accountancy goal for detection of abrupt diversion. Currently, methods to verify material control and accountancy (MC&A) at these facilities require time-consuming and resource-intensive destructive assay (DA). Leveraging new on-line non destructive assay (NDA) process monitoring techniques in conjunction with the traditional and highly precise DA methods may provide an additional measure to nuclear material accountancy which would potentially result in a more timely, cost-effective and resource efficient means for safeguards verification at such facilities. By monitoring process control measurements (e.g. flowrates, temperatures, or concentrations of reagents, products or wastes), abnormal plant operations can be detected. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing on-line NDA process monitoring technologies, including both the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor and a spectroscopy-based monitoring system, to potentially reduce the time and resource burden associated with current techniques. The MIP Monitor uses gamma spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to identify off-normal conditions in process streams. The spectroscopic monitor continuously measures chemical compositions of the process streams including actinide metal ions (U, Pu, Np), selected fission products, and major cold flowsheet chemicals using UV-Vis, Near IR and Raman spectroscopy. This paper will provide an overview of our methods and report our on-going efforts to develop and demonstrate the technologies.

Orton, Christopher R.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Peper, Shane M.

2010-11-30

422

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant design validation: Final report, Appendices  

SciTech Connect

This volume is comprised of the following appendices: DOE stipulated agreement with State of New Mexico (partial); geologic correlations; mathematical simulation of underground in situ behavior; C and SH shaft geologic logs and maps; waste shaft geologic logs and maps; exhaust shaft geologic log; test rooms geologic maps and sections; drift cross sections; facility level geologic core hole logs; geomechanical instrumentation data plots; and analytical data plots.

Not Available

1986-10-01

423

Waste fuel, EMS may save plant $1M yearly  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixture of paper trash and coal ash fueling an Erie, Pa. General Electric plant and a Network 90 microprocessor-based energy-management system (EMS) to optimize boiler efficiency will cost about $3 million and have a three-to-four-year payback. Over half the savings will come from the avoided costs of burning plant-generated trash. The EMS system will monitor fuel requirements in the

Barber

1982-01-01

424

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - An International Center of Excellence for ''Training in and Demonstration of Waste Disposal Technologies''  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site, which is managed and operated by the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (USDOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and located in the State of New Mexico, presently hosts an underground research laboratory (URL) and the world's first certified and operating deep geological repository for safe disposition of long-lived radioactive materials (LLRMs). Both the URL and the repository are situated approximately 650 meters (m) below the ground surface in a 250-million-year-old, 600-m-thick, undisturbed, bedded salt formation, and they have been in operation since 1982 and 1999, respectively. Founded on long-standing CBFO collaborations with international and national radioactive waste management organizations, since 2001, WIPP serves as the Center of Excellence in Rock Salt for the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA's) International Network of Centers on ''Training in and Demonstration of Waste Disposal Technologies in Underground Research Facilities'' (the IAEA Network). The primary objective for the IAEA Network is to foster collaborative projects among IAEA Member States that: supplement national efforts and promote public confidence in waste disposal schemes; contribute to the resolution of key technical issues; and encourage the transfer and preservation of knowledge and technologies.

Matthews, Mark L.; Eriksson, Leif G.

2003-02-25

425

Study on Shielding Requirements for Radioactive Waste Transportation in a Mo-99 Production Plant - 13382  

SciTech Connect

Brazil is currently planning to produce {sup 99}Mo from fission of low enriched uranium (LEU) targets. The planned end of irradiation activity of {sup 99}Mo is about 185 TBq (5 kCi) per week to meet the present domestic demand of {sup 99m}Tc generators. The radioactive wastes from the production plant will be transferred to a waste treatment facility at the same site. The total activity of the actinides, fission and activation products present in the wastes can be predicted based on the yields of fission and activation data for the irradiation conditions, such as composition and mass of uranium targets, irradiation time, neutron flux, production schedule, etc., which were in principle already established by the project management. The transportation of the wastes from the production plant to the treatment facility will be done by means of special shielded packages. An assessment of the shielding required for the packages has been done and the results are presented here, aiming at contributing to the design of the waste management facility for the {sup 99}Mo production plant. (authors)

Melo Rego, Maria Eugenia de; Kazumi Sakata, Solange; Vicente, Roberto; Hiromoto, Goro [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP (Brazil)] [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP (Brazil)

2013-07-01

426

Unit operations used to treat process and/or waste streams at nuclear power plants. [R  

SciTech Connect

Estimates are given of the annual amounts of each generic type of LLW (i.e., Government and commerical (fuel cycle and non-fuel cycle)) that is generated at LWR plants. Many different chemical engineering unit operations used to treat process and/or waste streams at LWR plants include adsorption, evaporation, calcination, centrifugation, compaction, crystallization, drying, filtration, incineration, reverse osmosis, and solidification of waste residues. The treatment of these various streams and the secondary wet solid wastes thus generated is described. The various treatment options for concentrates or solid wet wastes, and for dry wastes are discussed. Among the dry waste treatment methods are compaction, baling, and incineration, as well as chopping, cutting and shredding. Organic materials (liquids (e.g., oils or solvents) and/or solids), could be incinerated in most cases. The filter sludges, spent resins, and concentrated liquids (e.g., evaporator concentrates) are usually solidified in cement, or urea-formaldehyde or unsaturated polyester resins prior to burial. Incinerator ashes can also be incorporated in these binding agents. Asphalt has not yet been used. This paper presents a brief survey of operational experience at LWRs with various unit operations, including a short discussion of problems and some observations on recent trends.

Godbee, H.W.; Kibbey, A.H.

1980-01-01

427

Management activities for retrieved and newly generated transuranic waste, Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to assess the potential environmental impacts of the retrieval and processing of retrieved and newly generated transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste at the Savannah River Plant (SRP), including the transportation of the processes TRU waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. A new TRU Waste Facility (TWF) will be constructed at SRP to retrieve and process the SRP TRU waste in interim storage to meet WIPP criteria. This EA has been prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended, and the requirements of the Council of Environmental Quality Regulations for implementing NEPA (40 CFR Parts 1500--1508). The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires the assessment of environmental consequences of all major federal actions that may affect the quality of the human environment. This document describes the environmental impact of constructing and operating the TWF facility for processing and shipment of the TRU waste to WIPP and considers alternatives to the proposed action. 40 refs., 12 figs., 12 tabs.