Note: This page contains sample records for the topic waste reprocessing plant from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Mesoscale to plant-scale models of nuclear waste reprocessing.  

SciTech Connect

Imported oil exacerabates our trade deficit and funds anti-American regimes. Nuclear Energy (NE) is a demonstrated technology with high efficiency. NE's two biggest political detriments are possible accidents and nuclear waste disposal. For NE policy, proliferation is the biggest obstacle. Nuclear waste can be reduced through reprocessing, where fuel rods are separated into various streams, some of which can be reused in reactors. Current process developed in the 1950s is dirty and expensive, U/Pu separation is the most critical. Fuel rods are sheared and dissolved in acid to extract fissile material in a centrifugal contactor. Plants have many contacts in series with other separations. We have taken a science and simulation-based approach to develop a modern reprocessing plant. Models of reprocessing plants are needed to support nuclear materials accountancy, nonproliferation, plant design, and plant scale-up.

Noble, David Frederick; O'Hern, Timothy John; Moffat, Harry K.; Nemer, Martin B.; Domino, Stefan Paul; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Brotherton, Christopher M.; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Pawlowski, Roger Patrick

2010-09-01

2

Reduction of Sodium Nitrate Liquid Waste in Nuclear Reprocessing Plants  

SciTech Connect

Sodium nitrate solution has been generated from nuclear reprocessing plant as a result of neutralization of nitric acid. The sodium nitrate has been immobilized by bitumen, cement or other material in the site and waste packages have been produced. In order to reduce an environmental impact of the waste packages from the reprocessing plant, it is preferable to decompose nitrate ion to harmless gases such as nitrogen. A combination of formic acid and catalyst has been proposed for this purpose. But, the method is inadequate for a full decomposition of the nitrate ion. In addition, a mixture of NO and NO{sub 2} is produced during the reaction. Formaldehyde and hydrazine were selected as reductants and a combined use of Pd-Cu catalyst was tried to decompose the nitrate ion. As a result, the nitrate ion can almost entirely be decomposed without any generation of NO and NO{sub 2}. The test was conducted by 1 L flask. In case of formaldehyde, nitrate ion concentration can be reduced from 0.017 mol/l to 3.9x10{sup -4} mol/l. In case of hydrazine, nitrate concentration can be decreased from 2.8 mol/l to 9.5 x 10{sup -3} mol/l and ammonium ion is detected. The ammonium ion concentration in the final solution is 0.12 mol/l when 2.8 mol/l nitrate is reduced by hydrazine. Chemical reactions for formaldehyde on the Pd-Cu catalyst are estimated as combination of: NO{sub 3-} + HCHO = NO{sub 2-} + HCOOH; 2NO{sub 2-} + 3HCOOH = N{sub 2} + 3CO{sub 2} + 2H{sub 2}O + 2OH-; 4NO{sub 2-} + 3HCHO = 2N{sub 2} + 3CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O + 4OH-. the other hand, for hydrazine with the Pd-Cu catalyst: 3N{sub 2}H{sub 4} = 2NH{sub 3} + 2N{sub 2} + 3H{sub 2}; NO{sub 3-} + H{sub 2} = NO{sub 2-} + H{sub 2}O; NO{sub 2-} + NH{sub 3} = N{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O + OH-. The fundamental research shows that the combination usage of the Pd-Cu catalyst and formaldehyde or hydrazine is applicable for the reduction of nitrate liquid waste in the nuclear reprocessing plant. (authors)

Numata, M.; Mihara, S.; Kojima, S.; Ito, H. [JGC Corporation, Technologies Research Center, 2205, Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Higashiibarakigun, Ibaraki Pref., 311-1313 (Japan); Kato, T. [JGC Corporation, Yokohama World Operation Center, 2-3-1, Minato Mirai, Nishi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa Pref., 220-6001 (Japan)

2006-07-01

3

10 CFR Appendix F to Part 50 - Policy Relating to the Siting of Fuel Reprocessing Plants and Related Waste Management Facilities  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Reprocessing Plants and Related Waste Management Facilities F Appendix F to...Reprocessing Plants and Related Waste Management Facilities 1. Public health...storage of highlevel radioactive wastes, may be located on...

2013-01-01

4

Tritium Upgrading in the Aqueous Waste Streams of Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The CECE process for tritium upgrading in the aqueous tails stream of nuclear fuel reprocessing plant is explained here with particular regard to improvements made. By the improved process, tritium is first upgraded to about the thirty-fold concentration,...

H. Mangold U. Schindewolf

1988-01-01

5

Treatment and Conditioning of Wastes from US Nuclear Fuels Reprocessing Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The US has operated nuclear fuels reprocessing plants at Hanford, Idaho Falls, and Savannah River in its defense programs and at West Valley in its commercial program. Other commercial plants have been proposed and some constructed but not operated. The l...

G. Oertel J. McElroy J. L. Crandall

1983-01-01

6

Treatment and conditioning of HLLW stored at ENEA's reprocessing pilot plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At the ENEA (Italian Agency for Energy, New Technology and the Environment) reprocessing pilot plants some 115 cubic meters of aged first cycle reprocessing aqueous wastes are stored, produced during the reprocessing of MTR, CANDU and Elk River spent fuel...

A. Luce F. Troiani S. Momo L. Di Pace P. Risoluti

1992-01-01

7

The incidence of childhood leukaemia around the La Hague nuclear waste reprocessing plant (France): a survey for the years 1978–1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDA previous study has suggested an increased incidence rate of leukaemia from 1978 to 1992 in people aged 0 to 24 years and living in the vicinity of the La Hague nuclear waste reprocessing plant without considering age and cytological type.SETTINGThe Nord Cotentin region (France) and the island of Alderney (United Kingdom).STUDY OBJECTIVETo describe the occurrence of leukaemia for each

A-V Guizard; O Boutou; D Pottier; X Troussard; D Pheby; G Launoy; R Slama; A Spira

2001-01-01

8

Airborne waste management technology applicable for use in reprocessing plants for control of iodine and other off-gas constituents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive work in the area of iodine removal from reprocessing plant off-gas streams using various types of solid sorbent materials has been conducted worldwide over the past two decades. This work has focused on the use of carbon filters, primarily for power plant applications. More recently, the use of silver-containing sorbents has been the subject of considerable research. The most

Jubin

1988-01-01

9

Iodine Release in Reprocessing Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this review paper the requirements are mentioned which have to be made under health physics aspects to off gas purification of reprocessing plants as a result of radioiodine released from spent fuel. The different processes of radioiodine removal and t...

J. G. Wilhelm J. Furrer

1977-01-01

10

Application of curium measurements for safeguarding at reprocessing plants. Study 1: High-level liquid waste and Study 2: Spent fuel assemblies and leached hulls  

SciTech Connect

In large-scale reprocessing plants for spent fuel assemblies, the quantity of plutonium in the waste streams each year is large enough to be important for nuclear safeguards. The wastes are drums of leached hulls and cylinders of vitrified high-level liquid waste. The plutonium amounts in these wastes cannot be measured directly by a nondestructive assay (NDA) technique because the gamma rays emitted by plutonium are obscured by gamma rays from fission products, and the neutrons from spontaneous fissions are obscured by those from curium. The most practical NDA signal from the waste is the neutron emission from curium. A diversion of waste for its plutonium would also take a detectable amount of curium, so if the amount of curium in a waste stream is reduced, it can be inferred that there is also a reduced amount of plutonium. This report studies the feasibility of tracking the curium through a reprocessing plant with neutron measurements at key locations: spent fuel assemblies prior to shearing, the accountability tank after dissolution, drums of leached hulls after dissolution, and canisters of vitrified high-level waste after separation. Existing pertinent measurement techniques are reviewed, improvements are suggested, and new measurements are proposed. The authors integrate these curium measurements into a safeguards system.

Rinard, P.M.; Menlove, H.O.

1996-03-01

11

Wiederaufbereitungsanlage Karlsruhe. (Karlsruhe reprocessing plant, WAK).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The reprocessing plant WAK for the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel has been commissioned in 1971 as a pilot plant destined to acquire the operating experience for assessing the economic efficiency of fuel reprocessing in the U-Pu cycle. Also, a researc...

1991-01-01

12

Evaporation characteristics of a reprocessing plant HLLW concentrator  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a high-level liquid waste (HLLW) concentrator at an industrial Purex reprocessing plant, the HLLW evaporation behavior would be rather complicated due to the large number of fission product ions present in the waste. Under a reduced-pressure evaporation process, experiments with simulated acidic solution show that the nitric acid concentration of the liquid phase initially increases from that of feed

Masanori Takahashi; Tatsuo Izumida; Fumio Kawamura; Hideo Yusa

1988-01-01

13

Geohydrologic conditions at the nuclear-fuels reprocessing plant and waste-management facilities at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center, Cattaraugus County, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant, a high-level radioactive liquid-waste tank complex, and related waste facilities occupy 100 hectares (ha) within the Western New York Nuclear Service Center near West Valley, N.Y. The facilities are underlain by glacial and postglacial deposits that fill an ancestrial bedrock valley. The main plant facilities are on an elevated plateau referred to as the north plateau. Groundwater on the north plateau moves laterally within a surficial sand and gravel from the main plant building to areas northeast, east, and southeast of the facilities. The sand and gravel ranges from 1 to 10 m thick and has a hydraulic conductivity ranging from 0.1 to 7.9 m/day. Two separate burial grounds, a 4-ha area for low-level radioactive waste disposal and a 2.9-ha area for disposal of higher-level waste are excavated into a clay-rich till that ranges from 22 to 28 m thick. Migration of an organic solvent from the area of higher level waste at shallow depth in the till suggests that a shallow, fractured, oxidized, and weathered till is a significant pathway for lateral movement of groundwater. Below this zone, groundwater moves vertically downward through the till to recharge a lacustrine silt and fine sand. Within the saturated parts of the lacustrine unit, groundwater moves laterally to the northeast toward Buttermilk Creek. Hydraulic conductivity of the till, based on field and laboratory analyses , ranges from 0.000018 to 0.000086 m/day. (USGS)

Bergeron, M. P.; Kappel, W. M.; Yager, R. M.

1987-01-01

14

Economic analysis of waste management alternatives for reprocessing wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the results of a cost analysis of a broad range of alternatives for management of reprocessing wastes that would require geologic repository disposal. The intent was to identify cost-effective alternatives and the costs of potential repository performance requirements. Four integrated treatment facility alternatives for transuranic (TRU) wastes are described and compared. These include no treatment, compaction, incineration,

R. W. McKee; L. L. Clark; P. M. Daling; J. F. Nesbitt; J. L. Swanson

1984-01-01

15

Repository disposal requirements for commercial transuranic wastes (generated without reprocessing)  

SciTech Connect

This report forms a preliminary planning basis for disposal of commercial transuranic (TRU) wastes in a geologic repository. Because of the unlikely prospects for commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing in the near-term, this report focuses on TRU wastes generated in a once-through nuclear fuel cycle. The four main objectives of this study were to: develop estimates of the current inventories, projected generation rates, and characteristics of commercial TRU wastes; develop proposed acceptance requirements for TRU wastes forms and waste canisters that ensure a safe and effective disposal system; develop certification procedures and processing requirements that ensure that TRU wastes delivered to a repository for disposal meet all applicable waste acceptance requirements; and identify alternative conceptual strategies for treatment and certification of commercial TRU first objective was accomplished through a survey of commercial producers of TRU wastes. The TRU waste acceptance and certification requirements that were developed were based on regulatory requirements, information in the literature, and from similar requirements already established for disposal of defense TRU wastes in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) which were adapted, where necessary, to disposal of commercial TRU wastes. The results of the TRU waste-producer survey indicated that there were a relatively large number of producers of small quantities of TRU wastes.

Daling, P.M.; Ludwick, J.D.; Mellinger, G.B.; McKee, R.W.

1986-06-01

16

WATER REUSE IN A PAPER REPROCESSING PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

This project was undertaken to determine the feasibility of water reuse in a paper reprocessing plant with the goal being to 'close the loop' or to demonstrate zero discharge technology. Before the project began, Big Chief Roofing Company at Ardmore, OK, was discharging 7.89 1/se...

17

Composition of high fission product wastes resulting from future reprocessing of commercial nuclear fuels  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory studies, aimed at defining appropriate glass compositions for future disposal of high-level wastes, have developed composition ranges for the waste that will likely result during reprocessing of Light Water Reactor (LWR) and Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) fuels. The purpose of these studies was to provide baseline waste characterizations for possible future commercial high-level waste so that waste immobilization technologies (e.g., vitrification) can be studied. Ranges in waste composition are emphasized because the waste will vary with time as different fuels are reprocesses, because choice of process chemicals is nuclear, and because fuel burnups will vary. Consequently, composition ranges are based on trends in fuel reprocessing procedures and on achievable burnups in operating reactors. In addition to the fission product and actinide elements, which are the primary hazardous materials in the waste, likely composition ranges are given for inert elements that may be present in the waste. These other elements may be present because of being present in the fuel, because of being added as process chemical during reprocessing, because of being added during equipment decontamination, or because of corrosion of plant equipment and/or fuel element cladding. This report includes a discussion of the chemicals added in variation of the PUREX process, which is likely to remain the favored reprocessing technique for commercial nuclear fuels. Consideration is also given to a pyrochemical process proposed for the reprocessing of some LMR fuels.

Swanson, J.L

1986-07-01

18

Survey of methods for separating and immobilizing krypton-85 arising from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report reviews the literature on methods to separate and immobilize krypton-85 arising from dissolution or prior treatment of nuclear fuel in a reprocessing plant. It was prepared as part of a broader review of fuel reprocessing waste management meth...

P. Taylor

1990-01-01

19

Behaviour and lifetime of electrolyzers electrolysing enriched tritium containing waste water from reprocessing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to define a representative waste composition for the experimental tests, the different streams of tritiated waste water which are expected to arise from the operation of the Wackersdorf reprocessing plant were identified as well as their chemical and radiochemical composition. Results obtained by pretreatment applying distillation and the decontamination factors thus achieved will be presented, as well as

H. J. Riedel; W. Ullrich

1988-01-01

20

Plasma Mass Filters For Nuclear Waste Reprocessing  

SciTech Connect

Practical disposal of nuclear waste requires high-throughput separation techniques. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which contains the most active and mobile radioisotopes and produces most of the heat. We suggest that the fission products could be separated as a group from nuclear waste using plasma mass filters. Plasmabased processes are well suited to separating nuclear waste, because mass rather than chemical properties are used for separation. A single plasma stage can replace several stages of chemical separation, producing separate streams of bulk elements, fission products, and actinoids. The plasma mass filters may have lower cost and produce less auxiliary waste than chemical processing plants. Three rotating plasma configurations are considered that act as mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, the Ohkawa filter, and the asymmetric centrifugal trap.

Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

2011-05-26

21

Waste Minimization Study on Pyrochemical Reprocessing Processes  

SciTech Connect

Ideally a new pyro-process should not generate more waste, and should be at least as safe and cost effective as the hydrometallurgical processes currently implemented at industrial scale. This paper describes the thought process, the methodology and some results obtained by process integration studies to devise potential pyro-processes and to assess their capability of achieving this challenging objective. As example the assessment of a process based on salt/metal reductive extraction, designed for the reprocessing of Generation IV carbide spent fuels, is developed. Salt/metal reductive extraction uses the capability of some metals, aluminum in this case, to selectively reduce actinide fluorides previously dissolved in a fluoride salt bath. The reduced actinides enter the metal phase from which they are subsequently recovered; the fission products remain in the salt phase. In fact, the process is not so simple, as it requires upstream and downstream subsidiary steps. All these process steps generate secondary waste flows representing sources of actinide leakage and/or FP discharge. In aqueous processes the main solvent (nitric acid solution) has a low boiling point and evaporate easily or can be removed by distillation, thereby leaving limited flow containing the dissolved substance behind to be incorporated in a confinement matrix. From the point of view of waste generation, one main handicap of molten salt processes, is that the saline phase (fluoride in our case) used as solvent is of same nature than the solutes (radionuclides fluorides) and has a quite high boiling point. So it is not so easy, than it is with aqueous solutions, to separate solvent and solutes in order to confine only radioactive material and limit the final waste flows. Starting from the initial block diagram devised two years ago, the paper shows how process integration studies were able to propose process fittings which lead to a reduction of the waste variety and flows leading at an 'ideal' new block diagram allowing internal solvent recycling, and self eliminating reactants. This new flowsheet minimizes the quantity of inactive inlet flows that would have inevitably to be incorporated in a final waste form. The study identifies all knowledge gaps to be filled and suggest some possible R and D issues to confirm or infirm the feasibility of the proposed process fittings. (authors)

Boussier, H.; Conocar, O.; Lacquement, J. [CEA/DEN Valrho Marcoule/DRCP/SCPS/Pyrochemical Processes Laboratory, BP 17171 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)

2006-07-01

22

Fuel assembly identification in French reprocessing plants  

SciTech Connect

A method has been developed for the French reprocessing plants in order to identify PWR and BWR fuel assemblies before dissolution. The method is based on the comparison of announced values (reactor operator value) and measured values in the reprocessing plant for burn-up and cooling time of the fuel assembly. The method uses high resolution gamma spectrometry and passive neutron counting technique. The ratios Cs134/Cs137 and Ce144/Cs137 are respectively used to obtain burn-up value. The total neutron emission is also used to obtain the burn-up value. The results of measurement campaigns on PWR and BWR show that a precision of +. 5 % is reached for burn-up values; the cooling time is determined with an uncertainty of +. 50 days for cooling time of 2500 days. Using the values of burn-up and total neutron emission it is possible to determine the plutonium amount that a lot of fuel assemblies discharged from the same irradiation cycle of a given reactor. This amount is determined with an uncertainty less than +. 1 %.

Bernard, P.; Frejaville, G.; Pinel, J.

1986-01-01

23

Safeguards instruments for Large-Scale Reprocessing Plants  

SciTech Connect

Between 1987 and 1992 a multi-national forum known as LASCAR (Large Scale Reprocessing Plant Safeguards) met to assist the IAEA in development of effective and efficient safeguards for large-scale reprocessing plants. The US provided considerable input for safeguards approaches and instrumentation. This paper reviews and updates instrumentation of importance in measuring plutonium and uranium in these facilities.

Hakkila, E.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Case, R.S.; Sonnier, C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-06-01

24

Fully Integrated Safeguards and Security for Reprocessing Plant Monitoring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nuclear fuel reprocessing plants contain a wealth of plant monitoring data including material measurements, process monitoring, administrative procedures, and physical protection elements. Future facilities are moving in the direction of highly-integrated...

B. B. Cipiti B. D. Middleton F. A. Duran R. Ward R. Ward

2011-01-01

25

Childhood leukemia incidence in the vicinity of La Hague nuclear-waste reprocessing facility (France)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of leukemia is examined in young people (aged under 25 years) living within a 35 km radius of the French nuclear-waste reprocessing plant operating in La Hague, Normandy. During the period 1978–90, a total of 23 cases was diagnosed, giving an incidence rate of 2.99 per 100,000 which is close to the expected rate. In the ‘canton’ in

Jean-François Viel; Sylvia Richardson; Patrick Danel; Patrick Boutard; Michèle Malet; Paul Barrelier; Oumédaly Reman; André Carré

1993-01-01

26

CASE STUDY ON ORGANIC WASTE STREAM REPROCESSING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As the quantity of generated waste increases in the food and organic processing sector, alternative disposal methods have been investigated. Direct shipping, blending, extrusion, pelleting, and drying are commonly used to produce finished human food, animal feed, industrial products, and components ...

27

Process for recovery of palladium from nuclear fuel reprocessing wastes  

DOEpatents

Palladium is selectively removed from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing waste by adding sugar to a strong nitric acid solution of the waste to partially denitrate the solution and cause formation of an insoluble palladium compound. The process includes the steps of: (a) adjusting the nitric acid content of the starting solution to about 10 M, (b) adding 50% sucrose solution in an amount sufficient to effect the precipitation of the palladium compound, (c) heating the solution at reflux temperature until precipitation is complete, and (d) centrifuging the solution to separate the precipitated palladium compound from the supernatant liquid.

Campbell, David O. (Oak Ridge, TN); Buxton, Samuel R. (Wartburg, TN)

1981-01-01

28

Process for recovery of palladium from nuclear fuel reprocessing wastes  

DOEpatents

Palladium is selectively removed from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing waste by adding sugar to a strong nitric acid solution of the waste to partially denitrate the solution and cause formation of an insoluble palladium compound. The process includes the steps of: (a) adjusting the nitric acid content of the starting solution to about 10 M; (b) adding 50% sucrose solution in an amount sufficient to effect the precipitation of the palladium compound; (c) heating the solution at reflux temperature until precipitation is complete; and (d) centrifuging the solution to separate the precipitated palladium compound from the supernatant liquid.

Campbell, D.O.; Buxton, S.R.

1980-06-16

29

Feasibility Study for Adapting ITREC Plant to Reprocessing LMFBR Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report evaluates the feasibility of adapting ITREC plant to the reprocessing LMFBR fuels, with the double purpose of: 1) recovering valuable Pu contained in these fuels and recycling it to the fabrication plant; 2) trying, on a pilot scale, the chemic...

A. Moccia G. Rolandi

1976-01-01

30

Vitrification Technology Development Plan in Tokai Reprocessing Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Tokai Vitrification Facility (TVF) is the only operating vitrification plant in Japan, constructed and operated by JAEA, to vitrify concentrated high radioactive liquid waste (HALW) in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP). JAEA started TVF hot operation in 1995 and produced 218 canisters as of March, 2006. An existing melter is the second melter, which was installed from 2002 to 2004 in place of the first melter stopped its operation by damage of a main electrode. JAEA has estimated that the damage was caused by accumulation of noble metal. Therefore, melter bottom structure was improved to get better drain ability of glass containing noble metal. Completing the melter replacement, vitrification operation was restarted in October 2004 and produced 88 canisters successfully until the end of March 2006. Through these experiences, JAEA made basic strategy to achieve stable TVF operation: keeping stable operation of the existing melter preventing adverse effect by noble metal accumulation and developing a new advanced melter with long lifetime preparing for future exchange as the third melter. Based on the basic strategy, JAEA made a decade development plan of necessary key technologies and has started the development since 2005. (authors)

Atsushi Aoshima; Kazuhiko Tanaka [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan)

2006-07-01

31

Remotex and servomanipulator needs in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants  

SciTech Connect

Work on the conceptual design of a pilot-scale plant for reprocessing breeder reactor fuels is being performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The plant design will meet all current federal regulations for repocessing plants and will serve as prototype for future production plants. A unique future of the concept is the incorporation of totally remote operation and maintenance of the process equipment within a large barn-like hot cell. This approach, caled Remotex, utilizes servomanipulators coupled with television viewing to extend man's capabilities into the hostile cell environment. The Remotex concept provides significant improvements for fuel reprocessing plants and other nuclear facilities in the areas of safeguarding nuclear materials, reducing radiation exposure, improving plant availability, recovering from unplanned events, and plant decommissioning.

Garin, J.

1981-01-01

32

Equipment specifications for an electrochemical fuel reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

Electrochemical reprocessing is a technique used to chemically separate and dissolve the components of spent nuclear fuel, in order to produce new metal fuel. There are several different variations to electrochemical reprocessing. These variations are accounted for by both the production of different types of spent nuclear fuel, as well as different states and organizations doing research in the field. For this electrochemical reprocessing plant, the spent fuel will be in the metallurgical form, a product of fast breeder reactors, which are used in many nuclear power plants. The equipment line for this process is divided into two main categories, the fuel refining equipment and the fuel fabrication equipment. The fuel refining equipment is responsible for separating out the plutonium and uranium together, while getting rid of the minor transuranic elements and fission products. The fuel fabrication equipment will then convert this plutonium and uranium mixture into readily usable metal fuel.

Hemphill, Kevin P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

33

Crystal chemistry of sodium zirconium phosphate based simulated ceramic waste forms of effluent cations (Ba 2+, Sn 4+, Fe 3+, Cr 3+, Ni 2+ and Si 4+) from light water reactor fuel reprocessing plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel concept of immobilization of light water reactor (LWR) fuel reprocessing waste effluent through interaction with sodium zirconium phosphate (NZP) has been established. Such conversion utilizes waste materials like zirconium and nickel alloys, stainless steel, spent solvent tri-butyl phosphate and concentrated solution of NaNO3. The resultant multi component NZP material is a physically and chemically stable single phase crystalline

O. P. Shrivastava; Rashmi Chourasia

2008-01-01

34

10 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants B Appendix B to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING...Part 50âQuality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing...

2013-01-01

35

Qualitative simulation for supervision of a nuclear reprocessing plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper deals with the first application of a supervision support system to a part of a nuclear reprocessing plant. The system is called DIAPASON; its role is to help the operators to understand the behaviour of the process, and to diagnose failures if...

L. Leyval A. Ledoux

1991-01-01

36

International safeguards at the Dounreay fast reactor reprocessing plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

International safeguards have been applied to the fast reactor reprocessing plant at Dounreay since October 1981. From October 1981 until October 1982, this was done by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Euratom under the terms of a tripartite treaty between the parties and a voluntary offer made by the United Kingdom, a weapons state, to the IAEA. Since

1987-01-01

37

Status of radioiodine control for nuclear fuel reprocessing plants  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the status of radioiodine control in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant with respect to capture, fixation, and disposal. Where possible, we refer the reader to a number of survey documents which have been published in the last four years. We provide updates where necessary. Also discussed are factors which must be considered in developing criteria for iodine control. For capture from gas streams, silver mordenite and a silver nitrate impregnated silica (AC-6120) are considered state-of-the-art and are recommended. Three aqueous scrubbing processes have been demonstrated: Caustic scrubbing is simple but probably will not give an adequate iodine retention by itself. Mercurex (mercuric nitrate-nitric acid scrubbing) has a number of disadvantages including the use of toxic mercury. Iodox (hyperazeotropic nitric acid scrubbing) is effective but employs a very corrosive and hazardous material. Other technologies have been tested but require extensive development. The waste forms recommended for long-term storage or disposal are silver iodide, the iodates of barium, strontium, or calcium, and silver loaded sorbents, all fixed in cement. Copper iodide in bitumen (asphalt) is a possibility but requires testing. The selection of a specific form will be influenced by the capture process used.

Burger, L.L.; Scheele, R.D.

1983-07-01

38

Water reuse in a paper reprocessing plant. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project was undertaken to determine the feasibility of water reuse in a paper reprocessing plant with the goal being to 'close the loop' or to demonstrate zero discharge technology. Before the project began, Big Chief Roofing Company at Ardmore, OK, was discharging 7.89 1\\/sec (125 gpm). Normal operation is now zero discharge with approximately 0.76 1\\/sec (12 gpm) fresh

L. E. Streebin; G. W. Reid; P. Law; C. Hogan

1976-01-01

39

UP3 plant first reprocessing campaigns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The UP3 plant start up has been achieved in two successive steps. The first one, from November 89 to April 90, involved all the facilities but T1, the head-end facility. During that period, shearing, dissolution and the first cycle extraction operations w...

A. Leudet D. Hugelmann W. Fournier G. Dalverny

1991-01-01

40

Waste management system alternatives for treatment of wastes from spent fuel reprocessing  

SciTech Connect

This study was performed to help identify a preferred TRU waste treatment alternative for reprocessing wastes with respect to waste form performance in a geologic repository, near-term waste management system risks, and minimum waste management system costs. The results were intended for use in developing TRU waste acceptance requirements that may be needed to meet regulatory requirements for disposal of TRU wastes in a geologic repository. The waste management system components included in this analysis are waste treatment and packaging, transportation, and disposal. The major features of the TRU waste treatment alternatives examined here include: (1) packaging (as-produced) without treatment (PWOT); (2) compaction of hulls and other compactable wastes; (3) incineration of combustibles with cementation of the ash plus compaction of hulls and filters; (4) melting of hulls and failed equipment plus incineration of combustibles with vitrification of the ash along with the HLW; (5a) decontamination of hulls and failed equipment to produce LLW plus incineration and incorporation of ash and other inert wastes into HLW glass; and (5b) variation of this fifth treatment alternative in which the incineration ash is incorporated into a separate TRU waste glass. The six alternative processing system concepts provide progressively increasing levels of TRU waste consolidation and TRU waste form integrity. Vitrification of HLW and intermediate-level liquid wastes (ILLW) was assumed in all cases.

McKee, R.W.; Swanson, J.L.; Daling, P.M.; Clark, L.L.; Craig, R.A.; Nesbitt, J.F.; McCarthy, D.; Franklin, A.L.; Hazelton, R.F.; Lundgren, R.A.

1986-09-01

41

Remote handling and robotics at the BNFL Sellafield reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

As a direct result of its interest in the use of robotics within active plants, British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. (BNFL) has adopted a positive attitude toward both national and European initiatives in this area. During the early operation of the Sellafield reprocessing plant, the process vessels and cell voids were monitored using simple pole and camera combinations. In 1985, BNFL embarked on the provision of a series of machines intended to satisfy the advancing needs for inspection while increasing the level of expertise within the company in this important area. DIMAN 1, DIMAN 2, RODMAN, REPMAN, and RAFFMAN remote handling and robotic machines are described.

Jones, E.L.

1990-01-01

42

Waste generation process modeling and analysis for fuel reprocessing technologies  

SciTech Connect

Estimates of electric power generation requirements for the next century, even when taking the most conservative tack, indicate that the United States will have to increase its production capacity significantly. If the country determines that nuclear power will not be a significant component of this production capacity, the nuclear industry will have to die, as maintaining a small nuclear component will not be justifiable. However, if nuclear power is to be a significant component, it will probably require some form of reprocessing technology. The once-through fuel cycle is only feasible for a relatively small number of nuclear power plants. If we are maintaining several hundred reactors, the once-through fuel cycle is more expensive and ethically questionable.

Kornreich, D. E. (Drew E.); Koehler, A. C. (Andrew C.); Farman, Richard F.

2002-01-01

43

Nuclear fuel reprocessing deactivation plan for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The decision was announced on April 28, 1992 to cease all United States Department of Energy (DOE) reprocessing of nuclear fuels. This decision leads to the deactivation of all fuels dissolution, solvent extraction, krypton gas recovery operations, and product denitration at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The reprocessing facilities will be converted to a safe and stable shutdown condition awaiting future alternate uses or decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). This ICPP Deactivation Plan includes the scope of work, schedule, costs, and associated staffing levels necessary to achieve a safe and orderly deactivation of reprocessing activities and the Waste Calcining Facility (WCF). Deactivation activities primarily involve shutdown of operating systems and buildings, fissile and hazardous material removal, and related activities. A minimum required level of continued surveillance and maintenance is planned for each facility/process system to ensure necessary environmental, health, and safety margins are maintained and to support ongoing operations for ICPP facilities that are not being deactivated. Management of the ICPP was transferred from Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) to Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) on October 1, 1994 as part of the INEL consolidated contract. This revision of the deactivation plan (formerly the Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Phaseout Plan for the ICPP) is being published during the consolidation of the INEL site-wide contract and the information presented here is current as of October 31, 1994. LITCO has adopted the existing plans for the deactivation of ICPP reprocessing facilities and the plans developed under WINCO are still being actively pursued, although the change in management may result in changes which have not yet been identified. Accordingly, the contents of this plan are subject to revision.

Patterson, M.W.

1994-10-01

44

Decontamination and decommissioning of a fuel reprocessing pilot plant  

SciTech Connect

SYNOPSIS The strontium Semiworks Pilot Fuel Reprocessing Plant at the Hanford Site in Washington State was decommissioned by a combination of dismantlement and entombment. The facility contained 9600 Ci of Sr-90 and 10 Ci of plutonium. Process cells were entombed in place. The above-grade portion of one cell with 1.5-m- (5-ft-) thick walls and ceilings was demolished by means of expanding grout. A contaminated stack was remotely sandblasted and felled by explosives. The entombed structures were covered with a 4.6-m- (15-ft-) thick engineered earthen barrier. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Heine, W.F.; Speer, D.R.

1988-01-01

45

Near-real-time verification approaches for the process area of reprocessing plants  

SciTech Connect

Adoption of near-real-time accountancy in large reprocessing plants will necessitate more timely verification. We discuss techniques and instruments that are suitable for on-site verification of input, output, waste streams, and in-process inventory estimation of tanks, solvent extraction contractors, and concentrators. Calculations show that estimates of solvent extraction contractor inventories may make an insignificant contribution to the total uncertainty of the material balance, relative to the contributions by transfer and process tank inventory measurements. 45 refs., 2 tabs.

Hakkila, E.A.; Barnes, J.W.; Picard, R.R.; Gutmacher, R.G.

1989-01-01

46

Neptunium flow-sheet verification at reprocessing plants  

SciTech Connect

Due to their fissile nature, neptunium and americium have at least a theoretical potential application as nuclear explosives and their proliferation potential was considered by the IAEA in studies in the late 1990's. This work was motivated by an increased awareness of the proliferation potential of americium and neptunium and a number of emerging projects in peaceful nuclear programmes which could result in an increase in the available quantities of these minor actinides. The studies culminated in proposals for various voluntary measures including the reporting of international transfers of separated americium and neptunium, declarations concerning the amount of separated neptunium and americium held by states and the application of flow-sheet verification to ensure that facilities capable of separating americium or neptunium are operated in a manner consistent with that declared. This paper discusses the issue of neptunium flowsheet verification in reprocessing plants. The proliferation potential of neptunium is first briefly discussed and then the chemistry of neptunium relevant to reprocessing plants described with a view to indicating a number of issues relevant to the verification of neptunium flow-sheets. Finally, the scope of verification activities is discussed including analysis of process and engineering design information, plant monitoring and sampling and the potential application of containment and surveillance measures. (authors)

Rance, P.; Chesnay, B.; Killeen, T.; Murray, M.; Nikkinen, M.; Petoe, A.; Plumb, J.; Saukkonen, H. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)

2007-07-01

47

Potential safety-related incidents with possible applicability to a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

The occurrence of certain potential events in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants could lead to significant consequences involving risk to operating personnel or to the general public. This document is a compilation of such potential initiating events in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Possible general incidents and incidents specific to key operations in fuel reprocessing are considered, including possible causes, consequences, and safety features designed to prevent, detect, or mitigate such incidents.

Perkins, W.C.; Durant, W.S.; Dexter, A.H.

1980-12-01

48

Decommissioning nuclear facilities. [LWRs, fuel reprocessing plants, mixed oxide fuel fabrication plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the currently accepted alternatives for decommissioning retired light water reactor fuel cycle facilities and the current state of decommissioning technology. Three alternatives are recognized: Protective Storage; Entombment; and Dismantling. Application of these alternatives to the following types of facilities is briefly described: light water reactors; fuel reprocessing plants, and mixed oxide fuel fabrication plants. Brief descriptions are

K. M. Harmon; C. E. Jenkins; D. A. Waite; R. E. Brooksbank; B. C. Lunis; J. F. Nemec

1976-01-01

49

Applications of curium measurements for safeguarding at large-scale reprocessing plants  

SciTech Connect

Safeguarding the plutonium passing through a large-scale reprocessing plant (such as one with 800 t of uranium per year) involves nondestructive assay measurements for plutonium at key points. The gamma-ray and neutron signals from the plutonium are generally hidden by the much larger backgrounds from fission products and actinides, so indirect measurements are routinely used. The intense neutron emission rate from spent fuel is from curium. In a spent fuel assembly at the head-end of a plant, the curium neutrons are used to deduce the amount of plutonium present. Coincidence and multiplicity counting are alternative ways to measure neutrons from spent fuel; they have advantages over total neutron counting in certain conditions and offer new opportunities for examining assemblies. New uses for measurements of curium`s neutrons are proposed to safeguard waste streams. From a year`s work at a large-scale plant, 4 to 7 kg of plutonium can remain in leached hulls and 4 to 22 kg of plutonium can remain in the vitrified high-level liquid waste. While the plutonium in these wastes has the safeguards advantage of being dilute, it is important to verify (a) that the many kilograms involved are in fact present and (b) that the declared masses are not higher than the actual amounts so that more concentrated plutonium cannot pass through the plant by masquerading as waste. Curium measurements on spent fuel assemblies, the accountability tank, and leached hulls would form a safeguards system around all the inputs and outputs of a plant`s head-end where the plutonium is always intimately mixed with the curium. A neutron measurement of the vitrified waste would help identify the presence of a diversion path upstream because essentially all of the curium measured in the spent fuel assemblies should also be found in the vitrified waste (on a batch basis). 7 refs., 4 figs.

Rinard, P.M.; Menlove, H.O.

1997-08-01

50

On-Line Monitoring for Control and Safeguarding of Radiochemical Streams at Spent Fuel Reprocessing Plant  

SciTech Connect

Advanced techniques enabling enhanced safeguarding of the spent fuel reprocessing plants are urgently needed. Our approach is based on prerequisite that real time monitoring of the solvent extraction flowsheets provides unique capability to quickly detect unwanted manipulations with fissile isotopes present in the radiochemical streams during reprocessing activities. The methods used to monitor these processes must be robust and must be able to withstand harsh radiation and chemical environments. A new on-line monitoring system satisfying these requirements and featuring Raman spectroscopy combined with a Coriolis and conductivity probes, has been recently developed by our research team. It provides immediate chemical data and flow parameters of high-level radioactive waste streams with high brine content generated during retrieval activities from Hanford nuclear waste storage tanks. The nature of the radiochemical streams at the spent fuel reprocessing plant calls for additional spectroscopic information, which can be gained by the utilization of UV-vis-NIR capabilities. Raman and UV-vis-NIR spectroscopies are analytical techniques that have extensively been extensively applied for measuring the various organic and inorganic compounds including actinides. The corresponding spectrometers used under the laboratory conditions are easily convertible to the process-friendly configurations allowing remote measurements under the flow conditions. A fiber optic Raman probe allows monitoring of the high concentration species encountered in both aqueous and organic phases within the UREX suite of flowsheets, including metal oxide ions, such as uranyl, components of the organic solvent, inorganic oxo-anions, and water. The actinides and lanthanides are monitored remotely by UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy in aqueous and organic phases. In this report, we will present our recent results on spectroscopic measurements of simulant flowsheet solutions and commercial fuels available at PNNL. Measurements are performed at wide range of conditions adjusted to mimic UREX/PUREX processes and to demonstrate the applicability of Raman and vis-NIR spectroscopic analysis for actual dissolver feed solutions.

Bryan, Samuel A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Billing, Justin M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Johnsen, Amanda M.; Peterson, James M.

2009-10-06

51

10 CFR Appendix I to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Reprocessing Plant Components Under NRC Export Licensing Authority  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...plant for the reprocessing of irradiated fuel. Because solvent extractors...carbon stainless steels, titanium, zirconium or other high...plant for the reprocessing of irradiated fuel. Because holding or...carbon stainless steels, titanium or zirconium, or other...

2010-01-01

52

10 CFR Appendix I to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Reprocessing Plant Components Under NRC Export Licensing Authority  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...plant for the reprocessing of irradiated fuel. Because solvent extractors...carbon stainless steels, titanium, zirconium or other high...plant for the reprocessing of irradiated fuel. Because holding or...carbon stainless steels, titanium or zirconium, or other...

2009-01-01

53

AN ALTERNATIVE PROCESS TO IMMOBILIZE INTERMEDIATE WASTES FROM LWR FUEL REPROCESSING  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new concept for converting the intermediate wastes which result from light water reactor (LWR) fuel reprocessing into a single phase material, sodium zirconium phosphate ((NZP)), has been established. This conversion utilizes such waste materials as metals (zirconium alloy, stainless steels, and nickel alloy), spent solvent tri-butyl phosphate (TBP), and concentrated solution of sodium nitrate, and is accomplished using a

Yasuo Hirose; Tetsuo Fukasawa; Dinesh K. Agrawal; Barry E. Scheetz; Rama Nageswaran; Jay A. Curtis; Santosh Y. Limaye

1999-01-01

54

MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES RELEASED FROM NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING PLANTS.  

SciTech Connect

Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, and the fission products Tc, I, Cs, Sr, released from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides and the fission products under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

FRANCIS,A.J.

2006-10-18

55

Materials used in low-level liquid waste reprocessing/treatment studies at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The importance of effective waste management in the nuclear fuel cycle cannot be overestimated. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), development work in waste reprocessing and treatment includes the testing and use of various additives for the purpose of facilitating adherence to both process and regulatory performance criteria. Three waste reprocessing/treatment technologies and the associated materials are discussed in this paper: (1) suspension and transfer of sludge from waste storage tanks; (2) treatment to render a waste in compliance with regulatory requirements; and (3) fluoride-rich waste reprocessing. 7 refs., 3 figs.

McDaniel, E.W.; Weeren, H.O.; Delzer, D.B.; Sams, T.L.; Tallent, O.K.

1987-01-01

56

Fully integrated safeguards and security for reprocessing plant monitoring.  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear fuel reprocessing plants contain a wealth of plant monitoring data including material measurements, process monitoring, administrative procedures, and physical protection elements. Future facilities are moving in the direction of highly-integrated plant monitoring systems that make efficient use of the plant data to improve monitoring and reduce costs. The Separations and Safeguards Performance Model (SSPM) is an analysis tool that is used for modeling advanced monitoring systems and to determine system response under diversion scenarios. This report both describes the architecture for such a future monitoring system and present results under various diversion scenarios. Improvements made in the past year include the development of statistical tests for detecting material loss, the integration of material balance alarms to improve physical protection, and the integration of administrative procedures. The SSPM has been used to demonstrate how advanced instrumentation (as developed in the Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies campaign) can benefit the overall safeguards system as well as how all instrumentation is tied into the physical protection system. This concept has the potential to greatly improve the probability of detection for both abrupt and protracted diversion of nuclear material.

Duran, Felicia Angelica; Ward, Rebecca; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Middleton, Bobby D.

2011-10-01

57

Method for recovering palladium and technetium values from nuclear fuel reprocessing waste solutions  

DOEpatents

A method for recovering palladium and technetium values from nuclear fuel reprocessing waste solutions containing these and other values by contacting the waste solution with an extractant of tricaprylmethylammonium nitrate in an inert hydrocarbon diluent which extracts the palladium and technetium values from the waste solution. The palladium and technetium values are recovered from the extractant and from any other coextracted values with a strong nitric acid strip solution.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Elmhurst, IL); Delphin, Walter H. (Woodridge, IL)

1979-07-24

58

General Atomic Reprocessing Pilot Plant: engineering-scale dissolution system description  

Microsoft Academic Search

In February 1978, a dissolver-centrifuge system was added to the cold reprocessing pilot plant at General Atomic Company, which completed the installation of an HTGR fuel head-end reprocessing pilot plant. This report describes the engineering-scale equipment in the pilot plant and summarizes the design features derived from development work performed in the last few years. The dissolver operating cycles for

Yip

1979-01-01

59

Waste Management at WAK.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After a short description of the WAK plant and its reprocessing and intervention activities, types and sources of WAK wastes are described. Roughly half of the waste volume is generated during reprocessing, the other half during intervention periods. Most...

K. D. Kuhn H. O. Willax

1986-01-01

60

10 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...representative and beyond which work shall not proceed without...operational tests during nuclear power plant or fuel reprocessing...equipment in accordance with work and inspection instructions...individual items of the nuclear power plant or fuel...

2010-01-01

61

10 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...representative and beyond which work shall not proceed without...operational tests during nuclear power plant or fuel reprocessing...equipment in accordance with work and inspection instructions...individual items of the nuclear power plant or fuel...

2009-01-01

62

Hot cell studies of light water reactor fuel reprocessing. [Radioactivity distribution; dissolution; extraction; waste evaporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were run using all-glass equipment with irradiated fuel in a hot cell, in order to study possible problems in LWR fuel reprocessing (radioactivity distribution during dissolution, stability of extraction raffinate, waste partitioning). Behavior of ¹²I, tritium, and ¹C in the off-gas was studied, as were the radioisotopes in the dissolver solution; results are compared with ORIGEN calculations. Actinide mass

D. O. Campbell; S. R. Buxton

1976-01-01

63

Material balance areas and frequencies for large reprocessing plants  

SciTech Connect

It has long been recognized that facilities with a large nuclear material throughput will probably not meet the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) goal for detecting trickle diversion of plutonium over periods of about one year. The reason is that measurement errors for plutonium concentration and for liquid volume are often approximately relative over a fairly wide range of true values. Therefore, large throughput facilities will tend to have large uncertainties assigned to their annual throughput. By the same argument, if frequent balances are performed over small material balance areas, then the uncertainty associated with each balance period for each balance area will be small. However, trickle diversion would still be difficult to detect statistically. Because the IAEA will soon be faced with safeguarding a new large-scale reprocessing plant in Japan, it is timely to reconsider the advantages and disadvantages of performing frequent material balances over small balance areas (individual tanks where feasible). Therefore, in this paper the authors present some simulation results to study the effect of balance frequency on loss detection probability, and further simulation results to study possibilities introduced by choosing small balance areas. They conclude by recommending frequent balances over small areas.

Burr, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Safeguards Systems Group

1994-08-01

64

Guide to the selection, training, and licensing or certification of reprocessing plant operators. Volume I  

SciTech Connect

The Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 55, establishes procedures and criteria for the licensing of operators, including senior operators, in ''Production and Utilization Facilities'', which includes plants for reprocessing irradiated fuel. A training guide is presented which will facilitate the licensing of operators for nuclear reprocessing plants by offering generalized descriptions of the basic principles (theory) and the unit operations (mechanics) employed in reprocessing spent fuels. In the present volume, details about the portions of a training program that are of major interest to management are presented. (JSR)

None

1976-06-01

65

Solidification of Savannah River Plant high-level waste  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy, in accord with recommendations from the Du Pont Company, has started construction of a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Plant. The facility should be completed by the end of 1988, and full-scale operation should begin in 1990. This facility will immobilize in borosilicate glass the large quantity of high-level radioactive waste now stored at the plant plus the waste to be generated from continued chemical reprocessing operations. The existing wastes at the Savannah River Plant will be completely converted by about 2010. 21 figures.

Maher, R; Shafranek, L F; Stevens, III, W R

1983-01-01

66

Intergranular corrosion mechanism of ultra-low carbon type 304 stainless steel in a nuclear reprocessing plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion of the components which contains nitric acid solution such as vessels, tanks and pipes is an important problem for a PUREX method nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. In Tokai Reprocessing Plant which was startup in 1977 as the first Japanese plant, several events caused by corrosion have been experienced for about 30 years operation. The second plant in Japan, Rokkasho

Fumiyoshi Ueno; Chiaki Kato; Takafumi Motooka; Masahiro Yamamoto; Shiro Ichikawa

2007-01-01

67

Control of RadioIodine at the German Reprocessing Plant WAK during Operation and after Shutdown  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 20 years of operation 207 metric tons of oxide fuel from nuclear power reactors with 19 kg of iodine-129 had been reprocessed in the WAK plant near Karlsruhe. In January 1991 the WAK Plant was shut down. During operation iodine releases of the plant as well as the iodine distribution over the liquid and gaseous process streams had been

F. J. Herrmann; B. Herrmann; K. D. Kuhn; A. van Schoor; M. Weishaupt; Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe; J. Furrer; W. Knoch

68

Progress and experiences from the decommissioning of the Eurochemic reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

Belgoprocess started the industrial decommissioning of the main process building of the former EUROCHEMIC reprocessing plant in 1990, after completion of a pilot project in which two buildings were emptied and decontaminated to background levels. The remaining structures were demolished and the concrete debris was disposed of as industrial waste and green field conditions restored. The Eurochemic reprocessing plant operated from 1966 to 1974 to process fuel from power reactors and research reactors. The main building is a large concrete structure, comprising a surface area of 55,000 m{sup 2}, concrete volume 12,500 m{sup 3}, and 1,500 Mg of metal components. The building is divided into multiple cells. About 106 individual cell structures have to be dismantled, involving the removal and decontamination of equipment from each cell, the decontamination of the cell walls, ceilings and floors, the dismantling of the ventilation system. Most of the work involves hands-on operations under protective clothing tailored to each specific task. Tool automation and automatic positioning systems are successfully applied. In view of the final demolition of the main process building, the main process building is divided into three parts - each part is isolated from the others. In the middle of 2008, after the removal of the NDA-IPAN/GEA installation, the eastern part will be demolished. The paper presents a status overview of the decommissioning and decontamination activities at the main process building of the former Eurochemic reprocessing plant on the nuclear site of Dessel in Belgium. The specific BELGOPROCESS approach will be highlighted, in which the decommissioning activities are carried out on an industrial scale with special emphasis on cost minimisation, the use of technology on an industrial representative scale and the specific alpha contamination of equipment and building surfaces, requiring that the decommissioning work is done with adequate protective clothing. Also specific breathing and cooling air systems have been provided to allow the operators to carry out the decommissioning tasks in acceptable working conditions. (authors)

Gills, R.; Lewandowski, P.; Ooms, B.; Reusen, N.; Van Laer, W.; Walthery, R. [Belgoprocess n.v., Decommissioning and Decontamination Division, Dessel (Belgium)

2007-07-01

69

Sensitization and Intergranular Corrosion Behavior of High Nitrogen Type 304LN Stainless Steels for Reprocessing and Waste Management Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High nitrogen 304LN stainless steels (SS) intended for chloride and nitric acid environments in spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and waste management applications were evaluated for their sensitization and intergranular corrosion (IGC) resistance. For this purpose, high nitrogen (0.132 pct, 0.193 pct and 0.406 pct) containing, impurity-controlled, vanadium-added 304LN SS alloys were developed. For comparison, 304L SS, which is currently used in reprocessing plants, was also studied. These stainless steels were subjected to heat treatment at 948 K (675 °C) for various durations ranging from 1 to 1000 hours and tested for susceptibility to IGC as per ASTM A262 Practice A and E tests. The degree of sensitization was estimated with the double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation technique. The increase in nitrogen content resulted in higher hardness and finer grain size. Based on the detailed microstructural and corrosion studies, it was determined that an addition of 0.132 pct and 0.193 pct nitrogen showed better IGC resistance and an additional increase in nitrogen resulted in deterioration resulting from chromium nitride precipitation, which was confirmed by electrochemical phase separation and X-ray diffraction studies. The onset of desensitization was faster for the alloy with 0.132 pct nitrogen as well as 0.406 pct nitrogen because of the lower nitrogen content in the former case and the finer grain size in the latter case. The higher hardness and superior IGC resistance of 0.132 pct and 0.193 pct nitrogen containing Type 304LN SS suggests the suitability of this alloy for nitric acid- and chloride-containing environments of reprocessing and waste management plants.

Parvathavarthini, N.; Kamachi Mudali, U.; Nenova, Lilyana; Andreev, Chavdar; Raj, Baldev

2012-06-01

70

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed to immobilize pretreated Hanford high-level waste and transuranic waste in borosilicate glass contained in stainless steel canisters. Testing is being conducted in the HWVP Technology Development Project to ensure that adapted technologies are applicable to the candidate Hanford wastes and to generate information for waste form qualification. Empirical modeling is being conducted to define a glass composition range consistent with process and waste form qualification requirements. Laboratory studies are conducted to determine process stream properties, characterize the redox chemistry of the melter feed as a basis for controlling melt foaming and evaluate zeolite sorption materials for process waste treatment. Pilot-scale tests have been performed with simulated melter feed to access filtration for solids removal from process wastes, evaluate vitrification process performance and assess offgas equipment performance. Process equipment construction materials are being selected based on literature review, corrosion testing, and performance in pilot-scale testing. 3 figs., 6 tabs.

Larson, D.E.; Allen, C.R. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Kruger, O.L.; Weber, E.T. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States))

1991-10-01

71

A FRAMEWORK FOR MODELING ORGANIC WASTE STREAM REPROCESSING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alternative disposal methods for food and other organic manufacturing waste streams are increasingly being investigated. Direct shipping, blending, extrusion, pelleting, and drying are commonly used to produce finished human food, animal feed, or industrial products, or components ready for further...

72

Partitioning of actinide from simulated high level wastes arising from reprocessing of PHWR fuels: counter current extraction studies using CMPO.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High level wastes (HLW) arising from reprocessing of pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) fuels contain actinides like neptunium, americium, and cerium which are not extracted in the Purex process. They also contain small quantities of uranium and pluto...

D. S. Deshingkar R. R. Chitnis P. K. Wattal T. K. Theyyunni M. K. T. Nair

1994-01-01

73

Degradation and stabilization of polyolefins from municipal plastic waste during multiple extrusions under different reprocessing conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recyclability of the two main polyolefins from municipal plastic waste, HDPE and PP, was evaluated. The HDPE\\/PP blend (90:10)—the most commonly found weight proportion—was extruded three times at conventional (150–180 °C) and high (210–250 °C) reprocessing temperatures. The behavior of degradation was evaluated by infrared spectroscopy measurements (carbonyl index), melt flow index (MFI), capillary rheometry and differential scanning calorimetry (oxidation induction

A. S. F Santos; J. A. M Agnelli; D. W Trevisan; S Manrich

2002-01-01

74

Conservatism in effective dose calculations for accident events involving fuel reprocessing waste tanks.  

PubMed

Conservatism in the calculation of the effective dose following an airborne release from an accident involving a fuel reprocessing waste tank is examined. Within the regulatory constraints at the Hanford Site, deterministic effective dose calculations are conservative by at least an order of magnitude. Deterministic calculations should be used with caution in reaching decisions associated with required safety systems and mitigation philosophy related to the accidental release of airborne radioactive material to the environment. PMID:21617391

Bevelacqua, J J

2011-07-01

75

Noble gas atmospheric monitoring for international safeguards at reprocessing plants  

SciTech Connect

The use of environmental sampling is a major component of the improvements of International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards being carried out under Program 93+2. Nonradioactive noble gas isotopic measurements in the effluent stream of large reprocessing facilities may provide useful confirmatory information on the burnup and reactor type of the spent fuel undergoing reprocessing. The authors have taken and analyzed stack samples at an operating facility. The data show clear fission signals. The authors are currently applying a maximum-likelihood estimation procedure to determine the fuel burnup from these data. They anticipate that the general features involved in the table noble gas problem--selection of appropriate signals, measurement of those signals under realistic conditions, and inverse calculation of parameters of interest from the environmental data--will be present in all environmental sampling problems. These methods should therefore be widely applicable.

Nakhleh, C.W.; Poths, J.; Stanbro, W.D.; Perry, R.T. Jr.; Wilson, W.B.; Fearey, B.L.

1997-11-01

76

Potential safety-related incidents with possible applicability to a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

The Safety Technology Group is developing methodology that can be used to assess the risk of operating a plant to reprocess spent nuclear fuel. As an early step in the methodology, a preliminary hazards analysis identifies safety-related incidents. In the absence of appropriate safety features, these incidents could lead to significant consequences and risk to onsite personnel or to the public. This report is a compilation of potential safety-related incidents that have been identified in studies at SRL and in safety analyses of various commercially designed reprocessing plants. It is an expanded revision of the version originally published as DP-1558, Published December 1980.

Durant, W.S.; Perkins, W.C.; Lee, R.; Stoddard, D.H.

1982-05-20

77

Materials management in an internationally safeguarded fuels reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

The following appendices are included: aqueous reprocessing and conversion technology, reference facilities, process design and operating features relevant to materials accounting, operator's safeguards system structure, design principles of dynamic materials accounting systems, modeling and simulation approach, optimization of measurement control, aspects of international verification problem, security and reliability of materials measurement and accounting system, estimation of in-process inventory in solvent-extraction contactors, conventional measurement techniques, near-real-time measurement techniques, isotopic correlation techniques, instrumentation available to IAEA inspectors, and integration of materials accounting and containment and surveillance. (DLC)

Hakkila, E.A.; Baker, A.L.; Cobb, D.D.

1980-04-01

78

The use of curium neutrons to verify plutonium in spent fuel and reprocessing wastes  

SciTech Connect

For safeguards verification of spent fuel, leached hulls, and reprocessing wastes, it is necessary to determine the plutonium content in these items. We have evaluated the use of passive neutron multiplicity counting to determine the plutonium content directly and also to measure the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 244}Cm ratio for the indirect verification of the plutonium. Neutron multiplicity counting of the singles, doubles, and triples neutrons has been evaluated for measuring {sup 240}Pu, {sup 244}Cm, and {sup 252}Cf. We have proposed a method to establish the plutonium to curium ratio using the hybrid k-edge densitometer x-ray fluorescence instrument plus a neutron coincidence counter for the reprocessing dissolver solution. This report presents the concepts, experimental results, and error estimates for typical spent fuel applications.

Miura, N. [Tokai Reprocessing Plant, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works; Menlove, H.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1994-05-01

79

Spent fuel handling and storage facility for an LWR fuel reprocessing plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The facility will have the capability to handle spent fuel assemblies containing 10 MTHM\\/day, with 30% if the fuel received in legal weight truck (LWT) casks and the remaining fuel received in rail casks. The storage capacity will be about 30% of the annual throughput of the reprocessing plant. This size will provide space for a working inventory of about

W. H. Baker; F. D. King

1979-01-01

80

General Atomic Reprocessing Pilot Plant: Description and Results of Initial Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In June 1976 General Atomic completed the construction of a reprocessing head-end cold pilot plant. In the year since then, each system within the head end has been used for experiments which have qualified the designs. This report describes the equipment...

1977-01-01

81

HTGR fuel reprocessing pilot plant: results of the sequential equipment operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The second sequential operation of the HTGR fuel reprocessing cold-dry head-end pilot plant equipment has been successfully completed. Twenty standard LHGTR fuel elements were crushed to a size suitable for combustion in a fluid bed burner. The graphite was combusted leaving a product of fissile and fertile fuel particles. These particles were separated in a pneumatic classifier. The fissile particles

J. B. Strand; D. E. Fields; C. A. Kergis

1979-01-01

82

Characterization of the head end cells at the West Valley Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The head-end cells at the West Valley Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant are characterized in this report. These cells consist of the Process Mechanical Cell (PMC) where irradiated nuclear fuel was trimmed of excess hardware and sheared into short segments; and the General Purpose Cell (GPC) where the segments were collected and stored prior to dissolution, and leached hulls were packaged

Vance

2009-01-01

83

Active test of head-end facility at Rokkasho reprocessing plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the first step, the second and the third step of Active Test (AT) at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP), the performances of the Head-end Facility were checked, mainly for shearing and dissolution: shearing force and shearing time were the values as expected and concentration of U and Pu in dissolution solution were the values as expected. And safety requirement for

Yoshiro Yamamoto; Satoshi Tanaka; Shuji Kawabe; Yoshiaki Kamada

2007-01-01

84

Design and testing of remote handling systems for reprocessing plant maintenance and for nuclear reactor dismantling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1986 two important milestones will be reached in the field of remote handling technology in Germany: 1. The prototype of the manipulator carrier system with power manipulator (MTS) for the reprocessing plant in Wackersdorf will be completed and cold test operation will be started. 2. The dismantling manipulator with all special tools for the demolition of the Niederaichbach nuclear

J. Baier; K. Blaseck; F. Krieger; R. Kuhn; P. Leister

1986-01-01

85

Measurement of artificial radionuclides in whole diets around the BNF plc reprocessing plant at Sellafield, Cumbria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food has conducted a duplicate diet study around the BNF reprocessing plant of Sellafield in Cumbria. Samples were collected from adults and children. The results of analyses for a number of artificial radionuclides are reported; dose calculations using actual food intakes have also been made. Samples were obtained in both winter (phase I) and

K. J. Mondon; B. Walters

1993-01-01

86

The active commissioning process for a power reactor spent fuel reprocessing pilot plant in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of a power reactor spent fuel reprocessing pilot plant (hereinafter referred to as the “pilot plant”) had been\\u000a completed through active commissioning. Operational and technological parameters, such as shearing, dissolution, feed clarification,\\u000a co-decontamination cycle, uranium and plutonium purification cycle, and the uranium and plutonium finishing facility, were\\u000a identified. In addition, technical devices including extraction and mechanical equipment, electrical

TianXiang Zhang; Jian Wang; Tao Wu; GuangJun Chen; YongQing Di Wu; FaQuan Ru

2011-01-01

87

THE JOINT ESTABLISHMENT FOR NUCLEAR ENERGY RESEARCH REPROCESSING PILOT PLANT  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot plant for chemical processing of irradiated uranium has been ; erected at Joint Establishment for Nuclear Energy Research. A detailed ; description of the design of this installation and a report on operational ; experiences are presented. (auth);

T. J. Barendregt; L. K. Lund

1959-01-01

88

The second US/FRG workshop on near-real-time accounting for reprocessing plants  

SciTech Connect

The second technical workshop on near-real-time accounting in an industrial scale reprocessing plant was held from December 7--9, 1987 in Los Alamos. The workshop was organized within the context of the US/DOE--FRG/BMFT agreement in the field of international safeguards. The workshop was initiated by the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the DWK, which has responsibility for construction and operation of a planned industrial scale reprocessing plant in the FRG. The workshop objective was to review current state-of-the-art in the near-real-time accounting and to develop a common understanding among experts from the participating countries to identify problems requiring additional work.

Hakkila, E.A.; Gutmacher, R.G.; Weh, R.

1988-01-01

89

Corrosion mechanisms of austenitic stainless steels in nitric media used in reprocessing plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Austenitic stainless steels type 304L, 316L and 310Nb are largely used as structural materials for equipments handling nitric acid media in reprocessing plants. In almost all nitric media, these materials, protected by a chromium(III) oxide rich layer, remain in their passive state. However, in some particular nitric media, their corrosion potential may be shifted towards their transpassive domain. In this

P. Fauvet; F. Balbaud; R. Robin; Q.-T. Tran; A. Mugnier; D. Espinoux

2008-01-01

90

Process monitoring for reprocessing plant safeguards: a summary review  

SciTech Connect

Process monitoring is a term typically associated with a detailed look at plant operating data to determine plant status. Process monitoring has been generally associated with operational control of plant processes. Recently, process monitoring has been given new attention for a possible role in international safeguards. International Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) Task C.59 has the goal to identify specific roles for process monitoring in international safeguards. As the preliminary effort associated with this task, a review of previous efforts in process monitoring for safeguards was conducted. Previous efforts mentioned concepts and a few specific applications. None were comprehensive in addressing all aspects of a process monitoring application for safeguards. This report summarizes the basic elements that must be developed in a comprehensive process monitoring application for safeguards. It then summarizes the significant efforts that have been documented in the literature with respect to the basic elements that were addressed.

Kerr, H.T.; Ehinger, M.H.; Wachter, J.W.; Hebble, T.L.

1986-10-01

91

Lessons Learned in International Safeguards - Implementation of Safeguards at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this report is lessons learned at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP). However, the subject of lessons learned for application of international safeguards at reprocessing plants includes a cumulative history of inspections starting at the West Valley (New York, U.S.A.) reprocessing plant in 1969 and proceeding through all of the efforts over the years. The RRP is the latest and most challenging application the International Atomic Energy Agency has faced. In many ways the challenges have remained the same, timely inspection and evaluation with limited inspector resources, with the continuing realization that planning and preparations can never start early enough in the life cycle of a facility. Lessons learned over the years have involved the challenges of using ongoing advances in technology and dealing with facilities with increased throughput and continuous operation. This report will begin with a review of historical developments and lessons learned. This will provide a basis for a discussion of the experiences and lessons learned from the implementation of international safeguards at RRP.

Ehinger, Michael H [ORNL; Johnson, Shirley [Tucker Creek Consulting

2010-02-01

92

Chemical engineering in fuel reprocessing - the French experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel reprocessing implements, basically, a chemical process, with some mechanical steps for head-end operations. A modern reprocessing plant is characterized by the following: use of an efficient process to meet end product specifications, to achieve a high recovery yield of these products, to comply with radioactive release restrictions and to process all the waste for final disposal, stringent safety criteria

P. Cheron; M. Tarnero; M. Viala; C. Sombret; C. Bernard; P. Miquel

1992-01-01

93

Krypton-85 health risk assessment for a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

The risks involved in the routine release of /sup 85/Kr from nuclear fuel reprocessing operations to the environment were compared to those resulting from the capture and storage of /sup 85/Kr. Instead of releasing the /sup 85/Kr to the environment when fuel is reprocessed, it can be captured, immobilized and stored. Two alternative methods of capturing /sup 85/Kr (cryogenic distillation and fluorocarbon absorption) and one method of immobilizing the captured gas (ion implantation/sputtering) were theoretically incorporated into a representative fuel reprocessing plant, the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant, even though there are no known plans to start up this facility. Given the uncertainties in the models used to generate lifetime risk numbers (0.02 to 0.027 radiation induced fatal cancers expected in the occupational workforce and 0.017 fatal cancers in the general population), the differences in total risks for the three situations, (i.e., no-capture and two-capture alternatives) cannot be considered meaningful. It is possible that no risks would occur from any of the three situations. There is certainly no reason to conclude that risks from /sup 85/Kr routinely released to the environment are greater than those that would result from the other two situations considered. Present regulations mandate recovery and disposal of /sup 85/Kr from the off gases of a facility reprocessing spent fuel from commercial sources. Because of the lack of a clear-cut indication that recovery woud be beneficial, it does not seem prudent to burden the facilities with a requirement for /sup 85/Kr recovery, at least until operating experience demonstrates the incentive. The probable high aging of the early fuel to be processed and the higher dose resulting from the release of the unregulated /sup 3/H and /sup 14/C also encourage delaying implementation of the /sup 85/Kr recovery in the early plants.

Mellinger, P.J.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Tanner, J.E.; Gilbert, E.S.

1984-08-01

94

PRELIMINARY STUDY OF CERAMICS FOR IMMOBILIZATION OF ADVANCED FUEL CYCLE REPROCESSING WASTES  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed a series of ceramic waste forms for the immobilization of Cesium/Lanthanide (CS/LN) and Cesium/Lanthanide/Transition Metal (CS/LN/TM) waste streams anticipated to result from nuclear fuel reprocessing. Simple raw materials, including Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO, and TiO{sub 2} were combined with simulated waste components to produce multiphase ceramics containing hollandite-type phases, perovskites (particularly BaTiO{sub 3}), pyrochlores, zirconolite, and other minor metal titanate phases. Identification of excess Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} via X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) in the first series of compositions led to a Phase II study, with significantly reduced Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations and increased waste loadings. Three fabrication methodologies were used, including melting and crystallizing, pressing and sintering, and Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS), with the intent of studying phase evolution under various sintering conditions. XRD and SEM/EDS results showed that the partitioning of the waste elements in the sintered materials was very similar, despite varying stoichiometry of the phases formed. The Phase II compositions generally contained a reduced amount of unreacted Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as identified by XRD, and had phase assemblages that were closer to the initial targets. Chemical composition measurements showed no significant issues with meeting the target compositions. However, volatilization of Cs and Mo was identified, particularly during melting, since sintering of the pressed pellets and SPS were performed at lower temperatures. Partitioning of some of the waste components was difficult to determine via XRD. SEM/EDS mapping showed that those elements, which were generally present in small concentrations, were well distributed throughout the waste forms. Initial studies of radiation damage tolerance using ion beam irradiation at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) showed little if any modification of the material after irradiation. Additional study in this area is needed. Chemical durability was briefly studied using the Product Consistency Test (PCT). Most of the elements measured were retained by the ceramic waste forms, indicating good chemical durability. Cs, Mo, and Rb were released at somewhat higher rates as compared to the matrix components, although benchmark compositions and additional characterization are needed in order to qualify the PCT results.

Fox, K.; Billings, A.; Brinkman, K.; Marra, J.

2010-09-22

95

Sodium Recycle Economics for Waste Treatment Plant Operations  

SciTech Connect

Sodium recycle at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) would reduce the number of glass canisters produced, and has the potential to save the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tens of millions of dollars. The sodium, added in the form of sodium hydroxide, was originally added to minimize corrosion of carbon-steel storage tanks from acidic reprocessing wastes. In the baseline Hanford treatment process, sodium hydroxide is required to leach gibbsite and boehmite from the high level waste (HLW) sludge. In turn, this reduces the amount of HLW glass produced. Currently, a significant amount of additional sodium hydroxide will be added to the process to maintain aluminate solubility at ambient temperatures during ion exchange of cesium. The vitrification of radioactive waste is limited by sodium content, and this additional sodium mass will increase low-activity waste-glass mass.

Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Fountain, Matthew S.

2008-03-01

96

Environmental-hazard control by metal-matrix composite reprocessing  

SciTech Connect

The study examined extrusion ends, cuttings, grindings, turnings, and other aluminum and magnesium composite mill scraps to assess suitable methods for reprocessing these wastes. Electrorefining technology, gas phase reprocessing, filtration, and gravity based separations were explored. Gas phase separation and electrolytic reprocessing both allowed recoveries of whiskers and particles with morphologies which were comparable to those contained in incoming scrap; i.e., processing did not noticeably deteriorate the reinforcements. In-plant reprocessing based on these technologies will allow for direct recovery of valuable metals and reinforcements and prevent the needless introduction of environmentally polluting metal composite scrap and fine ceramic reinforcements into the ecosystem.

Pemsler, J.P.

1987-09-23

97

Diethylene-triamine-penta-acetate administration protocol for radiological emergency medicine in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants.  

PubMed

Inhalation therapy of diethylene-triamine-penta-acetate (DTPA) should be initiated immediately to workers who have significant incorporation of plutonium, americium or curium in the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. A newly designed electric mesh nebulizer is a small battery-operated passive vibrating mesh device, in which vibrations in an ultrasonic horn are used to force drug solution through a mesh of micron-sized holes. This nebulizer enables DTPA administration at an early stage in the event of a radiation emergency from contamination from the above radioactive metals. PMID:18274997

Jin, Yutaka

2008-01-01

98

Environmental dose assessment for low-level radioactive effluents discharged from Tokai reprocessing plant.  

PubMed

In the normal operation of the Tokai reprocessing plant, low-level radioactive effluents are discharged to the atmosphere and the ocean under rigid control. Radiation exposures to the population around the plant have been estimated for potential pathways with site-specific parameters such as food consumption, concentration factors of marine organisms, and meteorological conditions. External exposures to a radioactive cloud and internal exposures from inhalation and oral intake of radionuclides are evaluated for airborne effluents. External exposures to a contaminated fishing net and fishing boat are considered pathways for fishermen. External exposure to a contaminated beach and internal exposure via oral intake of marine products are evaluated for liquid effluents. Since the plant began operation in 1977, estimated effective dose equivalents for the public have been less than the annual effective dose equivalent limit of 0.1% recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (1977). PMID:1727412

Shinohara, K; Asano, T

1992-01-01

99

Characterization of the head end cells at the West Valley Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant  

SciTech Connect

The head-end cells at the West Valley Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant are characterized in this report. These cells consist of the Process Mechanical Cell (PMC) where irradiated nuclear fuel was trimmed of excess hardware and sheared into short segments; and the General Purpose Cell (GPC) where the segments were collected and stored prior to dissolution, and leached hulls were packaged for disposal. Between 1966 and 1972, while Nuclear Fuels Services operated the plant, these cells became highly contaminated with radioactive materials. The purpose of this characterization work was to develop technical information as a basis of decontamination and decommissioning planning and engineering. It was accomplished by performing remote in-cell visual examinations, radiation surveys, and sampling. Supplementary information was obtained from available written records, out-of-cell inspections, and interviews with plant personnel.

Vance, R.F.

1986-11-01

100

Public comments and Task Force responses regarding the environmental survey of the reprocessing and waste management portions of the LWR fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect

This document contains responses by the NRC Task Force to comments received on the report ''Environmental Survey of the Reprocessing and Waste Management Portions of the LWR Fuel Cycle'' (NUREG-0116). These responses are directed at all comments, inclding those received after the close of the comment period. Additional information on the environmental impacts of reprocessing and waste management which has either become available since the publication of NUREG-0116 or which adds requested clarification to the information in that document.

Not Available

1977-03-01

101

Corrosion Resistance of Various High Chromium Alloys in Simulated Chemical Processing Nuclear Plant Waste Solutions  

SciTech Connect

High chromium nickel alloys were tested at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) to determine their corrosion performance in the high temperature aggressive chemical environments of liquid waste evaporators used in the chemical reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuels. The results of these tests, which included a variety of base metal alloys I weld filler material combinations, are presented and discussed.

Anderson, P.A. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Agarwal, D.C. [Krupp VDM, Houston, TX (United States)

1997-12-31

102

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The waste isolation pilot plant (WIPP) is the worlds first licensed and operating geological repository for transuranic waste. The WIPP operation and related activities will be reviewed along with many science and development projects going on including an underground dark matter telescope and double beta decay detection experiments.

Hayes, Robert

2012-10-01

103

Plywood Plant Glue Wastes Disposal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the States of Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Montana, and California, 158 plywood plants generate an estimated 6.2 million gallons of waste per day from the cleanup of glue mixing equipment and glue spreaders. The waste is toxic and high in pollutional str...

D. G. Bodien

1968-01-01

104

Conceptual designs of NDA instruments for the NRTA system at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant  

SciTech Connect

The authors are studying conceptual designs of selected nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments for the near-real-time accounting system at the rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) of Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL). The JNFL RRP is a large-scale commercial reprocessing facility for spent fuel from boiling-water and pressurized-water reactors. The facility comprises two major components: the main process area to separate and produce purified plutonium nitrate and uranyl nitrate from irradiated reactor spent fuels, and the co-denitration process area to combine and convert the plutonium nitrate and uranyl nitrate into mixed oxide (MOX). The selected NDA instruments for conceptual design studies are the MOX-product canister counter, holdup measurement systems for calcination and reduction furnaces and for blenders in the co-denitration process, the isotope dilution gamma-ray spectrometer for the spent fuel dissolver solution, and unattended verification systems. For more effective and practical safeguards and material control and accounting at RRP, the authors are also studying the conceptual design for the UO{sub 3} large-barrel counter. This paper discusses the state-of-the-art NDA conceptual design and research and development activities for the above instruments.

Li, T.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Menlove, H.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Safeguards Science and Technology Group] [and others

1996-09-01

105

Computerized Analytical Data Management System and Automated Analytical Sample Transfer System at the COGEMA Reprocessing Plants in La Hague.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Managing the operation of large commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, such as UP3 and UP2-800 in La Hague, France, requires an extensive analytical program and the shortest possible analysis response times. COGEMA, together with its engineeri...

T. Flament F. Goasmat F. Poilane

2002-01-01

106

Measurement of the Distribution of exp 129 I in and Its Discharge from the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since 1975, measurements of exp 129 I have been carried out in almost all solutions and in the exhaust air of the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant (WAK). Samples from the air are collected by solid filters containing AC 6120. The solutions are treated radioch...

R. Berg H. Schuttelkopf

1978-01-01

107

Operating experience of centrifugal contactors used in a third plutonium purification cycle at the Marcoule reprocessing plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Multistage centrifugal contactors of the type SGN-ROBATEL LX 208 NSC are used in a third plutonium cycle at the Marcoule Reprocessing Plant, they have been smooth-running since the commissioning in 1984. The four centrifugal contactors, totalling 32 stage...

J. A. Coste C. A. Breschet G. L. Delafontaine

1991-01-01

108

Assessment of the dose commitment from ingestion of aquatic foods contaminated by emissions from a proposed nuclear fuel reprocessing plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dose commitment to individuals and the regional population from ingesting aquatic foods contaminated by radionuclides emitted from proposed nuclear fuel reprocessing at the Savannah River Plant was estimated. The estimates are based on source emission data and deposition patterns provided by the project coordinator and on the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory's predictions of radionuclide concentrations in surface waters of

Y. C. Ng; W. A. Phillips; Y. E. Ricker; R. K. Tandy; S. E. Thompson

1978-01-01

109

Determination of the Mass of Nuclear Material in the Input Accountability Tank of the ITREC Reprocessing Plant by Tracer Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of experiments which we will call ITITEX (ITREC Input Tank Experiment) is an analysis using lutetium as a tracer in the indirect determination of the mass of fissile material contained in an accounting tank of the ITREC Reprocessing Plant at CRE ...

V. Altamura G. Arcuri S. Miglietta P. R. Trincherini

1987-01-01

110

The Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Safeguards and Separations Reprocessing Plant Toolkit  

SciTech Connect

This report details the progress made in the development of the Reprocessing Plant Toolkit (RPTk) for the DOE Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program. RPTk is an ongoing development effort intended to provide users with an extensible, integrated, and scalable software framework for the modeling and simulation of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plants by enabling the insertion and coupling of user-developed physicochemical modules of variable fidelity. The NEAMS Safeguards and Separations IPSC (SafeSeps) and the Enabling Computational Technologies (ECT) supporting program element have partnered to release an initial version of the RPTk with a focus on software usability and utility. RPTk implements a data flow architecture that is the source of the system's extensibility and scalability. Data flows through physicochemical modules sequentially, with each module importing data, evolving it, and exporting the updated data to the next downstream module. This is accomplished through various architectural abstractions designed to give RPTk true plug-and-play capabilities. A simple application of this architecture, as well as RPTk data flow and evolution, is demonstrated in Section 6 with an application consisting of two coupled physicochemical modules. The remaining sections describe this ongoing work in full, from system vision and design inception to full implementation. Section 3 describes the relevant software development processes used by the RPTk development team. These processes allow the team to manage system complexity and ensure stakeholder satisfaction. This section also details the work done on the RPTk ``black box'' and ``white box'' models, with a special focus on the separation of concerns between the RPTk user interface and application runtime. Section 4 and 5 discuss that application runtime component in more detail, and describe the dependencies, behavior, and rigorous testing of its constituent components.

McCaskey, Alex [ORNL; Billings, Jay Jay [ORNL; de Almeida, Valmor F [ORNL

2011-08-01

111

Idaho Chemical Processing Plant spent fuel and waste management technology development program plan: 1994 Update  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage since 1951 and reprocessing since 1953. Until April 1992, the major activity of the ICPP was the reprocessing of SNF to recover fissile uranium and the management of the resulting high-level wastes (HLW). In 1992, DOE chose to discontinue reprocessing SNF for uranium recovery and shifted its focus toward the continued safe management and disposition of SNF and radioactive wastes accumulated through reprocessing activities. Currently, 1.8 million gallons of radioactive liquid wastes (1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid wastes and 0.3 million gallons of high-level liquid waste), 3,800 cubic meters of calcine waste, and 289 metric tons heavy metal of SNF are in inventory at the ICPP. Disposal of SNF and high-level waste (HLW) is planned for a repository. Preparation of SNF, HLW, and other radioactive wastes for disposal may include mechanical, physical, and/or chemical processes. This plan outlines the program strategy of the ICPP spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program (SF&WMTDP) to develop and demonstrate the technology required to ensure that SNF and radioactive waste will be properly stored and prepared for final disposal in accordance with regulatory drivers. This Plan presents a brief summary of each of the major elements of the SF&WMTDP; identifies key program assumptions and their bases; and outlines the key activities and decisions that must be completed to identify, develop, demonstrate, and implement a process(es) that will properly prepare the SNF and radioactive wastes stored at the ICPP for safe and efficient interim storage and final disposal.

Not Available

1994-09-01

112

Adequacy of radioiodine control and monitoring at nuclear fuels reprocessing plants  

SciTech Connect

The present backlog of irradiated reactor fuel leads to projections that no fuel out of the reactor less than 10 years need be reprocessed prior to the year 2000. The only radioiodine present in such aged fuel is /sup 129/I (half-life 1.6 x 10/sup 7/ y). The /sup 131/I initially present in the fuel decays to insignificance in the first few hundred days post-reactor. The /sup 129/I content of irradiated fuel is about 1 Ci per gigawatt-year of electricity generated (Ci/GW(e)-y). The US EPA has specified, in 40 CFR 190, a release limit for /sup 129/I of 5 mCi/GW(e)-y. Thus a retention factor (RF) of 200 for /sup 129/I at the fuel reprocessing plant (FRP) is required. Experience indicates that RF values obtained under actual FRP operating conditions can average as little as 10% of experimentally determined RF values. Therefore processes theoretically capable of achieving RF values of up to 10/sup 4/ have been investigated. The US EPA has also specified in 40 CFR 90 a thyroid dose limit of 75 mrem/y for a member of the general public. This dose limit could be readily met at a typical FRP site with an RF value of about 10 or less. Therefore, the limit of 5 mCi/GW(e)-y is more restrictive than the thyroid dose limit for /sup 129/I. The absence of /sup 131/I in effluents from processing of aged fuels makes analysis of /sup 129/I somewhat easier. However, in-line, real-time monitoring for /sup 129/I in FRP gas streams is currently not feasible. Moisture, chemicals, and other radioactive fission products interfere with in-plant measurements. Samples collected over several days must be taken to a laboratory for /sup 129/I analysis. Measurement techniques currently in use or under investigation include neutron activation analysis, scintillation counting, mass spectroscopy, and gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detection. 26 references, 3 figures, 7 tables.

Scheele, R.D.; Burger, L.L.; Soldat, J.K.

1984-06-01

113

Conclusions on plutonium separation from atmospheric krypton-85 measured at various distances from the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

For wide-area atmospheric monitoring, krypton-85 is the best indicator for clandestine plutonium separations. The detection and false alarm rates were determined from weekly samples at five different distances from the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant between 1985 and 1988. The detection rate for the separation of 4 kg of plutonium per week was found to be as high as 80–90% at a

Martin B. Kalinowski; Hartmut Sartorius; Stefan Uhl; Wolfgang Weiss

2004-01-01

114

Computer simulated plant design for waste minimization/pollution prevention  

SciTech Connect

The book discusses several paths to pollution prevention and waste minimization by using computer simulation programs. It explains new computer technologies used in the field of pollution prevention and waste management; provides information pertaining to overcoming technical, economic, and environmental barriers to waste reduction; gives case-studies from industries; and covers computer aided flow sheet design and analysis for nuclear fuel reprocessing.

Bumble, S.

2000-07-01

115

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical manual  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key element of the Hanford waste management strategy is the construction of a new facility, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), to vitrify existing and future liquid high-level waste produced by defense activities at the Hanford Site. The HWVP mission is to vitrify pretreated waste in borosilicate glass, cast the glass into stainless steel canisters, and store the canisters

D. E. Larson; R. A. Watrous; O. L. Kruger

1996-01-01

116

Field test of New TASTEX system for plutonium product verification at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the field test results of the New TASTEX system. This system consisting of the high resolution gamma spectrometer and the k-edge densitometer can measure both isotopic abundances and concentration of plutonium simultaneously. Entire system is controlled by the multichannel analyzer and a multi-user computer. The system was designed and built under the Japan Support Program for Agency Safeguards (JASPAS). The software of this system developed at LANL and LLNL has been installed in the system assembled at the Tokai reprocessing plant (TRP) in July 1985. In the course of campaigns from 1985 until 1988, field tests have been carried out on plutonium product solutions of TRP. The results of plutonium concentration and isotopic abundances obtained by the k-edge densitometer and the high resolution gamma spectrometer (HRGS) have been compared with those by controlled potential coulometer and mass spectrometer respectively. Precision of plutonium determination with k-edge densitometer is estimated approximately 0.7% and 1.0% for the freshly processed plutonium and the aged plutonium respectively. The scatters in the relative differences between HRGS and the destructive analysis (DA) detected on the results of freshly processed plutonium sample were 1.6%, 0.4%, 0.5%, 1.1%, 8.0% for Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and Pu-242 respectively, whereas those on the results of aged sample were 1.4%, 0.5%, 1.1%, 1.1% for Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, and Pu-241 respectively. 9 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

Kuno, Y.; Shigeoka, K.; Nishida, K.; Ikeda, H.; Hayashi, N.; Wachi, I.; Hsue, S.T.; Sprinkle, J.K.; Gunnink, R.; Ruhter, W.D.

1988-01-01

117

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant capacity increase options.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies are being conducted by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project on ways to increase the waste processing capacity within the current Vitrification Building structural design. The Phase 1 study on remote systems concepts identification ...

D. E. Larson

1996-01-01

118

Disposal of Savannah River Plant waste salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 26-million gallons of soluble low-level waste salts will be produced during solidification of 6-million gallons of high-level defense waste in the proposed Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Soluble wastes (primarily NaNOâ, NaNOâ, and NaOH) stored in the waste tanks will be decontaminated by ion exchange and solidified in concrete. The resulting salt-concrete mixture,

Dukes

1982-01-01

119

Component failure-rate data with potential applicability to a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 1223 pieces of component failure-rate data, under 136 subject categories, have been compiled from published literature and computer searches of a number of data bases. Component selections were based on potential applicability to facilities for reprocessing spent nuclear fuels. The data will be useful in quantifying fault trees for probabilistic safety analyses and risk assessments.

Dexter, A.H.; Perkins, W.C.

1982-07-01

120

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Dangerous Waste Permit Application  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Facility currently stores mixed waste, resulting from various processing operations, in underground storage tanks. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant will be constructed and operated to process the high-activity fraction of mixed waste stored in these underground tanks. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant will solidify pretreated tank waste into a glass product that will be packaged for disposal in a national repository. This Vitrification Plant Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Revision 2, consists of both a Part A and a Part B permit application. An explanation of the Part A revisions, including Revision 4 submitted with this application, is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. The Part B consists of 15 chapters addressing the organization and content of the Part B Checklist prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987).

Not Available

1991-10-01

121

INSPECTIONS OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT.  

EPA Science Inventory

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a disposal system for radioactive wastes. Developed by the Department of Energy (DOE), the WIPP is located near Carlsbad in southeastern New Mexico. The DOE is burying radioactive waste 2150 feet underground in an ancient layer of salt ...

122

Division of Waste Management, Production, and Reprocessing programs progress report for January--December 1976  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of the acid digestion process for treating combustible nuclear wastes has progressed to design and construction of the Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU). Tests were continued in the nonradioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (ADTU) in an effort to improve the performance of the system. Nitric acid consumption has been decreased from 8.8 to 4.5 kg HNOâ\\/kg digested waste

1977-01-01

123

Consolidated fuel reprocessing program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improved processes and components for the Breeder Reprocessing Engineering Test (BRET) were identified and developed as well as the design, procurement and development of prototypic equipment. The integrated testing of process equipment and flowsheets prototypical of a pilot scale full reprocessing plant, and also for testing prototypical remote features of specific complex components in the system are provided. Information to guide the long range activities of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CERP), a focal point for foreign exchange activities, and support in specialized technical areas are described. Research and development activities in HTGR fuel treatment technology are being conducted. Head-end process and laboratory scale development efforts, as well as studies specific to HTGR fuel, are reported. The development of off-gas treatment processes has generic application to fuel reprocessing, progress in this work is also reported.

1985-02-01

124

Conversion Reactions of Metal Chlorides into Oxides with Boric Acid Applicability to the Vitrification of Molten Salt Wastes Generated in Pyro-reprocessing Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conversion reactions of metal chlorides into oxides with boric acid (H3BO3) were studied to develop the method for vitrification of radioactive molten salt wastes generated in the pyro- reprocessing process. Mixtures of metal chlorides and H3BO3 with appropriate compositions in Pt crucible were heated at 1,000°C for 1h in an electric furnace, followed by rapid cooling to room temperature. The

Yasuhisa IKEDA; Yoichi TAKASHIMA; Hiroaki KOBAYASHI; Hiroshi IGARASHI

1995-01-01

125

DEVELOPMENT OF CRYSTALLINE CERAMICS FOR IMMOBILIZATION OF ADVANCED FUEL CYCLE REPROCESSING WASTES  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is developing crystalline ceramic waste forms to incorporate CS/LN/TM high Mo waste streams consisting of perovskite, hollandite, pyrochlore, zirconolite, and powellite phase assemblages. Simple raw materials, including Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO, and TiO{sub 2} were combined with simulated waste components to produce multiphase crystalline ceramics. Fiscal Year 2011 (FY11) activities included (i) expanding the compositional range by varying waste loading and fabrication of compositions rich in TiO{sub 2}, (ii) exploring the processing parameters of ceramics produced by the melt and crystallize process, (iii) synthesis and characterization of select individual phases of powellite and hollandite that are the target hosts for radionuclides of Mo, Cs, and Rb, and (iv) evaluating the durability and radiation stability of single and multi-phase ceramic waste forms. Two fabrication methods, including melting and crystallizing, and pressing and sintering, were used with the intent of studying phase evolution under various sintering conditions. An analysis of the XRD and SEM/EDS results indicates that the targeted crystalline phases of the FY11 compositions consisting of pyrochlore, perovskite, hollandite, zirconolite, and powellite were formed by both press and sinter and melt and crystallize processing methods. An evaluation of crystalline phase formation versus melt processing conditions revealed that hollandite, perovskite, zirconolite, and residual TiO{sub 2} phases formed regardless of cooling rate, demonstrating the robust nature of this process for crystalline phase development. The multiphase ceramic composition CSLNTM-06 demonstrated good resistance to proton beam irradiation. Electron irradiation studies on the single phase CaMoO{sub 4} (a component of the multiphase waste form) suggested that this material exhibits stability to 1000 years at anticipated self-irradiation doses (2 x 10{sup 10}-2 x 10{sup 11} Gy), but that its stability may be rate dependent, therefore limiting the activity of the waste for which it can be employed. Overall, these preliminary results indicate good radiation damage tolerance for the crystalline ceramic materials. The PCT results showed that, for all of the waste forms tested, the normalized release values for most of the elements measured, including all of the lanthanides and noble metals, were either very small or below the instrument detection limits. Elevated normalized release values were measured only for Cs, Mo, and Rb. It is difficult to draw further conclusions from these data until a benchmark material is developed for the PCT with this type of waste form. Calcined, simulated CS/LN/TM High Mo waste without additives had relatively low normalized release values for Cs, Mo, and Rb. A review of the chemical composition data for this sample showed that these elements were well retained after the calcination. Therefore, it will be useful to further characterize the calcined material to determine what form these elements are in after calcining. This, along with single phase studies on Cs containing crystal structures such as hollandite, should provide insight into the most ideal phases to incorporate these elements to produce a durable waste form.

Fox, K.; Brinkman, K.

2011-09-22

126

Nuclear wastes at West Valley, New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-tiered approach is proposed for separating questions of who manages nuclear wastes from who pays for the management. The proper role of the Federal government in the nuclear fuel cycle is explored in the historical context of the West Valley, New York reprocessing plant, which operated on a private basis from 1966 to 1972. The plant reprocessed 600 metric

R. K. Lester; D. J. Rose

1977-01-01

127

Technology and equipment based on induction melters with ``cold'' crucible for reprocessing active metal waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper discusses specific features of technology, equipment and control of a single stage RAMW decontamination and melting process in an induction furnace equipped with a ``cold'' crucible. The calculated and experimental data are given on melting high activity level stainless steel and Zr simulating high activity level metal waste. The work is under way in SSC RF VNIINM. .

Pastushkov, V. G.; Molchanov, A. V.; Serebryakov, V. P.; Smelova, T. V.; Shestoperov, I. N.

2000-07-01

128

Technology and equipment based on induction melters with ``cold'' crucible for reprocessing active metal waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses specific features of technology, equipment and control of a single stage RAMW decontamination and melting process in an induction furnace equipped with a ``cold'' crucible. The calculated and experimental data are given on melting high activity level stainless steel and Zr simulating high activity level metal waste. The work is under way in SSC RF VNIINM. .

V. G. Pastushkov; A. V. Molchanov; V. P. Serebryakov; T. V. Smelova; I. N. Shestoperov

2000-01-01

129

Preliminary model of repository chemistry for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The design-basis, defense-related, transuranic (TRU) waste to be emplaced in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) could, if sufficient H{sub 2}O and nutrients were present, produce as much as 1,500 moles of gas per drum of waste. Gas production could pressurize the repository to 150 atm (lithostatic pressure) and perhaps higher. Anoxic corrosion of Fe and Fe-base alloys and microbial degradation of cellulosics are the processes of greatest concern, but radiolysis of brine could also be important. The proposed backfill additives CaCO{sub 3}, CaO, CuSO{sub 4}, KOH, and NaOH may remove or prevent the production of some of the expected gases. Because of the heterogeneous nature of design-basis waste, the Eh and pH of any brine present in WIPP disposal rooms could vary significantly over short distances after reacting with the waste. The WIPP Project is investigating the consequences of gas production and considering engineered alternatives, including reprocessing the waste, to reduce gas production rates or potentials. Reprocessing would also reduce the range of Eh and pH expected for the repository. 12 refs.

Brush, L.H. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Gbric-Galic, D. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA). Dept. of Civil Engineering); Reed, D.T. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Tong, X. (Wahler (W.A.) and Associates, Palo Alto, CA (USA)); Vreeland, R.H. (West Chester Univ., PA (USA). Dept. of Biology); Westerman, R.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

1990-01-01

130

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant: Preliminary Description of Waste Form and Canister.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In July 1985, the US Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management established the Waste Acceptance Process as the means by which defense high-level waste producers, such as the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant, will develop wast...

D. E. Mitchell

1986-01-01

131

Once-Through Thermal-Spectrum Accelerator-Driven Light Water Reactor Waste Destruction Without Reprocessing  

SciTech Connect

An accelerator-driven thermal-spectrum liquid-fueled system is described for transmutation of spent fuel from commercial power reactors. The primary purpose of the system is to destroy the weapons-useful plutonium and neptunium in commercial spent fuel and thereby eliminate international concerns about the recovery of such material from geologic repositories for nuclear weapons purposes. The system also extracts {approx}80% of the fission energy available in the plutonium, and this energy is converted into electricity and sold into the commercial grid to pay nearly all of the capital and operating costs. The 20% of the material not destroyed is converted to an isotopic composition of no interest from a weapons perspective. These functions are accomplished without recycling or separation of a stream of pure plutonium. With technological development enabling widespread deployment in the 2015 to 2025 time frame, the world's inventory of nuclear weapons useful material could be reduced by a factor of 100 or more by the middle of the next century. This system does not eliminate the need for geologic storage of the remnant waste since the 20% remnant must be stored somewhere for tens of thousands of years, but it eliminates the possibility of mining geologic repositories for weapons material, it enables the recovery of nearly all of the energy carried by the plutonium, it reduces the amount of actinides that must be permanently stored by a factor of 5, and it enhances the repository's performance by reducing the load of long-lived radioactive actinide. Furthermore, since weapons material is eliminated, it transforms the ultimate disposition of the spent-fuel waste remnant from a subject of profound international concern to one in which nations need have little interest in how others solve this problem. Most of the concerns about the waste legacy from continued light water reactor deployment would be made moot by the advent of this waste destruction technology.

Bowman, Charles D

2000-10-15

132

Report on the NGS3 Working Group on Safeguards by Design For Aqueous Reprocessing Plants  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Working Group on SBD for Aqueous Reprocessing Facilities was to provide recommendations, for facility operators and designers, which would aid in the coordination and integration of nuclear material accountancy and the safeguards requirements of all concerned parties - operators, state/regional authorities, and the IAEA. The recommendations, which are to be provided to the IAEA, are intended to assist in optimizing facility design and operating parameters to ensure the safeguardability of the facility while minimizing impact on the operations. The one day Working Group session addressed a wide range of design and operating topics.

Johnson, Shirley J.; Ehinger, Michael; Schanfein, Mark

2011-02-01

133

Plutonium finishing plant dangerous waste training plan  

SciTech Connect

This training plan describes general requirements, worker categories, and provides course descriptions for operation of the Plutonium Finish Plant (PFP) waste generation facilities, permitted treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) units, and the 90-Day Accumulation Areas.

ENTROP, G.E.

1999-05-24

134

Safety at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a Department of Energy (DOE) project designed to demonstrate safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) wastes in the excavations of a salt bed situated 2,150 feet underground. The operational philosophy of the WIPP is th...

C. F. Wu

1992-01-01

135

Safety at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a Department of Energy (DOE) project designed to demonstrate safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) wastes in the excavations of a salt bed situated 2,150 feet underground. The operational philosophy of the WIPP is threefold: to start clean and stay clean, to meet or exceed regulatory requirements, and to keep radiation exposures as low

Chuan-Fu

1992-01-01

136

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant capacity increase options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies are being conducted by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project on ways to increase the waste processing capacity within the current Vitrification Building structural design. The Phase 1 study on remote systems concepts identification and extent of capacity increase was completed. The study concluded that the HWVP capacity could be increased to four times the current capacity with

1996-01-01

137

NUCLEAR POWER PLANT WASTE HEAT HORTICULTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of the feasibility of using low grade (70 degrees F) waste heat from the condenser cooling water of the Vermont Yaknee nuclear plant for commercial food enhancement. The study addressed the possible impact of laws on the use of waste heat from ...

138

Determination of the Structure of Vitrified Hydroceramic/CBC Waste Form Glasses Manufactured from DOE Reprocessing Waste  

SciTech Connect

The selection of a glass-making option for the solidification of nuclear waste has dominated DOE waste form programs since the early 1980's. Both West Valley and Savannah River are routinely manufacturing glass logs from the high level waste inventory in tank sludges. However, for some wastes, direct conversion to glass is clearly not the optimum strategy for immobilization. INEEL, for example, has approximately 4400 m{sup 3} of calcined high level waste with an activity that produces approximately 45 watts/m{sup 3}, a rather low concentration of radioactive constituents. For these wastes, there is value in seeking alternatives to glass. An alternative approach has been developed and the efficacy of the process demonstrated that offers a significant savings in both human health and safety exposures and also a lower cost relative to the vitrification option. The alternative approach utilizes the intrinsic chemical reactivity of the highly alkaline waste with the addition of aluminosilicate admixtures in the appropriate proportions to form zeolites. The process is one in which a chemically bonded ceramic is produced. The driving force for reaction is derived from the chemical system itself at very modest temperatures and yet forms predominantly crystalline phases. Because the chemically bonded ceramic requires an aqueous medium to serve as a vehicle for the chemical reaction, the proposed zeolite-containing waste form can more adequately be described as a hydroceramic. The hydrated crystalline materials are then subject to hot isostatic pressing (HIP) which partially melts the material to form a glass ceramic. The scientific advantages of the hydroceramic/CBC approach are: (1) Low temperature processing; (2) High waste loading and thus only modest volumetric bulking from the addition of admixtures; (3) Ability to immobilize sodium; (4) Ability to handle low levels of nitrate (2-3% NO{sub 3}{sup -}); (5) The flexibility of a vitrifiable waste; and (6) A process that is based on an industry with decades of practical experience. The research undertaken in the present investigation builds on a previous study under the NEER program. The earlier studies identified an optimal formulation for the immobilization of the calcine that is both compositionally adequate to retain radionuclides as well as hazardous constituents and which has a reaction rate that will allow the technical employment of the process. The study established in a general way the glass-forming region in the system M{sub 2}O-MO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} (M{sub 2}0 = alkali metal oxides; MO = alkaline earth metal oxide) which provides the base for these hydroceramic/CBC materials (Fig. 1). The objectives of the present program are to track the structural changes that take place during formulation, chemical reaction, and HIPing. Compositions must be varied through the glass-forming region, structures of the crystals and glass matrix of the glass-ceramic determined, and the structural characteristics in turn related to stability and leachability of the final products.

Scheetz, B.E.; White, W. B.; Chesleigh, M.; Portanova, A.; Olanrewaju, J.

2005-05-31

139

GENERAL SAFETY FACTORS FOR A NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING PLANT. PART 1. NUCLEAR SAFETY. PART 2. RADIATION SHIELDING. PART 3. CHEMICAL SAFETY PROBLEMS. Technical Report No. 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear safety in a fuel reprocessing plant is discussed. Means of ; avoiding criticality such as mass limitation, safe geometry, and safe ; concentrations are examined along with a note of caution on reflection. In ; addition, shielding is discussed, and it is pointed out that major pieces of ; equipment must be heavily shielded especially at the head-end of

Larsson

1957-01-01

140

Precise Determination of Magnesium and Lutetium in Input Accountability Tank Solutions of Nuclear Reprocessing Plants by the Mass Spectrometric Stable Isotope Dilution Technique.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the procedures for the determination of Mg and Lu concentrations in input solutions of nuclear fuel dissolved in reprocessing plants. The main aim of this work is to supply an independent method for measuring the volume of input accou...

P. R. Trincherini F. Mousty W. Pfeiffer

1986-01-01

141

Investigation on the Dispersion of Low-Level Liquid Effluent Released from the Fuel Reprocessing Plant into the Sea. Data Collection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, the hot test of the fuel reprocessing plant was carried out, starting in September, 1977. For seven months period from November, 1977, to June, 1978, during the hot test, the dispersion of low-lev...

1978-01-01

142

Evaluation of methods for decladding LWR fuel for a pyroprocessing-based reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

The first step in reprocessing disassembled light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel is to separate the zirconium-based cladding from the UO[sub 2] fuel. A survey of decladding technologies has been performed to identify candidate decladding processes suitable for LWR fuel and compatible with downstream pyropr for separation of actinides and fission products. Technologies for the primary separation of Zircaloy cladding from oxide fuel and for secondary separations (in most cases, a further decontamination of the cladding) were reviewed. Because cutting of the fuel cladding is a necessary step in all flowsheet options, metal cutting technologies were also briefly evaluated. The assessment of decladding processes resulted in the identification of the three or four potentially attractive options that may warrant additional near-term evaluation. These options are summarized, and major strengths and issues of each option are discussed.

Bond, W.D.; Mailen, J.C.; Michaels, G.E.

1992-10-01

143

Evaluation of methods for decladding LWR fuel for a pyroprocessing-based reprocessing plant  

SciTech Connect

The first step in reprocessing disassembled light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel is to separate the zirconium-based cladding from the UO{sub 2} fuel. A survey of decladding technologies has been performed to identify candidate decladding processes suitable for LWR fuel and compatible with downstream pyropr for separation of actinides and fission products. Technologies for the primary separation of Zircaloy cladding from oxide fuel and for secondary separations (in most cases, a further decontamination of the cladding) were reviewed. Because cutting of the fuel cladding is a necessary step in all flowsheet options, metal cutting technologies were also briefly evaluated. The assessment of decladding processes resulted in the identification of the three or four potentially attractive options that may warrant additional near-term evaluation. These options are summarized, and major strengths and issues of each option are discussed.

Bond, W.D.; Mailen, J.C.; Michaels, G.E.

1992-10-01

144

Next-Generation Online MC&A Technologies for Reprocessing Plants  

SciTech Connect

As power-production nuclear fuel cycles propagate across the globe, a new generation of measurement technologies is needed to support safeguards monitoring of fuel reprocessing facilities. This paper describes the simulation and analysis of two potential technologies for meeting the challenges of 1) direct measurement of fissile isotopic content in irradiated fuel to detect partial defects, and 2) near-real-time monitoring of process chemistry to detect protracted diversion scenarios. Lead slowing-down spectroscopy is the core of the spent fuel assay technology and multi-isotope indicators via high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy is the foundation of the process chemistry verification approach. The safeguards context and methods for each technology are described and the results of preliminary performance studies are presented. The quantitative results for both studies are promising but more comprehensive analysis and empirical validation is needed to adequately assess their potential value as next-generation online materials control and accountability measures.

Smith, Leon E.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Ressler, Jennifer J.; Douglas, Matt; Anderson, Kevin K.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Durst, Casey; Orton, Chris; Christensen, Robert P.

2007-08-03

145

Sodium Recycle Economics for Waste Treatment Plant Operations  

SciTech Connect

Sodium recycle at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) would reduce the number of glass canisters produced, and has the potential to significantly reduce the cost to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) of treating the tank wastes by hundreds of millions of dollars. The sodium, added in the form of sodium hydroxide, was originally added to minimize corrosion of carbon-steel storage tanks from acidic reprocessing wastes. In the baseline Hanford treatment process, sodium hydroxide is required to leach gibbsite and boehmite from the high level waste (HLW) sludge. In turn, this reduces the amount of HLW glass produced. Currently, a significant amount of additional sodium hydroxide will be added to the process to maintain aluminate solubility at ambient temperatures during ion exchange of cesium. The vitrification of radioactive waste is limited by sodium content, and this additional sodium mass will increase low-activity waste-glass mass. An electrochemical salt-splitting process, based on sodium-ion selective ceramic membranes, is being developed to recover and recycle sodium hydroxide from high-salt radioactive tank wastes in DOE’s complex. The ceramic membranes are from a family of materials known as sodium (Na)—super-ionic conductors (NaSICON)—and the diffusion of sodium ions (Na+) is allowed, while blocking other positively charged ions. A cost/benefit evaluation was based on a strategy that involves a separate caustic-recycle facility based on the NaSICON technology, which would be located adjacent to the WTP facility. A Monte Carlo approach was taken, and several thousand scenarios were analyzed to determine likely economic results. The cost/benefit evaluation indicates that 10,000–50,000 metric tons (MT) of sodium could be recycled, and would allow for the reduction of glass production by 60,000–300,000 MT. The cost of the facility construction and operation was scaled to the low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification facility, showing cost would be roughly $150 million to $400 million for construction and $10 million to $40 million per year for operations. Depending on the level of aluminate supersaturation allowed in the storage tanks in the LAW Pretreatment Facility, these values indicate a return on investment of up to 25% to 60%.

Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Fountain, Matthew S.

2008-08-31

146

Reprocessing in Europe today  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reprocessing of irradiated fuel and the ancillary services of transport ; and finishing have been organized to serve the nuclear power industrv within ; Europe around United Reprocessors. It was formed in October 1971 between the ; major nuclear countries, France, Germany and the United Kingdom to coordinate R & ; D with plant design and construction and supporting services

Zuehlke

1973-01-01

147

Reprocessing of Nuclear Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The survey on hand aims at analysing in an unbiassed way the great number of recently issued inconsistent statements on pros and cons of prompt disposal of spent fuel from German nuclear power plants by reprocessing it according to the PUREX principle. Nu...

G. Baumgaertel C. Brueckner H. Stoeber K. L. Huppert E. Merz

1983-01-01

148

Managing nuclear waste from power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

National strategies to manage nuclear waste from commercial nuclear power plants are analyzed and compared. The current strategy is to try to operate a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to dispose storage at a centralized facility or next to nuclear power plants. If either of these is pursued now, the analysis assumes that a repository will be built in 2100

Ralph L. Keeney; Detlof Winterfeldt

1994-01-01

149

INDEPENDENT POWER PLANT USING WOOD WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

A 1 MWe power plant using waste wood is to be installed at a U.S. Marine Corps base, which will supply all the wood for the plant from a landfill site. The core energy conversion technology is a down-draft gasifier supplying approximately 150 Btu/scf gas to both spark ignition an...

150

On-Line Monitoring for Control and Safeguarding of Radiochemical Streams at Spent Fuel Reprocessing Plant  

SciTech Connect

There is a renewed interest worldwide to promote the use of nuclear power and close the nuclear fuel cycle. The long term successful use of nuclear power is critically dependent upon adequate and safe processing and disposition of the spent nuclear fuel Liquid-liquid extraction is a separation technique commonly employed for the processing of the dissolved spent nuclear fuel. Our approach is based on prerequisite that real time monitoring of the solvent extraction flowsheets provides unique capability to quickly detect unwanted manipulations with fissile isotopes present in the radiochemical streams during reprocessing activities. The instrumentation used to monitor these processes must be robust, require little or no maintenance, and be able to withstand harsh environments such as high radiation fields and aggressive chemical matrices. In addition, the ability for continuous on-line monitoring allows for numerous benefits. Our team experimentally assessed the potential of Raman and vis-NIR spectrophotometric techniques for on-line real-time monitoring of the U(VI)/nitrate ion/nitric acid and Pu(IV)/Np(V)/Nd(III), respectively, in solutions relevant to spent fuel reprocessing. Both techniques demonstrated robust performance in the repetitive batch measurements of each analyte in a wide concentration range using simulant and commercial dissolved spent fuel solutions. Static spectroscopic measurements served as training sets for the multivariate data analysis to obtain partial least squares predictive models, which were validated using on-line centrifugal contactor extraction tests. The corresponding spectrometers used under the laboratory conditions are easily convertible to the process-friendly configurations allowing remote measurements under the flow conditions. A fiber optic Raman probe allows monitoring of the high concentration species encountered in both aqueous and organic phases within the PUREX suite of flowsheets, including metal oxide ions, such as uranyl, components of the organic solvent, inorganic oxo-anions, and water. The actinides and lanthanides are monitored remotely by UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy in aqueous and organic phases. This paper summarizes our methodology and shows results of specific examples.

Bryan, Samuel A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Casella, Amanda J.; Peterson, James M.; Lines, Amanda M.; Jordan, Elizabeth A.; Verdugo, Dawn E.; Skomurski, Frances N.

2011-07-19

151

Waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), DOE/WIPP-069, was initially developed by a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Steering Committee to provide performance requirements to ensure public health and safety as well as the safe handling of transuranic (TRU) waste at the WIPP. This revision updates the criteria and requirements of previous revisions and deletes those which were applicable only to the test phase. The criteria and requirements in this document must be met by participating DOE TRU Waste Generator/Storage Sites (Sites) prior to shipping contact-handled (CH) and remote-handled (RH) TRU waste forms to the WIPP. The WIPP Project will comply with applicable federal and state regulations and requirements, including those in Titles 10, 40, and 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). The WAC, DOE/WIPP-069, serves as the primary directive for assuring the safe handling, transportation, and disposal of TRU wastes in the WIPP and for the certification of these wastes. The WAC identifies strict requirements that must be met by participating Sites before these TRU wastes may be shipped for disposal in the WIPP facility. These criteria and requirements will be reviewed and revised as appropriate, based on new technical or regulatory requirements. The WAC is a controlled document. Revised/changed pages will be supplied to all holders of controlled copies.

NONE

1996-04-01

152

Waste disposal options report. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the potential options for the processing and disposal of mixed waste generated by reprocessing spent nuclear fuel at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. It compares the proposed waste-immobilization processes, quantifies and characterizes the resulting waste forms, identifies potential disposal sites and their primary acceptance criteria, and addresses disposal issues for hazardous waste.

Russell, N.E.; McDonald, T.G.; Banaee, J.; Barnes, C.M.; Fish, L.W.; Losinski, S.J.; Peterson, H.K.; Sterbentz, J.W.; Wenzel, D.R.

1998-02-01

153

Risks of nuclear fuel reprocessing  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site's primary function is the production of weapons materials. It consists of four reactors, two fuel reprocessing facilities, a fuel fabrication facility, a nuclear fuel facility for the Navy and a heavy water recycle facility. Under construction is a facility to convert the site's liquid wastes into borosilicate glass. The topic of this paper is risks of nuclear fuel reprocessing. Also discussed are facility operations. 18 figs.

Durant, W.S.

1990-01-01

154

Trim waste minimization at the Pinellas Plant  

SciTech Connect

Bacteria counts and several methods of slowing bacterial growth in machine trim coolant are suggested to reduce the frequency of coolant replacement without risking employee health or the longevity of the product or machinery. On-site treatment and disposal of waste trim are recommended to further reduce waste volume. This paper discusses the benefits of these efforts, including projected cost savings based on partial implementation at the Department of Energy`s Pinellas Plant.

DeLaneuville, D.

1992-01-30

155

Trim waste minimization at the Pinellas Plant  

SciTech Connect

Bacteria counts and several methods of slowing bacterial growth in machine trim coolant are suggested to reduce the frequency of coolant replacement without risking employee health or the longevity of the product or machinery. On-site treatment and disposal of waste trim are recommended to further reduce waste volume. This paper discusses the benefits of these efforts, including projected cost savings based on partial implementation at the Department of Energy's Pinellas Plant.

DeLaneuville, D.

1992-01-30

156

Environmental Hazard Control by Metal-Matrix Composite Reprocessing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study examined extrusion ends, cuttings, grindings, turnings, and other aluminum and magnesium composite mill scraps to assess suitable methods for reprocessing these wastes. Electrorefining technology, gas phase reprocessing, filtration, and gravity ...

J. P. Pemsler

1987-01-01

157

Plant to sell waste heat to cogenerator  

SciTech Connect

A cogenerator will purchase waste heat from the Great Lakes Carbon Corporation's Port Arthur, Texas coke plant. The waste heat, equivalent to 715,000 barrels of oil a year will earn Great Lakes $21 million. Power Systems, Inc. will generate electricity for the local utility and steam for a Gulf Oil Corp. refinery. The 15-year contract does not require investment on the part of Great Lakes. General Electric Credit Corp. is investing $70 million to build the plant, which it will lease to Power Systems. (DCK)

Rossbach, P.

1983-04-11

158

Waste Water Plant Operators Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual for sewage treatment plant operators was prepared by a committee of operators, educators, and engineers for use as a reference text and handbook and to serve as a training manual for short course and certification programs. Sewage treatment plant operators have a responsibility in water quality control; they are the principal actors in…

Washington State Coordinating Council for Occupational Education, Olympia.

159

Biogasification of Plant Waste Chopping.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The literature on biogasification of plant biomasses is reviewed. So far it is possible to calculate, the energy potential of Finnish plant-based biomasses is 7.3 petajoules per year. Biomasses not included are, for example, weakly decomposed surface peat...

E. J. Tenhunen P. Peltonen

1987-01-01

160

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical manual  

SciTech Connect

A key element of the Hanford waste management strategy is the construction of a new facility, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), to vitrify existing and future liquid high-level waste produced by defense activities at the Hanford Site. The HWVP mission is to vitrify pretreated waste in borosilicate glass, cast the glass into stainless steel canisters, and store the canisters at the Hanford Site until they are shipped to a federal geological repository. The HWVP Technical Manual (Manual) documents the technical bases of the current HWVP process and provides a physical description of the related equipment and the plant. The immediate purpose of the document is to provide the technical bases for preparation of project baseline documents that will be used to direct the Title 1 and Title 2 design by the A/E, Fluor. The content of the Manual is organized in the following manner. Chapter 1.0 contains the background and context within which the HWVP was designed. Chapter 2.0 describes the site, plant, equipment and supporting services and provides the context for application of the process information in the Manual. Chapter 3.0 provides plant feed and product requirements, which are primary process bases for plant operation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes the technology for each plant process. Chapter 5.0 describes the engineering principles for designing major types of HWVP equipment. Chapter 6.0 describes the general safety aspects of the plant and process to assist in safe and prudent facility operation. Chapter 7.0 includes a description of the waste form qualification program and data. Chapter 8.0 indicates the current status of quality assurance requirements for the Manual. The Appendices provide data that are too extensive to be placed in the main text, such as extensive tables and sets of figures. The Manual is a revision of the 1987 version.

Larson, D.E. [ed.; Watrous, R.A.; Kruger, O.L. [and others

1996-03-01

161

SARA. A Simulation Computer Code for NRTMA Performance Study at EUREX Pilot Reprocessing Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nuclear Material Accountability, supported by Containment and Surveillance measures, is a foundamental means for an effective International Safeguard implemention in nuclear plants. Accountability is based on the verification that difference between a mat...

M. Aparo M. Dionisi C. Vicini P. Zeppa F. V. Frazzoli

1989-01-01

162

SARA: A simulation computer code for NRTMA performances study at EUREX pilot reprocessing plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nuclear Material Accountability, supported by Containment and Surveillance measures, is a fundamental means for an effective International Safeguard implementation in nuclear plants. Accountability is based on the verification that the difference between ...

M. Aparo M. Dionisi C. Vicini P. Zeppa F. V. Frazzoli

1988-01-01

163

REPROCESSING OF SHALLOW SEISMIC REFLECTION DATA TO IMAGE FAULTS NEAR A HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE ON THE OAK RIDGE RESERVATION, TENNESSEE  

SciTech Connect

Shallow seismic reflection data from Bear Creek Valley on the Oak Ridge Reservation demonstrates that spectral balancing and tomographic refraction statics can be important processing tools for shallow seismic data. At this site, reprocessing of data which had previously yielded no useable CMP stacked sections was successful after application of these processing techniques.

DOLL, W.E.

1997-12-30

164

Reprocessing and the beneficial use of the products of reprocessing  

SciTech Connect

Reprocessing is the preferred spent fuel management route in the UK, France, Japan, West Germany and a number of other countries. The motivation for reprocessing is primarily to realize the energy value of uranium and plutonium in spent fuel and to ensure long term security of energy supply. The UK has recycled over 15,000 tonnes of uranium from spent Magnox fuel. Worldwide there is substantial experience of the recycle uranium from spent oxide fuel. It will be established on a commercial scale in the 1990s. New plants are required for hex conversion and fuel fabrication. The whole process from the reprocessing plant through conversion, enrichment and fabrication to reactor loading must be closely integrated. However the extra costs in recycling reprocessed uranium should be significantly less than the savings.

Johnson, A.

1988-01-01

165

Application des methodes d'interrogation neutronique active a l'analyse en ligne dans les usines de retraitement. (Application of active neutronic interrogation method to the line analysis in reprocessing plant).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In a reprocessing plant of irradiated spent fuels, the knowledge in real time (line analysis) of uranium and plutonium quantities present in solutions is an extremely important parameter to control the proceeding and for the apparatus safety. The active n...

C. Passard

1993-01-01

166

Conclusions on plutonium separation from atmospheric krypton-85 measured at various distances from the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant.  

PubMed

For wide-area atmospheric monitoring, krypton-85 is the best indicator for clandestine plutonium separations. The detection and false alarm rates were determined from weekly samples at five different distances from the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant between 1985 and 1988. The detection rate for the separation of 4 kg of plutonium per week was found to be as high as 80-90% at a distance of less than 1 km, 70% at 5 km, 40% at 39 km, and 15% at 130 km. At distances up to 40 km, the false alarm rate is less than 3.5%. On average, the fuel released 28 TBq krypton-85 per kg plutonium. For weapons-grade plutonium, the krypton signal would be lower by a factor of 2. Hence, the given percentages correspond to the detection probabilities for the separation of a significant quantity (8 kg) of plutonium per weekly sample under the specific meteorological conditions of the WAK. The minimum separation rates that could have been detected are 2 gram of weapons-grade plutonium per week at a distance of less than 1 km, 40 g/week at 5 km, 200 g/week at 39 km, and 1000 g/week at 130 km. PMID:15023448

Kalinowski, Martin B; Sartorius, Hartmut; Uhl, Stefan; Weiss, Wolfgang

2004-01-01

167

Assessment of radiological effects on the regional environment due to the operation of the Tokai Reprocessing Plant.  

PubMed

The regional environmental radiological effects were assessed for the past 25-year operation of the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP). The assessment was basically performed with the environmental radiological monitoring data around the TRP. For the environmental monitoring, various kinds of terrestrial and marine samples including air dust, surface soil, polished rice grain, leafy vegetable, milk, seawater, seabed sediments, fish, shellfish and seaweed were collected in the surrounding environment of the TRP. Radionuclides such as (3)H, (14)C, (90)Sr, (137)Cs and (239,240)Pu in the environmental samples were determined by radiochemical methods. However, they showed no significant short-term increase or long-term accumulation of radionuclides discharged from the TRP. Therefore, the public dose was evaluated using the mathematical models and the discharge data of radionuclides. The estimated annual effective dose for the public was about 0.1% of the annual effective dose limit recommended by the ICRP. The assessment showed that there were no significant radiological effects on the environment and the public due to the 25-year operation of the TRP. PMID:14972412

Shinohara, Kunihiko

2004-01-01

168

Solid Waste Management Practices in a Plastics Production Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of solid waste generation, storage, collection, and disposal was conducted at a plastics production plant during the fall of 1968. A study team observed the normal solid waste management practices within the plant during one week. Additional data ...

W. T. Dehn D. E. Carruth

1970-01-01

169

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to conduct environmental monitoring. Environmental monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is conducted in order to: (a) Verify and support compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, permits, and orders; (b) Establish baselines and characterize trends in the physical, chemical, and

2004-01-01

170

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to conduct environmental monitoring. Environmental monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is conducted in order to: (a) Verify and support compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, permits, and orders; (b) Establish baselines and characterize trends in the physical, chemical, and

2008-01-01

171

Spent fuel reprocessing system availability definition by process simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine nuclear fuel reprocessing plant operating parameters such as maintainability, reliability, availability, equipment redundancy, and surge storage requirements and their effect on plant throughput, a computer simulation model of integrated HTGR fuel reprocessing plant operations is being developed at General Atomic Company (GA). The simulation methodology and the status of the computer programming completed on reprocessing head end systems

N. Holder; B. B. Haldy; M. Jonzen

1978-01-01

172

Statement on the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge National Laboratory has chosen the following objectives for future reprocessing plant design: reduced radiation exposure to workers; minimal environmental impact; improved plant operation and maintenance; improved accountability; no plutonium diversion; and reduced overall capital and operating cost. These objectives lead to a plant with totally remote operation. The Breeder Reactor Engineering Test (BRET) has been designed to perform a key role in demonstrating advanced reprocessing technology. It has been scheduled to be available to reprocess spent fuel from the Fast Flux Test Facility. The principal features of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program and of the BRET facility are appropriate for all reactor types.

Trauger, D.B.

1984-01-01

173

Nuclear power plant liquid waste solidification system. [Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fundamental points to be considered in a waste treatment system for a country like Japan, where the final disposal method has not been decided and the wastes have to be stored in the power plants, are volume reduction of the wastes, safe storage of the wastes in the plant, and flexibility regarding the final disposal. A system has been

N. Kikuchi; K. Chino; K. Kudo; S. Horiuchi; T. Saito; M. Hayashi

1981-01-01

174

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Safety Analysis Report  

SciTech Connect

The following provides a summary of the specific issues addressed in this FY-95 Annual Update as they relate to the CH TRU safety bases: Executive Summary; Site Characteristics; Principal Design and Safety Criteria; Facility Design and Operation; Hazards and Accident Analysis; Derivation of Technical Safety Requirements; Radiological and Hazardous Material Protection; Institutional Programs; Quality Assurance; and Decontamination and Decommissioning. The System Design Descriptions`` (SDDS) for the WIPP were reviewed and incorporated into Chapter 3, Principal Design and Safety Criteria and Chapter 4, Facility Design and Operation. This provides the most currently available final engineering design information on waste emplacement operations throughout the disposal phase up to the point of permanent closure. Also, the criteria which define the TRU waste to be accepted for disposal at the WIPP facility were summarized in Chapter 3 based on the WAC for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.`` This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents the safety analyses that develop and evaluate the adequacy of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contact-Handled Transuranic Wastes (WIPP CH TRU) safety bases necessary to ensure the safety of workers, the public and the environment from the hazards posed by WIPP waste handling and emplacement operations during the disposal phase and hazards associated with the decommissioning and decontamination phase. The analyses of the hazards associated with the long-term (10,000 year) disposal of TRU and TRU mixed waste, and demonstration of compliance with the requirements of 40 CFR 191, Subpart B and 40 CFR 268.6 will be addressed in detail in the WIPP Final Certification Application scheduled for submittal in October 1996 (40 CFR 191) and the No-Migration Variance Petition (40 CFR 268.6) scheduled for submittal in June 1996. Section 5.4, Long-Term Waste Isolation Assessment summarizes the current status of the assessment.

NONE

1995-11-01

175

General Atomic HTGR Fuel Reprocessing Pilot Plant: Results of Initial Sequential Equipment Operation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In September 1977, the processing of 20 large high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (LHTGR) fuel elements was completed sequentially through the head-end cold pilot plant equipment. This report gives a brief description of the equipment and summarizes the r...

1978-01-01

176

Fuel Requirements (Without Reprocessing) for Iran 1, 2, 3 and 4 Nuclear Power Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

By use of a computer program written by the Nuclear Power Plant Management of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, the Yellowcake, natural uranium, and separative work unit (SWU) needs for the first core and ten reloads of the Iran 1, 2, 3 and 4 Nuclea...

M. Peroomian S. Roustayian

1976-01-01

177

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Dangerous Waste Permit Application. Revision 2: Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hanford Facility currently stores mixed waste, resulting from various processing operations, in underground storage tanks. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant will be constructed and operated to process the high-activity fraction of mixed waste stor...

1991-01-01

178

Pyrochemical treatment of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant high-level waste calcine  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), has reprocessed irradiated nuclear fuels for the US Department of Energy (DOE) since 1951 to recover uranium, krypton-85, and isolated fission products for interim treatment and immobilization. The acidic radioactive high-level liquid waste (HLLW) is routinely stored in stainless steel tanks and then, since 1963, calcined to form a dry granular solid. The resulting high-level waste (HLW) calcine is stored in seismically hardened stainless steel bins that are housed in underground concrete vaults. A research and development program has been established to determine the feasibility of treating ICPP HLW calcine using pyrochemical technology.This technology is described.

Todd, T.A.; DelDebbio, J.A.; Nelson, L.O.; Sharpsten, M.R.

1993-06-01

179

Glass Formulation Development for INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

For about four decades, radioactive wastes have been collected and calcined from nuclear fuels reprocessing at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), formerly Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Over this time span, secondary radioactive wastes have also been collected and stored as liquid from decontamination, laboratory activities, and fuel-storage activities. These liquid wastes are collectively called sodium-bearing wastes

J. D. Vienna; M. J. Schweiger; D. E. Smith; H. D. Smith; J. V. Crum; D. K. Peeler; I. A. Reamer; C. A. Musick; R. D. Tillotson

1999-01-01

180

Robust Solution to Difficult Hydrogen Issues When Shipping Transuranic Waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has been open, receiving, and disposing of transuranic (TRU) waste since March 26, 1999. The majority of the waste has a path forward for shipment to and disposal at the WIPP, but there are about two percent (2%) or approximately 3,020 cubic meters (m³) of the volume of TRU waste (high wattage TRU waste)

S. S. Countiss; G. T. Basabilvazo; D. C. Moody; S. A. Lott; M. Pickerell; T. Baca; S. Tujague; H. Svetlik; T. Hannah

2003-01-01

181

Control of Water Environment of Plants using Waste Biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes new methods to plant and grow young crops in arid zones by controlling the water environment of plant using waste biomass. One method is to cover plant leaves by fibrous membrane made of waste paper. Fine fiber coating was made by spraying the starch glue and then dusting the fine paper fibers on the plant leaves. The

Osamu Kitani; Kingshuk Roy; Mizuho Yoshida; Ryosuke Endo

182

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant capacity increase options  

SciTech Connect

Studies are being conducted by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project on ways to increase the waste processing capacity within the current Vitrification Building structural design. The Phase 1 study on remote systems concepts identification and extent of capacity increase was completed. The study concluded that the HWVP capacity could be increased to four times the current capacity with minor design adjustments to the fixed facility design, and the required design changes would not impact the current footprint of the vitrification building. A further increase in production capacity may be achievable but would require some technology development, verification testing, and a more systematic and extensive engineering evaluation. The primary changes included a single advance melter with a higher capacity, new evaporative feed tank, offgas quench collection tank, ejector venturi scrubbers, and additional inner canister closure station,a smear test station, a new close- coupled analytical facility, waste hold capacity of 400,000 gallon, the ability to concentrate out-of-plant HWVP feed to 90 g/L waste oxide concentration, and limited changes to the current base slab construction package.

Larson, D.E.

1996-04-01

183

Corrosion studies in fuel element reprocessing environments containing nitric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric acid is universally used in aqueous fuel element reprocessing plants; however, in the processing scheme being developed by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program, some of the equipment will be exposed to nitric acid under conditions not previously encountered in fuel element reprocessing plants. A previous report presented corrosion data obtained in hyperazeotropic nitric acid and in concentrated magnesium nitrate

J. A. Beavers; R. R. White; W. E. Berry; J. C. Griess

1982-01-01

184

Characterization activities of the Waste Calcine Facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) was established in 1949 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Its mission was to reprocess nuclear fuel for the recovery of enriched uranium for defense purposes. The ICPP is a large complex encompassing 10 process buildings, 3 fuel storage facilities, 181 support facilities, and 1800 workers. The facilities being deactivated range from contaminated structures that do not meet current code requirements (seismic and electrical) to structures that have had extensive upgrades performed during the 1980s and represent multiple opportunities for reuse due to their seismic qualifications and code compliance status. The facilities declared to be excess and being deactivated at the ICPP include the fuel dissolution cell, the CPP-601/602 complex, the CPP-627 custom dissolution lab, the rare gas plant, the Rover facility, the waste calcine facility, and several small ancillary buildings.

Feldt, E.G.; Bilson, B.

1994-12-31

185

Reprocessing on the Whole Fuel Cycle Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Spent fuel reprocessing, in France, has become an industrial reality which takes an important place in several fields: surely essential in the fuel cycle from the energetic material economy and waste management point of view; priority in the CEA (Commissa...

J. Megy

1983-01-01

186

Advanced instrumentation for reprocessing.  

SciTech Connect

Recent interest in reprocessing nuclear fuel in the U.S. has led to advanced separations processes that employ continuous processing and multiple extraction steps. These advanced plants will need to be designed with state-of-the-art instrumentation for materials accountancy and control. This research examines the current and upcoming instrumentation for nuclear materials accountancy for those most suited to the reprocessing environment. Though this topic has received attention time and again in the past, new technologies and changing world conditions require a renewed look and this subject. The needs for the advanced UREX+ separations concept are first identified, and then a literature review of current and upcoming measuring techniques is presented. The report concludes with a preliminary list of recommended instruments and measurement locations.

Cipiti, Benjamin B.

2005-10-01

187

Integrated waste management plan for the Savannah River Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Savannah River Plant will begin operation of several new waste disposal and treatment facilities during the next five year which will affect all waste streams generated on site. These will include a new solid low-level radioactive waste disposal facility, a hazardous\\/mixed waste disposal facility, and a low-level liquid waste solidification process. Existing waste sites will be closed in a

J. R. Cook; H. F. Jr. Sturm; J. E. Hoisington

1989-01-01

188

A glass-encapsulated calcium phosphate wasteform for the immobilization of actinide-, fluoride-, and chloride-containing radioactive wastes from the pyrochemical reprocessing of plutonium metal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chloride-containing radioactive wastes are generated during the pyrochemical reprocessing of Pu metal. Immobilization of these wastes in borosilicate glass or Synroc-type ceramics is not feasible due to the very low solubility of chlorides in these hosts. Alternative candidates have therefore been sought including phosphate-based glasses, crystalline ceramics and hybrid glass/ceramic systems. These studies have shown that high losses of chloride or evolution of chlorine gas from the melt make vitrification an unacceptable solution unless suitable off-gas treatment facilities capable of dealing with these corrosive by-products are available. On the other hand, both sodium aluminosilicate and calcium phosphate ceramics are capable of retaining chloride in stable mineral phases, which include sodalite, Na8(AlSiO4)6Cl2, chlorapatite, Ca5(PO4)3Cl, and spodiosite, Ca2(PO4)Cl. The immobilization process developed in this study involves a solid state process in which waste and precursor powders are mixed and reacted in air at temperatures in the range 700 800 °C. The ceramic products are non-hygroscopic free-flowing powders that only require encapsulation in a relatively low melting temperature phosphate-based glass to produce a monolithic wasteform suitable for storage and ultimate disposal.

Donald, I. W.; Metcalfe, B. L.; Fong, S. K.; Gerrard, L. A.; Strachan, D. M.; Scheele, R. D.

2007-03-01

189

Laboratory Testing of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Surrogate Waste Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a U.S. Department of Energy geological repository for the permanent disposal of defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste. The waste is emplaced in rooms excavated in the bedded Salado salt formation at a depth of 655 m below the ground surface. After emplacement of the waste, the repository will be sealed and decommissioned. WIPP Performance Assessment modeling of the underground material response requires a full and accurate understanding of coupled mechanical, hydrological, and geochemical processes and how they evolve with time. This study was part of a broader test program focused on room closure, specifically the compaction behavior of waste and the constitutive relations to model this behavior. The goal of this study was to develop an improved waste constitutive model. The model parameters are developed based on a well designed set of test data. The constitutive model will then be used to realistically model evolution of the underground and to better understand the impacts on repository performance. The present study results are focused on laboratory testing of surrogate waste materials. The surrogate wastes correspond to a conservative estimate of the degraded containers and TRU waste materials after the 10,000 year regulatory period. Testing consists of hydrostatic, uniaxial, and triaxial tests performed on surrogate waste recipes that were previously developed by Hansen et al. (1997). These recipes can be divided into materials that simulate 50% and 100% degraded waste by weight. The percent degradation indicates the anticipated amount of iron corrosion, as well as the decomposition of cellulosics, plastics, and rubbers. Axial, lateral, and volumetric strain and axial and lateral stress measurements were made. Two unique testing techniques were developed during the course of the experimental program. The first involves the use of dilatometry to measure sample volumetric strain under a hydrostatic condition. Bulk moduli of the samples measured using this technique were consistent with those measured using more conventional methods. The second technique involved performing triaxial tests under lateral strain control. By limiting the lateral strain to zero by controlling the applied confining pressure while loading the specimen axially in compression, one can maintain a right-circular cylindrical geometry even under large deformations. This technique is preferred over standard triaxial testing methods which result in inhomogeneous deformation or "barreling". Manifestations of the inhomogeneous deformation included non-uniform stress states, as well as unrealistic Poisson's ratios (> 0.5) or those that vary significantly along the length of the specimen. Zero lateral strain controlled tests yield a more uniform stress state, and admissible and uniform values of Poisson's ratio. Hansen, F.D., Knowles, M.K., et al. 1997. Description and Evaluation of a Mechanistically Based Conceptual Model for Spall. SAND97-1369. Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Broome, S.; Bronowski, D.; Pfeifle, T.; Herrick, C. G.

2011-12-01

190

Storing solid radioactive wastes at the Savannah River Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The facilities and the operation of solid radioactive waste storage at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) are discussed in the report. The procedures used to segregate and the methods used to store radioactive waste materials are described, and the monitoring results obtained from studies of the movement of radionuclides from buried wastes at SRP are summarized. The solid radioactive waste

J. H. Horton; J. C. Corey

1976-01-01

191

Remote handling equipment at the hanford waste treatment plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cold war plutonium production led to extensive amounts of radioactive waste stored in tanks at the Department of Energy's Hanford Waste Treatment Plant. The storage tanks could potentially leak into the ground water and into the Columbia River. The solution for this risk of the leaking waste is vitrification. Vitrification is a process of mixing molten glass with radioactive waste

M. A. Bardal; J. D. Roach

2007-01-01

192

Widening the envelope of UK HLW vitrification - Experimental studies with high waste loadings and new product formulations on a full scale non-active vitrification plant  

SciTech Connect

The Vitrification Test Rig is a full scale waste vitrification plant that processes non-radioactive liquid HLW simulants based on the active waste streams produced by the reprocessing plants in the UK. Previous work on the rig has primarily concerned increasing the operational envelopes for the active waste vitrification plants at Sellafield to accommodate higher throughputs of Blended waste streams, higher waste oxide incorporation rates in the vitrified products, and the incorporation of legacy waste streams from early reactor commissioning and reprocessing operations at Sellafield. Recent operations have focussed on four main areas; dilute liquid feeds, very high Magnox waste stream incorporation levels, alternative base glass formulations and providing an operational envelope for 28 %w/w Magnox waste vitrification. This paper details the work performed and the major findings of that work. In summary: The VTR has been successfully used to determine operational envelopes and product quality for several HLW feed variations that will allow WVP to increase overall plant throughput via increased waste loading in canisters, increased HLW feed rates or a combination of both. The VTR has also demonstrated the ability to go to waste incorporations, feed rates and glass compositions that are currently beyond WVP specified limits, but that are feasible for future vitrification regimes. In addition, the VTR has trialled dilute feeds similar to those that are likely to be received by WVP in the future and the data obtained from these experiments will allow WVP to prepare adequately for the high throughput challenge of such feeds. Furthermore, new equipment has been trialled on the VTR in water feed mode to determine its suitability and operational limitations for WVP. Future operations will, in the short term, be concerned with increasing the throughput of WVP and are likely to focus on HLW decommissioning operations waste streams in the longer term. (authors)

Short, R.; Gribble, N. [Nexia Solutions, Sellafield, Cumbria, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Riley, A. [Sellafield Ltd, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG, UK (United Kingdom)

2008-07-01

193

Waste Management Control Handbook for Dairy Food Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Waste control is resource management control in dairy food plant operations. Appreciable reductions can be achieved in product, water, energy, labor, packaging losses and sewer surcharges. A good program in waste control can increase the profit margin by ...

M. F. Parkin R. E. Carawan W. J. Harper

1984-01-01

194

Rock mechanics activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The application of rock mechanics at nuclear waste repositories is a true multidisciplinary effort. A description and historical summary of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is presented. Rock mechanics programs at the WIPP are outlined, and the curr...

C. Francke S. Saeb

1996-01-01

195

Reprocessing input data validation  

SciTech Connect

The Isotope Correlation Technique (ICT), in conjunction with the gravimetric (Pu/U ratio) method for mass determination, provides an independent verification of the input accountancy at the dissolver or accountancy stage of the reprocessing plant. The Isotope Correlation Technique has been applied to many classes of domestic and international reactor systems (light-water, heavy-water, graphite, and liquid-metal) operating in a variety of modes (power, research, production, and breeder), and for a variety of reprocessing fuel cycle management strategies. Analysis of reprocessing operations data based on isotopic correlations derived for assemblies in a PWR environment and fuel management scheme, yielded differences between the measurement-derived and ICT-derived plutonium mass determinations of ({minus}0.02 {plus minus} 0.23)% for the measured U-235 and (+0.50 {plus minus} 0.31)% for the measured Pu-239, for a core campaign. The ICT analyses has been implemented for the plutonium isotopics in a depleted uranium assembly in a heavy-water, enriched uranium system and for the uranium isotopes in the fuel assemblies in light-water, highly-enriched systems. 7 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Persiani, P.J.; Bucher, R.G.; Pond, R.B.; Cornella, R.J.

1990-01-01

196

Hazardous waste management plan, Savannah River Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

All SRP waste storage, disposal, and recycling facilities that have received hazardous waste, low-level radioactive hazardous waste (mixed waste) or process waste since 1980 have been evaluated by EPA standards. Generally the waste storage areas meet all applicable standards. However, additional storage facilities currently estimated at $2 million and waste disposal facilities currently estimated at $20 million will be required

Phifer

1984-01-01

197

Reprocessing option for spent fuel  

SciTech Connect

The options available to utilities for disposal of fuel discharged from their nuclear reactors is not limited to bury or burn. Many utilities in Europe and Japan have already opted to reprocess their spent fuel in the United Kingdom and/or France. This enables the utility to recycle the recovered uranium and plutonium and allows the utilities' countries to formulate a waste disposal policy without the time constraints that would otherwise be placed on them. This paper gives an insight into how and why British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is continuing to provide services to reprocess and recycle spent nuclear fuel. The closed fuel cycle represents the complete irradiated fuel management option and, with its use of well-established technologies, reprocessing of spent fuel is the only option that is available to utilities now.

Woolf, D.N. (British Nuclear Fuels PLC, Risley (United Kingdom))

1991-11-01

198

Reduction in waste load from a meat processing plant: Beef  

SciTech Connect

;Contents: Introduction (Randolph Packing Company, Meat Plant Wastewaters, Slaughterhouses, Packing Houses, Sources of Wastewater, Secondary Manufacturing Processes, An Example of Water Conservation and Waste Control, Water Conservation Program); Plant Review and Survey (Survey for Product Losses and Wastes, Water Use and Waste Load, Wastewater Discharge Limitations and Costs); Waste Centers, Changes, Costs and Results (In-Plant Control Measures, Water Conservation, Recovery Products, By-Products and Reducing Waste Load, Blood Conservation, Paunch Handling and Processing, Summary of Process Changes, Pretreatment, Advantages and Disadvantages of Pretreatment, Pretreatment Systems).

NONE

1986-10-31

199

TRU (transuranic) waste certification at the Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Certification Facility (WCF) at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) assesses transuranic (TRU) waste in 55-gal drums by x-ray and neutron interrogation prior to shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. The facility, equipment, and operation are described. Results of a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) show that the facility can be operated without undue risk to plant personnel, the public, and the environment. 4 figs.

Legler, B M

1988-01-01

200

High level nuclear waste  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Division of Waste Products through a lead office at Savannah River is developing a program to immobilize all US high-level nuclear waste for terminal disposal. DOE high-level wastes include those at the Hanford Plant, the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, and the Savannah River Plant. Commercial high-level wastes, for which DOE is also developing immobilization technology, include those at the Nuclear Fuel Services Plant and any future commercial fuels reprocessing plants. The first immobilization plant is to be the Defense Waste Processing Facility at Savannah River, scheduled for 1983 project submission to Congress and 1989 operation. Waste forms are still being selected for this plant. Borosilicate glass is currently the reference form, but alternate candidates include concretes, calcines, other glasses, ceramics, and matrix forms.

Crandall, J L

1980-01-01

201

Acceptable knowledge document for INEEL stored transuranic waste -- Rocky Flats Plant waste. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

This document and supporting documentation provide a consistent, defensible, and auditable record of acceptable knowledge for waste generated at the Rocky Flats Plant which is currently in the accessible storage inventory at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The inventory consists of transuranic (TRU) waste generated from 1972 through 1989. Regulations authorize waste generators and treatment, storage, and disposal facilities to use acceptable knowledge in appropriate circumstances to make hazardous waste determinations. Acceptable knowledge includes information relating to plant history, process operations, and waste management, in addition to waste-specific data generated prior to the effective date of the RCRA regulations. This document is organized to provide the reader a comprehensive presentation of the TRU waste inventory ranging from descriptions of the historical plant operations that generated and managed the waste to specific information about the composition of each waste group. Section 2 lists the requirements that dictate and direct TRU waste characterization and authorize the use of the acceptable knowledge approach. In addition to defining the TRU waste inventory, Section 3 summarizes the historical operations, waste management, characterization, and certification activities associated with the inventory. Sections 5.0 through 26.0 describe the waste groups in the inventory including waste generation, waste packaging, and waste characterization. This document includes an expanded discussion for each waste group of potential radionuclide contaminants, in addition to other physical properties and interferences that could potentially impact radioassay systems.

NONE

1998-01-23

202

Ammonia plant waste is good fertilizer  

SciTech Connect

According to C. M. Farris of United States Steel Corp., Agri-Chemicals Division , the process condensate from ammonia plants should be applied to the land. Work at his firm's Alabama ammonia plant showed that the condensate can be used safely to irrigate and fertilize a variety of crops. Under law, the condensate must be treated, usually by steam stripping, to reduce the ammonia content before discharge to waterways, a procedure that wastes money and energy. If instead of treating the condensate which contains 400-2000 ppm of ammonia and 200-1200 ppm of methanol, the entire U.S. ammonia industry applied the condensate to the land, energy equivalent to > 1 million bbl/yr of oil would be savd.

Farris, C.M.

1980-09-08

203

Reprocessing RERTR fuels  

SciTech Connect

The Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor Program is one element of the United States Government's nonproliferation effort. High density, low enrichment aluminum-clad dispersed uranium compound fuels may be substituted for the highly enriched aluminum-clad aluminum-uranium alloy fuels now in use. Savannah River Laboratory has performed studies which demonstrate reprocessability of spent RERTR fuels at Savannah River Plant. Results of dissolution and feed preparation tests with both unirradiated and irradiated (up to approximately 90% burnup) fuels are presented. 13 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

Rodrigues, G.C.

1983-01-01

204

Remote maintenance in nuclear fuel reprocessing  

SciTech Connect

Remote maintenance techniques applied in large-scale nuclear fuel reprocessing plants are reviewed with particular attention to the three major maintenance philosophy groupings: contact, remote crane canyon, and remote/contact. Examples are given, and the relative success of each type is discussed. Probable future directions for large-scale reprocessing plant maintenance are described along with advanced manipulation systems for application in the plants. The remote maintenance development program within the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is also described. 19 refs., 19 figs.

Herndon, J.N.

1985-01-01

205

CALIBRATION AND INITIAL FIELD TESTING OF 85Kr DETECTORS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AROUND A NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING PLANT  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to measure 85 Kr in the environment around nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities, several types of commercially available de- tectors were calibrated in the laboratory and then field tested. Among the detectors evaluated were a&era1 sizes of flow-through lontiatlon chambers (with vibrating-reed electrometers), thin-walled cylindrical GM tubes, single and double thin-window GM tubes, and 8 scintlllatlon detectors. A laboratory

D. G. Smith; J. A. Cochran; B. Shleien

206

Quality Assurance Program Plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Experimental-Waste Characterization Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) identifies the quality of data necessary to meet the specific objectives associated with the Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Experimental-Waste Characterization Program (the Program)...

1991-01-01

207

Retrieval of Canistered Experimental Waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To assess the suitability of bedded salt for nuclear waste disposal, an extensive experimental program will be implemented at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. In order to evaluate experimental results, it will be necessary to recover certain of these expe...

R. E. Stinebaugh

1979-01-01

208

Liquid radioactive waste discharges from B plant to cribs  

SciTech Connect

This engineering report compiles information on types and quantities of liquid waste discharged from B-Plant directly to cribs, ditches, reverse wells, etc., that are associated with B-Plant. Waste discharges to these cribs via overflow form 241-B, 241-BX, and 241-BY tank farms, and waste discharged to these cribs from sources other than B-Plant are discussed.Discharges from B-Plant to other cribs, unplanned releases, or waste remaining in tanks are not included in the report. Waste stream composition information is used to predict quantities of individual chemicals sent to cribs. This provides an accurate mass balance of waste streams from B-Plant to these cribs. These predictions are compared with known crib inventories as a verification of the process.

Williams, J.C., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-05-29

209

Vitrification of Polyvinyl Chloride Waste from Korean Nuclear Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

Vitrification is considered as an economical and safe treatment technology for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated from nuclear power plants (NPPs). Korea is in the process of preparing for its first ever vitrification plant to handle LLW from its NPPs. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) has the largest volume of dry active wastes and is the main waste stream to treat. Glass formulation development for PVC waste is the focus of study. The minimum additive waste stabilization approach has been utilized in vitrification. It was found that glasses can incorporate a high content of PVC ash (up to 50 wt%), which results in a large volume reduction. A glass frit, KEP-A, was developed to vitrify PVC waste after the optimization of waste loading, melt viscosity, melting temperature, and chemical durability. The KEP-A could satisfactorily vitrify PVC with a waste loading of 30 to 50 wt%. The PVC-frit was tolerant of variations in waste composition.

Sheng, Jiawei [Kyoto University (Japan); Choi, Kwansik [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Kyung-Hwa [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myung-Chan [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (Korea, Republic of); Song, Myung-Jae [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (Korea, Republic of)

2000-02-15

210

New semi-mobile plant for radiation processing of waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new pilot/demonstrative semi-mobile irradiation plant, named TRIRIS (TRIsaia-RIfiuti-Sterilizzazione, namely 'Trisaia Res. Center - Wastes- Sterilization') has been designed and erected. The plant goal is recognized in proposing and exploring new techno...

A. Tata G. Liccione V. Jacoboni M. Fantini M. Schwarz

1998-01-01

211

Reduction in Waste Load from a Meat Processing Plant: Beef.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Introduction (Randolph Packing Company, Meat Plant Wastewaters, Slaughterhouses, Packing Houses, Sources of Wastewater, Secondary Manufacturing Processes, An Example of Water Conservation and Waste Control, Water Conservation Program); Plant Rev...

1986-01-01

212

METHODS FOR RECONSTRUCTION OF RADIONUCLIDE COMPOSITION AND ACTIVITY OF FISSION PRODUCTS ACCUMULATED IN THE IRRADIATED URANIUM AT THE MOMENT OF ITS RADIOCHEMICAL REPROCESSING AT PLANT “B”, “MAYAK” PA IN THE EARLY 1950s  

SciTech Connect

The article describes calculation procedure for reconstruction of radionuclide composition and activity of fission fragments accumulated in the irridated uranium from “Mayak” PA graphite-uranium reactors at the moment, when irradiation is completed, and at the moment, when the uranium is transferred to radiochemical processing (plant B) in the early 1950s. The procedure includes a reactor model and a cooling pool model. It is based on archive data on monthly uranium unloading and loading in the reactor and in the cooling pool of each reactor. The objects of reconstruction include: order of reloading of uranium versus its location radius in the reactor core; duration of irradiation and radionuclide composition of fission fragments for each radius; order of uranium removal from the cooling pool; effective time of uranium storage in the pool; radionuclide composition and activity of fission fragments in the irradiated uranium delivered to radiochemical reprocessing daily and on average for each month. The model is intended for use in reconstruction of parameters of radionuclide release source into the atmosphere and the source of liquid radioactive waste generation at the “Mayak” PA radiochemical plant.

Glagolenko, Y. V.; Drozhko, Evgeniy G.; Mokrov, Y.; Rovny, Sergey I.; Lyzhkov, A. V.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

2008-06-01

213

Nonlinear Model Predictive Control of Municipal Solid Waste Combustion Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW; = household waste) is used to reduce its volume and to produce energy. It is performed in furnaces at large industrial plants for which the control problem is to maximize waste throughput and energy output while still fulfilling life time and environment re- lated constraints. This inevitably leads to a constraint pushing control problem

M. Leskens; R. J. P. van der Linden; L. B. M. van Kessel; O. H. Bosgra

2008-01-01

214

Power plant waste heat rejection and utilization options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process waste heat in large power generation plants is commonly rejected to lakes or rivers, or through the use of cooling towers. Although these waste heat rejection methods are quite effective, they may not be feasible in every application due to cost considerations or geographic location. Moreover, it is desirable to use the waste heat in additional processes, if possible,

Robert A Leffler

2011-01-01

215

Hydrothermal Oxidation Hazardous Waste Pilot Plant Test Bed  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is fabricating a Hydrothermal Oxidation (HTO) Hazardous Waste Pilot Plant Test Bed to evaluate and test various HTO reactor concepts for initial processing of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed wastes. If the HTO process is successful it will significantly reduce the volume of DOE mixed wastes by destroying the organic constituents.

Welland, H.; Reed, W.; Valentich, D.; Charlton, T.

1995-03-01

216

Commercial High-Level-Waste Management: Options and Economics. A Comparative Analysis of the Ceramic and Glass Waste Forms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of an estimate of the waste management costs of the commercial high-level waste from a 3000 metric ton per year reprocessing plant show that the judicious use of the ceramic waste form can save about $2 billion during a 20-year operating campaign ...

R. L. McKisson L. F. Grantham J. Guon H. L. Recht

1983-01-01

217

Plant growth-promoting oligosaccharides produced from tomato waste.  

PubMed

Tomato juice waste was hydrolyzed with acid. Tomato juice waste (500 g; wet weight) was heated with 0.5 N HCl (2.5 l) at 70 degrees C for 4 h. After neutralization, the growth-promoting extracts (300 g; dry weight) in the plants were produced from the tomato waste. The acid extract significantly promoted the growth of cockscomb (Celosia argentea L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) seedlings. We have recognized potent plant growth-promoting substances in the acid extract from tomato waste. The most effective components in the active fraction were almost all oligogalacturonic acids (DP 6-12). This paper is the first report that plant growth-promoting oligosaccharides can be directly produced from tomato juice waste. It is possible that the substances from the tomato waste can become useful plant growth regulators in the agriculture field in the future. PMID:11762911

Suzuki, Toshisada; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Tsubura, Hirokazu; Yoshida, Shigeki; Kusakabe, Isao; Yamada, Kosumi; Miki, Yoichi; Hasegawa, Koji

2002-01-01

218

Water Recovery Using Waste Heat from Coal Fired Power Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The potential to treat non-traditional water sources using power plant waste heat in conjunction with membrane distillation is assessed. Researchers and power plant designers continue to search for ways to use that waste heat from Rankine cycle power plan...

B. P. Dwyer C. W. Morrow S. J. Altman S. W. Webb

2011-01-01

219

Refiners, petrochem plants focus on new waste challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author discusses how refineries and petrochemical plants face tough regulations on emissions of hazardous wastes and air emissions during the next decade. During the 1990s, process plants will have to substantially change the way they generate, handle, store, and dispose of hazardous wastes, particularly spent catalysts, and they will likely have to substantially reduce air emissions. An important area

1990-01-01

220

Canadian cogeneration plant converts wood waste to power  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Ontario waste-to-energy plant is burning wood waste from lumbering operations, providing power for electric utility distribution, generating steam for mill use, and improving the environment. The facility is the first and only cogeneration operation of its type in Canada. Placed into commercial operation in February 1987, the wood-waste-fueled plant at Chapleau, Ontario burns 360 tons per day and generates

1989-01-01

221

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant hydrogen generation  

SciTech Connect

The most promising method for the disposal of highly radioactive nuclear wastes is a vitrification process in which the wastes are incorporated into borosilicate glass logs, the logs are sealed into welded stainless steel canisters, and the canisters are buried in suitably protected burial sites for disposal. The purpose of the research supported by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) project of the Department of Energy through Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and summarized in this report was to gain a basic understanding of the hydrogen generation process and to predict the rate and amount of hydrogen generation during the treatment of HWVP feed simulants with formic acid. The objectives of the study were to determine the key feed components and process variables which enhance or inhibit the.production of hydrogen. Information on the kinetics and stoichiometry of relevant formic acid reactions were sought to provide a basis for viable mechanistic proposals. The chemical reactions were characterized through the production and consumption of the key gaseous products such as H{sub 2}. CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}0, NO, and NH{sub 3}. For this mason this research program relied heavily on analyses of the gases produced and consumed during reactions of the HWVP feed simulants with formic acid under various conditions. Such analyses, used gas chromatographic equipment and expertise at the University of Georgia for the separation and determination of H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and NO.

King, R.B.; King, A.D. Jr.; Bhattacharyya, N.K. [and others

1996-02-01

222

Boiler tube failures in municipal waste-to-energy plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste-to-energy plants experienced increased boiler tube failures when the design changed from waste-heat boilers to radiant furnace waterwalls using superheat. Fireside attack by chlorine and sulfur compounds in refuse combustion products caused many forced outages in early European plants operating at high steam temperatures and pressures. Despite conservative steam conditions in the first US plants, failures occurred. As steam temperatures

H. H. Krause; I. G. Wright

1996-01-01

223

CORAL: a stepping stone for establishing the Indian fast reactor fuel reprocessing technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reprocessing of spent fuel from Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) has been successfully demonstrated in the pilot plant, CORAL (COmpact Reprocessing facility for Advanced fuels in Lead shielded cell). Since commissioning in 2003, spent mixed carbide fuel from FBTR of different burnups and varying cooling period, have been reprocessed in this facility. Reprocessing of the spent fuel with a

M. Venkataraman; R. Natarajan; Baldev Raj

2007-01-01

224

Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this document is to summarize the waste acceptance criteria applicable to the transportation, storage, and disposal of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). These criteria serve as the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) primary directive for ensuring that CH-TRU waste is managed and disposed of in a manner that protects human health

2005-01-01

225

Can we talk? Communications management for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, a complex nuclear waste management project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandia Nuclear Waste Management Program is pursuing for DOE an option for permanently disposing radioactive waste in deep geologic repositories. Included in the Program are the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project for US defense program mixed waste the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) for spent power reactor fuel and vitrified high-level waste, projects for other waste types, and development efforts

S. A. Goldstein; G. M. Pullen; D. R. Brewer

1995-01-01

226

[Technology of biological management of plant and animal wastes].  

PubMed

Analytical, research and design efforts were made to modify the technology of anaerobic fermentation of plant and animal wastes. Results were publication of a register of wastes of a middle size Russian town, development of a simulator of natural food wastes, and development and testing of a laboratory prototype of original system for anaerobic degradation of natural food wastes. It was shown that association of Clostridia and lactobacilli is best to initiate and implement the first phase of biodegradation of natural wastes. PMID:11840872

Il'in, V K; Smirnov, I A; Soldatov, P E; Korniushenkova, I N; Starkova, L V; Poltaretskaia, O V; Zherdev, A A; Grinin, A S; Safronova, S A

2001-01-01

227

The Treatment of Dairy Plant Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Current practices in the handling of dairy wastes--(Character of the wastes, Disposing of the effluent, Stockton, Illinois, Norwich, New York, South Edmeston, New York, Champaign, Illinois); The benefits of the joint treatment approach with the ...

1973-01-01

228

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan  

SciTech Connect

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to conduct environmental monitoring. Environmental monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is conducted in order to: (a) Verify and support compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, permits, and orders; (b) Establish baselines and characterize trends in the physical, chemical, and biological condition of effluent and environmental media; (c) Identify potential environmental problems and evaluate the need for remedial actions or measures to mitigate the problems; (d) Detect, characterize, and report unplanned releases; (e) Evaluate the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control, and pollution abatement programs; and (f) Determine compliance with commitments made in environmental impact statements, environmental assessments, safety analysis reports, or other official DOE documents. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) explains the rationale and design criteria for the environmental monitoring program, extent and frequency of monitoring and measurements, procedures for laboratory analyses, quality assurance (QA) requirements, program implementation procedures, and direction for the preparation and disposition of reports. Changes to the environmental monitoring program may be necessary to allow the use of advanced technology and new data collection techniques. This EMP will document changes in the environmental monitoring program. Guidance for preparation of EMPs is contained in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance.

Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

2008-03-12

229

Strategies for Water and Waste Reduction in Dairy Food Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was undertaken to reduce water and waste discharges in a complex, multiproduct dairy food plant through management control and modifications of equipment and processes. The objectives were to develop approaches that would be broadly applicable thr...

I. A. Igbeka M. E. Parkin R. A. M. Delaney W. E. Schiffermiller W. J. Harper

1985-01-01

230

MICROORGANISMS AND HIGHER PLANTS FOR WASTE WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Batch experiments were conducted to compare the waste water treatment efficiencies of plant-free microbial filters with filters supporting the growth of reeds (Phragmites communis), cattail (Typha latifolia), rush (Juncus effusus), and bamboo (Bambusa multiplex). The experimental...

231

Polymer solidification of mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Rocky Flats Plant is pursuing polymer solidification as a viable treatment option for several mixed waste streams that are subject to land disposal restrictions within the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act provisions. Tests completed to date usin...

A. M. Faucette B. W. Logsdon J. J. Lucerna R. J. Yudnich

1994-01-01

232

Microorganisms and Higher Plants for Waste Water Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Batch experiments were conducted to compare the waste water treatment efficiencies of plant-free microbial filters with filters supporting the growth of reeds (Phragmites communis), cattail (Typha latifolia), rush (Juncus effusus), and bamboo (Bambusa mul...

B. C. Wolverton R. C. McDonald W. R. Duffer

1983-01-01

233

Underground main fan study at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) performed a feasibility analysis for the purpose of either modifying, supplementing, or replacing its two main mine fans. The WIPP, located near Carlsbad, New Mexico, is a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility desig...

K. H. McDaniel K. M. Chmura K. G. Wallace

1996-01-01

234

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant shielding design: A historical perspective.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The shielding design Of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) has been underway for many years and is continuing. During its progress, there have been improvements in various calculational methods that provided practical guidance to the overall des...

M. Fortsch C. Negin

1993-01-01

235

Neutron shielding analysis for remote handled transuranic waste containers in facility casks at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Neutron shielding characteristics of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant facility cask have been quantified for a variety of combinations of neutron sources and waste matrices which would potentially be handled in waste containers. The neutron attenuation and...

J. V. Livingston R. K. Disney

1984-01-01

236

Waste tyre rubber as a secondary fuel for power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 1 billion waste tyres are generated worldwide each year, with the US producing 300 million and the EU 260 million tyres, representing an enormous waste management problem. At the same time, increasingly stringent emission control targets are being imposed on electric power generating plants. The development of science and technology for clean coal combustion is crucial for a sustainable

S. Singh; W. Nimmo; B. M. Gibbs; P. T. Williams

2009-01-01

237

Glass melter assembly for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is designed to solidify high level radioactive waste by converting it into stable borosilicate after mixing with glass frit and water. The heart of this conversion process takes place in the glass melter. The l...

A. E. Chen A. Russell K. R. Shah J. Kalia

1993-01-01

238

Geotechnical Perspectives on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the first nuclear waste repository certified by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Success in regulatory compliance resulted from an excellent natural setting for such a repository, a facility with multiple, redundant safety systems, and from a rigorous, transparent scientific and technical evaluation. The WIPP story, which has evolved over the past 25

Chris T. Francke; Frank D. Hansen; M. Kathyn Knowles; Norbert T. Rempe

1999-01-01

239

Dewatering of liwuid radioactive wastes in thin-film rotary evaporators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sizable amount of liquid radioactive waste of different levels of radioactivity is formed during the operation of an atomic power plant and during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. Current concepts for handling such wastes require reliable isolation of them from the biosphere. At present, bituminization and cementation for medium- and low-level liquid radioactive waste and vitrification for high- and

A. S. Nikiforov; V. I. Vlasov; V. I. Davydov; P. G. Dobrygin; A. I. Kachurin; O. A. Krivyakov; D. A. Kukiev; A. S. Polyakov; V. F. Savelev; S. N. Filippov

1989-01-01

240

Waste Reduction Assistance Program (WRAP) On-Site Consultation Audit Report: Seafood Processing Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The waste audit study was conducted at a seafood processing plant in Alaska. The report discusses process descriptions, waste types and quantities, current waste and materials management practices, and waste reduction alternatives. The company's current p...

1989-01-01

241

Waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Revision 4  

SciTech Connect

This Revision 4 of the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), WIPP-DOE-069, identifies and consolidates existing criteria and requirements which regulate the safe handling and preparation of Transuranic (TRU) waste packages for transportation to and emplacement in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This consolidation does not invalidate any existing certification of TRU waste to the WIPP Operations and Safety Criteria (Revision 3 of WIPP-DOE--069) and/or Transportation: Waste Package Requirements (TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging [SARP]). Those documents being consolidated, including Revision 3 of the WAC, currently support the Test Phase.

Not Available

1991-12-01

242

Pelletization process of postproduction plant waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of investigations on the influence of material, process, and construction parameters on the densification process and density of pellets received from different mixtures of tobacco and fine-grained waste of lemon balm are presented. The conducted research makes it possible to conclude that postproduction waste eg tobacco and lemon balm wastes can be successfully pelletized and used as an ecological, solid fuels.

Obidzi?ski, S.

2012-07-01

243

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan  

SciTech Connect

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to conduct environmental monitoring. Environmental monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is conducted in order to: (a) Verify and support compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, permits, and orders; (b) Establish baselines and characterize trends in the physical, chemical, and biological condition of effluent and environmental media; (c) Identify potential environmental problems and evaluate the need for remedial actions or measures to mitigate the problem; (d) Detect, characterize, and report unplanned releases; (e) Evaluate the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control, and pollution abatement programs; and (f) Determine compliance with commitments made in environmental impact statements, environmental assessments, safety analysis reports, or other official DOE documents. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) has been written to contain the rationale and design criteria for the monitoring program, extent and frequency of monitoring and measurements, procedures for laboratory analyses, quality assurance (QA) requirements, program implementation procedures, and direction for the preparation and disposition of reports. Changes to the environmental monitoring program may be necessary to allow the use of advanced technology and new data collection techniques. This EMP will document any proposed changes in the environmental monitoring program. Guidance for preparation of Environmental Monitoring Plans is contained in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance. The plan will be effective when it is approved by the appropriate Head of Field Organization or their designee. The plan discusses major environmental monitoring and hydrology activities at the WIPP and describes the programs established to ensure that WIPP operations do not have detrimental effects on the environment. This EMP is to be reviewed annually and updated every three years unless otherwise requested by the DOE or contractor.

Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

2004-02-19

244

Uptake by plants of radionuclides from FUSRAP waste materials  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclides from FUSRAP wastes potentially may be taken up by plants during remedial action activities and permanent near-surface burial of contaminated materials. In order to better understand the propensity of radionuclides to accumulate in plant tissue, soil and plant factors influencing the uptake and accumulation of radionuclides by plants are reviewed. In addition, data describing the uptake of the principal radionuclides present in FUSRAP wastes (uranium-238, thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210, and polonium-210) are summarized. All five radionuclides can accumulate in plant root tissue to some extent, and there is potential for the translocation and accumulation of these radionuclides in plant shoot tissue. Of these five radionuclides, radium-226 appears to have the greatest potential for translocation and accumulation in plant shoot tissue. 28 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

Knight, M.J.

1983-04-01

245

Shipping Remote Handled Transuranic Waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - An Operational Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

On January 18, 2007, the first ever shipment of Remote Handled Transuranic (RH TRU) waste left the gate at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), headed toward the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal, thus concluding one of the most stressful, yet rewarding, periods the authors have ever experienced. The race began in earnest on October 16, 2006, with signature

S. Anderson; J. Bradford; T. Clements; D. Crisp; M. Sherick; E. DAmico; W. Lattin; K. Watson

2008-01-01

246

Removal of dissolved and suspended radionuclides from Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant liquid wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was determined during Preliminary Design of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant that certain intermediate process liquid waste streams should be decontaminated in a way that would permit the purge of dissolved chemical species from the process recycle shop. This capability is needed to ensure proper control of product glass chemical composition and to avoid excessive corrosion of process equipment.

S. D. Sharp; F. D. Nankani; L. A. Bray; D. E. Eakin; D. E. Larson

1990-01-01

247

Probability of Failure of the Waste Hoist Brake System at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Energy (DOE) has continues to improve the design and operation of the waste hoist brake system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) culminating in a design fully describes in a recent report: a Revised Design, WCAP-13800 (Westinghou...

M. A. Greenfield T. J. Sargent

1998-01-01

248

Contact Handled Transuranic Waste Characterization Requirements at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Protection of the safety, health, and the environment at the Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) relies in part on the quality and completeness of the information about the waste that is shipped to the WIPP. This quality and comp...

M. K. Silva J. K. Channell B. A. Walker G. Anastas

2003-01-01

249

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Acceptance Criteria - Development, Application, and Quality Assurance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a Research and Development Facility for demonstrating the safe disposal of defense TRU radioactive waste. It is funded by the Office of Defense Programs within the Department of Energy, and is now under constructi...

J. T. D'Ambrosia J. F. Bresson J. E. Dieckhoner

1985-01-01

250

Pure oxygen treatment of pesticide plant waste water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemagro's waste water treatment plant, which includes pH control, solids removal, equalization, biological treatment (UNOX) and sludge dewatering process units, and which reduces COD by 50.4%, BOD by 92.8%, and phenols by 76.9% is discussed, including the operating problems, operating experience with both the cyrogenic air separation plant and the UNOX system, and advantages.

Pallanich

1978-01-01

251

Integrated systems for utilizing waste heat from steam electric plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

From symposium on beneficial uses for thermal discharges; New York (19 ; Aug 1971). Multiple use of waste heat and cooling waters from power plants will ; become an impontant consideration in the development, siting, and certification ; of these plants. The heat in the cooling wnter must be considered a resource to ; be managed for effective use. At

L. Boersma; K. A. Rykbost

1973-01-01

252

Facility safety classifications for the waste isolation pilot plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) safety classifications and the corresponding codes and standards was conducted to determine whether differences exist with comparable nuclear power plant classifications. Classification systems and corresponding codes and standards provide a useful basis for establishing design, fabrication, and installation requirements, but an understanding of functional requirements and failure modes and effects is necessary

1988-01-01

253

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: An International Center of Excellence  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy's Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) is responsible for the successful management of transuranic radioactive waste (TRUW) in the United States. TRUW is a long-lived radioactive waste/material (LLRM). CBFO's responsibilities includes the operation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is a deep geologic repository for the safe disposal of U.S. defense-related TRUW and is located 42 kilometers (km) east of Carlsbad, New Mexico. WIPP is the only deep-geological disposal site for LLRM that is operating in the world today. CBFO also manages the National Transuranic Waste Program (NTP), which oversees TRU waste management from generation to disposal. As of February 2003, approximately 1500 shipments of waste have been safely transported to the WIPP, which has been operating since March 1999.

Matthews, Mark

2003-02-25

254

Radiological Monitoring of Waste Treatment Plant  

SciTech Connect

Scheduled waste in West Malaysia is handled by Concession Company and is stored and then is incinerated. It is known that incineration process may result in naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) to be concentrated. In this study we have measured three samples consist of by-product from the operation process such as slag, filter cake and fly ash. Other various environmental media such as air, surface water, groundwater and soil within and around the plant have also been analysed for their radioactivity levels. The concentration of Ra-226, Ac-228 and K-40 in slag are 0.062 Bq/g, 0.016 Bq/g and 0.19 Bq/g respectively. The total activity (Ra{sub eq}) in slag is 99.5 Bq/kg. The concentration in fly ash is 0.032 Bq/g, 0.16 Bq/g and 0.34 Bq/g for Ra-226, Ac-228 and K-40 respectively resulting in Raeq of 287.0 Bq/kg. For filter cake, the concentration is 0.13 Bq/g, 0.031 Bq/g and 0.33 Bq/g for Ra-226, Ac-228 and K-40 respectively resulting in Raeq of 199.7 Bq/kg. The external radiation level ranges from 0.08 {mu}Sv/h (Administrative building) to 0.35 {mu}Sv/h (TENORM storage area). The concentration level of radon and thoron progeny varies from 0.0001 to 0.0016 WL and 0.0006 WL to 0.002 WL respectively. For soil samples, the activity ranges from 0.11 Bq/g to 0.29 Bq/g, 0.06 Bq/g to 0.18 Bq/g and 0.065 Bq/g to 0.38 Bq/g for Ra-226, Ac-228 and K-40 respectively. While activity in water, except for a trace of K-40, it is non-detectable.

Amin, Y. M. [Physics Dept, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Nik, H. W. [Asialab (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd, 14 Jalan Industri USJ 1, 47600 Subang Jaya (Malaysia)

2011-03-30

255

Radiological Monitoring of Waste Treatment Plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scheduled waste in West Malaysia is handled by Concession Company and is stored and then is incinerated. It is known that incineration process may result in naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) to be concentrated. In this study we have measured three samples consist of by-product from the operation process such as slag, filter cake and fly ash. Other various environmental media such as air, surface water, groundwater and soil within and around the plant have also been analysed for their radioactivity levels. The concentration of Ra-226, Ac-228 and K-40 in slag are 0.062 Bq/g, 0.016 Bq/g and 0.19 Bq/g respectively. The total activity (Raeq) in slag is 99.5 Bq/kg. The concentration in fly ash is 0.032 Bq/g, 0.16 Bq/g and 0.34 Bq/g for Ra-226, Ac-228 and K-40 respectively resulting in Raeq of 287.0 Bq/kg. For filter cake, the concentration is 0.13 Bq/g, 0.031 Bq/g and 0.33 Bq/g for Ra-226, Ac-228 and K-40 respectively resulting in Raeq of 199.7 Bq/kg. The external radiation level ranges from 0.08 ?Sv/h (Administrative building) to 0.35 ?Sv/h (TENORM storage area). The concentration level of radon and thoron progeny varies from 0.0001 to 0.0016 WL and 0.0006 WL to 0.002 WL respectively. For soil samples, the activity ranges from 0.11 Bq/g to 0.29 Bq/g, 0.06 Bq/g to 0.18 Bq/g and 0.065 Bq/g to 0.38 Bq/g for Ra-226, Ac-228 and K-40 respectively. While activity in water, except for a trace of K-40, it is non-detectable.

Amin, Y. M.; Nik, H. W.

2011-03-01

256

Small Waste to Ethanol Plants, Phase II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The economics of the conversion of waste cellulose to ethanol through acid hydrolysis are estimated at three levels of production: 1 million, 5 million, and 10 million gallons per year of motor fuel grade alcohol. Assumptions and estimating techniques are...

G. F. Huff M. C. Fogle

1980-01-01

257

Savannah River Plant Waste Management Information Index.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This index includes reports and articles concerning waste management and environmental activities at Savannah River. The information was compiled by machine into three sections: a bibliographic listing, a subject listing, and an author listing. (ERA citat...

1976-01-01

258

Waste-to-energy plant inspections benefit owners and operators  

SciTech Connect

The waste-to-energy (WTE) plant was once looked at as a black box by consulting engineers, plant owners, and contract attorneys. Little concern was given to the equipment and its performance as long as the plant operator achieved acceptance test requirements and met contractual guarantees. Too much attention to these issues was viewed as interference with private operators. Changing environmental regulations and a maturing industry, however, have increased emphasis on annual or more frequent inspections of WTE facilities by independent consulting engineers. Here the authors discuss the general methodology of the plant inspection process and illustrate why such plant inspections are necessary and what benefits result for owners.

Rogoff, M.J.; Stasis, P. (HDR Engineering, Tampa, FL (United States))

1993-08-01

259

Initial Performance Evaluation of Major Components in the Head-End Reprocessing Solids Handling System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The General Atomic cold head-end reprocessing pilot plant has been built to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed commercial reprocessing flowsheet, in particular its integrated operation. This integration is accomplished in part by the solids handl...

E. J. Cook P. C. Richards

1977-01-01

260

Waste Minimization Policy at the Romanian Nuclear Power Plant  

SciTech Connect

The radioactive waste management system at Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in Romania was designed to maintain acceptable levels of safety for workers and to protect human health and the environment from exposure to unacceptable levels of radiation. In accordance with terminology of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), this system consists of the ''pretreatment'' of solid and organic liquid radioactive waste, which may include part or all of the following activities: collection, handling, volume reduction (by an in-drum compactor, if appropriate), and storage. Gaseous and aqueous liquid wastes are managed according to the ''dilute and discharge'' strategy. Taking into account the fact that treatment/conditioning and disposal technologies are still not established, waste minimization at the source is a priority environmental management objective, while waste minimization at the disposal stage is presently just a theoretical requirement for future adopted technologies . The necessary operational and maintenance procedures are in place at Cernavoda to minimize the production and contamination of waste. Administrative and technical measures are established to minimize waste volumes. Thus, an annual environmental target of a maximum 30 m3 of radioactive waste volume arising from operation and maintenance has been established. Within the first five years of operations at Cernavoda NPP, this target has been met. The successful implementation of the waste minimization policy has been accompanied by a cost reduction while the occupational doses for plant workers have been maintained at as low as reasonably practicable levels. This paper will describe key features of the waste management system along with the actual experience that has been realized with respect to minimizing the waste volumes at the Cernavoda NPP.

Andrei, V.; Daian, I.

2002-02-26

261

Radioactive and nonradioactive waste intended for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

Transuranic (TRU) waste generated by the handling of plutonium in research on or production of US nuclear weapons will be disposed of in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This paper describes the physical and radiological properties of the TRU waste that will be deposited in the WIPP. This geologic repository will accommodate up to 175,564 m{sup 3} of TRU waste, corresponding to 168,485 m{sup 3} of contact-handled (CH-) TRU waste and 7,079 m{sup 3} of remote-handled (RH-) TRU waste. Approximately 35% of the TRU waste is currently packaged and stored (i.e., legacy) waste, with the remainder of the waste to be packaged or generated and packaged in activities before the year 2033, the closure time for the repository. These wastes were produced at 27 US Department of Energy (DOE) sites in the course of generating defense nuclear materials. The radionuclide and nonradionuclide inventories for the TRU wastes described in this paper were used in the 1996 WIPP Compliance Certification Application (CCA) performance assessment calculations by Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM).

SANCHEZ,LAWRENCE C.; DREZ,P.E.; RATH,JONATHAN S.; TRELLUE,H.R.

2000-05-19

262

Radioactive waste management plan for the PBMR (Pty) Ltd fuel plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (Pty) Ltd Fuel Plant (PFP) radioactive waste management plan caters for waste from generation, processing through storage and possible disposal. Generally, the amount of waste that will be generated from the PFP is Low and Intermediate Level Waste. The waste management plan outlines all waste streams and the management options for each stream. It also

Mosidi E. Makgae

2009-01-01

263

Characterization recommendations for waste sites at the Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect

One hundred and sixty six disposal facilities that received or may have received waste materials resulting from operations at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) have been identified. These waste range from innocuous solid and liquid materials (e.g., wood piles) to process effluents that contain hazardous and/or radioactive constituents. The waste sites have been grouped into 45 categories according the the type of waste materials they received. Waste sites are located with SRP coordinates, a local Department of Energy (DOE) grid system whose grid north is 36 degrees 22 minutes west of true north. DOE policy is to close all waste sites at SRP in a manner consistent with protecting human health and environment and complying with applicable environmental regulations (DOE 1984). A uniform, explicit characterization program for SRP waste sites will provide a sound technical basis for developing closure plans. Several elements are summarized in the following individual sections including (1) a review of the history, geohydrology, and available characterization data for each waste site and (2) recommendations for additional characterization necessary to prepare a reasonable closure plan. Many waste sites have been fully characterized, while others have not been investigated at all. The approach used in this report is to evaluate available groundwater quality and site history data. For example, groundwater data are compared to review criteria to help determine what additional information is required. The review criteria are based on regulatory and DOE guidelines for acceptable concentrations of constituents in groundwater and soil.

Carlton, W.H.; Gordon, D.E.; Johnson, W.F.; Kaback, D.S.; Looney, B.B.; Nichols, R.L.; Shedrow, C.B.

1987-11-01

264

Assessing pollutions of soil and plant by municipal waste dump  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research is few in the literature regarding the investigation and assessment of pollutions of soil and plant by municipal\\u000a waste dumps. Based upon previous work in seven waste dumping sites (nonsanitary landfills) in Beijing, Shanghai and Shijiazhuang,\\u000a this study expounds the investigation and assessment method and report major pollutants. Using relative background values,\\u000a this study assesses soil pollution degree in

Changli Liu; Yun Zhang; Feng’e Zhang; Sheng Zhang; Miying Yin; Hao Ye; Hongbing Hou; Hua Dong; Ming Zhang; Jianmei Jiang; Lixin Pei

2007-01-01

265

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant; 1999 Site Environmental Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy�s (DOE)Carlsbad Area Office and the Westinghouse;\\u000aWaste Isolation Division (WID) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and;\\u000anear DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the

Roy B. Evans; Amy Adams Luft; Don Martin; Randall C. Morris; Timothy D. Reynolds; Ronald W. Warren

2000-01-01

266

PILOT PLANT DENITRATION OF PUREX WASTE WITH SUGAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch denitration of synthetic Purex waste was investigated in 12 batch ;\\u000a runs in the pilot plant denitration unit. Sugar was continuously added to 25 ;\\u000a liters of hot waste. After sugar addition was complete, the hot solution was ;\\u000a digested for several hours. The reaction proceeded smoothly and was easily ;\\u000a controlled. About 19 to 22 moles of nitric

Coppinger

1963-01-01

267

Waste migration studies at the Savannah River Plant burial ground  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low-level radioactive waste burial ground at the Savannah River Plant is a typical shallow-land-burial disposal site in a humid region. Studies of waste migration at this site provide generic data for designing other disposal facilities. A program of field, laboratory, and modeling studies for the SRP burial ground has been conducted for several years. Recent results of lysimeter tests,

J. A. Stone; S. B. Oblath; R. H. Hawkins; M. W. Grant; S. L. Hoeffner; C. M. King

1985-01-01

268

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 1998, to March 31, 2000. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA)(Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, and amended by Pub. L. 104-201),

2000-01-01

269

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 2000, to March 31, 2002. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA)(Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201),

2002-01-01

270

Processing of waste from pulp and paper plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of sludge as waste in pulp and paper plants can be considered as one of the serious environmental problems that have to be solved. While landfilling is not a suitable solution from the environmental point of view, thermal treatment proved to be the most appropriate one.This paper describes an efficient way of processing sludge including waste-to-energy aspects. A thermal

J. Oral; J. Sikula; R. Puchyr; Z. Hajny; P. Stehlik; L. Bebar

2005-01-01

271

Transformative monitoring approaches for reprocessing.  

SciTech Connect

The future of reprocessing in the United States is strongly driven by plant economics. With increasing safeguards, security, and safety requirements, future plant monitoring systems must be able to demonstrate more efficient operations while improving the current state of the art. The goal of this work was to design and examine the incorporation of advanced plant monitoring technologies into safeguards systems with attention to the burden on the operator. The technologies examined include micro-fluidic sampling for more rapid analytical measurements and spectroscopy-based techniques for on-line process monitoring. The Separations and Safeguards Performance Model was used to design the layout and test the effect of adding these technologies to reprocessing. The results here show that both technologies fill key gaps in existing materials accountability that provide detection of diversion events that may not be detected in a timely manner in existing plants. The plant architecture and results under diversion scenarios are described. As a tangent to this work, both the AMUSE and SEPHIS solvent extraction codes were examined for integration in the model to improve the reality of diversion scenarios. The AMUSE integration was found to be the most successful and provided useful results. The SEPHIS integration is still a work in progress and may provide an alternative option.

Cipiti, Benjamin B.

2011-09-01

272

Solidification of Savannah River plant high level waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Authorization for construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is expected in FY-83. The optimum time for stage 2 authorization is about three years later. Detailed design and construction will require approximately five years for stage 1, with stage 2 construction completed about two to three years later. Production of canisters of waste glass would begin in 1988, and the existing backlog of high level waste sludge stored at SRP would be worked off by about the year 2000. Stage 2 operation could begin in 1990. The technology and engineering are ready for construction and eventual operation of the DWPF for immobilizing high level radioactive waste at Savannah River Plant (SRP). Proceeding with this project will provide the public, and the leadership of this country, with a crucial demonstration that a major quanitity of existing high level nuclear wastes can be safely and permanently immobilized.

Maher, R.; Shafranek, L. F.; Kelley, J. A.; Zeyfang, R. W.

1981-11-01

273

Decontamination of Savannah River Plant waste glass canisters  

SciTech Connect

A Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently being designed to convert Savannah River Plant (SRP) liquid, high-level radioactive waste into a solid form, such as borosilicate glass. The outside of the canisters of waste glass must have very low levels of smearable radioactive contamination before they are removed from the DWPF to prevent the spread of radioactivity. Several techniques were considered for canister decontamination: high-pressure water spray, electropolishing, chemical dissolution, and abrasive blasting. An abrasive blasting technique using a glass frit slurry has been selected for use in the DWPF. No additional equipment is needed to process waste generated from decontamination. Frit used as the abrasive will be mixed with the waste and fed to the glass melter. In contrast, chemical and electrochemical techniques require more space in the DWPF, and produce large amounts of contaminated byproducts which are difficult to immobilize by vitrification.

Rankin, W.N.

1982-01-01

274

Final environmental impact statement. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the appendices for the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Alternative geologic environs are considered. Salt, crystalline rock, argillaceous rock, and tuff are discussed. Studies on alternate geologic regions for the siting of WIPP are reviewed. President Carter's message to Congress on the management of radioactive wastes and the findings and recommendations of the interagency review group on nuclear waste management are included. Selection criteria for the WIPP site including geologic, hydrologic, tectonic, physicochemical compatability, and socio-economic factors are presented. A description of the waste types and the waste processing procedures are given. Methods used to calculate radiation doses from radionuclide releases during operation are presented. A complete description of the Los Medanos site, including archaeological and historic aspects is included. Environmental monitoring programs and long-term safety analysis program are described. (DMC)

Not Available

1980-10-01

275

Waste generation comparison: Coal-fired versus nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

Low-level radioactive waste generation and disposal attract a great deal of attention whenever the nuclear industry is scrutinized by concerned parties, be it the media, the public, or political interests. It is therefore important to the nuclear industry that this issue be put into perspective relative to other current forms of energy production. Most of the country`s fossil-fueled power comes from coal-fired plants, with oil and gas as other fuel sources. Most of the generated waste also comes from coal plants. This paper, therefore, compares waste quantities generated by a typical (1150-MW(electric)) pressurized water reactor (PWR) to that of a comparably sized coal-fired power plant.

LaGuardia, T.S.

1998-12-31

276

Waste Generation Comparison: Coal-Fired Versus Nuclear Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

Low-level radioactive waste generation and disposal attract a great deal of attention whenever the nuclear industry is scrutinized by concerned parties, be it the media, the public, or political interests. It is therefore important to the nuclear industry that this issue be put into perspective relative to other current forms of energy production. Most of our country's fossil-fueled power comes from coal-fired plants, with oil and gas as other fuel sources. Most of our generated waste also comes from coal plants. This paper, therefore, compares waste quantities generated by a typical 1150-MW(electric) pressurized water reactor (PWR) to that of a comparably sized coal-fired power plant.

Thomas S. LaGuardia

1998-12-31

277

Hong Kong plans new generation chemical waste plant for 1993  

SciTech Connect

The first comprehensive chemical waste treatment facility in a Pacific Rim country is scheduled for completion in Hong Kong in early 1993. Designed to treat industrial chemical wastes generated in Hong Kong and vicinity, the plant will have an output consisting of environmentally safe materials, energy, and some recovered products. The new waste treatment facility will be located on Tsing-yi Island, which is connected to the New Territories by road, near Ha Kwai Chung. The island is close to the main harbor and western shipping channel, providing immediate access to the Pearl River and Guangzhou (Canton).

Haggin, J. (C and EN, Chicago, IL (US))

1991-02-01

278

Defense waste processing facility project at the Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Du Pont Company is building for the Department of Energy a facility to vitrify high-level waste at the Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will solidify existing and future radioactive wastes produced by defense activities at the site. At the present time engineering and design are 45% complete, the site has been cleared, and startup is expected in 1989. This paper will describe project status as well as features of the design. 9 figures.

Baxter, R G; Maher, R; Mellen, J B; Shafranek, L F; Stevens, III, W R

1984-01-01

279

A solution density model for hanford waste treatment plant supernatants  

SciTech Connect

The density of nuclear waste solution is used as a process control parameter in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant pretreatment process and is crucial to tank utilization evaluations. The supernatants, however, have many different dissolved sodium salts, including nitrate, nitrite, carbonate, sulfate, phosphate, hydroxide, and aluminate. The large concentrations and diversity of salts in the waste has made the predictions of solution densities difficult historically. The purpose of this study is to determine if a new model of multi-component electrolyte solution densities, recently published in the literature, is effective at predicting the density of nuclear waste supernatants. A statistically designed set of solution densities containing the most prevalent electrolytes in Hanford tank waste was used for model validation. The densities of the simulants were calculated by the model and compared to the experimentally determined densities. The average model error was just 0.1%. These results indicate that the model can be used to accurately predict the density of nuclear waste processed at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant. (authors)

Reynolds, J.G.; Bernards, J.K. [Washington Group International, Richland, WA (United States); Carter, R. [Energy Solutions, Richland, WA (United States)

2007-07-01

280

Chemical basis for pyrochemical reprocessing of nuclear fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integral fast reactor (IFR) is an advanced breeder reactor concept that includes on-site reprocessing of spent fuel and wastes. Spent metallic fuel from the IFR is separated from fission products and cladding, and wastes are put into acceptable forms by use of a compact pyrochemical process based on partition of fuel and wastes between molten salt and liquid metal.

John P. Ackerman

1991-01-01

281

Copper electrowinning from gold plant waste streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gold mining industries produce a considerable amount of waste streams containing cyanide and small quantities of copper, gold and other heavy metals. This effluent is usually treated by the AVR process, in order to recycle the cyanide to the leaching operation, however, this process is not efficient for the treatment of stable cyanide complexes. In this paper, the feasibility of

F. A. Lemos; L. G. S. Sobral; A. J. B. Dutra

2006-01-01

282

Process for recovering forest product plant wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for converting the wood wastes produced at lumber, pulp, and paper mills into steam and activated carbon is discussed. The steam may be used for processing the products or for conversion into electric power. The activated carbon can be used to filter the mill effluents. The process reduces air and water pollution to low levels which meet Federal

Thompson; R. E. S

1974-01-01

283

Refiners, petrochem plants focus on new waste challenges  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses how refineries and petrochemical plants face tough regulations on emissions of hazardous wastes and air emissions during the next decade. During the 1990s, process plants will have to substantially change the way they generate, handle, store, and dispose of hazardous wastes, particularly spent catalysts, and they will likely have to substantially reduce air emissions. An important area of concern for process plant operators is the disposal or recycle of spent process catalysts. Particular attention is directed toward the disposal or recycling of spent FCC equilibrium catalysts and spent hydrotreating catalysts. These catalysts, for the most part, are not yet considered hazardous by EPA, but the industry is concerned that they soon may be. A spent hydrotreating catalyst reclamation plant, described in detail, is typical of facilities refiners will rely more on for the disposition of spent catalysts.

Corbett, R.A

1990-03-05

284

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant quality assurance program description: Overview and applications. Part 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project Quality Assurance Program. This program is being implemented to ensure the acceptability of high-level radioactive canistered waste forms produced by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Pla...

W. H. Caplinger

1990-01-01

285

Fast Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Technology: Successes and Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

A structured development strategy, for realsing a robust Fast Reactor Fuel Reprocessing technology, is being pursued at the Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam. After two decades of R&D in many interdisciplinary activities on the process, equipment and safety, the pilot plant, CORAL, was commissioned in 2003. By reprocessing the unique spent mixed carbide fuel of FBTR (Fast

R. Natarajan; Baldev Raj

2011-01-01

286

Remote maintenance in the TOR fast reactor fuel reprocessing facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TOR facility which is undergoing commissioning tests has a capacity of 5 tonne HM\\/yr which is enough for reprocessing all the Phenix fuel, with an excess capacity which is to be used for other fast reactors' fuels. TOR will also be used to test new equipment developed for the large breeder fuel reprocessing plant presently in the design stage.

R. P. Eymery; M. Constant; G. Malterre

1986-01-01

287

Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing  

SciTech Connect

This is an a submission for the Encyclopedia of Sustainable Technology on the subject of Reprocessing Spent Nuclear Fuel. No formal abstract was required for the article. The full article will be attached.

Michael F. Simpson; Jack D. Law

2010-02-01

288

Safety Evaluation Report of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contact Handled (CH) Waste Documented Safety Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Safety Evaluation Report (SER) documents the Department of Energyâs (DOE's) review of Revision 9 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contact Handled (CH) Waste Documented Safety Analysis, DOE\\/WIPP-95-2065 (WIPP CH DSA), and provides the DOE Approval Authority with the basis for approving the document. It concludes that the safety basis documented in the WIPP CH DSA is comprehensive, correct,

2005-01-01

289

Quality Assurance Program Plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Experimental-Waste Characterization Program. Revision 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) identifies the quality of data necessary to meet the specific objectives associated with the Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Experimental-Waste Characterization Program (the Program)...

1991-01-01

290

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant RH TRU waste preoperational checkout: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH TRU) Waste Preoperational Checkout. The primary objective of this checkout was to demonstrate the process of handling RH TRU waste packages, from receipt through emplacement underground, using equipment, personnel, procedures, and methods to be used with actual waste packages. A further objective was to measure operational time lines to provide bases for confirming the WIPP design through put capability and for projecting operator radiation doses. Successful completion of this checkout is a prerequisite to the receipt of actual RH TRU waste. This checkout was witnessed in part by members of the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) of the state of New Mexico. Further, this report satisfies a key milestone contained in the Agreement for Consultation and Cooperation with the state of New Mexico. 4 refs., 26 figs., 4 tabs.

Not Available

1988-06-01

291

Material Selection for Defense Waste Processing Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Construction has started on a facility to immobilize high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant. Type 304L stainless steel is generally sufficient for supply tankage and service lines. It is used as the reference material in chemical reprocessing of reactor target and fuel tubes. Type 304L, however, has unacceptable stress corrosion cracking resistance

Bickford

1985-01-01

292

STRATEGIES FOR WATER AND WASTE REDUCTION IN DAIRY FOOD PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was undertaken to reduce water and waste discharges in a complex, multiproduct dairy food plant through management control and modifications of equipment and processes. The objectives were to develop approaches that would be broadly applicable throughout the dairy industr...

293

Fetal loss and work in a waste water treatment plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated pregnancy outcomes in 101 wives of workers employed in a waste water treatment plant (WWTP), and verified fetal losses by hospital records. Paternal work histories were compiled and each of the 210 pregnancies was assigned a paternal exposure category. The relative risk of fetal loss was increased when paternal exposure to the WWTP occurred around the time of

R. W. Morgan; L. Kheifets; D. L. Obrinsky; M. D. Whorton; D. E. Foliart

1984-01-01

294

Solid Waste Incineration at Lima Army Tank Plant, OH.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Due to the shortage of landfill space for solid waste disposal and the escalating cost of using commercial landfills, Lima Army Tank Plant, OH, asked the U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (USACERL) to investigate the technical and eco...

K. E. Griggs

1992-01-01

295

Fission Product Activities in Aged Savannah River Plant Waste Solutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fission products with activities equal to or greater than 10 nCi/ml were identified in 10-year-old defense waste solutions stored at the Savannah River Plant. Measured activities of exp 137 Cs, exp 106 Ru, exp 90 Sr, exp 99 Tc, and lanthanide isotopes pro...

J. R. Wiley

1978-01-01

296

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROLS FOR WASTE-TO-ENERGY PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper provides a literature review of selected, published literature relative to the performance of certain pollution control technologies that have been applied to Waste-to-Energy (WTE) plants. It discusses various environmental standards which have been adopted by three Eur...

297

Waste receiving and processing plant control system; system design description  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Plant Control System (PCS) is a heterogeneous computer system composed of numerous sub-systems. The PCS represents every major computer system that is used to support operation of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility. This document, the System Design Description (PCS SDD), includes several chapters and appendices. Each chapter is devoted to a separate PCS sub-system. Typically, each chapter

1999-01-01

298

Environmental Impact Statement: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP): Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this document is to provide a summary of the environmental impact statement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project. The Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the WIPP was published by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in Apri...

1980-01-01

299

Sampling and Analysis Plan - Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality

Reidel; Steve P

2006-01-01

300

Sampling and Analysis Plan Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the Saddle Mountains Basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be

Brouns; Thomas M

2007-01-01

301

Cut waste to reduce surcharges for your dairy plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater from most dairy plants is discharged to publicly owned treatment works (POTWs), where the majority of the pollutants are removed before the water is discharged to the environment. Treating the water costs money, and most treatment works charge according to the volume of sewage treated. In addition, they commonly charge extra (apply a surcharge) if the waste load exceeds

Carawan

1988-01-01

302

Mitigation of plant penetration into radioactive waste utilizing herbicides  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the use of herbicides as an effective method of precluding plant root penetration into buried radioactive wastes. The discussed surface applications are selective herbicides to control broadleaf vegetation in grasses; nonselective herbicides, which control all vegetation; and slow-release forms of these herbicides to prolong effectiveness.

Cox, G.R.

1982-01-01

303

Removal of dissolved and suspended radionuclides from Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant liquid wastes  

SciTech Connect

It was determined during Preliminary Design of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant that certain intermediate process liquid waste streams should be decontaminated in a way that would permit the purge of dissolved chemical species from the process recycle shop. This capability is needed to ensure proper control of product glass chemical composition and to avoid excessive corrosion of process equipment. This paper discusses the process design of a system that will remove both radioactive particulates and certain dissolved fission products from process liquid waste streams. Supporting data obtained from literature sources as well as from laboratory- and pilot-scale tests are presented. 3 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Sharp, S.D. (Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (USA)); Nankani, F.D. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA)); Bray, L.A.; Eakin, D.E.; Larson, D.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

1990-12-01

304

Environmental Solutions, A Summary of Contributions for CY04: Battelle Contributions to the Waste Treatment Plant  

SciTech Connect

In support of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP), Battelle conducted tests on mixing specific wastes within the plant, removing troublesome materials from the waste before treatment, and determining if the final waste forms met the established criteria. In addition, several Battelle experts filled full-time positions in WTP's Research and Testing and Process and Operations departments.

Beeman, Gordon H.

2005-03-08

305

Reprocessed uranium exposure and lung cancer risk.  

PubMed

This study investigated the risk of lung cancer in regards to protracted occupational exposure to reprocessed uranium compounds. Two thousand seven hundred and nine male workers employed at the AREVA NC uranium processing plant between 1960 and 2005 in France were included in the cohort. Historical exposure to reprocessed uranium compounds classified by their solubility type was assessed on the basis of the plant's specific job-exposure matrix. Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for attained age, calendar period, and socioeconomic status were used to estimate relative risks in regards of each type of uranium compound. The relative risk of lung cancer tended to increase with decreasing solubility of reprocessed uranium compounds. The highest-though not statistically significant-relative risk was observed among workers exposed to slowly soluble reprocessed uranium dioxide. This study is the first suggesting an increasing risk of lung cancer associated with exposure to reprocessed uranium. Our results are consistent with data from experimental studies of biokinetics and the action mechanism of slowly soluble uranium compounds, but need to be confirmed in larger studies with more detailed dose-response analyses. PMID:20699691

Canu, Irina Guseva; Jacob, Sophie; Cardis, Elisabeth; Wild, Pascal; Caër-Lorho, Sylvaine; Auriol, Bernard; Laurier, Dominique; Tirmarche, Margot

2010-09-01

306

Preliminary treatment of dairy plant waste water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of a dairy plant wastewater that had been discharged in a ditch and then into a small stream was evaluated over a three?year period. The wastewater was released to the ditch, where after traversing a distance of approximately 100 meters, it entered a snail moving stream of water. Vegetation in the ditch served as a biofilter for the

R. H. Gough; P. McGrew

1993-01-01

307

Waste minimization in a bleach plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study a steady-state model was developed for a six stage bleaching system in a pulp and paper industry. A fortran source code was written to simulate the whole bleach plant. Different case studies were performed with the aim of decreasing the total amount of dissolved solids coming out from the six washers. Each stage of the sequence is

?smail Do?an; A. Güniz Gürüz

2004-01-01

308

Handling and treatment of low-level radioactive wastes from United States gaseous diffusion plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US gaseous diffusion plants currently generate very small quantities of low-level radioactive wastes. These wastes consist primarily of airborne effluent solid trapping media and liquid scrubber solutions; liquid effluent treatment sludges; waste oils and solvents; scrap metals; and conventional combustible wastes such as floor sweepings, cleaning rags, and shoe covers. In addition to waste emanating from current operations, large

J. F. Wing; M. E. Mitchell; J. E. Behrend

1983-01-01

309

Geotechnical activities in the waste handling shaft. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project, southeastern New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The waste handling shaft (waste shaft) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site is an enlargement of the drilled, Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) ventilation shaft. Geotechnical activities in the waste shaft were designed to confirm the SPDV ventilation shaft mapping results and to provide additional information about identified zones of interest. The activities included identification of instrument locations, geologic inspections of the exposed shaft surface during sinking operations, reconnaissance geologic mapping of the waste shaft sump, and detailed geologic mapping in identified zones of interest. These activities were carried out concurrently with construction. The results of the geologic inspections in the waste shaft and the reconnaissance geologic mapping in the waste shaft sump correlate well with previous characterizations. However, the detailed 360/sup 0/ geologic mapping performed in several zones of interest did not reveal post-depositional dissolution features, thought to occur at several stratigraphic horizons in the Rustler Formation at the WIPP site. At the waste shaft, zones previously identified as dissolution residues in nearby boreholes contained pronounced primary sedimentary features.

Holt, R.M.; Powers, D.W.

1984-10-01

310

Criticality safety analysis for remote handled TRU waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility designed to store transuranic (TRU) waste underground in a mined salt bed. All fissile nuclides except U/sup 235/ are considered TRU nuclides. This report presents the results of the nuclear criticality analysis for Remote-Handled (RH) TRU waste stored at the WIPP site. The RH waste material will be contained in steel canisters that are five feet or ten feet long. Each ten foot canister is capable of holding three 55 gallon drums of waste material. The five foot canisters are to be welded together to form one ten foot long canister. In general the fissile waste material is mainly surface contamination on clothing, wipes, wrappings, tools, etc., or mixed in a borosilicate glass matrix or concrete. Other fissile material may be contained in absorbent mixtures. As a result, the fissile material will typically be spread over a large fraction of the volume in most of the waste storage canisters. Typical isotopic content of the fissile/other radioactive material is shown in Table 1-1. This analysis will analyze the RH waste storage and handling configurations at the WIPP site to show that up to 600 grams of fissile material per ten foot canister can be received and stored at the site without criticality safety concerns. 6 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1988-07-01

311

Boiler tube failures in municipal waste-to-energy plants  

SciTech Connect

Waste-to-energy plants experienced increased boiler tube failures when the design changed from waste-heat boilers to radiant furnace waterwalls using superheat. Fireside attack by chlorine and sulfur compounds in refuse combustion products caused many forced outages in early European plants operating at high steam temperatures and pressures. Despite conservative steam conditions in the first US plants, failures occurred. As steam temperatures increased, corrosion problems multiplied. The problems have been alleviated by covering the waterwalls with either refractory or weld overlays of nickel-based alloys and using high nickel-chromium alloys for superheater tubes. Changes in furnace design to provide uniform combustion and avoid reducing conditions in the waterwall zone and to lower the gas temperature in the superheater also have helped minimize corrosion.

Krause, H.H.; Wright, I.G. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

1996-01-01

312

Geotechnical Perspectives on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the first nuclear waste repository certified by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Success in regulatory compliance resulted from an excellent natural setting for such a repository, a facility with multiple, redundant safety systems, and from a rigorous, transparent scientific and technical evaluation. The WIPP story, which has evolved over the past 25 years, has generated a library of publications and analyses. Details of the multifaceted program are contained in the cited references. Selected geotechnical highlights prove the eminent suitability of the WIPP to serve its congressionally mandated purpose.

Francke, Chris T.; Hansen, Frank D.; Knowles, M. Kathyn; Patchet, Stanley J.; Rempe, Norbert T.

1999-08-05

313

The waste isolation pilot plant regulatory compliance program  

SciTech Connect

The passage of the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act of 1992 (LWA) marked a turning point for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) program. It established a Congressional mandate to open the WIPP in as short a time as possible, thereby initiating the process of addressing this nation`s transuranic (TRU) waste problem. The DOE responded to the LWA by shifting the priority at the WIPP from scientific investigations to regulatory compliance and the completion of prerequisites for the initiation of operations. Regulatory compliance activities have taken four main focuses: (1) preparing regulatory submittals; (2) aggressive schedules; (3) regulator interface; and (4) public interactions

Mewhinney, J.A. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Carlsbad, NM (United States); Kehrman, R.F. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States)

1996-06-01

314

Regulatory basis for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant performance assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the first operational repository designed for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste from the defense programs of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for certifications and regulation of the WIPP facility for the radioactive components of the waste. The EPA has promulgated general radioactive waste disposal standards at 40 CFR Part 191. and WIPP-specific criteria to implement and interpret the generic disposal standards at 40 CFR Part 194. In October 1996. the DOE submitted its Compliance Certification Application (CCA) to the EPA to demonstrate compliance with the disposal standards at Subparts B and C of 40 CFR Part 191. This paper summarizes the development of the overall legal framework for radioactive waste disposal at the WIPP, the parallel development of the WIPP performance assessment (PA), and how the EPA disposal standards and implementing criteria formed the basis for the CCA WIPP PA. The CCA resulted in a certification in May 1998 by the EPA of the WIPP'S compliance with the EPA's disposal standard, thus enabling the WIPP to begin radioactive waste disposal.

HOWARD,BRYAN A.; CRAWFORD,M.B.; GALSON,D.A.; MARIETTA,MELVIN G.

2000-05-22

315

Treatment of Decommissioning Waste at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe  

SciTech Connect

Decommissioning of nuclear facilities gives rise to radioactive residues and wastes that strongly differ from operation waste. For the reuse or proper disposal of such waste, special techniques and equipment have to be available. This means that a waste treatment facility has to specialize for this work. Decommissioning waste differs from operation waste mainly by the type, size, and activity. Classical operation waste comprises burnable or compactable mixed waste from which radioactive waste products are produced by incineration and high-pressure compaction. Decommissioning does not only give rise to such mixed waste, but also to large components, reactor internals, and contaminated concrete structures that have to be managed properly. In 1979, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe began to dismantle the first of its five research reactors. In 1991, dismantling of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant started. Meanwhile, all research reactors are being decommissioned or have already been dismantled completely. All radioactive wastes and residues from these decommissioning projects were and are transferred to the central waste treatment facility of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, the Hauptabteilung Dekontaminationsbetriebe (HDB, Central Decontamination Department), for further treatment. Since the beginning of decommissioning work, HDB has accepted and processed large volumes of decommissioning waste. This also included dismantled large components, such as the steam generators and core internals of the Multi-purpose Research Reactor and the sodium discharge tank and rotary shield of the Compact Sodium-cooled Nuclear Reactor Facility or contaminated concrete structures from the hot cells of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant. (authors)

Graf, A.; Valencia, L. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Hauptabteilung Dekontaminationsbetriebe, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

2006-07-01

316

High level waste vitrification at the SRP (Savannah River Plant) (DWPF (Defense Waste Processing Facility) summary)  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Plant has been operating a nuclear fuel cycle since the early 1950's. Fuel and target elements are fabricated and irradiated to produce nuclear materials. After removal from the reactors, the fuel elements are processed to extract the products, and waste is stored. During the thirty years of operation including evaporation, about 30 million gallons of high level radioactive waste has accumulated. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) under construction at Savannah River will process this waste into a borosilicate glass for long-term geologic disposal. The construction of the DWPF is about 70% complete; this paper will describe the status of the project, including design demonstrations, with an emphasis on the melter system. 9 figs.

Weisman, A F; Knight, J R; McIntosh, D L; Papouchado, L M

1988-01-01

317

Laboratory characterization and vitrification of Hanford radioactive high-level waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive high-level wastes generated at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site are stored in underground carbon steel tanks. Two double-shell tanks contain neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel in the Plutonium and Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. The tanks were sampled for characterization and waste immobilization process\\/product development. The high-level waste generated in PUREX was

J. M. Tingey; M. L. Elliott; D. E. Larson; E. V. Morrey

1991-01-01

318

Reprocessing of Spent Fuel, Dounreay and Fast Breeder Reactors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the light of the public interest in Norway in the breeder reactor fuel reprocessing plant projected in Dounreay, Scotland, the report gives a description of the research center in Dounreay and the planned joint European demonstration facility (EDRP). C...

R. Lingjaerde

1986-01-01

319

Bentonite as a waste isolation pilot plant shaft sealing material  

SciTech Connect

Current designs of the shaft sealing system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) propose using bentonite as a primary sealing component. The shaft sealing designs anticipate that compacted bentonite sealing components can perform through the 10,000-year regulatory period and beyond. To evaluate the acceptability of bentonite as a sealing material for the WIPP, this report identifies references that deal with the properties and characteristics of bentonite that may affect its behavior in the WIPP environment. This report reviews published studies that discuss using bentonite as sealing material for nuclear waste disposal, environmental restoration, toxic and chemical waste disposal, landfill liners, and applications in the petroleum industry. This report identifies the physical and chemical properties, stability and seal construction technologies of bentonite seals in shafts, especially in a saline brine environment. This report focuses on permeability, swelling pressure, strength, stiffness, longevity, and densification properties of bentonites.

Daemen, J.; Ran, Chongwei [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

1996-12-01

320

Experience in the reprocessing of mixed-oxide fuels at PNC (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) in Japan has experience in reprocessing mixed-oxide (MOX) fuels for the advanced thermal reactor (ATR) Fugen at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP) and for fast breeder reactors (FBRs) at the Chemical Processing Facility (CPF). The TRP was originally designed and constructed as the first reprocessing plant for light water reactor fuels

Hisato Komatsu; Moichi Onishi; Sadao Araya; Misao Fukushima

1989-01-01

321

High Level Waste Remote Handling Equipment in the Melter Cave Support Handling System at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cold war plutonium production led to extensive amounts of radioactive waste stored in tanks at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site. Bechtel National, Inc. is building the largest nuclear Waste Treatment Plant in the world located at the Department of Energy's Hanford site to immobilize the millions of gallons of radioactive waste. The site comprises five main facilities; Pretreatment,

M. A. Bardal; N. J. Darwen

2008-01-01

322

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report  

SciTech Connect

This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 1998, to March 31, 2000. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA)(Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, and amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Area Office's (hereinafter the ''CAO'') compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico. An issue was identified in the 1998 BECR relating to a potential cross-connection between the fire-water systems and the site domestic water system. While the CAO and its managing and operating contractor (hereinafter the ''MOC'') believe the site was always in compliance with cross-connection control requirements, hardware and procedural upgrades w ere implemented in March 1999 to strengthen its compliance posture. Further discussion of this issue is presented in section 30.2.2 herein. During this reporting period WIPP received two letters and a compliance order alleging violation of certain requirements outlined in section 9(a)(1) of the LWA. With the exception of one item, pending a final decision by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), all alleged violations have been resolved without the assessment of fines or penalties. Non-mixed TRU waste shipments began on March 26, 1999. Shipments continued through November 26, 1999, the effective date of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF). No shipments regulated under the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit were received at WIPP during this BECR reporting period.

Westinghouse TRU Solutions

2000-12-01

323

Remote handling equipment at the hanford waste treatment plant  

SciTech Connect

Cold war plutonium production led to extensive amounts of radioactive waste stored in tanks at the Department of Energy's Hanford Waste Treatment Plant. The storage tanks could potentially leak into the ground water and into the Columbia River. The solution for this risk of the leaking waste is vitrification. Vitrification is a process of mixing molten glass with radioactive waste to form a stable condition for storage. The Department of Energy has contracted Bechtel National, Inc. to build facilities at the Hanford site to process the waste. The waste will be separated into high and low level waste. Four major systems will process the waste, two pretreatment and two high level. Due to the high radiation levels, high integrity custom cranes have been designed to remotely maintain the hot cells. Several critical design parameters were implemented into the remote machinery design, including radiation limitations, remote operations, Important to Safety features, overall equipment effectiveness, minimum wall approaches, seismic constraints, and recovery requirements. Several key pieces of equipment were designed to meet these design requirements - high integrity crane bridges, trolleys, main hoists, mast hoists, slewing hoists, a monorail hoist, and telescoping mast deployed tele-robotic manipulator arms. There were unique and challenging design features and equipment needed to provide the remotely operated high integrity crane/manipulator systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant. The cranes consist of a double girder bridge with various main hoist capacities ranging from one to thirty ton and are used for performing routine maintenance. A telescoping mast mounted tele-robotic manipulator arm with a one-ton hook is deployed from the trolley to perform miscellaneous operations in-cell. A dual two-ton slewing jib hoist is mounted to the bottom of the trolley and rotates 360 degrees around the mast allowing the closest hook wall approaches. Each of the two hoists on this slewer is mounted 180 degrees opposite each other. Another system utilizes a single one-ton slewing jib hoist that can extend and retract as well as rotate 270 degrees around the mast. Yet, another system utilizes an under-hung monorail trolley with one-ton hoist capacity mounted to the bottom of the bridge girder. The main, slewer and monorail hoists each have power-rotating hooks for installing and removing equipment in the hot cell. (authors)

Bardal, M.A. [PaR Systems, Inc., Shoreview, MN, (United States); Roach, J.D. [Bechtel National, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

2007-07-01

324

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Enviromental Report for 2008  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2008 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to characterize site environmental management performance; summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year; confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; highlight significant facility programs and efforts; and describe how compliance and environmental improvement is accomplished through the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS). The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and the management and operating contractor (MOC), Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS), maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). DOE Order 231.1A; DOE Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and workers, and preservation of the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, which requires that DOE facilities submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Chief Health, Safety, and Security Officer. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) Number NM4890139088-TSDF (treatment, storage, and disposal facility) further requires that the ASER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WIPP mission is to safely dispose of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste generated by the production of nuclear weapons and other activities related to the national defense of the United States. In 2008, 5,265 cubic meters (m3) of TRU waste were disposed of at the WIPP facility, including 5,216 m3 of contact-handled (CH) TRU waste and 49 m3 of remote-handled (RH) TRU waste. From the first receipt of waste in March 1999 through the end of 2008, 57,873 m3 of TRU waste had been disposed of at the WIPP facility.

Washington Regulatory and Enviromnetal Services

2009-09-21

325

Technical aspects of fuel reprocessing  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to present a brief description of fuel reprocessing and some present developments which show the reliability of nuclear energy as a long-term supply. The following topics are discussed: technical reasons for reprocessing; economic reasons for reprocessing; past experience; justification for advanced reprocessing R and D; technical aspects of current reprocessing development. The present developments are mainly directed at the reprocessing of breeder reactor fuels but there are also many applications to light-water reactor fuel reprocessing. These new developments involve totally remote operation, and maintenance. To demonstrate this advanced reprocessing concept, pilot-scale demonstration facilities are planned with commercial application occurring sometime after the year 2000. (ATT)

Groenier, W.S.

1982-02-01

326

Reprocessing of Reusable Medical Devices  

MedlinePLUS

... Reprocessing Medical Devices in Health Care Settings: Validation Methods and Labeling Public Workshop - Reprocessing of Reusable Medical ... 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 Ph. 1-888-INFO-FDA (1-888-463-6332) ...

327

ICPP Waste Management Technology Development Program  

SciTech Connect

As a result of the decision to curtail reprocessing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), a Spent fuel and Waste Management Technology Development plan has been implemented to identify acceptable options for disposing of the (1) sodium-bearing liquid radioactive waste, (2) radioactive calcine, and (3) irradiated spent fuel stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The plan was developed jointly by DOE and WINCO.

Hogg, G.W.; Olson, A.L.; Knecht, D.A. [Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co., Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bonkoski, M.J. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1993-01-01

328

A shaft seal system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

As part of the demonstration of compliance with federal regulations, a shaft seal system has been designed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The system completely fills the 650 m shafts with components consisting of the common engineering materials, each of which possesses low permeability, longevity, and can be constructed using available technology. Design investigations couple rock mechanics and fluid flow analysis and tests of these materials within the natural geological setting, and demonstrate the effectiveness of the design.

Hansen, F.D.; Ahrens, E.H.; Dennis, A.W.; Hurtado, L.D.; Knowles, M.K.; Tillerson, J.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Thompson, T.W. [Science Applications International Corp., Golden, CO (United States); Galbraith, D. [USDOE Carlsbad Area Office, NM (United States)

1996-07-01

329

Biomethanization of municipal solid waste in a pilot plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the behaviour of a sanitary landfill was reproduced in a pilot plant under controlled conditions. The experiment was carried out in an opaque PVC reactor at 36±1°C with recirculation of the leachates. The municipal solid waste (MSW) employed came from the regional landfill site of Asturias and the study was carried out in three stages. Firstly, 48.5kg

J Rodriguez Iglesias; L Castrillón Pelaez; E Marañon Maison; H Sastre Andres

2000-01-01

330

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant CY 2000 Site Environmental Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office and Westinghouse TRU Solutions, LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the

2001-01-01

331

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2001 Site Environmental Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Westinghouse TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored

2002-01-01

332

Indicator organisms for assessing sanitization during composting of plant wastes.  

PubMed

The potential for using plant pathogens and seeds as indicator organisms for assessing sanitization of plant wastes during composting was tested in bench-scale flask and large-scale systems. Plasmodiophora brassicae was unsuitable due to high temperature tolerance in dry to moist composts, and detection of viable inoculum post-composting using bioassay plants not corresponding with that using TaqMan® PCR, possibly due to preservation of nucleic acids at elevated temperatures. Several other plant pathogens (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Microdochium nivale, Phytophthora cinnamomi and Phytophthora nicotianae) were unsuitable due their low temperature tolerance. Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cepae and f.sp. radicis-lycopersici chlamydospores and tomato seeds were suitable indicators due to their moderate temperature tolerance and ease of viability testing post-composting. Abutilon seeds were more tolerant than tomato seeds of compost temperatures ?52°C but more prone to degradation at lower temperatures and therefore less suitable as indicators. Relationships between compost temperature during exposures of 2-10 days and subsequent viability of the above chlamydospores or seeds enabled the sanitizing effect of composting processes to be predicted within 2-6 days. Plant waste type (woody or vegetable) had a small but significant effect on the relationship for tomato seeds but not for F. oxysporum chlamydospores. PMID:21546235

Noble, R; Dobrovin-Pennington, A; Pietravalle, S; Weekes, R; Henry, C M

2011-05-04

333

Assessing pollutions of soil and plant by municipal waste dump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research is few in the literature regarding the investigation and assessment of pollutions of soil and plant by municipal waste dumps. Based upon previous work in seven waste dumping sites (nonsanitary landfills) in Beijing, Shanghai and Shijiazhuang, this study expounds the investigation and assessment method and report major pollutants. Using relative background values, this study assesses soil pollution degree in the seven dumping sites. Preliminary conclusions are: (1) pollution degrees are moderate or heavy; (2) pollution distance by domestic waste that is dumped on a plane ground is 85 m; (3) the horizontal transport distance of pollutants might be up to 120 m if waste leachates are directly connected with water in saturated soils; (4) vertical transport depth is about 3 m in unsaturated silty clayey soils. Furthermore, using relative background values and hygiene standards of food and vegetable this study assesses the pollutions of different parts of reed, sorghum, watermelon and sweet-melon. It is found: (1) in comparison with the relative background values in a large distance to the waste dumping sites, domestic wastes have polluted the roots and stems of reed and sorghum, whereas fine coal ash has polluted the leaves, rattans and fruits of watermelon and sweet-melon; (2) domestic wastes and fine coal ash have heavily polluted the edible parts of sorghum, water melon and sweet-melon. As, Hg, Pb and F have far exceeded standard values, e.g., Hg has exceeded the standard value by up to 650 1,700 times and Cd by 120 275 times, and the comprehensive pollution index is up to 192.9 369.7; (3) the polluted sorghum, watermelon and sweet-melon are inedible.

Liu, Changli; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Feng'e.; Zhang, Sheng; Yin, Miying; Ye, Hao; Hou, Hongbing; Dong, Hua; Zhang, Ming; Jiang, Jianmei; Pei, Lixin

2007-04-01

334

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan  

SciTech Connect

DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program Requirements (DOE, 1990a), requires each DOE facility to prepare an EMP. This document is prepared for WIPP in accordance with the guidance contained in DOE Order 5400.1; DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment (DOE, 1990b); Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T; DOE, 1991); and the Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 834, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment (Draft). Many sections of DOE Order 5400.1 have been replaced by DOE Order 231.1 (DOE, 1995), which is the driver for the Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) and the guidance source for preparing many environmental program documents. The WIPP project is operated by Westinghouse Electric Company, Waste Isolation Division (WID), for the DOE. This plan defines the extent and scope of the WIPP's effluent and environmental monitoring programs during the facility's operational life and also discusses the WIPP's quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) program as it relates to environmental monitoring. In addition, this plan provides a comprehensive description of environmental activities at WIPP including: A summary of environmental programs, including the status of environmental monitoring activities A description of the WIPP project and its mission A description of the local environment, including demographics An overview of the methodology used to assess radiological consequences to the public, including brief discussions of potential exposure pathways, routine and accidental releases, and their consequences Responses to the requirements described in the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE, 1991). This document references DOE orders and other federal and state regulations affecting environmental monitoring programs at the site. WIPP procedures, which implement the requirements of this program plan, are also referenced. The DOE regulates its own activities for radiation protection of the public under the authority of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (42 U.S.C. 2011). The effluent and environmental monitoring activities prescribed by DOE Order 5400.5 and the DOE/EH-0173T guidance manual are designed to ensure that DOE facilities implement standards and regulations to protect members of the public and the environment against undue risk from radiation. Effluent and environmental monitoring also provide 1999 Environmental Monitoring Plan DOE/WIPP 99-2194 the data necessary to demonstrate compliance with applicable environmental protection regulations. Other federal agencies, such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), are empowered through specific legislation to regulate certain aspects of DOE activities potentially affecting public health and safety or the environment. Presidential Executive Order 12088, Federal Compliance with Pollution Control Standards (43 FR 47707), requires the heads of executive agencies to ensure that all federal facilities and activities comply with applicable pollution control standards and to take all necessary actions for the prevention, control, and abatement of environmental pollution. Beyond statutory requirements, the DOE has established a general environmental protection policy. The Environmental Policy Statement (issued by then Secretary Herrington on January 8, 1986, and extended on January 7, 1987) describes the DOE's commitment to national environmental protection goals in that it conducts operations ''in an environmentally safe and sound manner . . . in compliance with the letter and spirit of applicable environmental statutes, regulations, and standards'' (DOE, 1986). This Environmental Policy Statement also states the DOE's commitment to ''good environmental management in all of its programs and at all of its facilities in order to correct existing environmental problems, to minimize risks to the environment or public health, and to anticipate and address pote

Westinghouse Electric Company Waste Isolation Division

1999-09-29

335

THE PERPETUAL CARE OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTES IN NEW YORK STATE. A Technological and Cost Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The various elements of technology and cost involved in providing care ; for high-level, radioactive liquid wastes at the Western New York Nuclear Service ; Center, Cattaraugus County, New York, were analyzed. lt was assumed that these ; wastes are produced in 15 years of operation, at full capacity, of a multi-; purpose nuclear fuels reprocessing plant. The technological status

R. W. Kupp; S. M. Stoller

1962-01-01

336

The waste isolation pilot plant: a unique waste management strategy for the U.S. Department of Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For all but the lowest levels of radioactive wastes, a satisfactory permanent disposal scheme is not currently available. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a model research and development program to demonstrate safe and effective means of removing transuranic nuclear wastes from the biosphere. This paper gives the historical development of the WIPP project, the classes of waste to be included in the project, the geologic basis of the repository, and methods used for characterizing the waste. Emphasis is given on how characterization methods are used to demonstrate compliance with regulatory criteria for handling various classes of waste.

Elliott, John R.; Weston, William W.; Davis, Harold J.

1994-03-01

337

Estimation and characterization of decontamination and decommissioning solid waste expected from the Plutonium Finishing Plant  

SciTech Connect

Purpose of the study was to estimate the amounts of equipment and other materials that are candidates for removal and subsequent processing in a solid waste facility when the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant is decontaminated and decommissioned. (Building structure and soil are not covered.) Results indicate that {approximately}5,500 m{sup 3} of solid waste is expected to result from the decontamination and decommissioning of the Pu Finishing Plant. The breakdown of the volumes and percentages of waste by category is 1% dangerous solid waste, 71% low-level waste, 21% transuranic waste, 7% transuranic mixed waste.

Millar, J.S.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; Stratton, T.J. [and others

1995-01-01

338

Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 3: Appendix BIR Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic Waste Baseline Inventory Report (WTWBIR) establishes a methodology for grouping wastes of similar physical and chemical properties, from across the US Department of Energy (DOE) transuranic (TRU) waste sy...

1995-01-01

339

Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to summarize the waste acceptance criteria applicable to the transportation, storage, and disposal of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). These criteria serve as the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) primary directive for ensuring that CH-TRU waste is managed and disposed of in a manner that protects human health and safety and the environment.The authorization basis of WIPP for the disposal of CH-TRU waste includes the U.S.Department of Energy National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear EnergyAuthorization Act of 1980 (reference 1) and the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA;reference 2). Included in this document are the requirements and associated criteriaimposed by these acts and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA,reference 3), as amended, on the CH-TRU waste destined for disposal at WIPP.|The DOE TRU waste sites must certify CH-TRU waste payload containers to thecontact-handled waste acceptance criteria (CH-WAC) identified in this document. Asshown in figure 1.0, the flow-down of applicable requirements to the CH-WAC istraceable to several higher-tier documents, including the WIPP operational safetyrequirements derived from the WIPP CH Documented Safety Analysis (CH-DSA;reference 4), the transportation requirements for CH-TRU wastes derived from theTransuranic Package Transporter-Model II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT Certificates ofCompliance (references 5 and 5a), the WIPP LWA (reference 2), the WIPP HazardousWaste Facility Permit (reference 6), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) Compliance Certification Decision and approval for PCB disposal (references 7,34, 35, 36, and 37). The solid arrows shown in figure 1.0 represent the flow-down of allapplicable payload container-based requirements. The two dotted arrows shown infigure 1.0 represent the flow-down of summary level requirements only; i.e., the sitesmust reference the regulatory source documents from the U.S. Nuclear RegulatoryCommission (NRC) and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) for acomprehensive and detailed listing of the requirements.This CH-WAC does not address the subject of waste characterization relating to adetermination of whether the waste is hazardous; rather, the sites are referred to theWaste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit fordetails of the sampling and analysis protocols to be used in determining compliance withthe required physical and chemical properties of the waste. Requirements andassociated criteria pertaining to a determination of the radiological properties of thewaste, however, are addressed in appendix A of this document. The collectiveinformation obtained from waste characterization records and acceptable knowledge(AK) serves as the basis for sites to certify that their CH-TRU waste satisfies the WIPPwaste acceptance criteria listed herein.

Washington TRU Solutions LLC

2005-12-29

340

The relationship of odor concentration and the critical components emitted from food waste composting plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current official policy regarding food waste management tends towards recycling for composting usage; however, malodors emitted from food waste composting plants raises other important environmental issues. The objectives of this study are to investigate the critical odorants of the emission from food waste composting plants and their human olfactory effect in general concentration ranges presented by olfactometric results. The

Chung-Jung Tsai; Mei-Lien Chen; An-Di Ye; Ming-Shean Chou; Shu-Hung Shen; I.-Fang Mao

2008-01-01

341

Anaerobic\\/aerobic\\/coagulation treatment of leachate from a municipal solid wastes incineration plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Municipal solid wastes (MSW) in China contain a large fraction of food waste and have high moisture content. MSW is usually held in waste pits for a few days to reduce moisture content before combustion in an incineration plant. In this study, leachate from the Tongxing MSW incineration plant was characterized and a combined anaerobic–aerobic–coagulation system was proposed and investigated.

Fang Fang; Abdulhussain A. Abbas; You-Peng Chen; Zhi-Ping Liu; Xu Gao; Jin-Song Guo

2012-01-01

342

Critique of Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant off-gas sampling requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Off-gas sampling and monitoring activities needed to support operations safety, process control, waste form qualification, and environmental protection requirements of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) have been evaluated. The locations of necessary sampling sites have been identified on the basis of plant requirements, and the applicability of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) reference sampling equipment to these HWVP requirements

Goles

1996-01-01

343

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2001 Site Environmental Report  

SciTech Connect

The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Westinghouse TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2001 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year (CY) 2001 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH- 0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above Orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an annual site environmental report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health; and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during CY 2001. WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 2001, no evidence was found of any adverse effects from WIPP on the surrounding environment.

Westinghouse TRU Solutions, Inc.

2002-09-20

344

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant CY 2000 Site Environmental Report  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office and Westinghouse TRU Solutions, LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2000 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year (CY) 2000 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protect ion Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an Annual Site Environmental Report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health. The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during CY 2000. The format of this report follows guidance offered in a June 1, 2001 memo from DOE's Office of Policy and Guidance with the subject ''Guidance for the preparation of Department of Energy (DOE) Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs) for Calendar Year 2000.'' WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 2000, no evidence was found of any adverse effects from WIPP on the surrounding environment.

Westinghouse TRU Solutions, LLC; Environmental Science and Research Foundation, Inc.

2001-12-31

345

Life cycle assessment (LCA) of waste management strategies: Landfilling, sorting plant and incineration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of four waste management strategies: landfill without biogas utilization; landfill with biogas combustion to generate electricity; sorting plant which splits the inorganic waste fraction (used to produce electricity via Refuse Derived Fuels, RDF) from the organic waste fraction (used to produce biogas via anaerobic digestion); direct incineration of waste. These scenarios

Francesco Cherubini; Silvia Bargigli; Sergio Ulgiati

2009-01-01

346

AKUT: a process for separating aerosols, krypton, and tritium from the combustion waste gases in the reprocessing of high temperature fuel elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the AKUT method the aerosols are separated by electric and absolute filters. The waste gas is then burned with measured quantities of oxygen before it is liquified at 65-70 atm. This liquefied waste gas is fed into a rectification column, and a krypton-rich fraction containing 10- 20% by volume of krypton is drawn off at the top of the

M. Laser; H. Beaujean; H. Vygen

1973-01-01

347

Safety Evaluation Report of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contact Handled (CH) Waste Documented Safety Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This Safety Evaluation Report (SER) documents the Department of Energy’s (DOE's) review of Revision 9 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contact Handled (CH) Waste Documented Safety Analysis, DOE/WIPP-95-2065 (WIPP CH DSA), and provides the DOE Approval Authority with the basis for approving the document. It concludes that the safety basis documented in the WIPP CH DSA is comprehensive, correct, and commensurate with hazards associated with CH waste disposal operations. The WIPP CH DSA and associated technical safety requirements (TSRs) were developed in accordance with 10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Management, and DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

Washington TRU Solutions LLC

2005-09-01

348

Waste-generated gas at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Papers presented at the Nuclear Energy Agency Workshop on gas generation and release from radioactive waste repositories  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are four papers contained in this report which were presented at the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Gas Workshop to provide information about studies of waste-generated gas being conducted for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The paper by Davies et al. provides a general overview of the physical conditions pertinent to waste-generated gas and of the coupling of chemical,

P. B. Davies; L. H. Brush; M. A. Molecke; F. T. Mendenhall; S. W. Webb

1991-01-01

349

Pilot plant evaluation of PFS from coal-fired power plant waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pilot plant studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of a polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS) coagulant synthesized from waste SO2. Aluminum sulfate (alum), ferric sulfate and ferric chloride were compared with PFS. Preliminary jar tests were performed to determine coagulant dose range and expected turbidity removal. The studies were conducted at the City of Savannah Industrial and Domestic (I&D) Water

Heath Lloyd; Adrienne T. Cooper; Maohong Fan; Robert C. Brown; John Sawyer; Yonghui Shi; Na Li; Wei Zhang

2007-01-01

350

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report  

SciTech Connect

This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 2000, to March 31, 2002. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA)(Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office's (CBFO) compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico. In the prior BECR, the CBFO and the management and operating contractor (MOC)committed to discuss resolution of a Letter of Violation that had been issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) in August 1999, which was during the previous BECR reporting period. This Letter of Violation alleged noncompliance with hazardous waste aisle spacing, labeling, a nd tank requirements. At the time of publication of the prior BECR, resolution of the Letter of Violation was pending. On July 7, 2000, the NMED issued a letter noting that the aisle spacing and labeling concerns had been adequately addressed and that they were rescinding the violation alleging that the Exhaust Shaft Catch Basin failed to comply with the requirements for a hazardous waste tank. During the current reporting period, WIPP received a Notice of Violation and a compliance order alleging the violation of the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Regulations and the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP).

Washinton TRU Solutions LLC

2002-09-30

351

A historical review of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant backfill development  

SciTech Connect

Backfills have been part of Sandia National Laboratories' [Sandia's] Waste Isolation Pilot Plant [WIPP] designs for over twenty years. Historically, backfill research at Sandia has depended heavily on the changing mission of the WIPP facility. Early testing considered heat producing, high level, wastes. Bentonite/sand/salt mixtures were evaluated and studies focused on developing materials that would retard brine ingress, sorb radionuclides, and withstand elevated temperatures. The present-day backfill consists of pure MgO [magnesium oxide] in a pelletized form and is directed at treating the relatively low contamination level, non-heat producing, wastes actually being disposed of in the WIPP. Its introduction was motivated by the need to scavenging CO{sub 2} [carbon dioxide] from decaying organic components in the waste. However, other benefits, such as a substantial desiccating capacity, are also being evaluated. The MgO backfill also fulfills a statutory requirement for assurance measures beyond those needed to demonstrate compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] regulatory release limits. However, even without a backfill, the WIPP repository design still operates within EPA regulatory release limits.

KRUMHANSL,JAMES L.; MOLECKE,MARTIN A.; PAPENGUTH,HANS W.; BRUSH,LAURENCE H.

2000-06-05

352

A Short History of Hanford Waste Generation, Storage, and Release  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine nuclear reactors and four reprocessing plants at Hanford produced nearly two-thirds of the plutonium used in the United States for government purposes . These site operations also created large volumes of radioactive and chemical waste. Some contaminants were released into the environment, exposing people who lived downwind and downstream. Other contaminants were stored. The last reactor was shut down

Gephart; Roy E

2003-01-01

353

Evaluation of air effluent and workplace radioactivity monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Improvements are needed in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) air effluent and workplace radioactivity monitoring prior to receipt of radioactive wastes. This report provides a detailed review Zf radioactivity air monitoring regulatory requirements an...

W. T. Bartlett

1993-01-01

354

Solid Waste Energy Conversion Project, Reedy Creek Utilities Demonstration Plant: Environmental Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Solid Waste Energy Conversion (SWEC) facility proposed would produce high-temperature hot water from urban refuse and would also provide a demonstration pilot-plant for the proposed Transuranic Waste Treatment Facility (TWTF) in Idaho. The SWEC projec...

1980-01-01

355

INTELLIGENT DECISION SUPPORT FOR WASTE MINIMIZATION IN ELECTROPLATING PLANTS. (R824732)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Wastewater, spent solvent, spent process solutions, and sludge are the major waste streams generated in large volumes daily in electroplating plants. These waste streams can be significantly minimized through process modification and operational improvement. I...

356

Technical basis for external dosimetry at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The WIPP External Dosimetry Program, administered by Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Waste Isolation Division, for the US Department of Energy (DOE), provides external dosimetry support services for operations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) ...

E. W. Bradley C. F. Wu T. E. Goff

1993-01-01

357

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Project Progress Report, December 1, 1982-February 28, 1983.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a defense activity of the Department of Energy. Its express purpose is to provide a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive waste resulting from the defense activities and...

1983-01-01

358

Process waste treatment system upgrades: Clarifier startup at the nonradiological wastewater treatment plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Waste Management Operations Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory recently modified the design of a reactor/clarifier at the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant, which is now referred to as the Process Waste Treatment Complex--Building 3608...

A. J. Lucero D. R. McTaggart D. C. Van Essen T. E. Kent G. D. West

1998-01-01

359

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant simulated RH TRU waste experiments: Data and interpretation pilot  

SciTech Connect

The simulated, i.e., nonradioactive remote-handled transuranic waste (RH TRU) experiments being conducted underground in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were emplaced in mid-1986 and have been in heated test operation since 9/23/86. These experiments involve the in situ, waste package performance testing of eight full-size, reference RH TRU containers emplaced in horizontal, unlined test holes in the rock salt ribs (walls) of WIPP Room T. All of the test containers have internal electrical heaters; four of the test emplacements were filled with bentonite and silica sand backfill materials. We designed test conditions to be ``near-reference`` with respect to anticipated thermal outputs of RH TRU canisters and their geometrical spacing or layout in WIPP repository rooms, with RH TRU waste reference conditions current as of the start date of this test program. We also conducted some thermal overtest evaluations. This paper provides a: detailed test overview; comprehensive data update for the first 5 years of test operations; summary of experiment observations; initial data interpretations; and, several status; experimental objectives -- how these tests support WIPP TRU waste acceptance, performance assessment studies, underground operations, and the overall WIPP mission; and, in situ performance evaluations of RH TRU waste package materials plus design details and options. We provide instrument data and results for in situ waste container and borehole temperatures, pressures exerted on test containers through the backfill materials, and vertical and horizontal borehole-closure measurements and rates. The effects of heat on borehole closure, fracturing, and near-field materials (metals, backfills, rock salt, and intruding brine) interactions were closely monitored and are summarized, as are assorted test observations. Predictive 3-dimensional thermal and structural modeling studies of borehole and room closures and temperature fields were also performed.

Molecke, M.A.; Argueello, G.J.; Beraun, R.

1993-04-01

360

The disturbed rock zone at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.  

SciTech Connect

The Disturbed Rock Zone constitutes an important geomechanical element of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The science and engineering underpinning the disturbed rock zone provide the basis for evaluating ongoing operational issues and their impact on performance assessment. Contemporary treatment of the disturbed rock zone applied to the evaluation of the panel closure system and to a new mining horizon improves the level of detail and quantitative elements associated with a damaged zone surrounding the repository openings. Technical advancement has been realized by virtue of ongoing experimental investigations and international collaboration. The initial portion of this document discusses the disturbed rock zone relative to operational issues pertaining to re-certification of the repository. The remaining sections summarize and document theoretical and experimental advances that quantify characteristics of the disturbed rock zone as applied to nuclear waste repositories in salt.

Hansen, Francis D.

2003-12-01

361

Data qualification for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site near Carlsbad, New Mexico, has been the subject of scientific and engineering investigations for more than twenty years. Data from these investigations are now being used as part of the process to certify compliance of the WIPP with the governing regulations. Some of these data were collected prior to the development and implementation of the quality assurance (QA) standards that are now being applied in the WIPP compliance certification process, and are considered ``existing data`` within the current QA program. This paper discusses the process for qualification of existing data (QED) defined for the WIPP project, the implementation of that process, and some of the results. This process incorporates many lessons learned, and should be useful to others in the radioactive waste management system who are dealing with ``existing data.``

Brown, R.D. [Harbridge House, Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Harper-Slaboszewicz, V.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-03-01

362

Critical components of odors in evaluating the performance of food waste composting plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current Taiwan government policy toward food waste management encourages composting for resource recovery. This study used olfactometry, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and gas detector tubes to evaluate the ambient air at three of the largest food waste composting plants in Taiwan. Ambient air inside the plants, at exhaust outlets and plant boundaries was examined to determine the comprehensive odor

I-Fang Mao; Chung-Jung Tsai; Shu-Hung Shen; Tsair-Fuh Lin; Wang-Kun Chen; Mei-Lien Chen

2006-01-01

363

SIMPLIFIED METHODS FOR ESTIMATING EMISSIONS FROM WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS, BASED ON APPLICATION OF WATER9 TO MODEL PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A set of model waste water treatment plant designs, estimates of their air emissions, and advice for selecting a model plant and scaling it up or down to represent a real plant. This will save much of the analytical work needed to fully model a particular plant using the complet...

364

Hydrologic studies for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this paper is to provide a general overview of hydrologic conditions at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) by describing several key hydrologic studies that have been carried out as part of the site characterization program over the last 20 years. The paper is composed of three parts: background information about general objectives of the WIPP project; information about the geologic and hydrologic setting of the facility; and information about three aspects of the hydrologic system that are important to understanding the long-term performance of the WIPP facility. For additional detailed information, the reader is referred to the references cited in the text.

Davies, P.B.

1994-07-01

365

Sampling and Analysis Plan - Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project  

SciTech Connect

This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality assurance plan for the project to guide the procedure development and data collection activities needed to support borehole drilling, geophysical measurements, and sampling. This SAP identifies the American Society of Testing Materials standards, Hanford Site procedures, and other guidance to be followed for data collection activities.

Reidel, Steve P.

2006-05-26

366

Summary of Waste Calcination at INTEC  

SciTech Connect

Fluidized-bed calcination at the Idaho Nuclear Technologies and Engineering Center (INTEC, formally called the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant) has been used to solidify acidic metal nitrate fuel reprocessing and incidental wastes wastes since 1961. A summary of waste calcination in full-scale and pilot plant calciners has been compiled for future reference. It contains feed compositions and operating conditions for all the processing campaigns for the original Waste Calcining Facility (WCF), the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) started up in 1982, and numerous small scale pilot plant tests for various feed types. This summary provides a historical record of calcination at INTEC, and will be useful for evaluating calcinability of future wastes.

O'Brien, Barry Henry; Newby, Bill Joe

2000-10-01

367

Life Cycle Assesment of Daugavgriva Waste Water Treatment Plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the assessment of the environmental impacts caused by the treatment of Riga's waste water in the Daugavgriva plant with biogas energy cogeneration through the life cycle assessment (LCA). The LCA seems to be a good tool to assess and evaluate the most serious environmental impacts of a facility The results showed clearly that the impact category contributing the most to the total impact -eutrophicationcomes from the wastewater treatment stage. Climate change also seems to be a relevant impact coming from the wastewater treatment stage and the main contributor to the Climate change is N2O. The main environmental benefits, in terms of the percentages of the total impact, associated to the use of biogas instead of any other fossil fuel in the cogeneration plant are equal to: 3,11% for abiotic depletation, 1,48% for climate change, 0,51% for acidification and 0,12% for eutrophication.

Romagnoli, F.; Sampaio, F.; Blumberga, D.

2009-01-01

368

Reference commercial high-level waste glass and canister definition.  

SciTech Connect

This report presents technical data and performance characteristics of a high-level waste glass and canister intended for use in the design of a complete waste encapsulation package suitable for disposal in a geologic repository. The borosilicate glass contained in the stainless steel canister represents the probable type of high-level waste product that will be produced in a commercial nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant. Development history is summarized for high-level liquid waste compositions, waste glass composition and characteristics, and canister design. The decay histories of the fission products and actinides (plus daughters) calculated by the ORIGEN-II code are presented.

Slate, S.C.; Ross, W.A.; Partain, W.L.

1981-09-01

369

Reference commercial high-level waste glass and canister definition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technical data and performance characteristics of a high level waste glass and canister intended for use in the design of a complete waste encapsulation package suitable for disposal in a geologic repository are presented. The borosilicate glass contained in the stainless steel canister represents the probable type of high level waste product that is produced in a commercial nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant. Development history is summarized for high level liquid waste compositions, waste glass composition and characteristics, and canister design. The decay histories of the fission products and actinides (plus daughters) calculated by the ORIGEN-II code are presented.

Slate, S. C.; Ross, W. A.; Partain, W. L.

1981-09-01

370

Consideration of nuclear criticality when disposing of transuranic waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

Based on general arguments presented in this report, nuclear criticality was eliminated from performance assessment calculations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a repository for waste contaminated with transuranic (TRU) radioisotopes, located in southeastern New Mexico. At the WIPP, the probability of criticality within the repository is low because mechanisms to concentrate the fissile radioisotopes dispersed throughout the waste are absent. In addition, following an inadvertent human intrusion into the repository (an event that must be considered because of safety regulations), the probability of nuclear criticality away from the repository is low because (1) the amount of fissile mass transported over 10,000 yr is predicted to be small, (2) often there are insufficient spaces in the advective pore space (e.g., macroscopic fractures) to provide sufficient thickness for precipitation of fissile material, and (3) there is no credible mechanism to counteract the natural tendency of the material to disperse during transport and instead concentrate fissile material in a small enough volume for it to form a critical concentration. Furthermore, before a criticality would have the potential to affect human health after closure of the repository--assuming that a criticality could occur--it would have to either (1) degrade the ability of the disposal system to contain nuclear waste or (2) produce significantly more radioisotopes than originally present. Neither of these situations can occur at the WIPP; thus, the consequences of a criticality are also low.

RECHARD,ROBERT P.; SANCHEZ,LAWRENCE C.; STOCKMAN,CHRISTINE T.; TRELLUE,HOLLY R.

2000-04-01

371

Modeling Offgas Systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant  

SciTech Connect

To augment steady-state design calculations, dynamic models of three offgas systems that will be used in the Waste Treatment Plant now under construction at the Hanford Site were developed using Aspen Custom Modeler{trademark}. The offgas systems modeled were those for the High Level Waste (HLW) melters, Low Activity Waste (LAW) melters and HLW Pulse Jet Ventilation (PJV) system. The models do not include offgas chemistry but only consider the two major species in the offgas stream which are air and water vapor. This is sufficient to perform material and energy balance calculations that accurately show the dynamic behavior of gas pressure, temperature, humidity and flow throughout the systems. The models are structured to perform pressure drop calculations across the various unit operations using a combination of standard engineering calculations and empirical data based correlations for specific pieces of equipment. The models include process controllers, gas ducting, control valves, exhaust fans and the offgas treatment equipment. The models were successfully used to analyze a large number of operating scenarios including both normal and off-normal conditions.

Smith, Frank G., III

2005-09-02

372

Waste salt disposal at the Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect

High-level nuclear wastes will be processed at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) to separate the high-level fraction from the low-level fraction. The separation will be accomplished in existing waste tanks by a process combining precipitation, adsorption, and filtration. The high-level fraction will be vitrified into borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for disposal in a Federal repository. The low-level fraction, called decontaminated salt solution, will be mixed with a cement-fly ash blend. The resulting product, called saltstone, will be disposed onsite in an engineered disposal area. Laboratory testing of saltstone has shown the predominant mechanism for release of contaminants to the environment to be diffusion. The diffusion coefficient for nitrate has been determined to be 1.04 {plus minus} 0.09 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} cm{sup 2}/sec. Field-testing of three 30-ton blocks of saltstone has been underweight since January 1984. Mathematical models, both analytical and numerical, have been applied to predict the impact of saltstone disposal on groundwater quality. Based on model predictions, the saltstone disposal area is designed to meet or exceed groundwater standards for all potential contaminants. Results of laboratory and field-testing and model results will be discussed. 2 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

Wilhite, E.L.

1986-01-01

373

ALPHA WASTE MINIMIZATION IN TERMS OF VOLUME AND RADIOACTIVITY AT COGEMA'S MELOX AND LA HAGUE PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the management of alpha waste that cannot be stored in surface repositories under current French regulations. The aim of the paper is to provide an overview of COGEMA's Integrated Waste Management Strategy. The topics discussed include primary waste minimization, from facility design to operating feedback; primary waste management by the plant operator, including waste characterization; waste treatment options that led to building waste treatment industrial facilities for plutonium decontamination, compaction and cement solidification; and optimization of industrial tools, which is strongly influenced by safety and financial considerations.

ARSLAN, M.; DUMONT, J.C.; LONDRES, V.; PONCELET, F.J.

2003-02-27

374

A new concept of nuclear fuel reprocessing by applying ion-exchange technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of advanced technology for the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing should be achieved not only considering cost, non proliferation and reduction of radioactive wastes but also corresponding to both spent nuclear fuels of LWR and FBR.We have proposed an ion exchange process for reprocessing using a new type ion exchanger developed to chemical method of U enrichment technology. This

T. Hoshikawa; F. Kawamura; T. Sawa; A. Suzuoki; M. Kumagai; Y. Takashima; M. Asou; T. Namba; H. Kinumaki; S. Ohe

1998-01-01

375

Effect of textile waste water on tomato plant, Lycopersicon esculentum.  

PubMed

In this study Sanganer town, Jaipur was selected as study area. The plants of Lycopersicon esculentum var. K 21(Tomato) treated with 20 and 30% textile wastewater were analyzed for metal accumulation, growth and biochemical parameters at per, peak and post flowering stages. Findings of the study revealed that chlorophyll content was most severely affected with the increase in metal concentration. Total chlorophyll content showed a reduction of 72.44% while carbohydrate, protein and nitrogen content showed a reduction of 46.83, 71.65 and 71.65% respectively. With the increase in waste water treatment the root and shoot length, root and shoot dry weight and total dry weight were reduced to 50.55, 52.06, 69.93, 72.42, 72.10% respectively. After crop harvesting, the fruit samples of the plants treated with highest concentration of textile waste water contained 2.570 mg g(-1)d.wt. of Zn, 0.800 mg g(-1) d.wt. Cu, 1.520 mg g(-1) d.wt. Cr and 2.010 mg g(-1) d.wt. Pb. PMID:23734449

Marwari, Richa; Khan, T I

2012-09-01

376

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2002  

SciTech Connect

The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2002 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year 2002 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, and Guidance for the Preparation of DOE Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs) for Calendar Year 2002 (DOE Memorandum EH-41: Natoli:6-1336, April 4, 2003). These Orders and the guidance document require that DOE facilities submit an annual site environmental report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health; and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).

Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

2003-09-17

377

Thermal Properties of Fly Ash Substituted Slag Cement Waste Forms for Disposal of Savannah River Plant Salt Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Waste processing at the Savannah River Plant will involve reconstitution of the salts (NaNO sub 3 , NaNO sub 2 , NaOH, etc.) into a concentrated solution (32 weight percent salts) followed by solidification in a cement-based waste form for burial. The sta...

D. M. Roy S. Kaushal P. H. Licastro C. A. Langton

1985-01-01

378

Special features of nuclear waste repository ventilation system VIS-A-VIS experiences at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents an analysis and discussion of the underground ventilation system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Particular emphasis is placed on specific repository-related requirements and the gradual evolution of engineering designs relative to the WIPP Project scope. The ventilation system for a nuclear waste facility similar to WIPP is designed to provide a suitable environment for personnel

1991-01-01

379

In-plant measurements of gamma-ray transmissions for precise K-edge and passive assay of plutonium concentration and isotopic abundance in product solutions at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant  

SciTech Connect

A field test has been carried out for more than 2 years for determination of plutonium concentration by K-edge absorption densitometry and for determination of plutonium isotopic abundance by transmission-corrected passive gamma-ray spectrometry. This system was designed and built at Los Alamos National Laboratory and installed at the Tokai reprocessing plant of the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation as a part of the Tokai Advanced Safeguards Technology Exercise (TASTEX). For K-edge measurement of plutonium concentration, the transmissions at two discrete gamma-ray energies are measured using the 121.1- and 122.1-keV gamma rays from /sup 75/Se and /sup 57/Co. Intensities of the plutonium passive gamma rays in the energy regions between 38 and 51 keV and between 129 and 153 keV are used for determination of the isotopic abundances. More than 200 product solution samples have been measured in a timely fashion during these 2 years. The relative precisions and accuracies of the plutonium concentration measurement are shown to be within 0.6% (1 sigma) in these applications, and those for plutonium isotopic abundances are within 3% for /sup 238/Pu, 0.4% for /sup 239/Pu, 1.2% for /sup 240/Pu, 1.3% for /sup 241/Pu, and 7% for /sup 242/Pu. The time required is 10 min for the concentration assay, 10 min for the isotopics assay, and about 15 min for handling procedures in the laboratory.

Asakura, Y.; Kondo, I.; Masui, J.; Shoji, K.; Russo, P.A.; Hsue, S.T.; Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Johnson, S.S.

1982-01-01

380

The solid waste problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Municipal solid waste (msw) includes predominantly household waste (domestic waste) with sometimes the addition of commercial wastes collected in a given area; they are in either solid or semisolid state. The term residual waste relates to waste left from household sources containing materials that have not been separated out or sent for reprocessing. In 1996 the United Nations Environmental Programme

Carlos Bustos Flores

2009-01-01

381

Safety Evaluation for Hull Waste Treatment Process in JNC  

SciTech Connect

Hull wastes and some scrapped equipment are typical radioactive wastes generated from reprocessing process in Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP). Because hulls are the wastes remained in the fuel shearing and dissolution, they contain high radioactivity. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has started the project of Hull Waste Treatment Facility (HWTF) to treat these solid wastes using compaction and incineration methods since 1993. It is said that Zircaloy fines generated from compaction process might burn and explode intensely. Therefore explosive conditions of the fines generated in compaction process were measured. As these results, it was concluded that the fines generated from the compaction process were not hazardous material. This paper describes the outline of the treatment process of hulls and results of safety evaluation.

Kojima, H.; Kurakata, K.

2002-02-26

382

Characterization of past and present solid waste streams from the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the next two decades the transuranic wastes, now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site, are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant...

J. A. Pottmeyer M. I. Weyns D. S. Lorenzo E. J. Vejvoda D. R. Duncan

1993-01-01

383

Technical basis for external dosimetry at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The WIPP External Dosimetry Program, administered by Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Waste Isolation Division, for the US Department of Energy (DOE), provides external dosimetry support services for operations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site. These operations include the receipt, experimentation with, storage, and disposal of transuranic (TRU) wastes. This document describes the technical basis for the WIPP External Radiation

E. W. Bradley; C. F. Wu; T. E. Goff

1993-01-01

384

Understanding and involvement: The key to public acceptance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a research and development project of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) that is authorized under Public Law 96-164 to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from defense programs of the United States.'' The transportation and disposal of transuranic radioactive wastes require an extensive public and media information program. This

Kuntz

1991-01-01

385

Prediction of room closure and stability of panel 1 in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is intended to be an underground repository for the permanent disposal of transuranic radioactive waste generated by defense activities. Both surface and underground facilities, including one waste panel, were excavated during the period from 1982 to 1988. The decision to use the repository for disposal has not vet been made.The objective of this paper

Hamid Maleki; Lokesh Chaturvedi

1997-01-01

386

Preliminary model of repository chemistry for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design-basis, defense-related, transuranic (TRU) waste to be emplaced in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) could, if sufficient H(sub 2)O and nutrients were present, produce as much as 1,500 moles of gas per drum of waste. Gas production could pr...

L. H. Brush D. Gbric-Galic D. T. Reed X. Tong R. H. Vreeland

1990-01-01

387

PATHFINDER ATOMIC POWER PLANT STUDY OF LIQUID AND SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL REQUIREMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantity and type of liquid waste anticipated from a plant of this ; type are itemized. An estimated radioactive level is assigned for each type of ; waste for both corrosion product and fission product contummation. The same is ; done for all solid wastes. Evaporization, demineralazation, and dilution are ; evaluated in terms of cost, reliability, and operability

M. Armando; R. Corcoran; D. M. Leppke

1959-01-01

388

Development of reprocessing technology for breeder recycle. [Consolidated fuel reprocessing  

SciTech Connect

This paper is an overview of some of the activities under the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. Current status of technology for portions of four reprocessing development tasks is summarized: voloxidation, dissolution, solvent extraction, and off-gas processing. The Hot Experimental Facility is alos mentioned. 6 figures. (DLC)

Groenier, W.S.; Crouse, D.J.; Vondra, B.L.

1980-01-01

389

Properties and behavior of the platinum group metals in the glass resulting from the vitrification of simulated nuclear fuel reprocessing waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of platinum group metal particles were found in borosilicate nuclear waste glasses: needle-shaped RuOâ particles and spherical PdRh{sub {ital x}}Te{sub {ital y}} alloys. They form a dense sediment of high electrical conductivity and relatively high viscosity at the bottom of the ceramic melting furnace. The sludge shows a non-Newtonian flow behavior. The viscosity and conductivity of the sludge

Ch. Krause; B. Luckscheiter

1991-01-01

390

Ethylene plant steam strips waste water to recover benzene  

SciTech Connect

Du Pont's Sabine River Works' ethylene plant in Orange, Tex., has selected a steam stripping process to remove benzene from its waste water stream. Timely completion of the project plan diverted a possible cleanup cost in excess of $100 million. The Du Pont plant was constructed in 1967 to crack feedstocks ranging from 50% ethane/50% propane to purity ethane. The plant is currently cracking purity ethane in the presence of dilution steam to produce ethylene and various byproducts. The dilution steam is added to improve selectivity and reduce fouling in the heater coils. The cracked gas exists the heaters and goes to the quench tower, where the steam and a portion of the heavier hydrocarbons such as benzene, toulene, and styrene are condensed. After the cracked gas is cooled in the quench tower, it is compressed and then separated into the various products in the distillation train. The condensed steam and hydrocarbons are separated in the quench settler. The hydrocarbons are sent to the heavy aromatic distillate (HAD) storage for sale. The condensed steam, with dissolved hydrocarbons, combines with the effluent from the API separator and goes to the dissolved gas flotation (DGF) unit, which was installed in 1988. When the plant was started up, the quench water was recycled, to make dilution steam. However, this system was plagued by plugging problems, and the quench water was rerouted to the biponds. The API separator is the collection point for all of the oil and water blowdowns in the ethylene plant. In addition to the blowdowns, large quantities of rainwater go to the API separator. The hydrocarbons leaving the DGF go to HAD storage, and the water goes to the bioponds.

Taylor, M.A. (E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co. Inc., Orange, TX (US))

1991-05-27

391

Evaluation of efficiency analysis of waste water treatment plants and applications in Denizli  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to identify and analyze operational performance of Denizli waste water treatment plant (DWWTP). This plant treats mostly domestic-industrial waste water received from residential and industrial areas in Denizli. DWWTP has an active sludge unit. At intake and outflow; pH, temperature, conductivity, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen and total phosphate

Mahmud Güngör; Sibel Yildiz; Engin Demýrcý

2011-01-01

392

Surface water pollution by herbicides from effluents of waste water treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbicide loads of urban and rural waste water treatment plant effluents were calculated over a one-year period by measuring the herbicide concentrations in 14-day mixed samples. More than three quarters of the total herbicide load of the effluent of the rural waste water treatment plant consists of isoproturon. Particularly large amounts of this substance contribute to the total herbicide load

Walter Schüssler

1998-01-01

393

High temperature corrosion in a 65 MW waste to energy plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incineration of municipal solid waste is often associated with high temperature corrosion problems. This paper presents results of full-scale corrosion tests in a 65 MW waste fired combined heat and power plant. A failure case indicated alarmingly high corrosion rate of the superheater tubes. Corrosion tests with five different alloys were carried out within this work in order to determine plant

Kristoffer Persson; Markus Broström; Jörgen Carlsson; Anders Nordin; Rainer Backman

2007-01-01

394

Study on the Mode of Power Plant Circulating Water Waste Heat Regenerative Thermal System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power plant circulating water (PPCW) waste heat recycling is an important way of increasing a power plant's primary energy ratio. According to the PPCW waste heat regenerative thermal system, the authors propose two modes of heat pump heat regenerative of the system, and establish mathematical models for energy saving critical points. Through comparative study and analysis in actual case, the

Bi Qingsheng; Ma Yanliang; Yang Zhifu

2009-01-01

395

Elimination of pollutants by utilization of egg breaking plant shell-waste. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Egg breaking plants yield an estimated 50,000 tons of waste annually. These wastes are commonly disposed of on land. This method of disposal is becoming more difficult due to the potential for pollution of local water resources. A triple pass rotary drum dehydrator was installed at an egg breaking plant. With appropriate engineering modifications a system for producing egg shell

J. M. Vandepopuliere; H. V. Walton; W. Jaynes; O. J. Cotterill

1978-01-01

396

Noble gas atmospheric monitoring at reprocessing facilities  

SciTech Connect

The discovery in Iraq after the Gulf War of the existence of a large clandestine nuclear-weapon program has led to an across-the-board international effort, dubbed Programme 93+2, to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. One particularly significant potential change is the introduction of environmental monitoring (EM) techniques as an adjunct to traditional safeguards methods. Monitoring of stable noble gas (Kr, Xe) isotopic abundances at reprocessing plant stacks appears to be able to yield information on the burnup and type of the fuel being processed. To estimate the size of these signals, model calculations of the production of stable Kr, Xe nuclides in reactor fuel and the subsequent dilution of these nuclides in the plant stack are carried out for two case studies: reprocessing of PWR fuel with a burnup of 35 GWd/tU, and reprocessing of CAND fuel with a burnup of 1 GWd/tU. For each case, a maximum-likelihood analysis is used to determine the fuel burnup and type from the isotopic data.

Nakhleh, C.W.; Perry, R.T. Jr.; Poths, J.; Stanbro, W.D.; Wilson, W.B.; Fearey, B.L.

1997-05-01

397

Savannah River Site Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Table of Contents: Executive summary; Waste stream identification summary; Acceptable knowledge data and information; Required program information; Required waste stream information; Supplemental waste stream information; Container specific information an...

G. F. Lunsford M. J. Mason J. A. D'Amelio

2000-01-01

398

Plant uptake and dissipation of PBDEs in the soils of electronic waste recycling sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant uptake and dissipation of weathered PBDEs in the soils of e-waste recycling sites were investigated in a greenhouse study. Eighteen PBDE congeners (tri- through deca-) were detected in the plant tissues. The proportion of lower brominated PBDEs (mono- through hexa-) in plant roots was higher than that in the soils. A concentration gradient was observed of PBDEs in plants

Honglin Huang; Shuzhen Zhang; Peter Christie

2011-01-01

399

High-Temperature Reprocessing of Petroleum Oily Sludges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude oil tank bottoms and other petroleum oily sludges and emulsions containing paraffins and volatile hydrocarbons can be economically reprocessed with heavy-oil dehydration facilities to recover residual hydrocarbons and to achieve volume reductions. The main factors affecting the use of this alternative are (1) the characteristics of the sludges requiring treatment, (2) the availability of waste heat or existing high

W. J. Hahn

1994-01-01

400

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 194 - Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the...CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40...Part 194âCertification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With...

2013-07-01

401

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 194 - Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the...CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40...Part 194âCertification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With...

2009-07-01

402

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 194 - Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the...CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40...Part 194âCertification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With...

2010-07-01

403

Data validation and security for reprocessing.  

SciTech Connect

Next generation nuclear fuel cycle facilities will face strict requirements on security and safeguards of nuclear material. These requirements can result in expensive facilities. The purpose of this project was to investigate how to incorporate safeguards and security into one plant monitoring system early in the design process to take better advantage of all plant process data, to improve confidence in the operation of the plant, and to optimize costs. An existing reprocessing plant materials accountancy model was examined for use in evaluating integration of safeguards (both domestic and international) and security. International safeguards require independent, secure, and authenticated measurements for materials accountability--it may be best to design stand-alone systems in addition to domestic safeguards instrumentation to minimize impact on operations. In some cases, joint-use equipment may be appropriate. Existing domestic materials accountancy instrumentation can be used in conjunction with other monitoring equipment for plant security as well as through the use of material assurance indicators, a new metric for material control that is under development. Future efforts will take the results of this work to demonstrate integration on the reprocessing plant model.

Tolk, Keith Michael; Merkle, Peter Benedict; DurÔan, Felicia Angelica; Cipiti, Benjamin B.

2008-10-01

404

Waste reduction assistance program (WRAP) on-site consultation audit report: Seafood processing plant  

SciTech Connect

The waste audit study was conducted at a seafood processing plant in Alaska. The report discusses process descriptions, waste types and quantities, current waste and materials management practices, and waste reduction alternatives. The company's current practices include use of fish waste, burning of used oil and solvents, and water conservation. Additional opportunities include microfiltration of solvents and oils, recycling of used batteries, inventory control and formation of a waste reduction team. Appendices include a summary of state regulations, a fact sheet on used oil, and a list of vendors and services.

Not Available

1989-07-29

405

LEACHABILITY OF RADIONUCLIDES FROM CEMENT-SOLIDIFIED WASTE FORM PRODUCED AT KOREAN NUCLEAR POWER PLANT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leach test of radionuclide in cement-solidified waste form was performed. After leach test, compressive strength of waste form was measured. Cement-solidified waste form produced at Korean nuclear power plant, Kori (PWR) was chosen for the leach test. Specimens were cored out from a full-scale waste form (200 l drum size). The leach test procedure used for this study was ANSI\\/ANS

Jae Min Lee; Jooho Whang; Chang Lak Kim; Joo Wan Park

2002-01-01

406

Probabilistic system assessment of the long-term safety of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with long-term regulations of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, specifically, the [open quotes]Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes[close quotes] (40CFR191) and the [open quotes]Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments

Marietta

1993-01-01

407

Processing and disposal of defense nuclear waste at the Savannah River Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-level nuclear wastes have been stored in large underground tanks at the Savannah River Plant. Processing of the wastes for ultimate disposal will begin in 1988. Nuclear wastes will be processed to separate the high-level radioactive fraction from the low-level fraction. The separation will be made in existing waste tanks by a process combining precipitation, adsorption, and filtration. The high-level

E. L. Wilhite; M. A. Ebra; J. A. Stone; W. R. Stevens

1987-01-01

408

The Effect of Congress' Mandate to Create Greater Efficiencies in the Characterization of Transuranic Waste through the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective December 1, 2003, the U.S. Congress directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to file a permit modification request with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) to amend the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (hereinafter 'the Permit') at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This legislation, Section 311 of the 2004 Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act, was designed to increase

Gloria J. Johnson; R. F. Kehrman

2008-01-01

409

Waste receiving and processing plant control system; system design description  

SciTech Connect

The Plant Control System (PCS) is a heterogeneous computer system composed of numerous sub-systems. The PCS represents every major computer system that is used to support operation of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility. This document, the System Design Description (PCS SDD), includes several chapters and appendices. Each chapter is devoted to a separate PCS sub-system. Typically, each chapter includes an overview description of the system, a list of associated documents related to operation of that system, and a detailed description of relevant system features. Each appendice provides configuration information for selected PCS sub-systems. The appendices are designed as separate sections to assist in maintaining this document due to frequent changes in system configurations. This document is intended to serve as the primary reference for configuration of PCS computer systems. The use of this document is further described in the WRAP System Configuration Management Plan, WMH-350, Section 4.1.

LANE, M.P.

1999-02-24

410

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to prepare a Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan. This document fulfills the requirement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This document was prepared by the Hydrology Section of the Westinghouse TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) Environmental Compliance Department, and it is the responsibility of this group to review the plan annually and update it every three years. This document is not, nor is it intended to be, an implementing document that sets forth specific details on carrying out field projects or operational policy. Rather, it is intended to give the reader insight to the groundwater protection philosophy at WIPP.

Washington TRU Solutions

2002-09-24

411

Key Geomechanics Issues at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Geomechanics  

SciTech Connect

Mechanical and hydrological properties of rock salt provide excellent bases for geological isolation of hazardous materials. Regulatory compliance determinations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) stand as testament to the widely held conclusion that salt provides excellent isolation properties. The WIPP saga began in the 1950s when the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS) recommended a salt vault as a promising solution to the national problem of nuclear waste disposal. For over 20 years, the Scientific basis for the NAS recommendation has been fortified by Sandia National Laboratories through a series of large scale field tests and laboratory investigations of salt properties. These scientific investigations helped develop a comprehensive understanding of salt's 4 reformational behavior over an applicable range of stresses and temperatures. Sophisticated constitutive modeling, validated through underground testing, provides the computational ability to model long-term behavior of repository configurations. In concert with advancement of the mechanical models, fluid flow measurements showed not only that the evaporite lithology was essentially impermeable but that the WIPP setting was hydrologically inactive. Favorable mechanical properties ensure isolation of materials placed in a salt geological setting. Key areas of the geomechanics investigations leading to the certification of WIPP are in situ experiments, laboratory tests, and shaft seal design.

HANSEN,FRANCIS D.

1999-09-01

412

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2010  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Annual Site Environmental Report for 2010 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to: (1) Characterize site environmental management performance. (2) Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year. (3) Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements. (4) Highlight significant environmental accomplishments, including progress toward the DOE Environmental Sustainability Goals made through implementation of the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS). The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and the management and operating contractor (MOC), Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS), maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the WIPP. DOE Order 231.1A; DOE Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and workers, and preservation of the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, which requires that DOE facilities submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Chief Health, Safety, and Security Officer. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Number NM4890139088-TSDF (Permit) further requires that the ASER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).

None

2011-09-01

413

Plants' use of leachate derived from municipal solid waste  

SciTech Connect

Leachate was collected from a watertight pit at a landfill center dealing mainly with household refuse and plant waste. This effluent was characterized by a moderate organic matter content, a pH slightly higher than neutral and strong electrical conductivity. This latter was due to the presence of chlorides, Na, K, and ammonium. The organic content could be divided into two fractions: Fraction A consisting of large molecules and Fraction B of smaller, more acidic molecules. The presence of phenols could be identified in the leachate as a whole. A biological treatment of this leachate, involving methanization followed by aerated lagooning, was set up on the site: this led to a reduction of nearly 60% in the organic content and almost total elimination of the ammonium. This treatment was not however sufficient to allow direct evacuation of the resulting effluent into the surface ground water. As heavy metals were absent from this effluent, the leachates from this landfill site could possibly be envisaged in the fertilization of soil-grown crops or for furrow irrigation-fertilization of tree plantations. The effect of irrigating soil-grown plants with a solution of leachate was examined using pots of ryegrass (Lolium sp.). Application of solutions containing dilutions of 1 to 400 mL L{sup {minus}1} of this effluent had a highly favorable effect on plant growth. Toxicity phenomena were apparent above this concentration. The optimum effect on ryegrass growth, under the conditions of this trial, was obtained by watering each pot with 30 mL of a solution containing 400 mL L{sup {minus}1} of leachate, every 2 d. This solution improved water and N nutrition in these plants.

Revel, J.C.; Morard, P.; Bailly, J.R.; Labbe, H.; Berthout, C.; Kaemmerer, M.

1999-08-01

414

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program description for high-level waste form development and qualification. Revision 3, Part 2  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project has been established to convert the high-level radioactive waste associated with nuclear defense production at the Hanford Site into a waste form suitable for disposal in a deep geologic repository. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant will mix processed radioactive waste with borosilicate material, then heat the mixture to its melting point (vitrification) to forin a glass-like substance that traps the radionuclides in the glass matrix upon cooling. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program has been established to support the mission of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant. This Quality Assurance Program Description has been written to document the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Quality Assurance Program.

Not Available

1993-08-01

415

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Groundwater Monitoring Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a groundwater monitoring program is an integral part of any radioactive waste disposal facility. Monitoring improves our understanding of the geologic and hydrologic framework, which improves conceptual models and the quality of groundwater models that provide data input for performance assessment. The purpose of a groundwater monitoring program is to provide objective evidence that the hydrologic system is behaving as expected (i.e., performance confirmation). Monitoring should not be limited to near-field observations but should include the larger natural system in which the repository is situated. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility designed for the safe disposal of transuranic wastes resulting from U.S. defense programs, can serve as a model for other radioactive waste disposal facilities. WIPP has a long-established groundwater monitoring program that is geared towards meeting compliance certification requirements set forth by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The primary task of the program is to measure various water parameters (e.g.., water level, pressure head, chemical and physical properties) using a groundwater monitoring network that currently consists of 85 wells in the vicinity of the WIPP site. Wells are completed to a number of water-bearing horizons and are monitored on a monthly basis. In many instances, they are also instrumented with programmable pressure transducers that take high-frequency measurements that supplement the monthly measurements. Results from higher frequency measurements indicate that the hydrologic system in the WIPP vicinity is in a transient state, responding to both natural and anthropogenic stresses. The insights gathered from the monitoring, as well as from hydrologic testing activities, provide valuable information that contributes to groundwater modeling efforts and performance assessment. Sandia is a multi program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04- 94AL85000. This research is funded by WIPP programs administered by the Office of Environmental Management (EM) of the U.S Department of Energy.

Hillesheim, M. B.; Beauheim, R. L.

2006-12-01

416

Transfer of elements relevant to radioactive waste from soil to five boreal plant species  

Microsoft Academic Search

In long-term safety assessment models for radioactive waste disposal, uptake of radionuclides by plants is an important process with possible adverse effects in ecosystems. Cobalt-60, 59,63Ni, 93Mo, and 210Pb are examples of long-living radionuclides present in nuclear waste. The soil-to-plant transfer of stable cobalt, nickel, molybdenum and lead and their distribution across plant parts were investigated in blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus),

Päivi Roivainen; Sari Makkonen; Toini Holopainen; Jukka Juutilainen

2011-01-01

417

Key regulatory drivers affecting shipments of mixed transuranic waste from Los Alamos National Laboratory to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

A number of key regulatory drivers affect the nature, scope, and timing of Los Alamos National Laboratory`s (LANL`s) plans for mixed transuranic (MTRU) waste shipments to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which are planned to commence as soon as possible following WIPP`s currently anticipated November, 1997 opening date. This paper provides an overview of some of the key drivers at LANL, particularly emphasizing those associated with the hazardous waste component of LANL`s MTRU waste (MTRU, like any mixed waste, contains both a radioactive and a hazardous waste component). The key drivers discussed here derive from the federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and its amendments, including the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAU), and from the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act (NMHWA). These statutory provisions are enforced through three major mechanisms: facility RCRA permits; the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Management Regulations, set forth in the New Mexico Administrative Code, Title 20, Chapter 4, Part 1: and compliance orders issued to enforce these requirements. General requirements in all three categories will apply to MTRU waste management and characterization activities at both WIPP and LANL. In addition, LANL is subject to facility-specific requirements in its RCRA hazardous waste facility permit, permit conditions as currently proposed in RCRA Part B permit applications presently being reviewed by the New Mexico Environment Department (NNED), and facility-specific compliance orders related to MTRU waste management. Likewise, permitting and compliance-related requirements specific to WIPP indirectly affect LANL`s characterization, packaging, record-keeping, and transportation requirements for MTRU waste. LANL must comply with this evolving set of regulatory requirements to begin shipments of MTRU waste to WIPP in a timely fashion.

Schumann, P.B.; Bacigalupa, G.A.; Kosiewicz, S.T.; Sinkule, B.J. [and others

1997-02-01

418

Spent Fuel Reprocessing: More Value for Money Spent in a Geological Repository?  

SciTech Connect

Today, each utility or country operating nuclear power plants can select between two long-term spent fuel management policies: either, spent fuel is considered as waste to dispose of through direct disposal or, spent fuel is considered a resource of valuable material through reprocessing-recycling. Reading and listening to what is said in the nuclear community, we understand that most people consider that the choice of policy is, actually, a choice among two technical paths to handle spent fuel: direct disposal versus reprocessing. This very simple situation has been recently challenged by analysis coming from countries where both policies are on survey. For example, ONDRAF of Belgium published an interesting study showing that, economically speaking for final disposal, it is worth treating spent fuel rather than dispose of it as a whole, even if there is no possibility to recycle the valuable part of it. So, the question is raised: is there such a one-to-one link between long term spent fuel management political option and industrial option? The purpose of the presentation is to discuss the potential advantages and drawbacks of spent fuel treatment as an implementation of the policy that considers spent fuel as waste to dispose of. Based on technical considerations and industrial experience, we will study qualitatively, and quantitatively when possible, the different answers proposed by treatment to the main concerns of spent-fuel-as-a-whole geological disposal.

Kaplan, P.; Vinoche, R.; Devezeaux, J-G.; Bailly, F.

2003-02-25

419

Material selection for nuclear waste processing facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Construction has started on a facility to immobilize high level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass at the Department\\u000a of Energy’s Savannah River Plant. Type 304L stainless steels is generally sufficient for supply tankage and service lines.\\u000a It is used as the reference material in chemical reprocessing of reactor target and fuel tubes. Type 304L, however, has unacceptable\\u000a stress corrosion cracking

D. F. Bickford; R. A. Corbett

1986-01-01

420

Probability of failure of the waste hoist brake system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)  

SciTech Connect

In its most recent report on the annual probability of failure of the waste hoist brake system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the annual failure rate is calculated to be 1.3E({minus}7)(1/yr), rounded off from 1.32E({minus}7). A calculation by the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) produces a result that is about 4% higher, namely 1.37E({minus}7)(1/yr). The difference is due to a minor error in the US Department of Energy (DOE) calculations in the Westinghouse 1996 report. WIPP`s hoist safety relies on a braking system consisting of a number of components including two crucial valves. The failure rate of the system needs to be recalculated periodically to accommodate new information on component failure, changes in maintenance and inspection schedules, occasional incidents such as a hoist traveling out-of-control, either up or down, and changes in the design of the brake system. This report examines DOE`s last two reports on the redesigned waste hoist system. In its calculations, the DOE has accepted one EEG recommendation and is using more current information about the component failures rates, the Nonelectronic Parts Reliability Data (NPRD). However, the DOE calculations fail to include the data uncertainties which are described in detail in the NPRD reports. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission recommended that a system evaluation include mean estimates of component failure rates and take into account the potential uncertainties that exist so that an estimate can be made on the confidence level to be ascribed to the quantitative results. EEG has made this suggestion previously and the DOE has indicated why it does not accept the NRC recommendation. Hence, this EEG report illustrates the importance of including data uncertainty using a simple statistical example.

Greenfield, M.A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Sargent, T.J. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)]|[Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Hoover Institution

1998-01-01

421

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

The DOE established the Groundwater Monitoring Program (GMP) (WP 02-1) to monitor groundwater resources at WIPP. In the past, the GMP was conducted to establish background data of existing conditions of groundwater quality and quantity in the WIPP vicinity, and to develop and maintain a water quality database as required by regulation. Today the GMP is conducted consistent with 204.1.500 NMAC (New MexicoAdministrative Code), "Adoption of 40 CFR [Code of Federal Regulations] Part 264,"specifically 40 CFR §264.90 through §264.101. These sections of 20.4.1 NMAC provide guidance for detection monitoring of groundwater that is, or could be, affected by waste management activities at WIPP. Detection monitoring at WIPP is designed to detect contaminants in the groundwater long before the general population is exposed. Early detection will allow cleanup efforts to be accomplished before any exposure to the general population can occur. Title 40 CFR Part 264, Subpart F, stipulates minimum requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §6901 et seq.) (RCRA) groundwater monitoring programs including the number and location of monitoring wells; sampling and reporting schedules; analytical methods and accuracy requirements; monitoring parameters; and statistical treatment of monitoring data. This document outlines how WIPP intends to protect and preserve groundwater within the WIPP Land Withdrawal Area (WLWA). Groundwater protection is just one aspect of the WIPP environmental protection effort. An overview of the entire environmental protection effort can be found in DOE/WIPP 99-2194, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan. The WIPP GMP is designed to statistically determine if any changes are occurring in groundwater characteristics within and surrounding the WIPP facility. If a change is noted, the cause will then be determined and the appropriate corrective action(s) initiated.

Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

2005-07-01

422

Key regulatory drivers affecting shipments of mixed transuranic waste from Los Alamos National Laboratory to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of key regulatory drivers affect the nature, scope, and timing of Los Alamos National Laboratory`s (LANL`s) plans for mixed transuranic (MTRU) waste shipments to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which are planned to commence as soon as possible following WIPP`s currently anticipated November, 1997 opening date. This paper provides an overview of some of the key drivers

P. B. Schumann; G. A. Bacigalupa; S. T. Kosiewicz; B. J. Sinkule

1997-01-01

423

Evaluation of the role of threshold pressure in controlling flow of waste-generated gas into bedded salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Anoxic corrosion and microbial degradation of contact-handled transuranic waste may produce sufficient quantities of gas over a long time period to generate high pressure in the disposal rooms at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository. Dissipat...

P. B. Davies

1991-01-01

424

Complete Census of Biogas Plants Using Animal Wastes Operating in Italy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A complete census of all the biogas plants operating or under construction today in Italy has been carried out. This shows that more than 70 full-scale plants treating animal wastes are in operation. There are several pilot and experimental plants built b...

E. Bozza C. Calzolari F. De Poli L. Ercoli E. Ferrante

1983-01-01

425

Vitrification of HLW Produced by Uranium/Molybdenum Fuel Reprocessing in COGEMA's Cold Crucible Melter  

SciTech Connect

The performance of the vitrification process currently used in the La Hague commercial reprocessing plants has been continuously improved during more than ten years of operation. In parallel COGEMA (industrial Operator), the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and SGN (respectively COGEMA's R&D provider and Engineering) have developed the cold crucible melter vitrification technology to obtain greater operating flexibility, increased plant availability and further reduction of secondary waste generated during operations. The cold crucible is a compact water-cooled melter in which the radioactive waste and the glass additives are melted by direct high frequency induction. The cooling of the melter produces a solidified glass layer that protects the melter's inner wall from corrosion. Because the heat is transferred directly to the melt, high operating temperatures can be achieved with no impact on the melter itself. COGEMA plans to implement the cold crucible technology to vitrify high level liquid waste from reprocessed spent U-Mo-Sn-Al fuel (used in gas cooled reactor). The cold crucible was selected for the vitrification of this particularly hard-to-process waste stream because it could not be reasonably processed in the standard hot induction melters currently used at the La Hague vitrification facilities : the waste has a high molybdenum content which makes it very corrosive and also requires a special high temperature glass formulation to obtain sufficiently high waste loading factors (12 % in molybdenum). A special glass formulation has been developed by the CEA and has been qualified through lab and pilot testing to meet standard waste acceptance criteria for final disposal of the U-Mo waste. The process and the associated technologies have been also being qualified on a full-scale prototype at the CEA pilot facility in Marcoule. Engineering study has been integrated in parallel in order to take into account that the Cold Crucible should be installed remotely in one of the R7 vitrification cell. This paper will present the results obtained in the framework of these qualification programs.

Do Quang, R.; Petitjean, V.; Hollebecque, F.; Pinet, O.; Flament, T.; Prod'homme, A.

2003-02-25

426

Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. Progress report, October 1December 31, 1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved processes and components for the Breeder Reprocessing Engineering Test (BRET) were identifed and developed as well as the design, procurement and development of prototypic equipment. The integrated testing of process equipment and flowsheets prototypical of a pilot-scale full reprocessing plant, and also for testing prototypical remote features of specific complex componets in the system are provided. Information to guide

M. J. Feldman; W. S. Groenier; S. A. Meacham; J. G. Stradley

1985-01-01

427

Initial performance evaluation of major components in the head-end reprocessing solids handling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The General Atomic cold head-end reprocessing pilot plant has been built to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed commercial reprocessing flowsheet, in particular its integrated operation. This integration is accomplished in part by the solids handling system, which is designed to provide transfer of material at required rates between different steps in the process and to provide the required surge

E. J. Cook; P. C. Richards

1977-01-01

428

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: An International Center of Excellence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Department of Energy's Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) is responsible for the successful management of transuranic radioactive waste (TRUW) in the United States. TRUW is a long-lived radioactive waste/material (LLRM). CBFO's responsibilitie...

M. Matthews

2003-01-01

429

Waste water pilot plant research, development, and demonstration permit application  

SciTech Connect

Waste waters have been generated as result of operations conducted at the Hanford Facility for over 40 years. These waste waters were previously discharged to cribs, ponds, or ditches. Examples of such waste waters include steam condensates and cooling waters that have not been in contact with dangerous or mixed waste and process condensates that may have been in contact with dangerous or mixed waste. Many measures have been taken to reduce the amount of contamination being discharged in these effluents. However, some of these waste waters still require additional treatment before release to the environment. Systems are being designed and built to treat these waste waters along with any future waste waters resulting from remediation activities on the Hanford Facility.

Not Available

1991-10-01

430

Reprocessing in Breeder Fuel Cycles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over the past decade, the United States has developed plans and carried out programs directed toward the demonstration of breeder fuel reprocessing in connection with the first breeder demonstration reactor. A renewed commitment to moving forward with the...

W. D. Burch W. S. Groenier

1982-01-01

431

Management of power plant waste heat in cold regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is divided into three principal parts and one concluding part. Part I examines the basic possible methods of waste heat disposal and the available heat sinks. Then it describes alternatives for waste heat utilization because waste heat is a large, free resource and because better utilization reduces the disposal problem. Part II evaluates the economic feasibility of the

H. W. C. Aamot; H. W. C

1974-01-01

432

Computer simulated plant design for waste minimization\\/pollution prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The book discusses several paths to pollution prevention and waste minimization by using computer simulation programs. It explains new computer technologies used in the field of pollution prevention and waste management; provides information pertaining to overcoming technical, economic, and environmental barriers to waste reduction; gives case-studies from industries; and covers computer aided flow sheet design and analysis for nuclear fuel

Bumble

2000-01-01

433

Codigestion of manure and industrial organic waste at centralized biogas plants: process imbalances and limitations.  

PubMed

The present study focuses on process imbalances in Danish centralized biogas plants treating manure in combination with industrial waste. Collection of process data from various full-scale plants along with a number of interviews showed that imbalances occur frequently. High concentrations of ammonia or long chain fatty acids is in most cases expected to be the cause of microbial inhibitions/imbalances while foaming in the prestorage tanks and digesters is the most important practical process problem at the plants. A correlation between increased residual biogas production (suboptimal process conditions) and high fractions of industrial waste in the feedstock was also observed. The process imbalances and suboptimal conditions are mainly allowed to occur due to 1) inadequate knowledge about the waste composition, 2) inadequate knowledge about the waste degradation characteristics, 3) inadequate process surveillance, especially with regard to volatile fatty acids, and 4) insufficient pre-storage capacity causing inexpedient mixing and hindering exact dosing of the different waste products. PMID:18957768

Nielsen, H B; Angelidaki, I

2008-01-01

434

Removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater by chemically modified plant wastes as adsorbents: a review.  

PubMed

The application of low-cost adsorbents obtained from plant wastes as a replacement for costly conventional methods of removing heavy metal ions from wastewater has been reviewed. It is well known that cellulosic waste materials can be obtained and employed as cheap adsorbents and their performance to remove heavy metal ions can be affected upon chemical treatment. In general, chemically modified plant wastes exhibit higher adsorption capacities than unmodified forms. Numerous chemicals have been used for modifications which include mineral and organic acids, bases, oxidizing agent, organic compounds, etc. In this review, an extensive list of plant wastes as adsorbents including rice husks, spent grain, sawdust, sugarcane bagasse, fruit wastes, weeds and others has been compiled. Some of the treated adsorbents show good adsorption capacities for Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn and Ni. PMID:17681755

Wan Ngah, W S; Hanafiah, M A K M

2007-07-27

435

Detection, Composition and Treatment of Volatile Organic Compounds from Waste Treatment Plants  

PubMed Central

Environmental policies at the European and global level support the diversion of wastes from landfills for their treatment in different facilities. Organic waste is mainly treated or valorized through composting, anaerobic digestion or a combination of both treatments. Thus, there are an increasing number of waste treatment plants using this type of biological treatment. During waste handling and biological decomposition steps a number of gaseous compounds are generated or removed from the organic matrix and emitted. Different families of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) can be found in these emissions. Many of these compounds are also sources of odor nuisance. In fact, odors are the main source of complaints and social impacts of any waste treatment plant. This work presents a summary of the main types of VOC emitted in organic waste treatment facilities and the methods used to detect and quantify these compounds, together with the treatment methods applied to gaseous emissions commonly used in composting and anaerobic digestion facilities.

Font, Xavier; Artola, Adriana; Sanchez, Antoni

2011-01-01

436

[The role of the operator of nuclear power plants in disposal of nuclear waste].  

PubMed

Public opinion polls show that the French have largely understood the importance of our nuclear programme in maintaining French independence with regard to power supply and its security and that they have confidence in the technicians for the proper construction and operation of these power plants, but that they retain many questions concerning the disposal of nuclear waste. They have the impression that solutions remain to be found, and especially that the Electricité de France (EDF) devised the nuclear power programme without concern for the disposal of waste. This lack of information is fortunately far from reality. EDF, under the supervision of the security authorities, manages the waste produced in the nuclear power plants. Final stocking of waste is handled by a body that is independent of the waste producer, the "Agence nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioadctifs" (Andra) (National Agency for the Management of Radioactive Waste). PMID:7754329

Chaussade, J P

1995-03-15

437

Sampling and Analysis Plan Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project.  

SciTech Connect

This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the Saddle Mountains Basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality assurance plan for the project to guide the procedure development and data collection activities needed to support borehole drilling, geophysical measurements, and sampling. This SAP identifies the American Society of Testing Materials standards, Hanford Site procedures, and other guidance to be followed for data collection activities. Revision 3 incorporates all interim change notices (ICN) that were issued to Revision 2 prior to completion of sampling and analysis activities for the WTP Seismic Boreholes Project. This revision also incorporates changes to the exact number of samples submitted for dynamic testing as directed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Revision 3 represents the final version of the SAP.

Brouns, Thomas M.

2007-07-15

438

Neutron shielding analysis for remote handled transuranic waste containers in facility casks at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

Neutron shielding characteristics of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant facility cask have been quantified for a variety of combinations of neutron sources and waste matrices which would potentially be handled in waste containers. The neutron attenuation and neutron environment of the waste container and the facility cask have been analyzed to ensure that the design requirement of neutron dose rate will be met under the combinations of the source and waste matrix conditions. The analyses considered the ranges of neutron source spectrum and waste matrices which combine to produce the minimum neutron shielding worth of the facility cask. One-dimensional analyses were performed with discrete ordinate transport theory methods using multigroup neutron cross section data. The results discussed in this report demonstrate the effect of source spectrum and waste container matrix on predicted neutron dose rates adjacent to the unshielded waste container and the surface of the facility cask. An evaluation of the uncertainties in predicted neutron dose rates is provided which results in an assessment of the maximum measured neutron dose rate external to the facility cask. A description of the analytical models developed, the analysis methodology, the neutron source spectra, and the detailed results are described in this report. 10 refs., 50 figs., 39 tabs.

Livingston, J.V.; Disney, R.K.

1984-04-01

439

Laboratory and bin-scale tests of gas generation for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The design-basis, defense-related, transuranic (TRU) waste to be emplaced in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) could, if sufficient H{sub 2}O and nutrients were present, produce as much as 1,500 moles of gas per drum of waste. Anoxic corrosion of Fe and Fe-base alloys and microbial degradation of cellulosics are the processes of greatest concern, but radiolysis of brine could also be important. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Brush, L.H.; Molecke, M.A.; Lappin, A.R. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Westerman, R.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Tong, X.; Black, J.N.P.; Grbic-Galic, D. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering); Vreeland, R.E. (West Chester Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Biology); Reed, D.T. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United Stat

1991-01-01

440

Laboratory and bin-scale tests of gas generation for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design-basis, defense-related, transuranic (TRU) waste to be emplaced in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) could, if sufficient HâO and nutrients were present, produce as much as 1,500 moles of gas per drum of waste. Anoxic corrosion of Fe and Fe-base alloys and microbial degradation of cellulosics are the processes of greatest concern, but radiolysis of brine could also

L. H. Brush; M. A. Molecke; A. R. Lappin; R. E. Westerman; X. Tong; J. N. P. Black; D. Grbic-Galic; R. E. Vreeland; D. T. Reed

1991-01-01

441

Site-Specific Seismic Site Response Model for the Waste Treatment Plant, Hanford, Washington  

SciTech Connect

This interim report documents the collection of site-specific geologic and geophysical data characterizing the Waste Treatment Plant site and the modeling of the site-specific structure response to earthquake ground motions.

Rohay, Alan C.; Reidel, Steve P.

2005-02-24

442

Hanford waste vitrification plant hydrogen generation study: Preliminary evaluation of alternatives to formic acid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Oxalic, glyoxylic, glycolic, malonic, pyruvic, lactic, levulinic, and citric acids as well as glycine have been evaluated as possible substitutes for formic acid in the preparation of feed for the Hanford waste vitrification plant using a non-radioactive ...

R. B. King N. K. Bhattacharyya V. Kumar

1996-01-01

443

The Chemical Characterization of Pollutants in Waste Water from Volunteer Army Ammunition Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a characterization study of pollutants in waste water generated in manufacture of TNT (Trinitrotoluene) at Volunteer Army Ammunition Plant in Tennessee. The major portion of the study was devoted to separation and identification of d...

C. Ribaudo C. Campbell S. Bulusu W. Fisco T. Chen

1981-01-01

444

Coupling Plant Growth and Waste Recycling Systems in a Controlled Life Support System (CELSS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of bioregenerative systems as part of the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) program depends, in large part, on the ability to recycle inorganic nutrients, contained in waste material, into plant growth systems. One signific...

J. L. Garland

1992-01-01

445

Municipal Waste Water as a Source of Cooling Water for California Electric Power Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of an investigation of sources of municipal waste water for potential use as cooling water in California power plants and the major factors which affect this practice are presented. Municipal treatment facilities in California with discharge v...

T. McDonald

1980-01-01

446

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant: Nonradioactive liquid-fed ceramic melter testing for fiscal year 1986  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic objective of ceramic melter testing under the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Program in FY 1986 was to study slurry oxide loading and waste variability effects on melter processability. Secondary objectives included the evaluation of processing characteristics of melter feeds with a glass-former frit that was in a single size range; demonstration that slurries prepared under laboratory- and

R. K. Nakaoka; J. M. Jr. Perez; W. C. Buchmiller; R. W. Goles; S. O. Bates

1986-01-01

447

WASTE REDUCTION PRACTICES AT TWO CHROMATED COPPER ARSENATE WOOD-TREATING PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Two chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood-treating plants were assessed for their waste reduction practices. he objectives of this study were to estimate the amount of hazardous wastes that a well-designed and well-maintained CCA treatment facility would generate and to identify w...

448

WASTE REDUCTION PRACTICES AT TWO CHROMATED COPPER ARSENATE WOOD-TREATING PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Two chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood-treating plants were assessed for their waste reduction practices. The objectives of this study were to estimate the amount of hazardous wastes that a well-designed and well-main- tained CCA treatment facility would generate and to iden- t...

449

ELIMINATION OF POLLUTANTS BY UTILIZATION OF EGG BREAKING PLANT SHELL-WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

Egg breaking plants yield an estimated 50,000 tons of waste annually. These wastes are commonly disposed of on land. This method of disposal is becoming more difficult due to the potential for pollution of local water resources. A triple pass rotary drum dehydrator was installed ...

450

Leachate characteristics and composition of cyanide-bearing wastes from manufactured gas plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past activities associated with the manufacture of gas from hydrocarbon feedstocks resulted in the generation of substantial quantities of cyanide-bearing wastes produced as a result of product gas cleanup for the removal of hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen cyanide. Large quantities of these wastes have been found at several manufactured gas plant sites. It was the purpose of this study to

Thomas L. Theis; Thomas C. Young; Mohul Huang; Kenneth C. Knutsen

1994-01-01

451

Design and Analysis of a Shaft Seal System for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special issue of Reliability Engineering and System Safety presents a wide range of analyses pertaining to performance of the first EPA-certified nuclear waste repository, called the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Licensing of the first such repository has involved unprecedented analysis accompanied by an equivalent peer review and public scmtiny. As a deep geologic repository, isolation of the repository

F. D. Hansen; M. K. Knowles

1999-01-01

452

Certifying the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Lessons Learned from the WIPP Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

In May 1998, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as being in compliance with applicable long-term regulations governing the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel, high-level, and transuranic radioactive wastes. The WIPP is the first deep geologic repository in the US to have successfully demonstrated regulatory compliance with

D. R. Anderson; Margaret S. Y. Chu; Gary K. Froehlich; Bryan A. Howard; Susan M. Howarth; Kurt W. Larson; Susan Y. Pickering; Peter N. Swift

1999-01-01

453

Early1990 status of performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the early-1990 status of the performance- assessment work being done to evaluate compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant with the US Environmental Protection Agency regulation 40 CFR Part 191, Subpart B. This regulation sets environmental standards for radioactive waste disposal. As required by Subpart B, evaluations of compliance will include probabilistic numerical simulations of repository performance

S. G. Bertram-Howery; P. N. Swift

1991-01-01

454

Use of Performance Assessment in Support of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Programmatic Activity Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the geologic (deep underground) disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. A Compliance Certification Application (CCA) of the WIPP for such disposal was submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October 1996, and was approved by EPA in May 1998. In June 1998,

GEORGE BASABILVAZO; HONG-NIAN JOW; KURT W. LARSON; MELVIN G. MARIETTA

1999-01-01

455

Annual site environmental report for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Calendar Year 1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the fourth annual preoperational Site Environmental Report for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico. The purpose of the WIPP is to provide a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) wastes generated by the defense activities of the US government. This document is prepared in accordance with the guidance

J. S. Cockman; N. T. Fischer; D. T. Flynn; J. P. Harvill; E. T. Louderbough; M. L. Lyon; A. L. Rodriquez; B. A. Sladek

1989-01-01

456

An evaluation of air effluent and workplace radioactivity monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improvements are needed in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) air effluent and workplace radioactivity monitoring prior to receipt of radioactive wastes. This report provides a detailed review Zf radioactivity air monitoring regulatory requirements and related facility design requirements. Air monitoring data, supplied by the Westinghouse Isolation Division, are analyzed. The WIPP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) requires that the

Bartlett

1993-01-01

457

Early1990 status of performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) may begin service as the United States' first repository for the permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, the Department of Energy (DOE) must establish compliance with applicable environmental and safety regulations. This paper addresses one major regulation, the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal

S. G. Bertram-Howery; P. N. Swift

1991-01-01

458

An appraisal of the 1992 preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the New Mexico Environmental Evaluation Group is to conduct an independent technical evaluation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project to ensure the protection of the public health and safety and the environment. The WIPP Project, located in southeastern New Mexico, is being constructed as a repository for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes generated

W. W. L. Lee; L. Chaturvedi; M. K. Silva; R. Weiner; R. H. Neill

1994-01-01

459

Understanding and involvement: The key to public acceptance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a research and development project of the US Department of Energy (DOE) that is authorized under Public Law 96-164 to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from defense programs of the US. Westinghouse Electric Corporation is the management and operating contractor of the WIPP for the DOE. The transportation and disposal

Kuntz

1991-01-01

460

Organic Pollutants in Wastes and Process Streams of Coal Cleaning Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process waters and coal wastes from the physical cleaning of coals were collected at heavy media cyclone and water washing plants. The process wastewaters and leachates of the wastes were extracted and the organic compounds in these extracts were characterized by gas chromatography (GC) and combination gas chromotography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/ MS). Most of the identified compounds were aliphatic acids present

MICHAEL J. AVERY; JOHN J. RICHARD; GREGOR A. JUNK

1988-01-01

461

Development of a gas-generation model for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Design-basis transuranic (TRU) waste to be emplaced in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico may generate significant quantities of gas, which may affect the performance of the WIPP with respect to regulations for radioactive a...

L. H. Brush L. J. Storz J. W. Garner

1993-01-01

462

Test container design/fabrication/function for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant gas generation experiment glovebox.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The gas generation experiments (GGE) are being conducted at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL0W) with contact handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The purpose of the GGE is to...

C. J. Knight N. E. Russell W. W. Benjamin K. E. Rosenberg J. A. Michelbacher

1997-01-01

463

Arsenic mobility in brownfield soils amended with green waste compost or biochar and planted with Miscanthus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degraded land that is historically contaminated from different sources of industrial waste provides an opportunity for conversion to bioenergy fuel production and also to increase sequestration of carbon in soil through organic amendments. In pot experiments, As mobility was investigated in three different brownfield soils amended with green waste compost (GWC, 30% v\\/v) or biochar (BC, 20% v\\/v), planted with

William Hartley; Nicholas M. Dickinson; Philip Riby; Nicholas W. Lepp

2009-01-01

464

Elimination of Pollutants by Utilization of Egg Breaking Plant Shell-Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Egg breaking plants yield an estimated 50,000 tons of waste annually. These wastes are commonly disposed of on land. This method of disposal is becoming more difficult due to the potential for pollution of local water resources. A triple pass rotary drum ...

J. M. Vandepopuliere H. V. Walton W. Jaynes O. J. Cotterill

1978-01-01

465

Characterization and environmental studies on anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes: Pompano Beach plant. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this program is to evaluate and verify the technical and economical feasibiilty of the solid waste to methane fermentation process. Since anaerobic fermentation of solid waste materials has not been demonstrated on a large scale, there is a definite risk factor that the system will not perform as current research suggests. The proof of concept plant was

S. Sengupta; K. F. V. Wong; N. Nemerow; M. Strietfeld; R. Narasimhan; A. Tilles

1983-01-01

466

DRSPALL :spallings model for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2004 recertification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents a model to estimate the spallings releases for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Performance Assessment (WIPP PA). A spallings release in the context of WIPP PA refers to a portion of the solid waste transported from the subsurface repository to the ground surface due to inadvertent oil or gas drilling into the WIPP repository at some time

Amy P. Gilkey; Clifford W. Hansen; John F. Schatz; David Keith Rudeen; David L. Lord

2006-01-01

467

COMMISSIONING AND START-UP TESTS OF ALPHA-CONTAMINATED SOLID WASTE SORTING, CEMENTING, AND INTERIM STORAGE FACILITIES AT BELGOPROCESS (BELGIUM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alpha-contaminated solid waste generated in Belgium results from past activities in the fuel cycle (R & D +Reprocessing and MOX fabrication pilot plants) and present operation of BELGONUCLEAIRE's MOX fuel fabrication plant. After the main steps in the management of alpha-contaminated solid waste were established, BELGONUCLEAIRE, with the backing of BELGOPROCESS and ONDRAF\\/NIRAS, started the design and construction of

R. C. GLIBERT; G. NUYT; G. LAMOTTE; C. L. RENARD; A. DE GOEYSE; R. GOETSCHALCKX; B. GHYS

2003-01-01

468

Vitrification of borate waste from nuclear power plant using coal fly ash. (I) Glass formulation development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borate waste, which is the main liquid waste from daily operation of PWR nuclear power plants, contains a large amount of Na and B. The coal fly ash is a by-product of the coal combustion power plants. The high content of SiO2 and Al2O3 of coal fly ash makes it a desirable glass network former additive; therefore, using the coal

Jiawei Sheng

2001-01-01

469

Idaho Waste Vitrification Facilities Project Vitrified Waste Interim Storage Facility  

SciTech Connect

This feasibility study report presents a draft design of the Vitrified Waste Interim Storage Facility (VWISF), which is one of three subprojects of the Idaho Waste Vitrification Facilities (IWVF) project. The primary goal of the IWVF project is to design and construct a treatment process system that will vitrify the sodium-bearing waste (SBW) to a final waste form. The project will consist of three subprojects that include the Waste Collection Tanks Facility, the Waste Vitrification Facility (WVF), and the VWISF. The Waste Collection Tanks Facility will provide for waste collection, feed mixing, and surge storage for SBW and newly generated liquid waste from ongoing operations at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. The WVF will contain the vitrification process that will mix the waste with glass-forming chemicals or frit and turn the waste into glass. The VWISF will provide a shielded storage facility for the glass until the waste can be disposed at either the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant as mixed transuranic waste or at the future national geological repository as high-level waste glass, pending the outcome of a Waste Incidental to Reprocessing determination, which is currently in progress. A secondary goal is to provide a facility that can be easily modified later to accommodate storage of the vitrified high-level waste calcine. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of the VWISF, which would be constructed in compliance with applicable federal, state, and local laws. This project supports the Department of Energy’s Environmental Management missions of safely storing and treating radioactive wastes as well as meeting Federal Facility Compliance commitments made to the State of Idaho.

Bonnema, Bruce Edward

2001-09-01

470

Progress on Cleaning Up the Only Commercial Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facility to Operate in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the progress on cleanup of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), an environmental management project located south of Buffalo, NY. The WVDP was the site of the only commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing facility to have operated in the United States (1966 to 1972). Former fuel reprocessing operations generated approximately 600,000 gallons of liquid high-level radioactive waste stored

T. J. Jackson; S. A. MacVean; K. A. Szlis

2002-01-01

471

Neurotoxic effects from residential exposure to chemicals from an oil reprocessing facility and superfund site.  

PubMed

Neurotoxicity has been described in workers exposed to solvents, PCBs, certain metals, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons but not often in residents near refineries or factories. We compared the neurobehavioral performance of residents near a plant that reprocessed used motor oil and chemical waste from 1966-1983 to referents from beyond the plant's modeled air dispersal and water drainage zones. Neurophysiological and psychological tests, a Profile of Mood States (POMS) and a symptom questionnaire were administered to 131 subjects exposed at the site who were matched for age, sex, and ethnicity 2:1 with 66 unexposed subjects from 35 km away. Test scores were adjusted for a 1.4-year difference in educational attainment by coefficients from regression equations but not for income as the latter coefficients were not significant. Exposed subjects were significantly impaired for body balance (sway speed) and simple and two choice visual reaction time as compared to referents. Blink reflex latency (R-1) and eye closure speed were normal in both groups. Cognitive function in the exposed was impaired as measured by Culture Fair and by block design from the WAIS. Placing pegs in a grooved board and making of trails (A and B) were also impaired. Group differences in recall and memory were not significant. The exposed group's symptom frequencies and POMS scores for depression, anger, confusion, tension, and fatigue were elevated indicating depression. Confounding from medical and neurological disorders or occupational exposures was minimal. Subjects exposed residentially for up to 17 years to chemicals dispersed from a waste oil reprocessing plant showed neurophysiological and neuropsychological impairment. PMID:7760780

Kilburn, K H; Warshaw, R H

472

Review comments on the report of the Steering Committee on Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) is to conduct an independent technical evaluation of the potential radiation exposure to people from the proposed Federal radioactive Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, in order to protect the public health and safety and ensure that there is no environmental degradation. Analyses are conducted of reports issued by the US

1980-01-01

473

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - An International Center of Excellence for ''Training in and Demonstration of Waste Disposal Technologies''  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site, which is managed and operated by the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (USDOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and located in the State of New Mexico, presently hosts an underground research laboratory (URL) and the world's first certified and operating deep geological repository for safe disposition of long-lived radioactive materials (LLRMs). Both the

Mark L. Matthews; Leif G. Eriksson

2003-01-01

474

Nuclear waste form risk assessment for US defense waste at Savannah River Plant. Annual report fiscal year 1980  

SciTech Connect

Waste form dissolution studies and preliminary performance analyses were carried out to contribute a part of the data needed for the selection of a waste form for the disposal of Savannah River Plant defense waste in a deep geologic repository. The first portion of this work provides descriptions of the chemical interactions between the waste form and the geologic environment. We reviewed critically the dissolution/leaching data for borosilicate glass and SYNROC. Both chemical kinetic and thermodynamic models were developed to describe the dissolution process of these candidate waste forms so as to establish a fundamental basis for interpretation of experimental data and to provide directions for future experiments. The complementary second portion of this work is an assessment of the impacts of alternate waste forms upon the consequences of disposal in various proposed geological media. Employing systems analysis methodology, we began to evaluate the performance of a generic waste form for the case of a high risk scenario for a bedded salt repository. Results of sensitivity analysis, uncertainty analyses, and sensitivity to uncertainty analysis are presented.

Cheung, H.; Jackson, D.D.; Revelli, M.A.

1981-07-01

475

Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes  

SciTech Connect

In 2006, DOE-ORP initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct Vs measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) confirmation of the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the corehole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt was also penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of movement and less than 15 feet of repeated section. Most of the movement on the fault appears to have occurred before the youngest lava flow, the 10.5 million year old Elephant Mountain Member was emplaced above the Pomona Member.

Barnett, D. BRENT; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Fecht, Karl R.; Lanigan, David C.; Reidel, Steve; Rust, Colleen F.

2007-02-28