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1

Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project  

SciTech Connect

Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. The engineering studies, initiated in July 1991, identified 37 mixed waste streams, and 55 low-level waste streams. This report documents the waste stream information and potential treatment strategies, as well as the regulatory requirements for the Department of Energy-owned treatment facility option. The total report comprises three volumes and two appendices. This report consists of Volume 1, which explains the overall program mission, the guiding assumptions for the engineering studies, and summarizes the waste stream and regulatory information, and Volume 2, the Waste Stream Technical Summary which, encompasses the studies conducted to identify the INEL's waste streams and their potential treatment strategies.

Not Available

1992-04-01

2

Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project  

SciTech Connect

Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. This report documents those studies so the project can continue with an evaluation of programmatic options, system tradeoff studies, and the conceptual design phase of the project. This report, appendix B, comprises the engineering design files for this project study. The engineering design files document each waste steam, its characteristics, and identified treatment strategies.

Not Available

1992-04-01

3

Mixed Waste Treatment Project: Computer simulations of integrated flowsheets  

SciTech Connect

The disposal of mixed waste, that is waste containing both hazardous and radioactive components, is a challenging waste management problem of particular concern to DOE sites throughout the United States. Traditional technologies used for the destruction of hazardous wastes need to be re-evaluated for their ability to handle mixed wastes, and in some cases new technologies need to be developed. The Mixed Waste Treatment Project (MWTP) was set up by DOE`s Waste Operations Program (EM30) to provide guidance on mixed waste treatment options. One of MWTP`s charters is to develop flowsheets for prototype integrated mixed waste treatment facilities which can serve as models for sites developing their own treatment strategies. Evaluation of these flowsheets is being facilitated through the use of computer modelling. The objective of the flowsheet simulations is to provide mass and energy balances, product compositions, and equipment sizing (leading to cost) information. The modelled flowsheets need to be easily modified to examine how alternative technologies and varying feed streams effect the overall integrated process. One such commercially available simulation program is ASPEN PLUS. This report contains details of the Aspen Plus program.

Dietsche, L.J.

1993-12-01

4

Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project  

SciTech Connect

Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. This report, Appendix A, Environmental Regulatory Planning Documentation, identifies the regulatory requirements that would be imposed on the operation or construction of a facility designed to process the INEL's waste streams. These requirements are contained in five reports that discuss the following topics: (1) an environmental compliance plan and schedule, (2) National Environmental Policy Act requirements, (3) preliminary siting requirements, (4) regulatory justification for the project, and (5) health and safety criteria.

Not Available

1992-04-01

5

SELENIUM TREATMENT/REMOVAL ALTERNATIVES DEMONSTRATION PROJECT - MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM ACTIVITY III, PROJECT 20  

EPA Science Inventory

This document is the final report for EPA's Mine WAste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 20--Selenium Treatment/Removal Alternatives Demonstration project. Selenium contamination originates from many sources including mining operations, mineral processing, abandoned...

6

Sampling and Analysis Plan - Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project  

SciTech Connect

This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality assurance plan for the project to guide the procedure development and data collection activities needed to support borehole drilling, geophysical measurements, and sampling. This SAP identifies the American Society of Testing Materials standards, Hanford Site procedures, and other guidance to be followed for data collection activities.

Reidel, Steve P.

2006-05-26

7

The Plasma Hearth Process demonstration project for mixed waste treatment  

SciTech Connect

The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) demonstration project is one of the key technology projects in the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Testing to date has yielded encouraging results in displaying potential applications for the PHP technology. Early tests have shown that a wide range of waste materials can be readily processed in the PHP and converted to a vitreous product. Waste materials can be treated in their original container as received at the treatment facility, without pretreatment. The vitreous product, when cooled, exhibits excellent performance in leach resistance, consistently exceeding the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) requirements. Performance of the Demonstration System during test operations has been shown to meet emission requirements. An accelerated development phase, being conducted at both bench- and pilot-scale on both nonradioactive and radioactive materials, will confirm the viability of the process. It is anticipated that, as a result of this accelerated technology development and demonstration phase, the PHP will be ready for a final field-level demonstration within three years.

Geimer, R. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Dwight, C.; McClellan, G. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1994-07-01

8

Progress and Lessons Learned in Transuranic Waste Disposition at The Department of Energy's Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides an overview of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and operated by Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC(BBWI) It describes the results to date in meeting the 6,000-cubic-meter Idaho Settlement Agreement milestone that was due December 31, 2005. The paper further describes lessons that have been learned from the project in the area of transuranic (TRU) waste processing and waste certification. Information contained within this paper would be beneficial to others who manage TRU waste for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP).

J.D. Mousseau; S.C. Raish; F.M. Russo

2006-05-18

9

Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project. Appendix B, Waste stream engineering files, Part 1, Mixed waste streams  

SciTech Connect

This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided.

Not Available

1992-04-01

10

Hanford Waste Simulants Created to Support the Research and Development on the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant  

SciTech Connect

The development of nonradioactive waste simulants to support the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant bench and pilot-scale testing is crucial to the design of the facility. The report documents the simulants development to support the SRTC programs and the strategies used to produce the simulants.

Eibling, R.E.

2001-07-26

11

ASPEN computer simulations of the mixed waste treatment project baseline flowsheet  

SciTech Connect

The treatment and disposal of mixed waste (i.e., waste containing both hazardous and radioactive components) is a challenging waste- management problem of particular concern to Department of Energy (DOE) sites throughout the United States. Traditional technologies used for destroying hazardous wastes must be re- evaluated for their ability to handle mixed wastes, and, in some cases, new technologies must be developed. The Mixed Waste Treatment Project (MWTP), a collaborative effort between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), was established by the DOE`s Waste Operations Program (EM-30) to develop and analyze alternative mixed waste treatment approaches. One of the MWTP`s initiatives, and the objective of this study, was to develop flowsheets for prototype, integrated, mixed-waste treatment facilities that can serve as models for sites developing their own treatment strategies. Evaluation of these flowsheets is being facilitated through the use of computer modeling. The objectives of the flowsheet simulations are to compare process effectiveness and costs of alternative flowsheets and to determine if commercial process-simulation software could be used on the large, complex process of an integrated mixed waste processing facility. Flowsheet modeling is needed to evaluate many aspects of proposed flowsheet designs. A major advantage of modeling the complete flowsheet is the ability to define the internal recycle streams, thereby making it possible to evaluate the impact of one operation on the whole plant. Many effects that can be seen only in this way. Modeling also can be used to evaluate sensitivity and range of operating conditions, radioactive criticality, and relative costs of different flowsheet designs. Further, the modeled flowsheets must be easily modified so that one can examine how alternative technologies and varying feed streams affect the overall integrated process.

Dietsche, L.J.; Upadhye, R.S.; Camp, D.W.; Pendergrass, J.A.; Borduin, L.C.; Thompson, T.K.

1994-07-05

12

Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. Appendix B, Waste stream engineering files: Part 2, Low-level waste streams  

SciTech Connect

Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. This report documents those studies so the project can continue with an evaluation of programmatic options, system tradeoff studies, and the conceptual design phase of the project. This report, appendix B, comprises the engineering design files for this project study. The engineering design files document each waste steam, its characteristics, and identified treatment strategies.

Not Available

1992-04-01

13

Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project melter system preliminary design technical review meeting  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project sponsored a plasma are melter technical design review meeting to evaluate high-temperature melter system configurations for processing heterogeneous alpha-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (ALLW). Thermal processing experts representing Department of Energy contractors, the Environmental Protection Agency, and private sector companies participated in the review. The participants discussed issues and evaluated alternative configurations for three areas of the melter system design: plasma torch melters and graphite arc melters, offgas treatment options, and overall system configuration considerations. The Technical Advisory Committee for the review concluded that graphite arc melters are preferred over plasma torch melters for processing ALLW. Initiating involvement of stakeholders was considered essential at this stage of the design. For the offgas treatment system, the advisory committee raised the question whether to a use wet-dry or a dry-wet system. The committee recommended that the waste stream characterization, feed preparation, and the control system are essential design tasks for the high-temperature melter treatment system. The participants strongly recommended that a complete melter treatment system be assembled to conduct tests with nonradioactive surrogate waste material. A nonradioactive test bed would allow for inexpensive design and operational changes prior to assembling a system for radioactive waste treatment operations.

Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Soelberg, N.R.; Wiersholm, O.

1995-02-01

14

SEISMIC DESIGN REQUIREMENTS SELECTION METHODOLOGY FOR THE SLUDGE TREATMENT & M-91 SOLID WASTE PROCESSING FACILITIES PROJECTS  

SciTech Connect

In complying with direction from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) (07-KBC-0055, 'Direction Associated with Implementation of DOE-STD-1189 for the Sludge Treatment Project,' and 08-SED-0063, 'RL Action on the Safety Design Strategy (SDS) for Obtaining Additional Solid Waste Processing Capabilities (M-91 Project) and Use of Draft DOE-STD-I 189-YR'), it has been determined that the seismic design requirements currently in the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) will be modified by DOE-STD-1189, Integration of Safety into the Design Process (March 2007 draft), for these two key PHMC projects. Seismic design requirements for other PHMC facilities and projects will remain unchanged. Considering the current early Critical Decision (CD) phases of both the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) and the Solid Waste Processing Facilities (M-91) Project and a strong intent to avoid potentially costly re-work of both engineering and nuclear safety analyses, this document describes how Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) will maintain compliance with the PHMC by considering both the current seismic standards referenced by DOE 0 420.1 B, Facility Safety, and draft DOE-STD-1189 (i.e., ASCE/SEI 43-05, Seismic Design Criteria for Structures, Systems, and Components in Nuclear Facilities, and ANSI!ANS 2.26-2004, Categorization of Nuclear Facility Structures, Systems and Components for Seismic Design, as modified by draft DOE-STD-1189) to choose the criteria that will result in the most conservative seismic design categorization and engineering design. Following the process described in this document will result in a conservative seismic design categorization and design products. This approach is expected to resolve discrepancies between the existing and new requirements and reduce the risk that project designs and analyses will require revision when the draft DOE-STD-1189 is finalized.

RYAN GW

2008-04-25

15

Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project. Executive summary: Volume 1, Program summary information; Volume 2, Waste stream technical summary: Draft  

SciTech Connect

Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. The engineering studies, initiated in July 1991, identified 37 mixed waste streams, and 55 low-level waste streams. This report documents the waste stream information and potential treatment strategies, as well as the regulatory requirements for the Department of Energy-owned treatment facility option. The total report comprises three volumes and two appendices. This report consists of Volume 1, which explains the overall program mission, the guiding assumptions for the engineering studies, and summarizes the waste stream and regulatory information, and Volume 2, the Waste Stream Technical Summary which, encompasses the studies conducted to identify the INEL`s waste streams and their potential treatment strategies.

Not Available

1992-04-01

16

Steam Reforming Application for Treatment of DOE Sodium Bearing Tank Wastes at Idaho National Laboratory for Idaho Cleanup Project  

SciTech Connect

The patented THOR{sup R} steam reforming waste treatment technology has been selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) as the technology of choice for treatment of about one million gallons of Sodium Bearing Waste (SBW) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). SBW is an acidic waste created primarily from cleanup of the fuel reprocessing equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the INL. SBW contains high concentrations of nitric acid and alkali and aluminum nitrates with minor amounts of many inorganic compounds including radionuclides, mainly cesium. The steam reforming process will convert the SBW into dry, solid, carbonate and aluminate minerals supporting a preferred path for disposal as remote handled transuranic (RH-TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP). The Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP) will design, build, and operate an Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) that will comprise an integrated THOR{sup R} process system that will utilize dual fluidized bed steam reformers (FBSR) for treatment of the SBW. Design of the IWTU is nearing completion. The IWTU will be constructed at INTEC, immediately east of the New Waste Calcine Facility (NWCF), with planned fabrication and construction to start in early 2007 upon receipt of needed permits and completion of design and engineering. This paper provides a project and process overview of the IWTU and discusses the design and construction status. IWTU equipment and facility designs and bases will be presented. (authors)

Landman, W.; Roesener, S. [CH2M WG Idaho, LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mason, B.; Wolf, K.; Amaria, N. [THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC, Aiken, SC (United States)

2007-07-01

17

Bear Creek Valley characterization area mixed wastes passive in situ treatment technology demonstration project - status report  

SciTech Connect

Historical waste disposal activities within the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Characterization Area (CA), at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, have contaminated groundwater and surface water above human health risk levels and impacted the ecology of Bear Creek. Contaminates include nitrate, radioisotopes, metals, volatile organic chemicals (VOCS), and common ions. This paper provides a status report on a technology demonstration project that is investigating the feasibility of using passive in situ treatment systems to remove these contaminants. Although this technology may be applicable to many locations at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the project focuses on collecting the information needed to take CERCLA removal actions in 1998 at the S-3 Disposal Ponds site. Phase 1 has been completed and included site characterization, laboratory screening of treatment media (sorbents; and iron), and limited field testing of biological treatment systems. Batch tests using different Y-12 Plant waters were conducted to evaluate the removal efficiencies of most of the media. Phase 1 results suggest that the most promising treatment media are Dowex 21 k resin, peat moss, zero-valent iron, and iron oxides. Phase 2 will include in-field column testing of these media to assess loading rates, and concerns with clogging, by-products, and long-term treatment efficiency and media stability. Continued testing of wetlands and algal mats (MATs) will be conducted to determine if they can be used for in-stream polishing of surface water. Hydraulic testing of a shallow trench and horizontal well will also be completed during Phase 2. 4 refs., 3 tabs.

Watson, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Leavitt, M.; Moss, D. [SAIC, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] [and others

1997-03-01

18

Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project. Appendix A, Environmental and regulatory planning and documentation: Draft  

SciTech Connect

Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. This report, Appendix A, Environmental & Regulatory Planning & Documentation, identifies the regulatory requirements that would be imposed on the operation or construction of a facility designed to process the INEL`s waste streams. These requirements are contained in five reports that discuss the following topics: (1) an environmental compliance plan and schedule, (2) National Environmental Policy Act requirements, (3) preliminary siting requirements, (4) regulatory justification for the project, and (5) health and safety criteria.

Not Available

1992-04-01

19

Operational waste volume projection  

SciTech Connect

Waste receipts to the double-shell tank system are analyzed and wastes through the year 2015 are projected based on generation trends of the past 12 months. A computer simulation of site operations is performed, which results in projections of tank fill schedules, tank transfers, evaporator operations, tank retrieval, and aging waste tank usage. This projection incorporates current budget planning and the clean-up schedule of the tri-party agreement. Assumptions are current as of June 1995.

Koreski, G.M.; Strode, J.N.

1995-06-01

20

Operational Waste Volume Projection  

SciTech Connect

Waste receipts to the double-shell tank system are analyzed and wastes through the year 2018 are projected based on assumption as of July 1999. A computer simulation of site operations is performed, which results in projections of tank fill schedules, tank transfers, evaporator operations, tank retrieval, and aging waste tank usage. This projection incorporates current budget planning and the clean-up schedule of the Tri-Party Agreement.

STRODE, J.N.

1999-08-24

21

Biogas af madaffald. Forbehandling, hygiejnisering og udraadning af madaffald fra husholdninger og institutioner i biogasfaellesanlaeg. Forprojekt. (Biogas of food wastes. Preliminary treatment, sanitizing and decomposition of food wastes, from institutions and households, in communal biomass conversion plants. Pilot project).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A pilot project to an experimental project the aim of which was to investigate and test equipment for preliminary treatment and sanitizing of sorted, organic/biological domestic wastes before anaerobic treatment in a communal biomass conversion plant, and...

1990-01-01

22

Steam Reforming Application for Treatment of DOE Sodium-Bearing Tank Wastes at Idaho National Laboratory for Idaho Cleanup Project  

SciTech Connect

The patented THOR{sup R} steam reforming waste treatment technology has been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as the technology of choice for treatment of about one million gallons of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site 1. SBW is an acidic waste created primarily from cleanup of the fuel reprocessing equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the INL. SBW contains high concentrations of nitric acid and alkali and aluminum nitrates with minor amounts of many inorganic compounds including radionuclides, mainly cesium. The steam reforming process will convert the SBW into dry, solid, carbonate and aluminate minerals supporting a preferred path for disposal as remote handled transuranic (RH-TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP). The Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP) will design, build, and operate an Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) that will comprise an integrated THOR{sup R} process system that will utilize dual fluidized bed steam reformers (FBSR) for treatment of the SBW. The IWTU is being constructed at INTEC, immediately east of the New Waste Calcine Facility (NWCF). Detailed design of the IWTU has been completed and DOE has approved the CD-3 detailed design. The State of Idaho has approved the RCRA and construction air permits. Construction of the IWTU started in April 2007 with civil and foundation work. This paper provides a project and process overview of the IWTU and discusses the design and construction status. IWTU equipment and facility designs and bases will be presented. (authors)

Landman, W.; Roesener, S. [CH2M-WG Idaho, LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bradley Mason, J.; Bourgeois, T.; Amaria, N. [THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC, Aiken, SC (United States)

2008-07-01

23

Environmental assessment for the treatment of Class A low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste generated by the West Valley Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently evaluating low-level radioactive waste management alternatives at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) located on the Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC) near West Valley, New York. The WVDP`s mission is to vitrify high-level radioactive waste resulting from commercial fuel reprocessing operations that took place at the WNYNSC from 1966 to 1972. During the process of high-level waste vitrification, low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level waste (MILLW) will result and must be properly managed. It is estimated that the WVDP`s LLW storage facilities will be filled to capacity in 1996. In order to provide sufficient safe storage of LLW until disposal options become available and partially fulfill requirements under the Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA), the DOE is proposing to use U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission-licensed and permitted commercial facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Clive, Utah; and Houston, Texas to treat (volume-reduce) a limited amount of Class A LLW and MLLW generated from the WVDP. Alternatives for ultimate disposal of the West Valley LLW are currently being evaluated in an environmental impact statement. This proposed action is for a limited quantity of waste, over a limited period of time, and for treatment only; this proposal does not include disposal. The proposed action consists of sorting, repacking, and loading waste at the WVDP; transporting the waste for commercial treatment; and returning the residual waste to the WVDP for interim storage. For the purposes of this assessment, environmental impacts were quantified for a five-year operating period (1996 - 2001). Alternatives to the proposed action include no action, construction of additional on-site storage facilities, construction of a treatment facility at the WVDP comparable to commercial treatment, and off-site disposal at a commercial or DOE facility.

NONE

1995-11-01

24

SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE TREATMENT  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluates parameters relevant to River Protection Project secondary waste streams generated during Early Low Activity Waste operations and recommends a strategy for secondary waste management that considers groundwater impact, cost, and programmatic risk. The recommended strategy for managing River Protection Project secondary waste is focused on improvements in the Effiuent Treatment Facility. Baseline plans to build a Solidification Treatment Unit adjacent to Effluent Treatment Facility should be enhanced to improve solid waste performance and mitigate corrosion of tanks and piping supporting the Effiuent Treatment Facility evaporator. This approach provides a life-cycle benefit to solid waste performance and reduction of groundwater contaminants.

CRAWFORD TW

2008-07-17

25

Summary Report of Geophysical Logging For The Seismic Boreholes Project at the Hanford Site Waste Treatment Plant.  

SciTech Connect

During the period of June through October 2006, three deep boreholes and one corehole were drilled beneath the site of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The boreholes were drilled to provide information on ground-motion attenuation in the basalt and interbedded sediments underlying the WTP site. This report describes the geophysical logging of the deep boreholes that was conducted in support of the Seismic Boreholes Project, defined below. The detailed drilling and geological descriptions of the boreholes and seismic data collected and analysis of that data are reported elsewhere.

Gardner, Martin G.; Price, Randall K.

2007-02-01

26

WASTE DESCRIPTION TYPE OF PROJECT POUNDS REDUCED,  

E-print Network

POTENTIAL COSTS FOR TREATMENT & DISPOSAL COST OF RECYCLE, PREVENTION ESTIMATED COST SAVINGS PROJECT of radioactive STP liquid waste could have been disposed of through a contractor at a cost of $910,000. Instead of Silver Waste from Silver-Staining Electrophoretic Mini- Gels. Savings reflect avoided waste disposal

27

Grand Junction projects office mixed-waste treatment program, VAC*TRAX mobile treatment unit process hazards analysis  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report is to demonstrate that a thorough assessment of the risks associated with the operation of the Rust Geotech patented VAC*TRAX mobile treatment unit (MTU) has been performed and documented. The MTU was developed to treat mixed wastes at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office sites. The MTU uses an indirectly heated, batch vacuum dryer to thermally desorb organic compounds from mixed wastes. This process hazards analysis evaluated 102 potential hazards. The three significant hazards identified involved the inclusion of oxygen in a process that also included an ignition source and fuel. Changes to the design of the MTU were made concurrent with the hazard identification and analysis; all hazards with initial risk rankings of 1 or 2 were reduced to acceptable risk rankings of 3 or 4. The overall risk to any population group from operation of the MTU was determined to be very low; the MTU is classified as a Radiological Facility with low hazards.

Bloom, R.R.

1996-04-01

28

Basalt Waste Isolation Project Reclamation Support Project:  

SciTech Connect

The Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) Reclamation Support Project began in the spring of 1988 by categorizing sites distributed during operations of the BWIP into those requiring revegetation and those to be abandoned or transferred to other programs. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory's role in this project was to develop plans for reestablishing native vegetation on the first category of sites, to monitor the implementation of these plans, to evaluate the effectiveness of these efforts, and to identify remediation methods where necessary. The Reclamation Support Project focused on three major areas: geologic hydrologic boreholes, the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF), and the Near-Surface Test Facility (NSTF). A number of BWIP reclamation sites seeded between 1989 and 1990 were found to be far below reclamation objectives. These sites were remediated in 1991 using various seedbed treatments designed to rectify problems with water-holding capacity, herbicide activity, surficial crust formation, and nutrient imbalances. Remediation was conducted during November and early December 1991. Sites were examined on a monthly basis thereafter to evaluate plant growth responses to these treatments. At all remediation sites early plant growth responses to these treatments. At all remediation sites, early plant growth far exceeded any previously obtained using other methods and seedbed treatments. Seeded plants did best where amendments consisted of soil-plus-compost or fertilizer-only. Vegetation growth on Gable Mountain was less than that found on other areas nearby, but this difference is attributed primarily to the site's altitude and north-facing orientation.

Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Cadoret, N.A.

1992-06-01

29

Idaho Waste Vitrification Facilities Project Vitrified Waste Interim Storage Facility  

SciTech Connect

This feasibility study report presents a draft design of the Vitrified Waste Interim Storage Facility (VWISF), which is one of three subprojects of the Idaho Waste Vitrification Facilities (IWVF) project. The primary goal of the IWVF project is to design and construct a treatment process system that will vitrify the sodium-bearing waste (SBW) to a final waste form. The project will consist of three subprojects that include the Waste Collection Tanks Facility, the Waste Vitrification Facility (WVF), and the VWISF. The Waste Collection Tanks Facility will provide for waste collection, feed mixing, and surge storage for SBW and newly generated liquid waste from ongoing operations at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. The WVF will contain the vitrification process that will mix the waste with glass-forming chemicals or frit and turn the waste into glass. The VWISF will provide a shielded storage facility for the glass until the waste can be disposed at either the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant as mixed transuranic waste or at the future national geological repository as high-level waste glass, pending the outcome of a Waste Incidental to Reprocessing determination, which is currently in progress. A secondary goal is to provide a facility that can be easily modified later to accommodate storage of the vitrified high-level waste calcine. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of the VWISF, which would be constructed in compliance with applicable federal, state, and local laws. This project supports the Department of Energy’s Environmental Management missions of safely storing and treating radioactive wastes as well as meeting Federal Facility Compliance commitments made to the State of Idaho.

Bonnema, Bruce Edward

2001-09-01

30

Packaged Waste Treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Jacksonville, Florida, apartment complex has a wastewater treatment system which clears the water, removes harmful microorganisms and reduces solid residue to ash. It is a spinoff from spacecraft waste management and environmental control technology.

1977-01-01

31

INEL Operable Unit 7-13 Retrieval/Ex Situ Thermal Treatment configuration options: INEL Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Systems Analysis project  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Systems Analysis project is to identify and evaluate cradle-to-grave systems for the remediation of Transuranic (TRU)Contaminated Waste Pits and Trenches within the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The BWID program will use the results of the BWID Systems Analysis in conjunction with identified Department of Energy (DOE) Complex buried waste needs to develop a long-term strategy for improving buried waste remediation capabilities throughout the DOE system. This report presents Buried Waste Retrieval/Ex Situ Thermal Treatment configuration option concepts in the form of block diagrams. These configuration options are: Retrieval/Melter Treatment; Retrieval/Metal Sort/Thermal Treatment; Retrieval/No Sort/Incineration/Melter Treatment; Retrieval/Interim Storage/Melter Treatment; Retrieval/Interim Storage/Metal Sort/Thermal Treatment; and Retrieval/Interim Storage/No Sort/Incineration/Melter Treatment. Each option is presented as a complete end-to-end system.

Richardson, J.G.; Rudin, M.J.; O`Brien, M.C.; Morrison, J.L.; Raivo, B.

1992-07-01

32

WASTE DESCRIPTION TYPE OF PROJECT POUNDS REDUCED,  

E-print Network

POTENTIAL COSTS FOR TREATMENT & DISPOSAL COST OF RECYCLE, PREVENTION ESTIMATED COST SAVINGS PROJECT reflect avoided waste disposal costs and lower material purchase costs ($6000) Hydraulic Oil Product waste generation by 90 gallons/year. This avoids the cost of disposal (765 lbs) and saves $1,585 from

33

Waste Management Process Improvement Project  

SciTech Connect

The Bechtel Hanford-led Environmental Restoration Contractor team's Waste Management Process Improvement Project is working diligently with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Richland Operations Office to improve the waste management process to meet DOE's need for an efficient, cost-effective program for the management of dangerous, low-level and mixed-low-level waste. Additionally the program must meet all applicable regulatory requirements. The need for improvement was highlighted when a change in the Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project's waste management practices resulted in a larger amount of waste being generated than the waste management organization had been set up to handle.

Atwood, J.; Borden, G.; Rangel, G. R.

2002-02-25

34

MUSHROOM WASTE MANAGEMENT PROJECT LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

#12;MUSHROOM WASTE MANAGEMENT PROJECT LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT PHASE I: AUDIT OF CURRENT PRACTICE DESCRIPTION 2 3.3 CHEMICAL USAGE 4 3.4 WATER USAGE AND DISCHARGE 4 4.0 DETAILS OF SITE INVESTIGATION 5 4.1 SITE LOCATIONS 5 4.2 CHEMICAL USAGE 5 4.3 WASH WATER GENERATION AND DISCHARGE 5 4.4 WATER SAMPLE

35

TMI abnormal waste project plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses plans for the TMI Abnormal Waste Project, which is part of the EPICOR and Waste Research and Disposition Program and funded by the US Department of Energy. The sequence proposed for disposition of Three Mile Island (TMI) abnormal wastes includes: (a) packaging at TMI, (b) shipment to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), (c) storage at INEL

Ayers; A. L. Jr

1984-01-01

36

Microbiology of Waste Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of the microbiology of waste treatment, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes topics such as: (1) sanitary microbiology; (2) wastewater disinfectant; (3) viruses in wastewater; and (4) wastewater microbial populations. A list of 142 references is also presented. (HM)

Unz, Richard F.

1978-01-01

37

WASTE DESCRIPTION TYPE OF PROJECT POUNDS REDUCED,  

E-print Network

POTENTIAL COSTS FOR TREATMENT & DISPOSAL COST OF RECYCLE, PREVENTION ESTIMATED COST SAVINGS PROJECT DESCRIPTION DETAILS * Aerosol Can Disposal System Recycling 66 66 pounds of hazardous waste $991 $1,700 $991-containing thermometers were removed from IO laboratories during 2005. Savings are based on the cost of one mercury spill

38

Hazardous-waste land treatment  

SciTech Connect

This report provides state-of-the-art information on hazardous-waste land treatment units. Information is provided on site selection, waste characterization, treatment-demonstration studies; land-treatment unit design, operation, and closure, and other topics useful for design and management of land treatment units.

Brown, K.W.; Evans, G.B.; Frentrup, B.D.; Anderson, D.C.; Smith, C.

1983-04-01

39

NORDIC WASTE WATER TREATMENT SLUDGE TREATMENT  

E-print Network

and to regulate its use in such a way as to prevent harmful effects on soil, vegetation, ani- mals and man Commission Environ- ment DG, http://ec.europa.eu/environment) Sludge treatment: l Reduces organic ingredients-Norway treats source separated household waste (food waste), organic industrial waste (food processing

40

Treatment of waste liquor  

SciTech Connect

The design is disclosed for liquor treatment system comprising an evaporator in combination with a gas cooler, the evaporator providing fractional distillation of waste liquor, thereby separating the liquor into its several components of gaseous vapors, purified water, and concentrated brine. Condensed liquor from the gas cooler or flushing liquor used to spray an industrial process gas in the collecting mains of the gas-producing plant provides thermal energy from its waste heat to run the evaporator. The evaporator consists of a boiler section, a condenser section, a vacuum pump, a liquor circulating pump, and nozzles for extracting the products. The gas cooler may be one or two stages. In the one-stage cooler, the hot liquor which condenses in the gas cooling process or flushing liquor from the collecting mains of the gas-producing plant provides energy for the evaporator through means of a heat exchanger. In the two stage gas cooler, the hot liquor in the first stage is circulated directly to the boiler section of the evaporator. The hot liquor from the second stage is circulated through a separate heat exhanger.

Jablin, R.

1980-02-12

41

Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for each chemical.

Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

1992-09-01

42

Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 2, Chemical constituents  

SciTech Connect

This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for each chemical.

Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

1992-09-01

43

Chemical treatment of mixed waste at the FEMP  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Treatment Project is one in a series of projects implemented by the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) to treat mixed waste. The projects were initiated to address concerns regarding treatment capacity for mixed waste and to comply with requirements established by the Federal Facility Compliance Act. The Chemical Treatment Project is designed to utilize commercially available mobile technologies to perform treatment at the FEMP site. The waste in the Project consists of a variety of waste types with a wide range of hazards and physical characteristics. The treatment processes to be established for the waste types will be developed by a systematic approach including waste streams evaluation, projectization of the waste streams, and categorization of the stream. This information is utilized to determine the proper train of treatment which will be required to lead the waste to its final destination (i.e., disposal). This approach allows flexibility to manage a wide variety of waste in a cheaper, faster manner than designing a single treatment technology diverse enough to manage all the waste streams.

Honigford, L.; Sattler, J.; Dilday, D.; Cook, D.

1996-05-01

44

Chemical treatment of mixed waste can be done.....Today!  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Treatment Project is one in a series of projects implemented by the FEMP to treat mixed waste. The projects were initiated to address concerns regarding treatment capacity for mixed waste and to comply with requirements established by the Federal Facility Compliance Act. The Chemical Treatment Project is designed to utilize commercially available mobile technologies to perform treatment at the FEMP site. The waste in the Project consists of a variety of waste types with a wide range of hazards and physical characteristics. The treatment processes to be established for the waste types will be developed by a systematic approach including waste streams evaluation, projectization of the waste streams, and categorization of the stream. This information is utilized to determine the proper train of treatment which will be required to lead the waste to its final destination (i.e., disposal). This approach allows flexibility to manage a wide variety of waste in a cheaper, faster manner than designing a single treatment technology diverse enough to manage all the waste streams.

Honigford, L.; Dilday, D.; Cook, D. [Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States); Sattler, J. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-02-01

45

Geothermal waste treatment biotechnology  

SciTech Connect

Studies at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) have led to the development of a technically and economically feasible, as well as environmentally acceptable, biochemical process for detoxification of geothermal residues. For this process, selected microorganisms that live in extreme environments have served as models for the new biotechnology. Assuming a 2,500-kg/h sludge production rate, the new technology is capable of a better than 80% removal rate of toxic metals, usually in less than a 25-hour period. The process itself depends on a number of flexible parameters, allowing this technology to be tailored to specific needs of different geothermal producing regimes, such as those found in the Salton Sea and the Geysers area of California. Thus geothermal residual sludges and brines can be processed to remove only a few metals, such as arsenic and mercury, or many metals, ranging from valuable metals such as chromium, gold, and silver to radionuclides, such as radium. In some cases, combined metal removal and metal recovery processes may be cost efficient and therefore advantageous. The emerging biotechnology for the treatment of geothermal energy production wastes is versatile and offers a number of application options, which are discussed in the paper.

Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Jin, J.Z.; Hamilton, K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1997-01-01

46

Radioactive liquid waste treatment facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) in Idaho provides improved treatment for low-level aqueous waste compared to conventional systems. A unique, patented evaporated system is used in the RLWTF. SHADE (shielded hot air drum evaporator, US Patent No. 4,305,780) is a low-cost disposable unit constructed from standard components and is self-shielded. The results of

1984-01-01

47

Treatment of mercury containing waste  

DOEpatents

A process is provided for the treatment of mercury containing waste in a single reaction vessel which includes a) stabilizing the waste with sulfur polymer cement under an inert atmosphere to form a resulting mixture and b) encapsulating the resulting mixture by heating the mixture to form a molten product and casting the molten product as a monolithic final waste form. Additional sulfur polymer cement can be added in the encapsulation step if needed, and a stabilizing additive can be added in the process to improve the leaching properties of the waste form.

Kalb, Paul D. (Wading River, NY); Melamed, Dan (Gaithersburg, MD); Patel, Bhavesh R (Elmhurst, NY); Fuhrmann, Mark (Babylon, NY)

2002-01-01

48

Importance of denitrification to the efficiency of waste-water treatment in forested wetlands. Project completion report  

SciTech Connect

Wastewater, even after secondary treatment, typically contains high concentrations of nutrients that can cause eutrophication of receiving waters and deterioration of water quality. Therefore, there has been much interest in the use of natural wetlands as a simple and energy-efficient means of removing nutrients from wastewater and improving water quality. The utilization of a wetland for tertiary treatment of wastewater is based on the ability of the wetland to act as a nutrient sink. One of the most important processes in wetland ecosystems that influences their capacity as a nitrogen sink is the gaseous exchange of nitrogen with the atmosphere known as denitrification. Since denitrification represents a loss of nitrogen to the atmosphere, the mechanism tends to be most favorable for the removal of nitrogen. The objectives of the research project were to (1) determine the temporal and spatial ambient rates of denitrification and compare these rates to those of sediments amended with increased concentrations of nitrate comparable to concentrations of total nitrogen in the sewage effluent to be discharged; and (2) determine the proportion of total denitrification that can be attributed to direct utilization of nitrate loaded into the wetland, as compared to nitrate produced via nitrification within the wetland. Although nitrate is readily denitrified, short-term incubation rates are relatively low which is attributed to the presently low nitrate concentrations and subsequent reduced denitrifying microbial population in the wetland sediments. Nitrate concentrations varied seasonally associated with increased flooding during spring. Rates of nitrification coupled with denitrification were investigated with nitrogen-15 isotopes. Nitrification is limited in the wetland sedments; therefore, controls the rate of total nitrogen loss from the system.

Twilley, R.R.; Boustany, R.G.

1990-09-01

49

Waste Treatment And Immobilization Plant U. S. Department Of Energy Office Of River Protection Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposition Project - Abstract # 13460  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an off-gas treatment system secondary liquid waste stream [submerged bed scrubber (SBS) condensate], which is currently planned for recycle back to the WTP Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter. This SBS condensate waste stream is high in Tc-99, which is not efficiently captured in the vitrified glass matrix. A pre-conceptual engineering study was prepared in fiscal year 2012 to evaluate alternate flow paths for melter off-gas secondary liquid waste generated by the WTP LAW facility. This study evaluated alternatives for direct off-site disposal of this SBS without pre-treatment, which mitigates potential issues associated with recycling.

Yanochko, Ronald M [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Corcoran, Connie [AEM Consulting, LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

2012-11-15

50

8-Waste treatment and disposal A. Responsibility for waste management  

E-print Network

8- Waste treatment and disposal A. Responsibility for waste management 1. Each worker is responsible for correctly bagging and labeling his/her own waste. 2. A BSL3 technician will be responsible for transporting and autoclaving the waste. Waste will be autoclaved once or twice per day, depending on use

51

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project Waste Form Qualification Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy has created a waste acceptance process to help guide the overall program for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a federal repository. This Waste Form Qualification Program Plan describes the hierarchy of strategies used by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project to satisfy the waste form qualification obligations of that waste acceptance process. A description of the functional relationship of the participants contributing to completing this objective is provided. The major activities, products, providers, and associated scheduling for implementing the strategies also are presented.

Randklev, E.H.

1993-06-01

52

Waste management project fiscal year 1998 multi-year work plan WBS 1.2  

SciTech Connect

The MYWP technical baseline describes the work to be accomplished by the Project and the technical standards which govern that work. The Waste Management Project manages and integrates (non-TWRS) waste management activities at the site. Activities include management of Hanford wastes as well as waste transferred to Hanford from other DOE, Department of Defense, or other facilities. This work includes handling, treatment, storage, and disposition of radioactive, nonradioactive, hazardous, and mixed solid and liquid wastes. Major Waste Management Projects are the Solid Waste Project (SW), Liquid Effluents Project (LEP), and Analytical Services. Existing facilities (e.g., grout vaults and canyons) shall be evaluated for reuse for these purposes to the maximum extent possible. The paper tabulates the major facilities that interface with this Project, identifying the major facilities that generate waste, materials, or infrastructure for this Project and the major facilities that will receive waste and materials from this Project.

Slaybaugh, R.R.

1997-08-29

53

Waste Management Project fiscal year 1998 multi-year work plan, WBS 1.2  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Management Project manages and integrates (non-TWRS) waste management activities at the site. Activities include management of Hanford wastes as well as waste transferred to Hanford from other DOE, Department of Defense, or other facilities. This work includes handling, treatment, storage, and disposal of radioactive, nonradioactive, hazardous, and mixed solid and liquid wastes. Major Waste Management Projects are the Solid Waste Project, Liquid Effluents Project, and Analytical Services. Existing facilities (e.g., grout vaults and canyons) shall be evaluated for reuse for these purposes to the maximum extent possible.

Jacobsen, P.H.

1997-09-23

54

Sustainable waste management in Africa through CDM projects.  

PubMed

Only few Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects (traditionally focussed on landfill gas combustion) have been registered in Africa if compared to similar developing countries. The waste hierarchy adopted by many African countries clearly shows that waste recycling and composting projects are generally the most sustainable. This paper undertakes a sustainability assessment for practical waste treatment and disposal scenarios for Africa and makes recommendations for consideration. The appraisal in this paper demonstrates that mechanical biological treatment of waste becomes more financially attractive if established through the CDM process. Waste will continue to be dumped in Africa with increasing greenhouse gas emissions produced, unless industrialised countries (Annex 1) fund carbon emission reduction schemes through a replacement to the Kyoto Protocol. Such a replacement should calculate all of the direct and indirect carbon emission savings and seek to promote public-private partnerships through a concerted support of the informal sector. PMID:22498573

Couth, R; Trois, C

2012-11-01

55

WASTE TREATMENT BUILDING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Treatment Building System provides the space, layout, structures, and embedded subsystems that support the processing of low-level liquid and solid radioactive waste generated within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). The activities conducted in the Waste Treatment Building include sorting, volume reduction, and packaging of dry waste, and collecting, processing, solidification, and packaging of liquid waste. The Waste Treatment Building System is located on the surface within the protected area of the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System helps maintain a suitable environment for the waste processing and protects the systems within the Waste Treatment Building (WTB) from most of the natural and induced environments. The WTB also confines contaminants and provides radiological protection to personnel. In addition to the waste processing operations, the Waste Treatment Building System provides space and layout for staging of packaged waste for shipment, industrial and radiological safety systems, control and monitoring of operations, safeguards and security systems, and fire protection, ventilation and utilities systems. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides the required space and layout for maintenance activities, tool storage, and administrative facilities. The Waste Treatment Building System integrates waste processing systems within its protective structure to support the throughput rates established for the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides shielding, layout, and other design features to help limit personnel radiation exposures to levels which are as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System, and with other MGR systems that support the waste processing operations. The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the General Site Transportation System, Site Communications System, Site Water System, MGR Site Layout, Safeguards and Security System, Site Radiological Monitoring System, Site Electrical Power System, Site Compressed Air System, and Waste Treatment Building Ventilation System.

F. Habashi

2000-06-22

56

Treatment of mixed waste coolant  

SciTech Connect

The primary processes used at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for treatment of radioactively contaminated machine coolants are industrial waste treatment and in situ carbon adsorption. These two processes simplify approaches to meetings the sanitary sewer discharge limits and subsequent Land Disposal REstriction criteria for hazardous and mixed wastes (40 CFR 268). Several relatively simple technologies are used in industrial water treatment. These technologies are considered {open_quotes}Best Demonstrated Available Technologies,{close_quotes} or BDAT, by the Environmental Protection Agency. The machine coolants are primarily aqueous and contain water soluble oil consisting of ethanol amine emulsifiers derived from fatty acids, both synthetic and natural. This emulsion carries away metal turnings from a part being machined on a lathe or other machining tool. When the coolant becomes spent, it contains chlorosolvents carried over from other cutting operations as well as a fair amount of tramp oil from machine bearings. This results in a mutiphasic aqueous waste that requires treatment of metal and organic contaminants. During treatment, any dissolved metals are oxidized with hydrogen peroxide. Once oxidized, these metals are flocculated with ferric sulfate and precipitated with sodium hydroxide, and then the precipitate is filtered through diatomaceous earth. The emulsion is broken up by acidifying the coolant. Solvents and oils are adsorbed using powdered carbon. This carbon is easily separated from the remaining coolant by vacuum filtration.

Kidd, S.; Bowers, J.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1995-09-01

57

Biological treatment of hazardous waste  

SciTech Connect

This reference book is intended for individuals interested in or involved with the treatment of hazardous wastes using biological/biochemical processes. Composed of 13 chapters, it covers a wide variety of topics ranging from engineering design to hydrogeologic factors. The first four chapters are devoted to a description of several different types of bioreactors. Chapter 5 discusses the biofiltration of volatile organic compounds. Chapters 6 through 9 discuss specific biological, biochemical, physical, and engineering factors that affect bioremediation of hazardous wastes. Chapter 10 is a very good discussion of successful bioremediation of pentachlorophenol contamination under laboratory and field conditions, and excellent references are provided. The next chapter discusses the natural biodegradation of PCB-contaminated sediments in the Hudson River in New York state. Chapter 12 takes an excellent look at the bioremediation capability of anaerobic organisms. The final chapter discusses composting of hazardous waste.

Lewandowski, G.A.; Filippi, L.J. de [eds.

1998-12-01

58

Radioactive liquid waste treatment facility  

SciTech Connect

The Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) in Idaho provides improved treatment for low-level aqueous waste compared to conventional systems. A unique, patented evaporated system is used in the RLWTF. SHADE (shielded hot air drum evaporator, US Patent No. 4,305,780) is a low-cost disposable unit constructed from standard components and is self-shielded. The results of testing and recent operations indicate that evaporation rates of 2 to 6 gph (8 to 23 L/h) can be achieved with a single unit housed in a standard 30-gal (114-L) drum container. The operating experience has confirmed the design evaporation rate of 60,000 gal (227,000 L) per year, using six SHADE's. 2 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

Black, R.L.

1984-07-01

59

WASTE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL FROM SEAFOOD PROCESSING PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Examinations of current wastewater and solid waste disposal practices and characterization of the wastewater effluent for seafood processing were carried out in a project within the state of Maryland in order to recommend economical waste treatment and disposal systems for the in...

60

Solid Waste Projection Model: Model user's guide  

SciTech Connect

The Solid Waste Projection Model (SWPM) system is an analytical tool developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford company (WHC) specifically to address solid waste management issues at the Hanford Central Waste Complex (HCWC). This document, one of six documents supporting the SWPM system, contains a description of the system and instructions for preparing to use SWPM and operating Version 1 of the model. 4 figs., 1 tab.

Stiles, D.L.; Crow, V.L.

1990-08-01

61

The pedagogy of three hazardous waste design projects  

SciTech Connect

Sixty percent of the grade assigned in a senior level design course entitled Hazardous and Solid Waste Engineering is based on three interrelated design projects: a metal plating line wastewater minimization/treatment system, sludge treatment, and a landfill leachate collection system. Although not truly integrated, these projects provide the student with the capacity to synthesize large projects. The plating line project is a major project requiring not only design of the wastewater treatment facilities but also preparing a waste minimization plan. The sludge treatment project requires the design of facilities for both organic and inorganic sludges. The leachate collection system is a small scale project that is integrated with the first two projects. The overall role of the projects as they relate to the course content and the relationship of this course to other design courses in the curriculum is explained. A description of the data provided and the requirements to complete the designs are presented. The pedagogic objectives in selecting these projects are also presented. The assessment process is outlined.

Davis, M.L. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

1997-12-31

62

Aqueous Waste Treatment Plant at Aldermaston  

SciTech Connect

For over half a century the Pangbourne Pipeline formed part of AWE's liquid waste management system. Since 1952 the 11.5 mile pipeline carried pre-treated wastewater from the Aldermaston site for safe dispersal in the River Thames. Such discharges were in strict compliance with the exacting conditions demanded by all regulatory authorities, latterly, those of the Environment Agency. In March 2005 AWE plc closed the Pangbourne Pipeline and ceased discharges of treated active aqueous waste to the River Thames via this route. The ability to effectively eliminate active liquid discharges to the environment is thanks to an extensive programme of waste minimization on the Aldermaston site, together with the construction of a new Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). Waste minimization measures have reduced the effluent arisings by over 70% in less than four years. The new WTP has been built using best available technology (evaporation followed by reverse osmosis) to remove trace levels of radioactivity from wastewater to exceptionally stringent standards. Active operation has confirmed early pilot scale trials, with the plant meeting throughput and decontamination performance targets, and final discharges being at or below limits of detection. The performance of the plant allows the treated waste to be discharged safely as normal industrial effluent from the AWE site. Although the project has had a challenging schedule, the project was completed on programme, to budget and with an exemplary safety record (over 280,000 hours in construction with no lost time events) largely due to a pro-active partnering approach between AWE plc and RWE NUKEM and its sub-contractors. (authors)

Keene, D. [RWE NUKEM, Ltd, 424 Harwell, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX 110GJ (United Kingdom); Fowler, J.; Frier, S. [AWE plc, Aldermaston, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

2006-07-01

63

Life cycle cost analysis changes mixed waste treatment program at the Savannah River Site. Revision 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A direct result of the reduced need for weapons production has been a re-evaluation of the treatment projects for mixed (hazardous\\/radioactive) wastes generated from metal finishing and plating operations and from a mixed waste incinerator at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis was conducted for two waste treatment projects to determine the most cost effective

J. B. Pickett; J. L. England; H. L. Martin

1992-01-01

64

Life cycle cost analysis changes mixed waste treatment program at the Savannah River Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

A direct result of the reduced need for weapons production has been a re-evaluation of the treatment projects for mixed (hazardous\\/radioactive) wastes generated from metal finishing and plating operations and from a mixed waste incinerator at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis was conducted for two waste treatment projects to determine the most cost effective

J. B. Pickett; J. L. England; H. L. Martin

1992-01-01

65

Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project  

SciTech Connect

This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided.

Not Available

1992-04-01

66

Waste treatment integration in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The circumstances and criteria for space-based waste treatment bioregenerative life-support systems differ in many ways from those needed in terrestrial applications. In fact, the term "waste" may not even be appropriate in the context of nearly closed, cycling, ecosystems such as those under consideration. Because of these constraints there is a need for innovative approaches to the problem of "materials recycling". Hybrid physico-chemico-biological systems offer advantages over both strictly physico-chemico or biological approaches that would be beneficial to material recycling. To effectively emulate terrestrial cycling, the use of various microbial consortia ("assemblies of interdependent microbes") should be seriously considered for the biological components of such systems. This paper will examine the use of consortia in the context of a hybrid-system for materials recycling in space.

Baresi, L.; Kern, R.

1991-01-01

67

Mixed waste characterization, treatment & disposal focus area  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (referred to as the Mixed Waste Focus Area or MWFA) is to provide treatment systems capable of treating DOE`s mixed waste in partnership with users, and with continual participation of stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. The MWFA deals with the problem of eliminating mixed waste from current and future storage in the DOE complex. Mixed waste is waste that contains both hazardous chemical components, subject to the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and radioactive components, subject to the requirements of the Atomic Energy Act. The radioactive components include transuranic (TRU) and low-level waste (LLW). TRU waste primarily comes from the reprocessing of spent fuel and the use of plutonium in the fabrication of nuclear weapons. LLW includes radioactive waste other than uranium mill tailings, TRU, and high-level waste, including spent fuel.

NONE

1996-08-01

68

Waste management project technical baseline description  

SciTech Connect

A systems engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Waste Management Project is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, requirement analysis, interface definitions, alternative analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, implementation definitions, and discussion of uncertainties facing the Project.

Sederburg, J.P.

1997-08-13

69

Mixed waste treatment model: Basis and analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy`s Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) required treatment system capacities for risk and cost calculation. Los Alamos was tasked with providing these capacities to the PEIS team. This involved understanding the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex waste, making the necessary changes to correct for problems, categorizing the waste for treatment, and determining the treatment system requirements. The treatment system requirements depended on the incoming waste, which varied for each PEIS case. The treatment system requirements also depended on the type of treatment that was desired. Because different groups contributing to the PEIS needed specific types of results, we provided the treatment system requirements in a variety of forms. In total, some 40 data files were created for the TRU cases, and for the MLLW case, there were 105 separate data files. Each data file represents one treatment case consisting of the selected waste from various sites, a selected treatment system, and the reporting requirements for such a case. The treatment system requirements in their most basic form are the treatment process rates for unit operations in the desired treatment system, based on a 10-year working life and 20-year accumulation of the waste. These results were reported in cubic meters and for the MLLW case, in kilograms as well. The treatment system model consisted of unit operations that are linked together. Each unit operation`s function depended on the input waste streams, waste matrix, and contaminants. Each unit operation outputs one or more waste streams whose matrix, contaminants, and volume/mass may have changed as a result of the treatment. These output streams are then routed to the appropriate unit operation for additional treatment until the output waste stream meets the treatment requirements for disposal. The total waste for each unit operation was calculated as well as the waste for each matrix treated by the unit.

Palmer, B.A.

1995-09-01

70

Design requirements document for project W-465, immobilized low activity waste interim storage  

SciTech Connect

The scope of this design requirements document is to identify the functions and associated requirements that must be performed to accept, transport, handle, and store immobilized low-activity waste produced by the privatized Tank Waste Remediation System treatment contractors. The functional and performance requirements in this document provide the basis for the conceptual design of the Tank Waste Remediation System Immobilized low-activity waste interim storage facility project and provides traceability from the program level requirements to the project design activity.

Burbank, D.A.

1997-01-27

71

Projecting future solid waste management requirements on the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

The problem of treating and disposing of hazardous transuranic (TRU), low-level radioactive, and mixed waste has become a major concern of the public and the government. At the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington state, the problem is compounded by the need to characterize, retrieve, and treat the solid waste that was generated and stored for retrieval during the past 20 years. This paper discusses the development and application of a Solid Waste Projection Model that uses forecast volumes and characteristics of existing and future solid waste to address the treatment, storage, and disposal requirements at Hanford. The model uses a data-driven, object-oriented approach to assess the storage and treatment throughout requirements for each operation for each of the distinct waste classes and the accompanying cost of the storage and treatment operations. By defining the elements of each alternative for the total waste management system, the same database can be used for numerous analyses performed at different levels of detail. This approach also helps a variety of users with widely varying information requirements to use the model and helps achieve the high degree of flexibility needed to cope with changing regulations and evolving treatment and disposal technologies. 2 figs.

Shaver, S.R.; Stiles, D.L.; Holter, G.M. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Anderson, B.C. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA))

1990-09-01

72

TOPICAL REVIEW: Thermal plasma waste treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma waste treatment has over the past decade become a more prominent technology because of the increasing problems with waste disposal and because of the realization of opportunities to generate valuable co-products. Plasma vitrification of hazardous slags has been a commercial technology for several years, and volume reduction of hazardous wastes using plasma processes is increasingly being used. Plasma gasification

Joachim Heberlein; Anthony B. Murphy

2008-01-01

73

Treatment of industrial waste water  

SciTech Connect

A method is disclosed for processing industrial waste waters and , in particular, blow down water from thermal electric plants. The water is processed to concentrate the salts contained therein and to obtain a concentrated brine which can then be passed to a thermal evaporator and/or solar evaporation ponds. The water is processed by the addition of magnesium hydroxide and carbon dioxide in amounts sufficient to precipitate the calcium as calcium carbonate, thereby obtaining a water reduced in calcium content and increased in magnesium content from the industrial waste water. The treated water is processed to recover a purified water from a brine, preferably by reverse osmosis. Calcium hydroxide is added to the brine generated by the reverse osmosis process in an amount sufficient to precipitate magnesium hydroxide therefrom which can be recycled to supply the magnesium hydroxide used in pre-treatment of the water prior to the reverse osmosis process. A clarified brine is recovered from the magnesium hydroxide precipitation step and may then be naturally or thermally evaporated to produce a saturated slurry of salt solids. This slurry can then be further reduced to dryness by solar evaporation.

Anderson, D. R.

1980-02-12

74

Radioactive waste treatment technologies and environment  

SciTech Connect

The radioactive waste treatment and conditioning are the most important steps in radioactive waste management. At the Slovak Electric, plc, a range of technologies are used for the processing of radioactive waste into a form suitable for disposal in near surface repository. These technologies operated by JAVYS, PLc. Nuclear and Decommissioning Company, PLc. Jaslovske Bohunice are described. Main accent is given to the Bohunice Radwaste Treatment and Conditioning Centre, Bituminization plant, Vitrification plant, and Near surface repository of radioactive waste in Mochovce and their operation. Conclusions to safe and effective management of radioactive waste in the Slovak Republic are presented. (authors)

HORVATH, Jan; KRASNY, Dusan [JAVYS, PLc. - Nuclear and Decommisioning Company, PLc. (Slovakia)

2007-07-01

75

WASTE TREATMENT BUILDING VENTILATION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Waste Treatment Building Ventilation System provides heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) for the contaminated, potentially contaminated, and uncontaminated areas of the Monitored Geologic Repository's (MGR) Waste Treatment Building (WTB). In the uncontaminated areas, the non-confinement area ventilation system maintains the proper environmental conditions for equipment operation and personnel comfort. In the contaminated and potentially contaminated areas, in addition

P. A. Kumar

2000-01-01

76

WASTE DESCRIPTION TYPE OF PROJECT POUNDS REDUCED,  

E-print Network

of sanitary wastewater. Approximately $2,000 in disposal costs are avoided annually. Tritium Exit Signs Source to the manufacturer . Replaced with energy efficient light emitting diode (LED) signs. Project reduced risk of tritium disposal costs of approximately $4,640. Photographic waste from X- ray film processor Source Reduction 765

77

Safety Evaluation for Hull Waste Treatment Process in JNC  

SciTech Connect

Hull wastes and some scrapped equipment are typical radioactive wastes generated from reprocessing process in Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP). Because hulls are the wastes remained in the fuel shearing and dissolution, they contain high radioactivity. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has started the project of Hull Waste Treatment Facility (HWTF) to treat these solid wastes using compaction and incineration methods since 1993. It is said that Zircaloy fines generated from compaction process might burn and explode intensely. Therefore explosive conditions of the fines generated in compaction process were measured. As these results, it was concluded that the fines generated from the compaction process were not hazardous material. This paper describes the outline of the treatment process of hulls and results of safety evaluation.

Kojima, H.; Kurakata, K.

2002-02-26

78

40 CFR 266.235 - What waste treatment does the storage and treatment conditional exemption allow?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false What waste treatment does the storage and treatment conditional exemption allow...Conditional Exemption for Low-Level Mixed Waste Storage, Treatment, Transportation and Disposal...235 What waste treatment does the storage and treatment conditional exemption...

2010-07-01

79

Ecotoxicological screen of Potential Release Site 50-006(d) of Operable Unit 1147 of Mortandad Canyon and relationship to the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facilities project  

SciTech Connect

Potential ecological risk associated with soil contaminants in Potential Release Site (PRS) 50-006(d) of Mortandad Canyon at the Los Alamos National Laboratory was assessed by performing an ecotoxicological risk screen. The PRS surrounds Outfall 051, which discharges treated effluent from the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility. Discharge at the outfall is permitted under the Clean Water Act National Pollution Discharge Elimination System. Radionuclide discharge is regulated by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.5. Ecotoxicological Screening Action Levels (ESALSs) were computed for nonradionuclide constituents in the soil, and human risk SALs for radionuclides were used as ESALs. Within the PRS and beginning at Outfall 051, soil was sampled at three points along each of nine linear transects at 100-ft intervals. Soil samples from 3 depths for each sampling point were analyzed for the concentration of a total of 121 constituents. Only the results of the surface sampling are reported in this report.

Gonzales, G.J.; Newell, P.G.

1996-04-01

80

Experiences with treatment of mixed waste  

SciTech Connect

During its many years of research activities involving toxic chemicals and radioactive materials, Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) has generated considerable amounts of waste. Much of this waste includes chemically hazardous components and radioisotopes. Los Alamos chose to use an electrochemical process for the treatment of many mixed waste components. The electro-chemical process, which the authors are developing, can treat a great variety of waste using one type of equipment built at a moderate expense. Such a process can extract heavy metals, destroy cyanides, dissolve contamination from surfaces, oxidize toxic organic compounds, separate salts into acids and bases, and reduce the nitrates. All this can be accomplished using the equipment and one crew of trained operating personnel. Results of a treatability study of chosen mixed wastes from Los Alamos Mixed Waste Inventory are presented. Using electrochemical methods cyanide and heavy metals bearing wastes were treated to below disposal limits.

Dziewinski, J.; Marczak, S.; Smith, W.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Nuttall, E. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Dept.

1996-04-10

81

Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project interim acceptance specifications for Defense Waste Processing Facility and West Valley Demonstration Project waste forms and canisterized waste  

SciTech Connect

The waste acceptance specifications presented in this document represent the first stage of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project effort to establish specifications for the acceptance of waste forms for disposal at a nuclear waste repository in Yucca Mountain tuff. The only waste forms that will be dealt with in this document are the reprocessed waste forms resulting from solidification of the Savannah River Plant defense high level waste and the West Valley high level wastes. Specifications for acceptance of spent fuel will be covered in a separate document.

Oversby, V.M.

1984-08-01

82

TWTF design alternates. [Transuranic Waste Treatment Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Transuranic Waste Treatment Facility (TWTF) will process transuranic (TRU) waste in retrievable storage at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The costs for a TWTF concept using a slagging pyrolysis incinerator were excessive. Alternate concepts using a slow speed shredder, a rotary kiln incinerator, and concrete immobilization should result in significant cost reductions. These will be included in future TWTF considerations.

Ayers, A.L. Sr.

1982-03-01

83

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT WASTE WATER TREATMENT MODIFICATIONS  

E-print Network

.4 Land Use, Demography, and Environmental Justice..........................................39 5ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR WASTE WATER TREATMENT MODIFICATIONS FOR IMPROVED EFFLUENT COMPLIANCE ................................................. 22 5.0 AFFECTED ENVIRONMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS..................................22 5.1 Site

Ohta, Shigemi

84

Remote-Handled Low Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

David Duncan

2010-10-01

85

Hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation research  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is currently evaluating hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation technologies in existence and under development to determine applicability to remediation needs of the DOE facilities under the Albuquerque Operations Office and to determine areas of research need. To assist LANL is this effort, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) conducted an assessment of technologies and monitoring methods that have been demonstrated or are under development. The focus of this assessment is to: (1) identify existing technologies for hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation of old waste sites; (2) identify technologies under development and the status of the technology; (3) assess new technologies that need development to provide adequate hazardous waste treatment and remedial action technologies for DOD and DOE sites; and (4) identify hazardous waste and remediation problems for environmental research and development. There are currently numerous research and development activities underway nationwide relating to environmental contaminants and the remediation of waste sites. To perform this effort, SAIC evaluated current technologies and monitoring methods development programs in EPA, DOD, and DOE, as these are the primary agencies through which developmental methods are being demonstrated. This report presents this evaluation and provides recommendations as to pertinent research needs or activities to address waste site contamination problems. The review and assessment have been conducted at a programmatic level; site-specific and contaminant-specific evaluations are being performed by LANL staff as a separate, related activity.

Not Available

1989-09-29

86

HISPANIC ENVIRONMENTAL AND WASTE MANAGEMENT OUTREACH PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) in cooperation with the Self Reliance Foundation (SRF) is conducting the Hispanic Environmental and Waste Management Outreach Project (HEWMO) to increase science and environmental literacy, specifically that related to nuclear engineering and waste management in the nuclear industry, among the US Hispanic population. The project will encourage Hispanic youth and young adults to pursue careers through the regular presentation of Spanish-speaking scientists and engineers and other role models, as well as career information on nationally broadcast radio programs reaching youth and parents. This project will encourage making science, mathematics, and technology a conscious part of the everyday life experiences of Hispanic youth and families. The SRF in collaboration with the Hispanic Radio Network (HRN) produces and broadcasts radio programs to address the topics and meet the objectives as outlined in the Environmental Literacy Plan and DOE-EM Communications Plan in this document. The SRF has in place a toll-free ''800'' number Information and Resource Referral (I and RR) service that national radio program listeners can call to obtain information and resource referrals as well as give their reactions to the radio programs that will air. HRN uses this feature to put listeners in touch with local organizations and resources that can provide them with further information and assistance on the related program topics.

Sebastian Puente

1998-07-25

87

Membrane bioreactor for waste gas treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryThis thesis describes the design and testing of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) for removal of organic pollutants from air. In such a bioreactor for biological gas treatment pollutants are degraded by micro-organisms. The membrane bioreactor is an alternative to other types of bioreactors for waste gas treatment, such as compost biofilters and bioscrubbers. Propene was used as a model pollutant

M. W. Reij

1997-01-01

88

River Protection Project (RPP) Dangerous Waste Training Plan  

SciTech Connect

This supporting document contains the training plan for dangerous waste management at River Protection Project TSD Units. This document outlines the dangerous waste training program developed and implemented for all Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) Units operated by River Protection Project (RPP) in the Hanford 200 East, 200 West and 600 Areas and the <90 Day Accumulation Area at 209E. Operating TSD Units managed by RPP are: the Double-Shell Tank (DST) System, 204-AR Waste Unloading Facility, Grout, and the Single-Shell Tank (SST) System. The program is designed in compliance with the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-330 and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 265.16 for the development of a written dangerous waste training program and the Hanford Facility Permit. Training requirements were determined by an assessment of employee duties and responsibilities. The RPP training program is designed to prepare employees to operate and maintain the Tank Farms in a safe, effective, efficient, and environmentally sound manner. In addition to preparing employees to operate and maintain the Tank Farms under normal conditions, the training program ensures that employees are prepared to respond in a prompt and effective manner should abnormal or emergency conditions occur. Emergency response training is consistent with emergency responses outlined in the following Building Emergency Plans: HNF-IP-0263-TF and HNF-=IP-0263-209E.

POHTO, R.E.

2000-03-09

89

Tank waste remediation system characterization project quality policies. Revision 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These Quality Policies (QPs) describe the Quality Management System of the Tank Waste Characterization Project, Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS), Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The Quality Policies and quality requirements described herein are bi...

D. J. Trimble

1995-01-01

90

Considerations relating to mixed waste treatment technologies  

SciTech Connect

In order to select the most appropriate mixed waste treatment technology, many factors need to be evaluated. Depending upon individual circumstances, different factors will carry greater weight. Some of these factors must be addressed early on in the selection process. Various factors may also be used as screening criteria thus streamlining the selection process. New and innovative technologies should also be addressing key, critical factors during the conceptual development phase in order to guide efforts through the construction of production units. This will aid in the development of technologies which are attractive for technology transfer. This paper discusses considerations relating to the selection of mixed waste treatment technologies. Covered by this paper are applicability, cost, availability/maturity, capacity, safety/reliability, secondary waste generation, liability, regulatory considerations, treatment requirements, and public interactions. Basing selection processes on these factors will help assure that all technologies are evaluated fairly and that the appropriate waste treatment technology is selected for a given situation. Suggestions for selection processes are also covered as well as other important information required for selecting a mixed waste treatment technology.

Reader, G.E.

1995-03-01

91

Offgas treatment for radioactive waste incinerators  

SciTech Connect

Incineration of radioactive materials for resource recovery or waste volume reduction is recognized as an effective waste treatment method that will increase in usage and importance throughout the nuclear industry. The offgas cleanup subsystem of an incineration process is essential to ensure radionuclide containment and protection of the environment. Several incineration processes and associated offgas cleanup systems are discussed along with potential application of commercial pollution control components to radioactive service. Problems common to radioactive waste incinerator offgas service are identified and areas of needed research and development effort are noted.

Stretz, L.A.; Koenig, R.A.

1980-01-01

92

Hazardous waste treatment facility and skid-mounted treatment systems at Los Alamos  

SciTech Connect

To centralize treatment, storage, and staging areas for hazardous wastes, Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed a 12,000-ft{sup 2} hazardous waste treatment facility. The facility will house a treatment room for each of four kinds of wastes: nonradioactive characteristic wastes, nonradioactive listed wastes radioactive characteristic wastes, and radioactive listed wastes. The facility will be used for repacking labpacks, bulking small organic waste volumes, processing scintillation vials, treating reactives such as lithium hydride and pyrophoric uranium, treating contaminated solids such as barium sand, and treating plating wastes. The treated wastes will then be appropriately disposed of. This report describes the integral features of the hazardous waste treatment facility.

Lussiez, G.W.; Zygmunt, S.J.

1993-05-01

93

Integrated Waste Treatment Unit GFSI Risk Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

This GFSI Risk Management Plan (RMP) describes the strategy for assessing and managing project risks for the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) that are specifically within the control and purview of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and identifies the risks that formed the basis for the DOE contingency included in the performance baseline. DOE-held contingency is required to cover cost and schedule impacts of DOE activities. Prior to approval of the performance baseline (Critical Decision-2) project cost contingency was evaluated during a joint meeting of the Contractor Management Team and the Integrated Project Team for both contractor and DOE risks to schedule and cost. At that time, the contractor cost and schedule risk value was $41.3M and the DOE cost and schedule risk contingency value is $39.0M. The contractor cost and schedule risk value of $41.3M was retained in the performance baseline as the contractor's management reserve for risk contingency. The DOE cost and schedule risk value of $39.0M has been retained in the performance baseline as the DOE Contingency. The performance baseline for the project was approved in December 2006 (Garman 2006). The project will continue to manage to the performance baseline and change control thresholds identified in PLN-1963, ''Idaho Cleanup Project Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Project Execution Plan'' (PEP).

W. A. Owca

2007-06-21

94

WASTE TREATMENT BUILDING VENTILATION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Treatment Building Ventilation System provides heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) for the contaminated, potentially contaminated, and uncontaminated areas of the Monitored Geologic Repository's (MGR) Waste Treatment Building (WTB). In the uncontaminated areas, the non-confinement area ventilation system maintains the proper environmental conditions for equipment operation and personnel comfort. In the contaminated and potentially contaminated areas, in addition to maintaining the proper environmental conditions for personnel comfort and equipment operation, the contamination confinement area ventilation system directs potentially contaminated air away from personnel in the WTB and confines the contamination within high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration units. The contamination confinement area ventilation system creates airflow paths and pressure zones to minimize the potential for spreading contamination with the building. The contamination confinement ventilation system also protects the environment and the public by limiting airborne releases of radioactive or other hazardous contaminants from the WTB. The Waste Treatment Building Ventilation System confines the radioactive and hazardous material within the building such that the release rates comply with regulatory limits, The system design, operations, and maintenance activities incorporate ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) principles to maintain personnel radiation doses to all occupational workers below regulatory limits and as low as is reasonably achievable. The system provides status of important system parameters and equipment operation, and provides audible and/or visual indication of off-normal conditions and equipment failures. The Waste Treatment Building Ventilation System interfaces with the Waste Treatment Building System by being located in the WTB, and by maintaining specific pressure, temperature, and humidity environments within the building. The system also depends on the WTB for normal electric power supply and the required supply of water for heating, cooling, and humidification. Interface with the Waste Treatment Building System includes the WTB fire protection subsystem for detection of fire and smoke. The Waste Treatment Building Ventilation System interfaces with the Site Radiological Monitoring System for continuous monitoring of the exhaust air and key areas within the WTB, the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System for monitoring and control of system operations, and the Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System and Site Generated Hazardous, Non-Hazardous & Sanitary Waste Disposal System for routing of pretreated toxic, corrosive, and radiologically contaminated effluent from process equipment to the HEPA filter exhaust ductwork and air-cleaning unit.

P.A. Kumar

2000-06-22

95

Parameter identification in dynamical models of anaerobic waste water treatment  

E-print Network

Parameter identification in dynamical models of anaerobic waste water treatment T.G. Muuller a,*, N how to solve them, we analyze two different second order models for anaerobic waste water treatment identifiability; Confidence intervals; Waste water treatment processes 1. Introduction Anaerobic waste water

Timmer, Jens

96

Fire Regimes and Fuel Treatments Project title  

E-print Network

Fire Regimes and Fuel Treatments Project title: Fire Regimes and Fuel Treatments Project location: Colorado State University, Western Forest Fire Research Center (WESTFIRE) Principal Investigator(s): Philip: This project assesses the effects of 20th Century fire exclusion on fire frequency and fuel hazard, as well

97

Transuranic waste projections at SRS for long range planning  

SciTech Connect

This report predicts 30 year receipts of solid transuranic (TRU) wastes from eventual plutonium facility deactivation and cleanup, and combines them with the existing TRU waste holdings to provide a technical and quantitative basis for interim and long range TRU waste management planning. The current TRU waste holdings have been characterized based on data from the Computerized Radioactive Waste Burial Records Analysis (COBRA) system. Six TRU waste disposition categories have been identified for existing TRU waste as shown in Table 1. An additional category has been quantified that includes projected waste volumes from the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) of TRU waste generating facilities. These projections are based on COBRA data from D&D of the original plutonium finishing facilities in F and H Areas that were replaced in the 1970`s and 80`s.

Hootman, H.E.; Cook, J.R.

1994-05-01

98

Medical waste treatment and decontamination system  

DOEpatents

The invention discloses a tandem microwave system consisting of a primary chamber in which hybrid microwave energy is used for the controlled combustion of materials. A second chamber is used to further treat the off-gases from the primary chamber by passage through a susceptor matrix subjected to additional hybrid microwave energy. The direct microwave radiation and elevated temperatures provide for significant reductions in the qualitative and quantitative emissions of the treated off gases. The tandem microwave system can be utilized for disinfecting wastes, sterilizing materials, and/or modifying the form of wastes to solidify organic or inorganic materials. The simple design allows on-site treatment of waste by small volume waste generators.

Wicks, George G. (Aiken, SC); Schulz, Rebecca L. (Aiken, SC); Clark, David E. (Gainesville, FL)

2001-01-01

99

Treatment of Radioactive Reactive Mixed Waste  

SciTech Connect

PacificEcoSolutions, Inc. (PEcoS) has installed a plasma gasification system that was recently modified and used to destroy a trimethyl-aluminum mixed waste stream from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL.) The unique challenge in handling reactive wastes like trimethyl-aluminum is their propensity to flame instantly on contact with air and to react violently with water. To safely address this issue, PacificEcoSolutions has developed a new feed system to ensure the safe containment of these radioactive reactive wastes during transfer to the gasification unit. The plasma gasification system safely processed the radioactively contaminated trimethyl-metal compounds into metal oxides. The waste stream came from LANL research operations, and had been in storage for seven years, pending treatment options. (authors)

Colby, S.; Turner, Z.; Utley, D. [Pacific EcoSolutions, Inc., 2025 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Duy, C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory - LA-UR-05-8410, Post Office Box 1663 MS J595, Los Alamos, New Mexico 97545 (United States)

2006-07-01

100

Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) has been prepared for waste characterization activities to be conducted by the Transuranic (TRU) Project at the Hanford Site to meet requirements set forth in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, 4890139088-TSDF, Attachment B, including Attachments B1 through B6 (WAP) (DOE, 1999a). The QAPjP describes the waste characterization requirements and includes test methods, details of planned waste sampling and analysis, and a description of the waste characterization and verification process. In addition, the QAPjP includes a description of the quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) requirements for the waste characterization program. Before TRU waste is shipped to the WIPP site by the TRU Project, all applicable requirements of the QAPjP shall be implemented. Additional requirements necessary for transportation to waste disposal at WIPP can be found in the ''Quality Assurance Program Document'' (DOE 1999b) and HNF-2600, ''Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan.'' TRU mixed waste contains both TRU radioactive and hazardous components, as defined in the WLPP-WAP. The waste is designated and separately packaged as either contact-handled (CH) or remote-handled (RH), based on the radiological dose rate at the surface of the waste container. RH TRU wastes are not currently shipped to the WIPP facility.

GREAGER, T.M.

2000-12-06

101

TRAITEMENT DES EFFLUENTS WASTE TREATMENT  

E-print Network

residence time the production of biogas (7l-78 p. 100 CH,) was 237 1 per kg dry matter, i.e. 479 1 of CH to obtain the same amount of biogas four times quicklier. The treatment yield was improved (65 p. 100 COD). The mean production was 4931 biogas/kg degraded COD. It seems to be possible to apply that procedure

Boyer, Edmond

102

Waste treatment by selective mineral ion exchanger  

Microsoft Academic Search

STMI, subsidiary company of the AREVA Group with over 40 years in the D and D business, has been continuously innovating and developing new decontamination techniques, with the objectives of achieving more efficient decontaminations on a growing spectrum of media. In the field of liquid waste treatment, STMI manufactures uses and commercialises selective inorganic ion exchangers (RAN). These are hydrated

Polito; Aurelie

2007-01-01

103

Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan required each U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site that characterizes transuranic waste to be sent the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan that addresses applicable requirements specified in the quality assurance project plan (QAPP).

GREAGER, T.M.

1999-12-14

104

WASTE DESCRIPTION TYPE OF PROJECT POUNDS REDUCED,  

E-print Network

, thus avoiding radiological waste generation. Electronic recycling Recycling 140,600 E-waste N/A $2,300 N/A BNL e-waste was formerly collected by a scrap metal dealer, but the recycling process was questionable. The Laboraoty has now partnered with a government- based e-waste recycler and now pays shipping

105

Minimizing demolition wastes in Hong Kong public housing projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Being one of the major housing developers in Hong Kong, the Hong Kong Housing Authority (HA) carries out a large number of construction and demolition projects. As a result, a large amount of construction and demolition waste is produced. As for demolition projects, demolition wastes usually contain a large amount of reusable materials. If sorted out properly, these materials could

Chi Sun Poon; Ann Tit Wan Yu; Siu Ching See; Esther Cheung

2004-01-01

106

RETRIEVAL & TREATMENT OF HANFORD TANK WASTE  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Tank Farms contain 53 million gal of radioactive waste accumulated during over 50 years of operations. The waste is stored in 177 single-shell and double-shell tanks in the Hanford 200 Areas. The single-shell tanks were put into operation from the early 1940s through the 1960s with wastes received from several generations of processing facilities for the recovery of plutonium and uranium, and from laboratories and other ancillary facilities. The overall hanford Tank Farm system represents one of the largest nuclear legacies in the world driving towards completion of retrieval and treatment in 2028 and the associated closure activity completion by 2035. Remote operations, significant radiation/contamination levels, limited access, and old facilities are just some of the challenges faced by retrieval and treatment systems. These systems also need to be able to successfully remove 99% or more of the waste, and support waste treatment, and tank closure. The Tank Farm retrieval program has ramped up dramatically in the past three years with design, fabrication, installation, testing, and operations ongoing on over 20 of the 149 single-shell tanks. A variety of technologies are currently being pursued to retrieve different waste types, applications, and to help establish a baseline for recovery/operational efficiencies. The paper/presentation describes the current status of retrieval system design, fabrication, installation, testing, readiness, and operations, including: (1) Saltcake removal progress in Tanks S-102, S-109, and S-112 using saltcake dissolution, modified sluicing, and high pressure water lancing techniques; (2) Sludge vacuum retrieval experience from Tanks C-201, C-202, C-203, and C-204; (3) Modified sluicing experience in Tank C-103; (4) Progress on design and installation of the mobile retrieval system for sludge in potentially leaking single-shell tanks, particularly Tank C-101; and (5) Ongoing installation of various systems in the next generation of tanks to be retrieved.

EACKER, J.A.; SPEARS, J.A.; STURGES, M.H.; MAUSS, B.M.

2006-01-20

107

Treatment of waste by DC arc discharge plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of the disposal of hazardous wastes has become very important in recent years. Plasma treatment is being developed and tested for incinerator ash, low level radioactive wastes, industrial and biomedical wastes, etc. by industrial companies and municipalities world wide. In this paper, the principles are discussed and examples of waste treatment such as fly ash, asbestos, aluminum, municipal

T. Inaba; T. Iwao

2000-01-01

108

Physical/chemical treatment of mixed waste soils  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the results and findings of the demonstration testing of a physical/chemical treatment technology for mixed wastes. The principal objective of the tests was to demonstrate the capability of the low temperature thermal separation (LTTS) technology for rendering PCB-contaminated mixed waste soils as nonhazardous and acceptable for low level radioactive waste disposal. The demonstration testing of this technology was a jointly-conducted project by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Martin Marietta Energy Systems (Energy Systems) Waste Management Technology Center at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and IT Corporation. This pilot-scale demonstration program testing of IT's thermal separator technology in Oak Ridge was conducted as part of the DOE Model Program. This program has private industry, regulators, and universities helping to solve DOE waste management problems. Information gained from the DOE Model is shared with the participating organizations, other federal agencies, and regulatory agencies. The following represent the most significant findings from these demonstration tests: Thermal separation effectively separated PCB contamination from a mixed waste to enable the treated soil to be managed as low level radioactive waste. At the same operating conditions, mercury contamination of 0.8 ppM was reduced to less than 0.1 ppM. The majority of uranium and technetium in the waste feeds oil remained in the treated soil. Radionuclide concentration in cyclone solids is due to carry-over of entrained particles in the exit gas and not due to volatilization/condensation. Thermal separation also effectively treated all identified semi-volatile contaminants in the waste soil to below detection limits with the exception of di-n-butylphthalate in one of the two runs. 4 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

Morris, M.I. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Alperin, E.S.; Fox, R.D. (IT Corp., Knoxville, TN (USA))

1991-01-01

109

PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) 241-Z LIQUID WASTE TREATMENT FACILITY DEACTIVATION AND DEMOLITION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) is proud to submit the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) 241-Z liquid Waste Treatment Facility Deactivation and Demolition (D&D) Project for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2008. The decommissioning of the 241-Z Facility presented numerous challenges, many of which were unique with in the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. The

JOHNSTON GA

2008-01-01

110

Basalt Waste Isolation Project Reclamation Support Project:. 1991--1992 Report  

SciTech Connect

The Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) Reclamation Support Project began in the spring of 1988 by categorizing sites distributed during operations of the BWIP into those requiring revegetation and those to be abandoned or transferred to other programs. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s role in this project was to develop plans for reestablishing native vegetation on the first category of sites, to monitor the implementation of these plans, to evaluate the effectiveness of these efforts, and to identify remediation methods where necessary. The Reclamation Support Project focused on three major areas: geologic hydrologic boreholes, the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF), and the Near-Surface Test Facility (NSTF). A number of BWIP reclamation sites seeded between 1989 and 1990 were found to be far below reclamation objectives. These sites were remediated in 1991 using various seedbed treatments designed to rectify problems with water-holding capacity, herbicide activity, surficial crust formation, and nutrient imbalances. Remediation was conducted during November and early December 1991. Sites were examined on a monthly basis thereafter to evaluate plant growth responses to these treatments. At all remediation sites early plant growth responses to these treatments. At all remediation sites, early plant growth far exceeded any previously obtained using other methods and seedbed treatments. Seeded plants did best where amendments consisted of soil-plus-compost or fertilizer-only. Vegetation growth on Gable Mountain was less than that found on other areas nearby, but this difference is attributed primarily to the site`s altitude and north-facing orientation.

Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Cadoret, N.A.

1992-06-01

111

Nuclear Waste Treatment Program: Annual report for FY 1986  

SciTech Connect

To support DOE's attainment of its goals, Nuclear Waste Treatment Program (NWTP) is to provide technology necessary for the design and operation of nuclear waste treatment facilities by commercial enterprises as part of a licensed waste management system and problem-specific treatment approaches, waste form and treatment process adaptations, equipment designs, and trouble-shooting. This annual report describes progress during FY 1986 toward meeting these two objectives. 29 refs., 59 figs., 25 tabs.

Burkholder, H.C.; Brouns, R.A. (comps.); Powell, J.A. (ed.)

1987-09-01

112

Commercial waste treatment program annual progress report for FY 1983  

SciTech Connect

This annual report describes progress during FY 1983 relating to technologies under development by the Commercial Waste Treatment Program, including: development of glass waste form and vitrification equipment for high-level wastes (HLW); waste form development and process selection for transuranic (TRU) wastes; pilot-scale operation of a radioactive liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) system for verifying the reliability of the reference HLW treatment proces technology; evaluation of treatment requirements for spent fuel as a waste form; second-generation waste form development for HLW; and vitrification process control and product quality assurance technologies.

McElroy, J.L.; Burkholder, H.C. (comps.)

1984-02-01

113

Biodegradation of hazardous waste using white rot fungus: Project planning and concept development document  

SciTech Connect

The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been shown to effectively degrade pollutants such as trichlorophenol, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and other halogenated aromatic compounds. These refractory organic compounds and many others have been identified in the tank waste, groundwater and soil of various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The treatment of these refractory organic compounds has been identified as a high priority for DOE's Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT E) waste treatment programs. Unlike many bacteria, the white rot fungus P. chrysosporium is capable of degrading these types of refractory organics and may be valuable for the treatment of wastes containing multiple pollutants. The objectives of this project are to identify DOE waste problems amenable to white rot fungus treatment and to develop and demonstrate white rot fungus treatment process for these hazardous organic compounds. 32 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

Luey, J.; Brouns, T.M.; Elliott, M.L.

1990-11-01

114

WASTE DESCRIPTION TYPE OF PROJECT POUNDS REDUCED,  

E-print Network

generation. Electronic Recycling Recycling 140,600 E-Waste N/A $1,200 N/A Previously the Laboratory's e-waste with a governmental based e-waste recycler that take the product for free, but the Lab pays shipping. Disposal of #6

115

Project Plan for the evaluation of REDC waste for TRU-waste radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

This project plan describes the plan to determine whether the solid radioactive wastes generated by the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) meet the Department of Energy`s definition of transuranic wastes. Existing waste characterization methods will be evaluated, as well as historical data, and recommendations will be made as necessary.

Nguyen, L.; Yong, L.; Chapman, J. [and others

1996-09-01

116

Minutes of Southern Region Animal Waste Team: Southern Regional Water Quality Project Animal Waste Management Topic  

E-print Network

Minutes of Southern Region Animal Waste Team: Southern Regional Water Quality Project Animal Waste with the Symposium on the State of the Science: Animal Manure and Waste Management Attended by: M. Risse (UGA), T) Introduction, review of past minutes Discussion of Southern Region Extension Water Quality Conference, October

117

Energy requirements for waste water treatment.  

PubMed

The actual mathematical models describing global climate closely link the detected increase in global temperature to anthropogenic activity. The only energy source we can rely on in a long perspective is solar irradiation which is in the order of 10,000 kW/inhabitant. The actual primary power consumption (mainly based on fossil resources) in the developed countries is in the range of 5 to 10 kW/inhabitant. The total power contained in our nutrition is in the range of 0.11 kW/inhabitant. The organic pollution of domestic waste water corresponds to approximately 0.018 kW/inhabitant. The nutrients contained in the waste water can also be converted into energy equivalents replacing market fertiliser production. This energy equivalent is in the range of 0.009 kW/inhabitant. Hence waste water will never be a relevant source of energy as long as our primary energy consumption is in the range of several kW/inhabitant. The annual mean primary power demand of conventional municipal waste water treatment with nutrient removal is in the range of 0.003-0.015 kW/inhabitant. In principle it is already possible to reduce this value for external energy supply to zero. Such plants should be connected to an electrical grid in order to keep investment costs low. Peak energy demand will be supported from the grid and surplus electric energy from the plant can be is fed to the grid. Zero 'carbon footprint' will not be affected by this solution. Energy minimisation must never negatively affect treatment efficiency because water quality conservation is more important for sustainable development than the possible reduction in energy demand. This argument is strongly supported by economical considerations as the fixed costs for waste water infrastructure are dominant. PMID:22214091

Svardal, K; Kroiss, H

2011-01-01

118

Biochemical treatment technologies for gas industry wastes  

SciTech Connect

Sequential chemical and biological amendments as well as sequential biological processes (e.g. anaerobic-aerobic) may have potential in reducing pollutants present in Gas Industry wastes. Several Town Gas soils have been characterized regarding Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) levels and soil particle distributions prior to and following biological treatment. Multivariate statistical analyses have revealed that the presence of biodegradable PAHs such as naphthalene in a sand matrix have significant influence on the effectiveness of biological treatment schemes. Integrated chemical-biological treatment processes have been devised that are effective in achieving extensive PAH degradation, even in soils that are dominated by persistent and normally recalcitrant PAHs. Other research is addressing gas industry wastes contaminated with PCBs. Anaerobic dechlorination has been demonstrated for PCBs present in Aroclor 1242. Sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment is being evaluated for PCB-laden gas condensate waters and contaminated soils. A focused effort is being directed at testing some of these technologies during field experimentation. A Town Gas soil is being subjected to such a field test this summer using conventional land treatment technology. 2 refs., 8 figs.

Gauger, W.K.; Kelley, R.L.; Srivastava, V.J.

1991-01-01

119

Waste to energy applications in the Wisconsin canning industry: Economic and environmental evaluation of anaerobic treatment of vegetable processing wastewaters using a fixed film reactor: Project report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to investigate the economic and environmental consequences of anaerobic wastewater treatment applied to a vegetable canning plant owned by Our Best Foods, Inc., Pulaski, Wisconsin. A pilot scale, upflow fixed film anaerobic reactor was utilized to determine pollutant removal efficiency, operational parameters, and basis of design of conceptual full scale conceptual full scale systems. Hydraulic retention

C. R. Stack; E. L. Stover

1987-01-01

120

Waste management for Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project: Extended summary  

SciTech Connect

The Shippingport Station (SSDP) is demonstrating that the techniques and methodologies of waste management, which are currently employed by the nuclear industry, provide adequate management and control of waste activities for the decommissioning of a large scale nuclear plant. The SSDP has some unique aspects in that as part of the objective to promote technology transfer, multiple subcontractors are being utilized in the project. The interfaces resulting from multiple subcontractors require additional controls. Effective control has been accomplished by the use of a process control and inventory system, coupled with personnel training in waste management activities. This report summarizes the waste management plan and provides a status of waste management activities for SSDP.

Mullee, G.R.; Schulmeister, A.R.

1987-01-01

121

Hanford tank waste operation simulator operational waste volume projection verification and validation procedure  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Tank Waste Operation Simulator is tested to determine if it can replace the FORTRAN-based Operational Waste Volume Projection computer simulation that has traditionally served to project double-shell tank utilization. Three Test Cases are used to compare the results of the two simulators; one incorporates the cleanup schedule of the Tri Party Agreement.

HARMSEN, R.W.

1999-10-28

122

Waste handling and packaging plant project description  

SciTech Connect

ORNL currently has about 300 m{sup 3} of remote handled transuranic (RHTRU) solid waste retrievably stored in trenches and a bunker. This material will be processed through the Waste Handling and Packaging Plant (WHDP) for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Details of siting, construction, and conceptual flow of RHTRU waste through the plant are provided. ORNL also has liquid waste and sludge stored in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST). The sludge also contains TRU waste, and the WHPP will process an expected volume of 500,000 gallons of a suernatant/sludge slurry for shipment to the WIPP. Specific systems which require more development include the cask transfer system, the linear accelerator-based nondestructive assay and nondestructive evaluation equipment. (MHB)

Turner, D.W.; Moore, J.W.; Conatser, D.A.

1991-01-01

123

Preliminary analysis of treatment strategies for transuranic wastes from reprocessing plants  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a comparison of six treatment options for transuranic wastes (TRUW) resulting from the reprocessing of commercial spent fuel. Projected transuranic waste streams from the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP), the reference fuel reprocessing plant in this report, were grouped into the five categories of hulls and hardware, failed equipment, filters, fluorinator solids, and general process trash (GPT) and sample and analytical cell (SAC) wastes. Six potential treatment options were selected for the five categories of waste. These options represent six basic treatment objectives: (1) no treatment, (2) minimum treatment (compaction), (3) minimum number of processes and products (cementing or grouting), (4) maximum volume reduction without decontamination (melting, incinerating, hot pressing), (5) maximum volume reduction with decontamination (decontamination, treatment of residues), and (6) noncombustible waste forms (melting, incinerating, cementing). Schemes for treatment of each waste type were selected and developed for each treatment option and each type of waste. From these schemes, transuranic waste volumes were found to vary from 1 m/sup 3//MTU for no treatment to as low as 0.02 m/sup 3//MTU. Based on conceptual design requirements, life-cycle costs were estimated for treatment plus on-site storage, transportation, and disposal of both high-level and transuranic wastes (and incremental low-level wastes) from 70,000 MTU. The study concludes that extensive treatment is warranted from both cost and waste form characteristics considerations, and that the characteristics of most of the processing systems used are acceptable. The study recommends that additional combinations of treatment methods or strategies be evaluated and that in the interim, melting, incineration, and cementing be further developed for commercial TRUW. 45 refs., 9 figs., 32 tabs.

Ross, W.A.; Schneider, K.J.; Swanson, J.L.; Yasutake, K.M.; Allen, R.P.

1985-07-01

124

National Institutes of Health: Mixed waste minimization and treatment  

SciTech Connect

The Appalachian States Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission requested the US Department of Energy`s National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) to assist the biomedical community in becoming more knowledgeable about its mixed waste streams, to help minimize the mixed waste stream generated by the biomedical community, and to identify applicable treatment technologies for these mixed waste streams. As the first step in the waste minimization process, liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste (LLMW) streams generated at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) were characterized and combined into similar process categories. This report identifies possible waste minimization and treatment approaches for the LLMW generated by the biomedical community identified in DOE/LLW-208. In development of the report, on site meetings were conducted with NIH personnel responsible for generating each category of waste identified as lacking disposal options. Based on the meetings and general waste minimization guidelines, potential waste minimization options were identified.

NONE

1995-08-01

125

Tank Waste Treatment Science Task quarterly report for October--December 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Pretreatment Technology Development Project is one of seven Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) projects being conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). A key objective of this project, which includes the Tank Waste Treatment Science Task, is to provide the technical basis and scientific understanding to support TWRS baseline decisions and actions, in particular, the 1998 sludge pretreatment decision regarding the level of pretreatment to be incorporated into the tank waste process flowsheets being developed by Westinghouse Hanford Company. This report details work performed by the Tank Waste Treatment Science Task during the first quarter of FY 1995 (October--December 1994) in support of the project objective. Specific activities discussed in the main text are: analytical methods development; sludge dissolution modeling; sludge characterization studies; sludge component speciation; pretreatment chemistry evaluation; and colloidal studies for solid-liquid separations.

LaFemina, J.P.; Anderson, G.S.; Blanchard, D.L. [and others

1995-01-01

126

Molten salt treatment to minimize and optimize waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination molten salt oxidizer (MSO) and molten salt reactor (MSR) is described for treatment of waste. The MSO is proposed for contained oxidization of organic hazardous waste, for reduction of mass and volume of dilute waste by evaporation of the water. The NTSO residue is to be treated to optimize the waste in terms of its composition, chemical form,

U. Gat; S. M. Crosley; R. L. Gay

1993-01-01

127

Combustible radioactive waste treatment by incineration and chemical digestion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present and planned combustible radioactive waste treatment systems in the U.S. are reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of various systems are considered. Design waste streams are discussed in relation to waste composition, radioactive contaminants by amount and type, and special operating problems caused by the waste.

Stretz, L. A.; Allen, C. R.; Crippen, M. D.

1980-05-01

128

Combustible radioactive waste treatment by incineration and chemical digestion  

SciTech Connect

A review is given of present and planned combustible radioactive waste treatment systems in the US. Advantages and disadvantages of various systems are considered. Design waste streams are discussed in relation to waste composition, radioactive contaminants by amount and type, and special operating problems caused by the waste.

Stretz, L.A.; Crippen, M.D.; Allen, C.R.

1980-05-28

129

Reference waste forms and packing material for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project  

SciTech Connect

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, Calif., has been given the task of designing and verifying the performance of waste packages for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. NNWSI is studying the suitability of the tuffaceous rocks at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site, for the potential construction of a high-level nuclear waste repository. This report gives a summary description of the three waste forms for which LLNL is designing waste packages: spent fuel, either as intact assemblies or as consolidated fuel pins, reprocessed commercial high-level waste in the form of borosilicate glass, and reprocessed defense high-level waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility in Aiken, S.C. Reference packing material for use with the alternative waste package design for spent fuel is also described. 14 references, 8 figures, 20 tables.

Oversby, V.M.

1984-03-30

130

Disposal of water treatment wastes containing arsenic — A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid waste management in developing countries is often unsustainable, relying on uncontrolled disposal in waste dumps. Particular problems arise from the disposal of treatment residues generated by removing arsenic (As) from drinking water because As can be highly mobile and has the potential to leach back to ground and surface waters. This paper reviews the disposal of water treatment wastes

Colin Sullivan; Mark Tyrer; Christopher R. Cheeseman; Nigel J. D. Graham

2010-01-01

131

Waste management system alternatives for treatment of wastes from spent fuel reprocessing  

SciTech Connect

This study was performed to help identify a preferred TRU waste treatment alternative for reprocessing wastes with respect to waste form performance in a geologic repository, near-term waste management system risks, and minimum waste management system costs. The results were intended for use in developing TRU waste acceptance requirements that may be needed to meet regulatory requirements for disposal of TRU wastes in a geologic repository. The waste management system components included in this analysis are waste treatment and packaging, transportation, and disposal. The major features of the TRU waste treatment alternatives examined here include: (1) packaging (as-produced) without treatment (PWOT); (2) compaction of hulls and other compactable wastes; (3) incineration of combustibles with cementation of the ash plus compaction of hulls and filters; (4) melting of hulls and failed equipment plus incineration of combustibles with vitrification of the ash along with the HLW; (5a) decontamination of hulls and failed equipment to produce LLW plus incineration and incorporation of ash and other inert wastes into HLW glass; and (5b) variation of this fifth treatment alternative in which the incineration ash is incorporated into a separate TRU waste glass. The six alternative processing system concepts provide progressively increasing levels of TRU waste consolidation and TRU waste form integrity. Vitrification of HLW and intermediate-level liquid wastes (ILLW) was assumed in all cases.

McKee, R.W.; Swanson, J.L.; Daling, P.M.; Clark, L.L.; Craig, R.A.; Nesbitt, J.F.; McCarthy, D.; Franklin, A.L.; Hazelton, R.F.; Lundgren, R.A.

1986-09-01

132

The Hybrid Treatment Process for mixed radioactive and hazardous waste treatment  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a new process for treating mixed hazardous and radioactive waste, commonly called mixed waste. The process is called the Hybrid Treatment Process (HTP), so named because it is built on the 20 years of experience with vitrification of wastes in melters, and the 12 years of experience with treatment of wastes by the in situ vitrification (ISV) process. It also uses techniques from several additional technologies. Mixed wastes are being generated by both the US Department of Energy (DOE) and by commercial sources. The wastes are those that contain both a hazardous waste regulated under the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Resource, Conservation, and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations and a radioactive waste with source, special nuclear, or byproduct materials. The dual regulation of the wastes increases the complexity of the treatment, handling, and storage of the waste. The DOE is the largest holder and generator of mixed waste. Its mixed wastes are classified as either high-level, transuranic (TRU), or low-level waste (LLW). High-level mixed wastes will be treated in vitrification plants. Transuranic wastes may be disposed of without treatment by obtaining a no-migration variance from the EPA. Lowlevel wastes, however, will require treatment, but treatment systems with sufficient capacity are not yet available to DOE. Various facilities are being proposed for the treatment of low-level waste. The concept described in this paper represents one option for establishing that treatment capacity.

Ross, W.A.; Kindle, C.H.

1992-06-01

133

The Hybrid Treatment Process for mixed radioactive and hazardous waste treatment  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a new process for treating mixed hazardous and radioactive waste, commonly called mixed waste. The process is called the Hybrid Treatment Process (HTP), so named because it is built on the 20 years of experience with vitrification of wastes in melters, and the 12 years of experience with treatment of wastes by the in situ vitrification (ISV) process. It also uses techniques from several additional technologies. Mixed wastes are being generated by both the US Department of Energy (DOE) and by commercial sources. The wastes are those that contain both a hazardous waste regulated under the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Resource, Conservation, and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations and a radioactive waste with source, special nuclear, or byproduct materials. The dual regulation of the wastes increases the complexity of the treatment, handling, and storage of the waste. The DOE is the largest holder and generator of mixed waste. Its mixed wastes are classified as either high-level, transuranic (TRU), or low-level waste (LLW). High-level mixed wastes will be treated in vitrification plants. Transuranic wastes may be disposed of without treatment by obtaining a no-migration variance from the EPA. Lowlevel wastes, however, will require treatment, but treatment systems with sufficient capacity are not yet available to DOE. Various facilities are being proposed for the treatment of low-level waste. The concept described in this paper represents one option for establishing that treatment capacity.

Ross, W.A.; Kindle, C.H.

1992-06-01

134

Analysis of waste treatment requirements for DOE mixed wastes: Technical basis  

SciTech Connect

The risks and costs of managing DOE wastes are a direct function of the total quantities of 3wastes that are handled at each step of the management process. As part of the analysis of the management of DOE low-level mixed wastes (LLMW), a reference scheme has been developed for the treatment of these wastes to meet EPA criteria. The treatment analysis in a limited form was also applied to one option for treatment of transuranic wastes. The treatment requirements in all cases analyzed are based on a reference flowsheet which provides high level treatment trains for all LLMW. This report explains the background and basis for that treatment scheme. Reference waste stream chemical compositions and physical properties including densities were established for each stream in the data base. These compositions are used to define the expected behavior for wastes as they pass through the treatment train. Each EPA RCRA waste code was reviewed, the properties, chemical composition, or characteristics which are of importance to waste behavior in treatment were designated. Properties that dictate treatment requirements were then used to develop the treatment trains and identify the unit operations that would be included in these trains. A table was prepared showing a correlation of the waste physical matrix and the waste treatment requirements as a guide to the treatment analysis. The analysis of waste treatment loads is done by assigning wastes to treatment steps which would achieve RCRA compliant treatment. These correlation`s allow one to examine the treatment requirements in a condensed manner and to see that all wastes and contaminant sets are fully considered.

NONE

1995-02-01

135

A preliminary evaluation of alternatives for treatment of INEL Low-Level Waste and low-level mixed waste  

SciTech Connect

The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility (MLLWTF) project was established in 1991 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Field Office to provide treatment capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This report identifies and evaluates the alternatives for treating that waste. Twelve treatment alternatives, ranging from ``no-action`` to constructing and operating the MLLWTF, are identified and evaluated. Evaluations include facility performance, environmental, safety, institutional, schedule, and rough order-of-magnitude cost comparisons. The performance of each alternative is evaluated against lists of ``musts`` and ``wants.`` Also included is a discussion of other key considerations for decision making. Analysis of results indicated further study is necessary to obtain the best estimate of future waste volumes and characteristics from the expanded INEL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program. It is also recommended that conceptual design begin as scheduled on the MLLWTF, maximum treatment alternative while re-evaluating the waste volume projections.

Smith, T.H.; Roesener, W.S.; Jorgensen-Waters, M.J.; Edinborough, C.R.

1992-06-01

136

Waste minimization, McMurdo  

NSF Publications Database

... Action Memorandum (Waste Minimization, Treatment and Disposal Program for McMurdo Station Including ... two major projects: (1) waste minimization, treatment and disposal; and, (2) preliminary assessment ...

137

HANDBOOK: VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS AND RADIOACTIVE WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

The applications and limitations of vitrification technologies for treating hazardous and radioactive waste are presented. everal subgroups of vitrifications technologies exist. iscussions of glass structure, applicable waste types, off gas treatment, testing and evaluation proce...

138

Packed bed reactor treatment of liquid hazardous and mixed wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We are developing thermal-based packed bed reactor (PBR) technology as an alternative to incineration for treatment of hazardous organic liquid wastes. The waste streams targeted by this technology are machining fluids contaminated with chlorocarbons and/...

R. A. Tennant, P. J. Wantuck, R. Vargas

1992-01-01

139

Physical, Chemical, and Genotoxic Properties of Waste Mud By-product of Waste Water Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical, chemical and genotoxic properties of the activated red mud and its waste mud remained after waste water treatment were studied. The sequential leaching of waste mud under different conditions was investigated, as well as the toxic effect of its water extract, in order to discover a safe way for the handling and disposal of this waste material. Furthermore,

V. Orescanin; K. Durgo; J. Franekic-Colic; K. Nad; V. Valkovic

2003-01-01

140

Treatment of waste printed wire boards in electronic waste for safe disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The printed wire boards (PWBs) in electronic waste (E-waste) have been found to contain large amounts of toxic substances. Studies have concluded that the waste PWBs are hazardous wastes because they fails the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test with high level of lead (Pb) leaching out. In this study, two treatment methods – high-pressure compaction and cement solidification –

Xiaojun Niu; Yadong Li

2007-01-01

141

The Hybrid Treatment Process for treatment of mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a new process for treating mixed hazardous and radioactive waste, commonly called mixed waste. The process is called the Hybrid Treatment Process (HTP), so named because it is built on the 20 years of experience with vitrification of wastes in melters, and the 12 years of experience with treatment of wastes by the in situ vitrification (ISV) process.

Ross, W.A.; Kindle, C.H.

1992-04-01

142

The Los Alamos National Laboratory Transuranic Waste Retireval Project  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the status of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) project for remediation of transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed waste from Pads 1, 2, and 4. Some of the TRU waste packages retrieved from Pad I are anticipated to be part of LANL`s initial inventory to be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in April 1998. The TRU Waste Inspectable Storage Project (TWISP) was initiated in February 1993 in response to the New Mexico Environment Department`s (NMED`s) Consent Agreement for Compliance Order, ``New Mexico Hazardous Waste Agreement (NMHWA) 93-03.`` The TWISP involves the recovery of approximately 16,865 TRU and TRU-mixed waste containers currently under earthen cover on Pads 1, 2, and 4 at Technical Area 54, Area G, and placement of that waste into inspectable storage. All waste will be moved into inspectable storage by September 30, 2003. Waste recovery and storage operations emphasize protection of worker safety, public health, and the environment.

Montoya, G.M.; Christensen, D.V.; Stanford, A.R.

1997-02-01

143

Environmental Impact and Economic Cost of Waste Treatment: Analysis by the Waste IO Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Any economic activity generates waste of some kind, which needs to be subjected to treatment before it is finally discharged into the environment. Corresponding to any flow of goods among different sectors of the economy, there thus exists the associated flow of waste involving waste treatment sectors. The input-output analysis (IOA) was originally developed to represent the inter- sectoral flow

NAKAMURA Shinichiro; KONDO Yasushi

144

Accelerator Production of Tritium project process waste assessment  

SciTech Connect

DOE has made a commitment to compliance with all applicable environmental regulatory requirements. In this respect, it is important to consider and design all tritium supply alternatives so that they can comply with these requirements. The management of waste is an integral part of this activity and it is therefore necessary to estimate the quantities and specific wastes that will be generated by all tritium supply alternatives. A thorough assessment of waste streams includes waste characterization, quantification, and the identification of treatment and disposal options. The waste assessment for APT has been covered in two reports. The first report was a process waste assessment (PWA) that identified and quantified waste streams associated with both target designs and fulfilled the requirements of APT Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Item 5.5.2.1. This second report is an expanded version of the first that includes all of the data of the first report, plus an assessment of treatment and disposal options for each waste stream identified in the initial report. The latter information was initially planned to be issued as a separate Waste Treatment and Disposal Options Assessment Report (WBS Item 5.5.2.2).

Carson, S.D.; Peterson, P.K.

1995-09-01

145

Tank Waste Treatment Science Task quarterly report for January--March 1995  

SciTech Connect

The pretreatment Technology Development Project is one of seven Tank Waste Remediation (TWRS) System projects being conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. A key objective of this Project, and of the Tank Waste Treatment Science Task within it, is to provide the technical basis and scientific understanding to support TWRS baseline decisions and actions; in particular, TPA Milestone M50-03, the 1998 sludge pretreatment decision regarding the level of pretreatment to be incorporated into the tank waste process flowsheets. Work performed by this task during the second quarter of FY 1995 (January--March 1995) is detailed in this report. Work for the first quarter reported in Tank Waste Treatment Science Task, Quarterly Report for October--December 1994.

LaFemina, J.P.; Anderson, G.S.; Blanchard, D.L.

1995-04-01

146

Use of a Knowledge Management System in Waste Management Projects  

SciTech Connect

In Germany the knowledge management system 'WasteInfo' about waste management and disposal issues has been developed and implemented. Beneficiaries of 'WasteInfo' are official decision makers having access to a large information pool. The information pool is fed by experts, so called authors This means compiling of information, evaluation and assigning of appropriate properties (metadata) to this information. The knowledge management system 'WasteInfo' has been introduced at the WM04, the operation of 'WasteInfo' at the WM05. The recent contribution describes the additional advantage of the KMS being used as a tool for the dealing with waste management projects. This specific aspect will be demonstrated using a project concerning a comparative analysis of the implementation of repositories in six countries using nuclear power as examples: The information of 'WasteInfo' is assigned to categories and structured according to its origin and type of publication. To use 'WasteInfo' as a tool for the processing the projects, a suitable set of categories has to be developed for each project. Apart from technical and scientific aspects, the selected project deals with repository strategies and policies in various countries, with the roles of applicants and authorities in licensing procedures, with safety philosophy and with socio-economic concerns. This new point of view has to be modelled in the categories. Similar to this, new sources of information such as local and regional dailies or particular web-sites have to be taken into consideration. In this way 'WasteInfo' represents an open document which reflects the current status of the respective repository policy in several countries. Information with particular meaning for the German repository planning is marked and by this may influence the German strategy. (authors)

Gruendler, D.; Boetsch, W.U. [Institute for Safety Technology (ISTec) GmbH, Schwertnergasse 1, D-50667 Cologne (Germany); Holzhauer, U. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Schwertnergasse 1, D-50667 Cologne (Germany); Nies, R.A. [Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), Robert-Schuman-Platz 3, D - 53175 Bonn (Germany)

2006-07-01

147

Treatment guidelines for HIV-associated wasting.  

PubMed

Patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) often suffer from weight loss manifested by a loss of body cell mass (BCM). The causes of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated wasting may include anorexia, malabsorption, and a variety of altered metabolic states. Malabsorption and diarrhea may result from gastrointestinal tract opportunistic infections or from direct effects of HIV on the gastrointestinal tract. Infection with HIV may produce metabolic derangements that alter nutrient utilization, resulting in loss of BCM. Nutritional assessment of the patient with AIDS should include an evaluation of BCM and physical and psychosocial functioning. Antiretroviral therapy and eradication of opportunistic infections do not always reverse wasting. Treatment should include nutritional counseling. Total parenteral nutrition is sometimes of benefit, particularly in patients with damaged gastrointestinal tracts. Dronabinol and megestrol acetate may promote weight gain; however, dronabinol may have adverse effects, and most of the gain with megestrol acetate is in fat rather than BCM. If gonadal dysfunction is present, testosterone replacement therapy should be included in the treatment plan. Some studies suggest that oral anabolic steroids may improve muscle strength and body composition. In randomized, placebo-controlled trials, mammalian-derived human growth hormone (rhGH[m]) has produced sustained weight and BCM gains in AIDS patients. If a patient continues to lose BCM after the above factors have been addressed and corrected, a 12-week course of rhGH[m] is indicated. Halting the progression of HIV-associated wasting may improve survival, enhance physical and social functioning, and enrich quality of life. PMID:10761494

Nemechek, P M; Polsky, B; Gottlieb, M S

2000-04-01

148

MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM - UNDERGROUND MINE SOURCE CONTROL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents results of the Mine Waste Technology Program Activity III, Project 8, Underground Mine Source Control Demonstration Project implemented and funded by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U. S. Department of E...

149

Waste treatment at the La Hague and Marcoule sites  

SciTech Connect

In this report, an overview of waste treatment and solidification facilities located at the La Hague and Marcoule sites, which are owned and/or operated by Cogema, provided. The La Hague facilities described in this report include the following: The STE3 liquid effluent treatment facility (in operation); the AD2 solid waste processing facility (also in operation); and the UCD alpha waste treatment facility (under construction). The Marcoule facilities described in this report, both of which are in operation, include the following: The STEL-EVA liquid effluent treatment facilities for the entire site; and the alpha waste incinerator of the UPI plant. This report is organized into four sections: this introduction, low-level waste treatment at La Hague, low-level waste treatment at Marcoule, and new process development. including the solvent pyrolysis process currently in the development stage for Cogema`s plants.

NONE

1995-04-01

150

Design of equipment used for high-level waste vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

The equipment as designed, started, and operated for high-level radioactive waste vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project in western New York State is described. Equipment for the processes of melter feed make-up, vitrification, canister handling, and off-gas treatment are included. For each item of equipment the functional requirements, process description, and hardware descriptions are presented.

Vance, R.F.; Brill, B.A.; Carl, D.E. [and others

1997-06-01

151

RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING AS A SUPPLEMENTARY TREATMENT FOR HANFORD'S LOW ACTIVITY WASTE AND SECONDARY WASTES  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP's LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as Cs-137, I-129, Tc-99, Cl, F, and SO4 that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap. The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to recycle it to the supplemental LAW treatment to avoid a large steady state accumulation in the pretreatment-vitrification loop. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and/or WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford's WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of I-125/129 and Tc-99 to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Ninety six grams of radioactive product were made for testing. The second campaign commenced using SRS LAW chemically trimmed to look like Hanford's LAW. Six hundred grams of radioactive product were made for extensive testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing.

Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Cozzi, A.; Bannochie, C.; Burket, P.; Daniel, G.

2011-02-24

152

Environmental projects. Volume 16: Waste minimization assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC), located in the MoJave Desert, is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Deep Space Network (DSN), the world's largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation network. The Goldstone Complex is operated for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. At present, activities at the GDSCC support the operation of nine parabolic dish antennas situated at five separate locations known as 'sites.' Each of the five sites at the GDSCC has one or more antennas, called 'Deep Space Stations' (DSS's). In the course of operation of these DSS's, various hazardous and non-hazardous wastes are generated. In 1992, JPL retained Kleinfelder, Inc., San Diego, California, to quantify the various streams of hazardous and non-hazardous wastes generated at the GDSCC. In June 1992, Kleinfelder, Inc., submitted a report to JPL entitled 'Waste Minimization Assessment.' This present volume is a JPL-expanded version of the Kleinfelder, Inc. report. The 'Waste Minimization Assessment' report did not find any deficiencies in the various waste-management programs now practiced at the GDSCC, and it found that these programs are being carried out in accordance with environmental rules and regulations.

1994-01-01

153

UPGRADING MEAT PACKING FACILITIES TO REDUCE POLLUTION. WASTE TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

;Contents: Micro-organisms and their role in waste treatment; Waste loads from the meat packing industry; Procedures in the planning, design, and construction of a wastewater-treatment system; Wastewater-treatment methods for the meat packing industry; Operation and maintenance o...

154

FIELD MEASUREMENTS OF FULL-SCALE HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT FACILITIES - ORGANIC SOLVENT WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the treatment of organic hazardous wastes by distillation, thin-film evaporation, incineration, steam stripping, waste blending, carbon adsorption and activated sludge at full-scale facilities....

155

Treatment of Potato Processing Waste Water on Agricultural Land1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the total N and NO3 -N concentrations in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) process- ing plant waste water and in the soil solution at several depths in a treatment field where the waste water was applied were studied for a 2-year period. The COD decreased 95 to 99% from 850 to 2,000 ppm in waste

J. H. Smith

1976-01-01

156

Treatment for hydrazine-containing waste water solution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The treatment for waste solutions containing hydrazine is presented. The invention attempts oxidation and decomposition of hydrazine in waste water in a simple and effective processing. The method adds activated charcoal to waste solutions containing hydrazine while maintaining a pH value higher than 8, and adding iron salts if necessary. Then, the solution is aerated.

Yade, N.

1986-01-01

157

Trace perchlorates in a radiological liquid-waste treatment facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste management programs at the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are concerned with the levels of perchlorates due to the effects it can have on the environment and resultant regulations. The RLWTF treats industrial and radioactive wastes generated at multiple research and production facilities across the LANL. Perchloric acid is the major

Evangeline M. Hodge

2003-01-01

158

LAND TREATMENT FIELD STUDIES. VOLUME 6. INORGANIC PICKLING LIQUOR WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents the results of field measurements and observations of a land treatment site for the management of an inorganic pickling liquor waste. The waste is spread on the site as a 20% solids sludge. Sulfate and iron are known to be major waste constituents. The organi...

159

A theory of the plasma torch for waste-treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Arc-plasma technology has broad applications to waste treatment processing including the safe disposal of hazardous and low-level radioactive wastes. The plasma torch could be useful to the development of an efficient, compact, lightweight, clean burning incinerator for industrial and municipal waste disposal in an environmentally beneficial way. We therefore develop a simple theoretical model describing physics

H. S. Uhm; S. H. Hong

1997-01-01

160

Report: transboundary hazardous waste management. part II: performance auditing of treatment facilities in importing countries.  

PubMed

Before implementing the self-monitoring model programme of the Basel Convention in the Asia, Taiwan has conducted a comprehensive 4-year follow-up project to visit the governmental authorities and waste-disposal facilities in the countries that import waste from Taiwan. A total of nine treatment facilities, six of which are reported in this paper, and the five countries where the plants are located were visited in 2001-2002. France, Belgium and Finland primarily handled polychlorinated biphenyl capacitors, steel mill dust and metal waste. The United States accepted metal sludge, mainly electroplating sludge, from Taiwan. Waste printed circuit boards, waste wires and cables, and a mixture of waste metals and electronics were the major items exported to China. Relatively speaking, most treatment plants for hazardous waste paid close attention to environmental management, such as pollution control and monitoring, site zoning, system management regarding occupational safety and hygiene, data management, permits application, and image promotion. Under the tight restrictions formulated by the central environment agency, waste treatment plants in China managed the environmental issues seriously. For example, one of the treatment plants had ISO 14001 certification. It is believed that with continuous implementation of regulations, more improvement is foreseeable. Meanwhile, Taiwan and China should also continuously enhance their collaboration regarding the transboundary management of hazardous waste. PMID:16784171

Chang, Tien-Chin; Ni, Shih-Piao; Fan, Kuo-Shuh; Lee, Ching-Hwa

2006-06-01

161

Waste Treatment in the Urban Society  

PubMed Central

Domestic and industrial wastes are treated for two distinct purposes: (1) separation of water from the putrescible organic material, dissolved and particulates; (2) disinfection of the water to prevent the transmission of water-borne pathogens. Currently, in North America, disinfection is accomplished by the addition of a powerful oxidizing chemical such as chlorine or a related compound. Separation of solids from liquid is achieved by flocculation followed by sedimentation. Flocculation may be biologically or chemically induced, the former being more economical where practical. Methods of bioflocculation described include the following processes: (1) activated sludge, (2) contact stabilization, (3) tapered aeration, (4) step aeration, (5) total oxidation, and (6) trickling filter. Non-mechanical processes of sewage treatment are economically and technically sound in many rural and semi-rural applications. The oxidation pond ((lagoon) is not mechanical, but this consideration must not lead rural municipalities to a program of neglect. All plants treating human wastes should provide a disinfection process at the effluent. PMID:14308906

Jones, Philip H.

1965-01-01

162

Design requirements document for Project W-465, immobilized low-activity waste interim storage  

SciTech Connect

The scope of this Design Requirements Document (DRD) is to identify the functions and associated requirements that must be performed to accept, transport, handle, and store immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) produced by the privatized Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) treatment contractors. The functional and performance requirements in this document provide the basis for the conceptual design of the TWRS ILAW Interim Storage facility project and provides traceability from the program level requirements to the project design activity. Technical and programmatic risk associated with the TWRS planning basis are discussed in the Tank Waste Remediation System Decisions and Risk Assessment (Johnson 1994). The design requirements provided in this document will be augmented by additional detailed design data documented by the project.

Burbank, D.A.

1998-05-19

163

Current and projected liquid low-level waste generation at ORNL  

SciTech Connect

Liquid low level waste (LLLW) is generated by various programs and projects throughout Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This waste is collected via bottles, trucks, or underground collection tanks. It is then neutralized with sodium hydroxide, reduced in volume at the ORNL LLLW evaporator, and stored as concentrated LLLW in one of twelve storage tanks. Many other tanks (called inactive tanks), which contain historical liquids and sludges generated by past activities, will be remediated; the sludges and associated sluicing and scabbling liquids will then be transferred to the active system for treatment and storage. This report presents historical and projected data concerning the volume and the characterization of LLLW, both prior to and after evaporation. Storage space for projected waste generation is also discussed.

DePaoli, S.M.; Walker, A.B.

1998-03-01

164

Hanford Site waste treatment/storage/disposal integration  

SciTech Connect

In 1998 Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. began the integration of all low-level waste, mixed waste, and TRU waste-generating activities across the Hanford site. With seven contractors, dozens of generating units, and hundreds of waste streams, integration was necessary to provide acute waste forecasting and planning for future treatment activities. This integration effort provides disposition maps that account for waste from generation, through processing, treatment and final waste disposal. The integration effort covers generating facilities from the present through the life-cycle, including transition and deactivation. The effort is patterned after the very successful DOE Complex EM Integration effort. Although still in the preliminary stages, the comprehensive onsite integration effort has already reaped benefits. These include identifying significant waste streams that had not been forecast, identifying opportunities for consolidating activities and services to accelerate schedule or save money; and identifying waste streams which currently have no path forward in the planning baseline. Consolidation/integration of planned activities may also provide opportunities for pollution prevention and/or avoidance of secondary waste generation. A workshop was held to review the waste disposition maps, and to identify opportunities with potential cost or schedule savings. Another workshop may be held to follow up on some of the long-term integration opportunities. A change to the Hanford waste forecast data call would help to align the Solid Waste Forecast with the new disposition maps.

MCDONALD, K.M.

1999-02-24

165

Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Alternatives Implementation Study  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to discuss issues related to the implementation of each of the five down-selected INEEL/INTEC radioactive liquid waste (sodium-bearing waste - SBW) treatment alternatives and summarize information in three main areas of concern: process/technical, environmental permitting, and schedule. Major implementation options for each treatment alternative are also identified and briefly discussed. This report may touch upon, but purposely does not address in detail, issues that are programmatic in nature. Examples of these include how the SBW will be classified with respect to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), status of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) permits and waste storage availability, available funding for implementation, stakeholder issues, and State of Idaho Settlement Agreement milestones. It is assumed in this report that the SBW would be classified as a transuranic (TRU) waste suitable for disposal at WIPP, located in New Mexico, after appropriate treatment to meet transportation requirements and waste acceptance criteria (WAC).

Charles M. Barnes; James B. Bosley; Clifford W. Olsen

2004-07-01

166

BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF WASTES FROM THE CORN WET MILLING INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Pilot plant aerated lagoon and laboratory completely mixed activated sludge treatment studies of corn wet milling wastes showed that either process could produce a satisfactory effluent. A full scale completely mixed activated sludge treatment plant was designed from laboratory r...

167

Successful Waste Treatment Methods at Sandia National Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

During the remediation of the waste landfills at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque, New Mexico nine drums of mock high explosives were generated. This mixed waste stream was proposed to several offsite vendors for treatment and prices ranged from $2.50 to $10 per gram a total cost estimated to be in excess of $2 million dollars. This cost represents more than 30 percent of the annual budget for the Sandia Waste Management Operations. Concentrated solutions of common oxidizers, such as nitrates, nitrites, and peroxides, will also act as oxidizers and will give positive results in the Hazard Categorization oxidizer test. These solutions carry an EPA Hazardous Waste Number D001, Ignitable Waste, and Oxidizer as defined in 49 CFR 173.151. Sandia decided that given budget and time constraints to meet a Federal Facilities Compliance Act milestone, a process for onsite treatment should be evaluated. Clean samples of mock high explosive materials were obtained from Pantex excess inventory and treatability studies initiated to develop a treatment formula and process. The following process was developed and implemented in the summer of 2006: - Size reduction to allow for dissolution of the barium nitrate in water; - Dissolution of the Mock HE in water; - Deactivation of the oxidizer; - Stabilization of the barium and the cadmium contamination present as an underlying hazardous constituent. This project was completed and the treatment milestone achieved for less than $300,000. The Disassembly Sanitization Operation (DSO) is a process that was implemented to support weapon disassembly and disposition using recycling and waste minimization while achieving the demilitarization mission. The Department of Energy is faced with disassembling and disposition of a huge inventory of retired weapons, components, training equipment, spare parts, and weapon maintenance equipment. Environmental regulations have caused a dramatic increase for information needed to support the disposal and handling of these parts and materials. Manufacturing information from past decades often does not meet the needs for regulatory decisions of today to assure proper management of weapons components. Huge inventories of classified weapon components were required to have long-term storage at Sandia and many other locations throughout the complex. These materials are stored because they are classified, they may also contain radiological and/or hazardous components and disposal options may not have existed for this material. Long-term storage is costly and somewhat problematic. It requires a secured storage area, monitoring, auditing and it also has the potential for loss or theft of this material. Overall recycling rates for materials sent through the DSO process have enabled 70 to 80% of these components to be recycled. These components are made to extreme standards and are made of high quality materials. Once the material has been sanitized, the demand for these metals is very high. The DSO process for the NGPF classified components established the credibility of this technique as a viable process for addressing the long-term storage requirements of classified weapons component inventory. The success of this operation has generated interest from other Sandia Organization other locations throughout the complex. Other organizations are soliciting the help of the DSO team and the DSO is responding to these solicitations by expanding its scope to include work for other projects. For example, Pantex has asked the DSO team to assist with the destruction of their classified components. The operation is full scale and continues to grow and serve SNL/NM and DoE by providing a solution to this evolving issue. On an ongoing basis, SNL has been incurring expenses for the management and storage of classified components. It is estimated that this project will save the DoE and Sandia several hundreds of thousands of dollars until the excess inventory is eliminated. This innovative approach eliminates the need for long-term storage of classified weapons components and the

Rast, D.M.; Thompson, J.J.; Cooper, T.W.; Stockham, D.J

2007-07-01

168

Waste battery treatment options: Comparing their environmental performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste consumer batteries are recycled using different routes based on hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical processes. Two hydrometallurgical and two pyrometallurgical treatment scenarios are compared starting from an average composition of Belgian waste batteries. The environmental performance is compared using life cycle analysis (LCA). The recycling rate is studied through mass balance calculation.Each treatment scenario results in a specific recycling rate. The

K. Briffaerts; C. Spirinckx; A. Van der Linden; K. Vrancken

2009-01-01

169

ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT METHODS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The five-year schedule for the minimization and restrictions on the disposal of hazardous wastes onto the land is described. Two major items are causing a shift in the way hazardous wastes are managed in the United States. Because of liability for hazardous wastes, companies are ...

170

Method for aqueous radioactive waste treatment  

DOEpatents

Plutonium, strontium, and cesium found in aqueous waste solutions resulting from nuclear fuel processing are removed by contacting the waste solutions with synthetic zeolite incorporating up to about 5 wt % titanium as sodium titanate in an ion exchange system. More than 99.9% of the plutonium, strontium, and cesium are removed from the waste solutions.

Bray, Lane A. (Richland, WA); Burger, Leland L. (Richland, WA)

1994-01-01

171

Determinants of sustainability in solid waste management - The Gianyar Waste Recovery Project in Indonesia  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our assessment tool helps evaluate success factors in solid waste projects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Success of the composting plant in Indonesia is linked to its community integration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Appropriate technology is not a main determining success factor for sustainability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structured assessment of 'best practices' can enhance replication in other cities. - Abstract: According to most experts, integrated and sustainable solid waste management should not only be given top priority, but must go beyond technical aspects to include various key elements of sustainability to ensure success of any solid waste project. Aside from project sustainable impacts, the overall enabling environment is the key feature determining performance and success of an integrated and affordable solid waste system. This paper describes a project-specific approach to assess typical success or failure factors. A questionnaire-based assessment method covers issues of: (i) social mobilisation and acceptance (social element), (ii) stakeholder, legal and institutional arrangements comprising roles, responsibilities and management functions (institutional element); (iii) financial and operational requirements, as well as cost recovery mechanisms (economic element). The Gianyar Waste Recovery Project in Bali, Indonesia was analysed using this integrated assessment method. The results clearly identified chief characteristics, key factors to consider when planning country wide replication but also major barriers and obstacles which must be overcome to ensure project sustainability. The Gianyar project consists of a composting unit processing 60 tons of municipal waste per day from 500,000 inhabitants, including manual waste segregation and subsequent composting of the biodegradable organic fraction.

Zurbruegg, Christian, E-mail: zurbrugg@eawag.ch [Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (Sandec), Ueberlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Gfrerer, Margareth, E-mail: margareth.gfrerer@gmx.net [Faculty of Engineering, University of Indonesia, Depok Campus, 16424 Jakarta (Indonesia); Ashadi, Henki, E-mail: henki@eng.ui.ac.id [Faculty of Engineering, University of Indonesia, Depok Campus, 16424 Jakarta (Indonesia); Brenner, Werner, E-mail: werner.brenner@gmx.at [Faculty of Engineering, University of Indonesia, Depok Campus, 16424 Jakarta (Indonesia); Kueper, David, E-mail: dkuper@indo.net.id [Yayasan Pemilahan Sampah Temesi, Temsi-Gianyar, Bali (Indonesia)

2012-11-15

172

300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOERL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion includes closure plan documentation submitted for individual, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units undergoing closure, such as the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Whenever appropriate, 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. This 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System Closure Plan (Revision 2) includes a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Part A, Form 3. Information provided in this closure plan is current as of April 1999.

LUKE, S.N.

1999-05-17

173

Tank waste treatment science task quarterly report, April 1995--June 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the work performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) during the third quarter of FY 1995 under the Tank Waste Treatment Science Task of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Pretreatment Technology Development Project. Work was performed in the following areas: (1) analytical methods development, (2) sludge dissolution modeling, (3) sludge characterization studies, (4) sludge component speciation, (5) pretreatment chemistry evaluation, and (6) colloidal studies for solid-liquid separations.

LaFemina, J.P.

1995-07-01

174

Risk management in waste water treatment.  

PubMed

With the continuous restructuring of the water market due to liberalisation, privatisation and internationalisation processes, the requirements on waste water disposal companies have grown. Increasing competition requires a target-oriented and clearly structured procedure. At the same time it is necessary to meet the environment-relevant legal requirements and to design the processes to be environment-oriented. The implementation of risk management and the integration of such a management instrument in an existing system in addition to the use of modern technologies and procedures can help to make the operation of the waste water treatment safer and consequently strengthen market position. The risk management process consists of three phases, risk identification, risk analysis/risk assessment and risk handling, which are based on each other, as well as of the risk managing. To achieve an identification of the risks as complete as possible, a subdivision of the kind of risks (e.g. legal, financial, market, operational) is suggested. One possibility to assess risks is the portfolio method which offers clear representation. It allows a division of the risks into classes showing which areas need handling. The determination of the appropriate measures to handle a risk (e.g. avoidance, reduction, shift) is included in the concluding third phase. Different strategies can be applied here. On the one hand, the cause-oriented strategy, aiming at preventive measures which aim to reduce the probability of occurrence of a risk (e.g. creation of redundancy, systems with low susceptibility to malfunction). On the other hand, the effect-oriented strategy, aiming to minimise the level of damage in case of an undesired occurrence (e.g. use of alarm systems, insurance cover). PMID:16477971

Wagner, M; Strube, I

2005-01-01

175

Plasma based waste treatment and energy production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past centuries, industrial processes and energy conversion plants have shown no or little care for environmental quality. The result is a huge accumulation of pollution and hazardous by-products, left as a heritage for the present and future generations. Recuperation of by-products or thermal energy is not only motivated by cost saving, but also by resource saving considerations. Environmental awareness is more than staying within the lines of the existing regulations. By the application of a plasma based system to a wide range of possible feedstocks which are CO2 neutral, a clean syngas of high caloric value is produced from the organic substances simultaneously with a non-leachable vitrified lava from the inorganic substances. The results will provide the advanced technology for the environmentally friendly treatment of hazardous wastes, biomass and low grade fuel. The driving force behind the task is to give priority to environmental quality at affordable costs. Thus, the investigation of ways to increase the efficiency of the process is very important. A plasma based remediation system is the only technology that prevents undesired pollution in the by-products and end product (such as syngas or other gases). The problem to be solved is twofold: recuperate clean energy from waste and renewables without pollution at affordable costs. Such a technique fulfils the objectives of sustainable development. Today, one of the main reasons that restricts the use of plasma based methods is the cost of electrical energy. The crucial element is the plasma torch performance. Hence, the physics of modern plasma torches is addressed in detail. The optimistic scenario holds the promise to provide 10 15% of the energy needs for the European Union (EU). Thus, the investigation of ways to increase the efficiency of the process is very important.

Tendler, Michael; Rutberg, Philip; van Oost, Guido

2005-05-01

176

Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 325 hazardous waste treatment units. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application for the 325 Hazardous Waste Treatment Units (325 HWTUs) which consist of the Shielded Analytical Laboratory, the 325 Building, and the 325 Collection/Loadout Station Tank. The 325 HWTUs receive, store, and treat dangerous waste generated by Hanford Facility programs. Routine dangerous and/or mixed waste treatment that will be conducted in the 325 HWTUs will include pH adjustment, ion exchange, carbon absorption, oxidation, reduction, waste concentration by evaporation, precipitation, filtration, solvent extraction, solids washing, phase separation, catalytic destruction, and solidification/stabilization.

NONE

1997-07-01

177

RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage, but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the SRNL to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. BSR testing with WTP SW waste surrogates and associated analytical analyses and tests of granular products (GP) and monoliths began in the Fall of 2009, and then was continued from the Fall of 2010 through the Spring of 2011. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford's WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of {sup 125/129}I and {sup 99}Tc to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Prior to these radioactive feed tests, non-radioactive simulants were also processed. Ninety six grams of radioactive granular product were made for testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing.

Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

2012-02-02

178

EU Carbowaste project: Development of a toolbox for graphite waste management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A four year collaborative European Project 'Treatment and Disposal of Irradiated Graphite and other Carbonaceous Waste (Carbowaste)' was launched in May 2008 under the 7th EURATOM Framework Programme. The aim of the project is to develop best practices in the retrieval, treatment and disposal of irradiated graphite, addressing both existing legacy waste as well as waste from graphite-based nuclear fuel resulting from a new generation of nuclear reactors. This paper covers the activities led by the National Nuclear Laboratory in partnership with the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority in the first year of the project, which includes the lead role in the compilation of a review volume on the extent of irradiated graphite waste globally and the approaches being taken to manage it. An overview is also provided of modelling activities in year two of the project: the application of modelling techniques to the prediction of radiological inventories, to the radiological impact of C-14 and Cl-36 releases on the biosphere and to the decommissioning of Magnox reactor cores.

Metcalfe, M. P.; Banford, A. W.; Eccles, H.; Norris, S.

2013-05-01

179

Evaluation of alternative treatments for spent fuel rod consolidation wastes and other miscellaneous commercial transuranic wastes  

SciTech Connect

Eight alternative treatments (and four subalternatives) are considered for both existing commercial transuranic wastes and future wastes from spent fuel consolidation. Waste treatment is assumed to occur at a hypothetical central treatment facility (a Monitored Retrieval Storage facility was used as a reference). Disposal in a geologic repository is also assumed. The cost, process characteristics, and waste form characteristics are evaluated for each waste treatment alternative. The evaluation indicates that selection of a high-volume-reduction alternative can save almost $1 billion in life-cycle costs for the management of transuranic and high-activity wastes from 70,000 MTU of spent fuel compared to the reference MRS process. The supercompaction, arc pyrolysis and melting, and maximum volume reduction alternatives are recommended for further consideration; the latter two are recommended for further testing and demonstration.

Ross, W.A.; Schneider, K.J.; Oma, K.H.; Smith, R.I.; Bunnell, L.R.

1986-05-01

180

Detection, Composition and Treatment of Volatile Organic Compounds from Waste Treatment Plants  

PubMed Central

Environmental policies at the European and global level support the diversion of wastes from landfills for their treatment in different facilities. Organic waste is mainly treated or valorized through composting, anaerobic digestion or a combination of both treatments. Thus, there are an increasing number of waste treatment plants using this type of biological treatment. During waste handling and biological decomposition steps a number of gaseous compounds are generated or removed from the organic matrix and emitted. Different families of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) can be found in these emissions. Many of these compounds are also sources of odor nuisance. In fact, odors are the main source of complaints and social impacts of any waste treatment plant. This work presents a summary of the main types of VOC emitted in organic waste treatment facilities and the methods used to detect and quantify these compounds, together with the treatment methods applied to gaseous emissions commonly used in composting and anaerobic digestion facilities. PMID:22163835

Font, Xavier; Artola, Adriana; Sanchez, Antoni

2011-01-01

181

Detection, composition and treatment of volatile organic compounds from waste treatment plants.  

PubMed

Environmental policies at the European and global level support the diversion of wastes from landfills for their treatment in different facilities. Organic waste is mainly treated or valorized through composting, anaerobic digestion or a combination of both treatments. Thus, there are an increasing number of waste treatment plants using this type of biological treatment. During waste handling and biological decomposition steps a number of gaseous compounds are generated or removed from the organic matrix and emitted. Different families of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) can be found in these emissions. Many of these compounds are also sources of odor nuisance. In fact, odors are the main source of complaints and social impacts of any waste treatment plant. This work presents a summary of the main types of VOC emitted in organic waste treatment facilities and the methods used to detect and quantify these compounds, together with the treatment methods applied to gaseous emissions commonly used in composting and anaerobic digestion facilities. PMID:22163835

Font, Xavier; Artola, Adriana; Sánchez, Antoni

2011-01-01

182

INEL Waste and Environmental Information Integration Project approach and concepts  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Engineering, Laboratory (INEL) Waste and Environmental Information integration Project (IWEIIP) was established in December 1993 to address issues related to INEL waste and environmental information including: Data quality; Data redundancy; Data accessibility; Data integration. This effort includes existing information, new development, and acquisition activities. Existing information may not be a database record; it may be an entire document (electronic, scanned, or hard-copy), a video clip, or a file cabinet of information. The IWEIIP will implement an effective integrated information framework to manage INEL waste and environmental information as an asset. This will improve data quality, resolve data redundancy, and increase data accessibility; therefore, providing more effective utilization of the dollars spent on waste and environmental information.

Dean, L.A.; Fairbourn, P.J.; Randall, V.C.; Riedesel, A.M.

1994-06-01

183

Machine coolant waste reduction by optimizing coolant life. Project summary  

SciTech Connect

The project was designed to study the following: A specific water-soluble coolant (Blasocut 2000 Universal) in use with a variety of machines, tools, and materials; Coolant maintenance practices associated with three types of machines; Health effects of use and handling of recycled coolant; Handling practices for chips and waste coolant; Chip/coolant separation; and Oil/water separation.

Pallansch, J.

1995-08-01

184

COMPENDIUM OF TECHNOLOGIES USED IN THE TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

This document is intended to serve as an introduction to available technologies which can be used in the treatment of hazardous wastes. echnologies are categorized on the basis of whether they are considered physical treatment, chemical treatment, biological treatment, thermal tr...

185

Inductively heated plasma waste treatment for energy recovery.  

PubMed

An assessment of a decentralized inductively heated plasma waste treatment system for energy recovery has been done. The modular miniaturized high enthalpy plasma source IPG6 is a reference for the system and has been qualified for inert but also chemically aggressive gas compositions. An identification and review of applications were undertaken. Niches of high environmental and societal importance are considered: hospital waste (threshold countries), shipboard waste and marine litter. The wastes are reviewed deriving relevant parameter for a system analysis aiming for the derivation of energy production and efficiencies. The system analysis shows advantageous constellation due to the wastes' energy leading to self-feeding systems. PMID:24956751

Herdrich, G; Schmalzriedt, S; Laufer, R; Dropmann, M; Gabrielli, R

2014-08-01

186

EPA/DOE joint efforts on mixed waste treatment  

SciTech Connect

Under the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCA), the Department of Energy (DOE) is directed to develop treatment plans for their stockpile of wastes generated at their various sites. As a result, DOE is facing the monumental problem associated with the treatment and ultimate disposal of their mixed (radioactive and hazardous) waste. Meanwhile, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a final {open_quotes}Hazardous Waste Combustion Strategy{close_quotes} in November 1994. Under the Combustion Strategy, EPA permit writers have been given the authority to use the Omnibus Provision of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) to impose more stringent emission limits for waste combustors prior to the development of new regulations. EPA and DOE established a multi-year Interagency Agreement (IAG) in 1991. The main objective of the IAG (and of the second IAG that was added in 1993) is to conduct a research program on thermal technologies for treating mixed waste and to establish permit procedures for these technologies particularly under the new requirements of the above-mentioned EPA Combustion Strategy. The objective of this Paper is to summarize the results of the EPA/DOE joint efforts on mixed waste treatment since the establishment of the original Interagency Agreement. Specifically, this Paper will discuss six activities that have been underway; namely: (1) National Technical Workgroup (NTW) on Mixed Waste Treatment, (2) State-of-the-Art Assessment of APC (Air Pollution Control) and Monitoring Technologies for the Rocky Flats Fluidized Bed Unit, (3) Initial Study of Permit {open_quotes}Roadmap{close_quotes} Development for Mixed Waste Treatment, (4) Risk Assessment Approach for a Mixed Waste Thermal Treatment Facility, (5) Development and Application of Technology Selection Criteria for Mixed Waste Thermal Treatment, and (6) Performance Testing of Mixed Waste Incineration: In-Situ Chlorine Capture in a Fluidized Bed Unit.

Lee, C.C.; Huffman, G.L.; Nalesnik, R.P. [and others

1995-12-31

187

Challenges when performing economic optimization of waste treatment: a review.  

PubMed

Strategic and operational decisions in waste management, in particular with respect to investments in new treatment facilities, are needed due to a number of factors, including continuously increasing amounts of waste, political demands for efficient utilization of waste resources, and the decommissioning of existing waste treatment facilities. Optimization models can assist in ensuring that these investment strategies are economically feasible. Various economic optimization models for waste treatment have been developed which focus on different parameters. Models focusing on transport are one example, but models focusing on energy production have also been developed, as well as models which take into account a plant's economies of scale, environmental impact, material recovery and social costs. Finally, models combining different criteria for the selection of waste treatment methods in multi-criteria analysis have been developed. A thorough updated review of the existing models is presented, and the main challenges and crucial parameters that need to be taken into account when assessing the economic performance of waste treatment alternatives are identified. The review article will assist both policy-makers and model-developers involved in assessing the economic performance of waste treatment alternatives. PMID:23747136

Juul, N; Münster, M; Ravn, H; Söderman, M Ljunggren

2013-09-01

188

Privatization of the Department of Energy`s proposed radioactive liquid waste treatment facility: Case study  

SciTech Connect

An estimated thirty billion dollars was expended between FY 1989 and FY 1995 for environmental remediation and waste management for the entire United States nuclear weapons complex; much of this waste is still stored on-site at the various nuclear facilities while awaiting final decisions for treatment, storage, or disposal. Within the Department of Energy (DOE), privatization of waste treatment facilities has become an option for the treatment and disposal of radioactive and mixed wastes generated by several Federal agencies. The decision has been made to privatize the Hanford Project, a portion of which is the Proposed Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF), and a Request for Proposals (RFP) was issued in August 1995. This paper is a case study of some of the steps involved in that decision, the projects included in the Hanford Project, and a time line illustrating a few of the performance milestones from the RFP from April 1995 thorough April 1996, the time this paper was published. An update will be given in August 1996 when this paper is presented in conjunction with the privatization panel at SPECTRUM`96.

Anders, D.A.; Guice, J.R. Jr. [Systematic Management Services, Germantown, MD (United States); Marchetti, J.A. [DOE HQ, Germantown, MD (United States)

1996-12-31

189

Immobilization in ceramic waste forms of the residues from treatment of mixed wastes  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Applied Technology Program at LLNL is developing a Mixed Waste Management Facility to demonstrate treatment technologies that provide an alternative to incineration. As part of that program, we are developing final waste forms using ceramic processing methods for the immobilization of the treatment process residues. The ceramic phase assemblages are based on using Synroc D as a starting point and varying the phase assemblage to accommodate the differences in chemistry between the treatment process residues and the defense waste for which Synroc D was developed. Two basic formulations are used, one for low ash residues resulting from treatment of organic materials contaminated with RCRA metals, and one for high ash residues generated from the treatment of plastics and paper products. Treatment process residues are mixed with ceramic precursor materials, dried, calcined, formed into pellets at room temperature, and sintered at 1150 to 1200{degrees}C to produce the final waste form. This paper discusses the chemical composition of the waste streams and waste forms, the phase assemblages that serve as hosts for inorganic waste elements, and the changes in waste form characteristics as a function of variation in process parameters.

Oversby, V.M.; van Konynenburg, R.A.; Glassley, W.E.; Curtis, P.G.

1993-11-01

190

327 Building liquid waste handling options modification project plan  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates the modification options for handling radiological liquid waste (RLW) generated during decontamination and cleanout of the 327 Building. The overall objective of the 327 Facility Stabilization Project is to establish a passively safe and environmentally secure configuration of the 327 Facility. The issue of handling of RLW from the 327 Facility (assuming the 34O Facility is not available to accept the RLW) has been conceptually examined in at least two earlier engineering studies (Parsons 1997a and Hobart l997). Each study identified a similar preferred alternative that included modifying the 327 Facility RLWS handling systems to provide a truck load-out station, either within the confines of the facility or exterior to the facility. The alternatives also maximized the use of existing piping, tanks, instrumentation, controls and other features to minimize costs and physical changes. An issue discussed in each study involved the anticipated volume of the RLW stream. Estimates ranged between 113,550 and 387,500 liters in the earlier studies. During the development of the 324/327 Building Stabilization/Deactivation Project Management Plan, the lower estimate of approximately 113,550 liters was confirmed and has been adopted as the baseline for the 327 Facility RLW stream. The goal of this engineering study is to reevaluate the existing preferred alternative and select a new preferred alternative, if appropriate. Based on the new or confirmed preferred alternative, this study will also provide a conceptual design and cost estimate for required modifications to the 327 Facility to allow removal of RLWS and treatment of the RLW generated during deactivation.

Ham, J.E.

1998-03-28

191

40 CFR 721.10636 - Slimes and sludges, automotive coating, wastewater treatment, solid waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Slimes and sludges, automotive coating, wastewater treatment, solid waste. 721.10636...Slimes and sludges, automotive coating, wastewater treatment, solid waste. (a) Chemical...slimes and sludges, automotive coating, wastewater treatment, solid waste (PMN...

2013-07-01

192

40 CFR 721.10667 - Slimes and sludges, aluminum and iron casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...sludges, aluminum and iron casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste. 721.10667...sludges, aluminum and iron casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste. (a) Chemical...sludges, aluminum and iron casting, wastewater treatment, solid waste...

2013-07-01

193

40 CFR 266.206 - Standards applicable to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions.  

...to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions. 266.206 Section 266...HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions § 266.206 Standards...to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions. The treatment and...

2014-07-01

194

40 CFR 266.206 - Standards applicable to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions. 266.206 Section 266...HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions § 266.206 Standards...to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions. The treatment and...

2012-07-01

195

40 CFR 266.206 - Standards applicable to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions. 266.206 Section 266...HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions § 266.206 Standards...to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions. The treatment and...

2011-07-01

196

40 CFR 266.206 - Standards applicable to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions. 266.206 Section 266...HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions § 266.206 Standards...to the treatment and disposal of waste military munitions. The treatment and...

2010-07-01

197

Biological treatment of aqueous hazardous wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes tests performed in order to evaluate the fate of aqueous organic hazardous-waste compounds in the activated sludge process. Gas, liguid, and waste-solids samples were taken from acclimated activated-sludge systems to determine amounts that were volatilized, biodegraded, and associated with the wasted solids. Results discussed here include two compounds: methyl ethyl ketone and 1,1,1-trichloroethane.

J. E. Park; M. K. Koczwara; R. J. Lesiecki

1987-01-01

198

Nuclear waste treatment program. Annual report for FY 1985  

SciTech Connect

Two of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) nuclear waste management-related goals are: (1) to ensure that waste management is not an obstacle to the further deployment of light-water reactors (LWR) and the closure of the nuclear fuel cycle and (2) to fulfill its institutional responsibility for providing safe storage and disposal of existing and future nuclear wastes. As part of its approach to achieving these goals, the Office of Terminal Waste Disposal and Remedial Action of DOE established what is now called the Nuclear Waste Treatment Program (NWTP) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) during the second half of FY 1982. To support DOE's attainment of its goals, the NWTP is to provide (1) documented technology necessary for the design and operation of nuclear waste treatment facilities by commercial enterprises as part of a licensed waste management system and (2) problem-specific treatment approaches, waste form and treatment process adaptations, equipment designs, and trouble-shooting assistance, as required, to treat existing wastes. This annual report describes progress during FY 1985 toward meeting these two objectives. The detailed presentation is organized according to the task structure of the program.

Powell, J.A. (ed.)

1986-04-01

199

Nuclear waste treatment program: Annual report for FY 1987  

SciTech Connect

Two of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) nuclear waste management-related goals are to ensure that waste management is not an obstacle to the further development of light-water reactors and the closure of the nuclear fuel cycle and to fulfill its institutional responsibility for providing safe storage and disposal of existing and future nuclear wastes. As part of its approach to achieving these goals, the Office of Remedial Action and Waste Technology of DOE established what is now called the Nuclear Waste Treatment Program (NWTP) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory during the second half of FY 1982. To support DOE's attainment of its goals, the NWTP is to provide technology necessary for the design and operation of nuclear waste treatment facilities by commercial enterprises as part of a licensed waste management system and problem-specific treatment approaches, waste form and treatment process adaptations, equipment designs, and trouble-shooting assistance, as required to treat existing wastes. This annual report describes progress during FY 1987 towards meeting these two objectives. 24 refs., 59 figs., 24 tabs.

Brouns, R.A.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

1988-09-01

200

Food waste treatment in a community center.  

PubMed

For urban community composting centers, the proper selection and use of bulking agent is a key element in not only the cost but also the quality of the finished compost. Besides wood chips (WC) widely used as BA, readily usable cereal residue pellets (CRP) can provide biodegradable carbon and sufficient free air space (FAS) to produce stabilizing temperatures. The objective of the present project was to test at a community center, the effectiveness of CRP in composting food waste (FW). Two recipes were used (CRP with and without WC) to measure: FAS; temperature regimes, and; losses in mass, water, carbon and nitrogen. Both recipes were composted during three consecutive years using a 2 m(3) commercial in-vessel composter operated in downtown Montreal (Canada). For all recipes, FAS exceeded 30% for moisture content below 60%, despite yearly variations in FW and BA physical properties. When properly managed by the center operator, both FW and CRP compost mixtures with and without WC developed within 3 days thermophilic temperatures exceeding 50 °C. The loss of total mass, water, carbon and nitrogen was quite variable for both recipes, ranging from 36% to 54%, 42% to 55%, 48% to 65%, and 4% to 55%, respectively. The highest loss in dry mass, water and C was obtained with FW and CRP without WC aerated to maintain mesophilic rather than thermophilic conditions. Although variable, lower nitrogen losses were obtained with CRP and WC as BA, compared to CRP alone, as also observed during previous laboratory trials. Therefore and as BA, CRP can be used alone but nitrogen losses will be minimized by adding WC. Compost stabilization depends on operator vigilance in terms of aeration. The measured fresh compost density of 530-600 kg/m(3) indicates that the 2 m(3) in-vessel composter can treat 6.5 tons of FW/year if operated during 7 months. PMID:21376554

Schwalb, Michael; Rosevear, Carrie; Chin, Rebecca; Barrington, Suzelle

2011-07-01

201

SNF sludge treatment system preliminary project execution plan  

SciTech Connect

The Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) Project Director for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project has requested Numatec Hanford Company (NHC) to define how Hanford would manage a new subproject to provide a process system to receive and chemically treat radioactive sludge currently stored in the 100 K Area fuel retention basins. The subproject, named the Sludge Treatment System (STS) Subproject, provides and operates facilities and equipment to chemically process K Basin sludge to meet Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) requirements. This document sets forth the NHC management approach for the STS Subproject and will comply with the requirements of the SNF Project Management Plan (HNF-SD-SNFPMP-011). This version of this document is intended to apply to the initial phase of the subproject and to evolve through subsequent revision to include all design, fabrication, and construction conducted on the project and the necessary management and engineering functions within the scope of the subproject. As Project Manager, NHC will perform those activities necessary to complete the STS Subproject within approved cost and schedule baselines and turn over to FDH facilities, systems, and documentation necessary for operation of the STS.

Flament, T.A.

1998-03-03

202

Project management plan for low-level mixed waste and greater-than-category 3 waste per tri-party agreement M-91-10  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this project management plan is to define the tasks and deliverables that will support the treatment, storage, and disposal of remote-handled and large container contact-handled low-level mixed waste, and the storage of Greater-thaw category 3 waste. The plan is submitted to fulfill the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Milestone M-91-10, The plan

1999-01-01

203

Project management plan for low-level mixed wastes and greater-than category 3 waste per Tri-Party Agreement M-91-10  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this project management plan is to define the tasks and deliverables that will support the treatment, storage, and disposal of remote-handled and large container contact-handled low-level mixed waste, and the storage of Greater-Than-Category 3 waste. The plan is submitted to fulfill the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Milestone M-91-10. The plan was

1999-01-01

204

FINAL REPORT. POLYOXOMETALATES FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The research was directed primarily towards the use of polyoxometalate complexes for separation of lanthanide, actinide, and technetium species from aqueous waste solutions, such as the Hanford Tank Wastes. Selective binding of these species responsible for much of the high level...

205

TWRS privatization support project waste characterization database development  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory requested support from ICF Kaiser Hanford Company in assembling radionuclide and chemical analyte sample data and inventory estimates for fourteen Hanford underground storage tanks: 241-AN-102, -104, -105, -106, and -107, 241-AP-102, -104, and -105, 241-AW-101, -103, and -105, 241 AZ-101 and -102; and 241-C-109. Sample data were assembled for sixteen radionuclides and thirty-five chemical analytes. The characterization data were provided to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in support of the Tank Waste Remediation Services Privatization Support Project. The purpose of this report is to present the results and document the methodology used in preparing the waste characterization information data set to support the Tank Waste Remediation Services Privatization Support Project. This report describes the methodology used in assembling the waste characterization information and how that information was validated by a panel of independent technical reviewers. Also, contained in this report are the various data sets created: the master data set, a subset, and an unreviewed data set. The master data set contains waste composition information for Tanks 241-AN-102 and -107, 241-AP-102 and -105, 241-AW-101; and 241-AZ-101 and -102. The subset contains only the validated analytical sample data from the master data set. The unreviewed data set contains all collected but unreviewed sample data for Tanks 241-AN-104, -105, and -106; 241-AP-104; 241-AW-103 and-105; and 241-C-109. The methodology used to review the waste characterization information was found to be an accurate, useful way to separate the invalid or questionable data from the more reliable data. In the future, this methodology should be considered when validating waste characterization information.

NONE

1995-11-01

206

Biological Information Document, Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility  

SciTech Connect

This document is intended to act as a baseline source material for risk assessments which can be used in Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements. The current Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) does not meet current General Design Criteria for Non-reactor Nuclear Facilities and could be shut down affecting several DOE programs. This Biological Information Document summarizes various biological studies that have been conducted in the vicinity of new Proposed RLWTF site and an Alternative site. The Proposed site is located on Mesita del Buey, a mess top, and the Alternative site is located in Mortandad Canyon. The Proposed Site is devoid of overstory species due to previous disturbance and is dominated by a mixture of grasses, forbs, and scattered low-growing shrubs. Vegetation immediately adjacent to the site is a pinyon-juniper woodland. The Mortandad canyon bottom overstory is dominated by ponderosa pine, willow, and rush. The south-facing slope was dominated by ponderosa pine, mountain mahogany, oak, and muhly. The north-facing slope is dominated by Douglas fir, ponderosa pine, and oak. Studies on wildlife species are limited in the vicinity of the proposed project and further studies will be necessary to accurately identify wildlife populations and to what extent they utilize the project area. Some information is provided on invertebrates, amphibians and reptiles, and small mammals. Additional species information from other nearby locations is discussed in detail. Habitat requirements exist in the project area for one federally threatened wildlife species, the peregrine falcon, and one federal candidate species, the spotted bat. However, based on surveys outside of the project area but in similar habitats, these species are not expected to occur in either the Proposed or Alternative RLWTF sites. Habitat Evaluation Procedures were used to evaluate ecological functioning in the project area.

Biggs, J.

1995-12-31

207

Solid Waste Projection Model: Database (Version 1. 3)  

SciTech Connect

The Solid Waste Projection Model (SWPM) system is an analytical tool developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The SWPM system provides a modeling and analysis environment that supports decisions in the process of evaluating various solid waste management alternatives. This document, one of a series describing the SWPM system, contains detailed information regarding the software and data structures utilized in developing the SWPM Version 1.3 Database. This document is intended for use by experienced database specialists and supports database maintenance, utility development, and database enhancement.

Blackburn, C.L.

1991-11-01

208

The residuals analysis project: Evaluating disposal options for treated mixed low-level waste  

SciTech Connect

For almost four years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through its Federal Facility Compliance Act Disposal Workgroup has been working with state regulators and governors` offices to develop an acceptable configuration for disposal of its mixed low-level waste (MLLW). These interactions have resulted in screening the universe of potential disposal sites from 49 to 15 and conducting ``performance evaluations`` for those fifteen sites to estimate their technical capabilities for disposal of MLLW. In the residuals analysis project, we estimated the volume of DOE`s MLLW that will require disposal after treatment and the concentrations of radionuclides in the treated waste. We then compared the radionuclide concentrations with the disposal limits determined in the performance evaluation project for each of the fifteen sites. The results are a scoping-level estimate of the required volumetric capacity for MLLW disposal and the identification of waste streams that may pose problems for disposal based on current treatment plans. The analysis provides technical information for continued discussions between the DOE and affected States about disposal of MLLW and systematic input to waste treatment developers on disposal issues.

Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.; Case, J.T.; Letourneau, M.J.

1997-03-01

209

Packed bed reactor treatment of liquid hazardous and mixed wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing thermal-based packed bed reactor (PBR) technology as an alternative to incineration for treatment of hazardous organic liquid wastes. The waste streams targeted by this technology are machining fluids contaminated with chlorocarbons and\\/or chlorofluorocarbons and low levels of plutonium or tritium The PBR offers several distinct advantages including simplistic design, rugged construction, ambient pressure processing, economical operations, as

R. A. Tennant; P. J. Wantuck; R. Vargas

1992-01-01

210

Nutrient fate in aquacultural systems for waste treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve small, recirculating aquacultural systems were operated for livestock waste treatment to determine nutrient fate. Each system consisted of a 730-L fish tank coupled in a recirculating loop with three sand beds (serving as biofilters) in parallel. Fish (Tilapia species) were grown in the tanks while cattails, reed canary grass, and tomatoes were grown in separate sand beds. Swine waste

J. H. Dontje; C. J. Clanton

1999-01-01

211

INNOVATIVE THERMAL PROCESSES FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT AND DESTRUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

As the land disposal of untreated hazardous wastes has continued to fall into disfavor in North America, increasing attention is being given to alternative hazardous waste treatment and disposal technologies. This increased attention and the public and private support resulting f...

212

Successful Waste Treatment Methods at Sandia National Laboratories  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the remediation of the waste landfills at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque, New Mexico nine drums of mock high explosives were generated. This mixed waste stream was proposed to several offsite vendors for treatment and prices ranged from $2.50 to $10 per gram a total cost estimated to be in excess of $2 million dollars. This cost represents more

D. M. Rast; J. J. Thompson; T. W. Cooper; D. J Stockham

2007-01-01

213

ACTIVATED SLUDGE TREATMENT OF SELECTED AQUEOUS ORGANIC HAZARDOUS WASTE COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

As a result of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 and the concurrent land disposal restrictions rule, EPA is in the process of demonstrating achievable treatment techniques to be used as alternatives to the land disposal of hazardous wastes. ata are being collected ...

214

FOAMING IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The physical mechanisms of the formation of foam in radioactive waste treatment and waste immobilization processes are poorly understood. The objective of this research is to develop a basic understanding of the mechanisms that produce foaming, to identify the key parameters whic...

215

Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility: Environmental Information Document  

Microsoft Academic Search

At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the treatment of radioactive liquid waste is an integral function of the LANL mission: to assure U.S. military deterrence capability through nuclear weapons technology. As part of this mission, LANL conducts nuclear materials research and development (R&D) activities. These activities generate radioactive liquid waste that must be handled in a manner to ensure protection

H. T. Haagenstad; G. Gonzales; I. L. Suazo

1993-01-01

216

US Department of Energy interim mixed waste inventory report: Waste streams, treatment capacities and technologies: Volume 2, Site specific---California through Idaho. [Waste mixtures of hazardous materials and low-level radioactive wastes or transuranic wastes  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report to provide an inventory of its mixed wastes and treatment capacities and technologies in response to Section 105(a) of the Federal Facility Compliance act (FFCAct) of 1992 (Pub. L. No. 102-386). As required by the FFCAct-1992, this report provide site-specific information on DOE's mixed waste streams and a general review of available and planned treatment facilities for mixed wastes for the following sites: eight California facilities which are Energy Technology engineering Center, General Atomics, General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, and Sandia national Laboratories; Grand Junction Project Office; Rocky Flats Plant; Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory-Windsor Site; Pinellas Plant; Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard; Argonne National Laboratory-West; and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory.

Not Available

1993-04-01

217

Treatability study of absorbent polymer waste form for mixed waste treatment  

SciTech Connect

A treatability study was performed to develop and characterize an absorbent polymer waste form for application to low level (LLW) and mixed low level (MLLW) aqueous wastes at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W). In this study absorbent polymers proved effective at immobilizing aqueous liquid wastes in order to meet Land Disposal Restrictions for subsurface waste disposal. Treatment of aqueous waste with absorbent polymers provides an alternative to liquid waste solidification via high-shear mixing with clays and cements. Significant advantages of absorbent polymer use over clays and cements include ease of operations and waste volume minimization. Absorbent polymers do not require high-shear mixing as do clays and cements. Granulated absorbent polymer is poured into aqueous solutions and forms a gel which passes the paint filter test as a non-liquid. Pouring versus mixing of a solidification agent not only eliminates the need for a mixing station, but also lessens exposure to personnel and the potential for spread of contamination from treatment of radioactive wastes. Waste minimization is achieved as significantly less mass addition and volume increase is required of and results from absorbent polymer use than that of clays and cements. Operational ease and waste minimization translate into overall cost savings for LLW and MLLW treatment.

Herrmann, S. D.; Lehto, M. A.; Stewart, N. A.; Croft, A. D.; Kern, P. W.

2000-02-10

218

Actinide removal from waste solutions by ferrite treatment  

SciTech Connect

In laboratory tests, ferrite treatment was effective in removing actinides from Rocky Flats process waste. Plutonium concentrations were consistently lowered from over 10/sup -4/ g/l to the 10/sup -7/ to 10/sup -8/ g/l range. At the same time, 3.2 to 3.6 g/l solids were produced as compared to 15.7 g/1 observed over a recent 16-month period for waste treatment by flocculant precipitation. Whereas ferrite treatment required only one treatment step, at least two treatment steps are needed for flocculant precipitation to achieve the same results. Greater loadings of ferrite in a cement matrix were obtained so that very significant weight and volume reduction in immobilized solid TRU waste were observed. In addition to its effectiveness in actinide removal, ferrite waste treatment has shown considerable versatility, which would facilitate its application to a variety of waste media. There are two treatment to be used in different chemical environments. Whereas the in situ method is affected by the presence of other metal ions, the preformed ferrite addition technique is much less sensitive to the chemistry of the waste medium. Because of their strongly magnetic nature, ferrite solids can be separated magnetically in addition to techniques such as filtration and centrifugation.

Boyd, T.E.; Kochen, R.L.

1983-01-01

219

The integrated melter off-gas treatment systems at the West Valley Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

The West Valley Demonstration project was established by an act of Congress in 1980 to solidify the high level radioactive liquid wastes produced from operation of the Western New York Nuclear Services Center from 1966 to 1972. The waste will be solidified as borosilicate glass. This report describes the functions, the controlling design criteria, and the resulting design of the melter off-gas treatment systems.

Vance, R.F.

1991-12-01

220

BIOLOGICAL WASTE AIR TREATMENT IN BIOTRICKLING FILTERS. (R825392)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Recent studies in the area of biological waste air treatment in biotrickling filters have addressed fundamental key issues, such as biofilm architecture, microbiology of the process culture and means to control accumulation of biomass. The results from these s...

221

MICROORGANISMS AND HIGHER PLANTS FOR WASTE WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Batch experiments were conducted to compare the waste water treatment efficiencies of plant-free microbial filters with filters supporting the growth of reeds (Phragmites communis), cattail (Typha latifolia), rush (Juncus effusus), and bamboo (Bambusa multiplex). The experimental...

222

51. LOOKING NORTHEAST AT EIMCO WASTE WATER TREATMENT THICKENER No. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

51. LOOKING NORTHEAST AT EIMCO WASTE WATER TREATMENT THICKENER No. 2, ELECTRIC POWERHOUSE No. 2, AND OUTDOOR ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION IN BACKGROUND. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

223

12. NORTHEAST VIEW OF THE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COMPLEX FOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. NORTHEAST VIEW OF THE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COMPLEX FOR THE PRIMARY AND 22 BAR MILLS. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Auxiliary Buildings & Shops, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

224

300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This section provides a description of the Hanford Site, identifies the proposed method of 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) closure, and briefly summarizes the contents of each chapter of this plan.

NONE

1996-03-01

225

[Methods for health impact assessment of policies for municipal solid waste management: the SESPIR Project].  

PubMed

The Project Epidemiological Surveillance of Health Status of Resident Population Around the Waste Treatment Plants (SESPIR) included five Italian regions (Emilia-Romagna, Piedmont, Lazio, Campania, and Sicily) and the National Institute of Health in the period 2010-2013. SESPIR was funded by the Ministry of Health as part of the National centre for diseases prevention and control (CCM) programme of 2010 with the general objective to provide methods and operational tools for the implementation of surveillance systems for waste and health, aimed at assessing the impact of the municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment cycle on the health of the population. The specific objective was to assess health impacts resulting from the presence of disposal facilities related to different regional scenarios of waste management. Suitable tools for analysis of integrated assessment of environmental and health impact were developed and applied, using current demographic, environmental and health data. In this article, the methodology used for the quantitative estimation of the impact on the health of populations living nearby incinerators, landfills and mechanical biological treatment plants is showed, as well as the analysis of three different temporal scenarios: the first related to the existing plants in the period 2008-2009 (baseline), the second based on regional plans, the latter referring to MSW virtuous policy management based on reduction of produced waste and an intense recovery policy. PMID:25387745

Parmagnani, Federica; Ranzi, Andrea; Ancona, Carla; Angelini, Paola; Chiusolo, Monica; Cadum, Ennio; Lauriola, Paolo; Forastiere, Francesco

2014-01-01

226

Documentation assessment, Project C-018H, 200-E area effluent treatment facility  

SciTech Connect

Project C-018H is one of the fourteen subprojects to the Hanford Environmental Compliance (HEC) Project. Project C-018H provides treatment and disposal for the 242-A Evaporator and PUREX plant process condensate waste streams. This project used the Integrated Management Team (IMT) approach proposed by RL. The IMT approach included all affected organizations on the project team to coordinate and execute all required project tasks, while striving to integrate and satisfy all technical, operational, functional, and organizational objectives. The HEC Projects were initiated in 1989. Project C-018H began in early 1990, with completion of construction currently targeted for mid-1995. This assessment was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the management control on design documents and quality assurance records developed and submitted for processing, use, and retention for the Project. The assessment focused primarily on the overall adequacy and quality of the design documentation currently being submitted to the project document control function.

Peres, M.W.; Connor, M.D.; Mertelendy, J.I.

1994-12-21

227

Argonne-West facility requirements for a radioactive waste treatment demonstration  

SciTech Connect

At Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W), near Idaho Falls, Idaho, facilities that were originally constructed to support the development of liquid-metal reactor technology are being used and/or modified to meet the environmental and waste management research needs of DOE. One example is the use of an Argonne-West facility to conduct a radioactive waste treatment demonstration through a cooperative project with Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company. The Plasma Hearth Process (PBP) project will utilize commercially-adapted plasma arc technology to demonstrate treatment of actual mixed waste. The demonstration on radioactive waste will be conducted at Argonne`s Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT). Utilization of an existing facility for a new and different application presents a unique set of issues in meeting applicable federal state, and local requirements as well as the additional constraints imposed by DOE Orders and ANL-W site requirements. This paper briefly describes the PHP radioactive demonstrations relevant to the interfaces with the TREAT facility. Safety, environmental design, and operational considerations pertinent to the PHP radioactive demonstration are specifically addressed herein. The personnel equipment, and facility interfaces associated with a radioactive waste treatment demonstration are an important aspect of the demonstration effort. Areas requiring significant effort in preparation for the PBP Project being conducted at the TREAT facility include confinement design, waste handling features, and sampling and analysis considerations. Information about the facility in which a radioactive demonstration will be conducted, specifically Argonne`s TREAT facility in the case of PHP, may be of interest to other organizations involved in developing and demonstrating technologies for mixed waste treatment.

Dwight, C.C.; Felicione, F.S.; Black, D.B.; Kelso, R.B.; McClellan, G.C.

1995-03-01

228

A process for treatment of mixed waste containing chemical plating wastes  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Treatment and Minimization Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed and will be constructing a transportable treatment system to treat low-level radioactive mixed waste generated during plating operations. The chemical and plating waste treatment system is composed of two modules with six submodules, which can be trucked to user sites to treat a wide variety of aqueous waste solutions. The process is designed to remove the hazardous components from the waste stream, generating chemically benign, disposable liquids and solids with low level radioactivity. The chemical and plating waste treatment system is designed as a multifunctional process capable of treating several different types of wastes. At this time, the unit has been the designated treatment process for these wastes: Destruction of free cyanide and metal-cyanide complexes from spent plating solutions; destruction of ammonia in solution from spent plating solutions; reduction of Cr{sup VI} to Cr{sup III} from spent plating solutions, precipitation, solids separation, and immobilization; heavy metal precipitation from spent plating solutions, solids separation, and immobilization, and acid or base neutralization from unspecified solutions.

Anast, K.R.; Dziewinski, J.; Lussiez, G.

1995-02-01

229

CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS FOR ANIMAL WASTE WATER TREATMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Confined animal production generates enormous per-unit-area quantities of waste. Waste- water from dairy and swine operations has been successfully treated in constructed wetlands. Plants are an integral part of wetlands. Cattails and bul~~hes are commonly used in constructed wetlands for their capacity to transport oxygen to the sediment. Improved oxidation and nitrification may also be obtained by the use of

P. G. Hunt; M. B. Vanotti; A. A. Szogi; F. J. Humenik; J. M. Rice

230

Biohazardous Waste Disposal GuidelinesDescriptionStorage& LabelingTreatmentDisposal  

E-print Network

with water. Before generating mixed waste (i.e., mixtures of biohazardous and chemical or radioactive wasteBiohazardous Waste Disposal GuidelinesDescriptionStorage& packaging LabelingTreatmentDisposal Mixed Waste Sharps Waste Solid Lab Waste Liquid Waste Any of these devices if contaminated with biohazardous

Wikswo, John

231

RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING WITH ACUTAL HANFORD LOW ACTIVITY WASTES VERIFYING FBSR AS A SUPPLEMENTARY TREATMENT  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the cleanup mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA). Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is one of the supplementary treatments being considered. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and other secondary wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates/nitrites, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, and/or radio-nuclides like I-129 and Tc-99. Radioactive testing of Savannah River LAW (Tank 50) shimmed to resemble Hanford LAW and actual Hanford LAW (SX-105 and AN-103) have produced a ceramic (mineral) waste form which is the same as the non-radioactive waste simulants tested at the engineering scale. The radioactive testing demonstrated that the FBSR process can retain the volatile radioactive components that cannot be contained at vitrification temperatures. The radioactive and nonradioactive mineral waste forms that were produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process are shown to be as durable as LAW glass.

Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Bannochie, C.; Daniel, G.; Nash, C.; Cozzi, A.; Herman, C.

2012-01-12

232

TWRS privatization support project waste characterization database development. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory requested support from ICF Kaiser Hanford Company in assembling radionuclide and chemical analyte sample data and inventory estimates for fourteen Hanford under-ground storage tanks: 241-AN-102, -104, -105, -106, and -107, 241-AP-102, -104, and -105; 241-AW-101, -103, and -105, 241-AZ-101 and-102; and 241-C-109. Sample data were assembled for sixteen radio nuclides and thirty five chemical analytes. The characterization data were provided to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in support of the Tank Waste Remediation Services Privatization Support Project. The purpose of this report is to present the results and document the methodology used in preparing the waste characterization information data set to support the Tank Waste Remediation Services Privatization Support Project. This report describes the methodology used in assembling the waste characterization information and how that information was validated by a panel of independent technical reviewers. Also, contained in this report are the various data sets created., the master data set, a subset, and an unreviewed data set .

Brevick, C.H. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-11-01

233

Recovery Act: Waste Energy Project at AK Steel Corporation Middletown  

SciTech Connect

In 2008, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (“Air Products”) began development of a project to beneficially utilize waste blast furnace “topgas” generated in the course of the iron-making process at AK Steel Corporation’s Middletown, Ohio works. In early 2010, Air Products was awarded DOE Assistance Agreement DE-EE002736 to further develop and build the combined-cycle power generation facility. In June 2012, Air Products and AK Steel Corporation terminated work when it was determined that the project would not be economically viable at that time nor in the foreseeable future. The project would have achieved the FOA-0000044 Statement of Project Objectives by demonstrating, at a commercial scale, the technology to capture, treat, and convert blast furnace topgas into electric power and thermal energy.

Joyce, Jeffrey

2012-06-30

234

Non-Thermal Treatment of Hanford Site Low-Level Mixed Waste  

SciTech Connect

DOE proposes to transport contact-handled LLMW from the Hanford Site to the Allied Technology Group (ATG) Mixed Waste Facility (MWF) in Richland, Washington, for non-thermal treatment and to return the treated waste to the Hanford Site for eventual land disposal. Over a 3-year period the waste would be staged to the ATG MWF, and treated waste would be returned to the Hanford Site. The ATG MWF would be located on an 18 hectare (ha) (45 acre [at]) ATG Site adjacent to ATG's licensed low-level waste processing facility at 2025 Battelle Boulevard. The ATG MWF is located approximately 0.8 kilometers (km) (0.5 miles [mi]) south of Horn Rapids Road and 1.6 km (1 mi) west of Stevens Drive. The property is located within the Horn Rapids triangle in northern Richland (Figure 2.1). The ATG MWF is to be located on the existing ATG Site, near the DOE Hanford Site, in an industrial area in the City of Richland. The effects of siting, construction, and overall operation of the MWF have been evaluated in a separate State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) EIS (City of Richland 1998). The proposed action includes transporting the LLMW from the Hanford Site to the ATG Facility, non-thermal treatment of the LLMW at the ATG MWF, and transporting the waste from ATG back to the Hanford Site. Impacts fi-om waste treatment operations would be bounded by the ATG SEPA EIS, which included an evaluation of the impacts associated with operating the non-thermal portion of the MWF at maximum design capacity (8,500 metric tons per year) (City of Richland 1998). Up to 50 employees would be required for non-thermal treatment portion of the MWF. This includes 40 employees that would perform waste treatment operations and 10 support staff. Similar numbers were projected for the thermal treatment portion of the MWF (City of Richland 1998).

NONE

1998-09-01

235

Isolation of wastes in electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel.  

SciTech Connect

The main hazards in spent nuclear fuel are fission products and transuranic radionuclides. An electrometallurgical treatment is designed to isolate these elements by electrorefining and then place them in waste forms suitable for geologic disposal. In the highly reducing chemical environment used for electrometallurgical treatment, fuel cladding and transition-metal fission products remain as metals; these metals are collected and melted to form a highly corrosion-resistant waste form. Other fission-product elements and transuranic elements collect in the molten-salt process fluid and are removed by ion exchange into zeolite, which is further processed to make a durable-composite ceramic waste form.

Ackerman, J. P.; Chow, L. S. H.; McDeavitt, S. M.; Pereira, C.; Woodman, R. H.; Chemical Engineering

1997-01-01

236

Basalt Waste Isolation Project. Annual report, fiscal year 1980  

SciTech Connect

During this fiscal year the information available in the fields of geology and hydrology of the Columbia Plateau was consolidated and two reports were issued summarizing this information. In addition, the information on engineered barriers was consolidated and a report summarizing the research to date on waste package development and design of borehole seals was prepared. The waste package studies, when combined with the hydrologic integration, revealed that even under extreme disruptive conditions, a repository in basalt with appropriately designed waste packages can serve as an excellent barrier for containment of radionuclides for the long periods of time required for waste isolation. On July 1, 1980, the first two heater tests at the Near-Surface Test Facility were started and have been successfully operated to this date. The papers on the Near-Surface Test Facility section of this report present the results of the equipment installed and the preliminary results of the testing. In October 1979, the US Department of Energy selected the joint venture of Kaiser Engineers/Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade and Douglas, Inc., to be the architect-engineer to produce a conceptual design of a repository in basalt. During the year, this design has progressed and concept selection has now been completed. This annual report presents a summary of the highlights of the work completed during fiscal year 1980. It is intended to supplement and summarize the nearly 200 papers and reports that have been distributed to date as a part of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project studies.

Not Available

1980-11-01

237

Biofiltration treatment of odors from municipal solid waste treatment plants.  

PubMed

An in situ compost biofilter was established for the treatment of odors from biostabilization processing of municipal solid waste. The concentrations of total volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in odors and their components were measured. Biofilter media was characterized in terms of total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), organic matter (OM), pH value and determination of bacterial colony structure. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed that the main components of the produced gas were benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) along with other alkanes, alkenes, terpenes, and sulphur compounds. The compost biofilter had remarkable removal ability for alkylated benzenes (>80%), but poor removal for terpenes ( approximately 30%). Total VOC concentrations in odors during the biostabilization process period ranged from 0.7 to 87 ppmv, and the VOC removal efficiency of the biofilter varied from 20% to 95%. After about 140 days operation, TN, TC, TP and OM in compost were kept almost stable, but the dissolved N, NH(4)-N and NO(3)-N experienced an increase of 44.5%, 56.2% and 76.3%, respectively. Dissolved P decreased by 27.3%. The pH value experienced an increase in the early period and finally varied from 7.38 to 8.08. Results of bacterial colony in packing material indicated that bacteria and mold colony counts increased, but yeasts and actinomyces decreased along with biofilter operation, which were respectively, 3.7, 3.4, 0.04 and 0.07 times of their initial values. PMID:19282165

Liu, Qiang; Li, Mi; Chen, Rong; Li, Zhengyue; Qian, Guangren; An, Taicheng; Fu, Jiamo; Sheng, Guoying

2009-07-01

238

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT Waste Water Treatment Modifications for  

E-print Network

. Environmental Evaluation and Notification Form · Checklist of all potential impacts associated with project Assessment · Finding of No Significant Impact ­ project proceeds or · Determination for Environmental Impact Statement 6 #12;7 Environmental Assessment (EA) Purpose and Need (for the project) · Ensure Compliance

Homes, Christopher C.

239

US Department of Energy interim mixed waste inventory report: Waste streams, treatment capacities and technologies: Volume 4, Site specific---Ohio through South Carolina  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report to provide an inventory of its mixed wastes and treatment capacities and technologies in response to Section 105(a) of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct) of 1992 (Pub. L. No. 102-386). As required by the FFCAct-1992, this report provides site-specific information on DOE`s mixed waste streams and a general review of available and planned treatment facilities for mixed wastes at the following five Ohio facilities: Battelle Columbus Laboratories; Fernald Environmental Management Project; Mound Plant; Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant; and RMI, Titanium Company.

Not Available

1993-04-01

240

Characterization of secondary solid waste anticipated from the treatment of trench water from Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

This project was undertaken to demonstrate that new liquid waste streams, generated as a consequence of closure activities at Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6, can be treated adequately by existing wastewater treatment facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) without producing hazardous secondary solid wastes. Previous bench-scale treatable studies indicated that ORNL treatment operations will adequately remove the contaminants although additional study was required in order to characterize the secondary waste materials produced as a result of the treatment A 0.5-L/min pilot plant was designed and constructed to accurately simulate the treatment capabilities of ORNL fill-scale (490 L/min) treatment facilities-the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) and Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant (NRWTP). This new test system was able to produce secondary wastes in the quantities necessary for US Environmental Protection Agency toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) testing. The test system was operated for a 45-d test period with a minimum of problems and downtime. The pilot plant operating data verified that the WAG 6 trench waters can be treated at the PWTP and NRWTP to meet the discharge limits. The results of TCLP testing indicate that none of the secondary solid wastes will be considered hazardous as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

Kent, T.E.; Taylor, P.A.

1992-09-01

241

An overview of in situ waste treatment technologies  

SciTech Connect

In situ technologies are becoming an attractive remedial alternative for eliminating environmental problems. In situ treatments typically reduce risks and costs associated with retrieving, packaging, and storing or disposing-waste and are generally preferred over ex situ treatments. Each in situ technology has specific applications, and, in order to provide the most economical and practical solution to a waste problem, these applications must be understood. This paper presents an overview of thirty different in situ remedial technologies for buried wastes or contaminated soil areas. The objective of this paper is to familiarize those involved in waste remediation activities with available and emerging in situ technologies so that they may consider these options in the remediation of hazardous and/or radioactive waste sites. Several types of in situ technologies are discussed, including biological treatments, containment technologies, physical/chemical treatments, solidification/stabilization technologies, and thermal treatments. Each category of in situ technology is briefly examined in this paper. Specific treatments belonging to these categories are also reviewed. Much of the information on in situ treatment technologies in this paper was obtained directly from vendors and universities and this information has not been verified.

Walker, S.; Hyde, R.A.; Piper, R.B.; Roy, M.W.

1992-08-01

242

An overview of in situ waste treatment technologies  

SciTech Connect

In situ technologies are becoming an attractive remedial alternative for eliminating environmental problems. In situ treatments typically reduce risks and costs associated with retrieving, packaging, and storing or disposing-waste and are generally preferred over ex situ treatments. Each in situ technology has specific applications, and, in order to provide the most economical and practical solution to a waste problem, these applications must be understood. This paper presents an overview of thirty different in situ remedial technologies for buried wastes or contaminated soil areas. The objective of this paper is to familiarize those involved in waste remediation activities with available and emerging in situ technologies so that they may consider these options in the remediation of hazardous and/or radioactive waste sites. Several types of in situ technologies are discussed, including biological treatments, containment technologies, physical/chemical treatments, solidification/stabilization technologies, and thermal treatments. Each category of in situ technology is briefly examined in this paper. Specific treatments belonging to these categories are also reviewed. Much of the information on in situ treatment technologies in this paper was obtained directly from vendors and universities and this information has not been verified.

Walker, S.; Hyde, R.A.; Piper, R.B.; Roy, M.W.

1992-01-01

243

Constructed Wetlands and Waste Stabilization Ponds for municipal wastewater treatment in France: comparison of  

E-print Network

13 Constructed Wetlands and Waste Stabilization Ponds for municipal wastewater treatment in France In France, vertical flow constructed wetlands and waste stabilisation ponds are both extensive treatment Vertical Flow Constructed Wetlands, Waste Stabilization Ponds, operation and maintenance, sludge management

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

244

Project characteristics monitoring report: BWIP (Basalt Waste Isolation Program) repository project  

SciTech Connect

This monitoring report has been prepared to show compliance with provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) and to provide local and state government agencies with information concerning the Basalt Waste Isolation Program (BWIP). This report contains data for the time period May 26, 1986 to February 1988. The data include employment figures, salaries, project purchases, taxes and fees paid, worker survey results, and project closedown personal interview summaries. This information has become particularly important since the decision in December 1987 to stop all BWIP activities except those for site reclamation. The Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 requires nonreclamation work at the Hanford Site to stop as of March 22, 1988. 7 refs., 6 figs., 28 tabs.

Friedli, E.A.; Herborn, D.I.; Taylor, C.D.; Tomlinson, K.M.

1988-03-01

245

Intermediate-level waste transfer line decommissioning project. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Intermediate-Level Waste (ILW) transfer line at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was an integral part of the liquid radioactive waste disposal system, operating from 1952 until 1975. This line was used to transport ILW from the waste processing facilities in the Bethel Valley area at ORNL to final disposal sites in the adjacent Melton Valley. During the history of pipeline operations, approximately 45 million gallons of liquid waste, containing over 1.5 million curies of mixed fission products, were transferred through the line to waste disposal trenches and to the ORNL hydrofracture facility. Use of the line was discontinued in 1975 when a new, doubly-contained line was installed to service the expanded hydrofracture program. Since 1976, the ILW line has been under the control of the ORNL Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). Due to the presence of contaminated soil at two former leak sites along the line, and the potential for radionuclide migration from that portion of the abandoned line that traverses White Oak Creek and the floodplain, decommissioning of the ILW line was given a high priority by the ORNL SFMP. In 1979, plans were initiated for corrective action along those portions of the line. The decommissioning activities have now been completed, with the abandoned line being placed in a condition that significantly reduces the hazards associated with it. The portion of the line in the White Oak Creek floodplain was removed, and the two leak sites entombed. This report presents the results of the ILW line decommissioning project, outlining the scope of the effort, describing the decommissioning experiences, and summarizing the project costs and schedules. 14 references, 30 figures, 3 tables.

Walls, A.A.; Tatum, W.G.; Myrick, T.E.; du Mont, S.P.

1983-12-01

246

Project management plan, Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module 1, Project W-026  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 Project (WRAP 1) has been established to support the retrieval and final disposal of approximately 400K grams of plutonium and quantities of hazardous components currently stored in drums at the Hanford Site.

Starkey, J.G.

1993-05-01

247

Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

David Duncan

2010-06-01

248

Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

David Duncan

2011-04-01

249

Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

David Duncan

2011-03-01

250

Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

David Duncan

2009-10-01

251

Mixed Waste Treatment Using the ChemChar Thermolytic Detoxification Technique  

SciTech Connect

This R and D program addresses the treatment of mixed waste employing the ChemChar Thermolytic Detoxification process. Surrogate mixed waste streams will be treated in a four inch diameter, continuous feed, adiabatic reactor with the goal of meeting all regulatory treatment levels for the contaminants in the surrogates with the concomitant production of contaminant free by-products. Successful completion of this program will show that organic contaminants in mixed waste surrogates will be converted to a clean, energy rich synthesis gas capable of being used, without further processing, for power or heat generation. The inorganic components in the surrogates will be found to be adsorbed on a macroporous coal char activated carbon substrate which is mixed with the waste prior to treatment. These contaminants include radioactive metal surrogate species, RCRA hazardous metals and any acid gases formed during the treatment process. The program has three main tasks that will be performed to meet the above objectives. The first task is the design and construction of the four inch reactor at Mirage Systems in Sunnyvale, CA. The second task is production and procurement of the activated carbon char employed in the ChemChartest runs and identification of two surrogate mixed wastes. The last task is testing and operation of the reactor on char/surrogate waste mixtures to be performed at the University of Missouri. The deliverables for the project are a Design Review Report, Operational Test Plan, Topical Report and Final Report. This report contains only the results of the design and construction carbon production-surrogate waste identification tasks.Treatment of the surrogate mixed wastes has just begun and will not be reported in this version of the Final Report. The latter will be reported in the final version of the Final Report.

Kuchynka, D.J.

1997-01-01

252

TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS  

SciTech Connect

Metal-laden wastes can be stabilized and solidified using advanced clean coal technology by-products (CCTBs)--fluid bed combustor ash and spray drier solids. These utility-generated treatment chemicals are available for purchase through brokers, and commercial applications of this process are being practiced by treaters of metal-laden hazardous waste. A complex of regulations governs this industry, and sensitivities to this complex has discouraged public documentation of treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with CCTBs. This report provides a comprehensive public documentation of laboratory studies that show the efficacy of the stabilization and solidification of metal-laden hazardous wastes--such as lead-contaminated soils and sandblast residues--through treatment with CCTBs. It then describes the extensive efforts that were made to obtain the permits allowing a commercial hazardous waste treater to utilize CCTBs as treatment chemicals and to install the equipment required to do so. It concludes with the effect of this lengthy process on the ability of the treatment company to realize the practical, physical outcome of this effort, leading to premature termination of the project.

James T. Cobb, Jr.

2003-09-12

253

PERMIT ROADMAP DEVELOPMENT FOR MIXED WASTE TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA and DOE established a multi-year Interagency Agreement (IAG) in1991. he main objective of the IAG (and of the second IAG that was added in 1993) is to conduct a research program on thermal technologies for treating mixed waste and to establish permit procedures for these tech...

254

Waste acid detoxification and reclamation: Phase 1, Project planning and concept development  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project are to develop processes for reducing the volume, quantity, and toxicity of metal-bearing waste acids. The primary incentives for implemeting these types of waste minimization processes are regulatory and economic in that they meet requirements in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and reduce the cost for treatment, storage, and disposal. Two precipitation processes and a distillation process are being developed to minimize waste from fuel fabrication operations, which comprise a series of metal-finishing operations. Waste process acids, such as HF/--/HNO/sub 3/ etch solutions contianing Zr as a major metal impurity and HNO/sub 3/ strip solutions containing Cu as a major metal impurity, are detoxified and reclaimed by concurrently precipitating heavy metals and regenerating acid for recycle. Acid from a third waste acid stream generated from chemical milling operations will be reclaimed using distillation. This stream comprises HNO/sub 3/ and H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ which contains U as the major metal impurity. Distillation allows NO/sub 3//sup /minus// to be displaced by SO/sub 4//sup /minus/2/ in metal salts; free HNO/sub 3/ is then vaporized from the U-bearing sulfate stream. Uranium can be recovered from the sulfate stream in downstream precipitation step. These waste minimization processes were developed to meet Hanford's fuel fabrication process needs. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Stewart, T.L.; Brouns, T.M.

1988-02-01

255

Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility: Environmental Information Document  

SciTech Connect

At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the treatment of radioactive liquid waste is an integral function of the LANL mission: to assure U.S. military deterrence capability through nuclear weapons technology. As part of this mission, LANL conducts nuclear materials research and development (R&D) activities. These activities generate radioactive liquid waste that must be handled in a manner to ensure protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Radioactive liquid waste currently generated at LANL is treated at the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF), located at Technical Area (TA)-50. The RLWTF is 30 years old and nearing the end of its useful design life. The facility was designed at a time when environmental requirements, as well as more effective treatment technologies, were not inherent in engineering design criteria. The evolution of engineering design criteria has resulted in the older technology becoming less effective in treating radioactive liquid wastestreams in accordance with current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory requirements. Therefore, to support ongoing R&D programs pertinent to its mission, LANL is in need of capabilities to efficiently treat radioactive liquid waste onsite or to transport the waste off site for treatment and/or disposal. The purpose of the EID is to provide the technical baseline information for subsequent preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the RLWTF. This EID addresses the proposed action and alternatives for meeting the purpose and need for agency action.

Haagenstad, H.T.; Gonzales, G.; Suazo, I.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1993-11-01

256

Reliability analysis of common hazardous waste treatment processes  

SciTech Connect

Five hazardous waste treatment processes are analyzed probabilistically using Monte Carlo simulation to elucidate the relationships between process safety factors and reliability levels. The treatment processes evaluated are packed tower aeration, reverse osmosis, activated sludge, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, and activated carbon adsorption.

Waters, R.D. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)

1993-05-01

257

Compendium of Technologies Used in the Treatment of Hazardous Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document is intended to serve as an introduction to technologies which can be used in the treatment of hazardous wastes. While the contents of this document are not exhaustive, it is believed that most treatment processes are discussed. Each technolog...

C. A. Clemons

1987-01-01

258

Ferrite treatment of actinide-waste solutions: continuous processing of Rocky Flats process waste  

SciTech Connect

The ferrite waste-treatment process ws investigated in the laboratory in a continuous mode to evaluate the effectiveness of this method for removing plutonium and americium from aqueous waste under a wide variety of conditions. Experiments using actual process waste samples indicated that plutonium and americium concentrations could be lowered consistently by three to four orders of magnitude in one treatment step. At the same time, the amount of solid by-product produced was approximately 80% less than that observed in recent plant operation using flocculant precipitation.

Boyd, T.E.; Kochen, R.L.

1983-03-18

259

Audits of hazardous waste TSDFs let generators sleep easy. [Hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facility  

SciTech Connect

Because of the increasingly strict enforcement of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), generators of hazardous waste are compelled to investigate the hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facility (TSDF) they use. This investigation must include an environmental and a financial audit. Simple audits may be performed by the hazardous waste generator, while more thorough ones such as those performed for groups of generators are more likely to be conducted by environmental consultants familiar with treatment, storage, and disposal techniques and the regulatory framework that guides them.

Carr, F.H.

1990-02-01

260

Reduction of radioactive secondary waste with steam reforming in treatment of waste TBP/dodecane  

SciTech Connect

Waste tributyl phosphate (TBP) and normal dodecane generated from R and D activities on recycle of nuclear fuel has been stored in Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). If it is incinerated, a large quantity of contaminated phosphorous compounds will be generated as radioactive secondary wastes. The objective of this study is to reduce the generation of the radioactive secondary wastes by the treatment of the waste TBP/dodecane using steam reforming system. We constructed the demonstration scale steam reforming system which consists of a gasification chamber for vaporization of wastes, a metal mesh filter for removal of radioactive nuclides from gasified wastes, a combustion chamber, and scrubbers for removal of phosphorous oxides. We conducted process demonstration tests using waste TBP/dodecane with 0.07 g/L of uranium. We studied the temperature dependence of the gasification ratio of inorganic phosphorus compounds formed by pyrolysis of TBP in the gasification chamber and removal of uranium by the filter. As the results, more than 90% of phosphorus compounds were gasified from the gasification chamber at temperature of 600 deg. C or more, and the uranium concentration in the waste water generated from the off-gas treatment system is under the detection limits. The waste water containing the separated phosphorus compounds can be discharged into the river or the sea as the liquid wastes in which uranium concentration is under the regulatory level. These results show the steam reforming system is effective in the reduction of radioactive secondary waste in the treatment of TBP/dodecane. (authors)

Sone, Tomoyuki; Sasaki, Toshiki; Yamaguchi, Hiromi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan)

2007-07-01

261

Mixed-waste treatment -- What about the residuals? A comparative analysis of MSO and incineration  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the issues concerning final waste forms, or residuals, that result from the treatment of mixed waste in molten salt oxidation (MSO) and incinerator systems. MSO is a technology with the potential to treat a certain segment of the waste streams at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. MSO was compared with incineration because incineration is the best demonstrated available technology (BDAT) for the same waste streams. The Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) prepared this report for the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration (OER). The goals of this study are to objectively evaluate the anticipated residuals from MSO and incineration, examine regulatory issues for these final waste forms, and determine secondary treatment options. This report, developed to address concerns that MSO residuals present unique disposal difficulties, is part of a larger effort to successfully implement MSO as a treatment technology for mixed and hazardous waste. A Peer Review Panel reviewed the MSO technology in November 1991, and the implementation effort is ongoing under the guidance of the MSO Task Force.

NONE

1993-06-01

262

In Situ Modular Waste Retrieval and Treatment System  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act process from remediation of Waste Area Grouping (WAG 6) at ORNL, a public meeting was held for the Proposed Plan. It was recognized that contaminant releases from WAG 6 posed minimal potential risk to the public and the environment. The US DOE in conjunction with the US EPA and the TDEC agreed to defer remedial action at WAG 6 until higher risk release sites were first remediated. This report presents the results of a conceptual design for an In Situ Modular Retrieval and Treatment System able to excavate, shred, and process buried waste on site, with minimum disturbance and distribution of dust and debris. the system would bring appropriate levels of treatment to the waste then encapsulate and leave it in place. The system would be applicable to areas in which waste was disposed in long trenches.

Walker, M.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-10-01

263

RADIOACTIVE LAUNDRY WASTE TREATMENT SYSTEM WITHOUT SECONDARY WASTE GENERATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new treatment system for the laundry liquid radwaste generated from nuclear power plant has been developed. The system is composed of a RO membrane module and a UV photo-oxidation reactor. It is designed with the flow rate, 1 ton\\/hr, and the volume reduction fatcor, more than 100. The DF(Decontamination Factor) over 100 is expected for the radioactive cobalt and

Jong-Kil Park; Se-Moon Park; Jong-Bin Kim; Myung-Chan Lee; Myung-Jae Song

2000-01-01

264

Treatment and minimization of heavy metal-containing wastes 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

This symposium was held in conjunction with the 1995 Annual Meeting of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society in Las Vegas, Nevada, February 12--16, 1995. The purpose of this meeting was to provide a forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on treating and minimizing heavy metal-containing wastes. Papers were categorized under the following broad headings: aqueous processing; waste water treatment;

J. P. Hager; B. Mishra; C. F. Davidson; J. L. Litz

1995-01-01

265

Hybrid Microwave Treatment of SRS TRU and Mixed Wastes  

SciTech Connect

A new process, using hybrid microwave energy, has been developed as part of the Strategic Research and Development program and successfully applied to treatment of a wide variety of non-radioactive materials, representative of SRS transuranic (TRU) and mixed wastes. Over 35 simulated (non-radioactive) TRU and mixed waste materials were processed individually, as well as in mixed batches, using hybrid microwave energy, a new technology now being patented by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC).

Wicks, G.G.

1999-11-18

266

Functional design criteria radioactive liquid waste line replacement, Project W-087. Revision 3  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the functional design criteria for the 222-S Laboratory radioactive waste drain piping and transfer pipeline replacement. The project will replace the radioactive waste drain piping from the hot cells in 222-S to the 219-S Waste Handling Facility and provide a new waste transfer route from 219-S to the 244-S Catch Station in Tank Farms.

McVey, C.B.

1994-10-13

267

Functional design criteria radioactive liquid waste line replacement, Project W-087. Revision 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document provides the functional design criteria for the 222-S Laboratory radioactive waste drain piping and transfer pipeline replacement. The project will replace the radioactive waste drain piping from the hot cells in 222-S to the 219-S Waste Handling Facility and provide a new waste transfer route from 219-S to the 244-S Catch Station in Tank Farms.

McVey

1994-01-01

268

Analysis of accident sequences and source terms at treatment and storage facilities for waste generated by US Department of Energy waste management operations  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the methodology, computational framework, and results of facility accident analyses performed for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The accident sequences potentially important to human health risk are specified, their frequencies assessed, and the resultant radiological and chemical source terms evaluated. A personal-computer-based computational framework and database have been developed that provide these results as input to the WM PEIS for the calculation of human health risk impacts. The WM PEIS addresses management of five waste streams in the DOE complex: low-level waste (LLW), hazardous waste (HW), high-level waste (HLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and transuranic waste (TRUW). Currently projected waste generation rates, storage inventories, and treatment process throughputs have been calculated for each of the waste streams. This report summarizes the accident analyses and aggregates the key results for each of the waste streams. Source terms are estimated, and results are presented for each of the major DOE sites and facilities by WM PEIS alternative for each waste stream. Key assumptions in the development of the source terms are identified. The appendices identify the potential atmospheric release of each toxic chemical or radionuclide for each accident scenario studied. They also discuss specific accident analysis data and guidance used or consulted in this report.

Mueller, C.; Nabelssi, B.; Roglans-Ribas, J.; Folga, S.; Policastro, A.; Freeman, W.; Jackson, R.; Mishima, J.; Turner, S.

1996-12-01

269

Pilot studies to achieve waste minimization and enhance radioactive liquid waste treatment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Radioactive and Industrial Wastewater Science Group manages and operates the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The RLWTF treats low-level radioactive liquid waste generated by research and analytical facilities at approximately 35 technical areas throughout the 43-square-mile site. The RLWTF treats an average of 5.8 million gallons (21.8-million liters) of liquid waste

J. Freer; E. Freer; A. Bond

1996-01-01

270

PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) 241-Z LIQUID WASTE TREATMENT FACILITY DEACTIVATION AND DEMOLITION  

SciTech Connect

Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) is proud to submit the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) 241-Z liquid Waste Treatment Facility Deactivation and Demolition (D&D) Project for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2008. The decommissioning of the 241-Z Facility presented numerous challenges, many of which were unique with in the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. The majority of the project budget and schedule was allocated for cleaning out five below-grade tank vaults. These highly contaminated, confined spaces also presented significant industrial safety hazards that presented some of the most hazardous work environments on the Hanford Site. The 241-Z D&D Project encompassed diverse tasks: cleaning out and stabilizing five below-grade tank vaults (also called cells), manually size-reducing and removing over three tons of process piping from the vaults, permanently isolating service utilities, removing a large contaminated chemical supply tank, stabilizing and removing plutonium-contaminated ventilation ducts, demolishing three structures to grade, and installing an environmental barrier on the demolition site . All of this work was performed safely, on schedule, and under budget. During the deactivation phase of the project between November 2005 and February 2007, workers entered the highly contaminated confined-space tank vaults 428 times. Each entry (or 'dive') involved an average of three workers, thus equaling approximately 1,300 individual confined -space entries. Over the course of the entire deactivation and demolition period, there were no recordable injuries and only one minor reportable skin contamination. The 241-Z D&D Project was decommissioned under the provisions of the 'Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order' (the Tri-Party Agreement or TPA), the 'Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976' (RCRA), and the 'Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980' (CERCLA). The project completed TPA Milestone M-083-032 to 'Complete those activities required by the 241-Z Treatment and Storage Unit's RCRA Closure Plan' four years and seven months ahead of this legally enforceable milestone. In addition, the project completed TPA Milestone M-083-042 to 'Complete transition and dismantlement of the 241-2 Waste Treatment Facility' four years and four months ahead of schedule. The project used an innovative approach in developing the project-specific RCRA closure plan to assure clear integration between the 241-Z RCRA closure activities and ongoing and future CERCLA actions at PFP. This approach provided a regulatory mechanism within the RCRA closure plan to place segments of the closure that were not practical to address at this time into future actions under CERCLA. Lessons learned from th is approach can be applied to other closure projects within the DOE Complex to control scope creep and mitigate risk. A paper on this topic, entitled 'Integration of the 241-Z Building D and D Under CERCLA with RCRA Closure at the PFP', was presented at the 2007 Waste Management Conference in Tucson, Arizona. In addition, techniques developed by the 241-Z D&D Project to control airborne contamination, clean the interior of the waste tanks, don and doff protective equipment, size-reduce plutonium-contaminated process piping, and mitigate thermal stress for the workers can be applied to other cleanup activities. The project-management team developed a strategy utilizing early characterization, targeted cleanup, and close coordination with PFP Criticality Engineering to significantly streamline the waste- handling costs associated with the project . The project schedule was structured to support an early transition to a criticality 'incredible' status for the 241-Z Facility. The cleanup work was sequenced and coordinated with project-specific criticality analysis to allow the fissile material waste being generated to be managed in a bulk fashion, instead of individual waste packages. This approach negated the need for real-time assay of individ

JOHNSTON GA

2008-01-15

271

OXIDATION DITCH TREATMENT OF MEATPACKING WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The analysis of 18 months of early operation for a channel aeration activated sludge wastewater treatment plant is presented. The treatment plant receives an average flow of 2.8 million gallons per day from the John Morrell and Company, Ottumwa, Iowa hog and beef meatpacking plan...

272

Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Newly Generated Liquid Waste Demonstration Project Feasibility Study  

SciTech Connect

A research, development, and demonstration project for the grouting of newly generated liquid waste (NGLW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center is considered feasible. NGLW is expected from process equipment waste, decontamination waste, analytical laboratory waste, fuel storage basin waste water, and high-level liquid waste evaporator condensate. The potential grouted waste would be classed as mixed low-level waste, stabilized and immobilized to meet RCRA LDR disposal in a grouting process in the CPP-604 facility, and then transported to the state.

Herbst, A.K.

2000-02-01

273

Radioactive waste management treatments: A selection for the Italian scenario  

SciTech Connect

The increased attention for radioactive waste management is one of the most peculiar aspects of the nuclear sector considering both reactors and not power sources. The aim of this paper is to present the state-of-art of treatments for radioactive waste management all over the world in order to derive guidelines for the radioactive waste management in the Italian scenario. Starting with an overview on the international situation, it analyses the different sources, amounts, treatments, social and economic impacts looking at countries with different industrial backgrounds, energetic policies, geography and population. It lists all these treatments and selects the most reasonable according to technical, economic and social criteria. In particular, a double scenario is discussed (to be considered in case of few quantities of nuclear waste): the use of regional, centralized, off site processing facilities, which accept waste from many nuclear plants, and the use of mobile systems, which can be transported among multiple nuclear sites for processing campaigns. At the end the treatments suitable for the Italian scenario are presented providing simplified work-flows and guidelines. (authors)

Locatelli, G. [Univ. of Lincoln, Lincoln School of Engineering, Brayford Pool - Lincoln LN6 7TS (United Kingdom); Mancini, M. [Politecnico di Milano, Dept. of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering, Via Lambruschini 4/B, Milano (Italy); Sardini, M. [Politecnico di Milano, Dept. of Energy, Via Lambruschini 4, Milano (Italy)

2012-07-01

274

The artificial water cycle: emergy analysis of waste water treatment.  

PubMed

The artificial water cycle can be divided into the phases of water capture from the environment, potabilisation, distribution, waste water collection, waste water treatment and discharge back into the environment. The terminal phase of this cycle, from waste water collection to discharge into the environment, was assessed by emergy analysis. Emergy is the quantity of solar energy needed directly or indirectly to provide a product or energy flow in a given process. The emergy flow attributed to a process is therefore an index of the past and present environmental cost to support it. Six municipalities on the western side of the province of Bologna were analysed. Waste water collection is managed by the municipal councils and treatment is carried out in plants managed by a service company. Waste water collection was analysed by compiling a mass balance of the sewer system serving the six municipalities, including construction materials and sand for laying the pipelines. Emergy analysis of the water treatment plants was also carried out. The results show that the great quantity of emergy required to treat a gram of water is largely due to input of non renewable fossil fuels. As found in our previous analysis of the first part of the cycle, treatment is likewise characterised by high expenditure of non renewable resources, indicating a correlation with energy flows. PMID:12817633

Bastianoni, Simone; Fugaro, Laura; Principi, Ilaria; Rosini, Marco

2003-04-01

275

40 CFR 266.225 - What wastes are eligible for the storage and treatment conditional exemption?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false What wastes are eligible for the storage and treatment conditional exemption? ...Conditional Exemption for Low-Level Mixed Waste Storage, Treatment, Transportation and Disposal. Storage and Treatment Conditional Exemption...

2010-07-01

276

REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF CURRENT DESIGN AND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR LAND TREATMENT UNITS RECEIVING PETROLEUM WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes the land treatment practices used by petroleum waste land treatment facilities in the U.S. Information obtained for 13 full-scale land treatment facilities included types of waste land treated, characterization of land treated wastes, waste application rates (...

277

Development of a remote laboratory-scale waste treatment facility  

SciTech Connect

A waste treatment facility, designed on the basis of a feedrate of 1 l/hr of concentrated waste to a spray calciner, has been installed in a radiochemical hot cell at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The facility includes three modules: feed preparation (storage tanks, evaporator, condenser), waste solidification (a spray calciner and in-can melter), and effluent control (venturi scrubber, cyclone separator, fission product adsorbers, nitrogen oxides destructor, iodine adsorber, HEPA filter, and packed scrubber). The system is flexible. The spray calciner and in-can melter can be easily removed and replaced by alternative solidification systems, and the effluent control system can be operated in many different sequences. Other components can be easily added to the effluent system for tests. Two effluent control flowsheets, designed to simulate those in defense waste and commercial waste processing plants, will be evaluated during the first radioactive runs. Most operational data from the system are remotely recorded continuously on strip-chart and multipoint recorders. Data on equipment operating parameters and upset conditions will be used to help maximize data on effluents, effluent decontamination factors and product quality. Five laboratory, pilot- and full-scale radioactive and nonradioactive waste solidification systems have already been operated at PNL. Experience with these systems demonstrated a need for additional radioactive work. Thus, the Remote Laboratory-Scale Waste Treatment Facility was developed. Operations completed with the other systems have indicated that scaling factors related to equipment size will not be a major consideration in the interpretation and usage of results from this equipment. These results can be used to provide guidance in developing full-scale radioactive waste treatment equipment.

Knox, C.A.; Hanson, M.S.

1980-06-01

278

Staff exchange with Chemical Waste Management. Final project report  

SciTech Connect

Original objective was transfer of PNL technology and expertise in computational chemistry and waste flow/treatment modeling to CWM. Identification and characterization of a broader portfolio of PNL`s environmental remediation technologies with high potential for rapid application became the focus of the exchange, which included E-mail exchanges. Of the 14 technologies discussed, the following were identified as being of high interest to CWM: six phase soil heating (in-situ heating), high energy electrical corona, RAAS/ReOpt{trademark} (remedial, expert system), TEES{trademark} (catalytic production of methane from biological wastes), PST (process for treating petroleum sludge). CWM`s reorganization and downsizing reduced the potential benefits to industry, but a proposal for transfer and application of PST to Wheelabrator was made.

Harrer, B.J.; Barak, D.W.

1993-12-01

279

Assessment of the state of food waste treatment in the United States and Canada.  

PubMed

Currently in the US, over 97% of food waste is estimated to be buried in landfills. There is nonetheless interest in strategies to divert this waste from landfills as evidenced by a number of programs and policies at the local and state levels, including collection programs for source separated organic wastes (SSO). The objective of this study was to characterize the state-of-the-practice of food waste treatment alternatives in the US and Canada. Site visits were conducted to aerobic composting and two anaerobic digestion facilities, in addition to meetings with officials that are responsible for program implementation and financing. The technology to produce useful products from either aerobic or anaerobic treatment of SSO is in place. However, there are a number of implementation issues that must be addressed, principally project economics and feedstock purity. Project economics varied by region based on landfill disposal fees. Feedstock purity can be obtained by enforcement of contaminant standards and/or manual or mechanical sorting of the feedstock prior to and after treatment. Future SSO diversion will be governed by economics and policy incentives, including landfill organics bans and climate change mitigation policies. PMID:20171867

Levis, J W; Barlaz, M A; Themelis, N J; Ulloa, P

2010-01-01

280

Agency for Nuclear Projects/Nuclear Waste Project Office final progress report  

SciTech Connect

The Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects/Nuclear Waste Project Office (NWPO) was formally established by Executive Policy in 1983 following passage of the federal Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (Act). That Act provides for the systematic siting, construction, operation, and closure of high-level radioactive defense and research by-products and other forms of high-level radioactive waste from around the country which will be stored at such repositories. In 1985 the Nevada legislature formally established the NWPO as a distinct and statutorily authorized agency to provide support to the Governor and State Legislature on matters concerning the high-level nuclear waste programs. The NWPO utilized a small, central staff supplemented by contractual services for needed technical and specialized expertise in order to provide high quality oversight and monitoring of federal activities, to conduct necessary independent studies, and to avoid unnecessary duplication of efforts. This report summarizes the results of this ongoing program to ensure that risks to the environment and to human safety are minimized. It includes findings in the areas of hydrogeology, geology, quality assurance activities, repository engineering, legislature participation, socioeconomic affects, risk assessments, monitoring programs, public information dissemination, and transportation activities. The bulk of the reporting deals with the Yucca Mountain facility.

NONE

1992-12-31

281

Information related to low-level mixed waste inventory, characteristics, generation, and facility assessment for treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives considered in the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared to support the analysis of risks and costs associated with the proposed treatment of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) under management of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The various waste management alternatives for treatment of LLMW have been defined in the DOE`s Office of Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. This technical memorandum estimates the waste material throughput expected at each proposed LLMW treatment facility and analyzes potential radiological and chemical releases at each DOE site resulting from treatment of these wastes. Models have been developed to generate site-dependent radiological profiles and waste-stream-dependent chemical profiles for these wastes. Current site-dependent inventories and estimates for future generation of LLMW have been obtained from DOE`s 1994 Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR-2). Using treatment procedures developed by the Mixed Waste Treatment Project, the MWIR-2 database was analyzed to provide waste throughput and emission estimates for each of the different waste types assessed in this report. Uncertainties in the estimates at each site are discussed for waste material throughputs and radiological and chemical releases.

Wilkins, B.D.; Dolak, D.A.; Wang, Y.Y.; Meshkov, N.K.

1996-12-01

282

Treatment of Mixed Wastes via Fixed Bed Gasification  

SciTech Connect

This report outlines the details of research performed under USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-96MC33258 to evaluate the ChemChar hazardous waste system for the destruction of mixed wastes, defined as those that contain both RCRA-regulated haz- ardous constituents and radionuclides. The ChemChar gasification system uses a granular carbonaceous char matrix to immobilize wastes and feed them into the gasifier. In the gasifier wastes are subjected to high temperature reducing conditions, which destroy the organic constituents and immobilize radionuclides on the regenerated char. Only about 10 percent of the char is consumed on each pass through the gasifier, and the regenerated char can be used to treat additional wastes. When tested on a 4-inch diameter scale with a continuous feed unit as part of this research, the ChemChar gasification system was found to be effective in destroying RCRA surrogate organic wastes (chlorobenzene, dichloroben- zene, and napht.halene) while retaining on the char RCRA heavy metals (chromium, nickel, lead, and cadmium) as well as a fission product surrogate (cesium) and a plutonium surrogate (cerium). No generation of harmful byproducts was observed. This report describes the design and testing of the ChemChar gasification system and gives the operating procedures to be followed in using the system safely and effectively for mixed waste treatment.

None

1998-10-28

283

Project W-151 Tank 101-AZ Waste Retrieval System Year 2000 Compliance Assessment Project Plan  

SciTech Connect

This assessment describes the potential Year 2000 (Y2K) problems and describes the methods for achieving Y2K compliance for Project W-151, Tank 101-AZ Waste Retrieval System. The purpose of this assessment is to give an overview of the project. This document will not be updated and any dates contained in this document are estimates and may change. Two mixer pumps and instrumentation have been or are planned to be installed in waste tank 101-AZ to demonstrate solids mobilization. The information and experience gained during this process test will provide data for comparison with sludge mobilization prediction models and provide indication of the effects of mixer pump operation on an Aging Waste Facility tank. A limited description of system dates, functions, interfaces, potential Y2K problems, and date resolutions is presented. The project is presently on hold, and definitive design and procurement have been completed. This assessment will describe the methods, protocols, and practices to ensure that equipment and systems do not have Y2K problems.

BUSSELL, J.H.

1999-08-02

284

Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment, Applied Technology Plan  

SciTech Connect

Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates treatment of sodium-bearing waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of sodium-bearing waste by December 31, 2012. Applied technology activities are required to provide the data necessary to complete conceptual design of four identified alternative processes and to select the preferred alternative. To provide a technically defensible path forward for the selection of a treatment process and for the collection of needed data, an applied technology plan is required. This document presents that plan, identifying key elements of the decision process and the steps necessary to obtain the required data in support of both the decision and the conceptual design. The Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Applied Technology Plan has been prepared to provide a description/roadmap of the treatment alternative selection process. The plan details the results of risk analyzes and the resulting prioritized uncertainties. It presents a high-level flow diagram governing the technology decision process, as well as detailed roadmaps for each technology. The roadmaps describe the technical steps necessary in obtaining data to quantify and reduce the technical uncertainties associated with each alternative treatment process. This plan also describes the final products that will be delivered to the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office in support of the office's selection of the final treatment technology.

Lance Lauerhass; Vince C. Maio; S. Kenneth Merrill; Arlin L. Olson; Keith J. Perry

2003-06-01

285

Waste characterization for the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility in support of waste certification  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) procedures define the rules concerning packages of solid Low Level Waste (LLW) that are sent to the E-area vaults (EAV). The WACs tabulate the quantities of 22 radionuclides that require manifesting in waste packages destined for each type of vault. These quantities are called the Package Administrative Criteria (PAC). If a waste package exceeds the PAC for any radionuclide in a given vault, then specific permission is needed to send to that vault. To avoid reporting insignificant quantities of the 22 listed radionuclides, the WAC defines the Minimum Reportable Quantity (MRQ) of each radionuclide as 1/1000th of the PAC. If a waste package contains less than the MRQ of a particular radionuclide, then the package`s manifest will list that radionuclide as zero. At least one radionuclide has to be reported, even if all are below the MRQ. The WAC requires that the waste no be ``hazardous`` as defined by SCDHEC/EPA regulations and also lists several miscellaneous physical/chemical requirements for the packages. This report evaluates the solid wastes generated within the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) for potential impacts on waste certification.

Brown, D.F.

1994-10-17

286

Liquid low-level waste generation projections for ORNL in 1993  

SciTech Connect

Liquid low-level waste (LLLW) is generated by various programs and projects throughout Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These wastes are collected in underground collection tanks, bottles, and trucks; they are then neutralized with sodium hydroxide and treated for volume reduction at the ORNL evaporator facility. This report presents historical and projected data concerning the volume and characterization of LLLW, prior to and after evaporation. Storage space for projected waste generation is also discussed.

DePaoli, S.M.

1994-04-01

287

Current and projected liquid low-level waste generation at ORNL  

SciTech Connect

Liquid low-level waste (LLLW) is generated by various programs and projects throughout Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This waste is collected in bottles, by trucks, or in underground collection tanks; it is then neutralized with sodium hydroxide and reduced in volume at the ORNL LLLW evaporator. This report presents historical and projected data concerning the volume and the characterization of LLLW, both prior to and after evaporation. Storage space for projected waste generation is also discussed.

DePaoli, S.M.; West, G.D.

1996-04-01

288

Flotation treatment of waste water using cationic flocculants  

SciTech Connect

This work has been aimed at studying and comparing the efficiency of the use of cationic flocculants in the two process schemes for treating waste water in continuous pilot-plant and commercial flotation units. Waste water from the Moscow Petroleum Refinery was subjected to treatment. The characteristics of the cationic flocculants that were tested are presented. The test results in the pilot unit are shown. Results of laboratory studies show that the flocculants PPS and KR are more effective. Simplified flow plans of processes for flotation treatment of waste water and of pilot-plant flotation unit are illustrated. Concentration of suspended matter in treated water as a function of flocculant dose is presented.

Butseva, L.N.; Gandurina, L.V.; Ustinov, B.M.; Pridatkin, P.P.

1987-01-01

289

TREATMENT OF ELECTROPLATING WASTES BY REVERSE OSMOSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Reverse osmosis treatment of plating bath rinsewaters has been examined. Emphasis has been placed on closed-loop operation with recycle of purified water for rinsing, and return of plating chemical concentrate to the bath. Three commercially available membrane configurations have...

290

Principles and use of solidification/stabilization treatment for organic hazardous constituents in soil, sediment, and waste  

SciTech Connect

Solidification/stabilization (S/S) treatment involves mixing a binding reagent into contaminated media or waste. S/S treatment protects human health and the environment by immobilizing hazardous constituents within the treated material. S/S has been effective in treating a large variety of hazardous constituents in many different forms of waste and contaminated media. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has identified S/S as Best Demonstrated Available Treatment Technology (BDAT) for at least 50 commonly produced industrial hazardous wastes. EPA has selected S/S treatment for over 20% of its Superfund site source control remediation projects. Much of the published literature and actual treatment project experience has to do with treatment of inorganic hazardous constituents including radioactive materials. Radioactive wastes and environmental contaminants are often mixtures of inorganic and organic hazardous constituents. In recent years S/S is increasingly being used to address soil and sediment contaminated with organic hazardous constituents. Many of these remediation projects include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). The paper and presentation will discuss the chemical and physical mechanisms that can immobilize inorganic and organic hazardous constituents within S/S-treated material. The paper will also discuss examples of recent full-scale projects where S/S has been used to successfully treat organic hazardous constituent contaminated soil and sediment both in-situ and on excavated material. (authors)

Wilk, C.M. [Portland Cement Association, Skokie, IL (United States)

2007-07-01

291

EVALUATION OF THOR MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR THE DOE ADVANCED REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES PHASE 2 PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP's LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). In addition, the WTP LAW Vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as Cs-137, I-129, Tc-99, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap. The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to recycle it to the supplemental LAW treatment to avoid a large steady state accumulation in the pretreatment-vitrification loop. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and/or WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product, which is one of the objectives of this current study, is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage but is not necessary for performance. FBSR testing of a Hanford LAW simulant and a WTP-SW simulant at the pilot scale was performed by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC at Hazen Research Inc. in April/May 2008. The Hanford LAW simulant was the Rassat 68 tank blend and the target concentrations for the LAW was increased by a factor of 10 for Sb, As, Ag, Cd, and Tl; 100 for Ba and Re (Tc surrogate); 1,000 for I; and 254,902 for Cs based on discussions with the DOE field office and the environmental regulators and an evaluation of the Hanford Tank Waste Envelopes A, B, and C. It was determined through the evaluation of the actual tank waste metals concentrations that some metal levels were not sufficient to achieve reliable detection in the off-gas sampling. Therefore, the identified metals concentrations were increased in the Rassat simulant processed by TTT at HRI to ensure detection and enable calculation of system removal efficiencies, product retention efficiencies, and mass balance closure without regard to potential results of those determinations or impacts on product durability response such as Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP). A WTP-SW simulant based on melter off-gas analyses from Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) was also tested at HRI in the 15-inch diameter Engineering Scale Test Demonstration (ESTD) dual reformer at HRI in 2008. The target concentrations for the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals were increased by 16X for Se, 29X for Tl, 42X for Ba, 48X for Sb, by 100X for Pb and Ni, 1000X for Ag, and 1297X for Cd to ensure detection by the an

Crawford, C.; Jantzen, C.

2012-02-02

292

Process Knowledge Characterization of Radioactive Waste at the Classified Waste Landfill Remediation Project Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the development and application of process knowledge (PK) to the characterization of radioactive wastes generated during the excavation of buried materials at the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Classified Waste Landfill (CWLF). The CWLF, located in SNL/NM Technical Area II, is a 1.5-acre site that received nuclear weapon components and related materials from about 1950 through 1987. These materials were used in the development and testing of nuclear weapon designs. The CWLF is being remediated by the SNL/NM Environmental Restoration (ER) Project pursuant to regulations of the New Mexico Environment Department. A goal of the CWLF project is to maximize the amount of excavated materials that can be demilitarized and recycled. However, some of these materials are radioactively contaminated and, if they cannot be decontaminated, are destined to require disposal as radioactive waste. Five major radioactive waste streams have been designated on the CWLF project, including: unclassified soft radioactive waste--consists of soft, compatible trash such as paper, plastic, and plywood; unclassified solid radioactive waste--includes scrap metal, other unclassified hardware items, and soil; unclassified mixed waste--contains the same materials as unclassified soft or solid radioactive waste, but also contains one or more Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) constituents; classified radioactive waste--consists of classified artifacts, usually weapons components, that contain only radioactive contaminants; and classified mixed waste--comprises radioactive classified material that also contains RCRA constituents. These waste streams contain a variety of radionuclides that exist both as surface contamination and as sealed sources. To characterize these wastes, the CWLF project's waste management team is relying on data obtained from direct measurement of radionuclide activity content to the maximum extent possible and, in cases where direct measurement is not technically feasible, from accumulated PK of the excavated materials.

DOTSON,PATRICK WELLS; GALLOWAY,ROBERT B.; JOHNSON JR,CARL EDWARD

1999-11-03

293

Isolating wastes in the electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main hazards in spent nuclear fuel are fission products and transuranic radionuclides. An electrometallurgical treatment\\u000a is designed to isolate these elements by electrorefining and then place them in waste forms suitable for geologic disposal.\\u000a In the highly reducing chemical environment used for electrometallurgical treatment, fuel cladding and transition-metal fission\\u000a products remain as metals; these metals are collected and melted

J. P. Ackerman; L. S. H. Chow; S. M. McDeavitt; C. Pereira; R. H. Woodman

1997-01-01

294

Macroencapsulation of mixed waste debris at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation -- Final project report by AST Environmental Services, LLC  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a full-scale demonstration of a high density polyethylene (HDPE) package, manufactured by Arrow Construction, Inc. of Montgomery, Alabama. The HDPE package, called ARROW-PAK, was designed and patented by Arrow as both a method to macroencapsulation of radioactively contaminated lead and as an improved form of waste package for treatment and interim and final storage and/or disposal of drums of mixed waste. Mixed waste is waste that is radioactive, and meets the criteria established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for a hazardous material. Results from previous testing conducted for the Department of Energy (DOE) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in 1994 found that the ARROW-PAK fabrication process produces an HDPE package that passes all helium leak tests and drop tests, and is fabricated with materials impervious to the types of environmental factors encountered during the lifetime of the ARROW-PAK, estimated to be from 100 to 300 years. Arrow Construction, Inc. has successfully completed full-scale demonstration of its ARROW-PAK mixed waste macroencapsulation treatment unit at the DOE Hanford Site. This testing was conducted in accordance with Radiological Work Permit No. T-860, applicable project plans and procedures, and in close consultation with Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc.`s project management, health and safety, and quality assurance representatives. The ARROW-PAK field demonstration successfully treated 880 drums of mixed waste debris feedstock which were compacted and placed in 149 70-gallon overpack drums prior to macroencapsulation in accordance with the US EPA Alternate Debris Treatment Standards, 40 CFR 268.45. Based on all of the results, the ARROW-PAK process provides an effective treatment, storage and/or disposal option that compares favorably with current mixed waste management practices.

Baker, T.L.

1998-02-25

295

An Analysis of the Waste Water Treatment Maintenance Mechanic Occupation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the waste water treatment mechanics occupation. The document opens with a brief introduction followed by a job description. The bulk of the document is presented in table form. Twelve duties are broken…

Clark, Anthony B.; And Others

296

EPA/DOE JOINT EFFORTS ON MIXED WASTE TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper summarizes the results of six major activities that have been underway since the inception of the EPA/DOE joint effort in mixed waste thermal treatment as a consequence of establishing their Interagency Agreements (IAGS) in 1991 and 1993. he six IAG activities are: 1) ...

297

ANNOTATED LITERATURE REFERENCES ON LAND TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

The major environmental problem in the decade of the 1980's will be the safe disposal of hazardous and municipal wastes and residues. Land treatment can be used to achieve specific effects through utilization of various management schemes. Through proper management of the land pr...

298

20. VIEW OF WASTE TREATMENT CONTROL ROOM IN BUILDING 374. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. VIEW OF WASTE TREATMENT CONTROL ROOM IN BUILDING 374. THE BUILDING 371/374 COMPLEX WAS DESIGNED TO EMPHASIZE AUTOMATICALLY CONTROLLED, REMOTELY OPERATED PROCESSES. (1/80) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

299

An Analysis of the Waste Water Treatment Operator Occupation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The occupational analysis contains a brief job description for the waste water treatment occupations of operator and maintenance mechanic and 13 detailed task statements which specify job duties (tools, equipment, materials, objects acted upon, performance knowledge, safety considerations/hazards, decisions, cues, and errors) and learning skills…

Clark, Anthony B.; And Others

300

EVALUATION OF PRISTINE LIGNIN FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A feasibility study was conducted to assess the utilization of lignin, isolated from a steam-exploded hardwood (Tulip poplar) with 95% ethanol and 0.1n NaOH, as a potential adsorbent for hazardous waste treatment. Eight organic compounds and two heavy metals were selected to allo...

301

Treatment of Copper from Cu CMP Waste Streams Using Polyethyleneimine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercially available Cu CMP waste treatment processes involve: 1) pretreatment chemistry using oxidizers to break down complexed copper resulting in precipitation of copper in the form of copper hydroxide; 2) microfiltration of both slurry particles and copper hydroxide; and 3) ion exchange to remove ions. Ion exchange resins used to remove ions are limited to only removing cations and also

Worawan Kay Maketon; Kimberly L. Ogden

2008-01-01

302

Biological Information Document, Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document is intended to act as a baseline source material for risk assessments which can be used in Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements. The current Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) does not meet current General Design Criteria for Non-reactor Nuclear Facilities and could be shut down affecting several DOE programs. This Biological Information Document summarizes various biological

Biggs

1995-01-01

303

Natural Zeolites and Application in Liquid Waste Treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zeolite-clinoptilolite minerals crystal structures and their main properties are presented depending on property structure relation particular attention is given on irradiated clinoptilolite properties in connection w3ith application for radioactive waste water treatment. It was shown the high effiency for reducing the radioactivity of waters by electron irradiated Armenian clinoptilolite more than 1700 times.

Yeritsyan, H. N.; Sahakyan, A. A.; Harutunyan, V. V.; Nikoghosyan, S. K.; Hakhverdyan, E. A.; Grigoryan, N. E.

304

Developments in geothermal waste treatment biotechnology  

SciTech Connect

Disposal of toxic solid waste in an environmentally and economically acceptable way may be in some cases a major impediment to large geothermal development. The major thrust of the R&D effort in this laboratory is to develop low-cost processes for the concentration and removal of toxic materials and metals from geothermal residues. In order to accomplish this, biochemical processes elaborated by certain microorganisms which live in extreme environments have served as models for a biotechnology. It has been shown that 80% or better removal of toxic metals can be achieved at fast rates (e.g., 25 hours or less) at acidic pH and temperatures of about 60{degrees}C. There are several process variables which have to be taken into consideration in the development of such biotechnology. These include reactor size and type, strain of microorganisms, biomass growth, temperature, loading concentrations of residual geothermal sludge, and chemical nature of metal salts present. Recent data generated by the research and development effort associated with the emerging biotechnology will be presented and discussed.

Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Jin, J.Z.

1992-09-01

305

Developments in geothermal waste treatment biotechnology  

SciTech Connect

Disposal of toxic solid waste in an environmentally and economically acceptable way may be in some cases a major impediment to large geothermal development. The major thrust of the R D effort in this laboratory is to develop low-cost processes for the concentration and removal of toxic materials and metals from geothermal residues. In order to accomplish this, biochemical processes elaborated by certain microorganisms which live in extreme environments have served as models for a biotechnology. It has been shown that 80% or better removal of toxic metals can be achieved at fast rates (e.g., 25 hours or less) at acidic pH and temperatures of about 60{degrees}C. There are several process variables which have to be taken into consideration in the development of such biotechnology. These include reactor size and type, strain of microorganisms, biomass growth, temperature, loading concentrations of residual geothermal sludge, and chemical nature of metal salts present. Recent data generated by the research and development effort associated with the emerging biotechnology will be presented and discussed.

Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Jin, J.Z.

1992-01-01

306

Pilot studies to achieve waste minimization and enhance radioactive liquid waste treatment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Radioactive and Industrial Wastewater Science Group manages and operates the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The RLWTF treats low-level radioactive liquid waste generated by research and analytical facilities at approximately 35 technical areas throughout the 43-square-mile site. The RLWTF treats an average of 5.8 million gallons (21.8-million liters) of liquid waste annually. Clarifloculation and filtration is the primary treatment technology used by the RLWTF. This technology has been used since the RLWTF became operable in 1963. Last year the RLWTF achieved an average of 99.7% removal of gross alpha activity in the waste stream. The treatment process requires the addition of chemicals for the flocculation and subsequent precipitation of radionuclides. The resultant sludge generated during this process is solidified in drums and stored or disposed of at LANL.

Freer, J.; Freer, E.; Bond, A. [and others

1996-07-01

307

Waste battery treatment options: comparing their environmental performance.  

PubMed

Waste consumer batteries are recycled using different routes based on hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical processes. Two hydrometallurgical and two pyrometallurgical treatment scenarios are compared starting from an average composition of Belgian waste batteries. The environmental performance is compared using life cycle analysis (LCA). The recycling rate is studied through mass balance calculation. Each treatment scenario results in a specific recycling rate. The environmental impact and benefits also vary between the treatment options. There is no such thing as a typical hydrometallurgical or pyrometallurgical treatment. When applying a hydrometallurgical treatment scenario, the focus lies on zinc and iron recycling. When allowing manganese recycling, the energy demand of the hydrometallurgical process increases considerably. Both pyrometallurgical options recycle zinc, iron and manganese. According to the LCA, none of the treatment scenarios performs generally better or worse than the others. Each option has specific advantages and disadvantages. The Batteries Directive 2006/66/EC sets out a recycling rate of 50% for consumer waste batteries. Based on metal recycling alone, the mass balances show that the target is difficult to obtain. PMID:19386482

Briffaerts, K; Spirinckx, C; Van der Linden, A; Vrancken, K

2009-08-01

308

Chemical treatment of aqueous plutonium wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical precipitation processes have been used for the removal of microconcentrations of Pu (approx. 4 nM to 4 ..mu..m) since the late 1940's; however, previous experiments have been empirically oriented. In order to provide a rational approach to the chemical treatment, aqueous Pu chemistry was reviewed to determine the species most likely to be present in alkaline conditions where chemical

Drago

1980-01-01

309

Automated Sampling and Sample Pneumatic Transport of High Level Tank Wastes at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the development work, and design and engineering tasks performed, to provide a fully automated sampling system for the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) project at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, USA. WTP is being built to enable the emptying and immobilization of highly active waste resulting from processing of irradiated nuclear fuel since the 1940's. The Hanford Tank Wastes are separated into Highly Level Waste (HLW), and Low Active Waste (LAW) fractions, which are separately immobilized by vitrification into borosilicate glass. Liquid samples must be taken of the waste and Glass Forming Chemicals (GFCs) before vitrification, and analyzed to insure the glass products will comply with specifications established in the WTP contract. This paper describes the non-radioactive testing of the sampling of the HLW and LAW melter feed simulants that was performed ahead of final equipment design. These trials were essential to demonstrate the effectiveness and repeatability of the integrated sampling system to collect representative samples, free of cross-contamination. Based on existing tried and proven equipment, the system design is tailored to meet the WTP project's specific needs. The design provides sampling capabilities from 47 separate sampling points and includes a pneumatic transport system to move the samples from the 3 separate facilities to the centralized analytical laboratory. The physical and rheological compositions of the waste simulants provided additional challenges in terms of the sample delivery, homogenization, and sample capture equipment design requirements. The activity levels of the actual waste forms, specified as 486 E9 Bq/liter (Cs-137), 1.92 E9 Bq/liter (Co-60), and 9.67 E9 Bq/liter (Eu-154), influenced the degree of automation provided, and justified the minimization of manual intervention needed to obtain and deliver samples from the process facilities to the analytical laboratories. Maintaining high integrity primary and secondary confinement, including during the cross-site transportation of the samples, is a key requirement that is achieved and assured at all times. (authors)

Phillips, C.; Richardson, J. E. [BNG America, 2345 Stevens Drive, Richland, WA, 99354 (United States)

2006-07-01

310

TREATMENT OF METAL FINISHING WASTES BY SULFIDE PRECIPITATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This project involved precipitating heavy metals normally present in metal finishing wastewaters by a novel process which employs ferrous sulfide addition (Sulfex), as well as by conventional treatment using calcium hydroxide for comparison purposes. These studies consisted of la...

311

Treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with advanced Clean Coal Technology by-products  

SciTech Connect

This eleventh quarterly report describes work done during the eleventh three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ``Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to two outside contacts.

James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini; Wiles Elder

1999-04-05

312

TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS  

SciTech Connect

This thirteenth quarterly report describes work done during the thirteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to a number of outside contacts.

James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

1999-04-28

313

TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS  

SciTech Connect

This fourteenth quarterly report describes work done during the fourteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing presentations, and making and responding to two outside contacts.

James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

1999-05-10

314

Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan required each US Department of Energy (DOE) site that characterizes transuranic waste to be sent the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan that addresses applicable requirements specified in the QAPP.

GREAGER, T.M.

1999-09-09

315

Expedited technology demonstration project (Revised mixed waste management facility project) Project baseline revision 4.0 and FY98 plan  

SciTech Connect

The re-baseline of the Expedited Technology Demonstration Project (Revised Mixed Waste Facility Project) is designated as Project Baseline Revision 4.0. The last approved baseline was identified as Project Baseline Revision 3.0 and was issued in October 1996. Project Baseline Revision 4.0 does not depart from the formal DOE guidance followed by, and contained in, Revision 3.0. This revised baseline document describes the MSO and Final Forms testing activities that will occur during FY98, the final year of the ETD Project. The cost estimate for work during FY98 continues to be $2.OM as published in Revision 3.0. However, the funds will be all CENRTC rather than the OPEX/CENTRC split previously anticipated. LLNL has waived overhead charges on ETD Project CENRTC funds since the beginning of project activities. By requesting the $2.OM as all CENTRC a more aggressive approach to staffing and testing can be taken. Due to a cost under- run condition during FY97 procurements were made and work was accomplished, with the knowledge of DOE, in the Feed Preparation and Final Forms areas that were not in the scope of Revision 3.0. Feed preparation activities for FY98 have been expanded to include the drum opening station/enclosure previously deleted.

Adamson, M. G.

1997-10-01

316

Nuclear Waste Treatment Program: Qualification of commercial high-level waste forms: Approach and status  

SciTech Connect

In this document, the Nuclear Waste Treatment Program (NWTP) proposes an approach for demonstrating compliance with acceptance specifications. The proposed approach relies first on developing models of the process (vitrification) and product (waste form) to relate measurable process variables to the product quality, and then on using process control and sampling of melter feed input as the quality control method. Coordinated test programs, using pilot-scale nonradioactive and radioactive tests, will be used to establish these models at the confidence level needed to assure compliance to waste acceptance specifications. The test programs are broadly focused to encompass the range of anticipated future wastes, but the results should also be equally applicable to current wastes as well. Demonstration of waste form compliance by some other method would likely require extensive product testing, including glass sampling during production and routine destructive examination of canisters. The process and product modeling approach eliminates the need for this type of testing and should result in a very high level of statistical confidence that the individual waste forms are acceptable for disposal.

Brouns, R.A.; Kuhn, W.L.

1986-12-01

317

Mixed Waste Focus Area Mercury Working Group: An integrated approach to mercury waste treatment and disposal  

SciTech Connect

In May 1996, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) initiated the Mercury Working Group (HgWG). The HgWG was established to address and resolve the issues associated with mercury contaminated mixed wastes. During the MWFA`s initial technical baseline development process, three of the top four technology deficiencies identified were related to the need for amalgamation, stabilization, and separation removal technologies for the treatment of mercury and mercury contaminated mixed waste. The HgWG is assisting the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing efforts to address these areas. The focus of the HgWG is to better establish the mercury related treatment technologies at the DOE sites, refine the MWFA technical baseline as it relates to mercury treatment, and make recommendations to the MWFA on how to most effectively address these needs. Based on the scope and magnitude of the mercury mixed waste problem, as defined by HgWG, solicitations and contract awards have been made to the private sector to demonstrate both the amalgamation and stabilization processes using actual mixed wastes. Development efforts are currently being funded that will address DOE`s needs for separation removal processes. This paper discusses the technology selection process, development activities, and the accomplishments of the HgWG to date through these various activities.

Conley, T.B.; Morris, M.I.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.

1998-01-01

318

Radiological Monitoring of Waste Treatment Plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scheduled waste in West Malaysia is handled by Concession Company and is stored and then is incinerated. It is known that incineration process may result in naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) to be concentrated. In this study we have measured three samples consist of by-product from the operation process such as slag, filter cake and fly ash. Other various environmental media such as air, surface water, groundwater and soil within and around the plant have also been analysed for their radioactivity levels. The concentration of Ra-226, Ac-228 and K-40 in slag are 0.062 Bq/g, 0.016 Bq/g and 0.19 Bq/g respectively. The total activity (Raeq) in slag is 99.5 Bq/kg. The concentration in fly ash is 0.032 Bq/g, 0.16 Bq/g and 0.34 Bq/g for Ra-226, Ac-228 and K-40 respectively resulting in Raeq of 287.0 Bq/kg. For filter cake, the concentration is 0.13 Bq/g, 0.031 Bq/g and 0.33 Bq/g for Ra-226, Ac-228 and K-40 respectively resulting in Raeq of 199.7 Bq/kg. The external radiation level ranges from 0.08 ?Sv/h (Administrative building) to 0.35 ?Sv/h (TENORM storage area). The concentration level of radon and thoron progeny varies from 0.0001 to 0.0016 WL and 0.0006 WL to 0.002 WL respectively. For soil samples, the activity ranges from 0.11 Bq/g to 0.29 Bq/g, 0.06 Bq/g to 0.18 Bq/g and 0.065 Bq/g to 0.38 Bq/g for Ra-226, Ac-228 and K-40 respectively. While activity in water, except for a trace of K-40, it is non-detectable.

Amin, Y. M.; Nik, H. W.

2011-03-01

319

HANFORD MEDIUM & LOW CURIE WASTE PRETREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 LAB REPORT  

SciTech Connect

A fractional crystallization (FC) process is being developed to supplement tank waste pretreatment capabilities provided by the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). FC can process many tank wastes, separating wastes into a low-activity fraction (LAW) and high-activity fraction (HLW). The low-activity fraction can be immobilized in a glass waste form by processing in the bulk vitrification (BV) system.

HAMILTON, D.W.

2006-01-30

320

Tritium waste control project. Progress report: July--September 1976. [Tritiated liquid waste decontamination; tritium fixation package  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tritium effluent control project to reduce emissions at Mound Laboratory and its application to liquid wastes are described. Research progress reported includes increasing the power of the Nd:YAG laser for detritiating voluminous wastes by molecular photoexcitation, and analysis of gas produced from tritiated water and octane. (DLC)

H. F. Anderson; C. J. Kershner

1977-01-01

321

Antimicrobial Use and Resistance in Swine Waste Treatment Systems?  

PubMed Central

Chlortetracycline and the macrolide tylosin were identified as commonly used antimicrobials for growth promotion and prophylaxis in swine production. Resistance to these antimicrobials was measured throughout the waste treatment processes at five swine farms by culture-based and molecular methods. Conventional farm samples had the highest levels of resistance with both culture-based and molecular methods and had similar levels of resistance despite differences in antimicrobial usage. The levels of resistance in organic farm samples, where no antimicrobials were used, were very low by a culture-based method targeting fecal streptococci. However, when the same samples were analyzed with a molecular method detecting methylation of a specific nucleotide in the 23S rRNA that results in resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramin B (MLSB), an unexpectedly high level of resistant rRNA (approximately 50%) was observed, suggesting that the fecal streptococci were not an appropriate target group to evaluate resistance in the overall microbial community and that background levels of MLSB resistance may be substantial. All of the feed samples tested, including those from the organic farm, contained tetracycline resistance genes. Generally, the same tetracycline resistance genes and frequency of detection were found in the manure and lagoon samples for each commercial farm. The levels of tetracycline and MLSB resistance remained high throughout the waste treatment systems, suggesting that the potential impact of land application of treated wastes and waste treatment by-products on environmental levels of resistance should be investigated further. PMID:17041160

Jindal, Archana; Kocherginskaya, Svetlana; Mehboob, Asma; Robert, Matthew; Mackie, Roderick I.; Raskin, Lutgarde; Zilles, Julie L.

2006-01-01

322

Pollution prevention/waste treatment technologies for small business  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents some pollution prevention/waste treatment technologies which can be adopted by small industrial operations. The technological include selected air pollution control systems, biological and physicochemical water pollution control processes, and sludge dewatering and disposal technologies. Some medical waste treatment alternatives will also be presented. During the selection of a system for waste treatment, several factors shall be considered: (1) legal limitations or effluent criteria imposed for the protection of public health and welfare; (2) social limitations imposed by the community in which the pollution source is or will be located; and (3) economic limitations imposed by funding constraints. The second and the third factors are especially critical for small businesses or industrial operations because they are usually located in or close to metropolitan areas and funding resources are often limited. Pollution prevention is one of the few areas where environmental goals and industry`s economic interests clearly coincide. For instance, the benefits include reduced costs, liabilities, and regulatory burdens associated with hazardous waste management. For the general public, pollution prevention pays off with an improved environment. Since economic benefit is one of the factors for adopting pollution prevention technologies, an example for the economic analysis of pollution prevention system is also included.

Huang, C.S. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

1994-12-31

323

Two-stage thermal/nonthermal waste treatment process  

SciTech Connect

An innovative waste treatment technology is being developed in Los Alamos to address the destruction of hazardous organic wastes. The technology described in this report uses two stages: a packed bed reactor (PBR) in the first stage to volatilize and/or combust liquid organics and a silent discharge plasma (SDP) reactor to remove entrained hazardous compounds in the off-gas to even lower levels. We have constructed pre-pilot-scale PBR-SDP apparatus and tested the two stages separately and in combined modes. These tests are described in the report.

Rosocha, L.A.; Anderson, G.K.; Coogan, J.J.; Kang, M.; Tennant, R.A.; Wantuck, P.J.

1993-05-01

324

Waste Tank Vapor Project: Tank vapor database development  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Tank Vapor Database (TVD) Development task in FY 1994 was to create a database to store, retrieve, and analyze data collected from the vapor phase of Hanford waste tanks. The data needed to be accessible over the Hanford Local Area Network to users at both Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The data were restricted to results published in cleared reports from the laboratories analyzing vapor samples. Emphasis was placed on ease of access and flexibility of data formatting and reporting mechanisms. Because of time and budget constraints, a Rapid Application Development strategy was adopted by the database development team. An extensive data modeling exercise was conducted to determine the scope of information contained in the database. a A SUN Sparcstation 1000 was procured as the database file server. A multi-user relational database management system, Sybase{reg_sign}, was chosen to provide the basic data storage and retrieval capabilities. Two packages were chosen for the user interface to the database: DataPrism{reg_sign} and Business Objects{trademark}. A prototype database was constructed to provide the Waste Tank Vapor Project`s Toxicology task with summarized and detailed information presented at Vapor Conference 4 by WHC, PNL, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Oregon Graduate Institute. The prototype was used to develop a list of reported compounds, and the range of values for compounds reported by the analytical laboratories using different sample containers and analysis methodologies. The prototype allowed a panel of toxicology experts to identify carcinogens and compounds whose concentrations were within the reach of regulatory limits. The database and user documentation was made available for general access in September 1994.

Seesing, P.R.; Birn, M.B.; Manke, K.L.

1994-09-01

325

40 CFR 403.19 - Provisions of specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...industrial processes, and potential by-products have not contributed...to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility is...User has no reasonable potential to violate a Pretreatment...f) The Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility...

2012-07-01

326

40 CFR 403.19 - Provisions of specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...industrial processes, and potential by-products have not contributed...to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility is...User has no reasonable potential to violate a Pretreatment...f) The Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility...

2010-07-01

327

40 CFR 403.19 - Provisions of specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...industrial processes, and potential by-products have not contributed...to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility is...User has no reasonable potential to violate a Pretreatment...f) The Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility...

2011-07-01

328

40 CFR 403.19 - Provisions of specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...industrial processes, and potential by-products have not contributed...to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility is...User has no reasonable potential to violate a Pretreatment...f) The Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility...

2013-07-01

329

40 CFR 403.19 - Provisions of specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility.  

...industrial processes, and potential by-products have not contributed...to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility is...User has no reasonable potential to violate a Pretreatment...f) The Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility...

2014-07-01

330

Development of glass vitrification at SRL as a waste treatment technique for nuclear weapon components  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the development of vitrification for the waste treatment of nuclear weapons components at the Savannah River Site. Preliminary testing of surrogate nuclear weapon electronic waste shows that glass vitrification is a viable, robust treatment method.

Coleman, J.T.; Bickford, D.F.

1991-12-31

331

Development of glass vitrification at SRL as a waste treatment technique for nuclear weapon components  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the development of vitrification for the waste treatment of nuclear weapons components at the Savannah River Site. Preliminary testing of surrogate nuclear weapon electronic waste shows that glass vitrification is a viable, robust treatment method.

Coleman, J.T.; Bickford, D.F.

1991-01-01

332

Characterization of treatment residues from hazardous-waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

To implement the Congressionally mandated land-disposal prohibitions of the 1984 amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), EPA must determine whether adequate treatment technologies exist, what wastes can be treated and how effectively, what residues and environmental discharges are produced, and what the associated costs are. As part of the program to develop this information, characterization of treatment

1987-01-01

333

Remote handling equipment at the hanford waste treatment plant  

SciTech Connect

Cold war plutonium production led to extensive amounts of radioactive waste stored in tanks at the Department of Energy's Hanford Waste Treatment Plant. The storage tanks could potentially leak into the ground water and into the Columbia River. The solution for this risk of the leaking waste is vitrification. Vitrification is a process of mixing molten glass with radioactive waste to form a stable condition for storage. The Department of Energy has contracted Bechtel National, Inc. to build facilities at the Hanford site to process the waste. The waste will be separated into high and low level waste. Four major systems will process the waste, two pretreatment and two high level. Due to the high radiation levels, high integrity custom cranes have been designed to remotely maintain the hot cells. Several critical design parameters were implemented into the remote machinery design, including radiation limitations, remote operations, Important to Safety features, overall equipment effectiveness, minimum wall approaches, seismic constraints, and recovery requirements. Several key pieces of equipment were designed to meet these design requirements - high integrity crane bridges, trolleys, main hoists, mast hoists, slewing hoists, a monorail hoist, and telescoping mast deployed tele-robotic manipulator arms. There were unique and challenging design features and equipment needed to provide the remotely operated high integrity crane/manipulator systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant. The cranes consist of a double girder bridge with various main hoist capacities ranging from one to thirty ton and are used for performing routine maintenance. A telescoping mast mounted tele-robotic manipulator arm with a one-ton hook is deployed from the trolley to perform miscellaneous operations in-cell. A dual two-ton slewing jib hoist is mounted to the bottom of the trolley and rotates 360 degrees around the mast allowing the closest hook wall approaches. Each of the two hoists on this slewer is mounted 180 degrees opposite each other. Another system utilizes a single one-ton slewing jib hoist that can extend and retract as well as rotate 270 degrees around the mast. Yet, another system utilizes an under-hung monorail trolley with one-ton hoist capacity mounted to the bottom of the bridge girder. The main, slewer and monorail hoists each have power-rotating hooks for installing and removing equipment in the hot cell. (authors)

Bardal, M.A. [PaR Systems, Inc., Shoreview, MN, (United States); Roach, J.D. [Bechtel National, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

2007-07-01

334

The mixed waste management facility. Project baseline revision 1.2  

SciTech Connect

Revision 1.2 to the Project Baseline (PB) for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) is in response to DOE directives and verbal guidance to (1) Collocate the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) and MWMF into a single complex, integrate certain and overlapping functions as a cost-saving measure; (2) Meet certain fiscal year (FY) new-BA funding objectives ($15.3M in FY95) with lower and roughly balanced funding for out years; (3) Reduce Total Project Cost (TPC) for the MWMF Project; (4) Include costs for all appropriate permitting activities in the project TPC. This baseline revision also incorporates revisions in the technical baseline design for Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) and Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO). Changes in the WBS dictionary that are necessary as a result of this rebaseline, as well as minor title changes, at WBS Level 3 or above (DOE control level) are approved as a separate document. For completeness, the WBS dictionary that reflects these changes is contained in Appendix B. The PB, with revisions as described in this document, were also the basis for the FY97 Validation Process, presented to DOE and their reviewers on March 21-22, 1995. Appendix C lists information related to prior revisions to the PB. Several key changes relate to the integration of functions and sharing of facilities between the portion of the DWTF that will house the MWMF and those portions that are used by the Hazardous Waste Management (HWM) Division at LLNL. This collocation has been directed by DOE as a cost-saving measure and has been implemented in a manner that maintains separate operational elements from a safety and permitting viewpoint. Appendix D provides background information on the decision and implications of collocating the two facilities.

Streit, R.D.; Throop, A.L.

1995-04-01

335

Treatment technology analysis for mixed waste containers and debris  

SciTech Connect

A team was assembled to develop technology needs and strategies for treatment of mixed waste debris and empty containers in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, and to determine the advantages and disadvantages of applying the Debris and Empty Container Rules to these wastes. These rules issued by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) apply only to the hazardous component of mixed debris. Hazardous debris that is subjected to regulations under the Atomic Energy Act because of its radioactivity (i.e., mixed debris) is also subject to the debris treatment standards. The issue of treating debris per the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) at the same time or in conjunction with decontamination of the radioactive contamination was also addressed. Resolution of this issue requires policy development by DOE Headquarters of de minimis concentrations for radioactivity and release of material to Subtitle D landfills or into the commercial sector. The task team recommends that, since alternate treatment technologies (for the hazardous component) are Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT): (1) funding should focus on demonstration, testing, and evaluation of BDAT on mixed debris, (2) funding should also consider verification of alternative treatments for the decontamination of radioactive debris, and (3) DOE should establish criteria for the recycle/reuse or disposal of treated and decontaminated mixed debris as municipal waste.

Gehrke, R.J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Brown, C.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Langton, C.A.; Askew, N.M. [Savannah River Lab., Aiken, SC (United States); Kan, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Schwinkendorf, W.E. [BDM Federal, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-03-01

336

Overview of non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Treatment of mixed waste (ex situ); Technologies and short descriptions  

SciTech Connect

This compendium contains brief summaries of new and developing non- thermal treatment technologies that are candidates for treating hazardous or mixed (hazardous plus low-level radioactive) wastes. It is written to be all-encompassing, sometimes including concepts that presently constitute little more than informed ``ideas``. It bounds the universe of existing technologies being thought about or considered for application on the treatment of such wastes. This compendium is intended to be the very first step in a winnowing process to identify non-thermal treatment systems that can be fashioned into complete ``cradle-to-grave`` systems for study. The purpose of the subsequent systems paper studies is to investigate the cost and likely performance of such systems treating a representative sample of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low level wastes (MLLW). The studies are called Integrated Non-thermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Studies and are being conducted by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) of the Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy. Similar studies on Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems have recently been published. These are not designed nor intended to be a ``downselection`` of such technologies; rather, they are simply a systems evaluation of the likely costs and performance of various non- thermal technologies that have been arranged into systems to treat sludges, organics, metals, soils, and debris prevalent in MLLW.

NONE

1995-07-01

337

Basalt Waste Isolation Project. Quarterly report, July 1, 1981-September 30, 1981  

SciTech Connect

This document reports progress made in the Basalt Waste Isolation Project during the fourth quarter of fiscal year 1981. Efforts are described for the following programs of the project work breakdown structure: systems, waste package, site, repository, regulatory and institutional, test facilities, and in-situ test facilities.

Deju, R.A.

1981-11-01

338

Advanced Fuel Cycle Treatment, Recycling, and Disposal of Nuclear Waste  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear waste, in the form of used and spent nuclear fuel, is currently being stored in the U.S., mostly at reactor sites to await future direct disposal or treatment to permit recycle of re-usable components and minimization of wastes requiring geologic disposal. The used fuel is currently accumulating at a rate of over 2,000 tons per year and a total of over 60,000 tons is in storage. New dry storage capacity is estimated to cost {approx} $0.6 B per year. Technologies have been developed and deployed worldwide to treat only a portion of the nuclear waste that is generated. Recent research, development, and systems analysis studies have shown that nuclear waste treatment could be done at the rate of generation in a safe, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective manner. These studies continue to show that major benefits can be obtained by allowing the used fuel assemblies to remain in safe storage for 30 years or longer before treatment. During this time, the radioactivity and decay heat generation decrease substantially, such that the separations process can be simplified and made less costly, waste gases containing {sup 85}Kr can be released below regulatory limits, and the solid fission product wastes containing {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr require decay storage for a much shorter time-period before geologic disposal. In addition, the need for separating curium from americium and for extra purification cycles for the uranium and uranium-plutonium-neptunium products is greatly diminished. Moreover, during the 30+ years of storage prior to treatment, the quality of the recyclable fuel is only degraded by less than 5 percent. The 30+ year storage period also enables recycle of long-lived transuranic actinides to be accomplished in existing light water reactors without waiting on and incurring the cost of the development, licensing, and deployment of future Gen IV reactors. Overall, the safety, environmental, and cost benefits of treating the longer aged used nuclear wastes are substantial.

Collins, Emory D [ORNL; Jubin, Robert Thomas [ORNL; DelCul, Guillermo D [ORNL; Spencer, Barry B [ORNL; Renier, John-Paul [ORNL

2009-01-01

339

MANAGEMENT OF TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE RETRIEVAL PROJECT RISKS SUCCESSES IN THE STARTUP OF THE HANFORD 200 AREA TRU WASTE RETRIEVAL PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

A risk identification and mitigation method applied to the Transuranic (TRU) Waste Retrieval Project performed at the Hanford 200 Area burial grounds is described. Retrieval operations are analyzed using process flow diagramming. and the anticipated project contingencies are included in the Authorization Basis and operational plans. Examples of uncertainties assessed include degraded container integrity, bulged drums, unknown containers, and releases to the environment. Identification and mitigation of project risks contributed to the safe retrieval of over 1700 cubic meters of waste without significant work stoppage and below the targeted cost per cubic meter retrieved. This paper will be of interest to managers, project engineers, regulators, and others who are responsible for successful performance of waste retrieval and other projects with high safety and performance risks.

GREENWLL, R.D.

2005-01-20

340

Life-cycle assessment of a waste refinery process for enzymatic treatment of municipal solid waste.  

PubMed

Decrease of fossil fuel dependence and resource saving has become increasingly important in recent years. From this perspective, higher recycling rates for valuable materials (e.g. metals) as well as energy recovery from waste streams could play a significant role substituting for virgin material production and saving fossil resources. This is especially important with respect to residual waste (i.e. the remains after source-separation and separate collection) which in Denmark is typically incinerated. In this paper, a life-cycle assessment and energy balance of a pilot-scale waste refinery for the enzymatic treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) is presented. The refinery produced a liquid (liquefied organic materials and paper) and a solid fraction (non-degradable materials) from the initial waste. A number of scenarios for the energy utilization of the two outputs were assessed. Co-combustion in existing power plants and utilization of the liquid fraction for biogas production were concluded to be the most favourable options with respect to their environmental impacts (particularly global warming) and energy performance. The optimization of the energy and environmental performance of the waste refinery was mainly associated with the opportunity to decrease energy and enzyme consumption. PMID:21940157

Tonini, D; Astrup, T

2012-01-01

341

Los Alamos National Laboratory transuranic waste quality assurance project plan. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This Transuranic (TRU) Waste Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) serves as the quality management plan for the characterization of transuranic waste in preparation for certification and transportation. The Transuranic Waste Characterization/Certification Program (TWCP) consists of personnel who sample and analyze waste, validate and report data; and provide project management, quality assurance, audit and assessment, and records management support, all in accordance with established requirements for disposal of TRU waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility. This QAPjP addresses how the TWCP meets the quality requirements of the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) Quality Assurance Program Description (QAPD) and the technical requirements of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). The TWCP characterizes and certifies retrievably stored and newly generated TRU waste using the waste selection, testing, sampling, and analytical techniques and data quality objectives (DQOs) described in the QAPP, the Los Alamos National Laboratory Transuranic Waste Certification Plan (Certification Plan), and the CST Waste Management Facilities Waste Acceptance Criteria and Certification [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC)]. At the present, the TWCP does not address remote-handled (RH) waste.

NONE

1997-04-14

342

Study of the three-level management system on municipal solid waste treatment in Beijing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three-level management system on municipal solid waste treatment which are the source, middle and end treatment methods in Beijing are introduced in this paper, three waste handle workflows which are waste transfer station, refuse derived fuel and composting workflow about these methods are also shown. All of these treatment methods should be fully used to rationally and economically develop

Chao Wang

2010-01-01

343

Advanced anaerobic bioconversion of lignocellulosic waste for bioregenerative life support following thermal water treatment and biodegradation by Fibrobacter succinogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of nearly-complete conversion of lignocellulosic waste (70% food crops, 20% faecal matter and 10% green algae) into biogas was investigated in the context of a life support project. The treatment comprised a series of processes, i.e., a mesophilic laboratory scale CSTR (continuously stirred tank reactor), an upflow biofilm reactor, a fiber liquefaction reactor employing the rumen bacterium Fibrobacter

Geert Lissens; Willy Verstraete; Tobias Albrecht; Gerd Brunner; Catherine Creuly; Jerome Seon; Gilles Dussap; Christophe Lasseur

2004-01-01

344

Kinetic study of pyrolysis of waste water treatment plant sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated sewage sludge samples obtained from two different waste water treatment plants were investigated by thermogravimetric\\u000a analysis. Due to a very high content of water in the sludge samples, these had to be dried at 160°C in an electrical oven\\u000a in order to remove all adsorbed water. To ensure pyrolysis conditions, nitrogen atmosphere was applied. The pyrolysis decomposition\\u000a process was

Lukáš Gašparovi?; Ivan Hrablay; Zuzana Vojteková; ?udovít Jelemenský

2011-01-01

345

Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment FacilityDischarges in 2011  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents radioactive discharges from the TA50 Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facilities (RLWTF) during calendar 2011. During 2011, three pathways were available for the discharge of treated water to the environment: discharge as water through NPDES Outfall 051 into Mortandad Canyon, evaporation via the TA50 cooling towers, and evaporation using the newly-installed natural-gas effluent evaporator at TA50. Only one

Del Signore; John C

2012-01-01

346

Characterize and Model Final Waste Formulations and Offgas Solids from Thermal Treatment Processes - FY-98 Final Report for LDRD 2349  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of LDRD #2349, Characterize and Model Final Waste Formulations and Offgas Solids from Thermal Treatment Processes, was to develop a set of tools that would allow the user to, based on the chemical composition of a waste stream to be immobilized, predict the durability (leach behavior) of the final waste form and the phase assemblages present in the final waste form. The objectives of the project were: • investigation, testing and selection of thermochemical code • development of auxiliary thermochemical database • synthesis of materials for leach testing • collection of leach data • using leach data for leach model development • thermochemical modeling The progress toward completion of these objectives and a discussion of work that needs to be completed to arrive at a logical finishing point for this project will be presented.

Kessinger, Glen Frank; Nelson, Lee Orville; Grandy, Jon Drue; Zuck, Larry Douglas; Kong, Peter Chuen Sun; Anderson, Gail

1999-08-01

347

Design of the Long-term Waste Management Facility for Historic LLRW Port Hope Project - 13322  

SciTech Connect

The Municipality of Port Hope is located on the northern shores of Lake Ontario approximately 100 km east of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Starting in the 1930's, radium and later uranium processing by Eldorado Gold Mines Limited (subsequently Eldorado Nuclear Limited) (Eldorado) at their refinery in Port Hope resulted in the generation of process residues and wastes that were disposed of indiscriminately throughout the Municipality until about the mid-1950's. These process residues contained radium (Ra- 226), uranium, arsenic and other contaminants. Between 1944 and 1988, Eldorado was a Federal Crown Corporation, and as such, the Canadian Federal Government has assumed responsibility for the clean-up and long-term management of the historic waste produced by Eldorado during this period. The Port Hope Project involves the construction and development of a new long-term waste management facility (LTWMF), and the remediation and transfer of the historic wastes located within the Municipality of Port Hope to the new LTWMF. The new LTWMF will consist of an engineered above-ground containment mound designed to contain and isolate the wastes from the surrounding environment for the next several hundred years. The design of the engineered containment mound consists of a primary and secondary composite base liner system and composite final cover system, made up of both natural materials (e.g., compacted clay, granular materials) and synthetic materials (e.g., geo-synthetic clay liner, geo-membrane, geo-textiles). The engineered containment mound will cover an area of approximately 13 hectares and will contain the estimated 1.2 million cubic metres of waste that will be generated from the remedial activities within Port Hope. The LTWMF will also include infrastructure and support facilities such as access roads, administrative offices, laboratory, equipment and personnel decontamination facilities, waste water treatment plant and other ancillary facilities. Preliminary construction activities for the Port Hope LTWMF commenced in 2012 and are scheduled to continue over the next few years. The first cell of the engineered containment mound is scheduled to be constructed in 2015 with waste placement into the Port Hope LTWMF anticipated over the following seven year period. (authors)

Campbell, Don; Barton, David [Conestoga-Rovers and Associates, 651 Colby Drive, Waterloo, Ontario N2V 1C2 (Canada)] [Conestoga-Rovers and Associates, 651 Colby Drive, Waterloo, Ontario N2V 1C2 (Canada); Case, Glenn [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, 115 Toronto Road, Port Hope, Ontario L1A 3S4 (Canada)] [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, 115 Toronto Road, Port Hope, Ontario L1A 3S4 (Canada)

2013-07-01

348

Wastes Treat Wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project aims to solve sanitation problems and environmental pollution due to the improper disposal of sewage using a low cost system, which consists of septic tanks, anaerobic reactor, aerobic reactor and algal pond. The project promotes and uses wastes materials as components of the wastewater treatment system. Septic tanks made from recycled plastics are examples. The septic tank effluent

Wilfredo I. Jose

349

State of Nevada, Agency for Nuclear Projects/Nuclear Waste Project Office narrative report, January 1--June 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

The Agency for Nuclear Projects/Nuclear Waste Project Office (NWPO) is the State of Nevada agency designated by State law to monitor and oversee US Department of Energy (DOE) activities relative to the possible siting, construction, operation and closure of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain and to carry out the State of Nevada`s responsibilities under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. During the reporting period the NWPO continued to work toward the five objectives designed to implement the Agency`s oversight responsibilities. (1) Assure that the health and safety of Nevada`s citizens are adequately protected with regard to any federal high-level radioactive waste program within the State. (2) Take the responsibilities and perform the duties of the State of Nevada as described in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (Public Law 97-425) and the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. (3) Advise the Governor, the State Commission on Nuclear Projects and the Nevada State Legislature on matters concerning the potential disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the State. (4) Work closely and consult with affected local governments and State agencies. (5) Monitor and evaluate federal planning and activities regarding high-level radioactive waste disposal. Plan and conduct independent State studies regarding the proposed repository.

NONE

1996-08-01

350

Recent Improvements In Interface Management For Hanfords Waste Treatment And Immobilization Plant - 13263  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for management and completion of the River Protection Project (RPP) mission, which comprises both the Hanford Site tank farms operations and the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The RPP mission is to store, retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste; store and dispose of treated wastes; and close the tank farm waste management areas and treatment facilities by 2047. The WTP is currently being designed and constructed by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) for DOE-ORP. BNI relies on a number oftechnical services from other Hanford contractors for WTP's construction and commissioning. These same services will be required of the future WTP operations contractor. The WTP interface management process has recently been improved through changes in organization and technical issue management documented in an Interface Management Plan. Ten of the thirteen active WTP Interface Control Documents (ICDs) have been revised in 2012 using the improved process with the remaining three in progress. The value of the process improvements is reflected by the ability to issue these documents on schedule.

Arm, Stuart T. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Pell, Michael J. [Bechtel National, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Van Meighem, Jeffery S. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Duncan, Garth M. [Bechtel National, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Harrington, Christopher C. [Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, Washington (United States)

2012-11-20

351

Transuranic waste inventory, characteristics, generation, and facility assessment for treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives considered in the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement  

SciTech Connect

Transuranic waste (TRUW) loads and potential contaminant releases at and en route to treatment, storage, and disposal sites in the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex are important considerations in DOE`s Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). Waste loads are determined in part by the level of treatment the waste has undergone and the complex-wide configuration of origination, treatment, storage, and disposal sites selected for TRUW management. Other elements that impact waste loads are treatment volumes, waste characteristics, and the unit operation parameters of the treatment technologies. Treatment levels and site configurations have been combined into six TRUW management alternatives for study in the WM PEIS. This supplemental report to the WM PEIS gives the projected waste loads and contaminant release profiles for DOE treatment sites under each of the six TRUW management alternatives. It gives TRUW characteristics and inventories for current DOE generation and storage sites, describes the treatment technologies for three proposed levels of TRUW treatment, and presents the representative unit operation parameters of the treatment technologies. The data presented are primary inputs to developing the costs, health risks, and socioeconomic and environmental impacts of treating, packaging, and shipping TRUW for disposal.

Hong, K.; Kotek, T.; Folga, S.; Koebnick, B.; Wang, Y.; Kaicher, C.

1996-12-01

352

Preliminary siting criteria for the proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project was established in 1991 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Field Office. This facility will provide treatment capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This report identifies the siting requirements imposed on facilities that treat and store these waste types by Federal and State regulatory agencies and the US Department of Energy. Site selection criteria based on cost, environmental, health and safety, archeological, geological and service, and support requirements are presented. These criteria will be used to recommend alternative sites for the new facility. The National Environmental Policy Act process will then be invoked to evaluate the alternatives and the alternative sites and make a final site determination.

Jorgenson-Waters, M.

1992-09-01

353

Mixed Waste Focus Area mercury contamination product line: An integrated approach to mercury waste treatment and disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is tasked with ensuring that solutions are available for the mixed waste treatment problems of the DOE complex. During the MWFA`s initial technical baseline development process, three of the top four technology deficiencies identified were related to the need for amalgamation, stabilization, and separation\\/removal technologies for the treatment of

G. A. Hulet; T. B. Conley; M. I. Morris

1998-01-01

354

EBR-II spent fuel treatment demonstration project status  

SciTech Connect

The application of electrometallurgical technology to spent nuclear fuel treatment is being demonstrated by treating 410 kg uranium spent driver fuel and 1,200 kg uranium spent blanket fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) spent driver and blanket fuel. This fuel is a metallic uranium alloy and contains elemental sodium, which is a reactive material. Since reactive material is considered hazardous by US Environmental Protection Agency regulations, this fuel requires treatment before disposal in a geologic repository. The EBR-II spent fuel treatment demonstration conditions this fuel in an integrated process where the fuel is converted into three different products: low enriched uranium (LEU), ceramic waste and metallic waste. This demonstration was initiated in June 1996 and has treated approximately 50% of the driver fuel. The higher throughput equipment that will be used for blanket treatment processes has been installed in the hot cell facility and is being tested with depleted uranium. Metal waste forms have been produced from the irradiated metals from the driver fuel. Ceramic waste process equipment has been built and is being tested before installation in the hot cell facilities. This paper discusses the processes and the current results from the first 20 months of operation.

Benedict, R.W.; Henslee, S.P.

1998-07-01

355

US Department of Energy interim mixed waste inventory report: Waste streams, treatment capacities and technologies: Volume 2, Site specific---California through Idaho  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report to provide an inventory of its mixed wastes and treatment capacities and technologies in response to Section 105(a) of the Federal Facility Compliance act (FFCAct) of 1992 (Pub. L. No. 102-386). As required by the FFCAct-1992, this report provide site-specific information on DOE`s mixed waste streams and a general review of available and planned treatment facilities for mixed wastes for the following sites: eight California facilities which are Energy Technology engineering Center, General Atomics, General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, and Sandia national Laboratories; Grand Junction Project Office; Rocky Flats Plant; Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory-Windsor Site; Pinellas Plant; Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard; Argonne National Laboratory-West; and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory.

Not Available

1993-04-01

356

Secondary Low-Level Waste Treatment Strategy Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this analysis is to identify and review potential options for processing and disposing of the secondary low-level waste (LLW) that will be generated through operation of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). An estimate of annual secondary LLW is generated utilizing the mechanism established in ''Secondary Waste Treatment Analysis'' (Reference 8.1) and ''Secondary Low-Level Waste Generation Rate Analysis'' (Reference 8.5). The secondary LLW quantities are based on the spent fuel and high-level waste (HLW) arrival schedule as defined in the ''Controlled Design Assumptions Document'' (CDA) (Reference 8.6). This analysis presents estimates of the quantities of LLW in its various forms. A review of applicable laws, codes, and standards is discussed, and a synopsis of those applicable laws, codes, and standards and their impacts on potential processing and disposal options is presented. The analysis identifies viable processing/disposal options in light of the existing laws, codes, and standards, and then evaluates these options in regard to: (1) Process and equipment requirements; (2) LLW disposal volumes; and (3) Facility requirements.

D.M. LaRue

1999-05-25

357

Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) Waste Management Project  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Management Project (WMP) is committed to excellence in our work and to delivering quality products and services to our customers, protecting our employees and the public and to being good stewards of the environment. We will continually strive to understand customer requirements, perform services, and activities that meet or exceed customer expectations, and be cost-effective in our performance. The WMP maintains an environment that fosters continuous improvement in our processes, performance, safety and quality. The achievement of quality will require the total commitment of all WMP employees to our ethic that Quality, Health and Safety, and Regulatory Compliance must come before profits. The successful implementation of this policy and ethic requires a formal, documented management quality system to ensure quality standards are established and achieved in all activities. The following principles are the foundation of our quality system. Senior management will take full ownership of the quality system and will create an environment that ensures quality objectives are met, standards are clearly established, and performance is measured and evaluated. Line management will be responsible for quality system implementation. Each organization will adhere to all quality system requirements that apply to their function. Every employee will be responsible for their work quality, to work safely and for complying with the policies, procedures and instructions applicable to their activities. Quality will be addressed and verified during all phases of our work scope from proposal development through closeout including contracts or projects. Continuous quality improvement will be an ongoing process. Our quality ethic and these quality principles constantly guide our actions. We will meet our own quality expectations and exceed those of our customers with vigilance, commitment, teamwork, and persistence.

HORHOTA, M.J.

2000-12-21

358

Treatment of Organic-Contaminated Mixed Waste Utilizing the Oak Ridge Broad Spectrum Contracts  

SciTech Connect

To meet the requirements of the State of Tennessee's Department of Environment and Conservation Commissioner's Order for treatment of mixed low level wastes, Oak Ridge has utilized commercial treatment companies to treat and dispose mixed waste. Over the past year, Oak Ridge has shipped organic-contaminated mixed waste for treatment to meet milestones under the Site Treatment Plan. Oak Ridge has established contracts with commercial treatment companies accessible by all DOE sites for treatment of a wide range of mixed wastes. The paper will describe and summarize the activities involved in treating and disposing of organic-contaminated mixed waste utilizing DOE complex-wide contracts and the treatment and disposal activities required. This paper will describe the case history of treatment of several organic-contaminated mixed wastes from the Oak Ridge Reservation requiring treatment prior to disposal. The paper will include waste category information, implementation activities, and contract access. The paper will discuss the specifics of the mixed waste treatment including waste characteristics, treatment process and equipment utilized, and treatment results. Additional information will be provided on task order development, waste profiling, treatment pricing, and the disposal process.

Estes, C. H.; Heacker, F. K.; Cunningham, J.; Westich, B.

2003-02-25

359

The role of intergenerational influence in waste education programmes: The THAW project  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: > Children can be effective advocates in changing their parents' lifestyles. > We investigated the role of intergenerational influence in waste education programmes. > Waste Watch's Take Home Action on Waste project worked with 6705 children in 39 schools. > The results showed increased participation in recycling and declines in residual waste. > The study shows that recycling behaviour is positively impacted by intergenerational influence. - Abstract: Whilst the education of young people is often seen as a part of the solution to current environmental problems seeking urgent attention, it is often forgotten that their parents and other household members can also be educated/influenced via home-based educational activities. This paper explores the theory of intergenerational influence in relation to school based waste education. Waste Watch, a UK-based environmental charity ((www.wastewatch.org.uk)), has pioneered a model that uses practical activities and whole school involvement to promote school based action on waste. This methodology has been adopted nationally. This paper outlines and evaluates how effective school based waste education is in promoting action at a household level. The paper outlines Waste Watch's 'Taking Home Action on Waste (THAW)' project carried out for two and half years in Rotherham, a town in South Yorkshire, England. The project worked with 6705 primary age children in 39 schools (44% of primary schools in the project area) to enable them to take the 'reduce, reuse and recycle message' home to their families and to engage these (i.e. families) in sustainable waste management practices. As well as substantial increases in students' knowledge and understanding of waste reduction, measurement of the impact of the project in areas around 12 carefully chosen sample schools showed evidence of increased participation in recycling and recycling tonnages as well as declining levels of residual waste. Following delivery of the project in these areas, an average increase of 8.6% was recorded in recycling set out rates which led to a 4.3% increase in paper recycling tonnages and an 8.7% increase in tonnages of cans, glass and textiles collected for recycling. Correspondingly, there was a 4.5% fall in tonnages of residual waste. Waste Watch's THAW project was the first serious attempt to measure the intergenerational influence of an education programme on behaviour at home (i.e. other than schools' own waste). It clearly shows that household recycling behaviour can be positively impacted by intergenerational influence via a practical school-based waste education model. However, although the model could potentially have a big impact if rolled out nationally, it will require seed funding and the long-term durability of the model has not yet been fully quantified.

Maddox, P.; Doran, C. [Waste Watch, 56-64 Leonard Street, London EC2A 4LT (United Kingdom); Williams, I.D., E-mail: idw@soton.ac.uk [School of Civil Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Highfield, University Rd., Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Kus, M. [School of Civil Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Highfield, University Rd., Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

2011-12-15

360

Modeling Offgas Systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant  

SciTech Connect

To augment steady-state design calculations, dynamic models of three offgas systems that will be used in the Waste Treatment Plant now under construction at the Hanford Site were developed using Aspen Custom Modeler{trademark}. The offgas systems modeled were those for the High Level Waste (HLW) melters, Low Activity Waste (LAW) melters and HLW Pulse Jet Ventilation (PJV) system. The models do not include offgas chemistry but only consider the two major species in the offgas stream which are air and water vapor. This is sufficient to perform material and energy balance calculations that accurately show the dynamic behavior of gas pressure, temperature, humidity and flow throughout the systems. The models are structured to perform pressure drop calculations across the various unit operations using a combination of standard engineering calculations and empirical data based correlations for specific pieces of equipment. The models include process controllers, gas ducting, control valves, exhaust fans and the offgas treatment equipment. The models were successfully used to analyze a large number of operating scenarios including both normal and off-normal conditions.

Smith, Frank G., III

2005-09-02

361

Waste compatibility assessments to support project W-320  

SciTech Connect

The intent of this internal memo is to provide a recommendation for the transfer of tank 241-C-106 waste, Attachment 2, to tank 241-AY-102. This internal memo also identifies additional requirements which have been deemed necessary for safely receiving and storing the waste documented in Attachment 2 from tank 241-C-106 in tank 241-AY-102. This waste transfer is planned in support of tank 241-C-106 solids sluicing activities. Approximately 200,000 gallons of waste and flush water are expected to be pumped from tank 241-C-106 into tank 241-AY-102. Several transfers will be necessary to complete the sluicing of tank 241-C-106 solids. To assure ourselves that this waste transfer will not create any compatibility concerns, a waste compatibility assessment adhering to current waste compatibility requirements has been performed.

BLAAK, T.M.

1999-04-06

362

Energy and nutrient recovery from anaerobic treatment of organic wastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the research was to develop a complete systems design and predictive model framework of a series of linked processes capable of providing treatment of landfill leachate while simultaneously recovering nutrients and bioenergy from the waste inputs. This proposed process includes an "Ammonia Recovery Process" (ARP) consisting of: (1) ammonia de-sorption requiring leachate pH adjustment with lime or sodium hydroxide addition followed by, (2) ammonia re-absorption into a 6-molar sulfuric acid spray-tower followed by, (3) biological activated sludge treatment of soluble organic residuals (BOD) followed by, (4) high-rate algal post-treatment and finally, (5) an optional anaerobic digestion process for algal and bacterial biomass, and/or supplemental waste fermentation providing the potential for additional nutrient and energy recovery. In addition, the value provided by the waste treatment function of the overall processes, each of the sub-processes would provide valuable co-products offering potential GHG credit through direct fossil-fuel replacement, or replacement of products requiring fossil fuels. These valuable co-products include, (1) ammonium sulfate fertilizer, (2) bacterial biomass, (3) algal biomass providing, high-protein feeds and oils for biodiesel production and, (4) methane bio-fuels. Laboratory and pilot reactors were constructed and operated, providing data supporting the quantification and modeling of the ARP. Growth parameters, and stoichiometric coefficients were determined, allowing for design of the leachate activated sludge treatment sub-component. Laboratory and pilot algal reactors were constructed and operated, and provided data that supported the determination of leachate organic/inorganic-nitrogen ratio, and loading rates, allowing optimum performance of high-rate algal post-treatment. A modular and expandable computer program was developed, which provided a systems model framework capable of predicting individual component and overall performance. The overall systems model software, ENRAT, predicted that a full-scale operation to treat 18,750 L leachate/day would need an Ammonia Recovery process consisting of 88,300 L of total gas transfer column volume, an activated sludge system of 74,417 L, and an algal post treatment raceway of 683 m2 (30 cm depth). The ARP would consume 262.5 L/day of 6N sulfuric acid and produce 16.12 kg-N/day ammonium sulfate. The activated sludge system and algal post treatment would produce 900 g-VS/day (or 44.6 L 2% sludge) and 6.83 kg-VS/day (or 341.6 L 2% sludge) of bacterial and algal biomass.

Henrich, Christian-Dominik

363

A rapid, simple and effective waste water treatment  

SciTech Connect

It had been shown previously that electrolysis systems using special electrodes generate solutions with high antimicrobial activity. These laboratory data have been expanded to cover waste waters. Tests were run at the Salt Lake City sewage treatment plant, using Brinecell Model 130 units. The results are presented. Waste water from a chicken processing plant was investigated for reduction in BOD and COD; solution was recirculated through the cell. Preliminary data are presented. In order to investigate conditions for significant reductions in BOD, COD and TOC, tests were run using solutions made up of known compounds. Further tests were run to investigate the effect of the electrolysis system on chloroorganic compounds. Carbon tetrachloride and chloroform, in the same solution, were treated.

Themy, T.; Drury, T. (Brinecell Manufacturing Corp., Salt Lake City, UT (USA)); Wilk, I.J.

1988-09-01

364

Advancements in stem cells treatment of skeletal muscle wasting  

PubMed Central

Muscular dystrophies (MDs) are a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders, in which progressive muscle wasting and weakness is often associated with exhaustion of muscle regeneration potential. Although physiological properties of skeletal muscle tissue are now well known, no treatments are effective for these diseases. Muscle regeneration was attempted by means transplantation of myogenic cells (from myoblast to embryonic stem cells) and also by interfering with the malignant processes that originate in pathological tissues, such as uncontrolled fibrosis and inflammation. Taking into account the advances in the isolation of new subpopulation of stem cells and in the creation of artificial stem cell niches, we discuss how these emerging technologies offer great promises for therapeutic approaches to muscle diseases and muscle wasting associated with aging. PMID:24575052

Meregalli, Mirella; Farini, Andrea; Sitzia, Clementina; Torrente, Yvan

2014-01-01

365

Fate of metals contained in waste electrical and electronic equipment in a municipal waste treatment process  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fate of 55 metals during shredding and separation of WEEE was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Most metals were mainly distributed to the small-grain fraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Much of metals in WEEE being treated as municipal waste in Japan end up in landfills. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pre-sorting of small digital products reduces metals to be landfilled at some level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Consideration of metal recovery from other middle-sized WEEE is still important. - Abstract: In Japan, waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) that is not covered by the recycling laws are treated as municipal solid waste. A part of common metals are recovered during the treatment; however, other metals are rarely recovered and their destinations are not clear. This study investigated the distribution ratios and substance flows of 55 metals contained in WEEE during municipal waste treatment using shredding and separation techniques at a Japanese municipal waste treatment plant. The results revealed that more than half of Cu and most of Al contained in WEEE end up in landfills or dissipate under the current municipal waste treatment system. Among the other metals contained in WEEE, at least 70% of the mass was distributed to the small-grain fraction through the shredding and separation and is to be landfilled. Most kinds of metals were concentrated several fold in the small-grain fraction through the process and therefore the small-grain fraction may be a next target for recovery of metals in terms of both metal content and amount. Separate collection and pre-sorting of small digital products can work as effective way for reducing precious metals and less common metals to be landfilled to some extent; however, much of the total masses of those metals would still end up in landfills and it is also important to consider how to recover and utilize metals contained in other WEEE such as audio/video equipment.

Oguchi, Masahiro, E-mail: oguchi.masahiro@nies.go.jp [Research Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2, Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Sakanakura, Hirofumi, E-mail: sakanakura@nies.go.jp [Research Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2, Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Terazono, Atsushi, E-mail: terazono@nies.go.jp [Research Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2, Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Takigami, Hidetaka, E-mail: takigami@nies.go.jp [Research Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2, Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan)

2012-01-15

366

Planning a Solid Urban Waste Treatment System: Dynamic Location Model and Primal-Dual Heuristic  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solid urban waste treatment system is generally composed of several facilities with different characteristics: waste transfer stations, incinerators and sanitary landfills. These facilities interact with each other, and the decision to locate one service should consider the locations of all the others. The planning of a solid urban waste treatment system is inherently dynamic, because all the services to

JOANA DIAS; M. EUGÉNIA CAPTIVO; JOÃO CLÍMACO

367

Project plans for transuranic waste at small quantity sites in the Department of Energy comples-10522  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory, Carlsbad Office (LANL-CO), has been tasked to write Project Plans for all of the Small Quantity Sites (SQS) with defense related Transuranic (TRU) waste in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Transuranic Work-Off Plans were precursors to the Project Plans. LANL-CO prepared a Work-Off Plan for each small quantity site. The Work-Off Plan that identified issues, drivers, schedules, and inventory. Eight sites have been chosen to deinventory their legacy TRU waste; Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, General Electric-Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory-Area 300, Nevada Test Site, Nuclear Radiation Development, Sandia National Laboratory, and the Separations Process Research Unit. Each plan was written for contact and/or remote handled waste if present at the site. These project plans will assist the small quantity sites to ship legacy TRU waste offsite and de-inventory the site of legacy TRU waste. The DOE is working very diligently to reduce the nuclear foot print in the United States. Each of the eight SQSs will be de-inventoried of legacy TRU waste during a campaign that ends September 2011. The small quantity sites have a fraction of the waste that large quantity sites possess. During this campaign, the small quantity sites will package all of the legacy TRU waste and ship to Idaho or directly to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The sites will then be removed from the Transuranic Waste Inventory if they are de-inventoried of all waste. Each Project Plan includes the respective site inventory report, schedules, resources, drivers and any issues. These project plans have been written by the difficult waste team and will be approved by each site. Team members have been assigned to each site to write site specific project plans. Once the project plans have been written, the difficult team members will visit the sites to ensure nothing has been overlooked and to verify the inventory. After each site has approved their project plan, the site will begin writing procedures and packaging/repackaging their waste. In some cases the sites have already begun the process. The waste will be shipped after all of the waste has been characterized and approved.

Mctaggart, Jerri Lynne [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lott, Sheila [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gadbury, Casey [DOE

2009-01-01

368

The HRA-SOLARIUM project: processing of historical waste on the Belgoprocess site (Belgium): project description and lessons learned after 3 years operations  

SciTech Connect

At the end of the 80's, the Belgian State ordered an inventory of the liabilities of the Belgian nuclear programme, to be fully or partially financed by them. ONDRAF/NIRAS (National Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials) was entrusted with the management of the waste and the development of a programme for the clearance of the identified liabilities. One of these liabilities is the treatment and conditioning of some 200 m3 of widely varying high- and medium level waste. The gross volume of primary and secondary packages amounts to 2,600 m{sup 3}. As the waste is stored in vaults or in concrete shielding containers and no appropriate treating and conditioning facilities are in operation, the HRA/SOLARIUM project was launched. The bulk of these wastes, of which 95% are solids, the remainder consisting of mainly solidified liquids, have been produced between 1967 and 1988. They originate from various research programmes and reactor operation at the Belgian nuclear energy research centre SCK.CEN, isotope production, decontamination and dismantling operations. About 4,800 packages of various types are concerned and must be treated (standard steel barrels, special containers, shielded overpacks,... ); they contain medium-active wastes (solid or liquid), radium bearing or not, {beta}/{gamma} or {alpha}/{beta}/{gamma}, and special wastes (Al, spent resins, Na/Nak,...). The new HRA/SOLARIUM facilities, located on site 2 of Belgoprocess in Mol, have been commissioned in the 2. semester 2003. The paper describes the project itself and focuses on the lessons learned from first operation years. (authors)

Cuchet, J.M. [BELGATOM, Avenue Ariane 4, B 1200 Brussels (Belgium); Luycx, P.; Wathion, M.; Willems, M. [BELGOPROCESS, Gravenstraat 73, B 2480 Dessel (Belgium); De Goeyse, A.; Braeckeveldt, M. [NIRAS / ONDRAF, Avenue des Arts 14, B 1210 Brussels (Belgium)

2007-07-01

369

Electrochemical Treatment of Alkaline Nuclear Wastes. Innovative Technology Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

Nitrate and nitrite are two of the major hazardous non-radioactive species present in Hanford and Savannah River (SR) high-level waste (HLW). Electrochemical treatment processes have been developed to remove these species by converting aqueous sodium nitrate/nitrite into sodium hydroxide and chemically reducing the nitrogen species to gaseous ammonia, nitrous oxide and nitrogen. Organic complexants and other organic compounds found in waste can be simultaneously oxidized to gaseous carbon dioxide and water, thereby reducing flammability and leaching risks as well as process interferences in subsequent radionuclide separation processes. Competing technologies include thermal, hydrothermal and chemical destruction. Unlike thermal and hydrothermal processes that typically operate at very high temperatures and pressures, electrochemical processes typically operate at low temperatures (<100 C) and atmospheric pressure. Electrochemical processes effect chemical transformations by the addition or removal of electrons and, thus, do not add additional chemicals, as is the case with chemical destruction processes. Hanford and SR have different plans for disposal of the low-activity waste (LAW) that results when radioactive Cs{sup 137} has been removed from the HLW. At SR, the decontaminated salt solution will be disposed in a cement waste form referred to as Saltstone, whereas at Hanford the waste will be vitrified as a borosilicate glass. Destruction of the nitrate and nitrite before disposing the decontaminated salt solution in Saltstone would eliminate possible groundwater contamination that could occur from the leaching of nitrate and nitrite from the cement waste form. Destruction of nitrate and nitrite before vitrification at Hanford would significantly reduce the size of the off-gas system by eliminating the formation of NO{sub x} gases in the melter. Throughout the 1990's, the electrochemical conversion process has been extensively studied at SR, the University of Sou th Carolina, and elsewhere. Testing at the bench-scale has been completed using both surrogate and actual waste streams. A pilot-scale test facility was constructed and operated briefly at SR. This document contains information on the above-mentioned technology, including description, applicability, cost, and performance data.

NONE

2001-01-01

370

Collaboration Between Environmental Water Chemistry Students and Hazardous Waste Treatment Specialists on the University of Colorado-Boulder Campus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of Colorado-Boulder is one of a few universities in the country that has a licensed Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facility (TSDF) for hazardous waste on campus. This facility, located on the bottom floor of the Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) building, allows CU to more economically treat hazardous waste by enabling treatment specialists on staff to safely collect and organize the hazardous waste generated on campus. Hazardous waste is anything that contains a regulated chemical or compound and most chemicals used in engineering labs (e.g., acids, solvents, metal solutions) fall into this category. The EH&S staff is able to treat close almost 33% of the waste from campus and the rest is packed for off-site treatment at various places all over the country for disposal (e.g., Sauget, IL, Port Aurthor, TX). The CU-Boulder campus produced over 50 tons of hazardous waste in 2010 costing over $300,000 in off-campus expenses. The EH&S staff assigns one of over 50 codes to the waste which will determine if the waste can be treated on campus of must be shipped off campus to be disposed of. If the waste can be treated on campus, it will undergo one of three processes: 1) neutralization, 2) UV-ozone oxidation, or 3) ion exchange. If the waste is acidic but contains no heavy metals, the acid is neutralized with sodium hydroxide (a base) and can be disposed "down the drain" to the Boulder Wastewater Treatment Plant. If the waste contains organic compounds and no metals, a UV-ozone oxidation system is used to break down the organic compounds. Silver from photography wastewater can be removed using ion exchange columns. Undergraduate and graduate students worked with the hazardous waste treatment facility at the Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) building on the CU-Boulder campus during the fall of 2011 and fall of 2012. Early in the semester, students receive a tour of the three batch treatment processes the facility is equipped with. Later in the semester, the students conduct a bench-scale laboratory exercise where they study part of the treatment process. Several small start-up companies are testing components in the lab, which adds to the colaboration of the project.; Figure 1. Students in Environmental Water Chemistry lab conducting a titration.

Dittrich, T. M.

2012-12-01

371

Sodium-bearing Waste Treatment Technology Evaluation Report  

SciTech Connect

Sodium-bearing waste (SBW) disposition is one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operation Office’s (NE-ID) and State of Idaho’s top priorities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL has been working over the past several years to identify a treatment technology that meets NE-ID and regulatory treatment requirements, including consideration of stakeholder input. Many studies, including the High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), have resulted in the identification of five treatment alternatives that form a short list of perhaps the most appropriate technologies for the DOE to select from. The alternatives are (a) calcination with maximum achievable control technology (MACT) upgrade, (b) steam reforming, (c) cesium ion exchange (CsIX) with immobilization, (d) direct evaporation, and (e) vitrification. Each alternative has undergone some degree of applied technical development and preliminary process design over the past four years. This report presents a summary of the applied technology and process design activities performed through February 2004. The SBW issue and the five alternatives are described in Sections 2 and 3, respectively. Details of preliminary process design activities for three of the alternatives (steam reforming, CsIX, and direct evaporation) are presented in three appendices. A recent feasibility study provides the details for calcination. There have been no recent activities performed with regard to vitrification; that section summarizes and references previous work.

Charles M. Barnes; Arlin L. Olson; Dean D. Taylor

2004-05-01

372

Waste management aspects of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) projects  

SciTech Connect

History shows that waste management concepts have generally been overlooked during the planning stages of most projects and experiments. This is resulting,in the generation of vast amounts of waste during the clean up or D&D of these facilities. Managers are not only being frustrated in their waste minimization efforts (a relatively new concept) but are also facing the prospect of not being able to dispose of the waste materials at all. At the least, managers are having to budget extraordinary amounts of time, money, and effort in defending their positions that the waste materials are not only humanly and environmentally safe, but that the waste materials are in fact what management says they are. The following discussion will attempt to provide some guidance to D&D managers to help them avoid many of the common pitfalls associated with the ultimate disposal of the materials generated during these projects.

Becker, B.D.

1993-07-01

373

Waste management aspects of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) projects  

SciTech Connect

History shows that waste management concepts have generally been overlooked during the planning stages of most projects and experiments. This is resulting in the generation of vast amounts of waste during the clean up or D&D of these facilities. Managers are not only being frustrated in their waste minimization efforts (a relatively now concept) but are also facing the prospect of not beinq able to dispose of the waste materials at all. At the least, managers are having to budget extraordinary amounts of time, money, and effort in defending their positions that tho waste materials are not only humanly and environmentally safe, but that the waste materials are in fact what management says they are. This paper attempts to provide some guidance to D&D managers to help then avoid many of the common pitfalls associated with the ultimate disposal of the materials generated during these projects.

Becker, B.D.

1994-05-01

374

TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF BULK VITRIFICATION PROCESS & PRODUCT FOR TANK WASTE TREATMENT AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE  

SciTech Connect

At the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) is being constructed to immobilize both high-level waste (IUW) for disposal in a national repository and low-activity waste (LAW) for onsite, near-surface disposal. The schedule-controlling step for the WTP Project is vitrification of the large volume of LAW, current capacity of the WTP (as planned) would require 50 years to treat the Hanford tank waste, if the entire LAW volume were to be processed through the WTP. To reduce the time and cost for treatment of Hanford Tank Waste, and as required by the Tank Waste Remediation System Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision and the Hanford Federal Facility Consent Agreement (Tn-Party Agreement), DOE plans to supplement the LAW treatment capacity of the WTP. Since 2002, DOE, in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency and State of Washington Department of Ecology has been evaluating technologies that could provide safe and effective supplemental treatment of LAW. Current efforts at Hanford are intended to provide additional information to aid a joint agency decision on which technology will be used to supplement the WTP. A Research, Development and Demonstration permit has been issued by the State of Washington to build and (for a limited time) operate a Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) facility to provide information for the decision on a supplemental treatment technology for up to 50% of the LAW. In the Bulk Vitrification (BV) process, LAW, soil, and glass-forming chemicals are mixed, dried, and placed in a refractory-lined box, Electric current, supplied through two graphite electrodes in the box, melts the waste feed, producing a durable glass waste-form. Although recent modifications to the process have resulted in significant improvements, there are continuing technical concerns.

SCHAUS, P.S.

2006-07-21

375

Trace perchlorates in a radiological liquid-waste treatment facility.  

PubMed

Waste management programs at the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are concerned with the levels of perchlorates due to the effects it can have on the environment and resultant regulations. The RLWTF treats industrial and radioactive wastes generated at multiple research and production facilities across the LANL. Perchloric acid is the major source of the perchlorate ion in the RLWTF used in the analytical chemistry laboratories and for metal dissolution. Perchlorate is present in the influent to the RLWTF at concentrations up to several thousands microg/l level. Ion chromatography is the method of choice to analyze the concentrations of perchlorate in the wastewater generated at the RLWTF. Perchlorate was separated by elution through a CS16/CG16 with an EG40 eluent generator. To minimize background conductivity and enhance analyte conductance, an anion self-regenerating suppressor was used. The method achieved a perchlorate method detection limit of 1 microg/l. The method is successfully being used to monitor the perchlorate levels at the RLWTF and provide data for the pilot tests to remove perchlorate from the RLWTF effluent. PMID:12830898

Hodge, Evangeline M

2003-05-16

376

Assessment of incineration and melting treatment technologies for RWMC buried waste  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an identification, description, and ranking evaluation of the available thermal treatment technologies potentially capable of treating the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) buried mixed waste. The ranking evaluation focused separately upon incinerators for treatment of combustible wastes and melters for noncombustible wastes. The highest rank incinerators are rotary kilns and controlled air furnaces, while the highest rank melters are the hearth configuration plasma torch, graphite electrode arc, and joule-heated melters. 4 refs.

Geimer, R.; Hertzler, T.; Gillins, R. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Anderson, G.L. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1992-02-01

377

Waste treatment: Beverage industry. (Latest citations from Food Science & Technology Abstracts (FSTA)). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning waste treatment in the alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverage industries. Brewery effluent and wastewater management and disposal are reviewed. References cover aerobic treatment, sources of effluents, waste reduction, waste fermentation, effluent purification, and cost-effectiveness evaluation. The use of wastes for biogas production and for building material manufacture is examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-08-01

378

DQO Summary Report for 105-N\\/109-N Interim Safe Storage Project Waste Characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DQO summary report provides the results of the DQO process completed for waste characterization activities for the 105-N\\/109-N Reactor Interim Safe Storage Project including decommission, deactivate, decontaminate, and demolish activities for six associated buildings.

T. A. Lee

2005-01-01

379

Lincoln County nuclear waste project. Quarterly progress report, October 1, 1991--December 31, 1991  

SciTech Connect

This document included the following three progress reports to the Yucca Mountain Project Office on radioactive waste storage in Lincoln County, Nevada: financial status report; federal cash transactions report; and technical progress report.

NONE

1996-03-01

380

DQO Summary Report for 105-N/109-N Interim Safe Storage Project Waste Characterization  

SciTech Connect

The DQO summary report provides the results of the DQO process completed for waste characterization activities for the 105-N/109-N Reactor Interim Safe Storage Project including decommission, deactivate, decontaminate, and demolish activities for six associated buildings.

T. A. Lee

2005-09-15

381

Guidance Document for Conducting Waste Management Demonstration Projects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document presents the basic framework that has been developed for conducting waste management technology demonstration at the US Department of Energy/Oak Ridge Operations (DOE/ORO) sites. The guidance is based on experience gained by the Waste Manage...

S. P. N. Singh, R. K. Genung, R. L. Jolley

1988-01-01

382

Research Associate (013294.0001) Animal Technologist Position: Chronic Wasting Disease Research Project  

E-print Network

Research Associate (013294.0001) Animal Technologist Position: Chronic Wasting Disease Research for animals and assist with other assays as part of research on chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer and elk, and be reliable and dedicated to the research project. Minimum requirement: B.S. degree OR an A.A. degree with 4

Stephens, Graeme L.

383

Mission Need Statement for the Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Laboratory proposes to establish replacement remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability to meet Nuclear Energy and Naval Reactors mission-critical, remote-handled low-level waste disposal needs beyond planned cessation of existing disposal capability at the end of Fiscal Year 2015. Remote-handled low-level waste is generated from nuclear programs conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory, including spent nuclear fuel handling and operations at the Naval Reactors Facility and operations at the Advanced Test Reactor. Remote-handled low-level waste also will be generated by new programs and from segregation and treatment (as necessary) of remote-handled scrap and waste currently stored in the Radioactive Scrap and Waste Facility at the Materials and Fuels Complex. Replacement disposal capability must be in place by Fiscal Year 2016 to support uninterrupted Idaho operations. This mission need statement provides the basis for the laboratory’s recommendation to the Department of Energy to proceed with establishing the replacement remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability, project assumptions and constraints, and preliminary cost and schedule information for developing the proposed capability. Without continued remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability, Department of Energy missions at the Idaho National Laboratory would be jeopardized, including operations at the Naval Reactors Facility that are critical to effective execution of the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program and national security. Remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability is also critical to the Department of Energy’s ability to meet obligations with the State of Idaho.

Lisa Harvego

2009-06-01

384

Microbial treatment of sulfur-contaminated industrial wastes.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated the microbial removal of sulfur from a solid industrial waste in liquid culture under laboratory conditions. The study involved the use of two bacteria Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 53987 and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans AZCT-M125-5 isolated from a Mexican soil. Experimentation for industrial waste biotreatment was done in liquid culture using 125-mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 30 mL Starkey modified culture medium and incubated at 30°C during 7 days. The industrial waste was added at different pulp densities (8.25-100% w/v) corresponding to different sulfur contents from 0.7 to 8.63% (w/w). Sulfur-oxidizing activity of the strain AZCT-M125-5 produced 281 and 262 mg/g of sulfate and a sulfur removal of 60% and 45.7% when the pulp density was set at 8.25 and 16.5% (w/v), respectively. In comparison, the strain A. ferrooxidans ATCC 53987 showed a lower sulfur-oxidizing activity with a sulfate production of 25.6 and 12.7 mg/g and a sulfur removal of 6% and 2.5% at the same pulp densities, respectively. Microbial growth was limited by pulp densities higher than 25% (w/v) of industrial waste with minimal sulfur-oxidizing activity and sulfur removal. The rate of sulfur removal for Acidithiobacillus thioxidans AZCT-M125-5 and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 53987 was 0.185 and 0.0159 mg S g(-1) h(-1) with a pulp density of 16.5% (w/v), respectively. This study demonstrated that Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans AZCT-M125-5 possesses a high sulfur-oxidizing activity, even at high sulfur concentration, which allows the treatment of hazardous materials. PMID:24171423

Gómez-Ramírez, Marlenne; Zarco-Tovar, Karina; Aburto, Jorge; de León, Roberto García; Rojas-Avelizapa, Norma G

2014-01-01

385

Community interviews task report: Working draft: BWIP (Basalt Waste Isolation Project) Repository Project  

SciTech Connect

The socioeconomic program for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) requires the collection of information about economic, social and cultural conditions, demographic, housing and settlement patterns, and the provision of public services and facilities in order to monitor and assess the impacts of the project on the study area. Much of the information needed by the socioeconomic program is compiled, maintained, and used by officials or staff members of local, regional, state, or tribal agencies or organizations. Because much of this information is prepared for internal use, the documents are often not published or advertised and it can be difficult for researchers to identify many obscure, yet useful, sources of information. In order to identify and gain access to this information, it is often most efficient to talk directly with officials and staff members of pertinent agencies or organizations who may have knowledge of these documents or who may have useful information themselves. Consequently, interviews in the study communities with persons knowledgeable about the socioeconomic or sociocultural characteristics of the area constitute an important source of data for the socioeconomic program. In addition to identifying various data sources, these interviews provide a mechanism for understanding and interpreting those data. Knowledge of specific local conditions is often necessary to correctly interpret quantitative data. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the objectives of the community interviews task and the general methods that will be used in conducting the community interviews. 3 refs.

Bolton, P.A.

1987-11-01

386

Tank waste remediation system optimized processing strategy with an altered treatment scheme  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an alternative strategy evolved from the current Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) programmatic baseline for accomplishing the treatment and disposal of the Hanford Site tank wastes. This optimized processing strategy with an altered treatment scheme performs the major elements of the TWRS Program, but modifies the deployment of selected treatment technologies to reduce the program cost. The present program for development of waste retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification technologies continues, but the optimized processing strategy reuses a single facility to accomplish the separations/low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification and the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification processes sequentially, thereby eliminating the need for a separate HLW vitrification facility.

Slaathaug, E.J.

1996-03-01

387

Thermophilic slurry-phase treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon waste sludges  

SciTech Connect

Chemoheterotrophic thermophilic bacteria were used to achieve enhanced hydrocarbon degradation during slurry-phase treatment of oily waste sludges from petroleum refinery operations. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures were examined under thermophilic conditions to assess the effects of mode of metabolism on the potential for petroleum hydrocarbon degradation. The study determined that both aerobic and anaerobic thermophilic bacteria are capable of growth on petroleum hydrocarbons. Thermophilic methanogenesis is feasible during the degradation of hydrocarbons when a strict anaerobic condition is achieved in a slurry bioreactor. Aerobic thermophilic bacteria achieved the largest apparent reduction in chemical oxygen demand, freon extractable oil, total and volatile solid,s and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) when treating oily waste sludges. The observed shift with time in the molecular weight distribution of hydrocarbon material was more pronounced under aerobic metabolic conditions than under strict anaerobic conditions. The changes in the hydrocarbon molecular weight distribution, infrared spectra, and PAH concentrations during slurry-phase treatment indicate that the aerobic thermophilic bioslurry achieved a higher degree of hydrocarbon degradation than the anaerobic thermophilic bioslurry during the same time period.

Castaldi, F.J.; Bombaugh, K.J. [Radian Corp., Austin, TX (United States); McFarland, B. [Chevron Research and Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

388

Waste form development and characterization in pyrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel.  

SciTech Connect

Electrometallurgical treatment is a compact, inexpensive method that is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory to deal with spent nuclear fuel, primarily metallic and oxide fuels. In this method, metallic nuclear fuel constituents are electrorefined in a molten salt to separate uranium from the rest of the spent fuel. Oxide and other fuels are subjected to appropriate head end steps to convert them to metallic form prior to electrorefining. The treatment process generates two kinds of high-level waste--a metallic and a ceramic waste. Isolation of these wastes has been developed as an integral part of the process. The wastes arise directly from the electrorefiner, and waste streams do not contain large quantities of solvent or other process fluids. Consequently, waste volumes are small and waste isolation processes can be compact and rapid. This paper briefly summarizes waste isolation processes then describes development and characterization of the two waste forms in more detail.

Ackerman, J.

1998-04-16

389

MOBILITY AND DEGRADATION OF RESIDUES AT HAZARDOUS WASTE LAND TREATMENT SITES AT CLOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Soil treatment systems that are designed and managed based on a knowledge of soil-waste interactions may represent a significant technology for simultaneous treatment and ultimate disposal of selected hazardous wastes in an environmentally acceptable manner. hese soil treatment s...

390

MOBILITY AND DEGRADTION OF RESIDUES AT HAZARDOUS WASTE LAND TREATMENT SITES AT CLOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Soil treatment systems that are designed and managed based on a knowledge of soil-waste interactions may represent a significant technology for simultaneous treatment and ultimate disposal of selected hazardous wastes in an environmentally acceptable manner. hese soil treatment s...

391

Bacterial Population Dynamics in Dairy Waste during Aerobic and Anaerobic Treatment and Subsequent Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to model a typical dairy waste stream, monitor the chemical and bacterial population dynamics that occur during aerobic or anaerobic treatment and subsequent storage in a simulated lagoon, and compare them to those of waste held without treatment in a simulated lagoon. Both aerobic and anaerobic treatment methods followed by storage effectively reduced the

Jeffery A. McGarvey; William G. Miller; Ruihong Zhang; Yanguo Ma; Frank Mitloehner

2007-01-01

392

Analysis of accident sequences and source terms at waste treatment and storage facilities for waste generated by U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Operations, Volume 1: Sections 1-9  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the methodology, computational framework, and results of facility accident analyses performed for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The accident sequences potentially important to human health risk are specified, their frequencies are assessed, and the resultant radiological and chemical source terms are evaluated. A personal computer-based computational framework and database have been developed that provide these results as input to the WM PEIS for calculation of human health risk impacts. The methodology is in compliance with the most recent guidance from DOE. It considers the spectrum of accident sequences that could occur in activities covered by the WM PEIS and uses a graded approach emphasizing the risk-dominant scenarios to facilitate discrimination among the various WM PEIS alternatives. Although it allows reasonable estimates of the risk impacts associated with each alternative, the main goal of the accident analysis methodology is to allow reliable estimates of the relative risks among the alternatives. The WM PEIS addresses management of five waste streams in the DOE complex: low-level waste (LLW), hazardous waste (HW), high-level waste (HLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and transuranic waste (TRUW). Currently projected waste generation rates, storage inventories, and treatment process throughputs have been calculated for each of the waste streams. This report summarizes the accident analyses and aggregates the key results for each of the waste streams. Source terms are estimated and results are presented for each of the major DOE sites and facilities by WM PEIS alternative for each waste stream. The appendices identify the potential atmospheric release of each toxic chemical or radionuclide for each accident scenario studied. They also provide discussion of specific accident analysis data and guidance used or consulted in this report.

Mueller, C.; Nabelssi, B.; Roglans-Ribas, J. [and others

1995-04-01

393

The Design and Construction of the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Mixed Treatment Project (AMWTP) privatized contract was awarded to BNFL Inc. in December 1996 and construction of the main facility commenced in August 2000. The purpose of the advanced mixed waste treatment facility is to safely treat plutonium contaminated waste, currently stored in drums and boxes, for final disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The plant is being built at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Construction was completed in 28 months, to satisfy the Settlement Agreement milestone of December 2002. Commissioning of the related retrieval and characterization facilities is currently underway. The first shipment of pre-characterized waste is scheduled for March 2003, with AMWTP characterized and certified waste shipments from June 2003. To accommodate these challenging delivery targets BNFL adopted a systematic and focused construction program that included the use of a temporary structure to allow winter working, proven design and engineering principles and international procurement policies to help achieve quality and schedule. The technology involved in achieving the AMWTP functional requirements is primarily based upon a BNFL established pedigree of plant and equipment; applied in a manner that suits the process and waste. This technology includes the use of remotely controlled floor mounted and overhead power manipulators, a high power shredder and a 2000-ton force supercompactor with the attendant glove box suite, interconnections and automated material handling. The characterization equipment includes real-time radiography (RTR) units, drum and box assay measurement systems, drum head space gas sampling / analysis and drum venting, drum coring and sampling capabilities. The project adopted a particularly stringent and intensive pre-installation testing philosophy to ensure that equipment would work safely and reliably at the required throughput. This testing included the complete off site integration of functional components or glove boxes, with the attendant integrated control system and undertaking continuous, non-stop, operational effectiveness proof tests. This paper describes the process, plant and technology used within the AMWTP and provides an outline of the associated design, procurement, fabrication, testing and construction.

Harrop, G.

2003-02-27

394

Biofilm treatment of soil for waste containment and remediation  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the potential for creating low-permeability reactive barriers for waste treatment and containment by treating soils with Beijerinckia indica, a bacterium which produces an exopolysaccharide film. The biofilm adheres to soil particles and causes a decrease in soil hydraulic conductivity. In addition, B. Indica biodegrades a variety of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and chemical carcinogens. The combination of low soil hydraulic conductivity and biodegradation capabilities creates the potential for constructing reactive biofilm barriers from soil and bacteria. A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the effects of B. Indica on the hydraulic conductivity of a silty sand. Soil specimens were molded with a bacterial and nutrient solution, compacted at optimum moisture content, permeated with a nutrient solution, and tested for k{sub sat} using a flexible-wall permeameter. Saturated hydraulic conductivity (k{sub sat}) was reduced from 1 x 10{sup -5} cm/sec to 2 x 10{sup -8} cm/sec: by biofilm treatment. Permeation with saline, acidic, and basic solutions following formation of a biofilm was found to have negligible effect on the reduced k{sub sat}, for up to three pore volumes of flow. Applications of biofilm treatment for creating low-permeability reactive barriers are discussed, including compacted liners for bottom barriers and caps and creation of vertical barriers by in situ treatment.

Turner, J.P.; Dennis, M.L.; Osman, Y.A.; Chase, J.; Bulla, L.A. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

1997-12-31

395

Solid waste sampling and distribution project. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) established a Waste Management Program within the Office of Fossil Energy. A key goal of this program is to ensure that waste management issues do not become obstacles to the commercialization of advanced coal utilization technologies. In achieving this goal, the Waste Management Program identifies various emerging coal utilization technologies and performs comprehensive characterizations of the waste streams and products. The characterizations include engineering assessments to define waste streams of interest/potential concern, field studies to collect samples of the waste, and complete chemical analysis of the collected samples. Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) was selected to perform the site selection and the sampling aspects of five (5) of these facilities. The current EER contract consists of two interrelated efforts: site selection and waste sampling. Detailed sample analysis is being conducted under another DOE contract. The primary objectives of the site selection and sampling effort are listed: (1) Survey sites at which advanced fossil energy combustion technologies are being operated, and identify five sites for sampling. Priority should be given to DOE Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program Sites. (2) Identify candidate solid waste streams in advanced coal utilization processes likely to present disposal problems and prioritized them for sampling at selected sites. (3) Contact site personnel for site access, sample the streams representatively and document them according to established methodology and known process conditions; and (4) Distribute the samples to DOE`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center or their representatives for analysis and report on the site visit.

Not Available

1993-10-29

396

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Ubc Food System Project: Food Waste Management The Hot Beverage Cup  

E-print Network

: Food Waste Management ­ The Hot Beverage Cup Vinci Ching, Paul Gazzola, Karen Juzkow, Kenrick Kan, Tina of a project/report". #12;AGSC 450 UBC FOOD SYSTEM PROJECT: FOOD WASTE MANAGEMENT ­ THE HOT BEVERAGE CUP GROUP #12;ABSTRACT This report aims to evaluate the current practices of waste management at UBC

397

Immobilized low-activity waste interim storage facility, Project W-465 conceptual design report  

SciTech Connect

This report outlines the design and Total Estimated Cost to modify the four unused grout vaults for the remote handling and interim storage of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW). The grout vault facilities in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site were constructed in the 1980s to support Tank Waste disposal activities. The facilities were to serve project B-714 which was intended to store grouted low-activity waste. The existing 4 unused grout vaults, with modifications for remote handling capability, will provide sufficient capacity for approximately three years of immobilized low activity waste (ILAW) production from the Tank Waste Remediation System-Privatization Vendors (TWRS-PV). These retrofit modifications to the grout vaults will result in an ILAW interim storage facility (Project W465) that will comply with applicable DOE directives, and state and federal regulations.

Pickett, W.W.

1997-12-30

398

Functions and requirements document, WESF decoupling project, low-level liquid waste system  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) was constructed in 1974 to encapsulate and store cesium and strontium which were isolated at B Plant from underground storage tank waste. The WESF, Building 225-B, is attached physically to the west end of B Plant, Building 221-B, 200 East area. The WESF currently utilizes B Plant facilities for disposing liquid and solid waste streams. With the deactivation of B Plant, the WESF Decoupling Project will provide replacement systems allowing WESF to continue operations independently from B Plant. Four major systems have been identified to be replaced by the WESF Decoupling Project, including the following: Low Level Liquid Waste System, Solid Waste Handling System, Liquid Effluent Control System, and Deionized Water System.

Rasmussen, J.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford

1997-02-27

399

Integrated data base report - 1994: US spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated Data Base Program has compiled historic data on inventories and characteristics of both commercial and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel and commercial and U.S. government-owned radioactive wastes. Except for transuranic wastes, inventories of these materials are reported as of December 31, 1994. Transuranic waste inventories are reported as of December 31, 1993. All spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste data reported are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest DOE/Energy Information Administration (EIA) projections of U.S. commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are spent nuclear fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, DOE Environmental Restoration Program contaminated environmental media, commercial reactor and fuel-cycle facility decommissioning wastes, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through the calendar-year 2030, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions.

NONE

1995-09-01

400

The role of intergenerational influence in waste education programmes: the THAW project.  

PubMed

Whilst the education of young people is often seen as a part of the solution to current environmental problems seeking urgent attention, it is often forgotten that their parents and other household members can also be educated/influenced via home-based educational activities. This paper explores the theory of intergenerational influence in relation to school based waste education. Waste Watch, a UK-based environmental charity (www.wastewatch.org.uk), has pioneered a model that uses practical activities and whole school involvement to promote school based action on waste. This methodology has been adopted nationally. This paper outlines and evaluates how effective school based waste education is in promoting action at a household level. The paper outlines Waste Watch's 'Taking Home Action on Waste (THAW)' project carried out for two and half years in Rotherham, a town in South Yorkshire, England. The project worked with 6705 primary age children in 39 schools (44% of primary schools in the project area) to enable them to take the "reduce, reuse and recycle message" home to their families and to engage these (i.e. families) in sustainable waste management practices. As well as substantial increases in students' knowledge and understanding of waste reduction, measurement of the impact of the project in areas around 12 carefully chosen sample schools showed evidence of increased participation in recycling and recycling tonnages as well as declining levels of residual waste. Following delivery of the project in these areas, an average increase of 8.6% was recorded in recycling set out rates which led to a 4.3% increase in paper recycling tonnages and an 8.7% increase in tonnages of cans, glass and textiles collected for recycling. Correspondingly, there was a 4.5% fall in tonnages of residual waste. Waste Watch's THAW project was the first serious attempt to measure the intergenerational influence of an education programme on behaviour at home (i.e. other than schools' own waste). It clearly shows that household recycling behaviour can be positively impacted by intergenerational influence via a practical school-based waste education model. However, although the model could potentially have a big impact if rolled out nationally, it will require seed funding and the long-term durability of the model has not yet been fully quantified. PMID:21868211

Maddox, P; Doran, C; Williams, I D; Kus, M

2011-12-01

401

Plasma-chemical waste treatment of acid gases  

SciTech Connect

The research to date has shown that a H{sub 2}S waste-treatment process based on plasma-chemical dissociation technology is compatible with refinery and high-carbon-oxide acid-gas streams. The minor amounts of impurities produced in the plasma-chemical reactor should be treatable by an internal catalytic reduction step. Furthermore, the plasma-chemical technology appears to be more efficient and more economical than the current technology. The principal key to achieving high conversions with relatively low energies of dissociation is the concept of the high-velocity, cyclonic-flow pattern in the plasma reaction zone coupled with the recycling of unconverted hydrogen sulfide. Future work will include testing the effects of components that might be carried over to the plasma reactor by ``upset`` conditions in the amine purification system of a plant and testing the plasma-chemical process on other industrial wastes streams that contain potentially valuable chemical reagents. The strategy for the commercialization of this technology is to form a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with the Institute of Hydrogen Energy and Plasma Technology of the Russian Scientific Center/Kurchatov Institute and with an American start-up company to develop an ``American`` version of the process and to build a commercial-scale demonstration unit in the United States. The timetable proposed would involve building a ``field test`` facility which would test the plasma-chemical reactor and sulfur recovery unit operations on an industrial hydrogen sulfide waste s at a scale large enough to obtain the energy and material balance data required for a final analysis of the commercial potential of this technology. The field test would then be followed by construction of a commercial demonstration unit in two to three years. The commercial demonstration unit would be a fully integrated plant consisting of one commercial-scale module.

Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.; Daniels, E.J.

1993-09-01

402

Lessons Learned Report for the radioactive mixed waste land disposal facility (Trench 31, Project W-025)  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the lessons learned from a project that involved modification to the existing burial grounds at the Hanford Reservation. This project has been focused on the development and operation of a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act compliant landfill which will accept low-level radioactive wastes that have been placed in proper containers.

Irons, L.G.

1995-06-20

403

Supplemental design requirements document enhanced radioactive and mixed waste storage Phase V Project W-112  

SciTech Connect

This document provides additional and supplemental information to WHC-SD-W112-FDC-001, Project W-112 for radioactive and mixed waste storage. It provides additional requirements for the design and summarizes Westinghouse Hanford Company key design guidance and establishes the technical baseline agreements to be used for definitive design of the Project W-112 facilities.

Ocampo, V.P.; Boothe, G.F.; Greager, T.M.; Johnson, K.D.; Kooiker, S.L.; Martin, J.D.

1994-11-01

404

Development of Operating Windows for Treatment of Industrial Wastes using Blended Binder Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment by stabilisation\\/solidification (S\\/S) with hydraulic binders is often proposed for residual wastes that can not be destroyed or recycled. Mixing such wastes with cementitious or pozzolanic binders ideally results in a durable monolithic matrix in which pollutants are physically trapped and may have low solubility. Depending on the level of contamination and other waste characteristics that affect the final

J. A. Stegemann; Q. Zhou; A. Li

405

LAND TREATMENT FIELD STUDIES. VOLUME 2. OILY WASTE FROM A PETROLEUM REFINERY  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents the results of field measurements and observations of a land treatment site operated for disposal of petroleum refinery waste sludges. The waste, principally API separator bottoms, was land treated in an area long used for waste disposal. The site was sampled...

406

HIGH TEMPERATURE TREATMENT OF INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES - SIA RADON EXPERIENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review describes high temperature methods of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) treatment currently used at SIA Radon. Solid and liquid organic and mixed organic and inorganic wastes are subjected to plasma heating in a shaft furnace with formation of stable leach resistant slag suitable for disposal in near-surface repositories. Liquid inorganic radioactive waste is vitrified in a cold

I. A. Sobolev; S. A. Dmitriev; F. A. Lifanov; A. P. Kobelev; V. N. Popkov; M. A. Polkanov; A. E. Savkin; A. P. Varlakov; S. V. Karlin; S. V. Stefanovsky; O. K. Karlina; K. N. Semenov

2003-01-01

407

The 1996 meeting of the national technical workgroup on mixed waste thermal treatment  

SciTech Connect

The National Technical Workgroup on Mixed Waste Thermal Treatment held its annual meeting in Atlanta Georgia on March 12-14, 1996. The National Technical Workgroup (NTW) and this meeting were sponsored under an interagency agreement between EPA and DOE. The 1996 Annual Meeting was hosted by US DOE Oak Ridge Operations in conjunction with Lockheed Martin Energy Systems - Center for Waste Management. A new feature of the annual meeting was the Permit Writer Panel Session which provided an opportunity for the state and federal permit writers to discuss issues and potential solutions to permitting mixed waste treatment systems. In addition, there was substantial discussion on the impacts of the Waste Combustion Performance Standards on mixed waste thermal treatment which are expected to proposed very soon. The 1996 meeting also focussed on two draft technical resource documents produced by NTW on Waste Analysis Plans and Compliance Test Procedures. Issues discussed included public involvement, waste characterization, and emission issues.

NONE

1996-12-31

408

WATER TREATMENT PROJECT: OBSERVATIONS ON USE OF GAC IN PRACTICE  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives of this project were: (1) to determine if granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption beds applied in water treatment practice slough-off organic materials during the spring warm-up and (2) to evaluate the feasibility of the dilute or low-level COD procedure for the...

409

Discussion of processes for the treatment of liquid wastes from fossil fuel powerplants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discussion of processes for the treatment of liquid wastes from fossil fuel powerplants covers those for: treating maintenance cleaning wastes; calcium bisulfite or sulfate sludges formed by lime or limestone processes for removing sulfur dioxide from stack gases; coal pile and miscellaneous area run-off; fly-ash slurry treatment in an oil-fired station; bottom ash in coal-fired plants; and sanitary waste.

Brenman

1978-01-01

410

Mixed Waste Focus Area mercury contamination product line: An integrated approach to mercury waste treatment and disposal  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is tasked with ensuring that solutions are available for the mixed waste treatment problems of the DOE complex. During the MWFA`s initial technical baseline development process, three of the top four technology deficiencies identified were related to the need for amalgamation, stabilization, and separation/removal technologies for the treatment of mercury and mercury-contaminated mixed waste. The focus area grouped mercury-waste-treatment activities into the mercury contamination product line under which development, demonstration, and deployment efforts are coordinated to provide tested technologies to meet the site needs. The Mercury Working Group (HgWG), a selected group of representatives from DOE sites with significant mercury waste inventories, is assisting the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing efforts to address these areas. Based on the scope and magnitude of the mercury mixed waste problem, as defined by HgWG, solicitations and contract awards have been made to the private sector to demonstrate amalgamation and stabilization processes using actual mixed wastes. Development efforts are currently being funded under the product line that will address DOE`s needs for separation/removal processes. This paper discusses the technology selection process, development activities, and the accomplishments of the MWFA to date through these various activities.

Hulet, G.A. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Conley, T.B.; Morris, M.I. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1998-07-01

411

Interaction between temperature and ammonia in mesophilic digesters for animal waste treatment  

E-print Network

Interaction between temperature and ammonia in mesophilic digesters for animal waste treatment, and their interconnectivity on the methane yield of anaerobic processes for animal waste treatment. During period 1 (day 0-ammonia reactors is negligible at the optimum mesophilic temperature of 38 C. ª 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

Angenent, Lars T.

412

Biological industrial waste treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning treatment of industrial waste by various biological means. Topics include biodegradation, biodeterioration, activated sludge processes, hazardous materials, microorganisms, sewage treatment, solid waste disposal, and water pollution. (Contains a minimum of 103 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-01-01

413

Biological industrial waste treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning treatment of industrial waste by various biological means. Topics include biodegradation, biodeterioration, activated sludge processes, hazardous materials, microorganisms, sewage treatment, solid waste disposal, and water pollution. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-04-01

414

Biological industrial waste treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning treatment of industrial waste by various biological means. Topics include biodegradation, biodeterioration, activated sludge processes, hazardous materials, microorganisms, sewage treatment, solid waste disposal, and water pollution. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-01-01

415

Biological industrial waste treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning treatment of industrial waste by various biological means. Topics include biodegradation, biodeterioration, activated sludge processes, hazardous materials, microorganisms, sewage treatment, solid waste disposal, and water pollution. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-06-01

416

Towards an ontology of waste water treatment plants: the identification phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water pollution in Mexico is an important issue in spite of the benefits obtained by current waste water treatment plants; more heuristic knowledge is required to adequately design and operate new plants. This paper discusses the role of the identification phase in the attainment of a knowledge base to obtain a domain ontology of waste water treatment plants. Two examples

Octavio Cabezut-boo; Antonio Sánchez-aguilar

1999-01-01

417

Elimination of liquid discharge to the environment from the TA50 Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternatives were evaluated for management of treated radioactive liquid waste from the radioactive liquid waste treatment facility (RLWTF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The alternatives included continued discharge into Mortandad Canyon, diversion to the sanitary wastewater treatment facility and discharge of its effluent to Sandia Canyon or Canada del Buey, and zero liquid discharge. Implementation of a zero liquid discharge

D. Moss; N. Williams; D. Hall; K. Hargis; M. Saladen; M. Sanders; S. Voit; P. Worland; S. Yarbro

1998-01-01

418

Surface water pollution by herbicides from effluents of waste water treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbicide loads of urban and rural waste water treatment plant effluents were calculated over a one-year period by measuring the herbicide concentrations in 14-day mixed samples. More than three quarters of the total herbicide load of the effluent of the rural waste water treatment plant consists of isoproturon. Particularly large amounts of this substance contribute to the total herbicide load

Walter Schüssler

1998-01-01

419

Coping and Self-Efficacy in Marijuana Treatment: Results from the Marijuana Treatment Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined whether a coping-skills-based treatment for marijuana dependence operated by encouraging the use of coping skills or via other mechanisms. Participants were 450 men and women treated in the multisite Marijuana Treatment Project who were randomly assigned to motivational enhancement therapy plus cognitive-behavioral (MET-CB)…

Litt, Mark D.; Kadden, Ronald M.; Stephens, Robert S.

2005-01-01

420

Recycling of PVC Waste via Environmental Friendly Vapor Treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focused on the dechlorination of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), a plastic which is widely used in the human life and thereby is leading to serious "white pollution", via vapor treatment process to recycle PVC wastes. In the process, HCl emitted was captured into water solution to avoid hazardous gas pollution and corruption, and remaining polymers free